WorldWideScience

Sample records for gastropod biomphalaria glabrata

  1. Duration of pairing and use of allosperm in Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae Duração do acasalamento e uso do aloesperma em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropode: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin homozygous black pigmented and albino Biomphalaria glabrata are paired during a period varying from 1 to 20 days. The rate of cross-fertilized parents is statistically similar for the various lengths of pairing. As a whole, nearly 80% of the albino snails produce a pigmented progeny. This production begins as soon as the snails are mated and continues after their separation. To measure the actual use of the allosperm, its use during the postmating period must be added to the length of mating. So, it appears that the real use of the allosperm is statistically constant (mean slightly inferior to 8 weeks and not related to the length of the previous pairing.Espécimes virgens de Biomphalaria glabrata (um melâncio e um albino são acasalados durante um período variável de 1 a 20 dias. A proporção de espécimes parentais albinos fecundados por cruzamento é semelhante estatisticamente para os diversos períodos de acasalamento. Em conjunto, cerca de 80% dos albinos produziram descendência pigmentada. Essa produção começa assim que os moluscos são acasalados e continua depois que são separados. Para medir a utilização real do aloesperma, sua utilização durante o período de pós-acasalamento. Parece, assim, que a utilização real do aloesperma é estatisticamente constante (média ligeiramente inferior a oito semanas e não relacionada a duração do acasalamento anterior.

  2. Development of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata Desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni em Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea e Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Pereira de Souza

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the development of Schistosoma mansoni during the intra-molluscan phase was made by means of histological sections of Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea and B. glabrata from Brazil. Two hundred snails of each species were individually exposed to 50 miracidia of the S. mansoni, AL line. No larvae were observed in the snails fixed 72 h after exposure. In specimens shedding cercariae, 31 days after exposure tissue reactions encapsulating the larvae were seen in B. tenagophila and B. straminea, in the head-foot, mantle collar and renal ducts. No tissue reactions occurred in the digestive glands of these two species. In B. glabrata the presence of numerous sporocysts and cercariae without tissue reactions was observed in the digestive gland, and other organs. The levels of infection of the snails and the average numbers of cercariae shed per day were 32.6% and 79±90 respectively for B. tenagophila, 11.3% and 112±100 for B. straminea and 75.3% and 432±436 for B. glabrata. The lower levels of infection and average numbers of cercariae shed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea are thus related to their more potent internal defense systems.Foi feito estudo comparativo do desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni na fase intra-molusco, através de cortes histológicos, em Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea e B. glabrata. Duzentos moluscos de cada espécie foram expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios de S. mansoni da linhagem AL. Nenhuma larva foi observada nos exemplares fixados 72 horas após a exposição. Nos exemplares eliminando cercárías, 31 dias após a exposição, foram observadas reações teciduais de encapsulamento de larvas em B. tenagophila e B. straminea, na região cefalopodal, colar do manto e dutos renais. Nas glândulas digestivas das duas espécies não foram observadas reações. Em B. glabrata foi registrada a presença de numerosos esporocistos e cercárias sem reação tecidual na gl

  3. Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.; Ribeiro, A.A.G.F.C.

    1988-09-01

    Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos (MOllusca: Gastropoda), and important snail vector of schistosomiasis has not been explored. In the present work it was evaluated a suitable electron microscopical technique for embryos processing. Promising results was obtained with double fixation in 1% glutaraldehyde plus 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), preliminary staining overnight in 1% uranyl acetate and embedding in EPON or Polylite under vacuum. It was used embryos at young trochophore stage wich is characterized by active organogenesis. Some ultrastructural aspects of B. glabrata embryos cells are presented. (author) [pt

  4. Gastrointestinal transit and digestive rhythm in Biomphalaria glabrata (Say)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florschutz, A.; Becker, W.

    1999-01-01

    Transit of X-ray opaque Micropaque™ particles in the digestive tract of Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated by X-radiography. Passage through the whole animal lasted up to 200 min depending on the experimental conditions (starvation, fed ad libitum etc.). For the first time, cyclic activity of the digestive gland could be visualised: the gland is emptied every 60-110 min discharging undigested particles. In the afternoon transport of probably predigested material from more distally located parts of the digestive tract into the esophagus can be observed indicating resorption processes occurring in the esophagus

  5. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  6. Potential use of glycogen level as biomarker of chemical stress in Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo, Martin; Nahabedian, Daniel E.; Holmes-Brown, Eduardo; Agote, Marcos; Ansay, Cristina V.; Guerrero, Noemi R. Verrengia; Wider, Eva A.

    2006-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater gastropod mollusc, was tested as biondicator organism to assess cadmium, lead and arsenic exposure using acute laboratory bioassays. Modifications of glycogen levels were measured in different anatomical regions of B. glabrata in order to test the usefulness of this parameter as a general biomarker of chemical stress. The snails were exposed 96 h to different concentrations of the following contaminants: 0.1 and 0.05 mg Cd/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg Pb/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg As/L. Significant decreases in the polysaccharide content were observed in gonadal region for all treated animals. Arsenic and lead at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L level of exposure were also able to decrease the levels of glycogen in the pulmonary and digestive gland region. Glycogen content in the cephalopedal region of treated animals presented a significant decrease (p < 0.05) when compared with control organisms only for arsenic at the highest level of exposure. To establish possible correlations between glycogen and contaminants accumulated by snails, analyses of the elements bioaccumulated in the different anatomical regions of B. glabrata were also performed. Cadmium and lead followed a similar pattern of bioaccumulation with highest values in the digestive gland region. Arsenic bioaccumulation, however, was highest in the gonadal region

  7. Effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the oviposition, hatching and embryonic survival of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo, Martin; Nahabedian, Daniel E.; Di Fonzo, Carla; Wider, Eva A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata is a widespread freshwater gastropod mollusc. The easy aquaculture of these organisms allow its use as an accessible tool for contamination bioassays. B. glabrata showed marked metabolic responses when exposed to cadmium, lead and arsenic. Those responses could also affect the reproduction of the snails. Taking into account this hypothesis, B. glabrata were exposed for 96 h (acute laboratory bioassays) to different concentrations of cadmium (0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L), lead (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L) and arsenic (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L). Snails were removed from the aquaria while eggs were left in the same contaminant concentrations. The effect of the assayed toxicants on snail reproduction was registered as the alterations of the total number of laid eggs (TNLE), hatching time and embryonic survival. At 0.10 mg/L cadmium significantly decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) and no embryos survived. The lowest assayed level (0.05 mg/L) of cadmium, delayed the hatching time twice when it was compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Lead decreased the TNLE at 0.5 mg/L level (p < 0.01). The other assayed doses (0.05 and 0.10 mg/L) also decreased embryonic survival significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively) and extended twice the time to hatching (p < 0.01). The 0.50 mg/L level killed all embryos. Arsenic at all studied concentrations decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) while the hatching time was increased by 50%. Embryo survival only decreased at the highest level (0.5 mg/L) of arsenic assayed. In summary, the acute exposure (96 h) to cadmium lead and arsenic, altered the reproduction of B. glabrata, modifying the TNLE, hatching time and embryonic survival

  8. A Targeted Capture Linkage Map Anchors the Genome of the Schistosomiasis Vector Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Blouin, Michael S

    2017-07-05

    The aquatic planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata is one of the most intensively-studied mollusks due to its role in the transmission of schistosomiasis. Its 916 Mb genome has recently been sequenced and annotated, but it remains poorly assembled. Here, we used targeted capture markers to map over 10,000 B. glabrata scaffolds in a linkage cross of 94 F1 offspring, generating 24 linkage groups (LGs). We added additional scaffolds to these LGs based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of targeted capture and whole-genome sequences of 96 unrelated snails. Our final linkage map consists of 18,613 scaffolds comprising 515 Mb, representing 56% of the genome and 75% of genic and nonrepetitive regions. There are 18 large (> 10 Mb) LGs, likely representing the expected 18 haploid chromosomes, and > 50% of the genome has been assigned to LGs of at least 17 Mb. Comparisons with other gastropod genomes reveal patterns of synteny and chromosomal rearrangements. Linkage relationships of key immune-relevant genes may help clarify snail-schistosome interactions. By focusing on linkage among genic and nonrepetitive regions, we have generated a useful resource for associating snail phenotypes with causal genes, even in the absence of a complete genome assembly. A similar approach could potentially improve numerous poorly-assembled genomes in other taxa. This map will facilitate future work on this host of a serious human parasite. Copyright © 2017 Tennessen et al.

  9. Oxidative stress in mollusks Biomphalaria Glabrata exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Augusto, Ricielle L.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Pereira, Dewson R.; França, Elvis J.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@gmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardolclf@hotmail.com, E-mail: dewson.rocha@gmail.com, E-mail: s, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: ricielleaugusto@gmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation can cause biological changes in different organisms such as mollusks from Biomphalaria glabrata species, in which alterations could be observed in the reproductive system of the specimens, prejudicing fertility and fecundity. As the changes may occur due to the lipid peroxidation caused by the action of free radicals on the gonads, the objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidative damage caused by the exposure of B. glabrata mollusks to different doses of gamma radiation. In addition, efforts were carried out to standardize a sensitive and low-cost technique for detecting negative effects caused by high doses of ionizing radiation. For this, each mollusk group (n = 10) was submitted to 0 (control), 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy (Gammacell- {sup 60}Co, dose rate 3.532 kGy/h). The TBARS method was applied for the quantification of lipid peroxidation of the gonads of the mollusks after 24 and 48 h. ANOVA, followed by the mean comparison (Tukey) at the 5% of significance level, indicated high concentrations of TBARS in the gonads after 24 h. Otherwise, after 48 h, differences for TBARS concentrations were not significant at the 95% confidence level, determining that the action of free radicals from ionizing radiation on cell membranes mainly occurred within 24 h after irradiation. (author)

  10. Oxidative stress in mollusks Biomphalaria Glabrata exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Augusto, Ricielle L.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Pereira, Dewson R.; França, Elvis J.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can cause biological changes in different organisms such as mollusks from Biomphalaria glabrata species, in which alterations could be observed in the reproductive system of the specimens, prejudicing fertility and fecundity. As the changes may occur due to the lipid peroxidation caused by the action of free radicals on the gonads, the objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidative damage caused by the exposure of B. glabrata mollusks to different doses of gamma radiation. In addition, efforts were carried out to standardize a sensitive and low-cost technique for detecting negative effects caused by high doses of ionizing radiation. For this, each mollusk group (n = 10) was submitted to 0 (control), 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy (Gammacell- "6"0Co, dose rate 3.532 kGy/h). The TBARS method was applied for the quantification of lipid peroxidation of the gonads of the mollusks after 24 and 48 h. ANOVA, followed by the mean comparison (Tukey) at the 5% of significance level, indicated high concentrations of TBARS in the gonads after 24 h. Otherwise, after 48 h, differences for TBARS concentrations were not significant at the 95% confidence level, determining that the action of free radicals from ionizing radiation on cell membranes mainly occurred within 24 h after irradiation. (author)

  11. On the origin of the Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaly dos Santos Souza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A histologic, morphometric and ultrastructural study performed on Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to infection with Schistosoma mansoni miracidia failed to provide significant evidences that the so-called amebocyte-producing organ (APO is really the central organ for hemocyte production. In infected snails no general reactive changes appeared in the APO, the mitoses were seen only occasionally, and the possibility of cellular hyperplasia was ruled out by morphometric measurements. Under the electron microscope the APO cells presented an essentially epithelial structure, without features indicative of transition toward hemocytes. On the other hand, the present findings pointed to a multicentric origin for the mollusck hemocytes, as earlier studies had indicated. Dense foci of hemocyte collections appeared sometimes around disintegrating sporocysts and cercariae in several organs and tissues of the infected snails, including a curious accumulation of such cells inside the ventricular cavity of the heart. In the heart and other sites, features suggestive of transformation of vascular space endothelial lining cells into hemocytes were apparent. To some extent, the postulated multicentric origin for B. glabrata hemocytes recapitulates earlier embryologic findings in vertebrates, when mesenchymal vascular spaces generate the circulating and phagocytic blood cells.

  12. Contribution to the histology of Biomphalaria glabrata Contribuição à histologia da Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli Teixeira Lemos

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A combination of histological techniques applied to the study of Biomphalaria glabrata yielded some interesting new data about the histology of this snail, a major intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. Three kinds of pigments were identified: a dark pigment which bleached following oxidation with potassium permanganate; a lipofuchsin-like, diastase-resistant PAS-positive pigment and an iron-containing pigment, probably related to hemosiderin. Calcium was detected in small deposits within the connective tissue and forming a dense core inside the chitinous radular teeth. The presence of fibrils, staining with sirius-red and birefringence under polarized light strongly suggest primitive collagen tissue. The radular apparatus appeared as a storing site for glycogen, while abundant Alcian-blue positive material (proteoglycans was extremely concentrated in the radular sac.Uma combinação de várias técnicas histológicas permitiu alguns achados de interesse para a histologia da Biomphalaria glabrata, principal hospedeiro intermediário do Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil. Três tipos de pigmentos foram identificados: um pigmento escuro, que se descora após oxidação pelo permanganato de potássio; outro que é semelhante à lipofuscina, que se cora pelo PAS e é diastase- resistente, e um pigmento que contém ferro, provalvelmente, relacionado com a hemossiderina. O cálcio foi identificado em pequenos depósitos no interior do tecido conjuntivo e formando pequenos núcleos no interior dos dentes quitinosos da rádula. A presença de fibrilas coradas pelo sírius-vermelho, exibindo birrefrigência sob luz polarizada, sugere fortemente a presença de um tecido colágeno primitivo. O aparelho radular foi visto como um local de armazenamento do glicogênio, enquanto a presença de abundante material amorfo positivo para o azul de alciano (proteoglicano apareceu em grande concentração no saco radular.

  13. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwant Kaur

    Full Text Available Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  14. The subunit structure of the extracellular hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, Marcio H.L.; Naves, Cristiani F.; Xavier, Luciana P.; Santoro, Marcelo M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata was purified to homogeneity by a two step purification protocol using a gel filtration column (Superose 6 HR/Pharmacia ) followed by an anion exchange chromatography (MONO-Q Sepharose/Pharmacia). The dissociation products were analysed by a 5 - 15 % Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-PAGE) giving a band of 270 K Daltons and a band of 180 K Daltons after reduction with β-mercaptoethanol. The same profile was obtained in a 3.5 % Agarose gel electrophoresis containing SDS (SDS-AGE) showing additional bands of higher molecular weight. These bands were proposed to be monomers, dimers and trimers and, after reduction in a Bidimensional SDS-AGE, the proposed monomers and dimers were decomposed in two and four bands that were interpreted as 1 - 4 chains. The hemoglobin was digested by four different proteases ( Thrombin, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Subtilisin ) showing several equivalent fragments with molecular weights multiples of its minimum molecular weight ( 17.7 K Daltons). The circular dichroism spectrum of the protein showed a characteristic high α-helix content. We proposed that this hemoglobin is a pentamer of approx. 360 K Daltons subunits each formed by two 180 K Daltons chains linked in pairs by disulfide bridges and each of these chains comprises ten Heme binding domains. These data were compared to other Planorbidae extracellular hemoglobins. Up to now, the quaternary structure of this hemoglobin (shape and disposition of the subunits) is unknown. It is intended to elucidate its structure by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering in Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (LNLS). (author)

  15. Influence of the nontarget mollusc Marisa cornuarietis on the hourly cercarial production of Schistosoma mansoni from Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, J R; Pointier, J P; Théron, A; Moné, H

    1991-10-01

    A comparative study of hourly cercarial productivities of Schistosoma mansoni from infected Biomphalaria glabrata was carried out in the presence of either healthy B. glabrata (control) or healthy Marisa cornuarietis (experimental). The results showed that, with M. cornuarietis, almost all the hourly cercarial productivities increased by a factor varying from 1.3 to 2.5 without modification of the shedding period.

  16. Effects of CO-60 gamma radiation on the embryonary development of Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects of the effects of the ionizing radiation on the embryo and on the genetical material of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are presented. The embryos weresubmitted at various stages of development to doses of 5,10,15,20 and 25 Gy of Co-60 gamma radiation. As a criteia of evaluation of the embryos radiosensitivity, four biological parameters were used: mortality, malformation, hatching and chromossomal aberrations. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Human schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: reduced prevalence rate and absence of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboda, M; Malek, E A; Correa, R

    1997-11-01

    A combined epidemiologic and malacologic survey of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico was carried out in areas where previous surveys had reported the prevalence of the disease. This limited survey, with 495 persons examined, found a low prevalence (0.6%) of Schistosoma mansoni infections. The infections were restricted to three people more than 36 years of age. No infections were detected in children 16 years of age or less, and this cohort comprised 57.8% of the study group. Malacologic surveys of the four streams, 10 rivers, and eight lakes throughout the island revealed the absence of intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata and the presence of Thiara granifera, a competitive species of B. glabrata and the predatory snail Marisa cornuarietis. We believe that the absence of B. glabrata is the primary reason for the sustained reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico.

  18. Use of Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes as a biomarker of exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Lima, Maira V.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Morais, Vinicius H.T.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: mairavasconceloslima@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardolclf@hotmail.com, E-mail: larissamelo.pe@gmail.com, E-mail: viniciushtmorais@hotmail.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2017-11-01

    The increase of the applications of ionizing radiation in several areas and sectors of modern society has given rise to a greater probability of occurrence of accidents. These accidental occurrences have revealed the need for methods that provide quantitative data on the radiation doses absorbed by biological systems. The mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata presents as a good bioindicator in several works referenced in the literature. In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the morphological and quantitative alterations of hemocytes of the Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to ionizing radiation. For the experiments, adult mollusks of the species B. glabrata pigmented were used. The selected mollusks were divided into six groups: five submitted to doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Gy of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation and the control group. After 48 h, the slides were prepared and then read in a microscope. Quantitative analysis showed a decrease in the total number of hemocytes after irradiation. In the cell classification, a higher number of hyalinocytes were observed in relation to the number of granulocytes, except for the animals exposed to a dose of 30 Gy. The presence of micronuclei and binucleations were observed at all doses used. Apoptosis was observed at doses starting at 30 Gy. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the morphological and quantitative analysis of B. glabrata hemocytes provided significant data for the identification of biological damage caused by ionizing radiation, allowing the beginning of standardization of the morphological alteration counting technique in B. glabrata hemocytes as An environmental biomarker for the action of physical agents. (author)

  19. Use of Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes as a biomarker of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Lima, Maira V.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Morais, Vinicius H.T.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of the applications of ionizing radiation in several areas and sectors of modern society has given rise to a greater probability of occurrence of accidents. These accidental occurrences have revealed the need for methods that provide quantitative data on the radiation doses absorbed by biological systems. The mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata presents as a good bioindicator in several works referenced in the literature. In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the morphological and quantitative alterations of hemocytes of the Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to ionizing radiation. For the experiments, adult mollusks of the species B. glabrata pigmented were used. The selected mollusks were divided into six groups: five submitted to doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Gy of "6"0Co gamma radiation and the control group. After 48 h, the slides were prepared and then read in a microscope. Quantitative analysis showed a decrease in the total number of hemocytes after irradiation. In the cell classification, a higher number of hyalinocytes were observed in relation to the number of granulocytes, except for the animals exposed to a dose of 30 Gy. The presence of micronuclei and binucleations were observed at all doses used. Apoptosis was observed at doses starting at 30 Gy. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the morphological and quantitative analysis of B. glabrata hemocytes provided significant data for the identification of biological damage caused by ionizing radiation, allowing the beginning of standardization of the morphological alteration counting technique in B. glabrata hemocytes as An environmental biomarker for the action of physical agents. (author)

  20. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Embryo, I. Mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted on the radiosensitivity of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos submitted to doses of 5, 10,15,20 and 25 Gy of 60 Co during the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages. Mortality was the parameter used to evaluated the damage induced by ionizing radiation. Susceptibility decreased with increasing embryo age and with decreased radiation dose. Estimated LD 50 values (15 days) showed that the cleavage stage (4.3 Gy) was approximately four times more radiosensitive than the trochophore stage (17.0 Gy). The survival curves obtained for each embryo stage are discussed on the basis of the multitarget theory. (author) [pt

  1. Deep, multi-stage transcriptome of the schistosomiasis vector Biomphalaria glabrata provides platform for understanding molluscan disease-related pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J Kenny

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gastropod mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata is well known as a vector for the tropical disease schistosomiasis, which affects nearly 200 million people worldwide. Despite intensive study, our understanding of the genetic basis of B. glabrata development, growth and disease resistance is constrained by limited genetic resources, constraints for which next-generation sequencing methods provide a ready solution. Methods Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly using the Trinity program was used to generate a high-quality transcriptomic dataset spanning the entirety of in ovo development in schistosomiasis-free B. glabrata. This was subjected to automated (KEGG, BLAST2GO and manual annotation efforts, allowing insight into the gene complements of this species in a number of contexts. Results Excellent dataset recovery was observed, with 133,084 contigs produced of mean size 2219.48 bp. 80,952 (60.8 % returned a BLASTx hit with an E value of less than 10-3, and 74,492 (55.97 % were either mapped or assigned a GO identity using the BLAST2GO program. The CEGMA set of core eukaryotic genes was found to be 99.6 % present, indicating exceptional transcriptome completeness. We were able to identify a wealth of disease-pathway related genes within our dataset, including the Wnt, apoptosis and Notch pathways. This provides an invaluable reference point for further work into molluscan development and evolution, for studying the impact of schistosomiasis in this species, and perhaps providing targets for the treatment of this widespread disease. Conclusions Here we present a deep transcriptome of an embryonic sample of schistosomiasis-free B. glabrata, presenting a comprehensive dataset for comparison to disease-affected specimens and from which conclusions can be drawn about the genetics of this widespread medical model. Furthermore, the dataset provided by this sequencing provides a useful reference point for comparison to other mollusc

  2. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana; Silva, Luanna R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of 60 Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD 50 obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  3. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  4. Evaluation of radiosensitivity hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.R.S.; Amaral, A.J.; Silva, E.B.; Amancio, F.F.; Melo, A.M.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata have characteristics that allow them to be identified as an animal model ideal for monitoring areas exposed to chemical agents and physical. This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiation from Cobalt-60 in haemocytes present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata, with the goal of using these cells as indicators of the presence of radiation in aquatic environments. The mollusks were divided into five groups: one control and four subjected doses of 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of gamma radiation. After 48 hours of irradiation, the clam hemolymph was collected and slides were prepared and stained with Giemsa for analyses under a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, p <0.05. The results showed that the total number of cells after irradiation reduced compared to control except at a dose of 55 Gy. During data analysis, morphological changes were observed in haemocytes of mollusks subjected to doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy. These modifications consisted of nucleus bilobulated and nucleo plasmatic bridges. Another change was exclusively observed in the cellular exposure of 55 Gy, where hemocytes showed misshapen nuclei and cytoplasm vacuolisation, suggestive of apoptosis. It is concluded that hemocytes are sensitive to radiation and can be used as indicators of the presence of high doses of ionizing radiation in aquatic environments. (author)

  5. Behavior of Schistosoma mansoni-induced histopathological lesions in Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Carine M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Present report demonstrates that repeated radiation of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata, totaling 15,000 rads, caused a sudden, albeit transient, suppression of cercarial shedding. Initially, sporocysts practically disappeared from the snail tissues. The more resistant developing cercariae presented nuclear clumping and vacuolation, before undergoing lysis. No host tissue reaction was evident at any time. Thirty-four days after the last irradiation, the snails resumed cercarial elimination. By that time numerous sporocysts and developing cercariae were detected, disseminated throughout snail tissues in a pattern similar to that of a highly malignant neoplasm, with no signs of host cellular reactions, which on the other hand were present in non-irradiated infected controls. The region of the ovo-testis was apparently destroyed after radiation, but returned to its normal appearance around 40 days after the last radiation. Ionizing radiation affected both host and parasite in S. mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata, but the resulting impressive changes were soon reversed.

  6. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  7. Molluscicidal and ovicidal activities of plant extracts of the Piperaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado, L N; Nakano, E; Ohlweiler, F P; Kato, M J; Yamaguchi, L F; Pereira, C A B; Kawano, T

    2011-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease caused by Schistosoma and occurs in 54 countries, mainly in South America, the Caribbean region, Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. Currently, 5 to 6 million Brazilian people are infected and 30,000 are under infection risk. Typical of poor regions, this disease is associated with the lack of basic sanitation and very frequently to the use of contaminated water in agriculture, housework and leisure. One of the most efficient methods of controlling the disease is application of molluscicides to eliminate or to reduce the population of the intermediate host snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Studies on molluscicidal activity of plant extracts have been stimulated by issues such as environmental preservation, high cost and recurrent resistance of snails to synthetic molluscicides. The aim of this study was to determine the molluscicide action of extracts from Piperaceae species on adult and embryonic stages of B. glabrata. Fifteen extracts from 13 Piperaceae species were obtained from stems, leaves and roots. Toxicity of extracts was evaluated against snails at two different concentrations (500 and 100 ppm) and those causing 100% mortality at 100 ppm concentration were selected to obtain the LC₉₀ (lethal concentration of 90% mortality). Piper aduncum, P. crassinervium, P. cuyabanum, P. diospyrifolium and P. hostmannianum gave 100% mortality of adult snails at concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 ppm. These extracts were also assayed on embryonic stages of B. glabrata and those from P. cuyabanum and P. hostmannianum showed 100% ovicidal action at 20 ppm.

  8. Effects of Co60 gamma radiation on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Embryo. II. Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.

    1990-01-01

    The morphogenetic effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in Biomphalaria glabrata embryos irradiated in the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages with 5 to 25 Gy doses of 60 CO gamma radiation. The number of malformed embryos rapidly increased with increasing radiation dose, reaching a maximum between 5th to 8th day after irradiation in all stages analyzed. Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher the younger than the age of the irradiated embryo. However, for the cleavage stage the frequency of malformed embryos was inversely proportional to radiation dose for the same radiation dose. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were obtained, among then cephalic malformations, exogastrula, shell malformations and embryos with everted stomodeum, unspecific malformations being the most frequent. The results show that the types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied [pt

  9. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liang

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs, a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR, have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing.

  10. Molluscicidal effect of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns latex on Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni host snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns is an easily cultivated shrub, with occurrence in the tropical regions of the American and African continents. Chemical studies have revealed that the latex of this plant is rich in terpene compounds, which are highly toxic to snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Basommatophora: Planorbidae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and molluscicidal activity of the latex produced by E. umbellata, as well as the safety of its application in aquatic environments. The concentration of latex that killed 90% of the exposed snails after 24 h exposure (LC90 was 3.69 mg/L. Toxicity bioassays using Danio rerio (zebrafish revealed that these animals were less susceptible to latex than planorbids. However, it is important to perform other toxicity tests to ensure the feasibility of using latex to control populations of mollusks that contribute to schistosomiasis transmission. A phytochemical screening performed with the E. umbellata latex identified the triterpenoid and coumarin class. Further studies are warranted to isolate, identify, and test the active compounds of E. umbellata latex in B. glabrata.

  11. The Compatibility Between Biomphalaria glabrata Snails and Schistosoma mansoni: An Increasingly Complex Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitta, G; Gourbal, B; Grunau, C; Knight, M; Bridger, J M; Théron, A

    2017-01-01

    This review reexamines the results obtained in recent decades regarding the compatibility polymorphism between the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni, which is one of the agents responsible for human schistosomiasis. Some results point to the snail's resistance as explaining the incompatibility, while others support a "matching hypothesis" between the snail's immune receptors and the schistosome's antigens. We propose here that the two hypotheses are not exclusive, and that the compatible/incompatible status of a particular host/parasite couple probably reflects the balance of multiple molecular determinants that support one hypothesis or the other. Because these genes are involved in a coevolutionary arms race, we also propose that the underlying mechanisms can vary. Finally, some recent results show that environmental factors could influence compatibility. Together, these results make the compatibility between B. glabrata and S. mansoni an increasingly complex puzzle. We need to develop more integrative approaches in order to find targets that could potentially be manipulated to control the transmission of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molluscicidal activity of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) dubard on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Robson Xavier; Rocha, Leandro Machado; Souza, Eloísa Portugal Barros Silva Soares; Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Santos, José Augusto Albuquerque

    2018-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is promoted for species from Schistosoma genus affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Molluscicides are an efficient method to control this disease, being able to reduce intermediate host snail Biomphalaria glabrata number. In function of resistance cases using niclosamide, natural products are promisors to discover new drugs. Manilkara subsericea is endemic to Brazilian sandbanks of Rio de Janeiro State and wide ranges of biological activities. However, there is no studies evaluating its effects as molluscicidal agent. We tested crude extract from leaves of M. subsericea molluscicidal action, as well it ethyl-acetate fraction and isolated substances against B. glabrata. M. subsericea leaves crude extract and ethyl acetate fraction induced 80±4.13% and 86.66±4.59% mortality of adult snails at concentrations of 250ppm after 96h, and their LD 50 values were 118.7±1.62 and 23.41±1.15ppm respectively. Isolated substances from M. subsericea were also considered active. Quercetin, myricetin and ursolic acid, at concentration of 100ppm (96h), were able to induce mortality levels of 100%, 80% and 53.33%, respectively. Our results suggest that M. subsericea can be considered promising as a molluscicide agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Suscetibilidade de biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a diferentes cepas de schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Candido de Souza Dias

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Em condições experimentais foi estudada a suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a quatro linhagens humanas (MAP, PTH, UPH, e OuH e duas de roedores silvestres (PTR e VPR do Schistosoma mansoni. Grupos de 50 moluscos foram expostos individualmente a 10 miracídios e observados durante 70 dias. Avaliou-se a suscetibilidade dos moluscos ao parasito por meio da % de animais com esporocistos, % de moluscos que eliminavam cercárias e mortalidade conjunta dos animais expostos e infectados. Exemplares de B. glabrata mineira infectaram-se com cepa simpátrica (MAP e com 5 alopátricas do Estado de São Paulo (PTH, VPH, OuH, PTR e VPR. B. glabrata paulista mostrou altas taxas de infecção com as cepas MAP, VPR e OuH do trematódeo. Quatro % dos exemplares B. straminea de São Paulo eliminavam cercárias de cepas simpátricas; com cepa mineira apenas 4% apresentaram esporocistos na vigência de 20 miracídios por molusco; as menores taxas de mortalidade foram registradas com essa espécie de molusco, não sendo maior do que 20%. B. tenagophila paulista foi suscetível apenas às linhagens simpáticas sendo 6% a maior taxa de moluscos que eliminaram cercárias. Os resultados indicam que os movimentos populacionais humanos dentro do território paulista e para fora dele são importantes na disseminação da esquistossomose mansônica.

  14. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  15. The effect of gamma radiation and caffeine during the embrionic development of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, T.

    1982-01-01

    Some experiments have been carried out, dealing with the interations of caffeine and gamma radiation in the embryonic development of Biomphalaria glabrata. Gamma radiation was used in a dosis of 1000r (exposure time of 1/2 hour) and caffeine concentration was 0.1% (Exposure time of 24 hours). Experiment I. The embryos were irradiated before treatment with caffeine. In this experiment we have observed a synergistic effect between caffeine and gamma radiation. Experiment II. The embryos in the caffeine solution were irradiated 8 hours after the beginning of the experiment. The synergistic effect observed in this experiment was reduced when compared with the first one. Experiment III. In this experiment we made the pre-treatment with caffeine. We have not observed any synergistic effect between the drug and gamma radiation. Experiment IV. Embryos were irradiated, and after 24 hours treated with caffeine during another 24 hours. As in the previous experiment, we have not observed any synergism between the radiation and the drug. According to the above results, we conclude that the synergistic effect between caffeine and gamma radiation in the embryos was more effective when the embryos have been treated with caffeine after irradiation. (Author) [pt

  16. Changes in energetic metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae in response to exogenous calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species. Sixty-day-old snails were distributed into six groups, five exposed to different concentrations of CaCO3 (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L and a control group. The exposure to CaCO3 was assessed over time, with analysis of 15 snails of each group in the following intervals: 1, 14, 21 or 30 days for hemolymph extraction. Concentrations of calcium and glucose in the hemolymph were determined by commercial kits, and organic acids were extracted using an ion exchange column and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration of calcium in the hemolymph showed no significant difference (p>0.05 from the control group and between the concentrations tested. Concentration of glucose decreased (p<0.05 in the treatments of exposure to 20 and 40 mg/L and increased when exposed to 80 and 100 mg/L CaCO3 compared to control and to other concentrations tested over 30 days. The organic acids pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate, fumarate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate presented increased concentrations, while propionate and acetoacetate, decreased concentrations, when exposed to CaCO3 compared to control. Considering the influence of different periods of exposure to CaCO3, on the 14th day, there were stronger alterations in the metabolism of B. glabrata. In conclusion, exposure to CaCO3 reduced the concentration of glucose, which is metabolized into pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, and also

  17. Dominant lethal effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in Biomphalaria glabrata (SAY, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas

    2003-01-01

    Germ cell mutations are used in ecotoxicological studies as biomarkers of population effects and indicators of ecological changes. Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater mollusk, is a good experimental model for biomonitoring studies due to its biological characteristics and the ecological importance of this invertebrate group. The dominant lethal test was established in B. glabrata for the detection of germ cell mutations. Results with chemical mutagens showed that this system is efficient, specific and sensitive in the evaluation of germ cell mutations induced by reference mutagens. In this work, the dominant lethal effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co were studied. A preliminary experiment was done to establish the dose range and to estimate the chronology of spermatogenesis in B. glabrata. This estimate is possible because of the uniformity in response to ionizing radiation between germ cells at homologous stages of spermatogenesis in widely different species. In general, pre-meiotic germ cells are less sensitive to the induction of lethal dominant mutations than post-meiotic cells. This effect can be attributed to: young gametogenic cells - mitotically active - have greater repair ability from sub-lethal DNA damage and there is a selective elimination of the damaged cells. In our system: induction of lethal dominant mutations causes an increase in the frequency of malformations and, cytotoxic effect is displayed as a reduction in the crossing rates. Total duration of spermatogenesis was estimated in approximately 36 days, with the following distribution of stages: 1 to 13 days - spermatogonia, 14 to 20 days - spermatocytes, 21 to 36 days - spermatids and spermatozoa. Based on this chronology, irradiated wild-type snails with 2,5; 10 and 20Gy and crossed with non-irradiated albino snails after 7, 17, 23, 30 and 36 days. The frequencies of malformations in the heterozygous wild-type offspring of the nonirradiated albino snails were used as indicator of germ cell

  18. Growth of Biomphalaria glabrata populations in the presence of the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-06-01

    Adults of three ampullariid species were examined for their ability to affect the population growth of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions in which food (lettuce) was supplied ad libitum over an eleven week interval. Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata were obtained from Kenya, and Marisa cornuarietis originated from the Dominican Republic. The presence of either 3 or 9 L. carinatus or 3 M. cornuarietis per 40 l aquarium did not reduce the population size of B. glabrata below levels attained in control aquaria lacking ampullariids. The presence of 9 M. cornuarietis adults significantly reduced B. glabrata populations by week 10 of the experiment. Presence of 3 or 9 P. ovata per aquarium significantly reduced B. glabrata numbers below control levels starting at week four of the experiment. Aquaria with 9 P. ovata were observed to have fewer B. glabrata egg masses than control aquaria, but the number of egg masses observed was not significantly reduced in aquaria with 3 P. ovata or with 3 or 9 L. carinatus or M. cornuarietis. However, the presence of 3 or 9 adults of each ampullariid species resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of such egg masses that disappeared prior to expected hatching date and that were presumed to have been consumed. The results of his laboratory study suggest that further investigation of the role of ampullariids as biological control agents for pulmonate snails in sub-Saharan Africa should focus on P. ovata.

  19. Atividade moluscicida de princípios ativos de folhas de Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae Moluscicide activity of active principles in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Leyton

    Full Text Available Foram obtidos extratos aquosos e alcoólicos a partir de pó de folhas secas de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cereja. Por extração metanólica e precipitação alcalina, foi obtido um produto que denominamos "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" (GEb, no qual foi caracterizada a presença de tomatina. Em ensaios laboratoriais, os extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e o GEb apresentaram atividade moluscicida em Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. O "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" apresentou alta atividade moluscicida (CL50 = 8,01 ppm e CL90 = 13,17 ppm, comparável à atividade da tomatina. Desovas de B. glabrata mostraram-se resistentes aos extratos testados. Os níveis de atividade moluscicida apresentados pelos diversos extratos e o GEb, apontam apenas o GEb como candidato para a continuação dos estudos visando a sua possível utilização em campo.Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were obtained from crushed dried leaves of tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cherry. By the use of a methanolic extraction and alkaline precipitation, a product named crude steroidal glycoalkaloid (GEb, was obtained. The presence of tomatidine was characterized in this product. In laboratory, the aqueous and alcoholic extracts and GEb have shown molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. The crude steroidal glycoalkaloid presented a high molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 8.01 ppm and LC90 = 13.17 ppm, similar to that of tomatine. None of the compounds tested affected B. glabrata egg masses. The level of activity showed by the different extracts and by the GEb, pointed out the GEb as the only candidate able to be considered for further tests toward field trials as molluscicidal agent.

  20. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  1. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Ronaldo C.; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of 60 Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and χ 2 . Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  2. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of {sup 60}Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and {chi}{sup 2}. Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  3. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  4. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  5. BgTEP: An Antiprotease Involved in Innate Immune Sensing in Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Portet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect thioester-containing protein (iTEP is the most recently defined group among the thioester-containing protein (TEP superfamily. TEPs are key components of the immune system, and iTEPs from flies and mosquitoes were shown to be major immune weapons. Initially characterized from insects, TEP genes homologous to iTEP were further described from several other invertebrates including arthropods, cniderians, and mollusks albeit with few functional characterizations. In the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector of the schistosomiasis disease, the presence of a TEP protein (BgTEP was previously described in a well-defined immune complex involving snail lectins (fibrinogen-related proteins and schistosome parasite mucins (SmPoMuc. To investigate the potential role of BgTEP in the immune response of the snail, we first characterized its genomic organization and its predicted protein structure. A phylogenetic analysis clustered BgTEP in a well-conserved subgroup of mollusk TEP. We then investigated the BgTEP expression profile in different snail tissues and followed immune challenges using different kinds of intruders during infection kinetics. Results revealed that BgTEP is particularly expressed in hemocytes, the immune-specialized cells in invertebrates, and is secreted into the hemolymph. Transcriptomic results further evidenced an intruder-dependent differential expression pattern of BgTEP, while interactome experiments showed that BgTEP is capable of binding to the surface of different microbes and parasite either in its full length form or in processed forms. An immunolocalization approach during snail infection by the Schistosoma mansoni parasite revealed that BgTEP is solely expressed by a subtype of hemocytes, the blast-like cells. This hemocyte subtype is present in the hemocytic capsule surrounding the parasite, suggesting a potential role in the parasite clearance by encapsulation. Through this work, we report the first

  6. Female biased sex-ratio in Schistosoma mansoni after exposure to an allopatric intermediate host strain of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepesant, Julie M J; Boissier, Jérôme; Climent, Déborah; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    For parasites that require multiple hosts to complete their development, the interaction with the intermediate host may have an impact on parasite transmission and development in the definitive host. The human parasite Schistosoma mansoni needs two different hosts to complete its life cycle: the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (in South America) as intermediate host and a human or rodents as final host. To investigate the influence of the host environment on life history traits in the absence of selection, we performed experimental infections of two B. glabrata strains of different geographic origin with the same clonal population of S. mansoni. One B. glabrata strain is the sympatric host and the other one the allopatric host. We measured prevalence in the snail, the cercarial infectivity, sex-ratio, immunopathology in the final host and microsatellite frequencies of individual larvae in three successive generations. We show that, even if the parasite population is clonal based on neutral markers, S. mansoni keeps the capacity of generating phenotypic plasticity and/or variability for different life history traits when confront to an unusual environment, in this study the intermediate host. The most dramatic change was observed in sex-ratio: in average 1.7 times more female cercariae were produced when the parasite developed in an allopatric intermediate host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption of Biomphalaria glabrata egg masses and juveniles by the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofkin, B V; Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-04-01

    Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata from Kenya and Marisa cornuarietis from the Dominican Republic were examined for their ability to consume egg masses and juveniles of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions. Adults of all three ampullariid species consumed all egg masses presented to them over a five day period of observation. Juvenile P. ovata consumed significantly more egg masses than juveniles of M. cornuarietis or L. carinatus. Both adult and juvenile ampullariids generally ate more egg masses when maintained under a temperature regime (25-32 degrees C) approximating conditions in coastal Kenya than at 13-25 degrees C which approximates the temperature regime near Nairobi, Kenya. Egg masses attached to floating 'refugia' were not attacked, apparently reflecting the difficulty experienced by ampullariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all lariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm B. glabrata juvenile snails presented to them. P. ovata adults consumed significantly more 3.0 +/- 0.5 mm juveniles than adults of the other two species. B. glabrata egg masses and juveniles were consumed even though lettuce was continually present in experimental aquaria. Implications of these results for biological control studies in East Africa are discussed.

  8. Estratégia competitiva entre Biomphalaria glabrata e Biomphalaria tenagophila: estudos de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairy Barbosa Loureiro dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation about conhabitation among B. glabrata and B. tenagophila revealed a greater vulnerability of B. tenagophila population during the process of competition when its density was severaly decreased in 12 trials, moderate in 2 trials. It was higher than B. glabrata in only one trial. Some snail water chemical parameters analysed such as pH, alkalinity, conductivity and oxygen dissolve, an the viability rate of batch of eggs didn't give subsidy to explain the competition mechanism. The newly-born survival, in the situation of cohabitation, was low for both species. This reveals the existence of intra and interspecific competitive interacition. The fertility rate reduction of B. tenagophila during the cohabitation was considered as a cause of its exlusion. One of the factors that seems to have influenced the fertility rate was a possible wrong crossing.

  9. Controlled chaos of polymorphic mucins in a metazoan parasite (Schistosoma mansoni interacting with its invertebrate host (Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Roger

    Full Text Available Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata. Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism-a "controlled chaos"-based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also

  10. Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Pierce, Raymond J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Emans, Rémi; Cesari, Italo M.; Cosseau, Céline; Mitta, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs) that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism—a “controlled chaos”—based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also exist on

  11. New insights into the amphibious life of Biomphalaria glabrata and susceptibility of its egg masses to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Glennyha F; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Humber, Richard A; Luz, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The air-breathing snail Biomphalaria glabrata proliferates in stagnant freshwater, and nothing is known about the survival of eggs in intermittently (rather than perpetually) wet habitats. In the present study their egg masses matured, and juveniles subsequently eclosed and were mobile in a stable water film of transitory habitats simulated by two different simple test devices described here. The viability of eggs maintained in an unstable film however, was diminished. The maturation of egg masses in a water film or in water was significantly prevented by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The efficiency depended on the fungal propagule and test environment. Hyphal bodies were more effective against egg masses than conidia. This appears to be a first report of activity of either entomopathogen against a mollusc. Both devices offer accurate and reproducible conditions to test both biological questions and the effects of substances or pathogens against B. glabrata egg masses in water films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Padronização da técnica de marcação de caramujos Biomphalaria glabrata com radioestroncio Standardization of the technic of labeling Biomphalaria glabrata snails with radiostrontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Archanjo Muniz Leal

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Caramujos Biomphalaria glabrata vetor da esquistossomose mansônica, utilizados em experiências de campo, nas quais se faz necessário sua identificação e/ou localização, devem ser marcados com radioestrôncio 85,89 ou 90. Sua marcação em laboratório deve ser procedida em aquários de vidro sem fundo de areia, temperatura de 26,5 ± 1ºC, pH ajustado ao valor encontrado no "habitat", aeração artificial, alimentação diária com pequenas porções de alface fresca e 25 ml de água desionizada por caramujo. O nível de atividade no caramujo pode ser estimado sabendo-se que para o tempo de marcação de 5 dias e atividades iniciais de 0,036 a 0,362 µCi/ml, a captação global para grupos de 10 caramujos está em torno de 84 ± 2% e que a marcação em água contendo cálcio, praticamente não se altera até concentrações de 50ppm. A sobrevida ao longo de nove semanas não foi influenciada pela presença de radioestrôncio no caramujo.The vector snail of schistosomiasis mansoni, Biomphalaria glabrata, when used in field experiments in which it is to be recovered and/or located, should be labeled with radiostrontium 85,89 or 90. The labeling in laboratory should be carried out in an artificially aerated aquarium with 25 ml of deionized water per snail, without sand at the bottom, at a temperature of 26.5 ± 1ºC, pH adjusted to the value found in the natural habitat, and the snails should be fed with small pieces of fresh lettuce. The level of snail activity can be estimated taking into account that, for a labeling time of 5 days and initial activities of 0.036 to 0.362 µCi/ml, the global uptake for groups of 10 snails is about 84 ± 2% and that labeling in calcium-containing water parctically does not change till a 50 ppm concentration. Survival along 9 weeks was not influenced by the presence of radiostrontium in the snail.

  13. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B.; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of 60 Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO 3 ) and negative (H 2 O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  14. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Alves dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp., and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.. As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds.

  15. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426 mg/L and LC(50) 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94 mg/L, LC(50) 13.51 mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds.

  16. Reduction in transmission of Schistosoma mansoni by a four-year focal mollusciciding programme against Biomphalaria glabrata in Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, M A; Jordan, P; Bartholomew, R K; Grist, E

    1981-01-01

    The effect of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni of a focal snail control programme was investigated over four years amongst approximately 1250 people living in five communities in the steep-sided Soufriere river valley, St. Lucia, West Indies. Bayer 6076 was applied from constant flow drip cans to 12 stream sections at a target dose of 8 mg/litre clonitralide every four weeks. Only proven and potential transmission sites were treated; marsh habitats, where Biomphalaria glabrata were widespread, were ignored. In the stream snail numbers were reduced by 94% in the first year and by 100% thereafter. Incidence of new S. mansoni infections amongst children fell from 18% in the last year before control to 6% and 9% after three and four years respectively. Amongst children and adults in the four years of control the conversion/reversion ratio declined leading to a lowering of the over-all prevalence from 40% to 22%. Parasitologically the results were similar to those of a previously evaluated area-wide mollusciciding programme. The mean annual cost per person protected was US $2.60. This figure is atypically high because the topography of the area severely limited the population size.

  17. Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil: environmental and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kloos

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the distribution and infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni in all aquatic snail habitats in a rural area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to physico/biotic and behavioral factors. Snail and environmental surveys were carried out semi-annually between July 2001 and November 2002 at 106 sites. Collected snails were examined in the laboratory for infection. B. glabrata densities were highest in overflow ponds, irrigation ponds, springs, canals and wells, and lowest in fishponds and water tanks. Snail densities were higher during the hot, rainy season except for streams and canals and were statistically associated with the presence of fish, pollution, and vegetation density. Tilapia fish and an unidentified Diptera larva were found to be predators of B. glabrata but ducks were not. Twenty-four of the 25 infected snails were collected in 2001(1.4% infection rate and only one in 2002, after mass chemotherapy. The occurrence of B. glabrata in all 11 snail habitats both at and away from water contact sites studied indicates widespread risk of human infection in the study area. In spite of the strong association between B. glabrata and tilapia in fishponds we do not recommend its use in schistosomiasis control for ecological reasons and its relative inefficiency in streams and dams.

  18. Implications of water hardness in ecotoxicological assessments for water quality regulatory purposes: a case study with the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC Oliveira-Filho

    Full Text Available Water hardness is a property depending on the presence of alkaline earth metals, mainly calcium and magnesium. Among the strategies for water quality monitoring, ecotoxicological assays are performed to minimize impacts and classify water bodies. For these laboratory evaluations parameters are previously defined in the guidelines, including water hardness for both cultivation and testing medium. The present work was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of water hardness on the survival and reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and discuss the influence of natural water hardness on the results of ecotoxicological tests with these environmental samples. Comparing the groups it was possible to observe that those maintained in waters with least hardness had lower reproductive success, while the groups maintained in highest hardness showed better reproduction. These data show that waters with low hardness make the reproduction of the snail B. glabrata unfeasible, and this reveal a problem for ecotoxicity assays using natural water samples.

  19. A low stringency polymerase chain reaction approach to the identification of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila, intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The low stringency-polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR with a pair of specific primers for the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene was evaluated as a means of differentiating between the two Schistosoma mansoni intermediate host species in Brazil: Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila. Individual snails obtained from different states of Brazil were used and the amplification patterns obtained showed a high degree of genetic variability in these species. Nevertheless, 4 and 3 clearly defined specific diagnostic bands was observed in individuals from B. glabrata and B. tenagophila respectively. The detection of snail specific diagnostic bands suggests the possibility of reliable species differentiation at the DNA level using LS-PCR.

  20. The role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata in biossays with the plant molluscicide Phytolacca dodecandra O papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabrata submetida a bioensaios com o moluscicida vegetal Phytolacca dodecandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jurberg

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 25, 50 75 and 100 mgl-1 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Time-lapse cinematography was used to quantify accurately the following parameters: (a frequency of exits from the solution, (b time spent out of the solution and (c time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. These behavior patterns were statistically compared between surviving snails and those which later died. The proportion of surviving snails leaving the liquid medium was significantly higher than that of dying snails. In addition, the surviving group spent significantly more time out of the solution than the group which died, except for the 100 mgl-1 concentration. However, no significant difference was detected in the time elapsed until the first exit from the solution. It can be concluded that both the tendency to leave the P. dodecandra solutions, and the time spent out of them, contributed significantly to snail survival. Molluscicide bioassays should take into account the possibility that some behavior patterns of planorbids might contribute to the protection of the snails.Este trabalho investiga o papel do comportamento na sobrevivência de Biomphalaria glabarta exposta a 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgI-1 de Phytolacca dodecandra. Foi utilizada a técnica de cinematografia com lapso de tempo para quantificar acuradamente os seguintes parâmetros (a freqüência de saídas da solução, (b tempo de permanência fora da solução e (e tempo decorrido até a primeira saída da soluçao. Estes padrões comportamentais foram estatisticamente comparados no que se refere aos caramujos sobreviventes e aos que vieram a morrer. Dentre os camundongos que abandonaram o meio líquido, a proporção de sobreviventes foi significativamente maior que a de mortos. Além disso, um tempo significativamente maior de permanência fora da solução foi observado no grupo que sobreviveu, em relação ao grupo que veio

  1. Avaliação da bioatividade dos extratos de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. M. da Silva Filho

    Full Text Available A cúrcuma é o rizoma limpo, em boas condições, seco e moído da Curcuma longa L., uma planta herbácea da família Zingiberaceae. Visando novas alternativas para o controle da esquistossomose, os extratos de Curcuma longa L. foram testados para a avaliação da atividade moluscicida contra caramujos adultos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. A oleoresina e o óleo essencial de cúrcuma foram ativos contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 80,43 e CL50 = 319,82 μg/mL, respectivamente e também ativos contra os indivíduos adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 58,3 e CL50 = 46,73 μg/mL, respectivamente. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde ser concluído que ambos os extratos podem constituir uma alternativa no controle da população desses caramujos e na redução da esquistossomose.

  2. Nitric oxide production by Biomphalaria glabrata haemocytes: effects of Schistosoma mansoni ESPs and regulation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the parasite initially transforms from a miracidium into a mother sporocyst and during this process excretory-secretory products (ESPs are released. Nitric oxide (NO and its reactive intermediates play an important role in host defence responses against pathogens. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of S. mansoni ESPs on NO production in defence cells (haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and schistosome-resistant B. glabrata strains. As S. mansoni ESPs have previously been shown to inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation (activation in haemocytes from susceptible, but not resistant, B. glabrata the regulation of NO output by ERK in these cells was also investigated. Results Haemocytes from resistant snails challenged with S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml over 5 h displayed an increase in NO production that was 3.3 times greater than that observed for unchallenged haemocytes; lower concentrations of ESPs (0.1–10 μg/ml did not significantly increase NO output. In contrast, haemocytes from susceptible snails showed no significant change in NO output following challenge with ESPs at any concentration used (0.1–20 μg/ml. Western blotting revealed that U0126 (1 μM or 10 μM blocked the phosphorylation (activation status of ERK in haemocytes from both snail strains. Inhibition of ERK signalling by U0126 attenuated considerably intracellular NO production in haemocytes from both susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains, identifying ERK as a key regulator of NO output in these cells. Conclusion S. mansoni ESPs differentially influence intracellular NO levels in susceptible and resistant B. glabrata haemocytes, possibly through modulation of the ERK signalling pathway. Such effects might facilitate survival of S. mansoni in its intermediate host.

  3. Comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 como critério de toxicidade em ensaios biológicos com moluscicidas Behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 as a parameter of toxicity in biological assays with molluscicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio S. Pieri

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando à aplicação sistemática de parâmetros comportamentais como indicadores da ação tóxica de moluscicidas empregados no combate aos hospedeiros intermediários do Schistosoma mansoni, um procedimento para avaliação quantitativa do efeito de dose sobre o comprotamento de Biomphalaria glabrata foi desenvolvido, com base no paradigma recomendado pela O.M.S. para ensaios biológicos e envolvendo registro comportamental por cenematografia ocm lapso de tempo: caramujos com 5 7/8 ± 1/8 giros eram subemtidos a diferentes concentrações subletais de sulfato de cobre durante 24 horas e em seguida transferidos para recuperação em água destilada desionizada; a partir da análise dos registros foram computados (a a freqüência total de subidas à superfície por indivíduo, (b a frqüência total de saídas da água por indivíduo e (c a proporção média de indivíduos no terço superior do recipiente de teste. O método Litchfield-Wilcoxon foi empregaod para determinação de índices de referência (denominados "concentrações de efieto comportamental de 50%" ou CEC50 em relação a cada parâmetro, e os valores obtidos - (a 0,010, (b 0,006 e (c 0,029 ppm de cobre - não só evidenciaram a exeqüibilidade da aplicação sistemática de critérios comportamentais de toxidade, como se revelaram capazes de detectar o efieto tóxico do produto em concentrações muito infereiores às obtidas nas determinações convencionais de letalidade. Os dados também mostraram alterações na atividade dos caramujos em decorrência do ciclo de iluminação dia-noite. Embora o esclarecimento dos aspectos etológicos envolvidos no problema do controle químico do vetor dependa da análise das relações entre o indivíduo e seu ambiente natural, estudos de laboratório com mensurações acuradas de parâmetros relacionados a comportamentos de proteção podem fornecer subsídios relevantes a respeito.The possibility of using reliable behavioural

  4. Evaluation of molluscicidal activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle) and their effects on the bioactivity of Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Pereira, Adalberto Alves; Nogueira, Aline de Jesus Lustosa; Araújo, Karla Regina Freitas; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; de Carvalho, Iramar Borba; da Silva, Natale Maria Lindoso; Azevedo, Alexandre Santana; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Schistosomiasis is a disease of global extent reaching populations in social vulnerability. One of the control measures of this parasitosis is the use of molluscicidal substances that can fight snails of the genus Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The aim of this work was to study the toxic activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana Stapf. & Leech, ex Moldenke, 1939, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) CF Gaertn, 1807 and Rhizophora mangle L. 1753) on the biological activities of snails Biomphalaria glabrata. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared from the stem and leaves of each of the three plant species to which mollusks were exposed. The phytochemical analysis of plants showed the presence of important metabolites in the leaves and stems of L. racemosa and R. mangle, such as tannins and saponins, but the absence of these metabolites in A. schaueriana. Leaf and stem extracts of the three plant species showed low molluscicidal activity, not reaching the standards determined by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1983). L. racemosa and R. mangle has interfered with motility, feeding and oviposition of snails, unlike the extracts of A. schaueriana, which had no effect on these activities. PMID:29451595

  5. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio. Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por membranas, mitocôndrias, retículos endoplasmáticos e outros. As observações mostram que esse tampão possui a propriedade de preservação do citoesqueleto celular, apresentando bons resultados na preservação das estruturas dos hemócitos e suas organelas.The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata from the region of Bragantina in the state of Pará, an important vector of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, were collected and fixed by routine method with PHEM buffer and examined with transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural cellular aspects like cytoplasmic inclusions, mitochondrion, vesicles and others organelles are described. The buffer used resulted in good preservations of the hemocytes and their organelles.

  6. Differences in the gene expression profiles of haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and -resistant biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Schistosoma mansoni excretory-secretory products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Zahoor

    Full Text Available During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1α, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni control in Cul de Sac Valley, Saint Lucia. I. A two-year focal surveillance-mollusciciding programme for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnish, G; Christie, J D; Prentice, M A

    1980-01-01

    An area-wide mollusciciding campaign in Cul de Sac valley, St. Lucia reduced incidence of Schistosoma mansoni from 22% to 4.3% between 1970 and 1975. Following this, a two-year focal surveillance-mollusciciding programme was introduced. Sites of potential transmission of S. mansoni were identified and routinely searched for Biomphalaria glabrata. If found, the site was treated with clonitralide 25% emulsifiable concentrate. Two chemotherapy campaigns supplemented the snail control programme. As a result of the combined measures, incidence of the infection dropped from 4.3% to 1.0% and from 2.2% to 0.6% in areas originally of high and low transmission respectively. The cost of protecting the 7,000 population was US $20,362: of these costs, labour absorbed 68%, transport 24%, equipment 4% and molluscicide 4%. The cost per person per year protected was US $1.45 which compares favourably with the $3.24 of the previous scheme. Although effective and relatively cheap, this programme was still dependent on a high standard of supervision for maximum benefit.

  8. Genome-Wide Scan and Test of Candidate Genes in the Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Reveal New Locus Influencing Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A Tennessen

    Full Text Available New strategies to combat the global scourge of schistosomiasis may be revealed by increased understanding of the mechanisms by which the obligate snail host can resist the schistosome parasite. However, few molecular markers linked to resistance have been identified and characterized in snails.Here we test six independent genetic loci for their influence on resistance to Schistosoma mansoni strain PR1 in the 13-16-R1 strain of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. We first identify a genomic region, RADres, showing the highest differentiation between susceptible and resistant inbred lines among 1611 informative restriction-site associated DNA (RAD markers, and show that it significantly influences resistance in an independent set of 439 outbred snails. The additive effect of each RADres resistance allele is 2-fold, similar to that of the previously identified resistance gene sod1. The data fit a model in which both loci contribute independently and additively to resistance, such that the odds of infection in homozygotes for the resistance alleles at both loci (13% infected is 16-fold lower than the odds of infection in snails without any resistance alleles (70% infected. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium is high, with both sod1 and RADres residing on haplotype blocks >2 Mb, and with other markers in each block also showing significant effects on resistance; thus the causal genes within these blocks remain to be demonstrated. Other candidate loci had no effect on resistance, including the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex and three genes (aif, infPhox, and prx1 with immunological roles and expression patterns tied to resistance, which must therefore be trans-regulated.The loci RADres and sod1 both have strong effects on resistance to S. mansoni. Future approaches to control schistosomiasis may benefit from further efforts to characterize and harness this natural genetic variation.

  9. Studies on survival, biological activities and behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata, the host snail of Schistosomiasis, submitted to increased hydrostatic pressure: a technique Estudos sobre a sobrevivência, atividades biológicas e comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata, hospedeiro intermediário da esquistossomose, submetido a aumento da pressão hidrostática: uma técnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jurberg

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available To study changes in survival, in biological activities and behavior of planorbids submitted to increased hydrostatic pressure, we developed a technique using two transparent chambers and a hydraulic piston. The apparatus permitted renewal of the liquid medium without substantial variations in pressure, thus eliminating excretion products and maintaining the desired O2 level and thereby permitting us to evaluate the effects of pressure independently of the occurrence of anoxia. Pressure was maintained without any contact of the liquid medium with compressed air, a situation which reproduced with relative fidelity what occurs in nature and assured the presence of the same amounts of gases in the two observation chambers (Control and Experimental. Biomphalaria glabrata was found to be able to survive at least 48 hours when submitted to 49.02 x 10**4 Pa (equivalent to a water depth of 48.8 m, continuing to day egg masses and showing few behavioral changes when compared with the control group.Para estudar mudanças na sobrevivência, atividades biológicas e comportamento de planorbídeos submetidos a aumento de pressão hidrostática, desenvolvemos uma técnica que utiliza duas câmaras transparentes e um pistão hidráulico. O aparelho permitiu a renovação do meio líquido sem variações substanciais na pressão, eliminando assim os produtos de excreção e mantendo o nível de O2 disseolvido desejado, e desse modo permitido-nos avaliar o efeito da pressão independente da ocorrência de anoxia. A pressão foi mantida sem nenhum contato do meio líquido com o ar comprimido, situação que produziu com relativa fidelildade o que ocorre na natureza, e assegurou a presença da mesma quantidade de gases nas duas câmaras de observação. Biomphalaria glabrata foi capaz de sobreviver pelo menos 48 horas quando submetida a 49,02 x 10 Pa (equivalente a 48 m de profundidade continuando a pôr massas ovíferas, e mostrando poucas modifica

  10. Evaluation of a linear spectral mixture model and vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI) in a study of schistosomiasis mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata distribution in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the associations between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) on the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. Additionally, vegetation, soil and shade fraction images were created using a Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) from the blue, red and infrared channels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer spaceborne sensor and the relationship between these images and the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of B. glabrata was analysed. First, we found a high correlation between the vegetation fraction image and EVI and second, a high correlation between soil fraction image and NDVI. The results also indicate that there was a positive correlation between prevalence and the vegetation fraction image (July 2002), a negative correlation between prevalence and the soil fraction image (July 2002) and a positive correlation between B. glabrata and the shade fraction image (July 2002). This paper demonstrates that the LSMM variables can be used as a substitute for the standard vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) to determine and delimit risk areas for B. glabrata and schistosomiasis in MG, which can be used to improve the allocation of resources for disease control.

  11. The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P

    1993-06-01

    A malacological survey was carried out in May 1992 in the whole hydrographic system of Saint Lucia 11 years after the end of a biological control programme to eliminate Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. A competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced to Saint Lucia in 1978 and field experiments in several habitats were conducted by Prentice between 1978 and 1986. At the present time M. tuberculata is the most common freshwater snail in Saint Lucia. The results of the survey, undertaken in sites where B. glabrata occurred in large populations in the past showed (i) the absence of the snail hosts from seven sites now extensively colonized by the competitor (ii) the presence of B. glabrata in low or very low densities in 17 sites together with the competitor and (iii) the presence of the intermediate hosts in large populations in only two sites where M. tuberculata was absent. These results confirm the positive results observed by Prentice. The presence of another planorbid snail, B. straminea, is reported for the first time in Saint Lucia.

  12. Effects of Different Levels of Echinostoma caproni Miracidial Dose on Glucose and Maltose Composition of Biomphalaria glabrata Snails as Determined by High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolcie DeGrandchamp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 5, 25, and 40 Echinostoma caproni miracidia on the sugar content of young adult and mature adult Biomphalaria glabrata were studied using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometry. Analysis was done on the snail’s digestive gland gonad complex (DGG at two and four weeks postmiracidial exposure. The sugars were extracted from the DGG using 70% ethanol and analyzed on silica gel HPTLC plates with a preadsorbent zone using 1-butanol-glacial acetic acid-diethyl ether-deionized water (27:18:5:3 mobile phase. The separated bands were then detected using alpha-naphthol-sulfuric reagent and quantified by densitometry at 515 nm. Significant differences were found in the maltose content between two and four weeks post exposure for both age groups. Additionally, significantly lower maltose and glucose levels were observed in the high exposure groups of both ages.

  13. Avaliação da atividade tóxica em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata de extratos de quatro espécies do gênero Eleocharis (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.T.G. Ruiz

    Full Text Available O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. compreende cerca de 200 espécies, ocorrendo em ambientes úmidos tais como brejos e margens de rios e lagos. Procurando novos agentes moluscicidas, os extratos de Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult. e Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth foram testados para atividade moluscicida, contra caramujos adultos e desovas, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. O extrato hexânico de Eleocharis acutangula (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 476,00 mg/mL, enquanto os demais extratos apresentaram CL50 >> 10³ mg/mL, sugerindo baixa toxicidade. O extrato hidro-etanólico de Eleocharis sellowiana (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 24,27 mg/mL mas inativo contra indivíduos adultos. Os demais extratos testados não apresentaram atividade moluscicida.

  14. Compatibilidad entre nueve cepas de Biomphalaria glabrata de áreas endémicas y no endémicas y una cepa de Schistosoma mansoni venezolanas

    OpenAIRE

    Pino,Luz A.; Matinella,Liboria; Morales C.,Gustavo

    1999-01-01

    Se infectaron experimentalmente 9 lotes de 32 caracoles B. glabrata (de 5 a 7mm de diámetro) con miracidios de la cepa C5 de Schistosoma mansoni a razón de 5 miracidios por caracol, pertenecientes a las siguientes cepas: En el área endémica de transmisión de Esquistosomiasis mansoni a) Sector Puerta Negra, Lago Valencia, b) Cagua c) Ingenio Bolívar (Estado Aragua) d) Mariara e) Caserío El 25 f) Güigüe (Estado Carabobo). Fuera del área endémica de transmisión g) Anzoátegui (Estado Lara), h) Ch...

  15. Compatibilidad entre nueve cepas de Biomphalaria glabrata de áreas endémicas y no endémicas y una cepa de Schistosoma mansoni venezolanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Luz A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se infectaron experimentalmente 9 lotes de 32 caracoles B. glabrata (de 5 a 7mm de diámetro con miracidios de la cepa C5 de Schistosoma mansoni a razón de 5 miracidios por caracol, pertenecientes a las siguientes cepas: En el área endémica de transmisión de Esquistosomiasis mansoni a Sector Puerta Negra, Lago Valencia, b Cagua c Ingenio Bolívar (Estado Aragua d Mariara e Caserío El 25 f Güigüe (Estado Carabobo. Fuera del área endémica de transmisión g Anzoátegui (Estado Lara, h Chabasquén (Estado Portuguesa, i Sector La Elvira, Caripe (Estado Monagas. El período prepatente intramolusco, osciló entre 23 y 25 días, para las 9 cepas evaluadas. La duración total de la infección fue muy variable desde 20 días para la cepa Chabasquén, hasta 93 días para la de Güigüe.La producción total promedio de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión varió desde X = 74,4 para la cepa de Mariara, hasta X = 591,7 para la cepa de Chabasquén. Se evidenció la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas (H = 97,4, P < 0,05 en la producción total de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión, detectándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas para casi todas las 36 combinaciones, excepto para las cuatro siguientes: Mariara/Ingenio Bolívar, Cagua/Caserío El 25, Lago de Valencia/Güigüe y Güigüe/Caripe.En lo que respecta al porcentaje de caracoles que presentaron cura espontánea, los valores mas elevados se obtuvieron en las cepas del Lago de Valencia (88,8%, Cagua (85,2%, Chabasquén (82,6%, Caripe (82,6% y Anzoátegui (80%. Mientras que el porcentaje mas bajo se obtuvo para la cepa de Güigüe (21,4%.

  16. Influência do magnésio metálico e diferentes sais de magnésio em desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 Influence of metallic magnesium and various magnesium salts on egg-masses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Soluções de magnésio metálico e diferentes sais de magnésio foram testadas em laboratório, a fim de comprovar a ação das mesmas sobre a oviposição de B. glabrata. Usaram-se, para cada solução, dez caramujos adultos originários da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte-MG (Brasil, criados em laboratório. No experimento I foram estudadas soluções em água desclorada de magnésio elementar (Mg, cloreto de magnésio (MgCl2.6H2O, carbonato de magnésio [(MgCO34.Mg(OH2.nH2O], nitrato de magnésio [Mg(NO32. 6H2O] e sulfato de magnésio (MgSO4.7H2O, e no experimento II, Mg, Mg + latossolo, MgCO3, MgCO3 + latossolo, sempre nas concentrações de 500 e 1.000 ppm. Durante duas semanas os planorbídeos permaneceram em água para adaptação; em seguida, por quatro semanas em exposição com as soluções testadas e, posteriormente, em água por mais duas semanas para recuperação. A cada sete dias as desovas eram contadas, eliminadas e as soluções renovadas. Foi observado que as soluções de Mg e MgCO3, isoladamente ou associada ao latossolo, produziram uma diminuição significativa do número de desovas dos caramujos, mas não parada completa de oviposição, quando comparados os períodos de adaptação com os de exposição. As soluções de Mg e MgCO3 não devem ser consideradas como produtos promissores para o controle da população de B. glabrata, em virtude da diminuição das desovas só terem sido observadas quando foram utilizadas concentrações muito altas.Solutions of magnesium metallic and other salts of magnesium were tested in the laboratory to study the action on B. glabrata oviposition. For each solution, 10 adult snails from Pampulha, Belo Horizonte-MG (Brazil, reared in the laboratory, were used. In experiment I solutions, in dechlorinated water, of magnesium (Mg, magnesium chloride (MgCl2. 6H2O, magnesium carbonate [(MgCO34.Mg(OH2.nH2O], magnesium nitrate [Mg(NO32.6H2O] and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4.7H2O were tested; and in

  17. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANNOTTI-PASSOS Liana Konovaloff

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine Schistosoma mansoni infection rates in Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. straminea, low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR technique was used as a complementary method to light exposure technique. LS-PCR has already been standardized in our laboratory to detect the trematode DNA in B. glabrata. Higher S. mansoni infection rates were detected using conventional method and LS-PCR. The parasite DNA profile was detected in both species after 7-day exposure to miracidia, using LS-PCR. This technique enables early detection of schistosomiasis transmission focuses, in endemic areas, before the beginning of cercariae shedding.

  18. Size Polymorphism in Alleles of the Myoglobin Gene from Biomphalaria Mollusks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Santoro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introns are common among all eukaryotes, while only a limited number of introns are found in prokaryotes. Globin and globin-like proteins are widely distributed in nature, being found even in prokaryotes and a wide range of patterns of intron-exon have been reported in several eukaryotic globin genes. Globin genes in invertebrates show considerable variation in the positions of introns; globins can be found without introns, with only one intron or with three introns in different positions. In this work we analyzed the introns in the myoglobin gene from Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea and B. tenagophila. In the Biomphalaria genus, the myoglobin gene has three introns; these were amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results showed that the size (number or nucleotides and the nucleotide sequence of the coding gene of the myoglobin are variable in the three species. We observed the presence of size polymorphisms in intron 2 and 3; this characterizes a homozygous/heterozygous profile and it indicates the existence of two alleles which are different in size in each species of Biomphalaria. This polymorphism could be explored for specific identification of Biomphalaria individuals.

  19. Malacological survey of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Castro, Milton Ferreira de; Lima, Adilson da Costa; Gonçalves, Murilo; Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Guimarães, Ricardo José Paula de Souza e; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-01-01

    The increasing practice of ecotourism and rural tourism in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, highlights the importance of studies concerning the occurrence of potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. This study aimed to identify species of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real, an important Brazilian tourism project. The specimens were collected in different water collections of 36 municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais. Biomphalaria species were characterized using both morphological and molecular approaches. The research was conducted between August 2005 and September 2009 and all the sites visited were georeferenced using GPS. Six Biomphalaria species were found in 30 of the 36 municipalities studied: glabrata, tenagophila, straminea, peregrina, occidentalis and schrammi. The first three species of Biomphalaria, recognized as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni, were present in 33.3%, 47.2% and 8.3% of the municipalities studied, respectively. The mollusks were found in different types of water collections and no infection by S. mansoni was detected. The highest occurrence of Biomphalaria concentration was verified in the area covered by the Caminho Novo route (Diamantina/MG to Rio de Janeiro/RJ). Considering the occurrence of schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais and the socioeconomic repercussions involved in the Estrada Real Project, this work focuses on the vulnerability of water collections due to the presence of Biomphalaria mollusks and emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance and sanitary and educational measures integrated with the local community and tourism sectors.

  20. Resistência de Biomphalaria peregrina de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, a infecção com três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni Resistance of Biomphalaria peregrina from Santa Rita do Sapucaí, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to infection with strain of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Descendentes do planorbídeo Biomphalaria peregrina, coletados em Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram expostos a miracídios de três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" de Belo Horizonte, MG; "SJ" de São José dos Campos, SP e "AL" do Estado de Alagoas. Dentre 300 exemplares expostos, nenhum se infectou com as três cepas do trematódeo. Por outro lado, 300 exemplares de B. glabrata, dos grupos de controle, apresentaram taxas de infecção de 61,1 a 95,3% com as três cepas do trematódeo. As taxas de mortalidade de B. peregrina e de B. glabrata foram de 20,0 e de 28,0%, respectivamente.The descendants of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria peregrina, collected in the region of Santa rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were exposed to miracidia of three strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" strain from Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais; "SJ", strain from São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo and "AL" strain from State of Alagoas. Of 300 snails exposed to miracidia of the three strains, none was infected. On the other hand, 300 Biomphalaria glabrata of the control groups showed infection rates of 61.1 to 95.3% with three strains. The mortality rates of B. peregrina and B. glabrata were 20% and 28%, respectively.

  1. Esquistossomose: nova ocorrência de Biomphalaria straminea em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Schistosomiasis: new occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, a Biomphalaria straminea é encontrada na região da Pampulha. Recentemente, o molusco foi encontrado em valas da antiga Barragem de Santa Lúcia, foco extinto de esquistossomose transmitida por B. glabrata. Os moluscos foram coletados e examinados para verificar se estavam naturalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. Os exemplares negativos foram usados para criação ou infecção com a cepa LE de S. mansoni, mantida no laboratório, e outra cepa VGS, obtida de ovos de fezes de escolar de Belo Horizonte. Dentre 1.890 moluscos capturados em 1994 e 1995, nenhum estava infectado com S. mansoni. Dentre 87 exemplares coletados no criadouro e expostos à cepa LE, nove (10,3% eliminaram cercárias; dentre 83 moluscos da F1, dez (12,0% eliminaram cercárias e dentre 88 exemplares coletados e expostos à cepa VGS, dez (11,3% eliminaram cercárias. Em Belo Horizonte, a esquistossomose é transmitida por B. glabrata e B. tenagophila. Entretanto, atualmente existe o risco de aparecimento de novo foco, no qual a B. straminea poderá vir a ser a transmissora, se medidas profiláticas adequadas não forem tomadas pelas autoridades responsáveis pela construção de um parque e lago no local.In Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria straminea was found in the Pampulha region. Recently the snail was found in ditches in the old Santa Lúcia Reservoir, a now-extinct focus of schistosomiasis transmission by B. glabrata. The snails were collected and examined to verify whether they were naturally infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Negative specimens were used for breeding or infection with the LE strain of S. mansoni from the laboratory and another strain obtained from eggs found in the feces of a schoolchild (VGS from Belo Horizonte. Among the 1890 snails collected from 1994 to 1995, none were infected with S. mansoni. Among 87 snails collected and exposed to the LE strain, 9 (10.3% shed cercariae

  2. Malacological survey of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The increasing practice of ecotourism and rural tourism in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, highlights the importance of studies concerning the occurrence of potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. This study aimed to identify species of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real, an important Brazilian tourism project. METHODS: The specimens were collected in different water collections of 36 municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais. Biomphalaria species were characterized using both morphological and molecular approaches. The research was conducted between August 2005 and September 2009 and all the sites visited were georeferenced using GPS. RESULTS: Six Biomphalaria species were found in 30 of the 36 municipalities studied: glabrata, tenagophila, straminea, peregrina, occidentalis and schrammi. The first three species of Biomphalaria, recognized as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni, were present in 33.3%, 47.2% and 8.3% of the municipalities studied, respectively. The mollusks were found in different types of water collections and no infection by S. mansoni was detected. The highest occurrence of Biomphalaria concentration was verified in the area covered by the Caminho Novo route (Diamantina/MG to Rio de Janeiro/RJ. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the occurrence of schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais and the socioeconomic repercussions involved in the Estrada Real Project, this work focuses on the vulnerability of water collections due to the presence of Biomphalaria mollusks and emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance and sanitary and educational measures integrated with the local community and tourism sectors.

  3. Estudo da potencialidade de populações de Biomphalaria straminea do Estado de Minas Gerais, como hospedeiras do Schistosoma mansoni Potentiality of the Biomphalaria straminea populations of the State of Minas Gerais, as hosts of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Caramujos de Biomphalaria straminea, descendentes de exemplares coletados em nove municípios do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram infectados experimentalmente com três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni: "LE", procedente de Belo Horizonte (MG; "SJ", procedente de São José dos Campos (SP e "AL" procedente do Nordeste (AL. As taxas de infeção variaram de 0,0 a 24,0% com a cepa "LE"; de 0,0 a 16% com a cepa "SJ" e de 2,0 a 9,0% com a cepa "AL". Os índices de infecção experimental obtidos foram semelhantes aos registrados por outros autores, para B. straminea dessa região. Comparou-se o número de cercárias de cepa "LE", eliminadas por oito exemplares de B. straminea de Baldim e oito Biomphalaria glabrata do controle, após 30 minutos de exposição à luz. O número de cercárias eliminadas por B. straminea foi de 4.550, aproximadamente cinco vezes menor que o de B. glabrata, 22.679. Discute-se a potencialidade desses moluscos como hospedeiros do S. mansoni nessa região.The decendents of Biomphalaria straminea snails collected in nine regions from the State of Minas Gerais were experimentally infected with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE", from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais; "SJ", from São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo and "AL", from State of Alagoas. The infection rates obtained were of 0 to 24% (LE strain, 0 to 16% (SJ strain and 2 to 9% (AL strain. These infection rates were similar to those obtained by other authors for B. straminea from this region. Comparation were made between the numbers of cercariae (LE strain shed by eight specimens of B. straminea from Baldim and eight B. glabrata of the control group, after 30 minutes of exposure to light. B. straminea shed 4,550 cercariae, about five times less than B. glabrata (22,679. The authors discuss the potentiality of theses molluscs as hosts of S. mansoni in this region.

  4. Uptake and loss of Cesium - 134 by the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Mastro, N.L. del.

    1988-07-01

    The uptake and loss of Cs-134 produced in IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN was observed in fresh water adult snails. Two activites were employed: 3.700 and 18.500 Bq/1. A monochannel analyses was used for radiactivity couting and the number of egg-laying and embryo were registered. Maximum uptake occured approximately at 8 th day and the biological half-life was about 6 days. Although the egg-laying and embryo number were diminished with Cs-134 presence, it is not possible to affirm that result due to the small number of animals used. (author) [pt

  5. Characterization of South American Snails of the Genus Biomphalaria (Basommatophora: Planorbidae and Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda in Molluscs by PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria can be done using morphological characteristics which depends on the size of the snails and skill and knowledge of researcher. These methods sometimes are not adequate for identification of species. The PCR-RFLP, using the ITS region of the rDNA, has been used to identify Brazilian species of the genus Biomphalaria. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about snails from other Latin American countries. In addition, some snails may be infected by Schistosoma mansoni and when submitted to PCR-RFLP they show molecular profiles different from those previously standardized for the other mollusc species. In this work the molecular profiles of 15 species and the subspecies were established by PCR-RFLP of ITS-rDNA with the enzyme DdeI. Moreover, the molecular profiles of host species, B. glabrata, B. straminea, B. tenagophila, and B. prona, infected by S. mansoni were also established. The molluscs were dissected to permit morphological identification. These results contribute to a correct identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria and detection of these snails infected by S. mansoni.

  6. Candida glabrata: an emerging oral opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Redding, S; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2007-03-01

    Following the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy and broad-spectrum antimycotic prophylaxis, C. glabrata has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in the oral mucosa. In the past, studies on the virulence factors and host-pathogen interactions of this organism were scarce, but continued to rise in recent years. Denture-wearing, immunosuppression, antibiotic therapy, and aging are risk factors for oral colonization or infection with C. glabrata. Compared with C. albicans, C. glabrata exhibits lower oral keratinocyte-adherence capacity, but higher denture-surface-adherence ability. The role of extracellular hydrolase production in the virulence of this organism does not appear to be as important as it is in C. albicans pathogenesis. Although traditionally thought of as a non-transforming yeast organism, both phenotypic switching and pseudohyphal formation have recently been identified in C. glabrata, but their role in pathogenesis is not known. With the exception of granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor, C. glabrata triggers a lower proinflammatory cytokine response in oral epithelial cells than does C. albicans, in a strain-dependent manner. C. glabrata is less susceptible to killing by human beta-defensins than is C. albicans and exhibits various degrees of resistance to the antifungal activity of salivary histatins and mucins. In addition, C. glabrata possesses both innate and acquired resistance against antifungal drugs, due to its ability to modify ergosterol biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, or antifungal efflux. This resistance allows for its relative overgrowth over other susceptible species and may contribute to the recent emergence of C. glabrata infections in chronically immunocompromised populations. Further investigations on the virulence and host-pathogen interactions of C. glabrata are needed to better define the pathogenesis of oral C. glabrata infection in susceptible hosts.

  7. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F. Abou-El-Naga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. The fates of Schistosoma miracidia in the snails varies between different species of Biomphalaria. The internal defense system is one of the factors that influence the susceptibility pattern of the snails. The interaction between Biomphalaria snails and S. mansoni needs to be identified for each species, and even between the members of the same species with different degrees of susceptibility. In the present study, the first generation of susceptible and resistant parents of B. alexandrina was examined histologically at the 30th day post exposure. The study includes the characterization of the immune response, as expressed by tissue reactions, of susceptible and resistant B. alexandrina snails against S. mansoni. It was also designed to determine the impact of the resistance increase in parent snails, on the mechanisms of interaction of their offspring against infection. The results showed that the infection rate of the offspring from the susceptible parents was 92%. No susceptible offspring was produced from the resistant parents. When the parents were of equal number of susceptible and resistant snails, they gave an offspring with an infection rate of 20%. Susceptible snails that had susceptible parents showed a higher degree of susceptibility than those that had both susceptible and resistant parents. A common feature of the resistant snails was the absence of any viable parasites. The tissue reactions of the resistant snails having only resistant parents occurred at the site of miracidial penetration. In resistant snails for which susceptible ones were included in their parents, the reactions occurred in the deep tissues. These results characterized the immune response of B. alexandrina snails against Schistosoma infection which was found to occur by two different mechanisms. One type of defense occurs in highly resistant snails, and employs direct

  8. Breeding of Biomphalaria tenagophila in mass scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Mara Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for breeding Biomphalaria tenagophila (Taim lineage/RS was developed over a 5-year-period (2005-2010. Special facilities were provided which consisted of four cement tanks (9.4 x 0.6 x 0.22 m, with their bottom covered with a layer of sterilized red earth and calcium carbonate. Standard measures were adopted, as follows: each tank should contain an average of 3000 specimens, and would be provided with a daily ration of 35,000 mg complemented with lettuce. A green-house effect heating system was developed which constituted of movable dark canvas covers, which allowed the temperature to be controlled between 20 - 24 ºC. This system was essential, especially during the coldest months of the year. Approximately 27,000 specimens with a diameter of 12 mm or more were produced during a 14-month-period. The mortality rates of the newly-hatched and adult snails were 77% and 37%, respectively. The follow-up of the development system related to 310 specimens of B. tenagophila demonstrated that 70-day-old snails reached an average of 17.0 ± 0.9 mm diameter. The mortality rates and the development performance of B. tenagophila snails can be considered as highly satisfactory, when compared with other results in literature related to works carried out with different species of the genus Biomphalaria, under controlled laboratory conditions.

  9. Hybridism between Biomphalaria cousini and Biomphalaria amazonica and its susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maria Teodoro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques can aid in the classification of Biomphalaria species because morphological differentiation between these species is difficult. Previous studies using phylogeny, morphological and molecular taxonomy showed that some populations studied were Biomphalaria cousini instead of Biomphalaria amazonica. Three different molecular profiles were observed that enabled the separation of B. amazonica from B. cousini. The third profile showed an association between the two and suggested the possibility of hybrids between them. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the hybridism between B. cousini and B. amazonica and to verify if the hybrids are susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni. Crosses using the albinism factor as a genetic marker were performed, with pigmented B. cousini and albino B. amazonica snails identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. This procedure was conducted using B. cousini and B. amazonica of the type locality accordingly to Paraense, 1966. In addition, susceptibility studies were performed using snails obtained from the crosses (hybrids and three S. mansoni strains (LE, SJ, AL. The crosses between B. amazonica and B. cousini confirmed the occurrence of hybrids. Moreover, hybrids can be considered potential hosts of S. mansoni because they are susceptible to LE, SJ and AL strains (4.4%, 5.6% and 2.2%, respectively. These results indicate that there is a risk of introducing schistosomiasis mansoni into new areas.

  10. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F. Abou-El-Naga

    2012-09-01

    miracidial destruction soon after parasite penetration. The other type occurs in less resistant snails where a delayed resistance development occurs after the dissemination of the sporocysts in the snail tissues. It seems that B. alexandrina snails respond more or less similar to B. glabrata. The results also proved that the immune response of the internal defense system increased with increasing the number of the inherited resistant genes.En Egipto, Biomphalaria alexandrina es el huésped intermediario de Schistosoma mansoni. La supervivencia de los miracidios de Schistosoma en los caracoles varía entre las especies de Biomphalaria. El sistema de defensa interno es uno de los factores que influyen en el patrón de susceptibilidad de los caracoles. La interacción entre los caracoles Biomphalaria y S. mansoni requiere ser identificada para cada especie e incluso, entre los miembros de la misma especie con diferente grado de susceptibilidad. En el presente estudio, la primera generación de padres susceptibles y resistentes de B. alejandrina fue examinada histológicamente al día 30, después de la exposición. El trabajo fue realizado tanto para caracterizar la respuesta inmune, según las reacciones de los tejidos, de los caracoles susceptibles y resistentes de B. alejandrina contra S. mansoni. También, el estudio se diseñó para determinar el impacto en el aumento de la resistencia en los caracoles padres, en los mecanismos de interacción de sus crías contra la infección. Los resultados mostraron que la tasa de infección para las crías, de padres susceptibles, fue del 92%. No se originaron crías susceptibles de los padres resistentes. Cuando los padres incluían un número igual de caracoles susceptibles y resistentes, dieron como resultado crías con una tasa de infección del 20%. Los caracoles susceptibles que tuvieron padres susceptibles mostraron un mayor grado de susceptibilidad que los que tenían tanto padres sensibles como resistentes. Una caracter

  11. Freshwater gastropods in the Northern littoral mesoregion of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Andrade de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the distribution of molluscs in Brazilhave been conducted since the beginning of the twentieth and the knowledge of the species distributed in the country represent important findings, which contribute to the understanding of human diseases and those of veterinary importance, transmitted by them. In order to verify the distribution of freshwater gastropods in Espírito Santo, a malacological surveywas carried out in nine municipalities that comprise the Northern mesoregion of the State, between January 2010 and February 2015. Initially the water collections occurring in the municipality were verified and the lotic systems at different levels of use and conservation were determined. Molluscs were collected monthly using a hand net adapted to a stick steel. An individual sample effort of 30 minutes was applied, by scanning, at about ten meters in each one of the selected habitats. A total of 6,000 specimens were collected, represented by genera Melanoides, Drepanotrema, Physa, Biomphalaria and Pomacea. Among the molluscs, some specimens were positive for flatworm larvae of medical and veterinary importance. The results contributed to the knowledge of the current distribution of freshwater gastropods in the Northern region of Espírito Santo whose the only record for the region dates back to 1983.

  12. Transmission studies of intestinal schistosomiasis in Lake Albert, Uganda and experimental compatibility of local Biomphalaria spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazibwe, F.; Makanga, B.; Rubaire-Akiiki, C.

    2010-01-01

    schistosome-snail interactions and confirmation of transmission foci. Cercarial shedding patterns of field-caught Biomphalaria spp., as identified by morphology, were hourly observed over a ten day period and showed that Biomphalaria stanleyi produced significantly more cercariae than Biomphalaria sudanica...

  13. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  14. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  15. Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea natalensis by the ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in a man-made dam in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguma, J F; McCullough, F S; Masha, E

    1982-03-01

    Marisa cornuarietis is a well known ampullarid competitor/predator of Biomphalaria glabrata in Puerto Rico. For the first time in Africa a flourishing population of Marisa has been established in a small, permanent, man-made dam at Kisangara, near Moshi, Tanzania. Prior to the release of M. cornuarietis in June 1977, this dam supported thriving populations of the pulmonate snail hosts Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis; Bulinus tropicus and the melaniid Melanoides tuberculata were also common. Some 24 months after the establishment of Marisa the three pulmonate species had been eliminated; only M. tuberculata remained at about the same population density as originally recorded. Marisa has not caused any obvious adverse environmental impact in the dam. There is at present no valid evidence that this ampullarid would be a threat to local rice production, which is the only crop at risk, but carefully designed field trials should be undertaken to confirm or refute this view. In view of the vast number of permanent, lentic habitats throughout the Afrotropical region, which act as important transmission sites of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, the role of Marisa cornuarietis as a cost-effective biological control agent in integrated control operations deserves henceforth to be energetically explored.

  16. Potencialidade de Biomphalaria tenagophila do lago Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, como hospederia do Schistosoma mansoni Potentiality of Biomphalaria tenagophila from Pampulha lake, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, as a host of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Caramujos Biomphalaria tenagophila descendentes de exemplares coletados no lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, foram expostos a miracídios de quatro cepas de Schistosoma mansoni: LE e HK de origem local, Belo Horizonte, AL do Estado de Alagoas e SJ, de São José dos Campos, SP. As cepas LE, AL e SJ são mantidas em laboratório e HK foi obtida de fezes de paciente que reside próximo à Pampulha. As taxas de infecção experimental foram de 4% (LE, 6% (HK, 30% (SJ e 40% (AL. Esses indícios de infecção foram semelhantes aos obtidos por vários autores para populações de B. tenagophila de Minas Gerais. Caramujos infectados experimentalmente eliminaram número de cercárias comparável ao de B. glabrata do controle e de B. tenagophila capturada no lago, com infecção natural (cerca de 2.000 cercárias/molusco. Devido à alta densidade planorbídica atual em alguns pontos do lago, número de cercárias eliminadas por exemplares naturalmente infectados, afluxo de pessoas para pesca e lazer, contaminação das águas por dejetos humanos, os autores alertam para o risco de crescimento do foco de esquistossomose no local.Biomphalaria tenagophila snails, from a population originally obtained from "Pampulha" lake, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were exposed to miracidia from four strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" and "HK" from Belo Horizonte, "AL" from alagoas and "SJ" from São José dos Campos, São Paulo. The "LE", "AL" and "SJ" strains are maintained in the laboratory and the "HK" strain was obtained from feces of a patient residing near to "Pampulha" lake. Infection rates were of 4% ("LE" strain, 6% ("HK" strain, 30% ("SJ" strain and 40% ("AL" strain. These infection rates were similar to those obtained by others authors for B. tenagophila from Minas Gerais. Experimentally infected snails when compared to B. glabrata of the control group and B. tenagophila naturally infected in "Pampulha" lake shed similar number

  17. Susceptibilidad de Biomphalaria tenagophila de las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay a Schistosoma mansoni Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Paraná and Uruguay river basins to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Edgardo Borda

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar la posibilidad de extensión de la esquistosomiasis a las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay se expusieron experimentalmente a infección por Schistosoma mansoni 1 711 caracoles criados en laboratorio a partir de ejemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila recolectados en 15 poblaciones de dicha zona geográfica. Se utilizaron tres cepas de S. mansoni: la BH2, adaptada a B. glabrata, y las cepas SJ y SJ2, adaptadas a B. tenagophila. No se produjo infección de ninguno de los 543 caracoles expuestos a la cepa BH2 ni de los 668 expuestos a la SJ. En cambio, de los 500 expuestos a la cepa SJ2, fueron susceptibles a la infestación 4 de 163 caracoles (2% procedentes de Ayolas, una localidad de la cuenca del Paraná, y 8 de 45 (18% de los procedentes de Fuente Salto, en la cuenca del Uruguay. Estos hallazgos son similares a los de otras áreas geográficas en las que se han encontrado poblaciones de B. tenagophila que no se infectan y otras que sí son susceptibles a S. mansoni. Los resultados de este trabajo señalan la posibilidad de expansión de la esquistosomiasis a una amplia región de Sudamérica en la que se halla B. tenagophila.To study the possibility that schistosomiasis might be able to spread into the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers, 1 711 snails were experimentally exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. These snails were laboratory-bred progeny of Biomphalaria tenagophila collected from 15 populations in the geographic area under consideration. Three strains of S. mansoni were used: BH2, adapted to B. glabrata, and SJ and SJ2, adapted to B. tenagophila. None of the 543 snails exposed to the BH2 strain became infected, nor did any of the 668 exposed to SJ. However, of the 500 exposed the SJ2, 4 of 163 snails (2% from Ayolas, a locality in the Paraná basin, were susceptible, as were 8 of 45 (18% from Fuente Salto, in the Uruguay basin. These findings are similar to those of studies done in other

  18. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardoya Rafael

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mitochondrial genomes exhibit an unusually great variety of gene orders compared to other metazoan mitochondrial genome such as e.g those of vertebrates. Hence, gastropod mitochondrial genomes constitute a good model system to study patterns, rates, and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangement. However, this kind of evolutionary comparative analysis requires a robust phylogenetic framework of the group under study, which has been elusive so far for gastropods in spite of the efforts carried out during the last two decades. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of five mitochondrial genomes of gastropods (Pyramidella dolabrata, Ascobulla fragilis, Siphonaria pectinata, Onchidella celtica, and Myosotella myosotis, and we analyze them together with another ten complete mitochondrial genomes of gastropods currently available in molecular databases in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of gastropods. Results Comparative analyses with other mollusk mitochondrial genomes allowed us to describe molecular features and general trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization in gastropods. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (ME, MP, ML, BI arrived at a single topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the group. Conclusion Four main lineages were identified within gastropods: Caenogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa, as well as, Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia. This result rejects the validity of the derived clade Apogastropoda (Caenogastropoda + Heterobranchia. The position of Patellogastropoda remains unclear likely due to long-branch attraction biases. Within Heterobranchia, the most heterogeneous group of gastropods, neither Euthyneura (because of the inclusion of P

  19. Specific Identification of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria occidentalis Populations by the Low Stringency Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Rodrigues Pires

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Biomphalaria occidentalis and B. tenagophila are indistinguishable on the basis of shell morphology and the majority of their genital organs, only the latter is susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Thus, the identification of these species is fundamental to epidemiological studies of schistosomiasis. Here we describe a simple and rapid method for differentiating B. tenagophila from B. occidentalis based on low stringency polymerase chain reaction and using a pair of primers specific for the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Analysis of the low stringency product profiles of populations of these snails from different geographical regions confirmed this approach as being applicable to the identification of B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis in cases where classical morphology is inconclusive

  20. Biomphalaria species distribution and its effect on human Schistosoma mansoni infection in an irrigated area used for rice cultivation in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmany Moitinho Barboza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources.

  1. Genetic variability in Brazilian populations of Biomphalaria straminea complex detected by simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta L

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in Brazil. The latter is of epidemiological importance in the northwest of Brazil and, due to morphological similarities, has been grouped with B. intermedia and B. kuhniana in a complex named B. straminea. In the current work, we have standardized the simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction (SSR-PCR technique, using the primers (CA8RY and K7, to study the genetic variability of these species. The similarity level was calculated using the Dice coefficient and genetic distance using the Nei and Li coefficient. The trees were obtained by the UPGMA and neighbor-joining methods. We have observed that the most related individuals belong to the same species and locality and that individuals from different localities, but of the same species, present clear heterogeneity. The trees generated using both methods showed similar topologies. The SSR-PCR technique was shown to be very efficient in intrapopulational and intraspecific studies of the B. straminea complex snails.

  2. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  3. Proteomics of drug resistance in Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, C Jayampath; Wang, Yu; Jin, Lijian; Abiko, Y; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2010-04-01

    Candida glabrata is a fungal pathogen that causes a variety of mucosal and systemic infections among compromised patient populations with higher mortality rates. Previous studies have shown that biofilm mode of the growth of the fungus is highly resistant to antifungal agents compared with the free-floating or planktonic mode of growth. Therefore, in the present study, we used 2-D DIGE to evaluate the differential proteomic profiles of C. glabrata under planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. Candida glabrata biofilms were developed on polystyrene surfaces and age-matched planktonic cultures were obtained in parallel. Initially, biofilm architecture, viability, and antifungal susceptibility were evaluated. Differentially expressed proteins more than 1.5-fold in DIGE analysis were subjected to MS/MS. The transcriptomic regulation of these biomarkers was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Candida glabrata biofilms were highly resistant to the antifungals and biocides compared with the planktonic mode of growth. Candida glabrata biofilm proteome when compared with its planktonic proteome showed upregulation of stress response proteins, while glycolysis enzymes were downregulated. Similar trend could be observed at transcriptomic level. In conclusion, C. glabrata biofilms possess higher amount of stress response proteins, which may potentially contribute to the higher antifungal resistance seen in C. glabrata biofilms.

  4. Enhanced Efflux Pump Activity in Old Candida glabrata Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Somanon; Fries, Bettina C

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effect of replicative aging on antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata Our studies demonstrate significantly increased transcription of ABC transporters and efflux pump activity in old versus young C. glabrata cells of a fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strain. In addition, higher tolerance to killing by micafungin and amphotericin B was noted and is associated with higher transcription of glucan synthase gene FKS1 and lower ergosterol content in older cells. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Characterization of Biomphalaria orbignyi, Biomphalaria peregrina and Biomphalaria oligoza by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion of the internal transcribed spacer region of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spatz Linus

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Biomphalaria oligoza, B. orbignyi and B. peregrina species is difficult due to the morphological similarities among them. B. peregrina is widely distributed in South America and is considered a potential intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We have reported the use of the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA for the molecular identification of these snails. The snails were obtained from different localities of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The restriction patterns obtained with MvaI enzyme presented the best profile to identify the three species. The profiles obtained with all enzymes were used to estimate genetic similarities among B. oligoza, B. peregrina and B. orbignyi. This is also the first report of B. orbignyi in Uruguay.

  6. Biomphalaria straminea no Peru e sua suscetibilidade a cepas brasileiras de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Cuba Cuba

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Maio de 1973, um dos autores (C.A.C. coletou na localidade de Imacita, Província de Bagua, Departamento de Amazonas, vários espécimes de Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848, uma espécie que, até então, não havia sido assinalada no Peru. Descendentes destes indivíduos foram submetidos a provas de suscetibilidade às cepas BH e SJ de Schistosoma mansoni que, em condições naturais, evoluem em B. glabrata de Belo Horizonte e B. tenagophila de São José dos Campos, respectivamente. Oitenta espécimens foram expostos à cepa BH dos quais em 13 ou 16,2% a infecção evoluiu caracteristicamente até a formação de esporocistos secundários sem haver, contudo, eliminação de cercárias, mesmo no indivíduo que apresentou uma sobrevivência de 88 dias após a exposição. Não se verificou cura espontânea neste lote. Entre as 40 B. straminea expostas à cepa SJ 9 ou 22,5% infectaram-se, sendo que apenas duas eliminaram poucas cercárias aos 57 e 77 dias após a exposição, por dois dias consecutivos, tendo uma morrido e uma se curado espontaneamente. A cura espontânea do parasitismo foi notado em mais dois indivíduos, nos quais a infecção foi observada através da concha. Cortes histológicos seriados de 9 caramujos, expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios da cepa BH e fixados entre 6 e 120 horas após a exposição, mostraram esporocistos em desenvolvimento e esporocistos invadidos por amebócitos, sem formação de granulomas por parte do hospedeiro, fato assinalado em caramujos suscetíveis. A população estudada comportou-se experimentalmente de modo semelhante a outras populações de B. straminea testadas em laboratório, isto é, com baixa suscetibilidade, embora tal comportamento não afaste a possibilidade dela vir a manter o ciclo do parasita em sua área de distribuição.In May 1973 one of the Authors (C.A.C. collected specimens of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker 1848 at imacita, Bagua Province, Amazonas, Pem. This

  7. Susceptibilidad de Biomphalaria tenagophila de las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay a Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Edgardo Borda

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar la posibilidad de extensión de la esquistosomiasis a las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay se expusieron experimentalmente a infección por Schistosoma mansoni 1 711 caracoles criados en laboratorio a partir de ejemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila recolectados en 15 poblaciones de dicha zona geográfica. Se utilizaron tres cepas de S. mansoni: la BH2, adaptada a B. glabrata, y las cepas SJ y SJ2, adaptadas a B. tenagophila. No se produjo infección de ninguno de los 543 caracoles expuestos a la cepa BH2 ni de los 668 expuestos a la SJ. En cambio, de los 500 expuestos a la cepa SJ2, fueron susceptibles a la infestación 4 de 163 caracoles (2% procedentes de Ayolas, una localidad de la cuenca del Paraná, y 8 de 45 (18% de los procedentes de Fuente Salto, en la cuenca del Uruguay. Estos hallazgos son similares a los de otras áreas geográficas en las que se han encontrado poblaciones de B. tenagophila que no se infectan y otras que sí son susceptibles a S. mansoni. Los resultados de este trabajo señalan la posibilidad de expansión de la esquistosomiasis a una amplia región de Sudamérica en la que se halla B. tenagophila.

  8. Identification of Biomphalaria havanensis and Biomphalaria obstructa populations from Cuba using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, several Biomphalaria species have been reported such as B. orbignyi, B. schrammi, B. helophila, B. havanensis and B. peregrina; only the latter three are considered as potential hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The specific identification of Biomphalaria species is based on anatomical and morphological characters of genital organs and shells. The correct identification of these snails is complicated by the high variation in these characters, similarity among species and in some cases by the small size of the snails. In this paper, we reported the classical morphological identification, the use of PCR and RFLP analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA genes for molecular identification of seven snail populations from different localities in Cuba. Using morphological and molecular analysis, we showed that among the studied Cuban Biomphalaria populations only B. havanensis and B. obstructa species were found.

  9. Epithelial GM-CSF induction by Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2009-08-01

    The main cytokine induced by the interaction of oral epithelial cells with C. glabrata is granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); however, the mechanisms regulating this response are unknown. Based on previously published information on the interactions of C. albicans with oral epithelial cells, we hypothesized that interaction with viable C. glabrata triggers GM-CSF synthesis via NF-kappaB activation. We found that C. glabrata-induced GM-CSF synthesis was adhesion-dependent, enhanced by endocytosis, and required fungal viability. NF-kappaB activation was noted during interaction of epithelial cells with C. glabrata, and pre-treatment with an NF-kappaB inhibitor partly inhibited GM-CSF synthesis. Blocking TLR4 with anti-TLR4 antibody did not inhibit GM-CSF production. In contrast, an anti-CDw17 antibody triggered significant inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and GM-CSF synthesis. beta-glucans did not stimulate GM-CSF synthesis, suggesting that the CDw17/NF-kappaB/GM-CSF pathway may be beta-glucan-independent. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of GM-CSF induction by C. glabrata.

  10. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp

  11. Um inimigo natural dos caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Bezerra Coutinho

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available A formiga carnívora Paratrechina longicornis exerce predação ativa sobre os caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria. Assim que os caramujos são deixados no seco pela retirada ou dessecamento das águas na estação seca, são atacados e rapidamente devorados pelas formigas. Somente os caramujos enterrados na lama argilosa ou aqueles que tiverem a abertura das conchas obturadas por tampões de argila endurecida pela secura conseguem escapar à predação e retornarem à atividade quando a volta da estação chuvosa traz água para os vivedouros dessecados. Obviamente outras espécies de formigas carnívoras podem assumir idêntica função ecológica.

  12. Candida glabrata olecranon bursitis treated with bursectomy and intravenous caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Keenan, Kendra E; Trachtenberg, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons are becoming more involved in the care of patients with septic arthritis and bursitis caused by yeast species. This case report involves a middle-aged immunocompromised female who developed a Candida glabrata septic olecranon bursitis that developed after she received a corticosteroid injection in the olecranon bursa for presumed aseptic bursitis. Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is the second most frequently isolated Candida species from the bloodstream in the United States. Increased use of fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents as a prophylactic treatment for recurrent Candida albicans infections in immunocompromised individuals is one reason why there appears to be increased resistance of C. glabrata and other nonalbicans Candida (NAC) species to fluconazole. In this patient, this infection was treated with surgery (bursectomy) and intravenous caspofungin, an echinocandin. This rare infectious etiology coupled with this intravenous antifungal treatment makes this case novel among cases of olecranon bursitis caused by yeasts.

  13. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Toki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole.

  14. The mating type-like loci of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Carrillo, Patricia; Robledo-Márquez, Karina A; Ramírez-Zavaleta, Candy Y; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid and opportunistic fungal pathogen that has not known sexual cycle, has conserved the majority of the genes required for mating and cell type identity. The C. glabrata genome contains three mating-type-like loci called MTL1, MTL2 and MTL3. The three loci encode putative transcription factors, a1, α1 and α2 that regulate cell type identity and sexual reproduction in other fungi like the closely related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTL1 can contain either a or α information. MTL2, which contains a information and MTL3 with α information, are relatively close to two telomeres. MTL1 and MTL2 are transcriptionally active, while MTL3 is subject to an incomplete silencing nucleated at the telomere that depends on the silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, yKu70/80, Rif1, Rap1 and Sum1. C. glabrata does not seem to maintain cell type identity, as cell type-specific genes are expressed regardless of the type (or even absence) of mating information. These data highlight important differences in the control of mating and cell type identity between the non-pathogenic yeast S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which might explain the absence of a sexual cycle in C. glabrata. The fact that C. glabrata has conserved the vast majority of the genes involved in mating might suggest that some of these genes perhaps have been rewired to control other processes important for the survival inside the host as a commensal or as a human pathogen. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Candida glabrata um patogénio emergente?

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde, Filipa Alexandra Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Nas últimas décadas as infecções fúngicas têm aumentado exponencialmente. Apesar de Candida albicans (C. albicans) continuar a ser a espécie isolada com maior frequência, as espécies não albicans tem vindo a proliferar rapidamente. Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) é uma das espécies emergentes como patogénio oportunista humano, sendo responsável maioritariamente por candidoses invasivas em pacie...

  16. The Effect of Molybdenum Fertilization on Arachis Glabrata Biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of molybdenum fertilization on biomass and the number of nodules of Arachis glabrata was assessed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang in 2011 at different periods of mowing. A factorial design comparing four doses of molybdenum as ammonium molybdate (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.25 ...

  17. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  18. Inheritance of Schistosoma mansoni infection incompatibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F Abou El Naga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we looked at the inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the first generation of crossbred Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Our ultimate goal is to use such information to develop a biological method of controlling schistosomiasis. We infected laboratory-bred snails with S. mansoni miracidia and examined cercarial shedding to determine susceptibility and resistance. Five parental groups were used: Group I contained 30 susceptible snails, Group II contained 30 resistant snails, Group III contained 15 susceptible and 15 resistant snails, Group IV contained 27 susceptible and three resistant snails and Group V contained three susceptible and 27 resistant snails. The percentage of resistant snails in the resulting progeny varied according to the ratio of susceptible and resistant parents per group; they are 7%, 100%, 68%, 45% and 97% from Groups I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. On increasing the percentage of resistant parent snails, the percentage of resistant progeny increased, while cercarial production in their susceptible progeny decreased.

  19. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them. PMID:29371530

  20. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them.

  1. Susceptibility of Argentinean Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to infection by Schistosoma mansoni and the possibility of geographic expansion of mansoni schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Franceschi Simoes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Human migration and the presence of natural vectors (mollusks of Schistosoma mansoni are the primary causes of the expansion of mansoni schistosomiasis into southern areas of South America. Water conditions are favorable for the expansion of this disease because of the extensive hydrographic network, which includes the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers and favors mollusk reproduction. These rivers also aid agriculture and tourism in the area. Despite these favorable conditions, natural infection by S. mansoni has not yet been reported in Argentina, Uruguay, or Paraguay. Methods Two species of planorbid from Argentina, Biomphalaria straminea and B. tenagophila, were exposed to the miracidia of five Brazilian strains of S. mansoni. Results Biomphalaria tenagophila (Atalaya, Buenos Aires province was infected with the SJS strain (infection rate 3.3%, confirming the experimental susceptibility of this Argentinian species. Biomphalaria straminea (Rio Santa Lucía, Corrientes province was susceptible to two Brazilian strains: SJS (infection rate 6.7% and Sergipe (infection rate 6.7%. Conclusions These results demonstrate that species from Argentina have the potential to be natural hosts of S. mansoni and that the appearance of foci of mansoni schistosomiasis in Argentina is possible.

  2. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that

  3. Variation spatiale et temporelle de la susceptibilité de Biomphalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2018 ... Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails. Veterinary. Parasitology, 161 : 207-212. Mostafa OM, El-Dafrawy SM, 2011. Susceptibility of. Biomphalaria spp. to infection with. Schistosoma mansoni in sympatric and allopatric combinations with observations on ...

  4. Genetic Variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Susceptible and Resistant to Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. F. El-Nassery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  5. Transcriptome of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S

    2015-12-01

    454 RNA-Seq transcriptome data were generated from foot tissue of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica. A total of 6195 contigs were assembled de novo, providing a useful resource for researchers with an interest in Antarctic marine species, phylogenetics and mollusc biology, especially shell production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Candida glabrata for diacetyl production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available In this study, Candida glabrata, an efficient pyruvate-producing strain, was metabolically engineered for the production of the food ingredient diacetyl. A diacetyl biosynthetic pathway was reconstructed based on genetic modifications and medium optimization. The former included (i channeling carbon flux into the diacetyl biosynthetic pathway by amplification of acetolactate synthase, (ii elimination of the branched pathway of α-acetolactate by deleting the ILV5 gene, and (iii restriction of diacetyl degradation by deleting the BDH gene. The resultant strain showed an almost 1∶1 co-production of α-acetolactate and diacetyl (0.95 g L(-1. Furthermore, addition of Fe3+ to the medium enhanced the conversion of α-acetolactate to diacetyl and resulted in a two-fold increase in diacetyl production (2.1 g L(-1. In addition, increased carbon flux was further channeled into diacetyl biosynthetic pathway and a titer of 4.7 g L(-1 of diacetyl was achieved by altering the vitamin level in the flask culture. Thus, this study illustrates that C. glabrata could be tailored as an attractive platform for enhanced biosynthesis of beneficial products from pyruvate by metabolic engineering strategies.

  7. Candida glabrata Esophagitis: Are We Seeing the Emergence of a New Azole-Resistant Pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aze Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Candida glabrata (C. glabrata has become a recognized pathogen in fungal esophagitis. A proportion of these isolates are azole-resistant which may have treatment implications. Variability in the prevalence of this organism exists in the limited data available. Objective. To determine the incidence of C. glabrata esophagitis in a North American hospital setting and to highlight factors that may predispose patients to this condition. Methods. Patient charts were collected from January 1, 2009 to July 30, 2011. Any charts of patients identified as having esophagitis with a positive fungal culture were reviewed for the species of Candida and the presence of factors that would predispose them to esophageal candidiasis. Results. The prevalence of Candida esophagitis based on culture was 2.2% (37 subjects. C. glabrata was the 2nd most prevalent pathogen identified (24.3% or 9 subjects. Of the C. glabrata cohort, all patients had at least one factor predisposing them to candidiasis. Conclusion. C. glabrata esophagitis makes up a large portion of the candidal esophagitis seen in hospital. C. glabrata infections were associated with at least one risk factor for candidal infection. Given its resistance to azole-based therapy, this may have treatment implications for how candidal esophagitis is approached by the clinician.

  8. Review of intersex in gastropods and other molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    Various studies have demonstrated that the presence of imposex, i.e. an imposition of a penis and/or a vas deferens in addition to the normal reproductive tracts in females of gonochoristics prosobranch gastropod species, is a common phenomenon in the marine environment today. However, also other....... This includes examples like transformation of the reproductive and genital tracts in gastropods and cephalopods, spermatogenesis in the female ovary and oocyte development in male testis (ovo-testis).  ......Various studies have demonstrated that the presence of imposex, i.e. an imposition of a penis and/or a vas deferens in addition to the normal reproductive tracts in females of gonochoristics prosobranch gastropod species, is a common phenomenon in the marine environment today. However, also other...... signs of endocrine disruption causing sex reversal, characterized as intersex, have been reported for marine molluscs. Intersex can more generally be defined as disturbance of the phenotypic sex characters and different types of intersex have been recorded for both female and male molluscs...

  9. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  10. Dissection of Ire1 functions reveals stress response mechanisms uniquely evolved in Candida glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiga Miyazaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is vital in all eukaryotes. When misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, the transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1 initiates splicing of HAC1 mRNA to generate the bZIP transcription factor Hac1, which subsequently activates its target genes to increase the protein-folding capacity of the ER. This cellular machinery, called the unfolded protein response (UPR, is believed to be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In this study, we comprehensively characterized mutant phenotypes of IRE1 and other related genes in the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. Unexpectedly, Ire1 was required for the ER stress response independently of Hac1 in this fungus. C. glabrata Ire1 did not cleave mRNAs encoding Hac1 and other bZIP transcription factors identified in the C. glabrata genome. Microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional response to ER stress is not mediated by Ire1, but instead is dependent largely on calcineurin signaling and partially on the Slt2 MAPK pathway. The loss of Ire1 alone did not confer increased antifungal susceptibility in C. glabrata contrary to UPR-defective mutants in other fungi. Taken together, our results suggest that the canonical Ire1-Hac1 UPR is not conserved in C. glabrata. It is known in metazoans that active Ire1 nonspecifically cleaves and degrades a subset of ER-localized mRNAs to reduce the ER load. Intriguingly, this cellular response could occur in an Ire1 nuclease-dependent fashion in C. glabrata. We also uncovered the attenuated virulence of the C. glabrata Δire1 mutant in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. This study has unveiled the unique evolution of ER stress response mechanisms in C. glabrata.

  11. Probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (nom. nud.) modulates adhesive properties of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomičić, Zorica; Zupan, Jure; Matos, Tadeja; Raspor, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Following the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy together with broad-spectrum antimycotic therapy, the frequency of mucosal and systemic infections caused by the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata has increased in the past decades. Due to the resistance of C. glabrata to existing azole drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (nom. nud.) on C. glabrata adhesion at different temperatures, pH values, and in the presence of fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B. We also studied the adhesion of C. glabrata co-culture with Candida krusei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two bacterial probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei The method used to assess adhesion was crystal violet staining. Our results showed that despite the nonadhesiveness of S. boulardii cells, this probiotic significantly affected the adherence ability of C. glabrata This effect was highly dependent on C. glabrata strain and was either antagonistic or synergistic. Regarding the extrinsic factors, temperature did not indicate any significant influence on this S. boulardii modulatory effect, while at high pH and at increased concentrations of antimycotics, S. boulardii did not manage to repress the adhesion of C. glabrata strains. The experiments of C. glabrata co-cultures with other species showed that the adhesiveness of two separate cultures could not be used to predict the adhesiveness of their co-culture. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase, while in a stationary phase (SP, Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  13. MALDI-TOF typing highlights geographical and fluconazole resistance clusters in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhieb, C; Normand, A C; Al-Yasiri, M; Chaker, E; El Euch, D; Vranckx, K; Hendrickx, M; Sadfi, N; Piarroux, R; Ranque, S

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra for Candida glabrata typing would be a cost-effective and easy-to-use alternative to classical DNA-based typing methods. This study aimed to use MALDI-TOF for the typing of C. glabrata clinical isolates from various geographical origins and test its capacity to differentiate between fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strains.Both microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) and MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 58 C. glabrata isolates originating from Marseilles (France) and Tunis (Tunisia) as well as collection strains from diverse geographic origins were analyzed. The same analysis was conducted on a subset of C. glabrata isolates that were either susceptible (MIC ≤ 8 mg/l) or resistant (MIC ≥ 64 mg/l) to fluconazole.According to the seminal results, both MALDI-TOF and MLP classifications could highlight C. glabrata population structures associated with either geographical dispersal barriers (p typing to investigate C. glabrata infection outbreaks and predict the antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical laboratory isolates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis from Manso Dam, Mato Grosso, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As well as malaria and yellow fever, schistosomiasis is one of the main endemic diseases associated to environments which suffered some impact related to the development of great economic projects, as for example the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area which suffered impact from the Manso hydroelectric power station a survey was performed during the period of 2002 to 2003 and revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using five B. amazonica colonies (Barão de Melgaço, Poconé, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Manso and Casca rivers, and four B. occidentalis colonies (Cuiabá, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Água Fria district and Casca river were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. Of 257 snails of B. amazonica used, 17 became infected (infection index of 6.61% and all specimens of B. occidentalis proved unsusceptible. According to the strains used, of the 158 snails exposed to BH miracidia, 6 became infected (3.79%; of the 44 exposed to SJ miracidia, 6 became infected (13.63%; and of the 55 snails of B. amazonica exposed to EC miracidia, 5 became infected (9.09%. These results point out the low possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis in those areas, but we believe it can not be discarded as due the presence of B. amazonica.

  15. Carbonate biomineralization in terrestrial gastropods: environmental vs. physiological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwa, D.; Stolarski, J.

    2009-04-01

    Preservational potential of shells of terrestrial gastropods allows to use them as valuable (paleo)climatic proxies. Despite of the fact, that the elements incorporated in their skeleton derive almost entirely from their diet, details of the ion uptake routes have not been studied in details. This work is a first step in the investigations of element uptake and biomineralization processes in pulmonate gastropod Cepaea vindobonensis (Férussac, 1821). Although phenotypic plasticity in the shell characters of the species appears to be mainly genetic in nature, some differences seem to correlate with availability of ions used in biomineralization. For example, shells of individuals living in marginal parts of flood plains (environment extreme for the species and generally depleted in calcium) have weakened structure and faded color pattern, whereas individuals from the lime substrata form typically developed, pigmented shells with several cross-lamellar layers. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of shells from different environments are visualized by SEM and AFM imaging techniques and some biogeochemical properties are characterized by spectroscopic and fluorescence methods. Further experiments are required to elucidate the ion/trace elements transfer between the substratum, nutrients, organism, and the shell.

  16. [Evaluation of a rapid trehalase test for the identification of Candida glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, Sevin; Gültekin, Berna; Evcil, Gonca; Ozkütük, Aydan; Sener, Asli Gamze; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-04-01

    Candida species which cause local infections, may also lead to fatal systemic infections. The increasing incidence of non-albicans Candida, especially fluconazole susceptible or resistant dose-dependent C. glabrata, increased the importance of rapid and accurate species level identification for Candida. Rapid and correct identification of C. glabrata is essential for the initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the rapid trehalase test in the diagnosis of C. glabrata isolates. A total of 173 Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens and identified according to germ tube test, growth on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and the colony morphologies on Mast-CHROMagar Candida medium (Mast Diagnostics, UK), were included to the study. The identification of non-albicans Candida species were also confirmed by API 20CAUX (BioMerieux, France) system. Accordingly 86 (50%) of the isolates were identified as C. glabrata, 48 (28%) C. albicans, 17 (10%) C. krusei, 13 (8%) C. tropicalis, 5 (3%) C. parapsilosis, 3 (2%) C. kefyr and 1 (1%) Cutilis. In order to detect the presence of trehalase enzyme in Condida strains, all isolates were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 4% glucose and then one yeast colony was emulsified in 50 microl of citrate buffer containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37 degrees C. Presence of glucose which emerged after the action of trehalase on trehalose, was detected by a commercial "urinary glucose detection dipstick" (Spinreacta, Spain). All C. glabrata strains yielded positive result by trehalase test. None C. glabrata isolates were found negative by trehalase test except for one strain of C. tropicalis. In this study, the trehalase test allowed identification of C. globrata with 100% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity. It was concluded that trehalase test is a rapid, cost-effective and simple test that can be used for the accurate identification of C. glabrata.

  17. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn E Nash

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans. Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  18. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Lilly, Elizabeth A; Noverr, Mairi C; Fidel, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  19. Mass mortality of the vermetid gastropod Ceraesignum maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. L.; Frazer, T. K.; Shima, J. S.; Osenberg, C. W.

    2016-09-01

    Ceraesignum maximum (G.B. Sowerby I, 1825), formerly Dendropoma maximum, was subject to a sudden, massive die-off in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, in 2015. On Mo'orea, where we have detailed documentation of the die-off, these gastropods were previously found in densities up to 165 m-2. In July 2015, we surveyed shallow back reefs of Mo'orea before, during and after the die-off, documenting their swift decline. All censused populations incurred 100% mortality. Additional surveys and observations from Mo'orea, Tahiti, Bora Bora, and Huahine (but not Taha'a) suggested a similar, and approximately simultaneous, die-off. The cause(s) of this cataclysmic mass mortality are currently unknown. Given the previously documented negative effects of C. maximum on corals, we expect the die-off will have cascading effects on the reef community.

  20. Candida glabrata-pneumonia in a non-immuno-suppressed patient: Imaging by digital radiology and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankier, A.; Fleischmann, D.; Wiesmayr, M.; Laczika, K.; Huebsch, P.

    1994-01-01

    Pneumonias caused by Candida glabrata are extremely rare and occur almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients. We report an atypical case of Candida glabrata pneumonia in a non-immunocompromised patient and describe the imaging findings on digital radiography and computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  1. Candida (Torulopsis glabrata) liver abscesses eight years after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, G M; Blackstone, M; Hart, J; Piper, J; Baker, A L

    1997-04-01

    The authors report the case of a 48-year-old man in whom candida (Torulopsis glabrata) liver abscesses developed 8 years after liver transplantation. After a week of fever, computed tomography and Doppler ultrasonography showed several fluid-filled loculations in the left lobe of the liver and hepatic arterial stenosis. Aspirates from the abscesses contained T. glabrata organisms. This complication probably developed because hepatic arterial stenosis resulted in bile infarcts (bilomas), which were contaminated via the biliary tract with candida from the biliary-enteric anastomosis. Catheter drainage and administration of amphotericin B for 10 weeks permitted successful retransplantation. T. glabrata liver abscesses, a life threatening complication that can occur long after liver transplantation, can be successfully managed by aggressive medical treatment followed by retransplantation.

  2. Small chromosomes among Danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Khadija Mohamed; Ishchuk, Olena P.; Hellborg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    chromosomes, which were smaller than 0.5 Mb. Regarding the year, patient and hospital, these C. glabrata strains had independent origin and the analyzed small chromosomes were structurally not related to each other (i.e. they contained different sets of genes). We suggest that at least two mechanisms could...... exhibited mitotic instability, while the second type, which contained the corresponding genes in only one copy in the genome, was mitotically stable. Apparently, in patients C. glabrata chromosomes are frequently reshuffled resulting in new genetic configurations, including appearance of small chromosomes...

  3. New polymeric formulation for control of biomphalaria Alexandria based on pharmaceutical waste gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, E.; El-Maghraby, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the recent years, important new areas of application for plastics have emerged in medicine such as devices for the controlled release of drugs. The increases in the use of plastic materials in all sectors of industry have led to a continuous increase in the generation of plastic wastes. Recycling allow the waste to be reintroduced into the consumption cycle. Pharmaceutical companies which manufacture soft gels with different shapes, sizes and colors based mainly on gelatin formulations produce huge amount of gelatin waste. Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in our country. We now report the utilization of gelatin scrap by incorporating them in biodegradable films containing the molluscicide niclosamide for control of Biomphalaria Alexandrina snails. The preparation of the gelatin films will be described. The release of niclosamide from the prepared blends was investigated. The prepared formulations proved to be useful compared with free niclosamide

  4. Effects of Snail Density on Growth, Reproduction and Survival of Biomphalaria alexandrina Exposed to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Mangal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of snail density on Biomphalaria alexandrina parasitized with Schistosoma mansoni were investigated. Laboratory experiments were used to quantify the impact of high density on snail growth, fecundity, and survival. Density-dependent birth rates of snails were determined to inform mathematical models, which, until now, have assumed a linear relationship between density and fecundity. The experiments show that the rate of egg-laying followed a negative exponential distribution with increasing density and this was significantly affected by exposure to parasitic infection. High density also affected the weight of snails and survival to a greater degree than exposure to parasitic infection. Although snail growth rates were initially constrained by high density, they retained the potential for growth suggesting a reversible density-dependent mechanism. These experimental data can be used to parameterise models and confirm that snail populations are regulated by nonlinear density-dependent mechanisms.

  5. Analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences of the ribosomal DNA in Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (Mollusca: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The first and second internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, and B. t. guaibensis were sequenced and compared. The alignment lengths of these regions were about 655 bp and 481 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships among the Biomphalaria species were inferred by Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenetic trees produced, in most of the cases, were in accordance with morphological systematics and other molecular data previously obtained by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The present results provide support for the proposal that B. tenagophila represents a complex comprising B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis and B. t. guaibensis.

  6. Mini-chromosomes among danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through two different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, K. M.; Ishchuk, O.; Hellborg, L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 201 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985 – 1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained mini-chr...

  7. A network of paralogous stress response transcription factors in the human pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad eMerhej

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida glabrata has become the second cause of systemic candidemia in humans. However, relatively few genome-wide studies have been conducted in this organism and our knowledge of its transcriptional regulatory network is quite limited. In the present work, we combined genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq, transcriptome analyses and DNA binding motif predictions to describe the regulatory interactions of the seven Yap (Yeast AP1 transcription factors of C. glabrata. We described a transcriptional network containing 255 regulatory interactions and 309 potential target genes. We predicted with high confidence the preferred DNA binding sites for 5 of the 7 CgYaps and showed a strong conservation of the Yap DNA binding properties between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. We provided reliable functional annotation for 3 of the 7 Yaps and identified for Yap1 and Yap5 a core regulon which is conserved in S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata and C. albicans. We uncovered new roles for CgYap7 in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, for CgYap1 in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and for CgYap5 in the repression of GRX4 in response to iron starvation. These transcription factors define an interconnected transcriptional network at the cross-roads between redox homeostasis, oxygen consumption and iron metabolism.

  8. Formation of new chromosomes as a virulence mechanism in yeast Candida glabrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poláková, S.; Blume, C.; Zárate, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    , Candida glabrata, for their genome structure and stability. This organism has recently become the second most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans. Although the gene sequences were well conserved among different strains, their chromosome structures differed drastically. The most frequent events reshaping...

  9. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  10. Failed Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Caused by Recurrent Candida glabrata Infection with Prior Serratia marcescens Coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Skedros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a 58-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic male patient who initially sustained a proximal humerus fracture from a fall. The fracture fixation failed and then was converted to a humeral hemiarthroplasty, which became infected with Candida glabrata and Serratia marcescens. After these infections were believed to be cured with antibacterial and antifungal treatments and two-stage irrigation and debridement, he underwent conversion to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, the C. glabrata infection recurred and, nearly 1.5 years after implantation of the reverse total shoulder, he had a resection arthroplasty (removal of all implants and cement. His surgical and pharmacologic treatment concluded with (1 placement of a tobramycin-impregnated cement spacer also loaded with amphotericin B, with no plan for revision arthroplasty (i.e., the spacer was chronically retained, and (2 chronic use of daily oral fluconazole. We located only three reported cases of Candida species causing infection in shoulder arthroplasties (two C. albicans, one C. parapsilosis. To our knowledge, a total shoulder arthroplasty infected with C. glabrata has not been reported, nor has a case of a C. glabrata and S. marcescens periprosthetic coinfection in any joint. In addition, it is well known that S. marcescens infections are uncommon in periprosthetic joint infections.

  11. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquez, Moises; Uribe, Juan Esteban; Castro, Lyda Raquel

    2012-01-01

    In this work we presented a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods. Nucleotide and amino acids composition was calculated and a comparative visual analysis of the start and termination codons was performed. The organization of the genome was compared calculating the number of intergenic sequences, the location of the genes and the number of reorganized genes (breakpoints) in comparison with the sequence that is presumed to be ancestral for the group. In order to calculate variations in the rates of molecular evolution within the group, the relative rate test was performed. In spite of the differences in the size of the genomes, the amino acids number is conserved. The nucleotide and amino acid composition is similar between Vetigastropoda, Ceanogastropoda and Neritimorpha in comparison to Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda. The mitochondrial genomes of the group are very compact with few intergenic sequences, the only exception is the genome of Patellogastropoda with 26,828 bp. Start codons of the Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda are very variable and there is also an increase in genome rearrangements for these two groups. Generally, the hypothesis of constant rates of molecular evolution between the groups is rejected, except when the genomes of Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are compared.

  12. Chemical characterization of terrestrial gastropods of Brazilian mangroves by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mélo, Julyanne T.B.; Pereira Neto, Alberto; França, Elvis J. de; Silva, Bruno F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    In environmental studies, the application of multielement analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence by Energy Dispersion - EDXRF is interesting due to the rapidity in the analysis and preservation of the sample. In the work, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and Zn were quantified in gastropods of the species Littoraria anguliferae Melampus coffea of mangroves located in tourist regions of Itamaracá, Pernambuco, and Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by EDXRF at a pressure lower than 30 Pa, detection time of 840 seconds in a Shimadzu EDX-720 model spectrometer. To guarantee the quality of the analytical procedure, reference materials SRM 2976 - Musseltissue and SRM 1547 - Peachleaves were analyzed. In both locations, the mass fractions of Mg and P were similar for L. anguliferae. For Zn, the average mass fraction of more than 3,000 mg kg -1 of the Barra de Guaratiba animals was considerably higher than that obtained in the Itamaracá mangrove. The M. coffea species also presented a considerably higher accumulation of Zn (approximately 4500 mg kg -1 ) when compared to the mass fraction obtained in the Pernambuco mangrove. For Sr, there was a higher concentration in the Itamaracá mangrove (400mg kg -1 for L. anguliferae 180 mg kg -1 for M. coffea) compared to that obtained in Barra de Guaratiba. The analytical technique of EDXRF was successfully employed for the evaluation of both molluscan species as biomonitoring of the environmental quality of mangroves

  13. Substrate attributes determine gait in a terrestrial gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Amberle; Voltzow, Janice; Pernet, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Some terrestrial gastropods are able to move using two gaits: adhesive crawling, where the entire foot is separated from the substrate only by a thin layer of mucus and the snail leaves a continuous mucus trail; and loping, where regions of the foot arch above the substrate and the snail leaves a discontinuous mucus trail. Loping has been interpreted as a means of rapidly escaping predators. We found that the pulmonate Cornu aspersum moved using adhesive crawling on dry acrylic or glass substrates, but loped on dry concrete or wood. Loping snails did not move more rapidly than snails using adhesive crawling. Snails moving on concrete secreted a greater volume of pedal mucus per area of trail than those moving on acrylic; locomotion on concrete thus requires greater expenditure of mucus than does locomotion on acrylic. Because loping snails deposit a smaller area of mucus per distance traveled than do snails using adhesive crawling, loping may conserve mucus when moving on porous, absorbent substrates. Members of several other terrestrial pulmonate taxa can also lope on concrete, suggesting that this plasticity in gait is widespread among terrestrial snails.

  14. Changes in habitat complexity negatively affect diverse gastropod assemblages in coralline algal turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, B P

    2003-05-01

    The physical structure of a habitat generally has a strong influence on the diversity and abundance of associated organisms. I investigated the role of coralline algal turf structure in determining spatial variation of gastropod assemblages at different tidal heights of a rocky shore near Sydney, Australia. The structural characteristics of algal turf tested were frond density (or structural complexity) and frond length (the vertical scale over which structural complexity was measured). This definition of structural complexity assumes that complexity of the habitat increases with increasing frond density. While frond length was unrelated to gastropod community structure, I found significant correlations between density of fronds and multivariate and univariate measures of gastropod assemblages, indicating the importance of structural complexity. In contrast to previous studies, here there were negative relationships between the density of fronds and the richness and abundance of gastropods. Artificial habitat mimics were used to manipulate the density of fronds to test the hypothesis that increasing algal structural complexity decreases the richness and abundance of gastropods. As predicted, there were significantly more species of gastropods in loosely packed than in tightly packed turf at both low- and mid-shore levels. Despite large differences between gastropod assemblages at different tidal heights, the direction and magnitude of these negative effects were similar at low- and mid-shore levels and, therefore, relatively independent of local environmental conditions. These novel results extend our previous understanding of the ecological effects of habitat structure because they demonstrate possible limitations of commonly used definitions of structural complexity, as well as distinct upper thresholds in the relationship between structural complexity and faunal species richness.

  15. Trophic discrimination factor and the significance of mangrove litter to benthic detritivorous gastropod, Ellobium aurisjudae (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Sasekumar, A.; Ismail, Mohamad Hanif; Chong, Ving Ching

    2018-01-01

    In stable isotope analysis, the estimation of proportional contribution of carbon and nitrogen from mangrove to benthic invertebrates requires knowledge of the food-consumer trophic discrimination factor (Δ δ13C and Δ δ15N). This study tested the hypothesis that the mangrove gastropod Ellobium aurisjudae can assimilate low quality refractory mangrove litter and aimed to determine the trophic discrimination values (TDV) of C and N isotopes between gastropod and the mangrove producer. The mean Δ δ13C for gastropods fed senescent leaves of the mangrove Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb) Wight & Arn and decomposing mangrove (unknown species from the same site) wood were estimated at 5.3 ± 0.3‰ and 3.2 ± 0.5‰ respectively, whereas for Δ δ15N, these values were 4.2 ± 0.2‰ and 6.0 ± 0.2‰ respectively. The gastropod assimilated refractory carbon from mangrove leaf and wood litter with 49% and 18% efficiency respectively. Rearing experiment of gastropods (n = 25) fed only mangrove wood litter over 5months in the laboratory, showed mean weight increments of 14.8-74.4% depending on the initial animal weight. Significant deviation of the TDVs for E. aurisjudae from the generalized discrimination values for herbivory underscores the need to use specific TDV for the detritivory link.

  16. Checklist of Gastropods from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morni, Wan Zabidii Wan; Rahim, Siti Akmar Khadijah Ab; Rumpet, Richard; Musel, Jamil; Hassan, Ruhana

    2017-01-01

    This study provides the first marine gastropod checklist from the Sarawak Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Gastropod samples were collected from selected stations in the Sarawak EEZ using an otter trawl net with a stretched mesh size of 38 mm at the cod end. The trawling operations were conducted more than 12 nautical miles from the coast, and the area was divided into three depth strata: I) 20-50 m, II) 50-100 m and III) 100-200 m. A total of 23 gastropod species were identified during the two-month sampling period from 16 August until 6 October 2015, representing 8 superfamilies, 15 families and 20 genera. Superfamily Tonnoidea was represented by 7 species, followed by Muricoidea (5 species), Cypraeoidea (4 species), and Buccinoidea and Conoidea (both with 2 species). Other superfamilies were represented by a single species. Only 3 species were obtained in 2 depth strata, namely Melo melo , Murex aduncospinosus and Tonna galea . In addition, 9, 13 and 4 species of gastropods were found in strata I, II and III, respectively. The information on gastropod distributions at different depth strata in the Sarawak EEZ could be useful in updating the Malaysian species diversity database.

  17. The "island rule" and deep-sea gastropods: re-examining the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Welch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing patterns in mammalian biogeography is the "island rule", which states that colonising species have a tendency to converge in body size, with larger species evolving decreased sizes and smaller species increased sizes. It has recently been suggested that an analogous pattern holds for the colonisation of the deep-sea benthos by marine Gastropoda. In particular, a pioneering study showed that gastropods from the Western Atlantic showed the same graded trend from dwarfism to gigantism that is evident in island endemic mammals. However, subsequent to the publication of the gastropod study, the standard tests of the island rule have been shown to yield false positives at a very high rate, leaving the result open to doubt.The evolution of gastropod body size in the deep sea is reexamined. Using an extended and updated data set, and improved statistical methods, it is shown that some results of the previous study may have been artifactual, but that its central conclusion is robust. It is further shown that the effect is not restricted to a single gastropod clade, that its strength increases markedly with depth, but that it applies even in the mesopelagic zone.The replication of the island rule in a distant taxonomic group and a partially analogous ecological situation could help to uncover the causes of the patterns observed--which are currently much disputed. The gastropod pattern is evident at intermediate depths, and so cannot be attributed to the unique features of abyssal ecology.

  18. Conservation status of freshwater gastropods of Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul D.; Bogan, Arthur E.; Brown, Kenneth M.; Burkhead, Noel M.; Cordeiro, James R.; Garner, Jeffrey T.; Hartfield, Paul D.; Lepitzki, Dwayne A.; Mackie, Gerry L.; Pip, Eva; Tarpley, Thomas A.; Tiemann, Jeremy S.; Whelan, Nathan V.; Strong, Ellen E.

    2013-01-01

    This is the first American Fisheries Society conservation assessment of freshwater gastropods (snails) from Canada and the United States by the Gastropod Subcommittee (Endangered Species Committee). This review covers 703 species representing 16 families and 93 genera, of which 67 species are considered extinct, or possibly extinct, 278 are endangered, 102 are threatened, 73 are vulnerable, 157 are currently stable, and 26 species have uncertain taxonomic status. Of the entire fauna, 74% of gastropods are imperiled (vulnerable, threatened, endangered) or extinct, which exceeds imperilment levels in fishes (39%) and crayfishes (48%) but is similar to that of mussels (72%). Comparison of modern to background extinction rates reveals that gastropods have the highest modern extinction rate yet observed, 9,539 times greater than background rates. Gastropods are highly susceptible to habitat loss and degradation, particularly narrow endemics restricted to a single spring or short stream reaches. Compilation of this review was hampered by a paucity of current distributional information and taxonomic uncertainties. Although research on several fronts including basic biology, physiology, conservation strategies, life history, and ecology are needed, systematics and curation of museum collections and databases coupled with comprehensive status surveys (geographic limits, threat identification) are priorities.

  19. Rapid Discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida nivariensis, and Candida bracarensis by Use of a Singleplex PCR ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Enache-Angoulvant, A.; Guitard, J.; Grenouillet, F.; Martin, T.; Durrens, P.; Fairhead, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a PCR-based assay using a single primer pair targeting the RPL31 gene that allows discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis according to the size of the generated amplicon.

  20. Generational distribution of a Candida glabrata population: Resilient old cells prevail, while younger cells dominate in the vulnerable host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouklas, Tejas; Alonso-Crisóstomo, Luz; Székely, Tamás; Diago-Navarro, Elizabeth; Orner, Erika P; Smith, Kalie; Munshi, Mansa A; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Balázsi, Gábor; Fries, Bettina C

    2017-05-01

    Similar to other yeasts, the human pathogen Candida glabrata ages when it undergoes asymmetric, finite cell divisions, which determines its replicative lifespan. We sought to investigate if and how aging changes resilience of C. glabrata populations in the host environment. Our data demonstrate that old C. glabrata are more resistant to hydrogen peroxide and neutrophil killing, whereas young cells adhere better to epithelial cell layers. Consequently, virulence of old compared to younger C. glabrata cells is enhanced in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Electron microscopy images of old C. glabrata cells indicate a marked increase in cell wall thickness. Comparison of transcriptomes of old and young C. glabrata cells reveals differential regulation of ergosterol and Hog pathway associated genes as well as adhesion proteins, and suggests that aging is accompanied by remodeling of the fungal cell wall. Biochemical analysis supports this conclusion as older cells exhibit a qualitatively different lipid composition, leading to the observed increased emergence of fluconazole resistance when grown in the presence of fluconazole selection pressure. Older C. glabrata cells accumulate during murine and human infection, which is statistically unlikely without very strong selection. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that neutrophils constitute the predominant selection pressure in vivo. When we altered experimentally the selection pressure by antibody-mediated removal of neutrophils, we observed a significantly younger pathogen population in mice. Mathematical modeling confirmed that differential selection of older cells is sufficient to cause the observed demographic shift in the fungal population. Hence our data support the concept that pathogenesis is affected by the generational age distribution of the infecting C. glabrata population in a host. We conclude that replicative aging constitutes an emerging trait, which is selected by the host and may even play an

  1. Identification of Candida glabrata genes involved in pH modulation and modification of the phagosomal environment in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kasper

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata currently ranks as the second most frequent cause of invasive candidiasis. Our previous work has shown that C. glabrata is adapted to intracellular survival in macrophages and replicates within non-acidified late endosomal-stage phagosomes. In contrast, heat killed yeasts are found in acidified matured phagosomes. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the processes leading to inhibition of phagosome acidification and maturation. We show that phagosomes containing viable C. glabrata cells do not fuse with pre-labeled lysosomes and possess low phagosomal hydrolase activity. Inhibition of acidification occurs independent of macrophage type (human/murine, differentiation (M1-/M2-type or activation status (vitamin D3 stimulation. We observed no differential activation of macrophage MAPK or NFκB signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors after internalization of viable compared to heat killed yeasts, but Syk activation decayed faster in macrophages containing viable yeasts. Thus, delivery of viable yeasts to non-matured phagosomes is likely not triggered by initial recognition events via MAPK or NFκB signaling, but Syk activation may be involved. Although V-ATPase is abundant in C. glabrata phagosomes, the influence of this proton pump on intracellular survival is low since blocking V-ATPase activity with bafilomycin A1 has no influence on fungal viability. Active pH modulation is one possible fungal strategy to change phagosome pH. In fact, C. glabrata is able to alkalinize its extracellular environment, when growing on amino acids as the sole carbon source in vitro. By screening a C. glabrata mutant library we identified genes important for environmental alkalinization that were further tested for their impact on phagosome pH. We found that the lack of fungal mannosyltransferases resulted in severely reduced alkalinization in vitro and in the delivery of C. glabrata to acidified phagosomes. Therefore

  2. Development of a Candida glabrata dominant nutritional transformation marker utilizing the Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amdS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianmin; Blaylock, Morganne; Wickes, Cameron F; Welte, William; Mehrtash, Adrian; Wiederhold, Nathan; Wickes, Brian L

    2016-05-01

    The gene encoding Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase (amdS) was placed under control of Candida albicans ACT1 promoter and terminator sequences and then cloned into a plasmid containing C. glabrata ARS10,CEN8 or ARS10+CEN8 sequences. All plasmids transformed C. glabrata wild-type cells to acetamide+, with the ARS-only containing plasmid transforming cells at the highest frequencies (>1.0 × 10(4) transformants μg(-1)). Plasmids were rapidly lost under non-selective conditions with the frequency dependent on chromosomal element, thus recycling the acetamide- phenotype. The amdS plasmid was used to transform a set of clinical isolates resistant to a variety of antifungal drugs. All strains were successfully transformed to the acetamide+ phenotype at high frequency, confirming that this plasmid construct could be used as a simple dominant marker on virtually any strain. Gap repair experiments demonstrated that just as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gap repair functions efficiently inC. glabrata, suggesting that C. glabrata has numerous similarities toS. cerevisiae with regard to ease of molecular manipulation. The amdS system is inexpensive and efficient, and combined with existing C. glabrata plasmid elements, confers a high transformation frequency for C. glabrata with a phenotype that can be easily recycled. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbances in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, C. N.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    We investigated freshwater gastropod diversity, abundance and distribution in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbance in two localities, Ndere in the Winam Gulf and Mbita Point, Lake Victoria, Kenya, from May 2002 to January 2004. A total of 133 984 gastropod specimens belonging to 15...... species were recorded, 14 from Mbita and 12 from Ndere. Two species, Ferrissia kavirondica and Cleopatra cridlandi, which were recorded only from undisturbed habitats, could be indicators of least disturbed habitats. Water chemistry did differ between fish landing sites and undisturbed habitats at some......, while other species may not tolerate these changes. In order to protect gastropod diversity and avoid dominance of intermediate hosts, such as B. choanomphala, a management plan for the use of these fish landing sites should be developed. This could include rules on how to dispose of fish remnants...

  4. Labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25% presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35% and open-air markets (25% compared with the big retailing chains (20%. The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  5. Labelling and Marketing of Bivalve and Gastropod Molluscs Retailed in Sardinia, Italy Between 2009 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-05-28

    The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35%) and open-air markets (25%) compared with the big retailing chains (20%). The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  6. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, Jacqueline L; Miranda, Nelson A F; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs) turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  8. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Raw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  9. Further studies on the molecular systematics of Biomphalaria snails from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the rRNA gene, using the enzyme DdeI were used for the molecular identification of ten species and one subspecies of Brazilian Biomphalaria. Emphasis is given to the analysis of B. oligoza, B. schrammi and B. amazonica. The RFLP profiles obtained using this enzyme were highly distinctive for the majority of the species and exhibited low levels of intraspecific polymorphism among specimens from different regions of Brazil. However, B. peregrina and B. oligoza presented very similar profiles that complicated their identification at the molecular level and suggested a very close genetic similarity between the two species. Others enzymes including HaeIII, HpaII, AluI and MnlI were tested for their ability to differentiate these species. For B. amazonica three variant profiles produced with DdeI were observed. The study demonstrated that the ITS contains useful genetic markers for the identification of these snails

  10. FKS2 Mutations Associated with Decreased Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida glabrata following Anidulafungin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Miranda, Isabel Marcos; Silva, Raquel M.; Pinto e Silva, Ana; Rocha, Rita; Amorim, Antonio; Rodrigues, Acacio Goncalves; Pina-Vaz, Cidalia

    2011-01-01

    This is the first case report of Candida glabrata-disseminated candidiasis describing the acquisition of echinocandin resistance following anidulafungin treatment. The initial isolates recovered were susceptible to echinocandins. However, during 27 days of anidulafungin treatment, two resistant strains were isolated (from the blood and peritoneal fluid). The resistant peritoneal fluid isolate exhibited a Ser663Pro mutation in position 1987 of FKS2 HS1 (hot spot 1), whereas the resistant blood...

  11. Enhanced oxidative killing of azole-resistant Candida glabrata strains with ERG11 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, V L; Geber, A; Bennett, J E

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of genetically defined Candida glabrata strains to killing by H2O2 and neutrophils was assessed. Fluconazole-susceptible L5L and L5D strains demonstrated survival rates higher than those of two fluconazole-resistant strains lacking the ERG11 gene coding for 14 alpha-demethylase. Fluconazole resistance can occur by mechanisms which increase fungal susceptibility to oxidative killing by H2O2 and neutrophils. PMID:8807069

  12. Potassium Uptake Mediated by Trk1 Is Crucial for Candida glabrata Growth and Fitness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Llopis-Torregrosa, Vincent; Hušeková, Barbora; Sychrová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2016), e0153374 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/12/1151; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03398S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 606786 - ImResFun Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Candida glabrata * potassium uptake * Trk1 protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  13. An unexpected response of torulopsis glabrata fusion products to x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, C.L.; Sriprakash, K.S.; Batum, C.M.; Clark-Walker, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Intra-species fusion products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces unisporus and Torulopsis glabrata have been isolated following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion of protoplasts and selection for prototrophic colonies. Staining with lomofungin showed that all fusion products were uninucleate. Measurement of DNA content mostly gave values between haploid and diploid levels indicating that the majority of fusion products were aneuploid. Nevertheless fusion products of S. cerevisiae and S. unisporus were, as expected, more resistant to X-irradiation than their haploid parents. By contrast, the X-ray doze-response curve of all T. glabrata fusion products was indistinguishable from their progenitors despite the fact that mitotic segregants could be recovered amongst the survivors to X-rays. A possible explanation for the behaviour towards X-rays of T. glabrata fusion products is that this species lacks a DNA repair pathway involving recombination between homologous chromosomes. We conclude from this study that the shape of the X-ray dose-response curve should not be taken to indicate the ploidy of new yeast isolates without supporting data. (orig.)

  14. Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis: characteristics of women with Candida albicans, C glabrata and no candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A M; Foxman, B; Sobel, J D

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--Although as many as 5% of all women complain of chronic vulvovaginitis, little is known about these women. They may often be misdiagnosed and the role of vaginal yeast culture in diagnosing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) among them has not been clearly defined. METHODS--To address these deficiencies, we tabulated initial diagnoses among new patients and conducted a medical record-based, unmatched case-control study among women reporting a history of chronic vulvovaginitis (four or more episodes in the past year) at a vulvovaginitis specialty clinic. Clinical presentation and medical history were compared for women who had a positive vaginal yeast culture for either Candida albicans or C glabrata, or who had a negative culture. RESULTS--One-third of the women had no apparent vulvovaginal disease at their initial visit. All women reported similar symptoms, except for an increased prevalence of painful sexual intercourse in women with C albicans (chi 2 p = 0.014 versus women with C glabrata and p vulvovaginitis. Among women with VVC, subtle differences in clinical presentation do not reliably distinguish women with C albicans from those with C glabrata. Our study also indicates that vaginal yeast cultures, while not necessary for every patient, are valuable in confirming negative diagnoses, detecting microscopy false-negatives, and identifying non-C albicans isolates. Images PMID:7490047

  15. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe García P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  16. Relative Abundances of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in In Vitro Coculture Biofilms Impact Biofilm Structure and Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michelle L; Jayaraman, Arul; Kao, Katy C

    2018-04-15

    Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species- Candida albicans and Candida glabrata -are often coisolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida coculture biofilms. In this work, we report that biofilm formation of the coculture population depends on the relative ratio of starting cell concentrations of C. albicans and C. glabrata When using a starting ratio of C. albicans to C. glabrata of 1:3, ∼6.5- and ∼2.5-fold increases in biofilm biomass were observed relative to those of a C. albicans monoculture and a C. albicans / C. glabrata ratio of 1:1, respectively. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the heterogeneity and complex structures composed of long C. albicans hyphae and C. glabrata cell clusters in the coculture biofilms, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) studies showed increases in the relative expression of the HWP1 and ALS3 adhesion genes in the C. albicans / C. glabrata 1:3 biofilm compared to that in the C. albicans monoculture biofilm. Additionally, only the 1:3 C. albicans / C. glabrata biofilm demonstrated an increased resistance to the antifungal drug caspofungin. Overall, the results suggest that interspecific interactions between these two fungal pathogens increase biofilm formation and virulence-related gene expression in a coculture composition-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are often coisolated during infection, and the occurrence of coisolation increases with increasing inflammation, suggesting possible synergistic interactions between the two Candida species in

  17. Isolamento genético de populações de caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Bezerra Coutinho

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiências de intrecruzamento de caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria de várias procedências de Pernambuco, Brasil, utilizando o albinismo como mercador genético mostraram que ocorre na região duas populações isoladas que não se intercruzam. Uma das populações è constituída por caramujos que podem atingir diâmetros de concha até em torno de 30 mm, enquanto que a outra atinge somente em torno de 10 mm mesmo nas melhores condições ambientais.

  18. Dispersão de Biomphalaria straminea, hospedeira intermediária do Schistosoma mansoni, através da distribuição de peixes The spreading of Biomphalaria straminea, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni through the distribution of fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de R. Corrêa

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi focalizado, pela primeira vez o encontro de B. straminea no Estado de São Paulo. Esta espécie vem juntar-se aos planorbídeos já assinalados em nosso Estado. Foram descritos os criadouros, onde a B. straminea foi coletada, localizados em tanques de criação de peixes nas Estações de Piscicultura de Barra Bonita e Americana, Estado de São Paulo, e em um aquário particular na capital dêsse Estado. Fêz-se referência ao transporte de peixes oriundos de zonas do país onde ocorre aquela espécie, Amazonas e Ceará, como responsável pela introdução daquele molusco no Estado. Destacou-se êsse achado pelo perigo que representa a distribuição de peixes da maneira como vem sendo feita atualmente em nosso país, tendo sido julgado necessário o estabelecimento de quarentena para aquêles vindos de zonas infestadas por espécies hospedeiras intermediárias do S. mansoni. Foram relatadas as medidas de combate aos caramujos efetuadas imediatamente após aquela descoberta e os resultados obtidos. Conclui-se que a dispersão passiva da B. straminea pelo transporte de peixes, deve ampliar a distribuição geográfica dêsse planorbídeo, já assinalado na Venezuela, Guianas e no Brasil, sendo que neste último ocorre em tôdas as Unidades Federativas, exceto, no Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro e Territórios.Up the present, the works of collecting planorbids done in 226 municipalities for the elaboration of the geographical distribution chart in the State of São Paulo (Brazil, showed the presence of two intermediate host species of Schistosoma mansoni: Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biompralaria glabrata. Although the technicians from the Psiculture Stations, have not found snails in the water inside the containers used for the transportation of fishes, the ecological conditions of B. straminea in the latest researches are such as to indicate that they have been introduced, in our State through fish transportation imported

  19. Measurement of DNA integrity in marine gastropods as biomarker of genotoxicity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Vashistha, D.; Gupta, N.; Malik, K.; Gaitonde, D.C.S.

    to identify the hot spot of pollution due to genotoxic compounds, the DNA damage was measured in terms of the loss of DNA integrity in marine gastropods due to the occurrence of DNA strand breaks following the technique of time dependent partially alkaline...

  20. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  1. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1 describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2 identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3 identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org. A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2% appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs. In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska. No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05. Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  2. Occurrence and characterization of Candida nivariensis from a culture collection of Candida glabrata clinical isolates in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Tee; Lotfalikhani, Azadeh; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Na, Shiang Ling; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-10-01

    Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis have been recently identified as emerging yeast pathogens which are phenotypically indistinguishable from C. glabrata. However, there is little data on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibilities of these species. This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital. C. nivariensis was discriminated from C. glabrata using a PCR assay as described by Enache-Angoulvant et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3375-9, 2011). The identity of the isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the D1D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region of the yeasts. The isolates were cultured on Chromogenic CHROMagar Candida (®) agar (Difco, USA), and their biochemical and enzymic profiles were determined. Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined using E tests. Clotrimazole MICs were determined using a microbroth dilution method. There was a low prevalence (1.1 %) of C. nivariensis in our culture collection of C. glabrata. C. nivariensis was isolated from a blood culture and vaginal swab of two patients. C. nivariensis grew as white colonies on Chromogenic agar and demonstrated few positive reactions using biochemical tests. Enzymatic profiles of the C. nivariensis isolates were similar to that of C. glabrata. The isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Clotrimazole resistance is suspected in one isolate. This study reports for the first time the emergence of C. nivariensis in our clinical setting.

  3. Studies of radiation gamma effects of 60 Co on fecundity, fertility and survival of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Melo, Ana M.M. de; Motta, Mauricy A. da

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gamma 60 Co radiation on fecundity, fertility and survival of Biomphalaria straminea was carried out with these mollusks kept in totality reproductive isolation and grouped, for their possible utilization in the study of radiation effect in biological system. Biomphalaria straminea species are disseminated in Brazil, specially in Northeast region. The snails were exposed to the following doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 55; 60; 80; 160; 320; and 640 gy source was a Gamma Cell Co model RL (rate dose = 0,31 Gy/min). The fecundity was observed through the count of the spawing abd eggs number/snail/day; the fecundity and fertility when the radiation dose increased; it was evidenced that the grouped mollusks presented a better performance in respectivity when compared with the isolated ones. After the statistical analysis was observed that fercundity and fertility were closely related. The survival, presented higher levels of resistence in isolated mollusks than in grouped ones. The DL50/30 obtained for the isolated mollusks submitted the radiation was about 90 Gy and for the grouped ones 70 Gy. (author). 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Isolamento genético de populações de caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Bezerra Coutinho

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiências de intrecruzamento de caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria de várias procedências de Pernambuco, Brasil, utilizando o albinismo como mercador genético mostraram que ocorre na região duas populações isoladas que não se intercruzam. Uma das populações è constituída por caramujos que podem atingir diâmetros de concha até em torno de 30 mm, enquanto que a outra atinge somente em torno de 10 mm mesmo nas melhores condições ambientais.Breending experiments with snails of the genus Biomphalaria from several beeding sites in Pernambuco, Brazil, using albinism as the genetics tag have shown that two isolated non-interbreeding populations occur in the region. One of the populations is made up of snails which consistently reached diameter sizes around 30 mm, while the other of snails reaching only around 10 mm shell diameter, even when in the best environmental conditions.

  5. Reversal of fluconazole resistance induced by a synergistic effect with Acca sellowiana in Candida glabrata strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R M Machado, Gabriella da; Pippi, Bruna; Dalla Lana, Daiane Flores; Amaral, Ana Paula S; Teixeira, Mário Lettieri; Souza, Kellen C B de; Fuentefria, Alexandre M

    2016-11-01

    The increased incidence of non-albicans Candida (NAC) resistant to fluconazole (FLZ) makes it necessary to use new therapeutic alternatives. Acca sellowiana (O.berg) Burret (Myrtaceae) is a guava with several proven biological activities. The interaction with fluconazole can be a feasible alternative to overcome this resistance. This study evaluates the in vitro antifungal activity of fractions obtained from the lyophilized aqueous extract of the leaves of A. sellowiana against resistant strains of NAC. The antifungal activity of the fractions was evaluated at 500 μg/mL by microdilution method. Checkerboard assay was performed to determine the effect of the combination of the F2 fraction and antifungal at concentrations: MIC/4, MIC/2, MIC, MIC × 2 and MIC × 4. Candida glabrata showed the lowest MIC values (500-3.90 μg/mL) and the F2 active fraction was the most effective. The association of F2 with FLZ showed a strong synergistic effect (FICI ≤ 0.5) against 100% of C. glabrata resistant isolates. Moreover, the F2 active fraction has demonstrated that probably acts in the cell wall of these yeasts. There was no observed acute dermal toxicity of lyophilized aqueous extract of leaves of A. sellowiana on pig ear skin cells. The interaction between substances present in the F2 active fraction is possibly responsible for the antifungal activity presented by this fraction. This study is unprecedented and suggests that the combination of F2 active fraction and FLZ might be used as an alternative treatment for mucocutaneus infections caused by C. glabrata resistant.

  6. Time to positivity and detection of growth in anaerobic blood culture vials predict the presence of Candida glabrata in candidemia: a two-center European cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Kaasch, Achim J; Soriano, Alex; Torres, Jorge-Luis; Vergara, Andrea; Morata, Laura; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; De La Calle, Cristina; Alejo, Izaskun; Hernández, Cristina; Cardozo, Celia; Marco, Franscesc; Del Río, Ana; Almela, Manel; Mensa, Josep; Martínez, José Antonio

    2014-08-01

    This study shows the accuracy of exclusive or earlier growth in anaerobic vials to predict Candida glabrata in a large series of candidemic patients from two European hospitals using the Bactec 9240 system. Alternatively, C. glabrata can be predicted by a time to positivity cutoff value, which should be determined for each setting. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  8. Heteroresistance to Fluconazole Is a Continuously Distributed Phenotype among Candida glabrata Clinical Strains Associated with In Vivo Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Ben-Ami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata causes persistent infections in patients treated with fluconazole and often acquires resistance following exposure to the drug. Here we found that clinical strains of C. glabrata exhibit cell-to-cell variation in drug response (heteroresistance. We used population analysis profiling (PAP to assess fluconazole heteroresistance (FLCHR and to ask if it is a binary trait or a continuous phenotype. Thirty (57.6% of 52 fluconazole-sensitive clinical C. glabrata isolates met accepted dichotomous criteria for FLCHR. However, quantitative grading of FLCHR by using the area under the PAP curve (AUC revealed a continuous distribution across a wide range of values, suggesting that all isolates exhibit some degree of heteroresistance. The AUC correlated with rhodamine 6G efflux and was associated with upregulation of the CDR1 and PDH1 genes, encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC transmembrane transporters, implying that HetR populations exhibit higher levels of drug efflux. Highly FLCHRC. glabrata was recovered more frequently than nonheteroresistant C. glabrata from hematogenously infected immunocompetent mice following treatment with high-dose fluconazole (45.8% versus 15%, P = 0.029. Phylogenetic analysis revealed some phenotypic clustering but also variations in FLCHR within clonal groups, suggesting both genetic and epigenetic determinants of heteroresistance. Collectively, these results establish heteroresistance to fluconazole as a graded phenotype associated with ABC transporter upregulation and fluconazole efflux. Heteroresistance may explain the propensity of C. glabrata for persistent infection and the emergence of breakthrough resistance to fluconazole.

  9. Time-kill assay and Etest evaluation for synergy with polymyxin B and fluconazole against Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, George; Ashcraft, Deborah; Kahn, Heather; Ismail, Abdulrahim

    2014-10-01

    Fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata is an emerging pathogen that causes fungemia. Polymyxin B, a last-resort antibiotic used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, has been found to possess in vitro fungicidal activity and showed synergy with fluconazole against a single strain of C. glabrata. Since both agents may be used simultaneously in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, this study was performed to test for possible synergy of this combination against 35 C. glabrata blood isolates, using 2 methods: a time-kill assay and an experimental MIC-MIC Etest method. Thirty-five genetically unique C. glabrata bloodstream isolates were collected from 2009 to 2011, identified using an API 20C system, and genotyped by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). MICs were determined by Etest and broth microdilution methods. Synergy testing was performed using a modified bacterial Etest synergy method and time-kill assay, with final results read at 24 h. The Etest method showed synergy against 19/35 (54%) isolates; the time-kill assay showed synergy against 21/35 (60%) isolates. Isolates not showing drug synergy had an indifferent status. Concordance between methods was 60%. In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and fluconazole against the majority of C. glabrata isolates was demonstrated by both methods. The bacterial Etest synergy method adapted well when used with C. glabrata. Etest was easier to perform than time-kill assay and may be found to be an acceptable alternative to time-kill assay with antifungals. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  11. Determination of Acetylcholinesterase activities in marine gastropod (Morula granulata) as a biomarker of neurotoxic contaminants along the Goan coast.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Tegur, P.M.; Jana, S.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.

    diseases or even death. Hence it is considered as a suitable biomarker for detecting environmental pollution caused by the neurotoxic compounds. We have carried out experiments with marine gastropods (Morula granulate) at the selected sites, Arambol...

  12. Effect of pollution on diversity of marine gastropods and its role in trophic structure at Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Suratissa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean supplies a significant amount of food to human population. However, marine ecosystem is under a threat due to the increasing marine pollution. Fiji Islands, located in South Pacific sea, are experiencing such a threat. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effects of pollution on the diversity of marine gastropods in Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands. A detailed opportunistic survey was conducted; 85 species of marine gastropods molluscas were recorded belonging to 29 families in four different habitats (Habitat 1, Habitat 2, Habitat 3 and Habitat 4 at Nasese Shore during April–September 2014. Compared with Habitat 4, all three other habitats were polluted by frequently added sewages and domestic effluents via artificial and natural creeks to the coastal area. Therefore, diversity and abundance of the gastropods were significantly lower in those three habitats. Furthermore, a higher human consumption rate for some of the gastropods was observed.

  13. Grazing damage to plants and gastropod and grasshopper densities in a CO 2-enrichment experiment on calcareous grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledergerber, Stephan; Thommen, G. Heinrich; Baur, Bruno

    Plant-herbivore interactions may change as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations continue to rise. We examined the effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 and CO 2-exposure chambers on the grazing damage to plants, and on the abundances of potential herbivores (terrestrial gastropods and grasshoppers) in a calcareous grassland in the Jura mountains of Switzerland (village of Nenzlingen). Individuals of most plant species examined showed slight grazing damage. However, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in the extent of grazing damage. Similarly, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in either gastropod or grasshopper density. Experimental plots with and without chambers did not differ in the number of gastropods. However, the densities of gastropods and grasshoppers and extent of grazing damage to plants were generally lower in the experimental area than in the grassland outside the experimental field.

  14. Impacts of Near-Future Ocean Acidification and Warming on the Shell Mechanical and Geochemical Properties of Gastropods from Intertidal to Subtidal Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Connell, Sean D; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Russell, Bayden D

    2017-11-07

    Many marine organisms produce calcareous shells as the key structure for defense, but the functionality of shells may be compromised by ocean acidification and warming. Nevertheless, calcifying organisms may adaptively modify their shell properties in response to these impacts. Here, we examined how reduced pH and elevated temperature affect shell mechanical and geochemical properties of common grazing gastropods from intertidal to subtidal zones. Given the greater environmental fluctuations in the intertidal zone, we hypothesized that intertidal gastropods would exhibit more plastic responses in shell properties than subtidal gastropods. Overall, three out of five subtidal gastropods produced softer shells at elevated temperature, while intertidal gastropods maintained their shell hardness at both elevated pCO 2 (i.e., reduced pH) and temperature. Regardless of pH and temperature, degree of crystallization was maintained (except one subtidal gastropod) and carbonate polymorph remained unchanged in all tested species. One intertidal gastropod produced less soluble shells (e.g., higher calcite/aragonite) in response to reduced pH. In contrast, subtidal gastropods produced only aragonite which has higher solubility than calcite. Overall, subtidal gastropods are expected to be more susceptible than intertidal gastropods to shell dissolution and physical damage under future seawater conditions. The increased vulnerability to shell dissolution and predation could have serious repercussions for their survival and ecological contributions in the future subtidal environment.

  15. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic

  16. Candida glabrata tryptophan-based pigment production via the Ehrlich pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Sascha; Seider, Katja; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio; Heyken, Antje; Fleck, Christian Benjamin; Brock, Matthias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Hube, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Pigments contribute to the pathogenicity of many fungi, mainly by protecting fungal cells from host defence activities. Here, we have dissected the biosynthetic pathway of a tryptophan-derived pigment of the human pathogen Candida glabrata, identified key genes involved in pigment production and have begun to elucidate the possible biological function of the pigment. Using transcriptional analyses and a transposon insertion library, we have identified genes associated with pigment production. Targeted deletion mutants revealed that the pigment is a by-product of the Ehrlich pathway of tryptophan degradation: a mutant lacking a tryptophan-upregulated aromatic aminotransferase (Aro8) displayed significantly reduced pigmentation and a recombinantly expressed version of this protein was sufficient for pigment production in vitro. Pigment production is tightly regulated as the synthesis is affected by the presence of alternative nitrogen sources, carbon sources, cyclic AMP and oxygen. Growth of C. glabrata on pigment inducing medium leads to an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide, an effect which was not observed with a mutant defective in pigmentation. Furthermore, pigmented yeast cells had a higher survival rate when exposed to human neutrophils and caused increased damage in a monolayer model of human epithelia, indicating a possible role of pigmentation during interactions with host cells.

  17. Antiestrogenic constituents of the Thai medicinal plants Capparis flavicans and Vitex glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Prathan; Umehara, Kaoru; Miyase, Toshio; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Antiestrogenic compounds were investigated from Thai indigenous plants for galactogogues since estrogen is reported to suppress lactation in breastfeeding women. The aerial parts of the Thai medicinal plant Capparis flavicans, which has traditionally been used to promote lactation, gave the new compound capparoside A (1), along with 28 known compounds. The leaves of Vitex glabrata belong to the same genus as the chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), which is used traditionally to support lactation, and afforded the new compounds khainaoside A (14), khainaoside B (15), and khainaoside C (16), together with six known compounds. The isolates were tested for their biological activity using the estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. Syringaresinol (3) and principin (6), from C. flavicans, and khainaoside A (14) showed the most potent inhibitory effects on estrogen-enhanced cell proliferation among all compounds isolated. These results suggest that the lactation-promoting properties of C. flavicans might be related to the inhibitory effect on excess estrogen of women who experience insufficient breastfeeding and highlight the possibility of using V. glabrata leaves for their antiestrogenic properties.

  18. Genotyping of the MTL loci and susceptibility to two antifungal agents of Candida glabrata clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Lavaniegos-Sobrino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is the second most common isolate from bloodstream infections worldwide and is naturally less susceptible to the antifungal drug fluconazole than other Candida species. C. glabrata is a haploid yeast that contains three mating-type like loci (MTL, although no sexual cycle has been described. Strains containing both types of mating information at the MTL1 locus are found in clinical isolates, but it is thought that strains containing type a information are more common. Here we investigated if a particular combination of mating type information at each MTLlocus is more prevalent in clinical isolates from hospitalized patients in Mexico and if there is a correlation between mating information and resistance to fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. We found that while both types of information at MTL1 are equally represented in a collection of 64 clinical isolates, the vast majority of isolates contain a-type information at MTL2 and α-type at MTL3. We also found no correlation of the particular combination of mating type information at the three MTL loci and resistance to fluconazole.

  19. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  20. Do pioneers have r-selected traits? Life history patterns among colonizing terrestrial gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J; Baur, B

    1993-05-01

    We examine whether pioneer species of terrestrial gastropods (snails and slugs) possess particular life history traits commonly associated with r-selection, using data on gastropod colonization in four areas in north-west Europe (the Kvarken and Tvärminne archipelagos in the Baltic, polder woods in IJsselmeer, and a rehabilitated quarry near Maastricht). Data on age at first reproduction, longevity, clutch size, egg size and lifetime fecundity were gathered from the literature. In order to control for potentially confounding effects of body size on life history traits, we compared the residuals from the allometric relations between life history traits and body size for pioneers and non-pioneers. In snails, all life history traits examined were related to body size. In slugs, all traits except age at first reproduction scaled with body size. Body sizes did not differ between pioneers and non-pioneers in any area. In all four areas, there were no significant differences between pioneers and non-pioneers in any of the life history traits examined, after body size had been taken into account. This indicates that pioneer terrestrial gastropods generally cannot be regarded as r-selected. Pioneer species may possess any of several life history strategies, and the combinations of traits shown by them may have little in common with the r-K selection concept.

  1. Fluconazole affects the alkali-metal-cation homeostasis and susceptibility to cationic toxic compounds of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicharova, Hana; Sychrova, Hana

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata is a salt-tolerant and fluconazole (FLC)-resistant yeast species. Here, we analyse the contribution of plasma-membrane alkali-metal-cation exporters, a cation/proton antiporter and a cation ATPase to cation homeostasis and the maintenance of membrane potential (ΔΨ). Using a series of single and double mutants lacking CNH1 and/or ENA1 genes we show that the inability to export potassium and toxic alkali-metal cations leads to a slight hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane of C. glabrata cells; this hyperpolarization drives more cations into the cells and affects cation homeostasis. Surprisingly, a much higher hyperpolarization of C. glabrata plasma membrane was produced by incubating cells with subinhibitory concentrations of FLC. FLC treatment resulted in a substantially increased sensitivity of cells to various cationic drugs and toxic cations that are driven into the cell by negative-inside plasma-membrane potential. The effect of the combination of FLC plus cationic drug treatment was enhanced by the malfunction of alkali-metal-cation transporters that contribute to the regulation of membrane potential and cation homeostasis. In summary, we show that the combination of subinhibitory concentrations of FLC and cationic drugs strongly affects the growth of C. glabrata cells. © 2014 The Authors.

  2. Interactions between Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in biofilms: Influence of the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosida, Thayse Yumi; Cavazana, Thamires Priscila; Henriques, Mariana; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Monteiro, Douglas Roberto

    2018-04-01

    The relationship among Candida species may be influenced by several factors. Thus, this study evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in biofilms, varying the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation. Biofilms were formed for 48 hours in Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB) or RPMI 1640, supplemented with 0%, 1% or 5% glucose. Each strain of C. albicans was combined with two strains of C. glabrata, generating four biofilm associations, which were quantified by colony-forming units (CFUs), total biomass and metabolic activity. Data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05). For CFUs, all associations were classified as indifferent for biofilms formed in RPMI 1640, while for SDB the interactions were antagonistic for C. albicans and indifferent for C. glabrata. The association of reference strains resulted in a dual-species biofilm with biomass significantly higher than that observed for each single biofilm developed in SDB. The metabolic activity of dual-species biofilms did not significantly differ from that found for single ones, except for co-culture of the reference strains. Glucose supplementation and culture media had a significant influence on all parameters. In conclusion, the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation influenced the interactions between C. albicans and C. glabrata. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Evaluation of impairment of DNA in marine gastropod, Morula granulata as a biomarker of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A; Bhagat, Jacky; Sarker, Subhodeep

    2014-08-01

    The impairment of DNA in marine gastropod Morula granulata was evaluated in terms of the loss of DNA integrity in the species as a measure of the impact of genotoxic contaminants prevalent in the marine environment along the coast of Goa, India. The extent of DNA damage occurred in the marine gastropods collected from different sampling sites such as Arambol, Anjuna, Sinquerim, Dona Paula, Bogmalo, Hollant, Velsao, Betul and Palolem along the coast of Goa was measured following the technique of partial alkaline unwinding as well as comet assays. The highest DNA integrity was observed at Arambol (F, 0.75), identified as the reference site, whereas the lowest DNA integrity at Hollant (F, 0.33) situated between the two most contaminated sites at Bogmalo and Velsao. The impact of genotoxic contaminants on marine gastropods was pronounced by their low DNA integrity at Sinquerim (F, 0.40) followed by Betul (F, 0.47), Velsao (F, 0.51), Anjuna (F, 0.54), Bogmalo (F, 0.55), Dona Paula (F, 0.67) and Palolem (F, 0.70). The extent of DNA damage occurred in M. granulata due to ecotoxicological impact of the prevailing marine pollutants along the coast of Goa was further substantiated by comet assay and expressed in terms of %head-DNA, %tail DNA, tail length and Olive tail moment. The single cell gel electrophoresis of M. granulata clearly showed relatively higher olive tail moment in the marine gastropod from the contaminated sites, Anjuna, Hollant, Velsao and Betul. The variation in the mean %head DNA at different sampling sites clearly indicated that the extent of DNA damage in marine gastropod increases with the increase in the levels of contamination at different sampling sites along the coast. The stepwise multiple regression analysis of the water quality parameters showed significant correlation between the variation in DNA integrity and PAH in combination with NO3, salinity and PO4 (R¯(2), 0.90). The measurement of DNA integrity in M. granulata thus provides an early

  4. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S Y; Cheah, Y K; Seow, H F; Sandai, D; Than, L T L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. © 2015 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Competitive Interactions between C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei during Biofilm Formation and Development of Experimental Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; dos Santos, Jéssica Diane; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in mixed infections. Initially, these interactions were studied in biofilms formed in vitro. CFU/mL values of C. albicans were lower in mixed biofilms when compared to the single biofilms, verifying 77% and 89% of C. albicans reduction when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. After that, we expanded this study for in vivo host models of experimental candidiasis. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic Candida suspensions for analysis of survival rate and quantification of fungal cells in the haemolymph. In the groups with single infections, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h after infection with C. albicans. However, interaction groups achieved 100% mortality after 72 h of infection by C. albicans-C. glabrata and 96 h of infection by C. albicans-C. krusei. C. albicans CFU/mL values from larvae hemolymph were lower in the interacting groups compared with the monoespecies group after 12 h of infection. In addition, immunosuppressed mice were also inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic microbial suspensions to induce oral candidiasis. C. albicans CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were higher in the group with single infection by C. albicans than the groups with mixed infections by C. albicans-C. glabrata and C. albicans-C. krusei. Moreover, the group with single infection by C. albicans had a higher degree of hyphae and epithelial changes in the tongue dorsum than the groups with mixed infections. We concluded that single infections by C. albicans were more harmful for animal models than mixed infections with non-albicans species, suggesting that C. albicans establish competitive interactions with C. krusei and C. glabrata during biofilm formation and development of experimental candidiasis. PMID:26146832

  6. Competitive Interactions between C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei during Biofilm Formation and Development of Experimental Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; dos Santos, Jéssica Diane; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in mixed infections. Initially, these interactions were studied in biofilms formed in vitro. CFU/mL values of C. albicans were lower in mixed biofilms when compared to the single biofilms, verifying 77% and 89% of C. albicans reduction when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. After that, we expanded this study for in vivo host models of experimental candidiasis. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic Candida suspensions for analysis of survival rate and quantification of fungal cells in the haemolymph. In the groups with single infections, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h after infection with C. albicans. However, interaction groups achieved 100% mortality after 72 h of infection by C. albicans-C. glabrata and 96 h of infection by C. albicans-C. krusei. C. albicans CFU/mL values from larvae hemolymph were lower in the interacting groups compared with the monoespecies group after 12 h of infection. In addition, immunosuppressed mice were also inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic microbial suspensions to induce oral candidiasis. C. albicans CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were higher in the group with single infection by C. albicans than the groups with mixed infections by C. albicans-C. glabrata and C. albicans-C. krusei. Moreover, the group with single infection by C. albicans had a higher degree of hyphae and epithelial changes in the tongue dorsum than the groups with mixed infections. We concluded that single infections by C. albicans were more harmful for animal models than mixed infections with non-albicans species, suggesting that C. albicans establish competitive interactions with C. krusei and C. glabrata during biofilm formation and development of experimental candidiasis.

  7. Candida krusei and Candida glabrata reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans by downregulating expression of HWP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Freire, Fernanda; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2017-07-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is associated with its capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth. The hyphal form is capable to penetrate the epithelial surfaces and to damage the host tissues. Therefore, many investigations have focused on mechanisms that control the morphological transitions of C. albicans. Recently, certain studies have showed that non-albicans Candida species can reduce the capacity of C. albicans to form biofilms and to develop candidiasis in animal models. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on the morphogenesis of C. albicans. Firstly, the capacity of reference and clinical strains of C. albicans in forming hyphae was tested in vitro. After that, the expression of HWP1 (hyphal wall protein 1) gene was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay. For both reference and clinical strains, a significant inhibition of the hyphae formation was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of C. krusei or C. glabrata compared to the control group composed only by C. albicans. In addition, the culture mixed of C. albicans-C. krusei or C. albicans-C. glabrata reduced significantly the expression of HWP1 gene of C. albicans in relation to single cultures of this specie. In both filamentation and gene expression assays, C. krusei showed the higher inhibitory activity on the morphogenesis of C. albicans compared to C. glabrata. C. krusei and C. glabrata are capable to reduce the filamentation of C. albicans and consequently decrease the expression of the HWP1 gene.

  8. Synergistic anticandidal activity of menthol in combination with itraconazole and nystatin against clinical Candida glabrata and Candida krusei isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Tari, Paria Samadi

    2017-06-01

    Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) and C. krusei are now emerging as serious hospital acquired infections in immunocompromised patients. Menthol, a terpenic compound, has been reported to have antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates. The effects of menthol along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was determined for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations using the checkerboard method. The mean of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of menthol, nystatin and itraconazole were 53.2, 2.30 and 1.50 μg/ml for C. glabrata isolates and 121, 1.08 and 0.38 μg/ml for C. krusei isolates, respectively. Menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin exhibited the synergistic effects against all species of Candida tested. FICI values for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations ranged from 0.250 to 0.561 and 0.139 to 0.623 for C. glabrata isolates, and 0.182 to 0.750 and 0.188 to 0.760 for C. krusei, respectively. These results support the potential use of menthol as an anticandidal agent, and it can be used complementarily with other conventional antifungal agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Heslet, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consecutive Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a patient in an intensive care unit were resistant to amphotericin B (minimum inhibitory concentration, up to 32 mu g/mL; determined by Etest [AB Biodisk]). Analyses at the national reference laboratory showed that some isolates were...... also resistant to azoles and caspofungin. In this study, 4 isolates were studied thoroughly using susceptibility assays and a mouse model and to determine clonality. METHODS: Different broth microdilution tests, Etests, and time-kill studies for antifungals were performed in different media. Three...... isolates obtained from nonrelated patients, and a reference strain. RESULTS: The murine model indicated that 1 isolate was resistant to amphotericin B, 1 had intermediate susceptibility, and 1 was fully susceptible. Two of the 3 isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Microdilution methods did not reliably...

  10. Structure of gastropod communities at mangrove ecosystem in Lubuk Kertang village, West Berandan District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manullang, T.; Bakti, D.; Leidonald, R.

    2018-02-01

    Gastropod was one of the class from mollusca in mangrove ecosystem. Lubuk Kertang Village’s mangrove forest was been converted into tourist areas, agricultural land and settlements. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of gastropods at Avicennia lanata, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba. This research was conducted at Lubuk Kertang Village in February-March 2017. Gastropod were collected in 1 m × 1 m transect in mangrove. Examples of biota were taken by using shovel, then the biota was inserted into a plastic bag sample, wrote date of sampling and identified. The results showed there were 15 species Gastropods, namely Achatina fulica, Cerithidea alata, Cerithidea cingulata, Cerithidea obtusa, Chicoreus capucinus, Cymatium pileare, Ellobium aurimisdae, Ellobium aurisjudae, Littoraria melanostoma, Littoraria scabra, Murex tribulus, Nerita balteata, Nerita planospira, Pugilina cochlidium, Stramonita gradata, Telescopium telescopium and Terebralia sulcata. Diversity index ranged 1.702 to 2.165 was in medium category, Similarity index ranged 0.676 to 0.799 was in low category and Dominance index ranged 0.142 to 0.282 that categorized was low. The highest gastropod density was 31 individuals/m2 in the Sonneratia alba. The conclusion of the research is the existing mangrove ecosystem in Lubuk Kertang Village in a stable state.

  11. Tributyltin bioaccumulation and toxic effects in freshwater gastropods Pomacea canaliculata after a chronic exposure: field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María L; Piol, María N; Sbarbati Nudelman, Norma; Verrengia Guerrero, Noemí R

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater samples and gastropod mollusks (Pomacea canaliculata) were collected at 5 sampling stations located along the lower Río de la Plata basin, Argentina, to assess the extent of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Determined data revealed the presence of TBT and some of its breakdown products (dibutyltin: DBT, and monobutyltin: MBT) in all freshwater samples and also in soft tissues of P. canaliculata gastropods. Chronic bioassays (6 months) were performed using female gastropods that had been reared under laboratory conditions and exposed to a similar TBT concentration than the value determined in freshwater samples (1 µg L -1 ). The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of TBT accumulation, the tissue distribution, and the effects on selected biomarkers (activity of superoxide dismutasa: SOD, activity of catalase: CAT, levels of total glutathione: t-GSH, lipid peroxidation, and activity of acetylcholinesterase: AChE). Gonads presented the highest accumulation, followed by the cephalopedal region, albumin gland, and finally hepatopancreas. Both metabolites, DBT and MBT, were also found. All exposed female animals presented development of a penis reflecting the potential of TBT as an endocrine disrupting chemical for this gastropod species. Results on the selected biomarkers confirmed additional adverse effects induced by TBT. An increase in CAT activity and changes in t-GSH levels are indicative of alterations on the cellular redox status. The inhibition of AChE could reflect signs of neurotoxicity. Altogether, these results reveal a negative impact on the health of this gastropod population.

  12. Freshwater gastropods of Neogene and Quaternary lake systems of Europe - state of the art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Globally, about 4000 extant species of freshwater gastropod species have been described. In contrast, only 225 species are listed by MollBase2012 for North- and Central Europe. Many of these are rare species, limited to certain springs and in fact the typical diversity of gastropods in lakes of North and Central Europe is much lower. The high number is boosted by several highly speciose endemic radiations in long-lived ancient lakes, which are hotspots for biodiversity. These long-lived ancient lakes provide key examples for understanding evolutionary processes and therefore are intensively studied. During the Neogene, Europe's geodynamic history gave rise to several such long-lived lakes with conspicuous endemic radiations. However, these lacustrine systems are rare today as well as in the past compared to the enormous numbers of "normal" lakes. Most extant European lakes are mainly results of the Ice Ages and are due to their geologically temporary nature largely confined to the Pleistocene-Holocene. Also deposits of streams, springs, and groundwater, which today are inhabited by species-rich gastropod assemblages, are rarely preserved. Thus, the pre-Quaternary lacustrine record is biased towards long-lived systems. Apart from few general overviews precise studies on the γ-diversities of the post-Oligocene European lake systems and the shifting biodiversity in European freshwater systems through space and time are entirely missing. Even for the modern faunas, literature on large-scale freshwater gastropod diversity in extant lakes is scarce and lacks a statistical approach. Building upon a great amount of existing literature, a new project will provide the first detailed assessment of the composition of European freshwater gastropods during the Neogene and Quaternary at species, genus and family levels, with emphasis on lake faunas. The γ-diversity of several hundred modern and fossil European lakes will be evaluated. Data will be made available permanently for

  13. Increasing sea surface temperature and range shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical range of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution range of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and range of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution ranges were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water temperature was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface temperature along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water temperature or changes on their distributional range or abundance, along the temperature gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution range while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water temperature. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal temperatures might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it

  14. Evidence of trophic transfer of microcystins from the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to the fish Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Petit, Anais; Sanchez, Wilfried; Paty, Christelle; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    According to our previous results the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria accumulates microcystins (MCs) both as free and covalently bound forms in its tissues, therefore representing a potential risk of MC transfer through the food web. This study demonstrates in a laboratory experiment the transfer of free and bound MCs from L. stagnalis intoxicated by MC-producing Planktothrix agardhii ingestion to the fish Gasterosteus aculeatus. Fish were fed during five days with digestive glands of L. stagnalis containing various concentrations of free and bound MCs, then with toxin-free digestive glands during a 5-day depuration period. MC accumulation was measured in gastropod digestive gland and in various fish organs (liver, muscle, kidney, and gills). The impact on fish was evaluated through detoxification enzyme (glutathion-S-transferase, glutathion peroxydase and superoxyde dismutase) activities, hepatic histopathology, and modifications in gill ventilation, feeding and locomotion. G. aculeatus ingestion rate was similar with intoxicated and toxin-free diet. Fish accumulated MCs (up to 3.96±0.14μgg -1 DW) in all organs and in decreasing order in liver, muscle, kidney and gills. Hepatic histopathology was moderate. Glutathion peroxydase was activated in gills during intoxication suggesting a slight reactive oxygen species production, but without any impact on gill ventilation. Intoxication via ingestion of MC-intoxicated snails impacted fish locomotion. Intoxicated fish remained significantly less mobile than controls during the intoxication period possibly due to a lower health condition, whereas they showed a greater mobility during the depuration period that might be related to an acute foraging for food. During depuration, MC elimination was total in gills and kidney, but partial in liver and muscle. Our results assess the MC transfer from gastropods to fish and the potential risk induced by bound MCs in the food web. Copyright

  15. Some ecological aspects and potential threats to an intertidal gastropod, Umbonium vestiarium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Sen, A.

    geographic range. Several trochid species such as, Umbonium costatum from Japan (Noda et al., 1995) and Astrea undosa from Mexico (Belmar- Perez et al., 1993) spawn twice a year. Incomplete spawning for a number of gastropods has been reported (Ramesh et al... and reproductive cycle of wavy turban snail (Astrea undosa Wood, 1828; Gastropoda: Turbinidae) in Bahai Tortugas, BCS. Anales del Instituto de Ciencias del Mary Limnologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 18, 169–87 (1993). Berry, A.J. and Bin O. Zamri...

  16. Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terence P T; Saltin, Sara H; Davies, Mark S; Johannesson, Kerstin; Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A

    2013-08-01

    Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for trail-following in gastropods. Data from over 30 genera are currently available, representing a broad taxonomic range living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The emerging picture is that the production of mucus trails, which initially was an adaptation to facilitate locomotion and/or habitat extension, has evolved to facilitate a multitude of additional functions. Trail-following supports homing behaviours, and provides simple mechanisms for self-organisation in groups of snails, promoting aggregation and thus relieving desiccation and predation pressures. In gastropods that copulate, trail-following is an important component in mate-searching, either as an alternative, or in addition to the release of water- or air-borne pheromones. In some species, this includes a capacity of males not only to identify trails of conspecifics but also to discriminate between trails laid by females and males. Notably, trail discrimination seems important as a pre-zygotic barrier to mating in some snail species. As production of a mucus trail is the most costly component of snail locomotion, it is also tempting to speculate that evolution has given rise to various ways to compensate for energy losses. Some snails, for example, increase energy intake by eating particles attached to the mucus of trails that they follow, whereas others save energy through reducing the production of their own mucus by moving over previously laid mucus trails. Trail-following to locate a prey item or a mate is also a way to save energy. While the rationale for trail-following in many cases appears clear, the basic mechanisms of trail

  17. New porcellioidean gastropods from early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.; Lenz, A.C.; Manda, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  18. The South-American distribution and southernmost record of Biomphalaria peregrina—a potential intermediate host of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rumi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major parasitic disease, endemic in large parts of South America. Five neotropical species of Biomphalaria have been found to act as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in natural populations, while others have been shown to be susceptible in experimental infections, although not found infected in the field. Among these potential intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria peregrina represents the most widespread species in South America, with confirmed occurrence records from Venezuela to northern Patagonia. In this study, we report the southernmost record for the species at the Pinturas River, in southern Patagonia, which finding implies a southward reassessment of the limit for the known species of this genus. The identities of the individuals from this population were confirmed through morphological examination, and by means of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S-rRNA. With both markers, phylogenetic analyses were conducted in order to compare the genetic background of individuals from the Pinturas River with previously genetically characterized strains of B. peregrina from various South-American locations. In addition, we produced a potential distribution model of B. peregrina in South America and identified the environmental variables that best predict that distribution. The model was estimated through a maximum entropy algorithm and run with occurrence points obtained from several sources, including the scientific literature and international databases, along with climatic and hydrographic variables. Different phylogenetic analyses with either the COI or 16S-rRNA sequences did not conflict, but rather gave very similar topological organizations. Two major groups were identified, with sequences from the Pinturas River grouping together with haplotypes from subtropical and temperate regions. The model developed had a satisfactory performance for the study area. We observed that the areas

  19. Fluconazole Resistance Associated with Drug Efflux and Increased Transcription of a Drug Transporter Gene, PDH1, in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Haruko; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Geber, Antonia; Parkinson, Tanya; Hitchcock, Christopher; Falconer, Derek J.; Ward, Douglas J.; Marsden, Katherine; Bennett, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Sequential Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the mouth of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 who was receiving high doses of fluconazole for oropharyngeal thrush. Fluconazole-susceptible colonies were replaced by resistant colonies that exhibited both increased fluconazole efflux and increased transcripts of a gene which codes for a protein with 72.5% identity to Pdr5p, an ABC multidrug transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced protein had a molecular mass of 175 kDa and was composed of two homologous halves, each with six putative transmembrane domains and highly conserved sequences of ATP-binding domains. When the earliest and most azole-susceptible isolate of C. glabrata from this patient was exposed to fluconazole, increased transcripts of the PDR5 homolog appeared, linking azole exposure to regulation of this gene. PMID:9661006

  20. Bird attributes, plant characteristics, and seed dispersal of Pera glabrata (Schott, 1858), (Euphorbiaceae) in a disturbed cerrado area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, M R; Lunardi, V O; Galetti, M

    2007-11-01

    Several plant characteristics, such as fruit production, nutrient reward, secondary compounds, and fruit color display, affect fruit choice by birds. On the other hand, several bird attributes affect their efficiency as dispersers. Here we investigate the ornithochoric seed dispersal of Pera glabrata Schott (Euphorbiaceae) in a cerrado fragment in southeastern Brazil. A set of bird attributes, such as frequency of visits, number of diaspores eaten, time spent foraging, methods of taking and handling the diaspores and agonistic interactions were analyzed in order to infer about the potential of each species to act as a seed disperser. Birds were the unique seed dispersers of these oil-rich diaspores. We observed 414 bird visits during 60 hours of focal observations in five trees from December 1999 to January 2000. Twenty bird species from seven families ate the diaspores of P. glabrata, but only 14 species were considered potential seed dispersers because they swallowed the diaspores, increasing the probabilities for the seeds to be defecated and/or regurgitated away from the parent trees. The main potential seed dispersers were: Turdus leucomelas (Muscicapidae), Dacnis cayana (Emberizidae), Colaptes melanochloros (Picidae) and Elaenia spp. (Tyrannidae). We did not find any significant seasonal change in the number of visits on the fruiting trees throughout the day. We also did not find any relation between the number of visits per tree and fruit production. The most effective seed dispersers of P. glabrata were generalist birds, which have a high visiting rate, high fruit consumption rate, and spend short periods on the plants. The large number of species recorded as potential seed dispersers of P. glabrata, being most of them very abundant even in Brazilian disturbed areas, may guarantee seed dispersal of this plant in small fragments and regenerating areas.

  1. Differentiation of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei by FT-IR and chemometrics by CHROMagar™ Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmeister, Denise; Vianna, Débora Renz Barreto; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Calil, Luciane Noal; Buffon, Andréia; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Pilger, Diogo André

    2017-10-01

    Pathogenic Candida species are detected in clinical infections. CHROMagar™ is a phenotypical method used to identify Candida species, although it has limitations, which indicates the need for more sensitive and specific techniques. Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an analytical vibrational technique used to identify patterns of metabolic fingerprint of biological matrixes, particularly whole microbial cell systems as Candida sp. in association of classificatory chemometrics algorithms. On the other hand, Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) is one of the typical algorithms still little employed in microbiological classification. This study demonstrates the applicability of the FT-IR-technique by specular reflectance associated with SIMCA to discriminate Candida species isolated from vaginal discharges and grown on CHROMagar™. The differences in spectra of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei were suitable for use in the discrimination of these species, which was observed by PCA. Then, a SIMCA model was constructed with standard samples of three species and using the spectral region of 1792-1561cm -1 . All samples (n=48) were properly classified based on the chromogenic method using CHROMagar™ Candida. In total, 93.4% (n=45) of the samples were correctly and unambiguously classified (Class I). Two samples of C. albicans were classified correctly, though these could have been C. glabrata (Class II). Also, one C. glabrata sample could have been classified as C. krusei (Class II). Concerning these three samples, one triplicate of each was included in Class II and two in Class I. Therefore, FT-IR associated with SIMCA can be used to identify samples of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei grown in CHROMagar™ Candida aiming to improve clinical applications of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluconazole affects the alkali-metal-cation homeostasis and susceptibility to cationic toxic compounds of Candida glabrata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elicharová, Hana; Sychrová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 8 (2014), s. 1705-1713 ISSN 1350-0872 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/1151; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Candida glabrata * fluconazole * membrane potential Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  3. One small step for a yeast--microevolution within macrophages renders Candida glabrata hypervirulent due to a single point mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Brunke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is one of the most common causes of candidemia, a life-threatening, systemic fungal infection, and is surpassed in frequency only by Candida albicans. Major factors contributing to the success of this opportunistic pathogen include its ability to readily acquire resistance to antifungals and to colonize and adapt to many different niches in the human body. Here we addressed the flexibility and adaptability of C. glabrata during interaction with macrophages with a serial passage approach. Continuous co-incubation of C. glabrata with a murine macrophage cell line for over six months resulted in a striking alteration in fungal morphology: The growth form changed from typical spherical yeasts to pseudohyphae-like structures - a phenotype which was stable over several generations without any selective pressure. Transmission electron microscopy and FACS analyses showed that the filamentous-like morphology was accompanied by changes in cell wall architecture. This altered growth form permitted faster escape from macrophages and increased damage of macrophages. In addition, the evolved strain (Evo showed transiently increased virulence in a systemic mouse infection model, which correlated with increased organ-specific fungal burden and inflammatory response (TNFα and IL-6 in the brain. Similarly, the Evo mutant significantly increased TNFα production in the brain on day 2, which is mirrored in macrophages confronted with the Evo mutant, but not with the parental wild type. Whole genome sequencing of the Evo strain, genetic analyses, targeted gene disruption and a reverse microevolution experiment revealed a single nucleotide exchange in the chitin synthase-encoding CHS2 gene as the sole basis for this phenotypic alteration. A targeted CHS2 mutant with the same SNP showed similar phenotypes as the Evo strain under all experimental conditions tested. These results indicate that microevolutionary processes in host-simulative conditions

  4. Bioerosion of gastropod shells: with emphasis on effects of coralline algal cover and shell microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Miriam J.

    1989-12-01

    Organisms boring into fifty nine species of gastropod shells on reefs around Guam were the bryozoan Penetrantia clionoides; the acrothoracian barnacles Cryptophialus coronorphorus, Cryptophialus zulloi and Lithoglyptis mitis; the foraminifer Cymbaloporella tabellaeformis, the polydorid Polydora sp. and seven species of clionid sponge. Evidence that crustose coralline algae interfere with settlement of larvae of acrothoracian barnacles, clionid sponges, and boring polychaetes came from two sources: (1) low intensity of boring in limpet shells, a potentially penetrable substrate that remains largely free of borings by virtue of becoming fully covered with coralline algae at a young age and (2) the extremely low levels of boring in the algal ridge, a massive area of carbonate almost entirely covered by a layer of living crustose corallines. There was a strong negative correlation between microstructural hardness and infestation by acrothoracian barnacles and no correlation in the case of the other borers. It is suggested that this points to a mechanical rather than a chemical method of boring by the barnacles. The periostracum, a layer of organic material reputedly a natural inhibitor of boring organisms, was bored by acrothoracican barnacles and by the bryozoan. The intensity of acrothoracican borings is shown to have no correlation with the length of the gastropod shell.

  5. Traces (ichnospecies Oichnus paraboloides of predatory gastropods on bivalve shells from the Seogwipo Formation, Jejudo, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal-Yong Kong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Circular to subcircular drill holes were identified on the bivalve shells collected from the Seogwipo Formation, Jejudo, Korea. A great majority of the drill holes (>70% were found on the surfaces of a bivalve species Glycymeris rotunda. They are characterized by a beveled sharp edge and paraboloid in cross section with larger outer borehole diameter (OBD; mean 4.21 mm and smaller inner borehole diameter (mean 2.94 mm. Walls of the drill holes are generally smooth, and walls ornamented with etched relief-like structures were also recognized. A slightly raised central boss observed in an incomplete specimen may indicate a failure of predator’s attack. All drill holes collected are classified as a single ichnospecies Oichnus paraboloides Bromley, 1981. They are interpreted as boring traces produced by predatory gastropods, particularly naticid gastropods. Most O. paraboloides boreholes are observed in the central area of shell surfaces; a few boreholes lie marginally, which may reflect a borehole-site selectivity. No correlation between size of prey (shell height and size of predator (OBD is recognized. It is likely, however, that drilled shells of about 30 mm in height represent optimal prey size for naticid predators that lived in a benthic Seogwipo community.

  6. Testosterone-Fatty Acid esterification: a unique target for the endocrine toxicity of tributyltin to gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Gerald A; Gooding, Meredith P; Sternberg, Robin M

    2005-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, a global occurrence of sexual aberration has occurred whereby females among populations of prosobranch snails exhibit male sex characteristics. This condition, called imposex, has been causally associated with exposure to the biocide tributyltin. Tributyltin-exposed, imposex snails typically have elevated levels of testosterone which have led to the postulate that this endocrine dysfunction is responsible for imposex. This overview describes recent evidence that supports this postulate. Gastropods maintain circulating testosterone levels and administration of testosterone to females or castrates stimulates male sex differentiation in several snail species. Studies in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta) have shown that gastropods utilize a unique strategy for regulating free testosterone levels. Excess testosterone is converted to fatty acid esters by the action of a testosterone-inducible, high capacity/low affinity enzyme, acyl-CoA:testosterone acyl transferase, and stored within the organisms. Free testosterone levels are regulated during the reproductive cycle apparently due to changes in esterification/desterification suggesting that testosterone functions in the reproductive cycle of the organisms. Testosterone esterification provides a unique target in the testosterone regulatory machinery of snails that is altered by tributyltin. Indeed, imposex and free testosterone levels were elevated in field collected snails containing high tin levels, while testosterone-fatty acid ester pools were reduced in these organisms. These observations indicate that tributyltin elevates free testosterone by reducing the retention of testosterone as fatty acid-esters. This endocrine effect of tributyltin may be responsible for imposex.

  7. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw - SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-06

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc-snail and SCoica-mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain-Snail-is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5' end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves-extending the distribution range of this superfamily. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  9. Effect of cadmium and zinc on antioxidant enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Rashmi; Sivakumar, A A; Mohandass, S; Aruchami, M

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal stress results in the production of O(2)(.-), H(2)O(2) and (.)OH, which affect various cellular processes, mostly the functioning of membrane systems. Cells are normally protected against free oxyradicals by the operation of intricate antioxidant systems. The aim of the present work is to examine the effect of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4) on antioxidative enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)--and nonenzymatic antioxidants--glutathione and vitamin-C--were found to be decreased in both digestive gland and kidney of the gastropod, Achatina fulica treated with individual concentrations of 0.5 ppm and 1ppm of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4), compared to that of control animals. Based on the above study, it is evident that Achatina fulica can be used as a bioindicator to monitor the environmental heavy metal pollution.

  10. The gastropod shell has been co-opted to kill parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, R

    2017-07-06

    Exoskeletons have evolved 18 times independently over 550 MYA and are essential for the success of the Gastropoda. The gastropod shell shows a vast array of different sizes, shapes and structures, and is made of conchiolin and calcium carbonate, which provides protection from predators and extreme environmental conditions. Here, I report that the gastropod shell has another function and has been co-opted as a defense system to encase and kill parasitic nematodes. Upon infection, cells on the inner layer of the shell adhere to the nematode cuticle, swarm over its body and fuse it to the inside of the shell. Shells of wild Cepaea nemoralis, C. hortensis and Cornu aspersum from around the U.K. are heavily infected with several nematode species including Caenorhabditis elegans. By examining conchology collections I show that nematodes are permanently fixed in shells for hundreds of years and that nematode encapsulation is a pleisomorphic trait, prevalent in both the achatinoid and non-achatinoid clades of the Stylommatophora (and slugs and shelled slugs), which diverged 90-130 MYA. Taken together, these results show that the shell also evolved to kill parasitic nematodes and this is the only example of an exoskeleton that has been co-opted as an immune system.

  11. Positive selection and propeptide repeats promote rapid interspecific divergence of a gastropod sperm protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, M E; Moy, G W; Vacquier, V D

    2000-03-01

    Male-specific proteins have increasingly been reported as targets of positive selection and are of special interest because of the role they may play in the evolution of reproductive isolation. We report the rapid interspecific divergence of cDNA encoding a major acrosomal protein of unknown function (TMAP) of sperm from five species of teguline gastropods. A mitochondrial DNA clock (calibrated by congeneric species divided by the Isthmus of Panama) estimates that these five species diverged 2-10 MYA. Inferred amino acid sequences reveal a propeptide that has diverged rapidly between species. The mature protein has diverged faster still due to high nonsynonymous substitution rates (> 25 nonsynonymous substitutions per site per 10(9) years). cDNA encoding the mature protein (89-100 residues) shows evidence of positive selection (Dn/Ds > 1) for 4 of 10 pairwise species comparisons. cDNA and predicted secondary-structure comparisons suggest that TMAP is neither orthologous nor paralogous to abalone lysin, and thus marks a second, phylogenetically independent, protein subject to strong positive selection in free-spawning marine gastropods. In addition, an internal repeat in one species (Tegula aureotincta) produces a duplicated cleavage site which results in two alternatively processed mature proteins differing by nine amino acid residues. Such alternative processing may provide a mechanism for introducing novel amino acid sequence variation at the amino-termini of proteins. Highly divergent TMAP N-termini from two other tegulines (Tegula regina and Norrisia norrisii) may have originated by such a mechanism.

  12. Ecological and geographical characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells of the river Uzh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Korniichuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater molluscs serve as test objects in the ecological monitoring of the environment, because they are able to extract in indicator quantity from the environment and accumulate in their bodies radionuclides, various macro- and micronutrients, toxic substances of inorganic and organic origin, and so on. The gastropods are a taxonomically diverse, ecologically plastic and rather widespread group of aquatic organisms, whose role in the life of freshwater ecosystems is very important. Molluscs often have various interactions in biogeocenoses that determines their trophic net. As a rule, these interactions occur in the form of ectocommensalism, endocommensalism, supercrescence, predation or parasitism. The latter type of interaction is the subject of many studies, but the epibionts of gastropods and bivalves have practically not been studied and this research is an effort towards filling this gap. Species composition of algal epibionts identifies specific sensitivity to the effects of certain environmental factors and reflects the processes occurring in their ecosystem water bodies. This determines their efficient use for analyzing changes of water bodies as aquatic habitat, particularly in terms of complex anthropogenic pressure on aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the research was to determine the ecological characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells: Lymnaea stagnalis, L. auricularia and Viviparus viviparus (the Uzh river, Korosten district, Zhytomyr region. Identified microalgae communities were grouped and studied according to such indices as: confinedness to the habitat (substrate, temperature, fluidity and water oxygenating, saprobiological characteristics according to the Pantle-Buck system in the modification of Sladecek and Watanabe, salinity according to Kolbe’s system, pH at Hustedt scale in the interpretation of M. M. Davydova and geographical limitations of the objects of study. Algal fouling on the shells L. stagnalis

  13. Aspectos imunológicos e parasitológicos em Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni e outros Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Doralice de Souza Luro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.

  14. Evaluation of Chemical and Physical-morphological Factors as Potential Determinants of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848 Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utzinger Jürg

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in five sites along a small perennial river system in south-central Tanzania, which had been identified as the focus for transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in the area. Malacological surveys preceding the study showed a focal distribution of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate host snail of Schistosoma mansoni, the snails being present in three sites but absent from the other two sites. The objective of this study was to evaluate to what extent chemical and/or physical-morphological factors determine the distribution of B. pfeifferi between these five sites. It was found that none of the chemical constituents in the waters examined were outside the tolerance range of B. pfeifferi snails. Moreover, the composition of water from B. pfeifferi-free sites was not different from that in those sites where snails occurred. Furthermore, none of the physical-morphological constituents seemed likely to be a determinant for the absence of B. pfeifferi. In view of these findings, and those of previous studies, it is concluded that the focal distribution of B. pfeifferi cannot be associated with a single environmental factor and is rather the result of more complex interactions of habitat factors

  15. Gastropod-derived haemocyte extracellular traps entrap metastrongyloid larval stages of Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Malin K.; Penagos-Tabares, Felipe; Munoz-Caro, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Background Phagocyte-derived extracellular traps (ETs) were recently demonstrated mainly in vertebrate hosts as an important effector mechanism against invading parasites. In the present study we aimed to characterize gastropod-derived invertebrate extracellular phagocyte trap (InEPT) formation i...

  16. Change of hemoagglutinin and hemolysin titers in hemolymph of gastropod molluscs in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskakov, AV; Polevshchikov, AV; Harazova, AD; Krasnodembskii, EG

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with analysis of changes of the levels of hemoagglutinins (HA) and hemolysins (HL) in hemolymph of three gastropod species, Planorbius corneus, Lymnea stagnalis, and Achatina fulica, in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes (ShE). The levels of HA and HL were determined

  17. Redistribution of carbon flux in Torulopsis glabrata by altering vitamin and calcium level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Yin; Zhu, Yang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Manipulation of cofactor (thiamine, biotin and Ca(2+)) levels as a potential tool to redistribute carbon flux was studied in Torulopsis glabrata. With sub-optimization of vitamin in fermentation medium, the carbon flux was blocked at the key node of pyruvate, and 69 g/L pyruvate was accumulated. Increasing the concentrations of thiamine and biotin could selectively open the valve of carbon flux from pyruvate to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the pyruvate carboxylase (PC) pathway and the channel into the TCA cycle, leading to the over-production of alpha-ketoglutarate. In addition, the activity of PC was enhanced with Ca(2+) present in fermentation medium. By combining high concentration's vitamins and CaCO(3) as the pH buffer, a batch culture was conducted in a 7-L fermentor, with the pyruvate concentration decreased to 21.8 g/L while alpha-ketoglutarate concentration increased to 43.7 g/L. Our study indicated that the metabolic flux could be redistributed to overproduce desired metabolites with manipulating the cofactor levels. Furthermore, the manipulation of vitamin level provided an alternative tool to realize metabolic engineering goals.

  18. Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Drainage of a Spontaneous Candida glabrata Pituitary Abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ben A; Pham, Martin; Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Carmichael, John; Weiss, Martin; Zada, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Noniatrogenic pituitary abscess remains a rare clinical entity, and is the indication for surgery in abscess caused by Candida species, and also provide an intraoperative video showing the endoscopic management of this pathology. A 33-year-old woman presented with headache, hypopituitarism, and vision loss in the setting of diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to have multiple abscesses in the liver, lung, kidney, and uterus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 15-mm cystic sellar mass with restricted diffusion. The patient underwent urgent evacuation of the abscess via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal route, with obvious purulent material filling the sella, later identified as Candida glabrata. Antimicrobial therapy was refined appropriately, and she exhibited significant improvement in neurologic function, although endocrinopathy has persisted. With timely management, including a combination of surgical drainage and appropriate antimicrobial therapy, neurologic outcomes are good in most cases of pituitary abscess; however, endocrinopathy often does not improve. Although most reported cases with identified causative organisms speciate bacteria, some cases are of fungal etiology and require different antimicrobial agents. This further underscores the importance of identifying the causative agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carboxymethylated ɩ-carrageenan conjugated amphotericin B loaded gelatin nanoparticles for treating intracellular Candida glabrata infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, V; Melge, Anu Rohit; Rajan, V K; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R; Gopi Mohan, C

    2018-04-15

    Intercellular Candida glabrata infections are difficult to treat due to poor penetration of drugs into the fungal niche. Delivering amphotericin B (Amp B) into the macrophages where the pathogen inhabits is an effective solution. We are studying the macrophage targeting proficiency of ɩ-carrageenan for the delivery of Amp B using gelatin A nanoparticles (GNPs). The choice of gelatin A was the outcome of in silico inspections where the amino functionalized polymer having the best docking score with Amp B was selected. We prepared a sustained release formulation of amp B loaded carboxymethyl ɩ-carrageenan conjugated gelatin nanoparticles (CMC-Amp B-GNPs) with size 343±12nm and -25±5.3mV zeta potential. The formulations were found to be stable, biocompatible and non-haemolytic. Flow cytometry analysis showed 3 fold higher uptake of CMC-GNPs compared to the GNPs by RAW 264.7 cells. CMC-Amp B-GNPs showed enhanced antifungal activity than bare Amp B and Amp B-GNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: effect on matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Silva, S; Negri, M; Gorup, L F; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different silver nanoparticles (SN) concentrations on the matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. Candida biofilms were developed in 6-well microtiter plates during 48 h. After, these biofilms were exposed to 13.5 or 54 μg SN ml(-1) for 24 h. Then, extracellular matrices were extracted from biofilms and analysed chemically in terms of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA. To investigate the biofilm structure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy were used. SN interfered with the matrix composition of Candida biofilms tested in terms of protein, carbohydrate and DNA, except for the protein content of C. albicans biofilm. By SEM, Candida biofilms treated with SN revealed structural differences, when compared with the control groups. Further, SN showed a trend of agglomeration within the biofilms. Epifluorescence microscopy images suggest that SN induced damage on cell walls of the Candida isolates tested. In general, irrespective of concentration, SN affected the matrix composition and structure of Candida biofilms and these findings may be related to the mechanisms of biocide action of SN. This study reveals new insights about the behaviour of SN when in contact with Candida biofilms. SN may contribute to the development of therapies to prevent or control Candida infections. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria spp. to infection with Schistosoma mansoni in sympatric and allopatric combinations with observations on the genetic variability between snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Osama M S; El-Dafrawy, Shadia M

    2011-08-25

    This investigation was carried out to study the susceptibility of Saudi Biomphalaria arabica to Egyptian Schistosoma mansoni in comparison with the susceptibility of Egyptian Biomphalaria alexandrina to the same parasite. This was in order to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia and to determine the genetic variability between Egyptian B. alexandrina and Saudi Biomphalaria arabica snails. Lab bred Egyptian B. alexandrina and Saudi B. arabica snails were exposed individually to 10 freshly hatched Egyptian S. mansoni miracidia/snail. The mortality rate, infection rate, prepatent period, duration of cercarial shedding and cercariae production per snail were recorded in both the sympatric couple (Egyptian B. alexandrina and Egyptian S. mansoni) and in the allopatric combination (Saudi B. arabica and Egyptian S. mansoni). The results revealed that, the survival rate of snails exposed to Egyptian S. mansoni miracidia at 34th day post-exposure (at first cercarial shedding) was higher in B. arabica than in B. alexandrina. After shedding, the mortality rate was higher in the B. arabica, compared to B. alexandrina. The infection rate was higher in B. arabica than B. alexandrina; the mean of prepatent period was shorter in the B. arabica than in the B. alexandrina. However, the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian snails and the cercarial production per snail was higher in B. alexandrina snails than in B. arabica. To study the genetic variability between B. alexandrina and B. arabica, RAPD-PCR on the genomic DNA of snails was done. RAPD-PCR revealed significant variation between the two snail species. In conclusion, the results suggest that B. arabica can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. mansoni in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, the RAPD-PCR results demonstrated genetic variability between the two species which may be related to the

  2. Diversity and abundance of epibiota on invasive and native estuarine gastropods depend on substratum and salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    ,226 shells representing the common gastropod species in the estuary; Nassarius pauperatus, Bedeva paiva and Batillaria australs from various sites and habitats. Generalized linear models were used to model variability of richness and abundances of common functional groups and species for the above listed...... factors. The five factors accounted for 3-34% of the total deviance explained of the models, with shell type and salinity levels being the only significant factors in nine of 14 models. These results highlight an overwhelming importance of shell type and salinity in explaining estuarine epibiota......Epibiosis is a common life form in estuarine ecosystems, where shell structures in particular, provide important attachment substrate for sessile species. Many studies have quantified variation in epibiota communities against a few environmental factors, but rarely studies have accounted...

  3. The role of MAPK signaling in patterning and establishing axial symmetry in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koop, Demian; Richards, Gemma S; Wanninger, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    , the embryo begins to gastrulate and assumes a bilateral cleavage pattern. Here we inhibit MAPK activation in 3D with U0126 and examine its effect on the formation and patterning of the trochophore, using a suite of territory-specific markers. The head (pretrochal) region appears to maintain quadri...... (D) quadrant is intimately linked with body plan organization and in equally cleaving gastropods occurs when one of the vegetal macromeres makes contact with overlying micromeres and receives an inductive signal that activates a MAPK signaling cascade. Following the induction of the 3D macromere......-radial symmetry in U0126-treated embryos, supporting a role for MAPK signaling in 3D in establishing dorsoventral polarity in this region. Posterior (posttrochal) structures - larval musculature, shell and foot--fail to develop in MAPK inhibited trochophores. Inhibition of 3D specification by an alternative...

  4. Larval trematode infections in freshwater gastropods from the Albufera Natural Park in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, R; Muñoz-Antolí, C; Pérez, M; Esteban, J G

    1998-03-01

    Malacological samplings were made from January 1994 to December 1996 in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) to trace the dynamics of molluscan populations and the prevalence and intensity of infection by larval trematodes. A total of 10,533 freshwater gastropods belonging to seven species (Lymnaea auricularia, L. truncatula, L. palustris, L. peregra, Bithynia tentaculata, Physa acuta and Gyraulus chinensis) was examined, and 110 (1.04%) were found to harbour some of the nine distinguishable types of cercariae, namely four echinostome cercariae (Hypoderaeum conoideum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Euparyphium albuferensis, and Echinostoma sp.), four furcocercous cercariae, and one xiphidiocercous cercaria. This study shows that the composition of the snail and trematode communities may be determined by the particular environmental conditions present and the human intervention in the area.

  5. Overexpression of Aldo-Keto-Reductase in Azole-resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Glabrata Determined by cDNA-AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida glabrata causes significant medical problems in immunocompromised patients. Many strains of this yeast are intrinsically resistant to azole antifungal agents, and treatment is problematic, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates in immunosuppressed individuals. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the genes involved in the drug resistance of clinical isolates of C. glabrata.Methods: The clinical isolates of C. glabrata were collected in an epidemiological survey of candidal infection inimmunocompromised patients and consisted of four fluconazole and itraconazole resistant isolates, two fluconazoleand itraconazole sensitive isolates, and C. glabrata CBS 138 as reference strain. Antifungal susceptibility patterns ofthe organisms were determined beforehand by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The potentialgene(s implicated in antifungal resistance were investigated using complementary DNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression of gene(s in resistant isolates as compared to sensitive and reference strains.Results and conclusions: The aldo-keto-reductase superfamily (AKR gene was upregulated in the resistant clinicalisolates as assessed by cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed AKR mRNA expression approximately twice that seen in the sensitive isolates. Overexpression of the AKR gene was associated with increased fluconazole and itraconazole resistance in C. glabrata. The data suggest that upregulation of the AKR gene might give a new insight into the mechanism of azole resistance.

  6. Native and introduced gastropods in laurel forests on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Heike; Delgado, Juan D.; Alonso, María R.; Ibáñez, Miguel

    2009-09-01

    The introduction of non-native gastropods on islands has repetitively been related to a decline of the endemic fauna. So far, no quantitative information is available even for the native gastropod fauna from the laurel forests (the so-called Laurisilva) of the Canary Islands. Much of the original laurel forest has been logged in recent centuries. Based on vegetation studies, we hypothesized that densities and the number of introduced species decline with the age of the regrowth forests. We sampled 27 sites from which we collected thirty native and seven introduced species. Two introduced species, Milax nigricans and Oxychilus alliarius, were previously not reported from the Canary Islands. Assemblage composition was mainly structured by disturbance history and altitude. Overall species richness was correlated with slope inclination, prevalence of rocky outcrops, amounts of woody debris and leaf litter depth. Densities were correlated with the depth of the litter layer and the extent of herb layer cover and laurel canopy cover. Introduced species occurred in 22 sites but were neither related to native species richness nor to the time that elapsed since forest regrowth. One introduced slug, Lehmannia valentiana, is already wide-spread, with densities strongly related to herb cover. Overall species richness seemed to be the outcome of invasibility, thus factors enhancing species richness likely also enhance invasibility. Although at present introduced species contribute to diversity, the potential competition between introduced slugs and the rich native semi-slug fauna, and the effects of introduced predatory snails ( Oxychilus spp. and Testacella maugei) warrant further monitoring.

  7. Terrestrial invasion of pomatiopsid gastropods in the heavy-snow region of the Japanese Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Makoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mollusks are one of the most successful animals that have diversified in the fully terrestrial habitat. They have evolved terrestrial taxa in more than nine lineages, most of which originated during the Paleozoic or Mesozoic. The rissooidean gastropod family Pomatiopsidae is one of the few groups that have evolved fully terrestrial taxa during the late Cenozoic. The pomatiopsine diversity is particularly high in the Japanese Archipelago and the terrestrial taxa occur only in this region. In this study, we conducted thorough samplings of Japanese pomatiopsid species and performed molecular phylogenetic analyses to explore the patterns of diversification and terrestrial invasion. Results Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that Japanese Pomatiopsinae derived from multiple colonization of the Eurasian Continent and that subsequent habitat shifts from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred at least twice within two Japanese endemic lineages. Each lineage comprises amphibious and terrestrial species, both of which are confined to the mountains in heavy-snow regions facing the Japan Sea. The estimated divergence time suggested that diversification of these terrestrial lineages started in the Late Miocene, when active orogenesis of the Japanese landmass and establishment of snowy conditions began. Conclusions The terrestrial invasion of Japanese Pomatiopsinae occurred at least twice beside the mountain streamlets of heavy-snow regions, which is considered the first case of this event in the area. Because snow coverage maintains stable temperatures and high humidity on the ground surface, heavy-snow conditions may have paved the way for these organisms from freshwater to land via mountain streamlets by preventing winter desiccation in mountain valleys. The fact that the terrestrialization of Pomatiopsidae occurred only in year-round wet environments, but not in seasonally dried regions, provides new insight into ancient

  8. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pappalardo

    Full Text Available Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule, which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in

  9. Non-Random Sibling Cannibalism in the Marine Gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Brante

    Full Text Available Sibling cannibalism is commonly observed in marine species. For instance, intrabrood cannibalism has been documented in marine gastropods with direct development, suggesting a relationship between embryo behavior and the evolution of life history strategies. However, there has been little effort to document the factors driving sibling cannibalism in marine species. The kin selection theory suggests that the level of relatedness plays an important role in cannibalism patterns. We examined Crepidula coquimbensis, a marine gastropod that broods and encloses its brooded offspring in capsules. Encapsulated embryos show sibling cannibalism and high levels of intracapsular multiple paternity. Given these features, cannibalistic behavior may be driven by kin-relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we constructed artificial aggregations of embryos to mimic three levels of relatedness: high, medium and low. For each category of aggregation, the cannibalism rate and benefits (i.e. size at hatching of surviving offspring were estimated. In addition, at the end of embryo development, we performed parentage analyses to determine if cannibalism was associated with the relatedness between cannibal and victim embryos. Our results show that the intensity of sibling cannibalism increased in aggregations characterized by the lowest level of relatedness. There were important benefits of cannibalism in terms of hatching cannibal size. In addition, cannibalism between embryos was not random: the variation in reproductive success between males increased over the course of the experiment and the effective number of fathers decreased. Altogether, these results suggest that polyandry may play an important role in the evolution of sibling cannibalism in C. coquimbensis and that kin selection may operate during early embryonic stages in this species.

  10. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids gastropods.

  11. Hermit crab (Decapoda, Anomura attraction to dead gastropod baits in an infralittoral algae bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez C. B. Pezzuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hermit crabs use gastropod shells as shelter and are adapted to follow chemical cues released from tissues of dead or injured gastropods as a way to find new and more adequate shells. The species composition, crab size, shell types adequacy and physical condition were compared between attracted individuals and crabs collected in previous samples. The previous sampling was carried out in five areas before each experiment. Then, five baits of crushed gastropods in nylon net bags were installed in these areas. Three samples were taken at 30min intervals, capturing all crabs within a circle of 60cm diameter. Attraction of hermit crabs was tested for four different gastropod baits to verify specificity of the chemical cues. Clibanarius antillensis, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae were collected in the study area. Pagurus brevidactylus, the smallest species, turned out to be more attracted than the 2 other species. The results showed that attracted crabs utilized more gastropod shell types than that collected in previous samples, however shell utilization pattern did not differ between them. Attracted animals were slightly smaller (shield length than those collected in the previous samples but did not present significant differences in shell adequacy and condition. The four experimental baits attracted the crabs in similar ways not indicating a specific response from the crabs. The fact that attracted animals were smaller suggested that the attraction to dead gastropods might enable the acquisition of a new and larger shell and, consequently, chains of shell exchange between the attracted crabs.Ermitões utilizam conchas de gastrópodes para abrigo. Conchas novas e mais adequadas podem ser encontradas pelos ermitões pois estes são atraídos por substâncias químicas liberadas pelos tecidos de gastrópodes feridos ou mortos. A adequação, condição e tipo das conchas e a composição de espécies e o tamanho dos ermitões foram

  12. Molecular identification of similar species of the genus Biomphalaria (Mollusca: Planorbidae determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta Lima

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater snails Biomphalaria straminea, B. intermedia, B. kuhniana and B. peregrina, are morphologically similar; based on this similarity the first three species were therefore grouped in the complex B. straminea. The morphological identification of these species is based on characters such as vaginal wrinkling, relation between prepuce: penial sheath:deferens vas and number of muscle layers in the penis wall. In this study the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used for molecular identification of these molluscs. This technique is based on the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 e ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA gene and subsequent digestion of these fragments by restriction enzymes. Six enzymes were tested: Dde I, Mnl I, Hae III, Rsa I, Hpa II e Alu I. The restriction patterns obtained with DdeI presented the best profile for separation of the four species of Biomphalaria. The profiles obtained with all the enzymes were used to estimate the genetic distances among the species through analysis of common banding patterns.

  13. Discriminative power of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis using the microbial identification system (MIS) for Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltroche-Llacsahuanga, H; Schmidt, S; Lütticken, R; Haase, G

    2000-12-01

    Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is frequently isolated in cases of fungal infection and commonly shows acquired or innate fluconazole resistance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an emerging opportunistic yeast pathogen, causes serious systemic infections in immunocompromised, and vaginitis and superficial infections in immunocompetent patients. For both species reliable identification in the routine laboratory is mandatory, but species identification of strains, e.g. trehalose-negative C. glabrata, may be difficult. Therefore, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) of whole cell fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles, that is independent of assimilation profiles of strains and suitable for reliable and rapid identification of clinically important yeasts, was applied. However, frequent misidentification of C. glabrata as S. cerevisiae has been reported when using the Yeast Clinical Database of MIS. Accuracy of MIS identification may be strongly influenced by the amounts of cell mass analyzed. Therefore, the present study compared the MIS results of these two yeasts achieved with different cell masses. Primarily we optimized, especially with respect to cost-effectiveness, the recommended streaking technique yielding a maximal recovery of 90-130 mg of cell mass from one plate, enabling testing of poor growing strains of C. glabrata. For all C. glabrata strains tested (n = 10) the highest identification scores (SI [Similarity Index] range 0.525-0.963, median 0.832) were achieved with 30 to 45 mg of cell mass. Only 5 of 10 S. cerevisiae strains revealed good library comparisons (SI > or = 0.5) when using 30 mg of cell mass, whereas with 45 mg all strains but two revealed this SI-level. For S. cerevisiae a higher amount of cell mass processed (up to 90 mg) was correlated with better identification scores (SI range using 90 mg: 0.464-0.870, median, 0.737). Several passages prior to FAME analysis of C. glabrata strains on recommended media revealed narrowing of SI ranges, but

  14. Endogenous growth factor stimulation of hemocyte proliferation induces resistance to Schistosoma mansoni challenge in the snail host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Emmanuel A; Gordy, Michelle A; Phillips, Valerie K; Kabore, Alethe L; Rudko, Sydney P; Hanington, Patrick C

    2016-05-10

    Digenean trematodes are a large, complex group of parasitic flatworms that infect an incredible diversity of organisms, including humans. Larval development of most digeneans takes place within a snail (Gastropoda). Compatibility between snails and digeneans is often very specific, such that suitable snail hosts define the geographical ranges of diseases caused by these worms. The immune cells (hemocytes) of a snail are sentinels that act as a crucial barrier to infection by larval digeneans. Hemocytes coordinate a robust and specific immunological response, participating directly in parasite killing by encapsulating and clearing the infection. Hemocyte proliferation and differentiation are influenced by unknown digenean-specific exogenous factors. However, we know nothing about the endogenous control of hemocyte development in any gastropod model. Here, we identify and functionally characterize a progranulin [Biomphalaria glabrata granulin (BgGRN)] from the snail B. glabrata, a natural host for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni Granulins are growth factors that drive proliferation of immune cells in organisms, spanning the animal kingdom. We demonstrate that BgGRN induces proliferation of B. glabrata hemocytes, and specifically drives the production of an adherent hemocyte subset that participates centrally in the anti-digenean defense response. Additionally, we demonstrate that susceptible B. glabrata snails can be made resistant to infection with S. mansoni by first inducing hemocyte proliferation with BgGRN. This marks the functional characterization of an endogenous growth factor of a gastropod mollusc, and provides direct evidence of gain of resistance in a snail-digenean infection model using a defined factor to induce snail resistance to infection.

  15. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed.

  16. Evaluating a 5-year metal contamination remediation and the biomonitoring potential of a freshwater gastropod along the Xiangjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Pi, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Tan, Xiang; Fraser, Dylan J

    2018-05-16

    Effective remediation of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems is desired in many regions, but it requires integrative assessments of sediments, water, and biota that can serve as robust biomonitors. We assessed the effects of a 5-year metal contamination remediation along the Xiangjiang River, China, by comparing concentrations of trace metals in water and surface sediments between 2010-2011 and 2016. We also explored the trace metal biomonitoring potential of a freshwater gastropod (Bellamya aeruginosa). Metal concentrations in water (means and ranges) dropped over time to within permissible limits of drinking water guidelines set by China, USEPA, and WHO in 2016. Although sediment means and ranges of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn also diminished with remediation, those for Cr and Cu slightly increased, and all six metals retained concentrations higher than standards set by China. All metals in sediments could also be associated with anthropogenic inputs using a hierarchical clustering analysis, and they generate high potential ecological risks based on several indices, especially for Cd and As. The bio-sediment accumulation factors of all measured trace metals in gastropod soft tissues and shells were lower than 1.0, except for Ca. Trace metal contents in gastropods were positively correlated with those in water and surface sediments for As (soft tissues) and Cr (shells). Collectively, our results do not yet highlight strong beneficial effects of 5-year remediation and clearly illustrate the heavy metal pollution remaining in Xiangjiang River sediment. Additional physical, chemical, and biological measurements should be implemented to improve sediment quality. We further conclude that gastropod soft tissues and shells can be suitable biomonitors of spatial differences in some heavy metals found within river sediments (e.g., As, Cr).

  17. Population structure of an invasive parthenogenetic gastropod in coastal lakes and estuaries of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS. In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH. All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m(-2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20-30 mm SH which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked "brood pouch ecology", which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other

  18. Gastropod growth and survival as bioindicators of stress associated with high nutrients in the intertidal of a shallow temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Islay D.; Baharuddin, Nursalwa

    2015-04-01

    The effects of multiple stressors on estuarine organisms are not well understood. Using cage experiments we measured the survival and growth of the pulmonate gastropod Amphibola crenata at five locations which differed contaminant levels. Water nutrients came from a nearby sewage treatment works and the sediment contained low levels of trace metals. Over 6 weeks of exposure, sediment surface chlorophyll levels varied amongst locations. The Chl a values were positively correlated with sediment N and P and trace metals As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Pulmonate survival depended on location, highest mortality was from a site close to the treatment plant and mortality rate of large individuals decreased significantly with distance away from it. For four locations, medium A. crenata had higher survival than small (juveniles) or adults. Growth rates of small individuals exceeded those for medium and large A. crenata. The mean length increment/week for medium gastropods ranged between 0.49 and 1.11 mm and was negatively correlated with the amount of Chl a in the surface sediment, suggesting the negative effects of eutrophication on gastropod growth. Growth rate of the pulmonate was not correlated with nutrient concentration or trace metal concentrations in the sediment. The dry weight condition index (CI) did not correlate with the growth rate, and for medium individuals, was unaffected by any of the environmental variables. The CI of small individuals was negatively affected by increasing water nutrient levels and the CI of large individuals negatively affected by increasing sediment nutrients and trace metal concentrations. The results from this study suggest that gastropod growth and survival could be used as tools to monitor the effects of changing nutrient levels and recovery from eutrophication within temperate estuaries.

  19. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Sevigny

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra, two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa. In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda

  20. Antidiarrheal Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina glabrata. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 10-Benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol Isobutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Bustos-Brito

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves from Ageratina glabrata yielded four new thymol derivatives, namely: 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydro-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (4, 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydrothymol (5, 10-benzoyloxythymol (6 and 10-benzoyloxy-6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryl-oxythymol (7. In addition, (8S-10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (1, together with other two already known thymol derivatives identified as 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-methoxythymol isobutyrate (2 and 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxythymol isobutyrate (3 were also obtained. In this paper, we report the structures and complete assignments of the 1H and 13C-NMR data of compounds 1–7, and the absolute configuration for compound 1, unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and evaluation of the Flack parameter. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that compound 1 and its derivative 1a were the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compounds. Both compounds showed selectivity and good antiamoebic activity comparable to emetine and metronidazole, respectively, two antiprotozoal drugs used as positive controls. In relation to anti-propulsive effect, compound 1 and 1a showed inhibitory activity, with activities comparable to quercetin and compound 9, two natural antipropulsive compounds used as positive controls. These data suggest that compound 1 may play an important role in antidiarrheal properties of Ageratina glabrata.

  1. Transcription factors Asg1p and Hal9p regulate pH homeostasis in Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eWu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an important microorganism used in commercial fermentation to produce pyruvate, but very little is known about its mechanisms for surviving acid stress in culture. In this study, it was shown that transcription factors Asg1p and Hal9p play essential roles in C. glabrata in the tolerance of acid stress, as the deletion of CgASG1 or CgHAL9 resulted in the inability to survive in an acidic environment. Cgasg1 and Cghal9 mutant strains are unable to maintain pH homeostasis, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular pH and an increase in reactive oxygen species production, which results in metabolic disorders. The results showed that intracellular acidification was partly due to the diminished activity of the plasma membrane proton pump, CgPma1p. In addition, transcriptome sequencing revealed that Cgasg1 and Cghal9 mutant strains displayed a variety of changes in gene expression under acidic conditions, including genes in the MAPK signaling pathway, plasma membrane or cell wall organization, trehalose accumulation, and the RIM101 signaling pathway. Lastly, quantitative reverse-transcribed PCR and cellular localization showed that CgAsg1p and CgHal9p played independent roles in response to acid stress.

  2. Candida glabrata prosthetic joint infection, successfully treated with anidulafungin: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutserimpas, Christos; Samonis, George; Velivassakis, Emmanouil; Iliopoulou-Kosmadaki, Stylliani; Kontakis, Georgios; Kofteridis, Diamantis P

    2018-04-01

    Non-albicans Candida prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is extremely rare. A case of a Candida glabrata knee PJI is a 68-year-old splenectomised female smoker, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and alcoholism is reported. The patient presented with a peri-prosthetic fracture, 15 years after total knee replacement surgery. Cultures of the intraoperative peri-prosthetic tissue and materials yielded C. glabrata, as well as a methicillin-resistant S. epidermitis. The patient was treated with anidulafungin and vancomycin. The knee prosthetic joint was removed and cement-spacer with vancomycin and gentamycin was placed. Additionally, an external fixation was performed. A second stage revision surgery was planned, after completion of the antimicrobial and antifungal treatment. The patient is followed up for 4 months without signs, symptoms or findings of infection. PJI Candida infections require a high clinical suspicion index. It is of utmost importance to report these cases, since there is no consensus yet of the proper antifungal treatment. Furthermore, a literature review regarding treatment of those cases is provided. First-line treatment with an echinocandin seems most proper, due to their fungicidal properties, their effectiveness against biofilm, as well as their minimal toxicity, making them ideal for long-term use. Further experience is needed, for better understanding the disease's pathogenesis and optimal treatment. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Species diversity of planktonic gastropods (Pteropoda and Heteropoda) from six ocean regions based on DNA barcode analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert M.; Bucklin, Ann; Ossenbrügger, Holger; Hopcroft, Russell R.

    2010-12-01

    Pteropods and heteropods are two distinct groups of holoplanktonic gastropods whose species and genetic diversity remain poorly understood, despite their ubiquity in the world's oceans. Some species apparently attain near cosmopolitan distributions, implying long-distance dispersal or cryptic species assemblages. We present the first multi-regional and species-rich molecular dataset of holoplanktonic gastropods, comprising DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I subunit gene (COI) from 115 individuals of 41 species sampled from six ocean regions across the globe. Molecular analysis and assessment of barcoding utility supported the validity of several morphological subspecies and forms (e.g. of Creseis virgula and Limacina helicina), while others were not supported (e.g. Cavolinia uncinata). Significant genetic variation was observed among conspecific specimens collected in different geographic regions for some species, particularly in euthecosomatous pteropods. Several species of euthecosomes showed no evidence of genetic separation among distant ocean regions. Overall, we suggest some taxonomic revision of the holoplanktonic gastropods will be required, pending a more complete molecular inventory of these groups.

  4. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  5. Temporal dynamics of gastropod fauna on subtidal sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, J.; Aldea, C.; Troncoso, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal variation of the gastropod fauna inhabiting sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (Galicia, Spain) was studied at three subtidal sites from February 1996 to February 1997 by means of quantitative sampling. A total of 5,463 individuals representing 51 gastropod species and 22 families were found. The family Pyramidellidae was the most diverse in number of species (11 species), followed by Rissoidae and Trochidae (4 species each). The dogwhelk, Nassarius reticulatus, and the rissoid snail, Rissoa parva, were the numerically dominant species at the three studied sites; those and other abundant species showed their greatest densities by the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. In general, univariate measures of the assemblage (number of species, abundance, diversity and evenness) showed variations through time; greater values were recorded between summer and autumn depending on the site. Multivariate analyses done on abundance data showed certain seasonality in the evolution of the assemblage as expected for shallow subtidal sandy sediments at temperate latitudes; those seasonal changes were mostly related to variations in abundance of numerically dominant species. Although the measured sedimentary variables did not show significant correlations with faunal univariate parameters, sediment heterogeneity due to the presence of mats of Zostera marina L. and shells of dead bivalves might explain the differences in composition of the gastropod assemblage among sampling sites.

  6. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  7. Bioactive potential of some economically important marine gastropods along the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JayanthiGovindarajalu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the economically important gastropods for prospective antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities from the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India. Methods: The bioactive potential of some gastropods i.e. Babylonia spirata (B. spirata, Phalium glaucum, Tonna dolium, Hemifusus pugilinus, Xancus pyrum, Chicoreus ramosus (C. ramosus, Harpa articularis, Ficus ficus and Babylonia zeylanica were analysed. Antimicrobial activity was carried out against 8 human pathogenic bacteria and 3 fungal strains by well diffusion method. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were analyzed by standard methods. Results: In antibacterial and antifungal activities, methanolic extract of B. spirata significantly showed the highest inhibition zone against Aeromonas hydrophila and Fusarium spp. (P > 0.05. In the total antioxidant activity, the maximum activity was observed in B. spirata (510 µg/mg and in the 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, B. spirata showed the highest percentage of inhibition (76.7%. In the case of cytotoxicity i.e. brine shrimp lethality tests the methanolic extract of C. ramosus showed the lowest percentage of mortality and the LC50 values were found to be 523.9 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results revealed that all the gastropods in the present study possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects. However, species like B. spirata and C. ramosus exhibited potent activity and can be used for further clinical studies.

  8. Effects of ocean acidification on the shells of four Mediterranean gastropod species near a CO2 seep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Ashley; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2017-11-30

    Marine CO 2 seeps allow the study of the long-term effects of elevated pCO 2 (ocean acidification) on marine invertebrate biomineralization. We investigated the effects of ocean acidification on shell composition and structure in four ecologically important species of Mediterranean gastropods (two limpets, a top-shell snail, and a whelk). Individuals were sampled from three sites near a volcanic CO 2 seep off Vulcano Island, Italy. The three sites represented ambient (8.15pH), moderate (8.03pH) and low (7.73pH) seawater mean pH. Shell mineralogy, microstructure, and mechanical strength were examined in all four species. We found that the calcite/aragonite ratio could vary and increased significantly with reduced pH in shells of one of the two limpet species. Moreover, each of the four gastropods displayed reductions in either inner shell toughness or elasticity at the Low pH site. These results suggest that near-future ocean acidification could alter shell biomineralization and structure in these common gastropods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Gutiérrez Gregoric

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b- for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean

  10. Spawn in two deep-sea volute gastropods (Neogastropoda: Volutidae) from southwestern Atlantic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.; Teso, Valeria; Pastorino, Guido

    2017-12-01

    The gastropods Odontocymbiola pescalia and Provocator corderoi and their egg capsules were collected by the R/V Puerto Deseado from the Mar del Plata Submarine Canyon ( 37°53‧S, at depths of 291-1404 m) and from Burdwood Bank ( 54°27‧S, 128-785 m). Odontocymbiola pescalia egg capsules measured 15.67 ± 3.38 mm in diameter. They were subspherical in shape with an external calcareous layer. Each egg capsule contained 3-5 embryos and white material as extra embryonic food. Embryos grew to a size of up to 9.3 ± 1.1 mm in mean shell length before hatching as crawling juveniles. The spawn of P. corderoi consisted of a single dome shaped egg capsule of 14.17 ± 1.5 mm in diameter, attached to hard substrata by a basal membrane with a rounded outline. A curved semilunar furrow (seam) on one side of the capsules was always present. The number of embryos per capsule was 2-6. Embryos hatched as crawling juveniles with a shell length of 5.9 ± 0.6 mm. The size and number of whorls in the hatchling shell suggested a slow rate of development, akin to many other deep-sea invertebrates. The egg capsules and reproductive development strategies of both species were compared with those from other congeneric representatives.

  11. The influence of encapsulated embryos on the timing of hatching in the brooding gastropod Crepipatella dilatata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Villagrán, P. V.; Baria, K. S.; Montory, J. A.; Pechenik, J. A.; Chaparro, O. R.

    2018-01-01

    Encapsulated embryos are generally thought to play an active role in escaping from egg capsules or egg masses. However, for species that brood their egg capsules, the factors controlling the timing of hatching are largely unclear, particularly the degree to which hatching is controlled by the embryos rather than by the mother, and the degree to which the hatching of one egg capsule influences the hatching of sister egg capsules within the same egg mass. We studied aspects of hatching using the direct-developing gastropod Crepipatella dilatata, which includes nurse eggs in its egg capsules and broods clusters of egg capsules for at least several weeks before metamorphosed juveniles are released. Isolated egg capsules were able to hatch successfully, in the absence of the mother. Moreover, the hatching of one capsule did not cause adjacent sister capsules to hatch. Hatched and un-hatched sister egg capsules from the same egg mass differed significantly in the number of metamorphosed juveniles, average shell size, offspring biomass (juveniles + veliger larvae), and the number of nurse eggs remaining per egg capsule. Differences in when egg capsules hatched within a single egg mass were not explained by differences in egg capsule age. Hatching occurred only after most nurse eggs had been ingested, most offspring had metamorphosed into juveniles, and juveniles had reached a mean shell length > 1.36 mm. Whether the mother has any role to play in coordinating the hatching process or juvenile release remains to be determined.

  12. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations Between Egg Capsule Morphology and Predation Among Populations of the Marine Gastropod, Nucella emarginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, T A

    1990-12-01

    Intraspecific variation in the morphology of egg capsules is ideal for assessing the costs and benefits of encapsulation, yet little is known about the extent of such variation among populations of a single species. In the present study, I compared capsule morphology among three populations of the intertidal gastropod, Nucella emarginata. Significant differences were found both in capsule wall thickness and capsule strength. Mean capsule wall thickness varied as much as 25% among populations, with the dry weight of capsular cases differing accordingly. Capsule strength, measured as resistance to puncturing and squeezing forces, also varied among populations, but did not directly reflect differences in capsule wall thickness. Despite extensive variation in capsule morphology within this species, the number and size of eggs contained within capsules of equal volume did not differ significantly among populations. I also compared the type of capsule-eating predators that were present at each site. Shore crabs, Hemigrapsus spp., were abundant at all three sites; however, the predatory isopods Idotea wosnesenskii were only present at sites containing relatively thick-walled capsules. Although Hemigrapsus and Idotea were able to chew through both thick- and thin-walled capsules, laboratory experiments revealed that Idotea preferentially opened thin-walled capsules. These results suggest that variation in capsule morphology among populations of N. emarginata may, at least in part, reflect selection for the protection of embryos against predation.

  14. The gastropod Phorcus sauciatus (Koch, 1845) along the north-west Iberian Peninsula: filling historical gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Phorcus sauciatus is a subtropical grazer that reaches its northern boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula shows, however, gaps in its distribution. The present study was aimed at detecting possible recent changes on the population structure and distribution of P. sauciatus along the north-west Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative sampling design to explore the presence of P. sauciatus along a region within its historical gap of distribution (north Portuguese coast). In addition, a quantitative sampling design was adopted to test hypotheses about the abundance and size structure of P. sauciatus populations among regions with different historical records of its abundance and among shores with different exposure. Results showed that P. sauciatus was present along the north Portuguese coast. However, the abundance and size structure of the newly settled populations were significantly different to those of the historically recorded populations. Moreover, P. sauciatus was able to establish populations at sheltered shores. Considering these results, we propose models for the distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula, based on effects of sea surface temperature, and to explain the size-frequency of their populations based on their density.

  15. Salinity and temperature tolerance of the invasive freshwater gastropod Tarebia granifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aquatic species, such as the gastropod Tarebia granifera, can cause ecological isturbances and potentially reduce biodiversity by displacing indigenous invertebrates. In South Africa, T. granifera was first recorded in an estuarine environment in the St Lucia Estuary. Its tolerance to salinity and temperature was investigated through the experimental manipulation of these factors. T. granifera can tolerate temperatures between 0 ºC and 47.5 ºC, allowing it to survive high temperature extremes. The species may also survive cold snaps and invade higher altitude areas. More remarkably, this snail survives high salinity for a relatively long time, as LS50 (lethal salinity for 50% of the population was reached at 30 psu over 65–75 days. However, higher salinity adversely affected the T. granifera population. Snails acclimated to freshwater conditions and suddenly transferred to 30 psu experienced 100% mortality within 48 h. Snail activity also declined with increasing salinity. T. granifera’s environmental tolerance and parthenogenetic characteristics are the keys to successful introduction and establishment. Therefore, the management of T. granifera may prove diffcult in the short to medium term. The present findings constitute a contribution to the knowledge of biological invasions in Africa and to the understanding of estuarine invasions by T. granifera.

  16. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cochliopinae (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae): an enigmatic group of aquatic gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H P; Hershler, R; Thompson, F G

    2001-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was performed for 26 representatives of the aquatic gastropod subfamily Cochliopinae, 6 additional members of the family Hydrobiidae, and outgroup species of the families Rissoidae and Pomatiopsidae. Maximum-parsimony analysis yielded a single shortest tree which resolved two monophyletic groups: (1) a clade containing all cochliopine taxa with the exception of Antroselates and (2) a clade composed of Antroselates and the hydrobiid genus Amnicola. The clade containing both of these monophyletic groups was depicted as more closely related to members of the family Pomatiopsidae than to other hydrobiid snails which were basally positioned in our topology. New anatomical evidence supports recognition of the cochliopine and Antroselates-Amnicola clades, and structure within the monophyletic group of cochliopines is largely congruent with genitalic characters. However, the close relationship between the Pomatiopsidae and these clades is in conflict with commonly accepted classifications and suggests that a widely accepted scenario for genitalic evolution in these snails is in need of further study. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Susceptibility of the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) exposed to the gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A J; Rae, R

    2015-05-01

    The Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) is a major pest in tropical countries. Current control methods involve the use of slug pellets (metaldehyde) but they are ineffective, therefore new methods of control are needed. We investigated whether A. fulica is susceptible to the gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, which has been developed as a biological control agent for slugs and snails in northern Europe. We exposed A. fulica to P. hermaphrodita applied at 30 and 150nematodes per cm(2) for 70days and also assessed feeding inhibition and changes in snail weight. We show that unlike the susceptible slug species Deroceras panormitanum, which is killed less than 30days of exposure to P. hermaphrodita, A. fulica is remarkably resistant to the nematode at both doses. Also P. hermaphrodita does not reduce feeding in A. fulica nor did it have any effect on weight gain over 70days. Upon dissection of infected A. fulica we found that hundreds of P. hermaphrodita had been encapsulated, trapped and killed in the snail's shell. We found that A. fulica is able to begin encapsulating P. hermaphrodita after just 3days of exposure and the numbers of nematodes encapsulated increased over time. Taken together, we have shown that A. fulica is highly resistant to P. hermaphrodita, which could be due to an immune response dependent on the snail shell to encapsulate and kill invading parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  20. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Jamie G.; Salice, Christopher J.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 µS/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 µS/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 µS/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures.

  1. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A.; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Nikitin, Mikhail A.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Belousova, Anna; Reimer, James D.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts.

  2. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A.

    2016-02-03

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts.

  3. Impact of toxic cyanobacteria on gastropods and microcystin accumulation in a eutrophic lake (Grand-Lieu, France) with special reference to Physa (= Physella) acuta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Emilie; Brient, Luc; Carpentier, Alexandre; Acou, Anthony; Marion, Loic; Bormans, Myriam; Gerard, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria are known to accumulate in gastropods following grazing of toxic cyanobacteria and/or absorption of MCs dissolved in water, with adverse effects on life history traits demonstrated in the laboratory. In the field, such effects may vary depending on species, according to their relative sensitivity and ecology. The aims of this study were to i) establish how various intensities of MC-producing cyanobacteria proliferations alter the structure of gastropod community and ii) compare MC tissue concentration in gastropods in the field with those obtained in our previous laboratory experiments on the prosobranch Potamopyrgus antipodarum and the pulmonate Lymnaea stagnalis. We explored these questions through a one-year field study at three stations at Grand-Lieu Lake (France) affected by different intensities of cyanobacteria proliferations. A survey of the community structure and MC content of both cyanobacteria and gastropods was associated with a caging experiment involving P. antipodarum and L. stagnalis. In total, 2592 gastropods belonging to 7 prosobranch and 16 pulmonate species were collected. However, distribution among the stations was unequal with 62% vs 2% of gastropods sampled respectively at the stations with the lowest vs highest concentrations of MC. Irrespective of the station, pulmonates were always more diverse, more abundant and occurred at higher frequencies than prosobranchs. Only the pulmonate Physa acuta occurred at all stations, with abundance and MC tissue concentration (≤ 4.32 μg g DW -1 ) depending on the degrees of MC-producing cyanobacteria proliferations in the stations; therefore, P. acuta is proposed as a potential sentinel species. The caging experiment demonstrated a higher MC accumulation in L. stagnalis (≤ 0.36 μg g DW -1 for 71% of individuals) than in P. antipodarum (≤ 0.02 μg g DW -1 for 12%), corroborating previous laboratory observations. Results are discussed in

  4. Stable isotope evidence for dietary overlap between alien and native gastropods in coastal lakes of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822 is originally from South-East Asia, but has been introduced and become invasive in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In South Africa, T. granifera is rapidly invading an increasing number of coastal lakes and estuaries, often reaching very high population densities and dominating shallow water benthic invertebrate assemblages. An assessment of the feeding dynamics of T. granifera has raised questions about potential ecological impacts, specifically in terms of its dietary overlap with native gastropods.A stable isotope mixing model was used together with gut content analysis to estimate the diet of T. granifera and native gastropod populations in three different coastal lakes. Population density, available biomass of food and salinity were measured along transects placed over T. granifera patches. An index of isotopic (stable isotopes dietary overlap (IDO, % aided in interpreting interactions between gastropods. The diet of T. granifera was variable, including contributions from microphytobenthos, filamentous algae (Cladophora sp., detritus and sedimentary organic matter. IDO was significant (>60% between T. granifera and each of the following gastropods: Haminoea natalensis (Krauss, 1848, Bulinus natalensis (Küster, 1841 and Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774. However, food did not appear to be limiting. Salinity influenced gastropod spatial overlap. Tarebia granifera may only displace native gastropods, such as Assiminea cf. ovata (Krauss, 1848, under salinity conditions below 20. Ecosystem-level impacts are also discussed.The generalist diet of T. granifera may certainly contribute to its successful establishment. However, although competition for resources may take place under certain salinity conditions and if food is limiting, there appear to be other mechanisms at work, through which T. granifera displaces native gastropods. Complementary stable isotope and gut content analysis can

  5. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in Candida glabrata following azole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qingdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of stable and suitable reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a crucial prerequisite for reliable gene expression analysis under different experimental conditions. The present study aimed to identify reference genes as internal controls for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR in azole-stimulated Candida glabrata. Results The expression stability of 16 reference genes under fluconazole stress was evaluated using fold change and standard deviation computations with the hkgFinder tool. Our data revealed that the mRNA expression levels of three ribosomal RNAs (RDN5.8, RDN18, and RDN25 remained stable in response to fluconazole, while PGK1, UBC7, and UBC13 mRNAs showed only approximately 2.9-, 3.0-, and 2.5-fold induction by azole, respectively. By contrast, mRNA levels of the other 10 reference genes (ACT1, EF1α, GAPDH, PPIA, RPL2A, RPL10, RPL13A, SDHA, TUB1, and UBC4 were dramatically increased in C. glabrata following antifungal treatment, exhibiting changes ranging from 4.5- to 32.7-fold. We also assessed the expression stability of these reference genes using the 2-ΔΔCT method and three other software packages. The stability rankings of the reference genes by geNorm and the 2-ΔΔCT method were identical to those by hkgFinder, whereas the stability rankings by BestKeeper and NormFinder were notably different. We then validated the suitability of six candidate reference genes (ACT1, PGK1, RDN5.8, RDN18, UBC7, and UBC13 as internal controls for ten target genes in this system using the comparative CT method. Our validation experiments passed for all six reference genes analyzed except RDN18, where the amplification efficiency of RDN18 was different from that of the ten target genes. Finally, we demonstrated that the relative quantification of target gene expression varied according to the endogenous control used, highlighting the importance of the choice of internal controls in such

  6. Candida species isolated from different body sites and their antifungal susceptibility pattern: Cross-analysis of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Fazii, Paolo; Traini, Tonino; Cellini, Luigina; Di Giulio, Mara

    2017-08-01

    Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C. albicans (44), C. glabrata (13) and C. parapsilosis (13) mainly from Hematology, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Neonatology and Oncology Divisions, the majority of the biological samples were swabs (44) and blood cultures (16). The analysis of the biofilm formation was performed at 24 and 48-hours comparing resistant and susceptible strains of C. albicans to resistant and susceptible strains of C. glabrata. Candida albicans has a greater ability to form biofilm compared to C. glabrata, both in the susceptible and resistant strains reaching maturity after 24 hours with a complex structure composed of blastospores, pseudohyphae, and hyphae embedded in a matrix. On the contrary, C. glabrata biofilm was composed exclusively of blastospores that in the resistant strain, after 24 hours, were organized in a compact multilayer different to the discontinuous structure observed in the susceptible analyzed strains. In conclusion, the increasing of the incidence of Candida species infection together with their emerging drug resistance also related to the biofilm forming capability underline the need to monitor their distribution and susceptibility patterns for improving the surveillance and for a correct management of the infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Gastropod shells: a dynamic resource that helps shape benthic community structure. [Calliactis tricolor; Pagurus pollicaris; Calappa flammea; Octopus joubini; Panulirus argus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, R

    1983-01-01

    Empty gastropod shells are an important resource for many animals in shallow benthic marine communities. Shells provide shelter for hermit crabs, octopuses, and fishes, provide attachment substratum for hermit crab symbionts, and directly or indirectly modify hermit crab predation. Creation of an empty shell due to predation of one gastropod on another and acquisition of that shell by a hermit crab are two key events in the subsequent use of that shell. Shells of different gastropod species and the species of hermit crab acquiring them affect the symbiont complement that attaches to the shell, which in turn may affect future shell use by other symbionts. Certain shell types worn by the hermit crab, Pagurus pollicaris Say, are positively associated with the symbiotic sea anemone, Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur), which protects the hermit crab from predation by the crab, Calappa flammea (Herbst), and possibly from the octopus, Octopus joubini Robson. Shells of other species of gastropods are resistant to being crushed by the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille). The inter- and intraspecific interactions centered on the gastropod shell are termed a ''habitat web.'' The potential of the shell to limit the size and distribution of animal populations demonstrates how this resource helps shape community structure.

  8. Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of short-lived aqueous active species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H 2 O 2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the short-lived aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H 2 O 2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OH aq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OH aq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OH aq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata . Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H 2 O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOH aq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein. (paper)

  9. Processing of predicted substrates of fungal Kex2 proteinases from Candida albicans, C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Oliver

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kexin-like proteinases are a subfamily of the subtilisin-like serine proteinases with multiple regulatory functions in eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Kex2 protein is biochemically well investigated, however, with the exception of a few well known proteins such as the α-pheromone precursors, killer toxin precursors and aspartic proteinase propeptides, very few substrates are known. Fungal kex2 deletion mutants display pleiotropic phenotypes that are thought to result from the failure to proteolytically activate such substrates. Results In this study we have aimed at providing an improved assembly of Kex2 target proteins to explain the phenotypes observed in fungal kex2 deletion mutants by in vitro digestion of recombinant substrates from Candida albicans and C. glabrata. We identified CaEce1, CA0365, one member of the Pry protein family and CaOps4-homolog proteins as novel Kex2 substrates. Conclusion Statistical analysis of the cleavage sites revealed extended subsite recognition of negatively charged residues in the P1', P2' and P4' positions, which is also reflected in construction of the respective binding pockets in the ScKex2 enzyme. Additionally, we provide evidence for the existence of structural constrains in potential substrates prohibiting proteolysis. Furthermore, by using purified Kex2 proteinases from S. cerevisiae, P. pastoris, C. albicans and C. glabrata, we show that while the substrate specificity is generally conserved between organisms, the proteinases are still distinct from each other and are likely to have additional unique substrate recognition.

  10. Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of short-lived aqueous active species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H2O2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the short-lived aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H2O2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OHaq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OHaq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OHaq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata. Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H2O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOHaq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein.

  11. Reconstruction of Regional Environments in the Caribbean During the Neogene Using Gastropod Stable Isotope Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J. A.; Grossman, E. L.; O'Dea, A.; Tao, K.

    2011-12-01

    The closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI) ca. 3.8-3.6 Ma triggered changes in nearshore environments in the Caribbean, causing changes in marine annual range of temperature (MART), carbonate deposition, and the benthic ecosystem. The associated extinction event began ca. 3-2 Ma, peaking between 2-1 Ma. More than two dozen "faunules", discreet packages of fauna which lived under similar environmental conditions, represent time just prior to, during, and after the uplift of the CAI. Multiple parameters including the amount and types of fauna present in each faunule have been used to estimate factors such as paleodepth, MART, extinction rates, and changes in ecological structure over time. Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses (δ18O and δ13C) of gastropod shells serially-sampled about the spire provide records of seasonal environmental conditions. In the tropics, gastropods that live under conditions of strong seasonal upwelling and freshwater input have a greater range of δ18O values in their profiles compared to those animals that live in non-upwelling waters with little freshwater input. Low δ13C values often represent the isotopically low terrestrial carbon found in river runoff, and may be coupled with low δ18O values during seasonal freshening of marine waters. Preliminary data from Strombus shells representing four faunules ranging in age from before the rise of the isthmus through its completion demonstrate the effectiveness of using these mollusks to study ancient tropical environments. Rio Limoncito (~3 Ma), which is believed to represent water depths of 20-40m based on foraminiferal assemblage, yielded the lowest δ18O values (-0.6±0.4%, representing the warmest temperatures/lowest salinities). The samples from Pueblo Nuevo (~1.6 Ma), with an estimated paleodepth between 50 and 100m, had an average value of 0.4±0.3% and therefore represent cooler waters/higher salinity. A shell from NE Escudo de Veraguas (~3.55 Ma) shows a shift from essentially

  12. Molluscs for Sale: Assessment of Freshwater Gastropods and Bivalves in the Ornamental Pet Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Hui; Tan, Siong Kiat; Wong, Wing Hing; Meier, Rudolf; Chan, Sow-Yan; Tan, Heok Hui; Yeo, Darren C J

    2016-01-01

    The ornamental pet trade is often considered a key culprit for conservation problems such as the introduction of invasive species (including infectious diseases) and overharvesting of rare species. Here, we present the first assessment of the biodiversity of freshwater molluscs in the ornamental pet trade in Singapore, one of the most important global hubs of the ornamental aquarium trade, and discuss associated conservation concerns. We recorded freshwater molluscs from ornamental pet shops and major exporters including non-ornamental species (e.g., hitchhikers, molluscs sold as fish feed). We recorded an unexpectedly high diversity-59 species-of freshwater bivalves and gastropods, with the majority (38 species or 64%) being from the Oriental region. In addition to morphological examination, we sequenced the DNA barcode region of mitochondrial CO1 and 16S genes to provide molecular data for the confirmation of the identification and for future re-identification. DNA barcodes were obtained for 50 species, and all but four were separated by > 3% uncorrected pairwise distances. The trade has been considered a main introduction pathway for non-native species to Singapore, and we found that out of 15 species in the trade as well as in the wild in Singapore, 12 are either introduced or of unknown origin, representing almost half of the known non-native freshwater molluscs in Singapore. Particularly prevalent are non-ornamental species: six hitchhikers on aquarium plants and six species sold as fish feed. We found that a quarter of the trade species have a history of introduction, which includes 11 known or potentially invasive species. We conclude that potential overharvesting is difficult to assess because only half of the trade species have been treated by IUCN. Of these, 21 species are of Least Concern and three are Data Deficient. Our checklist, with accompanying DNA barcodes, images, and museum vouchers, provides an important reference library for future monitoring

  13. Cryptic diversity in Mediterranean gastropods of the genus Aplus (Neogastropoda: Buccinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrifa Aissaoui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean gastropods previously ascribed to the buccinid genus Pollia Gray, 1837 are more correctly classified in the genus Aplus de Gregorio, 1885. Using an integrative taxonomy approach combining molecular, morphological and geographic data, we revisit the limits of the extant species in the area, and propose a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis based on 66 specimens from various localities in the Mediterranean Sea, including type localities of some nominal taxa. We used a preliminary morphological inspection, followed by a DNA-barcoding approach to propose species hypotheses, subsequently consolidated using additional data (phylogenetic, geographic and refined morphological data. Seven species hypotheses were eventually retained within our molecularly assayed samples, versus three classical morphologically recognized species. Among these, three correspond to Aplus dorbignyi (Payreaudeau, 1826 with its hitherto unrecognized geographical cognates A. gaillardoti (Puton, 1856 (eastern Mediterranean and Aplus nodulosus (Bivona Ant., 1832 (Sicily; two closely related, yet considerably divergent, lineages are treated as a single species under Aplus scaber (Locard, 1892; the classically admitted Aplus scacchianus (Philippi, 1844 is confirmed by molecular evidence; Mediterranean populations attributable to Aplus assimilis (Reeve, 1846 may represent either cryptic native populations or an ongoing invasion of the Mediterranean by what was hitherto considered to be a West African species; finally, specimens from the Strait of Gibraltar may represent an undescribed species, but we conservatively refrain from formally introducing it pending the analysis of more material, and it is compared with the similar Aplus campisii (Ardovini, 2014, recently described from Sicily and not assayed molecularly, and Aplus scaber.

  14. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  15. Phenotypic differentiation of the Red Sea gastropods in response to the environmental deterioration: Geometric morphometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhady, Ahmed Awad

    2016-03-01

    The negative impacts of degradation in the coastal zone of the Red Sea are becoming well known in upper portions of the trophic web (e.g., humans and fish), but are less well known among the benthic primary consumers. In addition, the degree to which heavy metals are entering the trophic web can be better-quantified using macrobenthos. Two-gastropod genera encompassing Echinolittorina subnodosa and Planaxis sulcatus from three different localities on the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea were examined in order to deduce the impact of environmental deterioration on the morphology of shells. The examined sites include clean pristine, slightly polluted, and markedly polluted rocky shores. Phosphate/lead industry is the main source of pollution in this zone. Because landmarks on the rugose Echinolittorina are difficult to define and to ensure finer resolution of the analyses, a newly 'grid-based' landmarks was implemented. Both Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) were particularly capable to capture and terrace the minor morphological variations accurately. Two phenotypes portioned among the environmentally different populations were recognized and interpreted as ecotypes with many intermediate forms. The first ecotype has a higher spire and smaller aperture and dominating the pristine site North of Marsa Alam, whereas the second ecotype has a globular shell shape with big aperture and dominating the markedly polluted site. The intermediate forms dominating the slightly polluted site. The shape differences are interpreted as an adaptive differentiation to different metal concentrations. As the morphological variation between the two-ecotypes of both taxa is still minors, and both ecotypes occur together with many intermediate forms, the phenotypic divergence stage has not yet accomplished. The gradational shape change among the investigated populations was positively correlated with index of Pollution (IP). As the human activities were the main

  16. Growth patterns of an intertidal gastropod as revealed by oxygen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Hill, T. M.; Guerra, C.

    2007-12-01

    The size and morphology of mollusk shells are affected by environmental conditions. As a result, it is difficult to assess growth rate, population age structure, shell morphologies associated with ontogenetic stages, and to compare life history patterns across various environments. Oxygen isotope analysis is a useful tool for estimating minimum ages and growth rates of calcium carbonate secreting organisms. Calcite shell material from members of two northern California populations of the intertidal muricid gastropod Acanthinucella spirata was sampled for isotopic analysis. Individual shells were sampled from apex to margin, thus providing a sequential record of juvenile and adult growth. A. spirata were collected from a sheltered habitat in Tomales Bay and from an exposed reef in Bolinas. Abiotic factors, such as temperature, wave exposure, and substrate consistency, and biotic composition differ significantly between these sites, possibly resulting in local adaptations and variation in life history and growth patterns. Shell morphology of A. spirata changes with age as internal shell margin thickenings of denticle rows associated with external growth bands are irregularly accreted. It is not known when, either seasonally and/or ontogentically, these thickenings and bands form or whether inter or intra-populational variation exists. Preliminary results demonstrate the seasonal oxygen isotopic variability present at the two coastal sites, indicating 5-6 degC changes from winter to summertime temperatures; these data are consistent with local intertidal temperature records. Analysis of the seasonal patterns indicate that: 1) differences in growth rate and seasonal growth patterns at different ontogenetic stages within populations, and 2) differences in growth patterns and possibly age structure between the two A. spirata populations. These findings indicate that isotopic analyses, in addition to field observations and morphological measurements, are necessary to

  17. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  18. Reproductive cycles in tropical intertidal gastropods are timed around tidal amplitude cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Rachel; Kerr, Kecia; Contolini, Gina; Ochoa, Isis

    2017-08-01

    Reproduction in iteroparous marine organisms is often timed with abiotic cycles and may follow lunar, tidal amplitude, or daily cycles. Among intertidal marine invertebrates, decapods are well known to time larval release to coincide with large amplitude nighttime tides, which minimizes the risk of predation. Such bimonthly cycles have been reported for few other intertidal invertebrates. We documented the reproduction of 6 gastropod species from Panama to determine whether they demonstrate reproductive cycles, whether these cycles follow a 2-week cycle, and whether cycles are timed so that larval release occurs during large amplitude tides. Two of the species ( Crepidula cf. marginalis and Nerita scabricosta ) showed nonuniform reproduction, but without clear peaks in timing relative to tidal or lunar cycles. The other 4 species show clear peaks in reproduction occurring every 2 weeks. In 3 of these species ( Cerithideopsis carlifornica var. valida, Littoraria variegata , and Natica chemnitzi ), hatching occurred within 4 days of the maximum amplitude tides. Siphonaria palmata exhibit strong cycles, but reproduction occurred during the neap tides. Strong differences in the intensity of reproduction of Cerithideopsis carlifornica , and in particular, Littoraria variegata , between the larger and smaller spring tides of a lunar month indicate that these species time reproduction with the tidal amplitude cycle rather than the lunar cycle. For those species that reproduce during both the wet and dry seasons, we found that reproductive timing did not differ between seasons despite strong differences in temperature and precipitation. Overall, we found that most (4/6) species have strong reproductive cycles synchronized with the tidal amplitude cycle and that seasonal differences in abiotic factors do not alter these cycles.

  19. Bioaccumulation of microcystins in two freshwater gastropods from a cyanobacteria-bloom plateau lake, Lake Dianchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junqian; Wang Zhi; Song Zhuoyan; Xie Zhicai; Li Lin; Song, Lirong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the bioaccumulation patterns of microcystins (MCs) in organs of two gastropods, samples were collected in Lake Dianchi monthly from May to October, 2008, when cyanobacteria typically bloom. The average MCs concentrations for Radix swinhoei (pulmonate) and Margarya melanioides (prosobranch) tended to be similar for the different organs: the highest values in the hepatopancreas (9.33 by 3.74 μg/g DW), followed by digestive tracts (1.66 by 3.03 μg/g DW), gonads (0.45 by 1.34 μg/g DW) and muscles (0.22 by 0.40 μg/g DW). Pulmonate had higher value than prosobranch because of the stronger bioaccumulation ability in hepatopancreas. The levels in organs of R. swinhoei were correlated with environmentally dissolved MCs, but influenced by intracellular MCs for M. melanioides. The estimated MCs concentrations in edible parts of M. melanioides were beyond the WHO’s provisional tolerable daily intake (0.04 μg/kg), suggesting the risk of consumption of M. melanioides from the lake. Highlights: ► We probe bioaccumulated patterns of microcystins in organs of pulmonate and prosobranch. ► The highest microcystins in hepatopancreas for both snails. ► The higher microcystins for pulmonate results from the stronger bioaccumulation ability in hepatopancreas. ► Environmentally dissolved microcystins are the main sources for pulmonate, but intracellular for prosobranch. ► Suggesting the risk of consumption snails in the studying regions. - Higher bioaccumulation MCs level for pulmonate mainly contributed to the stronger bioaccumulation ability in its hepatopancreas.

  20. Neutral N-glycan patterns of the gastropods Limax maximus, Cepaea hortensis, Planorbarius corneus, Arianta arbustorum and Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutternigg, Martin; Bürgmayr, Sabine; Pöltl, Gerald; Rudolf, Judith; Staudacher, Erika

    2007-11-01

    The N-glycosylation potentials of Limax maximus, Cepaea hortensis, Planorbarius corneus, Arianta arbustorum and Achatina fulica were analysed by investigation of the N-glycan structures of the skin and viscera glycoproteins by a combination of HPLC and mass-spectrometry methods. It is one of the first steps to enlarge the knowledge on the glycosylation abilities of gastropods, which may help to establish new cell culture systems, to uncover new means for pest control for some species, and to identify carbohydrate-epitopes which may be relevant for immune response. All snails analysed contained mainly oligomannosidic and small paucimannosidic structures, often terminated with 3-O-methylated mannoses. The truncated structures carried modifications by beta1-2-linked xylose to the beta-mannose residue, and/or an alpha-fucosylation, mainly alpha1,6-linked to the innermost N-acetylglucosaminyl residue of the core. Many of these structures were missing the terminal N-acetylglucosamine, which has been shown to be a prerequisite for processing to complex N-glycans in the Golgi. In some species (Planorbarius corneus and Achatina fulica) traces of large structures, terminated by 3-O-methylated galactoses and carrying xylose and/or fucose residues, were also detected. In Planorbarius viscera low amounts of terminal alpha1-2-fucosylation were determined. Combining these results, gastropods seem to be capable to produce all kinds of structures ranging from those typical in mammals through to structures similar to those found in plants, insects or nematodes. The detailed knowledge of this very complex glycosylation system of the gastropods will be a valuable tool to understand the principle rules of glycosylation in all organisms.

  1. A Circa-decadal Change in the Gastropod Fauna on a Tidal Flat in an Island Mangrove Estuary(Ecology)

    OpenAIRE

    Shun-ichi, Ohgaki; Takeharu, Kosuge; Ishigaki Tropical Station, Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute

    2005-01-01

    An investigation on gastropod fauna was carried out on a tidal flat in the Nagura Estuary on Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyu Islands in 1989 and 1998 using similar methods. 470-480 guadrats covering ca. 1900m^2 were surveyed during low tides from February to April in each year. Of the total 19 species recorded, the range of eight species had varied significantly between the two surveys, with six species expanding their range and two species contracting their range. Percentage in abundance of mudd...

  2. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-06-04

    Jun 4, 2013 ... species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the .... barley and flax (Caminos 1997). Egyptian ..... Duke L 2008 Schistosomiasis in Ancient Egypt: The 'AAA' De- bate.

  3. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa: Gastropod molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as “A.” aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the

  4. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa): Gastropod molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Miranda, Nelson A F; Raw, Jacqueline L; Peer, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as "A." aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the system that have remained

  5. Tiny but complex - interactive 3D visualization of the interstitial acochlidian gastropod Pseudunela cornuta (Challis, 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heß Martin

    2009-09-01

    in a mesopsammic gastropod, though functionally not yet fully understood. Such organ complexity as shown herein by interactive 3D visualization is not plesiomorphically maintained from a larger, benthic ancestor, but newly evolved within small marine hedylopsacean ancestors of P. cornuta. The common picture of general organ regression within mesopsammic acochlidians thus is valid for microhedylacean species only.

  6. Terrestrial and lacustrine gastropods from the Priabonian (upper Eocene) of the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Neubauer, Thomas A; Kadolsky, Dietrich; Pickford, Martin; Nordsieck, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic gastropods from the upper Eocene (Priabonian) Zalumah Formation in the Salalah region of the Sultanate of Oman are described. The assemblages reflect the composition of the continental mollusc fauna of the Palaeogene of Arabia, which, at that time, formed parts of the southeastern Tethys coast. Several similarities with European faunas are observed at the family level, but are rarer at the genus level. These similarities point to an Eocene (Priabonian) rather than to a Rupelian age, although the latter correlation cannot be entirely excluded. At the species level, the Omani assemblages lack any relations to coeval faunas. This suggests the possible presence of a distinct biogeographic province during the Palaeogene or may simply reflect the extremely sparse non-marine fossil record of the Eocene in the Tethys region. The occurrence of the genera Lanistes, Pila, and Gulella along with some pomatiids, probably related to extant genera, suggests that the modern African-Arabian continental faunas can be partly traced back to Eocene times and reflect very old autochthonous developments. In contrast, the diverse Vidaliellidae went extinct, and the morphologically comparable Neogene Achatinidae may have occupied the equivalent niches in extant environments. Carnevalea Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Arabiella Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Pyrgulella Harzhauser, Kadolsky and Neubauer nov. gen., Salalahia Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Omanitopsis Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Arabicolaria Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Pacaudiella Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Goniodomulus Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Eoquickia Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Omanillya H. Nordsieck nov. gen. and Omanifera H. Nordsieck nov. gen. are introduced as new genera. Pila neuberti Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. sp., Arabiella arabica Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. sp., Pyrgulella parva Harzhauser, Kadolsky and

  7. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP, a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to

  8. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  9. [Taphonomy of the gastropod cf. Donaldina robusta (Heterobranchia: Streptacididae) from the Middle Pennsylvanian, La Joya Formation, Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez E, Catalina; Buitrón S, Blanca; Vachard, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Gastropods are an important component in most of the fossil record; however, investigations have focused mainly on the characterization of the tafofacies and signatures in determined environments. We present qualitative and quantitative taphonomic data for the gastropod cf. Donaldina robusta assemblages from the La Joya Formation of the Sierra Agua Verde, Sonora State, (NW) Mexico. We analyzed 176 shells. Good preservation received ahigh taphonomic grade (A) and poor preservation a D. The shells were complete in 72% of cases (taphonomic grade B). Less than 10% are corroded or are parallel to the layer (grade A). This rock is petrographycally classified as wackestone, sedimentologically it is characterized by middle sorting (grade B) and low grading (grade A). The fossiliferous assemblage grades as A and B. Biostratinomic features of the skeletal assemblage are characteristic of sedimentologic concentrations of autochthonous-parautochthonous elements at the accumulation site. There was minimal reworking and transport in an environment of low energy, locally produced during a short period of accumulation.

  10. 2018-05-08T18:33:05Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barringtonia racemosa, Leeythidaceae, Aedes aegypti, Dengue, Biomphalaria glabrata, mollusicides, schistosomiasis, piscicides The aqueous, methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether extracts of Barringtonia racemosa Blume pericarp and seed were evaluated for molluscicidal, larvicial and pisicidal activity ...

  11. Cnh1 Na+/H+ antiporter and Ena1 Na+-ATPase play different roles in cation homeostasis and cell physiology of Candida glabrata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 29-41 ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant - others:EC(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Candida glabrata * potassium homeostasis * podium detoxification * Ena 1 ATPase * Cnh1 antiporter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.403, year: 2011

  12. Chimeras between C. glabrata Cnh1 and S. cerevisiae Nha1 Naplus/Hplus-antiporters are functional proteins increasing the salt tolerance of yeast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2010), s. 435-441 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant - others:EC(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : C. glabrata * S. cerevisiae * Nha1 antiporter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  13. SNF3 as high affinity glucose sensor and its function in supporting the viability of Candida glabrata under glucose-limited environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Shan eNg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an emerging human fungal pathogen that has efficacious nutrient sensing and responsiveness ability. It can be seen through its ability to thrive in diverse range of nutrient limited-human anatomical sites. Therefore, nutrient sensing particularly glucose sensing is thought to be crucial in contributing to the development and fitness of the pathogen. This study aimed to elucidate the role of SNF3 (Sucrose Non Fermenting 3 as a glucose sensor and its possible role in contributing to the fitness and survivability of C. glabrata in glucose-limited environment. The SNF3 knockout strain was constructed and subjected to different glucose concentrations to evaluate its growth, biofilm formation, amphotericin B susceptibility, ex vivo survivability and effects on the transcriptional profiling of the sugar receptor repressor (SRR pathway-related genes. The SNF3Δ strain showed a retarded growth in low glucose environments (0.01% and 0.1% in both fermentation and respiration-preferred conditions but grew well in high glucose concentration environments (1% and 2%. It was also found to be more susceptible to amphotericin B in low glucose environment (0.1% and macrophage engulfment but showed no difference in the biofilm formation capability. The deletion of SNF3 also resulted in the down-regulation of about half of hexose transporters genes (4 out of 9. Overall, the deletion of SNF3 causes significant reduction in the ability of C. glabrata to sense limited surrounding glucose and consequently disrupts its competency to transport and perform the uptake of this critical nutrient. This study highlighted the role of SNF3 as a high affinity glucose sensor and its role in aiding the survivability of C. glabrata particularly in glucose limited environment.

  14. The Effectiveness of Voriconazole in Therapy of Candida glabrata's Biofilms Oral Infections and Its Influence on the Matrix Composition and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Célia F; Gonçalves, Bruna; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-08-01

    Candida glabrata is one of most prevalent yeast in fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Its azole resistance results in a low therapeutic response, particularly when associated with biofilms. The main goal of this work was to study the effectiveness of voriconazole (Vcz) against C. glabrata biofilms oral pathologies, as esophageal or oropharyngeal candidiasis. Antifungal susceptibilities were determined in pre-formed 24-h-biofilms and ERG genes expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Protein quantification was performed using BCA ® Kit, carbohydrate was estimated according to the Dubois assay and β-1,3 glucans concentration were determined using Glucatell ® kit. Finally, ergosterol, Vcz, and fluconazole (Flu) concentrations within the biofilm matrices were determined by RP-HPLC. Results showed that C. glabrata biofilms were more susceptible to Vcz than to Flu and that ERG genes expression evidenced an overexpression of the three ERG genes in the presence of both azoles. The matrix content presented a remarked decrease in proteins and an increase in carbohydrates, namely β-1,3 glucans. Ergosterol was successfully detected and quantified in the biofilm matrices, with no differences in all the considered conditions. Vcz demonstrated better diffusion through the biofilms and better cell penetration capacities, than Flu, indicating that the structure of the drug molecule fully influences its dissemination through the biofilm matrices. This work showed that Vcz is notably more effective than Flu for the treatment of resistant C. glabrata oral biofilms, which demonstrates a clinical relevance in its future use for the treatment of oropharyngeal/esophageal candidiasis caused by this species.

  15. Suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria tenagophila do Estado de São Paulo à infecção por linhagens de Schistosoma mansoni da Baixada Maranhense (Maranhão, Brasil Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila, from S. Paulo State, to infection by Schistosoma mansoni, from the State of Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Exemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila, provenientes do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul (São Paulo, Brasil, foram expostos às linhagens humana (H e silvestre (S de Schistosoma mansoni, oriundos da Região da Baixada Maranhense, ao noroeste do Estado do Maranhão. As linhagens H e S apresentaram comportamento distinto quando colocadas à infectar os moluscos paulistas. As B. tenagophila infectadas com a linhagem S apresentaram índice de mortalidade inferior ao observado nas infectadas com a linhagem H. No molusco paulista a linhagem silvestre maranhense completou seu desenvolvimento, fato que não ocorreu com a linhagem humana. Estas observações foram comparadas com os resultados anteriormente obtidos, quando estudou-se o comportamento das linhagens H e S do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul no molusco simpátrico. Foi verificado que as linhagens maranhenses e paulistas quando comparadas apresentavam comportamento similar frente a B. tenogophila do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, SP.Wild (W and human (H strains of Schistosoma mansoni were isolated in the lowland region of Maranhão State (northeastern Brazil. Snail progenies of Biomphalaria tenagophila collected from Paraiba do Sul River valley (Southeastern Brazil were exposed to W miracidia, obtained from livers of wild rodents,and to H miracidia, from eggs in human stools. The date of elimination of cercariae, the quantity of eliminated larvae, the infection index of the moluscs and the mortality rate of the snails were recorded. This data suggest better adaptation of the W strain than of the H strain to B. tenagophila. These results were compared with published data of H and W strains from the Paraiba do Sul River valley and similar parasitological behavior was found.

  16. Taxonomic diversity dynamics of early cretaceous brachiopods and gastropods in the Azerbaijanian domains of the Lesser Caucasus (Neo-Tethys Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palaeontological data available from the Azerbaijanian domains (Somkhit-Agdam, Sevan-Karabakh, and Miskhan-Kafan tectonic zones of the Lesser Caucasus permit reconstruction of the regional taxonomic diversity dynamics of two groups of Early Cretaceous marine benthic invertebrates. Stratigraphical ranges of 31 species and 14 genera of brachiopods and 40 species and 31 genera of gastropods are considered. The total number of species and genera of brachiopods was low in the Berriasian-Valanginian and then rose to peak in the Barremian. Then, the diversity declined in the Aptian, and brachiopods are not known regionally from the Albian. Gastropods appeared in the Hauterivian and experienced a strong radiation in the Barremian. The diversity of species and genera declined in the Aptian (with a minor radiation in the Middle Aptian, and no gastropods are reported from the Albian. Globally, the number of brachiopod genera remained stable through the Early Cretaceous, and the number of gastropod genera increased stepwise with the maximum in the Albian. The regional and global patterns of the diversity dynamics differed for the both groups of marine benthic invertebrates. The Barremian maximum of the taxonomic diversity coincided with the regional flourishing of reefal ecosystems. The taxonomic diversity dynamics of brachiopods in the Azerbaijanian domains of the Lesser Caucasus is very similar to those of the Northern Caucasus, which is an evidence of proximity of these regions during the Early Cretaceous.

  17. New data on Paleocene-Eocene fauna (gastropods, ostracods, fishes) and palynoflora of the Boltysh impact structure (Ukraine) with reference to palaeobiogeography and palaeoecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dykan, N.; Kovalchuk, O.; Dykan, K.; Gurov, E.; Dašková, Jiřina; Přikryl, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 2 (2018), s. 213-239 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : pollen * gastropods * ostracods * fishes * Boltysh * Paleogene * Eastern Eurpúe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  18. An unusual taphocoenosis of a sea urchin and a rectally inserted turriform gastropod from the lowermost Paleocene of Stevs klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Jesper; Rasmussen, Bo Wilhelm; Vallon, Lothar H.

    2015-01-01

    A specimen of the common irregular echinoid Echinocorys sulcata (Goldfuss, 1826), recovered from the lowermost Paleocene Stevns Klint Formation, at Stevns Klint, Denmark, is of note in revealing a perfect external mold of the turriform gastropod Cerithiella fenestrata (Ravn, 1902) in the anal ope...

  19. A study on the diversity of gastropods in Hormuz Island with first record of two species from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiallah Kheirabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the diversity of gastropod species in the intertidal zone of Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf. Seasonal sampling was conducted in 7 selected sites by throwing nine random quadrates (0.5×0.5 m in each site. Samples of each site were separately transferred to the laboratory and identified by the standard keys and verified by the Conchology Museum of Tokyo University of Science. Forty -nine gastropod species were identified, from which 2 species, Turicula nelliae and Linatella caudata were recorded for the first time from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The highest number of gastropods in one site was 28 species in site 1 (East of Marine Research Center, Also highest number of gastropods in one season was 35 species in winter and lowest number was in 28 species in summer. Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener species diversity index, Margalef richness index and evenness index were calculated in the different sites and results showed that site 1 contained the most amount of the Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices and site 6 (West of Island contained the most amount of the Simpson index. Also, site 3 (Mangrove forest showed the lowest amount of the Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices, while maximum amount of evenness index occurred in this site.

  20. Inter- and intra-specific variability in δ13C and δ18O values of freshwater gastropod shells from Lake Lednica, western Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinarska, Karina; Pełechaty, Mariusz

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the inter- and intra-specific variability in δ13C and δ18O values of shells and opercula of gastropods sampled live from the littoral zone of Lake Lednica, western Poland. The δ13C and δ18O values were measured in individual opercula of Bithynia tentaculata and in shells of Bithynia tentaculata, Gyraulus albus, Gyraulus crista, Lymnaea sp., Physa fontinalis, Radix auricularia, Theodoxus fluviatilis and Valvata cristata. The gastropods selected for the study are among the species most commonly found in European Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The carbon isotope composition of the gastropod shells was species-specific and the same order of species from the most to the least 13C-depleted was observed at all sites sampled. Differences in shell δ13C values between species were similar at all sampling sites, thus the factors influencing shell isotopic composition were interpreted as species-specific. The δ18O values of shells were similar in all the species investigated. Significant intra-specific variability in shell δ13C and δ18O values was observed not only within the populations of Lake Lednica, which can be explained by heterogeneity of δ13C DIC, δ18O water and water temperature between the sites where macrophytes with snails attached were sampled, but also between individuals sampled from restricted areas of the lake's bottom. The latter points to the importance of factors related to the ontogeny of individual gastropods.

  1. Food availability and predation risk drive the distributional patterns of two pulmonate gastropods in a mangrove-saltmarsh transitional habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yisheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Shing Yip

    2017-09-01

    The pulmonate gastropods, Phallomedusa solida (Martens, 1878) and Ophicardelus ornatus (Férussac, 1821), exhibit characteristic distributional patterns at the upper intertidal zones in estuarine mangrove and saltmarsh habitats on the eastern Australian coast. Past studies suggested inundation condition, soil salinity, and percent of vegetation cover were responsible for these patterns. In this study, the role of environmental parameters, food availability, physical stress, and predation pressure in determining the distributional patterns of these gastropods was evaluated along transects spanning saltmarsh, mangrove, and the ecotone habitats. For both species, the maximum population abundance occurred in the upper saltmarsh and the ecotone between mangrove and saltmarsh at 361.0 and 358.0 ind.m -2 , respectively, which was four times that of the lower saltmarsh. Mangroves were evaluated as the optimal habitat for the pulmonates in terms of the environmental parameters moisture content and food availability. However, due to its longer inundation duration within each tidal cycle, use of the mangrove habitat by the pulmonates was impeded because of difficulties in oxygen acquisition under submerged conditions. Laboratory experiments revealed the oxygen intake of the pulmonates dropped abruptly to 4.3-9.0% of aerial rates when submerged. This result indicated that mangroves were not the optimal habitat for the pulmonates. Furthermore, the visiting frequency of predators (yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis and toadfishes, Tetraodontidae) was 1.3 times higher in the mangrove compared to those in the ecotone and upper saltmarsh habitats. Underwater video recording also suggested high mortality of these gastropods at 31.7-88.9% in mangrove and 0.80-0.98 times higher than that in saltmarsh, resulting from the predators preying in the mangrove habitat during high tides. Despite the abiotic factors facilitating the distribution of the pulmonates in the mangrove, the

  2. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Foster, Jamie L

    2013-08-15

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have greater levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Greater RUP can result in more efficient nitrogen utilization by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmental effects. We sought to determine whether, like red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), perennial peanut contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that might be responsible for increased RUP. Perennial peanut extracts contain immunologically detectible PPO protein and high levels of PPO activity (>100 nkatal mg(-1) protein). Addition of caffeic acid (PPO substrate) to perennial peanut extracts depleted of endogenous substrates reduced proteolysis by 90%. Addition of phenolics prepared from perennial peanut leaves to extracts of either transgenic PPO-expressing or control (non-expressing) alfalfa showed peanut phenolics could reduce proteolysis >70% in a PPO-dependent manner. Two abundant likely PPO substrates are present in perennial peanut leaves including caftaric acid. Perennial peanut contains PPO and PPO substrates that together are capable of inhibiting post-harvest proteolysis, suggesting a possible mechanism for increased RUP in this forage. Research related to optimizing the PPO system in other forage crops will likely be applicable to perennial peanut. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Purification, Reconstitution, and Inhibition of Cytochrome P-450 Sterol Δ22-Desaturase from the Pathogenic Fungus Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David C.; Maspahy, Segula; Kelly, Diane E.; Manning, Nigel J.; Geber, Antonia; Bennett, John E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    Sterol Δ22-desaturase has been purified from a strain of Candida glabrata with a disruption in the gene encoding sterol 14α-demethylase (cytochrome P-45051; CYP51). The purified cytochrome P-450 exhibited sterol Δ22-desaturase activity in a reconstituted system with NADPH–cytochrome P-450 reductase in dilaurylphosphatidylcholine, with the enzyme kinetic studies revealing a Km for ergosta-5,7-dienol of 12.5 μM and a Vmax of 0.59 nmol of this substrate metabolized/min/nmol of P-450. This enzyme is encoded by CYP61 (ERG5) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and homologues have been shown in the Candida albicans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome projects. Ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole formed low-spin complexes with the ferric cytochrome and exhibited type II spectra, which are indicative of an interaction between the azole moiety and the cytochrome heme. The azole antifungal compounds inhibited reconstituted sterol Δ22-desaturase activity by binding to the cytochrome with a one-to-one stoichiometry, with total inhibition of enzyme activity occurring when equimolar amounts of azole and cytochrome P-450 were added. These results reveal the potential for sterol Δ22-desaturase to be an antifungal target and to contribute to the binding of drugs within the fungal cell. PMID:10390230

  4. A Baseline Measure of Tree and Gastropod Biodiversity in Replanted and Natural Mangrove Stands in Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-01-01

    The diversities of mangrove trees and of their associated gastropods were assessed for two mangrove regions on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m2 (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H’) and Evenness Index (J’) were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H’ and J’ values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H’ and J’ values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H’ = 0.44±0.17 and J’ = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H’ = 0.96±0.41 and J’ = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H’ = 0.22±0.39 and J’ = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H’ = 1.23±0.63 and J’ = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts. PMID:25210584

  5. Impact of the age of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails on Schistosoma mansoni transmission: modulation of the genetic outcome and the internal defence system of the snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 34 identified Biomphalariaspecies,Biomphalaria alexandrinarepresents the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoniin Egypt. Using parasitological and SOD1 enzyme assay, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the age of B. alexandrinasnails on their genetic variability and internal defence against S. mansoniinfection. Susceptible and resistant snails were reared individually for self-reproduction; four subgroups of their progeny were used in experiment. The young susceptible subgroup showed the highest infection rate, the shortest pre-patent period, the highest total cercarial production, the highest mortality rate and the lowest SOD1 activity. Among the young and adult susceptible subgroups, 8% and 26% were found to be resistant, indicating the inheritance of resistance alleles from parents. The adult resistant subgroup, however, contained only resistant snails and showed the highest enzyme activity. The complex interaction between snail age, genetic background and internal defence resulted in great variability in compatibility patterns, with the highest significant difference between young susceptible and adult resistant snails. The results demonstrate that resistance alleles function to a greater degree in adults, with higher SOD1 activity and provide potential implications for Biomphalariacontrol. The identification of the most susceptible snail age enables determination of the best timing for applying molluscicides. Moreover, adult resistant snails could be beneficial in biological snail control.

  6. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 from Serra da Mesa Dam, Goiás, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological changes from water resources development projects often affect the epidemiology of water-associated diseases. In order to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area of influence of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric a survey has been performed since 1997 and revealed the occurrence of well-established populations of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 in the 8 municipalities surrounding the lake. Areas of epidemiologic risk for schistosomiasis were selected and studies of parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using specimens from 19 populations of B. straminea and 3 strains (CM, EC and PB originally isolated from B. straminea. Among 1,135 specimens used 15 became infected (infection index of 1.3% and 8 populations were susceptible to the schistosome strains: B. straminea from Campinorte (Castelão, susceptible to CM and EC strains, and Planeta Água, EC strain, Colinas (Tocantinzinho river, CM and EC strains, Minaçu (Canabrava river, EC strain, Niquelândia (Codemin, CM and PB strains, and Almas river, CM strain, Uruaçu (touristic area, PB strain and Santa Rita do Novo Destino (Maranhão river, CM and EC strains. These results, associated with marked social and ecological changes occurred, strongly suggest the possibility of B. straminea coming to act as a vector of schistosomiasis in the studied area.

  7. [Composition, distribution and abundance of gastropod larvae in the South of Quintana Roo,Mexico and north of Belice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Rivera, J; de Jesús Navarrete, A

    2000-12-01

    To know the composition, abundance and distribution of gastropod larvae, monthly samplings were carried out in the south of Quintana Roo, Mexico and north of Belize, from April to December, 1996. Collections were made in six sites at Chinchorro Bank, four in the South Coast and six at Hol-Chan, Belize, between the 10 and 20 hrs. At each station 2.5 m3 of seawater were pumped through a 202 microns mesh; 27 species were identified. The most abundant species were: South Coast, Rissoina sp. 1., Limacina sp. 1 and Natica sp. 1, Chinchorro Bank, Limacina sp. 1, Creseis acicula, Cerithiopsis hero and Rissoina sp. 1 and Hol-Chan, Limacina sp. 2, Alaba incerta and Rissoina sp. 1. The highest abundance was in rainy season. Apparently the presence of winds, coastal currents and food availability, control the distribution and abundance of larvae.

  8. [SPECTRAL AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF HEMOLYMPH PLASMA AND ITS FRACTIONS FROM GASTROPOD PULMONATE MOLLUSC ACHATINA FULICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T A; Lianguzov, A Yu; Malygina, N M

    2016-01-01

    The set of normal biochemical indicators of the hemolymph plasma of gastropod pulmonate mollusc Achatinafulica is described. Comparative analysis of the whole plasma and its subfractions enriched and depleted of oxygen-carrying protein hemocyanin was performed by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry methods. Individual features of the absorption spectra were analyzed using fourth derivatives. The optimum method for estimating protein concentration was chosen. To characterize acid-base properties of plasma hemolymph and its sub-fractions we calculated buffer capacity, equivalence points and pK values of dominant buffer groups. It is shown that the major role in maintaining the buffer capacity of hemolymph belongs to the bicarbonate system. These results are compared with data for Helix pomatia available in literature. In the future the indicators studied in this work will be used to develop ecotoxicological criteria for the environmental assessment.

  9. On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knebelsberger Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A robust phylogenetic hypothesis of euthyneuran gastropods, as a basis to reconstructing their evolutionary history, is still hindered by several groups of aberrant, more or less worm-like slugs with unclear phylogenetic relationships. As a traditional "order" in the Opisthobranchia, the Acochlidia have a long history of controversial placements, among others influenced by convergent adaptation to the mainly meiofaunal habitats. The present study includes six out of seven acochlidian families in a comprehensive euthyneuran taxon sampling with special focus on minute, aberrant slugs. Since there is no fossil record of tiny, shell-less gastropods, a molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times within Euthyneura. Results Our multi-locus molecular study confirms Acochlidia in a pulmonate relationship, as sister to Eupulmonata. Previous hypotheses of opisthobranch relations, or of a common origin with other meiofaunal Euthyneura, are clearly rejected. The enigmatic amphibious and insectivorous Aitengidae incerta sedis clusters within Acochlidia, as sister to meiofaunal and brackish Pseudunelidae and limnic Acochlidiidae. Euthyneura, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata as traditionally defined are non-monophyletic. A relaxed molecular clock approach indicates a late Palaeozoic diversification of Euthyneura and a Mesozoic origin of the major euthyneuran diversity, including Acochlidia. Conclusions The present study shows that the inclusion of small, enigmatic groups is necessary to solve deep-level phylogenetic relationships, and underlines that "pulmonate" and "opisthobranch" phylogeny, respectively, cannot be solved independently from each other. Our phylogenetic hypothesis requires reinvestigation of the traditional classification of Euthyneura: morphological synapomorphies of the traditionally defined Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia are evaluated in light of the presented phylogeny, and a redefinition of major groups is

  10. Interactions between cyanobacteria and gastropods II. Impact of toxic Planktothrix agardhii on the life-history traits of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Paty, Chrystelle; Bormans, Myriam; Brient, Luc; Gérard, Claudia

    2007-03-30

    Hepatotoxins are frequently produced by many cyanobacterial species. Microcystins (MCs) are the most frequent and widely studied hepatotoxins, with potentially hazardous repercussions on aquatic organisms. As a ubiquitous herbivore living in eutrophic freshwaters, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) is particularly exposed to cyanobacteria. The toxic filamentous Planktothrix agardhii is common in temperate lakes and is therefore, a potential food resource for gastropods. In the first part of this study, we demonstrated the ingestion of toxic P. agardhii by L. stagnalis during a 5 weeks exposure, with concomitant accumulation of, on average, 60% of total MCs ingested. After 3 weeks of non-toxic food (lettuce), approximately 90% of MCs were eliminated from tissues. Here, we investigate the impact of toxic P. agardhii consumption on the life-history traits (survival, growth and fecundity), locomotion and the structure of digestive and genital glands of juvenile and adult L. stagnalis. We observed a decrease of growth regardless of age, although this was more marked in juveniles, and a reduction of fecundity in adults. Survival and locomotion were not affected. Reduction of growth and fecundity continued to be observed even after feeding of non-toxic food for 3 weeks. The structure of the digestive gland was altered during the intoxication period but not irreversibly as cells tended to recover a normal status after the 3-week detoxification period. No histopathological changes occurred in the genital gland and oocytes, and spermatozoids were present in the gonadic acini. The density of cyanobacterial suspensions used in this study was comparable to those regularly observed in lakes, particularly in eutrophic waters. These results are discussed in terms of the negative impact of toxic cyanobacteria on natural communities of freshwater gastropods, and potential cascading effects on the equilibrium and functioning of the ecosystem.

  11. The role of vermetid gastropods in the development of the Florida Middle Ground, northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christopher D.; Poore, Richard Z.; Hickey, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    The Florida Middle Ground is a complex of north to northwest trending ridges that lie approximately 180 km northwest of Tampa Bay, Florida. The irregular ridges appear on the otherwise gently sloping West Florida shelf and exhibit between 10-15 m of relief. Modern studies interpret the ridges as remnants of a Holocene coral-reef buildup that today provide a hard substrate for growth of a variety of benthic organisms including hydrocorals, scleractinians, alcyonarians, and algae. Recent rotary coring reveals that the core of the eastern ridge of the Florida Middle Ground complex consists of unconsolidated marine calcareous muddy sand that is capped by a boundstone composed primarily of the sessile vermetid gastropod Petaloconchus sp., and overlays a weathered, fossiliferous limestone. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon ages (uncalibrated) on the 3.6-m thick vermetid worm rock indicate that it developed during a sea-level stillstand in the early Holocene (8,225 ±30-8,910 ± 25 yr B.P.). Our observations suggest that the Florida Middle Ground is a remnant of a series of shore parallel bars that formed in the early Holocene and were capped by a 3.6-m thick unit of vermetid gastropods. During a rapid sea-level rise that began ~8,000 yr B.P. the vermetids growth ceased and the worm rock preserved the ridges structure. Diver observations document that the edges of the ridges are currently being eroded and undermined by biological activity and current action, leading to calving of large capstone blocks.

  12. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, Manuel António E.

    2016-01-01

    The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown. PMID:27248835

  13. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cruz-Rivera

    Full Text Available The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt, a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny. Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown.

  14. Comparison of gastropod mollusc (Apogastropoda: Hydrobiidae habitats in two crater lakes in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K McCrary

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic gastropod mollusc, Pyrgophorus coronatus, may perform an important role in the transmission of an emergent ocular pathology among fishes in Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. This disease emerged after an introduction of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the subsequent loss of Chara sp. beds in the lake. We compared the mollusc population densities in three habitats (sandy/muddy substrates, rocks, and Chara vegetation at varying depths (1.5, 10, 20, and 30 m in two volcanic crater lakes in Nicaragua: Lake Apoyo and Lake Xiloa, where lower numbers of affected fishes were found and tilapia has not been introduced. Duplicate samples at 1.5 m depth were taken in each habitat monthly for a year, and triplicate samples for bathymetric analysis of snail populations were performed during August, 2005. Samples of fixed surface area were filtered in a 0.4 cm size screen and live snails were counted from each sample. The preferred snail habitat in both lakes, Chara beds, was vastly reduced in Lake Apoyo via consumption by introduced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Structureless sandy substrates (mean ± standard error 3.1±1.3 ind/m² had lower population densities than other habitats in Lake Xiloá (rocks 590.9±185.3 ind/m²; vegetation 3 686.5±698.2 ind/m2; ANOVA I, pEl gasterópodo acuático, Pyrgophorus coronatus, podría jugar un papel importante en la transmisión de una patología ocular emergente entre los peces de la laguna de Apoyo, Nicaragua. Esta enfermedad surgió después de una introducción de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus y la subsecuente pérdida de lechos de Chara sp. en la laguna. Comparamos las densidades poblacionales del caracol en tres hábitats (substratos arenosos/lodosos, rocas y vegetación de Chara en dos lagunas cratéricas volcánicas en Nicaragua: La laguna de Apoyo y la laguna de Xiloá, donde no se encuentraron grandes cantidades de peces afectados y donde no se han introducido tilapias. Mensualmente, por un a

  15. Acute extrarenal kidney damage in the course of infection with fungal strain of Candida glabrata in a patient with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarejko-Paradowska, A.; Bartnicki, P.; Pietrzak, B.; Wilk, R.; Serwa-Stepien, E.; Rysz, J.; Jablonowski, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute renal injury is becoming a significant epidemiological problem among patients requiring hospital treatment. Extrarenal aetiology of the kidney injury is recognized in 5 % to 10 % of hospitalized patients; however, the identification of the mycelium of the Candida glabrata as the direct factor causing the acute urinary obstruction is extremely rare. Case Report: A 64-year-old woman was admitted to the clinic because of progressing weakness, nausea and vomiting, poor appetite and reduced urination. On admission, laboratory findings revealed pyuria, inflammatory changes, acute renal failure (eGFR-MDRD 6 ml/min), and hyperglycemia. The patient underwent USG of the abdominal cavity, which showed bilateral hydronephrosis, with lithiasis on the right site. Cystoscopy done the next day revealed that the mucous membrane of the bladder was reddened and had a white coating. During the next several days, a renal fistula was created on the left and right sides. Candida glabrata was isolated from urine, and was sensitive only to voriconazole. V-fend (voriconazole) treatment resulted in increase of diuresis and decrease in creatinine and urea levels. Conclusions: Urinary tract infection caused by Candida glabrata causes significant therapeutic problems. In most cases, these yeasts are resistant to triazole anti-fungal drugs such as fluconazole, which translates into significantly increased mortality of patients. To date, a similar case was described only by one group of doctors, however, due to the intensity of the currently used immunosuppression and multiantibiotic therapy, increased incidence of diabetes and the aging of the population, it is expected that the prevalence of this clinical problem will increase. (authors)

  16. Aspectos da ecologia reprodutiva de Pera glabrata (Schott Poepp. ex Baill. (Euphorbiaceae em uma área de Cerrado no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ribeirão de Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pera glabrata é uma árvore que apresenta ampla distribuição no Brasil. A espécie vegetal é de importância para a conservação e recuperação de áreas degradadas, pois está presente em áreas impactadas, produz e dispersa grande quantidade de sementes e constitui-se em fonte alimentar para elevado número de espécies animais. Apesar da importância fitossociológica da espécie, ainda não existem estudos que abordem a sua ecologia reprodutiva. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar aspectos da fenologia reprodutiva, da morfologia floral, dos sistemas reprodutivo e de polinização e da dispersão de sementes da espécie. O estudo foi realizado em uma área de Cerrado no município de São Carlos, SP. Verificou-se que Pera glabrata é dioica e apresenta floração massiva e as flores dos dois sexos são pequenas, involucradas, amarelas e de antese diurna. As flores masculinas apresentam néctar e emitem odor adocicado, e as femininas não oferecem recursos perceptíveis aos visitantes florais. As flores foram visitadas por 32 espécies de Diptera e Hymenoptera de pequeno porte. Ocorre a formação de frutos e sementes por autogamia. Foram identificadas 25 espécies de aves visitando indivíduos com frutos maduros, das quais 16 ingeriram as sementes ariladas. Pera glabrata é autogâmica, com síndrome de polinização por diversos pequenos insetos e com dispersão ornitocórica de suas sementes.

  17. The dual role of Candida glabrata Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eCosta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms.In this study, the Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g, from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a GFP fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of 3H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of 3H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of 14C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization and

  18. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. The gastropod-symbiotic sea anemone genus Isosicyonis Carlgren, 1927 (Actiniaria: Actiniidae: a new species from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica that clarifies the taxonomic position of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A second species of the sea anemone genus Isosicyonis is described and illustrated from 16 specimens collected in the Weddell Sea (Antarctica on the Polarstern cruises ANT XVII/3, ANT XXI/2 and ANT XXIII/8. Isosicyonis striata n. sp. is easily distinguishable externally from the other species of the genus Isosicyonis alba by its pattern: white longitudinal stripes on the column, oral disc, and tentacles. It is also distinguished by internal features including the retractor muscles, parietobasilar muscles, marginal sphincter muscles, number of mesenteries, and cnidae. The genus Isosycionis is currently only known from the Southern Ocean. Both species of Isosicyonis live in association with a gastropod, with a single sea anemone occupying almost the whole shell of its gastropod host. The description of this new species, and our re-examination of Isosicyonis alba, resolves the controversial higher taxonomic position of the genus, confirming its placement within the Endomyaria.

  20. Tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisons in gastropod species from Vietnam analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chin Jen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among marine toxins, tetrodotoxin (TTX and paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs are known as notorious neurotoxins that induce serious food poisoning incidents in the Southeast Asia region. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TTX and PSP toxins are important issues of seafood safety. Paralytic toxicity was observed in mice exposed to 34 specimens from five species of gastropods using a PSP bioassay. Five species of gastropods, Natica vitellus, Natica tumidus, Oliva hirasei, Oliva lignaria, and Oliva annulata, were collected from the coastal seawaters in Nha Trang City, Vietnam, between August 2007 and October 2007. The average lethal potency of gastropod specimens was 90 ± 40 (mean ± standard deviation mouse units (MU for N. vitellus, 64 ± 19 MU for N. tumidus, 42 ± 28 MU for O. hirasei, 51 ± 17 MU for O. lignaria, and 39 ± 18 MU for O. annulata. All toxic extracts from the sample species were clarified using a C18 Sep-Pak solid-phase extraction column and a microcentrifuge filter prior to analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection indicated that the toxins of the olive shell (O. hirasei, O. lignaria, and O. annulata were mainly composed of saxitoxin (STX (73–82%, gonyautoxin (GTX 2, 3 (12–22%, and minor levels of TTX (5–6%. The toxins of N. vitellus and N. tumidus were mainly composed of STX (76–81% and GTX 1, 4 (19–24%. Furthermore, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used to verify the identity of the PSPs and TTX. Our evidence shows that these gastropods have novel toxin profiles.

  1. An evaluation of Mesodon and other larger terrestrial gastropod shells for dating late Holocene and historic alluvium in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovan, Monica T.; Rech, Jason A.; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Nekola, Jeffery C.; Wiles, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the history of stream erosion and changes in channel morphology is important for managing and restoring unstable streams. One of the significant challenges in this type of research is establishing accurate dating of late Holocene and historic alluvium. Here we evaluate the potential of using 14C dating and amino acid racemization (AAR) to date large terrestrial gastropod shells that are often preserved within alluvial sediments. Many terrestrial gastropods incorporate old carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks into their shells and therefore are unsuitable for radiocarbon dating. Recent studies, however, have shown that some taxa avoid this ‘limestone problem’ and can yield reliable 14C ages. In this study, we measured the 14C activity of specimens for the genera Mesodon, Ventridens, and Allogona collected live and from alluvial sequences dated independently by dendrochronology, 14C dating of wood, and/or 137Cs analyses. Mesodon zaletus contained old carbon in similar concentrations (up to ~ 30%) found in previous studies of other large taxa and should be avoided for 14C dating when possible. In contrast, shells of Ventridens ligera and Allogona profunda showed minimal limestone effects and therefore may be suitable for dating late Holocene alluvium. These results highlight the importance of taxonomic identification of gastropod taxa prior to their use for 14C dating and demonstrate that shell fragments that are not identifiable should be avoided. We also measured d/l ratios (n = 17) of aspartic and glutamic acid from eight different taxa of terrestrial gastropods recovered from four late Holocene and historic stratigraphic sequences. Average d/l ratios of aspartic and glutamic acid from historic sediments < 300 years old are lower in shells from younger stratigraphic units, indicating that AAR can be used to differentiate between multiple historic stratigraphic units.

  2. Mg and 18O Variations in the Shell of the Chilean Gastropod Concholepas concholepas Reflect SST and Growth Rate variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N.; Lazareth, C. E.; Poitrasson, F.; Cuif, J.; Ortlieb, L.

    2004-12-01

    To validate the use of fossil mollusc shells as recorders of environmental conditions, a primary calibration study was carried out on modern shells of the Chilean gastropod Concholepas concholepas, the so-called southern hemisphere abalone which is particularly abundant in Holocene archaeological sites. Organisms were maintained in culture tanks and feed with live mytilids. The sea water temperature in the tank was recorded every half-an-hour by an automatic device. The experiment lasted several months. Periodical marking with calcein provided a precise chronological control of the shell growth. Thus, well-dated high resolution chemical profiles could be directly compared with temperatures during shell formation. Geochemical analyses of the calcite layers include Mg, Sr and 16O/18O composition. Trace elements were analysed using Laser Ablation ICP-MS and Electron Microprobe while stable isotopes were measured on a Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry (SIMS). The shell growth rate during two months of formation varied between 30 and 140 µm/day which allows us to reach a temporal resolution for chemical profiles between a few hours and three days. The growth rate variations do not seem to be related to temperature fluctuations. Only Mg content was analytically reproducible and showed significant variations across the shells. The Mg high-resolution profiles display a grossly sinusoidal shape. Shells from different sites along the coasts of Chile showed mean Mg contents of 300 ppm and 500 ppm for mean temperatures of 17 and 20° C, respectively. This suggests a gross correlation between Mg and temperature. However, high resolution Mg results do not show an exact fitting neither with temperature nor with growth rates. Other parameters, like shell ageing as suggested by an amplitude increase observed near the edge of one of the shells, or other complex biological factors, may influence Mg incorporation into the shell. \\delta 18O values of the calcite vary between -1,5 and 2

  3. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  4. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent. Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  5. KRE5 Suppression Induces Cell Wall Stress and Alternative ER Stress Response Required for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masato; Ito, Fumie; Aoyama, Toshio; Sato-Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Shibata, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of cell wall integrity in fungi is required for normal cell growth, division, hyphae formation, and antifungal tolerance. We observed that endoplasmic reticulum stress regulated cell wall integrity in Candida glabrata, which possesses uniquely evolved mechanisms for unfolded protein response mechanisms. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of KRE5, which encodes a predicted UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, significantly increased cell wall chitin content and decreased cell wall β-1,6-glucan content. KRE5 repression induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene expression and MAP kinase pathway activation, including Slt2p and Hog1p phosphorylation, through the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Moreover, the calcineurin pathway negatively regulated cell wall integrity, but not the reduction of β-1,6-glucan content. These results indicate that KRE5 is required for maintaining both endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and cell wall integrity, and that the calcineurin pathway acts as a regulator of chitin-glucan balance in the cell wall and as an alternative mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress in C. glabrata. PMID:27548283

  6. Determination of the toxic variability of lipophilic biotoxins in marine bivalve and gastropod tissues treated with an industrial canning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; Oyaneder-Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Cristóbal; Del Campo, Miguel; Torres, Rafael; Contreras, Héctor R

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of shellfish with lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMB), pectenotoxins (PTXs), yessotoxins (YTXs) and okadaic acid (OA) toxin groups in southern Chile is a constant challenge for the development of miticulture considering the high incidence of toxic episodes that tend to occur. This research is focused on using methodologies for assessing the decrease in toxins of natural resources in Chile with high value, without altering the organoleptic properties of the shellfish. The species were processed through steaming (1 min at 121°C) and subsequent canning (5 min at 121°C). Changes in the profiles of toxins and total toxicity levels of LMB in endemic bivalves and gastropods were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The total reduction of toxicity (≈ 15%) was not related to the destruction of the toxin, but rather to the loss of LMB on removing the shells and packing media of canned products (***p < 0.001). Industrial processing of shellfish reduces LMB contents by up to 15% of the total initial contents, concomitant only with the interconversion of PTX-group toxins into PTX-2sa. In soft bottom-dwelling species with toxicities beyond the standard for safe human consumption (≥ 160 μg OA-eq kg - 1 ), toxicity can be reduced to safe levels through industrial preparation procedures.

  7. X-irradiation effects on growth and metamorphosis of gastropod larvae (Crepidula fornicata): a model for environmental radiation teratogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S; Pechenik, J; Lord, A; Gould, L; Naparstek, E; Kase, K; FitzGerald, T J

    1986-02-01

    Little information is available on the effects of x-irradiation on the development of multicellular marine organisms. Larvae of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata were irradiated at 200 rad/min, 250 kVp X-rays, to doses between 500 and 20,000 rad in a single fraction. During the weeks following exposure, changes in shell length and biomass, incidence of metamorphosis to the juvenile stage of development, and mortality were measured. The results over a 20-day period demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in growth rate of larval shells following doses above 2000 rad (control at day 20 = 850 +/- 110 ..mu..m length, 820 +/- 11 ..mu..m for 500 rad, 750 +/- 30 ..mu..m for 2000 rad, 710 +/- 30 ..mu..m for 5000 rad, 620 +/- 30 ..mu..m for 10,000 rad, and 580 +/- 15 ..mu..m for 20,000 rad). Shell length-specific biomass was significantly decreased for doses above 10,000 rad. A significant increase in larval mortality was detected with doses above 2000 rad. The cumulative percent of larval metamorphosis was decreased by exposures to 5000 rad and was detectable as early as 18 days after irradiation; however, metamorphosis of larvae after 5000 rad occurred faster by day 21 while other groups metamorphosis required 34-35 days for completion. Crepidula fornicata may provide a very sensitive and convenient system in which to study teratogenic effects of x-irradiation on multicellular organisms.

  8. Isolation and identification of crude oil degrading bacteria from gastropod Haustrum scobina collected from Persian Gulf (Bandar Abbas Shoreline provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinab Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodegradation is a good alternative rather than chemical and physical methods for cleaning oil contaminated areas. Several factors like crude oil concentration, biosurfactant production, salinity and incubation time affect the biodegradation. Materials and methods: In this study, seawater sample and gastropod were collected from Persian Gulf. To isolate oil degrading bacteria from collected samples, ONR7a medium was used. The strains that had more growth and higher oil removal were selected and identified. The factors such as the effect of different concentrations of oil, incubation time, mixed cultures and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. Results: Six crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated. Between these bacteria 2 strains were selected based on higher oil removal. These strains belonged to the genus Vibrio and Halomonas. Strains with higher Emulsification activity produce more biosurfactant and have higher oil biodegradation. Growth and oil degradation have increment pattern by prolonging the incubation time. Mixed culture of Vibrio and Halomonas strains have higher rates of degradation rather than culturing with one of them. Increase in crudeoil concentration to 2.5% caused reduction in growth of bacteria and degradation of oil. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study show that crude oil degrading bacteria have high diversity in Persian Gulf. These bacteria have higher capability for oil degradation thus they can be used for remediation of oil contaminated areas.

  9. Responses of a Rocky Shore Gastropod to the Effluents of Predatory and Non-predatory Crabs: Avoidance and Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, P B; Palmer, A R

    1991-12-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed that the rocky shore gastropod, Nucella lamellosa (Gmelin), could discriminate between the effluents of predatory and non-predatory crabs. N. lamellosa turned away from seawater that had passed over the large predatory crab, Cancer productus Randall. This avoidance behavior was observed in snails from two localities that, based on differences in shell form, presumably experienced different levels of predation intensity. The scent of the non-predatory crabs Pugettia producta (Randall) and Lopholithodes mandtii Brandt had no effect on the turning behavior of snails from either site. Surprisingly, snails from both sites were attracted to the scent of a small shore crab, Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana), but moved at random in response to a common prey item Balanus glandula Darwin. These results suggest that N. lamellosa can assess from a distance the relative risks posed by different species of crabs, and respond appropriately. The unexpected attraction to H. nudus suggests that N. lamellosa may use this effluent to home in from a distance on potential refugia, because H. nudus are often associated with crevices and the undersides of boulders where N. lamellosa would be less vulnerable to larger predators.

  10. The spatial scale of genetic subdivision in populations of Ifremeria nautilei, a hydrothermal-vent gastropod from the southwest Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Andrew D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide patchy, ephemeral habitats for specialized communities of animals that depend on chemoautotrophic primary production. Unlike eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents, where population structure has been studied at large (thousands of kilometres and small (hundreds of meters spatial scales, population structure of western Pacific vents has received limited attention. This study addresses the scale at which genetic differentiation occurs among populations of a western Pacific vent-restricted gastropod, Ifremeria nautilei. Results We used mitochondrial and DNA microsatellite markers to infer patterns of gene flow and population subdivision. A nested sampling strategy was employed to compare genetic diversity in discrete patches of Ifremeria nautilei separated by a few meters within a single vent field to distances as great as several thousand kilometres between back-arc basins that encompass the known range of the species. No genetic subdivisions were detected among patches, mounds, or sites within Manus Basin. Although I. nautilei from Lau and North Fiji Basins (~1000 km apart also exhibited no evidence for genetic subdivision, these populations were genetically distinct from the Manus Basin population. Conclusions An unknown process that restricts contemporary gene flow isolates the Manus Basin population of Ifremeria nautilei from widespread populations that occupy the North Fiji and Lau Basins. A robust understanding of the genetic structure of hydrothermal vent populations at multiple spatial scales defines natural conservation units and can help minimize loss of genetic diversity in situations where human activities are proposed and managed.

  11. The larvae of congeneric gastropods showed differential responses to the combined effects of ocean acidification, temperature and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoyu; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S

    2014-02-15

    The tolerance and physiological responses of the larvae of two congeneric gastropods, the intertidal Nassarius festivus and subtidal Nassarius conoidalis, to the combined effects of ocean acidification (pCO2 at 380, 950, 1250 ppm), temperature (15, 30°C) and salinity (10, 30 psu) were compared. Results of three-way ANOVA on cumulative mortality after 72-h exposure showed significant interactive effects in which mortality increased with pCO2 and temperature, but reduced at higher salinity for both species, with higher mortality being obtained for N. conoidalis. Similarly, respiration rate of the larvae increased with temperature and pCO2 level for both species, with a larger percentage increase for N. conoidalis. Larval swimming speed increased with temperature and salinity for both species whereas higher pCO2 reduced swimming speed in N. conoidalis but not N. festivus. The present findings indicated that subtidal congeneric species are more sensitive than their intertidal counterparts to the combined effects of these stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hierarchical structure of ecological and non-ecological processes of differentiation shaped ongoing gastropod radiation in the Malawi Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, Bert

    2017-09-13

    Ecological processes, non-ecological processes or a combination of both may cause reproductive isolation and speciation, but their specific roles and potentially complex interactions in evolutionary radiations remain poorly understood, which defines a central knowledge gap at the interface of microevolution and macroevolution. Here I examine genome scans in combination with phenotypic and environmental data to disentangle how ecological and non-ecological processes contributed to population differentiation and speciation in an ongoing radiation of Lanistes gastropods from the Malawi Basin. I found a remarkable hierarchical structure of differentiation mechanisms in space and time: neutral and mutation-order processes are older and occur mainly between regions, whereas more recent adaptive processes are the main driver of genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation within regions. The strongest differentiation occurs between habitats and between regions, i.e. when ecological and non-ecological processes act synergistically. The structured occurrence of these processes based on the specific geographical setting and ecological opportunities strongly influenced the potential for evolutionary radiation. The results highlight the importance of interactions between various mechanisms of differentiation in evolutionary radiations, and suggest that non-ecological processes are important in adaptive radiations, including those of cichlids. Insight into such interactions is critical to understanding large-scale patterns of organismal diversity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Parasitic gastropod bioerosion trace fossil on Cenomanian oysters from Le Mans, France and its ichnologic and taphonomic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Breton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe and name Loxolenichnus stellatocinctus Breton and Wisshak igen. et isp. nov., a bioerosion trace fossil on an Upper Cenomanian oyster from Le Mans (France. This trace is attributed here to a parasitic gastropod. The characteristics of this ichnospecies are a combination of one or several, vertical or oblique, complete penetrations, and an asymmetrical attachment etching (fixichnion with a diagnostic set of stellate grooves increasingly distinct towards the margin of the trace. By including two former Oichnus ichnospecies, Loxolenichnus halo comb. nov. and Loxolenichnus taddei comb. nov., Oichnus, is now constrained to pure predation traces (praedichnia. The numerous oysters collected from the Marnes à Pycnodonte biauriculata Formation show associated epibionts and encrusters as well as borers and scrapers. Encrusters comprise 24 taxa while bioerosion trace fossils comprise 17 ichnotaxa ranging from very rare (< 0.1% to quite abundant (81%. The taphonomic history leading to an ex-situ condensation of these oysters is complex. Both the Gnathichnus and Entobia ichnofacies are represented on the shellgrounds, presumably alternatingly.

  14. Palaeotemperature estimation in the Holsteinian Interglacial (MIS 11) based on oxygen isotopes of aquatic gastropods from eastern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanek, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    For quantitative estimation of past water temperature of four Holsteinian (MIS 11) palaeolakes from eastern Poland, the oxygen isotope palaeothermometer was applied to shells of the aquatic gastropods Viviparus diluvianus and Valvata piscinalis. The δ18O composition of their shells demonstrated the average growth-season water temperatures during the mesocratic stage of the interglacial (Ortel Królewski Lake), during its climatic optimum - the Carpinus-Abies Zone (Ossówka-Hrud, Roskosz and Szymanowo Lakes), and in the post-optimum (Szymanowo Lake). The calculation was based on δ18OShell values and the δ18OWater assumed for the Holsteinian from the modern oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and the expected amount of evaporative enrichment. The mean oxygen isotope palaeotemperatures of Ortel Królewski lake waters were in the range of 18.1-21.9°C and were uniform for the Taxus and Pinus-Larix zones. Ossówka-Hrud and Roskosz Lakes had mean temperatures of 17.4-21.0°C during the climatic optimum, whereas the temperature of Szymanowo lake waters was estimated at 20.6-21.7°C at that time. These values are concordant with the pollen-inferred July air temperatures noted during the Holsteinian in eastern Poland. Relatively high values of 25°C in the post-optimum noted at Szymanowo were connected with the presence of a shallow and warm isolated bay indicated by pollen and mollusc records.

  15. Facultative Sterol Uptake in an Ergosterol-Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles and Amphotericin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 mu g ml(-1), respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  16. [Comparison of microdilution and disk diffusion methods for the detection of fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility against clinical Candida glabrata isolates and determination of changing susceptibility with new CLSI breakpoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazırolan, Gülşen; Sarıbaş, Zeynep; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species as the causative agent of Candida infections. However, in recent years, the isolation rate of non-albicans Candida species have increased. In many centers, Candida glabrata is one of the commonly isolated non-albicans species of C.glabrata infections which are difficult-to-treat due to decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and cross-resistance to other azoles. The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles of clinical C.glabrata isolates against fluconazole and voriconazole by microdilution and disk diffusion methods and to evaluate the results with both the previous (CLSI) and current species-specific CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) clinical breakpoints. A total of 70 C.glabrata strains isolated from clinical samples were included in the study. The identification of the isolates was performed by morphologic examination on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and assimilation profiles obtained by using ID32C (BioMérieux, France). Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods were performed according to CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M44-A2 documents, respectively. The results were evaluated according to CLSI M27-A3 and M44-A2 documents and new vs. species-specific CLSI breakpoints. By using both previous and new CLSI breakpoints, broth microdilution test results showed that voriconazole has greater in vitro activity than fluconazole against C.glabrata isolates. For the two drugs tested, very major error was not observed with disk diffusion method when microdilution method was considered as the reference method. Since "susceptible" category no more exists for fluconazole vs. C.glabrata, the isolates that were interpreted as susceptible by previous breakpoints were evaluated as susceptible-dose dependent by current CLSI breakpoints. Since species-specific breakpoints remain yet undetermined for voriconazole, comparative analysis was not possible for this agent. The results obtained

  17. The effect of increasing water temperatures on Schistosoma mansoni transmission and Biomphalaria pfeifferi population dynamics: an agent-based modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky McCreesh

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Little is known, however, about the likely effects of increasing water-body temperatures on transmission.We have developed an agent-based model of the temperature-sensitive stages of the Schistosoma and intermediate host snail life-cycles, parameterised using data from S. mansoni and Biomphalaria pfeifferi laboratory and field-based observations. Infection risk is calculated as the number of cercariae in the model, adjusted for their probability of causing infection.The number of snails in the model is approximately constant between 15-31°C. Outside this range, snail numbers drop sharply, and the snail population cannot survive outside the range 14-32°C. Mean snail generation time decreases with increasing temperature from 176 days at 14°C to 46 days at 26°C. Human infection risk is highest between 16-18°C and 1pm and 6-10pm in calm water, and 20-25°C and 12-4pm in flowing water. Infection risk increases sharply when temperatures increase above the minimum necessary for sustained transmission.The model suggests that, in areas where S. mansoni is already endemic, warming of the water at transmission sites will have differential effects on both snails and parasites depending on abiotic properties of the water-body. Snail generation times will decrease in most areas, meaning that snail populations will recover faster from natural population reductions and from snail-control efforts. We suggest a link between the ecological properties of transmission sites and infection risk which could significantly affect the outcomes of interventions designed to alter water contact behaviour--proposing that such interventions are more likely to reduce infection levels at river locations than lakes, where infection risk remains high for longer. In cooler areas where snails are currently found, increasing temperatures may significantly increase infection risk, potentially leading

  18. Comparison of genome engineering using the CRISPR-Cas9 system in C. glabrata wild-type and lig4 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yuke; Timmermans, Bea; Souffriau, Ben; Thevelein, Johan M; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Candida glabrata is reported as the second most prevalent human opportunistic fungal pathogen in North America and is threatening patients all over the world. Its incidence is rising, while it has developed resistance to the most widely used antifungal drugs, necessitating new approaches based on better insight into the biology of the organism. Despite its close phylogenetic relationship with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, generating precise genomic alterations in this species is problematic. Previously we have shown that deletion of LIG4, which encodes an enzyme involved in Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ), strongly enhances the probability of obtaining correctly modified transformants. In this work we used the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system to genetically engineer the C. glabrata genome, targeting the genes ADE2, MET15 and SOK2, located on different chromosomes. We used the CRISPR-Cas9 technology to replace the open reading frame (ORF) by the SAT1 selective marker or introduced a premature stop codon in ADE2 and MET15, as they are easily scored by their adenine or methionine auxotrophy, respectively. The SOK2 gene was modified by insertion of a triple HA-tag sequence and the transformants were verified in a western blot. The CRISPR-Cas9 mediated targeting efficiency varies depending on the gene targeted and the genetic modification performed. We show that CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is more efficient than the conventional method in the wild-type strain, moreover it has the big advantage being marker-free. In previous work, we showed that the targeting efficiency is highly increased in the lig4Δ strain using the conventional way to delete genes in C. glabrata. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system in this strain, the percentage of correct transformants is consistently higher compared to the wild-type strain. This indicates that using the lig4 mutant as such is already a strong

  19. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika; Sanglard, Dominique; Prasad, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. → First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. → Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. → CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns encountered in using

  20. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: rp47jnu@gmail.com [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns

  1. Morphology and anatomy of leaf miners in two species of Commelinaceae (Commelina diffusa Burm. f. and Floscopa glabrata (Kunth Hassk Morfologia e anatomia de minas foliares em duas espécies de Commelinaceae Commelina diffusa Burm. f. e Floscopa glabrata (Kunth Hassk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Elb

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In specialized literature, reports on anatomy of miners in host plants are few in number. These agents trigger excavations, or paths, by consumption of plant inner tissues by larvae of several insects. The aim of this work was to investigate leaf miner occurrence in Commelina diffusa (a cosmopolitan plant and Floscopa glabrata (an amphibious plant using anatomical techniques. The place where the plants were collected is subjected to seasonal floods, consequently both the species were exposed to the same weather conditions and seasonal floods. This study showed that members of Agromyzidae and Chironomidae families, which are Diptera endophytophagous larvae types, were responsible for the tunnels. Moreover, in Commelina diffusa Agromyzidae larvae were found, while in Floscopa glabrata three Chironomidae cephalic exuviae were found. The miners, as can be seen from anatomical studies, used only mesophyll parenchyma tissues for feeding, causing the formation of linear mines. In addition, in both the species, the epidermis and the medium-sized vascular units were kept intact, showing no structural modification, such as neoformation of tissues.Existem poucos relatos na literatura sobre anatomia de plantas parasitadas por agentes minadores, os quais promovem escavações ou caminhos através do consumo dos tecidos internos das plantas por larvas de diversos insetos. A proposta deste trabalho foi analisar anatomicamente a ocorrência de minas foliares em Commelina diffusa (planta cosmopolita e Floscopa glabrata (planta anfíbia causadas por espécies de larvas endofitófagas de dípteros, pertencentes a duas famílias: Agromyzidae e Chironomidae. O local onde as plantas foram coletas está sujeito a inundações sazonais, e as duas espécies foram submetidas às mesmas condições climáticas. Em Commelina diffusa foram encontradas larvas da família Agromyzidae e, em Floscopa glabrata observaram-se três exuvias cefálicas de Chironomidae. Os dados anat

  2. Development of rearing and testing protocols for a new freshwater sediment test species: the gastropod Valvata piscinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Cognat, Claudine; Mons, Raphaël; Mouthon, Jacques; Garric, Jeanne

    2006-03-01

    This paper aimed at proposing rearing and testing protocols for Valvata piscinalis, a new potential species for sediment toxicity testing. Such tests were developed since this species reliably represents the bio/ecological characteristics of other gastropods. It may thus be representative of their sensitivity to chemicals. V. piscinalis was successfully cultured in our laboratory for six generations. Cultures provided a high productivity for a low working time and low costs. The tests conditions we proposed seemed to be relevant for the development of reliable tests with this species. Indeed, hatching probability of egg-capsules, as well as embryo, newborn and juvenile survival rates, were close to 100%. Moreover, growth rates and fecundity were significantly higher than in field and in other laboratory studies. Partial life-cycle tests on clean sediments were achieved for various feeding levels to determine survival, growth and reproduction patterns, ad libitum feeding level and life cycle parameters values. Ad libitum feeding levels for newborn, juveniles and adults were 0.1, 0.4 and 0.8 mg Tetramin/individual/working day. Growth tests with zinc-spiked sediments provided a no-effect concentration and a lowest effect concentration of respectively 200 and 624 mg zinc/kg dry sediment. Other growth tests on spiked sediments we ran at our laboratory with second, third and fourth instars larvae of Chironomus riparius pointed out that V. piscinalis was more sensible to zinc than the chironomid, which is a routine test species in ecotoxicology. According to these results, V. piscinalis is a promising candidate species for sediment toxicity testing.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of the Reproductive Organs of the Hermaphroditic Gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Different Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Leprince, Pierre; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD). In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin) could constitute relevant

  4. Proteomic analysis of the reproductive organs of the hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to different endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Giusti

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD. In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin could

  5. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  6. Assessment of host-associated genetic differentiation among phenotypically divergent populations of a coral-eating gastropod across the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyza Johnston

    Full Text Available Host-associated adaptation is emerging as a potential driver of population differentiation and speciation for marine organisms with major implications for ecosystem structure and function. Coralliophila abbreviata are corallivorous gastropods that live and feed on most of the reef-building corals in the tropical western Atlantic and Caribbean. Populations of C. abbreviata associated with the threatened acroporid corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, display different behavioral, morphological, demographic, and life-history characteristics than those that inhabit other coral host taxa, indicating that host-specific selective forces may be acting on C. abbreviata. Here, we used newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data to assess the population genetic structure, connectivity, and demographic history of C. abbreviata populations from three coral host taxa (A. palmata, Montastraea spp., Mycetophyllia spp. and six geographic locations across the Caribbean. Analysis of molecular variance provided some evidence of weak and possibly geographically variable host-associated differentiation but no evidence of differentiation among sampling locations or major oceanographic regions, suggesting high gene flow across the Caribbean. Phylogenetic network and bayesian clustering analyses supported a hypothesis of a single panmictic population as individuals failed to cluster by host or sampling location. Demographic analyses consistently supported a scenario of population expansion during the Pleistocene, a time of major carbonate reef development in the region. Although further study is needed to fully elucidate the interactive effects of host-associated selection and high gene flow in this system, our results have implications for local and regional community interactions and impact of predation on declining coral populations.

  7. Assessment of host-associated genetic differentiation among phenotypically divergent populations of a coral-eating gastropod across the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lyza; Miller, Margaret W; Baums, Iliana B

    2012-01-01

    Host-associated adaptation is emerging as a potential driver of population differentiation and speciation for marine organisms with major implications for ecosystem structure and function. Coralliophila abbreviata are corallivorous gastropods that live and feed on most of the reef-building corals in the tropical western Atlantic and Caribbean. Populations of C. abbreviata associated with the threatened acroporid corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, display different behavioral, morphological, demographic, and life-history characteristics than those that inhabit other coral host taxa, indicating that host-specific selective forces may be acting on C. abbreviata. Here, we used newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data to assess the population genetic structure, connectivity, and demographic history of C. abbreviata populations from three coral host taxa (A. palmata, Montastraea spp., Mycetophyllia spp.) and six geographic locations across the Caribbean. Analysis of molecular variance provided some evidence of weak and possibly geographically variable host-associated differentiation but no evidence of differentiation among sampling locations or major oceanographic regions, suggesting high gene flow across the Caribbean. Phylogenetic network and bayesian clustering analyses supported a hypothesis of a single panmictic population as individuals failed to cluster by host or sampling location. Demographic analyses consistently supported a scenario of population expansion during the Pleistocene, a time of major carbonate reef development in the region. Although further study is needed to fully elucidate the interactive effects of host-associated selection and high gene flow in this system, our results have implications for local and regional community interactions and impact of predation on declining coral populations.

  8. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawbridge Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of herpesviruses. Results We sequenced the genome of a neurotropic virus linked to a fatal ganglioneuritis devastating parts of a valuable wild abalone fishery in Australia. We show that the newly identified virus forms part of an ancient clade with its nearest relatives being a herpesvirus infecting bivalves (oyster and, unexpectedly, one we identified, from published data, apparently integrated within the genome of amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate. Predicted protein sequences from the abalone virus genome have significant similarity to several herpesvirus proteins including the DNA packaging ATPase subunit of (putative terminase and DNA polymerase. Conservation of amino acid sequences in the terminase across all herpesviruses and phylogenetic analysis using the DNA polymerase and terminase proteins demonstrate that the herpesviruses infecting the molluscs, oyster and abalone, are distantly related. The terminase and polymerase protein sequences from the putative amphioxus herpesvirus share more sequence similarity with those of the mollusc viruses than with sequences from any of the vertebrate herpesviruses analysed. Conclusions A family of mollusc herpesviruses, Malacoherpesviridae, that was based on a single virus infecting oyster can now be further established by including a distantly related herpesvirus infecting abalone, which, like many vertebrate viruses is neurotropic. The genome of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus provides evidence for the

  9. Deletion of the Candida glabrata ERG3 and ERG11 genes: effect on cell viability, cell growth, sterol composition, and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, A; Hitchcock, C A; Swartz, J E; Pullen, F S; Marsden, K E; Kwon-Chung, K J; Bennett, J E

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the structural genes encoding the delta 5,6 sterol desaturase (ERG3 gene) and the 14 alpha-methyl sterol demethylase (ERG11 gene) from Candida glabrata L5 (leu2). Single and double mutants of these genes were created by gene deletion. The phenotypes of these mutants, including sterol profiles, aerobic viabilities, antifungal susceptibilities, and generation times, were studied. Strain L5D (erg3 delta::LEU2) accumulated mainly ergosta-7,22-dien-3 beta-ol, was aerobically viable, and remained susceptible to antifungal agents but had a slower generation time than its parent strain. L5LUD (LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3) strains required medium supplemented with ergosterol and an anaerobic environment for growth. A spontaneous aerobically viable mutant, L5LUD40R (LEU erg11 delta::URA3), obtained from L5LUD (LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3), was found to accumulate lanosterol and obtusifoliol, was resistant to azole antifungal agents, demonstrated some increase in resistance to amphotericin B, and exhibited a 1.86-fold increase in generation time in comparison with L5 (leu2). The double-deletion mutant L5DUD61 (erg3 delta::LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3) was aerobically viable, produced mainly 14 alpha-methyl fecosterol, and had the same antifungal susceptibility pattern as L5LUD40R (LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3), and its generation time was threefold greater than that of L5 (leu2). Northern (RNA) analysis revealed that the single-deletion mutants had a marked increase in message for the undeleted ERG3 and ERG11 genes. These results indicate that differences in antifungal susceptibilities and the restoration of aerobic viability exist between the C. glabrata ergosterol mutants created in this study and those sterol mutants with similar genetic lesions previously reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:8593007

  10. Molecular identification of marine symbiont bacteria of gastropods from the waters of the Krakal coast Yogyakarta and its potential as a Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) antibacterial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahry, Muhammad Syaifudien; Pringgenies, Delianis; Trianto, Agus

    2017-01-01

    The resistance of pathogenic bacteria may occur to many types of antibiotics, especially in cases of non-compliance use of antibiotics, which likely to allow the evolution of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Gastropods seas are marine invertebrates informed capable of production of secondary metabolites as antibacterial MDR. The purpose of the study was the isolation and identification of gastropod symbiont bacteria found in the waters of Krakal, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, which has the ability to produce antibacterial compounds against MDR(Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MRSA (methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus homunis) molecular. Stages of this research began with the isolation of bacteria, bacteria screening for anti-MDR compound, mass culture, and extraction, antibacterial activity test, DNA extraction, amplification by PCR 16S rDNA and sequencing. The results of the study showed that 19 isolates of bacteria were isolated from three species of gastropods namely Littorina scabra, Cypraea moneta and Conus ebraeus. Among them, 4 isolates showed activity against MDR test bacteria (E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and S. homunis). The highest activity was displayed by code LS.G1.8 isolate with the largest inhibition zone 15.47±0.45mm on S. humonis at 250 µg/disk concentration. Isolate CM.G2.1 showed largest inhibition zone, with 21.5±0.07mm on MRSA at 1000 µg/disk concentration and isolate the largest inhibition zone CM.G2.5 14.37±0.81mm on MRSA 14.37±0.81mm at concentrations 1000 µg/disk. The molecular identification of isolates LS.G1.8 has 99% homology with Bacillus subtilis and isolates CM.G2.1 has 99% homology with Bacillus pumillus.

  11. Sub-daily growth patterns and environmental recording in the shell of the Chilean coastal gastropod Concholepas concholepas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N.; Cuif, J.-P.; Ortlieb, L.

    2003-04-01

    It is nowadays well established that paleo-oceanographic reconstructions based on variations of the geochemical composition of molluscs shells require a good understanding of many biological and biogeochemical processes affecting the shell formation and of the different kinds of diagenetic effects superimposed to the biominerals. Therefore, the parameters which control the growth modality as well as the ecological behaviour of the organisms become a prerequisite in the study of geochemical variations within carbonate skeletons. Such studies involve a calibration of the relationships between the actual environmental parameters and the registered variations of the elements or isotopes measured within the biominerals. This approach must take into account the size of the measured samples (eventually limited by instrumental techniques) and the variation of the relevant parameters during the time period covered by the sample. In a study aimed to reconstruct ENSO and upwelling impacts from geochemical variations within shells of a coastal gastropod of northern Chile, Concholepas concholepas, we undertook microstructural, mineralogical, biochemical analyses. Preliminary stable isotope analyses made with 0.3 mm standard drills provided δ18O values between 1,0 and 2,5 (/PDB) and Mg/Ca ratios between 2,0 and 5,5 mmol/mol for the calcitic layers of shells that grew in 1998--2000 (temperature range: 15--21^oC). Sr, Ba and Cd measured in the water are in the order of 10 ppm, 4,5 ppb and 0,040 ppb respectively, while the composition of the same elements (with respect to Ca) in the shells amount to mean values of 1,5 mmol/mol, 0,6 μmol/mol and 0,1 μmol/mol. For high resolution calibration studies, to be developed with laser ICP-MS and ionic microprobes, it is necessary to identify with a great (sub-daily) precision the time of formation of the considered fragment of shells that are subsampled. To achieve this requisite, we have grown Concholepas concholepas individuals in a

  12. Post Cretaceous cooling trend documented in the gastropods (Turritella Sp.) from the Cenozoic startigraphic successions of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Y.; Ghosh, P.; Halder, K.; Malarkodi, N.; Pathak, P.

    2017-12-01

    The aftermath of the Himalyan orogeny and subsequent cooling is documented in the deep sea sedimentary record from the Oceanic realm (1). Here we attempt to reconstruct the temperature pattern based on marine gastropods i.e. Turritella sp. which became abundant during the post Cretaceous period and have successfully been used for the reconstruction of climate by measuring the stable isotopic composition (2,3,4). Well preserved specimens of Cretaceous Turritella from the Rajamundry Infratrappean beds and those from the Miocene, Holocene succession of Kutch, western India were analysed along with specimen from the modern time scale (also from Kutch). The Cretaceous, early to mid Miocene, early Holocene and modern shells recorded δ13C variability from 0.36 to 4.94‰, -1.83 to -4.83‰, -3.26 to 0.40‰, -1.47 to -4.70‰ respectively suggesting drop in the productivity during mid Miocene and subsequent period of rapid growth. The Variability in terms of δ18O ranges from -2.28 to -4.99‰, -2.66 to -7.06‰, -2.86 to 0.96‰, -1.05 to -3.23‰ for the Cretaceous, early to mid Miocene, early Holocene and modern shells respectively. Corbula sp. collected from the same strata with that of the early to mid Holocene Turritella showed a similar δ13C and δ18O values denoting similar environmental condition during deposition. Absence of any significant correlation between δ13C vs δ18O support equilibrium precipitation of shell growth bands. We used Epstein oxygen isotope thermometry to derive temperature from the oxygen isotope of carbonate and adopted water isotopic composition (1‰ for the Cretaceous and -0.7‰ for the Miocene) from the literature. Our observation captured an overall cooling trend from the Cretaceous to the Holocene time period (especially in between mid Miocene to Holocene) and a subsequent warming trend in modern time. Validation with other thermometry method will be displayed at the time of presentation. References: [1] Zachos et al., 2001

  13. Scientific opinion on the risks for public health related to the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX analogues in marine bivalves and gastropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues are produced by marine bacteria and have been detected in marine bivalves and gastropods from European waters. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of TTX and TTX analogues in marine...... bivalves and gastropods. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain reviewed the available literature but did not find support for the minimum lethal dose for humans of 2 mg, mentioned in various reviews. Some human case reports describe serious effects at a dose of 0.2 mg, corresponding to 4 μg/kg body...... weight (bw). However, the uncertainties on the actual exposure in the studies preclude their use for derivation of an acute reference dose (ARfD). Instead, a group ARfD of 0.25 μg/kg bw, applying to TTX and its analogues, was derived based on a TTX dose of 25 μg/kg bw at which no apathy was observed...

  14. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Mahana iti Gatti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP, associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia. The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories.

  15. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Clémence Mahana Iti; Lonati, Davide; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Zancan, Arturo; Roué, Mélanie; Schicchi, Azzurra; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Chinain, Mireille

    2018-02-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus . Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP), associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia). The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories.

  16. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonati, Davide; Zancan, Arturo; Schicchi, Azzurra; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Chinain, Mireille

    2018-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP), associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia). The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories. PMID:29495579

  17. Avaliação do tipo de substrato e do período de armazenamento para a germinação de sementes de Cordia glabrata (Mart. DC. = Evaluation of substrate type and storage period for the germination of Cordia glabrata (Mart. DC seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gadum

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a viabilidade e substratos adequados para a germinação de sementes de espécies arbóreas nativas são escassas. Cordia glabrata (louro-preto, espécie pioneira e de ampla distribuição, está incluída entre essas espécies. Suas característicaspermitem a utilização em ornamentação, na prática apícola e na medicina popular. Levando em conta seu potencial de utilização, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as taxas de germinação, em diferentes substratos, de sementes recém-colhidas e armazenadas até 120 dias em laboratório, as quais foram coletadas no Pantanal do Rio Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram realizados testes com sementes recém-colhidas e após 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, em três tipos de substrato (papel-filtro, solo arenoso e solo arenoso + matéria orgânica. Os resultados revelaram que C. glabrata possui pequena porcentagem de água (1,55% nas sementes, que decai com o período de armazenamento. Seu período de viabilidade é curto (90 dias e os melhores resultados foram obtidos com sementes recém-colhidas germinadas em papel-filtro (34%, com índice de velocidade de germinação de 10.Information about the feasibility and adequate substrates for the germination of seeds from native arboreous species are scarce. Cordiaglabrata (louro preto, a pioneering species with wide distribution, is included among these species. Its characteristics allow its use in ornamentation, apiculture and popular medicine. Considering its potential of utilization, this work had as objective to evaluate thegermination rates, in different substrates, of recently reaped seeds stored for up to 120 days in laboratory, which were collected in Pantanal of the Rio Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul State. Tests were done with recently reaped seeds and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days ofstorage, in three kinds of substrate (paper filter, sandy soil and sandy soil + organic matter. The results revealed that C

  18. Synergistic mutual potentiation of antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. and Larrea nitida Cav. extracts in clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butassi, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana A

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) and Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae) are indistinctly or jointly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal-related infections. Although their dichloromethane (DCM) extract have demonstrated moderate antifungal activities when tested on their own, antifungal properties of combinations of both plants have not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to establish with statistical rigor whether Z. punctata (ZpE) and L. nitida DCM extract (LnE) interact synergistically against the clinically important fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and to characterize the most synergistic combinations. For synergism assessment, the statistical-based Boik's design was applied. Eight ZpE-LnE fixed-ratio mixtures were prepared from four different months of 1 year and tested against Candida strains. Lϕ (Loewe index) of each mixture at different fractions affected (ϕ) allowed for the finding of the most synergistic combinations, which were characterized by HPLC fingerprint and by the quantitation of the selected marker compounds. Lϕ and confidence intervals were determined in vitro with the MixLow method, once the estimated parameters from the dose-response curves of independent extracts and mixtures, were obtained. Markers (four flavonoids for ZpE and three lignans for LnE) were quantified in each extract and their combinations, with a valid HPLC-UV method. The 3D-HPLC profiles of the most synergistic mixtures were obtained by HPLC-DAD. Three over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE fixed-ratio mixtures displayed synergistic interactions at effect levels ϕ > 0.5 against C. albicans. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.62) mixture was 65.96 µg/ml (ZpE = 28%; LnE = 72%) containing 8 and 36% of flavonoids and lignans respectively. On the other hand, one over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE mixtures displays synergistic interactions at ϕ > 0.5 against C. glabrata. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.67) mixture was 168

  19. Comportamento reológico de méis de florada de silvestre Rheological behavior of honey from Serjania glabrata flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento reológico de méis de Apis mellifera produzidos no estado do Piauí, no semi-árido brasileiro, elaborados com florada predominante de silvestre (Serjania glabrata. As amostras foram coletadas ao longo do ano 2000, a partir de coletas realizadas por apicultores, associações e cooperativas de apicultura da região abrangida pelos municípios de Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes e Isaías Coelho. Após as coletas as amostras passaram pelos processos de centrifugação, filtragem e decantação. As medidas reológicas foram feitas nas temperaturas de 20 a 40 ºC utilizando-se um viscosímetro Brookfield, modelo RVT. As leituras de velocidade de rotação e torque foram transformadas em valores de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento. Os dados de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento foram ajustados pelas equações da Lei-da-Potência e de Herschel-Bulkley. As amostras apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico. As equações se ajustaram adequadamente aos resultados experimentais de tensão de cisalhamento em função da taxa de deformação. O aumento de temperatura reduziu a viscosidade aparente em níveis próximos de 80%. Os valores de viscosidade aparente foram bem ajustados por uma equação do tipo Arrhenius.The rheological behavior of Apis mellifera honey produced in the State of Piauí, in the Brazilian semi-arid, obtained with predominance of Serjania glabrata flowers was studied. The samples were collected in the year 2000 by beekeepers and associations and cooperatives of beekeepers in the area covered by the municipal districts of Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes and Isaías Coelho. The samples were centrifuged, filtered, decanted and the rheological measures at temperatures of 20 to 40 ºC using a Brookfield Viscometer RVT model were made. The readings of rotation speed and torque were transformed in shear rate and shear stress values. The data of shear rate and shear stress were fitted

  20. Preliminarily study on the maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Hu, Wei; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2017-10-01

    The present study preliminarily examined the differences in maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on four gastropods species (Bellamya aeruginosa, Radix auricularia, Parafossarulus sinensis and Alocinma longicornis) under laboratory conditions. In the maximum handling size trial, five fish from each age group (1-year-old and 2-year-old) and each genotype (transgenic and non-transgenic) of common carp were individually allowed to feed on B. aeruginosa with wide shell height range. The results showed that maximum handling size increased linearly with fish length, and there was no significant difference in maximum handling size between the two genotypes. In the size selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on three size groups of B. aeruginosa. The results show that the two genotypes of C. carpio favored the small-sized group over the large-sized group. In the species selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on thin-shelled B. aeruginosa and thick-shelled R. auricularia, and five pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on two gastropods species (P. sinensis and A. longicornis) with similar size and shell strength. The results showed that both genotypes preferred thin-shelled Radix auricularia rather than thick-shelled B. aeruginosa, but there were no significant difference in selectivity between the two genotypes when fed on P. sinensis and A. longicornis. The present study indicates that transgenic and non-transgenic C. carpio show similar selectivity of predation on the size- and species-limited gastropods. While this information may be useful for assessing the environmental risk of transgenic carp, it does not necessarily demonstrate that transgenic common carp might

  1. Green synthesis and characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabrata leaf extract and their environmental applications to dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sijo; Joseph, Siby; Koshy, Ebey P; Mathew, Beena

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived nanomaterials opened a green approach in solving the current environment issues. Present study focused on rapid microwave-assisted synthesis and applications of gold and silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Mussaenda glabrata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, powder XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron (TEM), and atomic force microscopic techniques (AFM). FCC crystal structure of both nanoparticles was confirmed by peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes in XRD spectra and bright circular spots in SAED pattern. IC 50 values shown by gold and silver nanoparticles (44.1 ± 0.82 and 57.92 ± 1.33 μg/mL) reflected their high free radical scavenging potential. The synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles revealed their potency to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Anthropogenic pollutants rhodamine B and methyl orange were effectively degraded from aquatic environment and waste water sewages of dye industries using the prepared nanocatalysts. The catalytic capacities of the synthesized nanoparticles were also exploited in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Graphical abstract.

  2. [Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan F; Castaño, María C

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove deforestation is widespread in the Greater Caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. In order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (Neritina virginea and Melampus coffeus) were compared among four mangrove types: 1) Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2) Avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3) Mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4) A. germinans- basin mangroves converted to pastures, in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Colombia). Mangrove types were polygon-delimited with satellite images and color aerial photographs were taken in 2009. Various (nsoil properties (e.g. temperature, pH, organic matter content). Finally, we also hypothesize that the local extinction of N. virginea due to clear-cutting may exert strong negative effects on the ecosystem function because it is a dominant omnivore.

  3. Possible competitive displacement of planorbids by Melanoides tuberculata in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tito Guimarães

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Several species of snails, including Pomacea haustrum, Marisa cornuarietis and Helisoma duryi, have been identified as probable competitors and/or predators of planorbid intermediate hosts of Schistosoma. During the last few years, studies carried out in the Caribbean region have shown reductions and even disappearances of populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea in breeding places where the snail Melanoides tuberculata was introduced. Observations made over a period of 10 years in two lakes close to Belo Horizonte, MG, showed that there were marked reductions in autochthonous populations of B. glabrata and B. straminea after the arrival of M. tuberculata, both Biomphalaria species disappearing completely after eight years.

  4. Possible competitive displacement of planorbids by Melanoides tuberculata in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, C T; Souza, C P; Soares Dd

    2001-01-01

    Several species of snails, including Pomacea haustrum, Marisa cornuarietis and Helisoma duryi, have been identified as probable competitors and/or predators of planorbid intermediate hosts of Schistosoma. During the last few years, studies carried out in the Caribbean region have shown reductions and even disappearances of populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea in breeding places where the snail Melanoides tuberculata was introduced. Observations made over a period of 10 years in two lakes close to Belo Horizonte, MG, showed that there were marked reductions in autochthonous populations of B. glabrata and B. straminea after the arrival of M. tuberculata, both Biomphalaria species disappearing completely after eight years.

  5. Candida glabrata binds to glycosylated and lectinic receptors on the coronary endothelial luminal membrane and inhibits flow sense and cardiac responses to agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Tirado, David; Knabb, Maureen; Castaño, Irene; Patrón-Soberano, Araceli; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Rubio, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata (CG) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that initiates infection by binding to host cells via specific lectin-like adhesin proteins. We have previously shown the importance of lectin-oligosaccharide binding in cardiac responses to flow and agonists. Because of the lectinic-oligosaccharide nature of CG binding, we tested the ability of CG to alter the agonist- and flow-induced changes in cardiac function in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed strong attachment of CG to the coronary endothelium, even after extensive washing. CG shifted the coronary flow vs. auricular-ventricular (AV) delay relationship upward, indicating that greater flow was required to achieve the same AV delay. This effect was completely reversed with mannose, partially reversed with galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine, but hyaluronan had no effect. Western blot analysis was used to determine binding of CG to isolated coronary endothelial luminal membrane (CELM) receptors, and the results indicate that flow-sensitive CELM receptors, ANG II type I, α-adrenergic 1A receptor, endothelin-2, and VCAM-1 bind to CG. In addition, CG inhibited agonist-induced effects of bradykinin, angiotensin, and phenylephrine on AV delay, coronary perfusion pressure, and left ventricular pressure. Mannose reversed the inhibitory effects of CG on the agonist responses. These results suggest that CG directly binds to flow-sensitive CELM receptors via lectinic-oligosaccharide interactions with mannose and disrupts the lectin-oligosaccharide binding necessary for flow-induced cardiac responses. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. A paralogue of the phosphomutase-like gene family in Candida glabrata, CgPmu2, gained broad-range phosphatase activity due to a small number of clustered substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Kelly A; Iosue, Christine L; Leone, Sarah G; Davies, Danielle L; Wykoff, Dennis D

    2015-10-15

    Inorganic phosphate is required for a range of cellular processes, such as DNA/RNA synthesis and intracellular signalling. The phosphate starvation-inducible phosphatase activity of Candida glabrata is encoded by the gene CgPMU2 (C. glabrata phosphomutase-like protein). CgPMU2 is part of a three-gene family (∼75% identical) created through gene duplication in the C. glabrata clade; only CgPmu2 is a PHO-regulated broad range acid phosphatase. We identified amino acids that confer broad range phosphatase activity on CgPmu2 by creating fusions of sections of CgPMU2 with CgPMU1, a paralogue with little broad range phosphatase activity. We used site-directed mutagenesis on various fusions to sequentially convert CgPmu1 to CgPmu2. Based on molecular modelling of the Pmu proteins on to a histidine phosphatase crystal structure, clusters of amino acids were found in two distinct regions that were able to confer phosphatase activity. Substitutions in these two regions together conferred broad phosphatase activity on CgPmu1. Interestingly, one change is a histidine adjacent to the active site histidine of CgPmu2 and it exhibits a novel ability to partially replace the conserved active site histidine in CgPmu2. Additionally, a second amino acid change was able to confer nt phosphatase activity to CgPmu1, suggesting single amino acid changes neofunctionalize CgPmu2. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  7. Facultative Sterol Uptake in an Ergosterol-Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles and Amphotericin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 μg ml−1, respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that CG156 was a sterol 14α-demethylase (Erg11p) mutant, wherein 14α-methylated intermediates (lanosterol was >80% of the total) were the only detectable sterols. ERG11 sequencing indicated that CG156 harbored a single-amino-acid substitution (G315D) which nullified the function of native Erg11p. In heterologous expression studies using a doxycycline-regulatable Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg11 strain, wild-type C. glabrata Erg11p fully complemented the function of S. cerevisiae sterol 14α-demethylase, restoring growth and ergosterol synthesis in recombinant yeast; mutated CG156 Erg11p did not. CG156 was culturable using sterol-free, glucose-containing yeast minimal medium (glcYM). However, when grown on sterol-supplemented glcYM (with ergosta 7,22-dienol, ergosterol, cholestanol, cholesterol, Δ7-cholestenol, or desmosterol), CG156 cultures exhibited shorter lag phases, reached higher cell densities, and showed alterations in cellular sterol composition. Unlike comparator isolates (harboring wild-type ERG11) that became less sensitive to FLC and VRC when cultured on sterol-supplemented glcYM, facultative sterol uptake by CG156 did not affect its azole-resistant phenotype. Conversely, CG156 grown using glcYM with ergosterol (or with ergosta 7,22-dienol) showed increased sensitivity to AMB; CG156 grown using glcYM with cholesterol (or with cholestanol) became more resistant (MICs of 2 and >64 μg AMB ml−1, respectively). Our results provide insights into the consequences of sterol uptake and metabolism on growth and antifungal resistance in C. glabrata. PMID:22615281

  8. Determination of the variability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins in endemic wild bivalves and carnivorous gastropods from the southern part of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Ruben; Marín, Michelle; Cabrera, Fabiola; Figueroa, Diego; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and determine the composition of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins in the Region of Aysén, Chile, in wild endemic mussels (Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Aulacomya ater, Choromytilus chorus, Tagelus dombeii and Gari solida) and in two endemic carnivorous molluscs species (Concholepas concholepas and Argobuccinum ranelliforme). PSP-toxin contents were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection, while lipophilic toxins were determined by using LC-MS/MS. Mean concentrations for the total of PSP toxins were in the range 55-2505 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g. The two most contaminated samples for PSP toxicity were bivalve Gari solida and carnivorous Argobuccinum ranelliforme with 2505 ± 101 and 1850 ± 137 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g, respectively (p < 0.05). The lipophilic toxins identified were okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxins (YTX). All analysed molluscs contained lipophilic toxins at levels ranging from 56 ± 4.8 to 156.1 ± 8.2 μg of okadaic acid-equivalent/kg shellfish together with YTX at levels ranging from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 18 ± 0.9 μg of YTX-equivalent/kg shellfish and AZA at levels ranging from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 31 ± 2.1 μg of AZA-equivalent/kg shellfish. Furthermore, different bivalves and gastropods differ in their capacity of retention of lipophilic toxins, as shown by the determination of their respective lipophilic toxins levels. In all the evaluated species, the presence of lipophilic toxins associated with biotransformation in molluscs and carnivorous gastropods was not identified, in contrast to the identification of PSP toxins, where the profiles identified in the different species are directly related to biotransformation processes. Thus, this study provides evidence that the concentration of toxins in the food intake of the evaluated species (Bivalvia and Gastropoda class) determines the degree of

  9. Avaliação do tipo de substrato e do período de armazenamento para a germinação de sementes de Cordia glabrata (Mart. DC. - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1013 Evaluation of substrate type and storage period for the germination of Cordia glabrata (Mart. DC seeds - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gadum

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a viabilidade e substratos adequados para a germinação de sementes de espécies arbóreas nativas são escassas. Cordia glabrata (louro-preto, espécie pioneira e de ampla distribuição, está incluída entre essas espécies. Suas características permitem a utilização em ornamentação, na prática apícola e na medicina popular. Levando em conta seu potencial de utilização, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as taxas de germinação, em diferentes substratos, de sementes recém-colhidas e armazenadas até 120 dias em laboratório, as quais foram coletadas no Pantanal do Rio Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram realizados testes com sementes recém-colhidas e após 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, em três tipos de substrato (papel-filtro, solo arenoso e solo arenoso + matéria orgânica. Os resultados revelaram que C. glabrata possui pequena porcentagem de água (1,55% nas sementes, que decai com o período de armazenamento. Seu período de viabilidade é curto (90 dias e os melhores resultados foram obtidos com sementes recém-colhidas germinadas em papel-filtro (34%, com índice de velocidade de germinação de 10.Information about the feasibility and adequate substrates for the germination of seeds from native arboreous species are scarce. Cordia glabrata (louro preto, a pioneering species with wide distribution, is included among these species. Its characteristics allow its use in ornamentation, apiculture and popular medicine. Considering its potential of utilization, this work had as objective to evaluate the germination rates, in different substrates, of recently reaped seeds stored for up to 120 days in laboratory, which were collected in Pantanal of the Rio Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul State. Tests were done with recently reaped seeds and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage, in three kinds of substrate (paper filter, sandy soil and sandy soil + organic matter. The results revealed that C

  10. On the Ultrastructure and Function of Rhogocytes from the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kokkinopoulou

    Full Text Available Rhogocytes, also termed "pore cells", occur as solitary or clustered cells in the connective tissue of gastropod molluscs. Rhogocytes possess an enveloping lamina of extracellular matrix and enigmatic extracellular lacunae bridged by cytoplasmic bars that form 20 nm diaphragmatic slits likely to act as a molecular sieve. Recent papers highlight the embryogenesis and ultrastructure of these cells, and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Rhogocytes are the site of hemocyanin or hemoglobin biosynthesis in gastropods. Based on electron microscopy, we recently proposed a possible pathway of hemoglobin exocytosis through the slit apparatus, and provided molecular evidence of a common phylogenetic origin of molluscan rhogocytes, insect nephrocytes and vertebrate podocytes. However, the previously proposed secretion mode of the respiratory proteins into the hemolymph is still rather hypothetical, and the possible role of rhogocytes in detoxification requires additional data. Although our previous study on rhogocytes of the red-blooded (hemoglobin-containing freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata provided much new information, a disadvantage was that the hemoglobin molecules were not unequivocally defined in the electron microscope. This made it difficult to trace the exocytosis pathway of this protein. Therefore, we have now performed a similar study on the rhogocytes of the blue-blooded (hemocyanin-containing freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The intracellular hemocyanin could be identified in the electron microscope, either as individual molecules or as pseudo-crystalline arrays. Based on 3D-electron microscopy, and supplemented by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and stress response experiments, we provide here additional details on the structure and hemocyanin biosynthesis of rhogocytes, and on their response in animals under cadmium and starvation stress. Moreover, we present an advanced model on the release of synthesized

  11. Biological and environmental factors associated with risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Neto, Onicio Batista; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Oliveira Junior, Fernando José Moreira de; Andrade, Rafael; Reis, Diego Leandro; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Bocanegra, Silvana; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis has expanded to the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where there are frequent reports of Biomphalaria glabrata snails and human cases of the disease. This study analyzes factors related to schistosomiasis transmission risk in Porto de Galinhas. A one-year malacological survey was conducted to identify biological, abiotic, and environmental factors related to the host snail breeding sites. Data analysis used Excel 2010, GTM Pro, and ArcGis 10. A total of 11,012 B. glabrata sn...

  12. Biological control of schistosome transmission in flowing water habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, W R; Laracuente, A

    1979-09-01

    Marisa cornuarietis was evaluated in Puerto Rico for control of schistosome transmission in flowing water. A population of Biomphalaria glabrata and their schistosome infections disappeared after introduction of 20,000 M. cornuarietis to an endemic stream, while in nearby untreated streams the B. glabrata population remained stable and the schistosome prevalence increased. This method cost U.S. $0.10 per capita for over a year of protection, 5%-10% of the cost of chemical control.

  13. Dataset on usnic acid from Cladonia substellata Vainio (Lichen) schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and environmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade de Araújo, Hallysson Douglas; Dos Santos Silva, Luanna Ribeiro; de Siqueira, Williams Nascimento; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; de Albuquerque Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça; Barroso Martins, Mônica Cristina; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lúcia

    2018-04-01

    This text presents complementary data corresponding to schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and enviromental toxicity using usnic acid. These informations support our research article "Toxicity of Usnic Acid from Cladonia substellata (Lichen) to embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata " by Araújo et al. [1], and focuses on the analysis of the detailed data regarding the different concentrations of Usnic Acid and their efficiency to B. glabrata mortality and non-viability, as also to environmental toxicity, evaluated by A. salina mortality.

  14. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Detection of Pacific Ciguatoxins in Toxic Samples from Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, Hélène Taiana; Roué, Mélanie; Sibat, Manoella; Viallon, Jérôme; Gatti, Clémence Mahana Iti; Vandersea, Mark W; Tester, Patricia A; Litaker, R Wayne; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp; Chinain, Mireille

    2017-12-21

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood (fish and marine invertebrates) contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus . The report of a CFP-like mass-poisoning outbreak following the consumption of Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) from Anaho Bay on Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia) prompted field investigations to assess the presence of CTXs in T. niloticus . Samples were collected from Anaho Bay, 1, 6 and 28 months after this poisoning outbreak, as well as in Taiohae and Taipivai bays. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) detected the presence of CTXs only in Anaho Bay T. niloticus samples. This is consistent with qPCR results on window screen samples indicating the presence of Gambierdiscus communities dominated by the species G. polynesiensis in Anaho Bay. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major congener, followed by P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A and P-CTX-4B in toxic samples. Between July 2014 and November 2016, toxin content in T. niloticus progressively decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit recommended for human consumption. This study confirms for the first time T. niloticus as a novel vector of CFP in French Polynesia.

  15. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Detection of Pacific Ciguatoxins in Toxic Samples from Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Taiana Darius

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood (fish and marine invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. The report of a CFP-like mass-poisoning outbreak following the consumption of Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod from Anaho Bay on Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia prompted field investigations to assess the presence of CTXs in T. niloticus. Samples were collected from Anaho Bay, 1, 6 and 28 months after this poisoning outbreak, as well as in Taiohae and Taipivai bays. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a detected the presence of CTXs only in Anaho Bay T. niloticus samples. This is consistent with qPCR results on window screen samples indicating the presence of Gambierdiscus communities dominated by the species G. polynesiensis in Anaho Bay. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major congener, followed by P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A and P-CTX-4B in toxic samples. Between July 2014 and November 2016, toxin content in T. niloticus progressively decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit recommended for human consumption. This study confirms for the first time T. niloticus as a novel vector of CFP in French Polynesia.

  16. [RNA polymerase II and pre-mRNA splicing factors in diplotene oocyte nuclei of the giant African gastropod Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, I S; Bogoliubov, D S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear distribution of pre-mRNA splicing factors (snRNPs and SR-protein SC35) and unphosphorylated from of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) was studied using fluorescent and immunoelectron cytochemistry in diplotene oocytes of the gastropod Achatina fulica. Association of Pol II and splicing factors with oocyte nuclear structures was analysed. The antibodies against splicing factors and Pol II were shown to label perichromatin fibrils at the periphery of condensed chromatin blocks as well as those in interchromatin regions of nucleoplasm. The revealed character of distribution of snRNPs, SC35 protein, and Pol II, together with the decondensed chromatin and absence of karyosphere, enable us to suggest that oocyte chromosomes maintain their transcriptional activity at the diplotene stage of oogenesis. In A. fulica oocytes, sparse nuclear bodies (NBs) of a complex morphological structure were revealed. These NBs contain snRNPs rather than SC35 protein. NBs are associated with a fibrogranular material (FGM), which contains SC35 protein. No snRNPs were revealed in this material. Homology of A. fulica oocyte nuclear structures to Cajal bodies and interchromatin granule clusters is discussed.

  17. Megadenus atrae n. sp., an endoparasitic eulimid gastropod (Mollusca) from the black sea cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger (Aspidochirotida: Holothuriidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tsuyoshi; Warén, Anders; Kano, Yasunori

    2017-07-01

    An eulimid gastropod, Megadenus atrae n. sp., endoparasitic in the cloacal chamber of the black sea cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger is described from Okinawa, Japan, as the fifth species of the genus. Conspecific specimens have also been found from southeast India, northeast Australia and New Caledonia. The generic assignment is justified by the presence of (i) a thick, long proboscis that bears a large fold (pseudopallium) near the base and a collar-like structure at the middle, (ii) a thin, globose shell that is covered by the pseudopallium, and (iii) sexual dimorphism with the female generally larger than the male. The new species is distinguishable from the four previously described congeners by its cauldron-shaped pseudopallium, moderately-developed collar of the proboscis and rounded basal lip of the shell. The comparisons of the size and sex of solitary and paired individuals support a previous hypothesis that the species of Megadenus Rosén, 1910 are protandrous with environmental sex determination. The present species occurs mostly as monogamous pairs despite its very low population density, implying that the presence of a conspecific individual acts as a cue for larval settlement. Both mechanisms would increase individual reproductive success in such permanent parasites with low prevalence and abundance as the species of Megadenus.

  18. Which Specialized Metabolites Does the Native Subantarctic Gastropod Notodiscus hookeri Extract from the Consumption of the Lichens Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Alice; Le Pogam, Pierre; Biver, Grichka; Boustie, Joël; Le Lamer, Anne-Cécile; Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Charrier, Maryvonne

    2017-03-08

    Notodiscus hookeri is the only representative of terrestrial gastropods on Possession Island and exclusively feeds on lichens. The known toxicity of various lichen metabolites to plant-eating invertebrates led us to propose that N. hookeri evolved means to protect itself from their adverse effects. To validate this assumption, the current study focused on the consumption of two lichen species: Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata . A controlled feeding experiment was designed to understand how the snail copes with the unpalatable and/or toxic compounds produced by these lichen species. The occurrence of two snail ecophenotypes, represented by a mineral shell and an organic shell, led to address the question of a metabolic response specific to the phenotype. Snails were fed for two months with one of these lichens and the chemical profiles of biological samples of N. hookeri (i.e., crop, digestive gland, intestine, and feces) were established by HPLC-DAD-MS and compared to that of the lichens. N. hookeri appears as a generalist lichen feeder able to consume toxic metabolite-containing lichens, independently of the ecophenotype. The digestive gland did not sequester lichen metabolites. The snail metabolism might be based on four non-exclusive processes according to the concerned metabolites (avoidance, passive transport, hydrolysis, and excretion).

  19. Which Specialized Metabolites Does the Native Subantarctic Gastropod Notodiscus hookeri Extract from the Consumption of the Lichens Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Gadea

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Notodiscus hookeri is the only representative of terrestrial gastropods on Possession Island and exclusively feeds on lichens. The known toxicity of various lichen metabolites to plant-eating invertebrates led us to propose that N. hookeri evolved means to protect itself from their adverse effects. To validate this assumption, the current study focused on the consumption of two lichen species: Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata. A controlled feeding experiment was designed to understand how the snail copes with the unpalatable and/or toxic compounds produced by these lichen species. The occurrence of two snail ecophenotypes, represented by a mineral shell and an organic shell, led to address the question of a metabolic response specific to the phenotype. Snails were fed for two months with one of these lichens and the chemical profiles of biological samples of N. hookeri (i.e., crop, digestive gland, intestine, and feces were established by HPLC-DAD-MS and compared to that of the lichens. N. hookeri appears as a generalist lichen feeder able to consume toxic metabolite-containing lichens, independently of the ecophenotype. The digestive gland did not sequester lichen metabolites. The snail metabolism might be based on four non-exclusive processes according to the concerned metabolites (avoidance, passive transport, hydrolysis, and excretion.

  20. Biological and morphological characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni from Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil: I - susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila snail to sympatric S. mansoni strain Características biológicas e morfológicas de cepa paulista de Schistosoma mansoni do Vale do Ribeira: I - suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria tenagophila do Vale do Ribeira, SP, a cepa simpátrica de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Figueiredo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In the São Paulo State, Brazil, where the Biomphalaria tenagophila is the intermediate host, the Ribeira Valley is an important endemic schistosomiasis mansoni area. During last eleven years there has been intense control measures focusing on schistosomiasis. The efforts have been concentrated in the municipalities of Pedro de Toledo and Itariri. We determined the susceptibility of B. tenagophila to sympatric strain of S. mansoni, both recently isolated from Itariri field. In 1988, this strain was isolated and maintained in the experimental model: Swiss mice - sympatric B. tenagophila. The second generation of the worm was evaluated. The snail were divided in the three groups of 60 snails each. One group was exposed to 1 miracidium and other to 10. The third group was the control. The mortality and the shedding of cercariae were checked during 78 days. After that, the positive snails were observed until they ceased to shed cercariae. The exposed molluscs showed mortality rates of 23% and 31% and infection indexes were of 8% and 60% to 1 and 10 miracidia respectively. The mortality was of 22% in the control group. The periods of shedding cercariae in the two groups were 82 and 104 days. We can conclude that B. tenagophila is an effective intermediate host to the sympatric strain of S. mansoni sympatric strainDentre as regiões do Estado de São Paulo, onde Biomphalaria tenagophila é hospedeira intermediária, o vale do Ribeira é área endêmica da esquistossomose. Nos últimos onze anos a endemia vem sendo intensamente controlada no vale, principalmente, nos municípios de Pedro de Toledo e Itariri. Estudamos a suscetibilidade de B. tenagophila de Itariri à linhagem simpátrica de Schistosoma mansoni, isolada do campo em 1988 e mantida no laboratório em camundongos suiço e B. tenagophila. Estudou-se a 2ª geração do trematódeo. Constituiram-se 3 grupos de 60 moluscos cada, sendo um grupo exposto a um miracídio e outro a 10 e um grupo

  1. Accumulation and detoxication responses of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to single and combined exposures to natural (cyanobacteria) and anthropogenic (the herbicide RoundUp(®) Flash) stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Desprat, Julia; Holbech, Bente Frost; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam; Lawton, Linda A; Edwards, Christine; Wiegand, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Freshwater gastropods are increasingly exposed to multiple stressors in the field such as the herbicide glyphosate in Roundup formulations and cyanobacterial blooms either producing or not producing microcystins (MCs), potentially leading to interacting effects. Here, the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis to a 21-day exposure to non-MC or MC-producing (33μgL(-1)) Planktothrix agardhii alone or in combination with the commercial formulation RoundUp(®) Flash at a concentration of 1μgL(-1) glyphosate, followed by 14days of depuration, were studied via i) accumulation of free and bound MCs in tissues, and ii) activities of anti-oxidant (catalase CAT) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase GST) enzymes. During the intoxication, the cyanobacterial exposure induced an early increase of CAT activity, independently of the MC content, probably related to the production of secondary cyanobacterial metabolites. The GST activity was induced by RoundUp(®) Flash alone or in combination with non MC-producing cyanobacteria, but was inhibited by MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash. Moreover, MC accumulation in L. stagnalis was 3.2 times increased when snails were concomitantly exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with RoundUp(®), suggesting interacting effects of MCs on biotransformation processes. The potent inhibition of detoxication systems by MCs and RoundUp(®) Flash was reversible during the depuration, during which CAT and GST activities were significantly higher in snails previously exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash than in other conditions, probably related to the oxidative stress caused by accumulated MCs remaining in tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of tributyltin and benzo[a]pyrene on the immune-associated activities of hemocytes and recovery responses in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Huang, Wei-Bin; Wang, Qiang-Wei; Wu, Man-Li; Liu, Jie; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study reports that short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induces immunomodulation in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor. In the present study, it was further observed that long-term chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of BaP modulated the immunocompetence of abalones in terms of the change in activity of the antioxidant and immune associated parameters tested. In addition, the effect of tributyltin (TBT), another important genotoxicant in the aquatic environment, was investigated. Exposure of abalones to sublethal concentrations of TBT and BaP for 21 days resulted in significant decrease of total hemocyte count, phagocytosis, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. Conversely induction of extra and intra cellular superoxide generation, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase activity was present when the abalones were exposed to TBT and BaP. Most of the immune associated parameters tested showed clear time dependent response to both toxicants. Within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to BaP, recovery was observed as evidenced by most of the parameters returning to their normal level. However, no recovery was observed within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to TBT as evidenced by continued elevation of intra cellular superoxide and nitrite production and decrease in THC, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. This suggested a prolonged TBT-induced impact on the immune reaction and possibly more damage than that caused by BaP. Overall the results suggest that chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of TBT or BaP causes modulations in the immunocompetence of abalones with most of the immune associated parameters tested being stimulated, and this might be harmful to the host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of micronucleus test in the assessment of radiation effects in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Edvaldo F. de; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Lima, Pedro A. de S.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana Maria M. de A.; Silva, Edvane B. da; Silva, Ronaldo C. da

    2011-01-01

    The study of the effects of radioactive substances on the environment is accomplished by radioecology. This science has played an important role in combating all forms of pollution. The uncontrolled use of physical and chemical agents has been a concern for environmental regulatory agencies, due to the serious damage to ecosystems. Aquatic organisms are exposed to a variety of pollutants harmful to aquatic systems. The mollusks Biomphalaria glabrata has been featured as a bioindicator to possess characteristics such as short reproductive cycle ease of maintenance in the laboratory and low maintenance cost. The micronucleus assay has been shown to be a great test to identify mutagenic effects caused by physical and chemical agents. In this study the frequency of micronuclei in haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to high doses of 60 Co gamma radiation contributing to a further standardization of this test as an indicator of the presence of radioactive contamination in aquatic environments. The young adult snails of Biomphalaria glabrata were divided into groups and subjected to a dose of 0 (control), 40 and 60 Gy of gamma radiation. The results showed that snails irradiated with 40 Gy showed a smaller number of haemocytes, whereas those exposed to 60 Gy had a greater quantity of these cells compared to control group. It can be concluded that the morphological analysis and the frequency of micronuclei in haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation may be used in studies of the action of high doses of radiation in aquatic environments (author)

  4. The molluscicidal activity of coumarins from Ethulia conyzoides and of dicumarol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kady, M M; Brimer, L; Furu, P

    1992-01-01

    The molluscicidal principles of Ethulia conyzoides were identified as ethuliacoumarin A (1) and isoethuliacoumarin A (2). Ethuliacoumarin A possessed an LC90 between 19 and 23.5 ppm depending on the age of the snail against Biomphalaria glabrata, and between 12 and 15 ppm against Bulinus truncatu...

  5. Clinical characteristics of the first cases of invasive candidiasis in China due to pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata isolates with delineation of their resistance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Meng Xiao,1,2,* Xin Fan,1–3,* Xin Hou,1,2,4,* Sharon CA Chen,5 He Wang,1,2 Fanrong Kong,5 Zi-Yong Sun,6,* Yun-Zhuo Chu,7 Ying-Chun Xu1,2 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Beijing Key Laboratory for Mechanisms Research and Precision Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR, New South Wales Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Echinocandin antifungal agents have become the first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC in many countries. Despite their increasing use, resistance to this class of drug is, overall, still uncommon. Here, we report two patients from the People’s Republic of China with IC, one with infection caused by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and the other by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata. We also describe the mechanisms of drug resistance of these isolates. The echinocandin-resistant C. glabrata isolate was cultured from ascitic fluid of a 46-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal IC developing after surgery in 2012. This patient had had no prior antifungal exposure. The echinocandin-resistant C. tropicalis isolate was cultured from chest drainage

  6. Lab-scale preparations of Candida albicans and dual Candida albicans-Candida glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC) perfusion tube using a modified gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Lu, KeQiao; Tian, Ge; Cui, YanYan; Yan, YuanYuan; Wang, TianMing; Zhang, XinLong; Wang, ChangZhong

    2015-02-01

    The assembly of a man-made gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI) was described, which was composed of a gas cushion injector and four incubators. The GS-FFBI had the characteristics of (i) a bottom-up flow direction, and (ii) lab-scale biofilm preparation without the use of a multichannel pump. Two opportunistic fungal strains, namely Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, were employed to incubate C. albicans and dual C. albicans-C. glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride perfusion tube. In terms of the results from {2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide} (XTT) assay, dry weight measurement, colony-forming unit counting, susceptibility test, and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that GS-FFBI could form both stable single and dual Candida biofilms with no significant variations among the four incubators or the three daily incubations within 21h, and could operate for at least 96h smoothly with no contamination of stock medium. The results also indicated, for the first time, that C. albicans and C. glabrata might be co-existent competitively and symbiotically in the dual biofilms with flowing media. GS-FFBI would be a useful device to study in vitro morphological and physiological features of microbial biofilms in the medical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cholinesterases and neurotoxicity as highly sensitive biomarkers for an organophosphate insecticide in a freshwater gastropod (Chilina gibbosa) with low sensitivity carboxylesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Karina; Yusseppone, María Soledad; Otero, Sofía; Luquet, Carlos; Ríos de Molina, María Del Carmen; Kristoff, Gisela

    2013-11-15

    In the Upper Valley of Río Negro and Río Neuquén in Argentina, agriculture represents the second most important economic activity. Azinphos-methyl has been found in water from this region throughout the year at a maximum concentration of 22.48 μg L(-1) during the application period. Toxicological studies on local non-target species have been performed mostly on vertebrates, while mollusks, which could be more sensitive, have not been studied so far. This work aims to characterize cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxilesterase (CE) activities of Chilina gibbosa, a freshwater gastropod native to southern Argentina and Chile. These enzymes, together with neurotoxicity signals, are evaluated herein after as sensitive biomarkers of exposure to azinphos-methyl at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects of azinphos-methyl on antioxidant defenses: glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) are also studied in order to complete a set of biomarkers with different sensitivity and specificity, to propose C. gibbosa as a sentinel species. The highest specific activity was obtained with acetylthiocholine as substrate, followed by propionylthiocholine (83% in comparison to acetylthiocholine) and butyrylthiocholine (19%).The lowest Km and the highest efficiency for ChE were obtained with acetylthiocholine. Regarding CEs activities, a higher efficiency was obtained with p-nitrophenyl butyrate than with p-nitrophenyl acetate. Eserine produced significant inhibition of ChE activity (81% with 0.001 mM and 98% with 1mM) while iso-OMPA did not produce any significant effect on ChE. Our results show that C. gibbosa ChE is very sensitive to azinphos-methyl (CI50 0.02 μg L(-1)) while CEs are inhibited at higher concentrations (CI50 1,000 μg L(-1)). CEs have been reported to be more sensitive to OPs than ChEs in most of the aquatic invertebrates protecting the organisms from neurotoxic effects. In contrast, C. gibbosa, has Ch

  8. and Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss) at constant temperatures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... lifespan and net reproduction rate of H. dury; were higher than those of B. pfeifferi over the whole range of temperatures ... not itself act as an intermediate host of economically impor- tant parasite .... age-specific birth rate.

  9. Deep mRNA sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea brain transcriptome provides access to gene homologues for neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and peptidergic signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level.We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes. BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA.Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain.

  10. [Proceedings of the symposium 'Molluscan Palaeontology' : 11th International Malacological Congress, Siena (Italy) 30th August - 5th September 1992 / A.W. Janssen and R. Janssen (editors)]: Early rissoid gastropods from the Jurassic of Italy: the meaning of first appearances

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, M.A.; Monari, S.; Oliviero, M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of Jurassic outcrops from Veneto, Central Italy and Sicily improved our knowledge on the gastropods of these areas, characterised by the presence, aside of archaic forms, of some modern ones. Noteworthy is the record from those outcrops of several species, which can be referred to the family Rissoidae (Rissooidea). Formerly, earliest rissoid records were only known from European outcrops of younger age. In the Italian records several species have been recognised belonging to at least ...

  11. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha; Souza, Maria Conceicao de

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  12. Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Casassa Vieira de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and esteroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated.

  13. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  14. Genetic variability and identification of the intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies based on shell or reproductive organ morphology and genetic considerations suggest extensive intraspecific variation in Biomphalaria snails. The high variability at the morphological and genetic levels, as well as the small size of some specimens and similarities between species complicate the correct identification of these snails. Here we review our work using methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification for analysis of genetic variation and identification of Biomphalaria snails from Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Arbitrarily primed-PCR revealed that the genome of B. glabrata exihibits a remarkable degree of intraespecific polymorphism. Low stringency-PCR using primers for 18S rRNA permited the identification of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis. The study of individuals obtained from geographically distinct populations exhibits significant intraspecific DNA polymorphism, however specimens from the same species, exhibit some species specific LSPs. We also showed that PCR-restriction fragment of length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of Biomphalaria rDNA, using DdeI permits the differentiation of the three intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The molecular biological techniques used in our studies are very useful for the generation of new knowledge concerning the systematics and population genetics of Biomphalaria snails.

  15. Chemical characterization of terrestrial gastropods of Brazilian mangroves by EDXRF; Caracterização química de gastrópodes terrestres de manguezais brasileiros por EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélo, Julyanne T.B.; Pereira Neto, Alberto; França, Elvis J. de, E-mail: julyanne.melo@ufpe.br, E-mail: nibbering4@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Bruno F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: brunodasilva1996@hotmail.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In environmental studies, the application of multielement analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence by Energy Dispersion - EDXRF is interesting due to the rapidity in the analysis and preservation of the sample. In the work, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and Zn were quantified in gastropods of the species Littoraria anguliferae Melampus coffea of mangroves located in tourist regions of Itamaracá, Pernambuco, and Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by EDXRF at a pressure lower than 30 Pa, detection time of 840 seconds in a Shimadzu EDX-720 model spectrometer. To guarantee the quality of the analytical procedure, reference materials SRM 2976 - Musseltissue and SRM 1547 - Peachleaves were analyzed. In both locations, the mass fractions of Mg and P were similar for L. anguliferae. For Zn, the average mass fraction of more than 3,000 mg kg{sup -1} of the Barra de Guaratiba animals was considerably higher than that obtained in the Itamaracá mangrove. The M. coffea species also presented a considerably higher accumulation of Zn (approximately 4500 mg kg{sup -1}) when compared to the mass fraction obtained in the Pernambuco mangrove. For Sr, there was a higher concentration in the Itamaracá mangrove (400mg kg{sup -1} for L. anguliferae 180 mg kg{sup -1} for M. coffea) compared to that obtained in Barra de Guaratiba. The analytical technique of EDXRF was successfully employed for the evaluation of both molluscan species as biomonitoring of the environmental quality of mangroves.

  16. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  17. Trematode infection among freshwater gastropods in Tessaout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the summer of 1994 and the spring of 1995, a snail survey aimed at determining relationships between the distribution of molluscan fauna, various environmental factors and trematode infection was carried out in the Tessaout Amont irrigation system, Morocco. The molluscan fauna consisted of nine species belonging to ...

  18. Detection of proteins induced in the haemolymph of Biomphalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... Separation of haemolymph proteins by 2D electrophoresis analysis revealed a ... Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in several parts of ... for drug and vaccine design. Manipulation ... urine jars was sprayed with water thoroughly using a wash bottle ... The plasma was stored at -200C for use.

  19. Distribution and habitats of Biomphalaria pfeifferi , snail intermediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of four isolated and persistent foci occurring further west than the western arm of its range of distribution and far removed from the bilharzia endemic areas, is discussed. Two of these localities are popular holiday resorts and the fact that specimens from both these localities showed a high compatibility with a ...

  20. Distribución de los gasterópodos del manglar, Neritina virgínea (Neritidae y Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae en la Ecorregión Darién, Caribe colombiano Distribution of the mangrove gastropods Neritina virginea (Neritidae and Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae within the Colombian Caribbean Darién Ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ferney Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque los gasterópodos son uno de los grupos más abundantes en los manglares del Caribe, poco se sabe del ámbito de especies particulares debido al enfoque comunitario de la mayoría de los estudios. El ámbito de las poblaciones de L. angulifera y N. virginea fue estudiado en la Ecorregión Darién, Caribe colombiano. El muestreo se realizó entre junio y agosto 2009, se recolectaron 3 963 individuos de ambas especies, a los cuales se les midió la talla de la concha. La Ecorregión presentó diferencias espaciales en el ámbito de la salinidad del agua a nivel superficial, la cobertura de manglar y el ámbito de las poblaciones. En la parte externa de la Ecorregión, L. angulifera presentó el mayor porcentaje de aparición (84.8% en comparación a N. virginea (15.2%. En el interior N. virginea presentó el mayor porcentaje (84.6%, mientras L. angulifera apareció solo en bahía Turbo (15.4%. Se encontraron diferencias en el ámbito de tallas promedio de las conchas, donde L. angulifera varió entre 6 y 22mm y N. virginea entre 6 y 12mm dentro del Golfo. Se confirma que L. angulifera es una especie de carácter estenohalina y marina, mientras que N. virginea es eurihalina y estuarina.Distribution of the mangrove gastropods Neritina virginea (Neritidae and Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae within the Colombian Caribbean Darién Ecoregion. Gastropods are one of the most abundant groups within the Caribbean mangroves, however, little is known about the distribution of particular species at a regional scale. With this aim, we studied the geographic distribution of Littoraria (Littorinopsis angulifera and Neritina (Vitta virginea within the Darién Ecoregion in the Caribbean coast of Colombia, from 77 sampling stations along 609km between the Colombian-Panamá border and Córdoba State, Colombia. The fieldwork was conducted in June-August 2009, and a total of 3 963 individuals of both species were hand-picked from the ground, prop-roots and

  1. Efecto de la conversión del manglar a potrero sobre la densidad y tallas de dos gasterópodos en el delta del río Turbo (golfo de Urabá, Caribe colombiano Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Blanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El delta del río Turbo es una de las áreas del golfo de Urabá, Colombia donde la tala de manglar es más extensa y activa, por lo tanto, se evaluó el impacto de la conversión de manglar a potrero, comparando la densidad y talla promedio de dos gasterópodos (Neritina virginea y Melampus coffeus, variables dasonómicas, físico-químicas intersticiales y granulométricas del suelo entre varios parches de: 1 manglar de franja, 2 manglar de cuenca, 3 manglar de cuenca mixto y 4 manglar de cuenca convertido a potrero, en el delta del río Turbo de este golfo, entre enero y diciembre 2009. Las densidades y tallas de los gasterópodos fueron mayores en el manglar de franja. N. virginea fue muy abundante pero disminuyó hacia el manglar de cuenca (debido a sus hábitos diádromos, y desapareció casi completamente en los potreros, donde los individuos estuvieron agregados en las pocas áreas anegadas. En los potreros, los individuos de M. coffeus estuvieron agrupados en los árboles remanentes debido a su hábito arborícola y su condición de pulmonado. Se sugiere que la escasez de los gasterópodos está relacionada con la degradación del microhábitat físico, y la alteración de propiedades del suelo. Finalmente, también planteamos que la extinción local de N. virginea debida a la tala puede ejercer fuertes efectos negativos sobre la función ecosistémica debido a que es un omnívoro dominante.Mangrove deforestation is widespread in the Greater Caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. In order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (Neritina virginea and Melampus coffeus were compared among four mangrove types: 1 Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2 Avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3 Mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4 A. germinansbasin mangroves converted to pastures, in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf

  2. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  3. Molluscicidal saponins from a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Three new monodesmosidic saponins, all glycosides of 2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid, were isolated from an aqueous extract of a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were, mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, HETCOR......-hydroxyoleanolic acid. Two of the saponins were submitted to a preliminary screening for molluscicidal activity against the schistosomiasis transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata and showed, respectively, strong and weak activity. In addition, four saponins previously reported from other strains of Phytolacca...

  4. Ecological review of hydroelectric reservoirs in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobin, W.R.; Ferguson, F.F.; Brown, R.

    1976-10-01

    A review of published literature and available data on the ecology of hydroelectric reservoirs and other lakes in Puerto Rico yielded various studies on unrelated elements in the aquatic ecology, but very few comprehensive investigations. The majority of the island-wide studies pertained to surveys on snails related to the parasitic disease bilharzia. A survey of 28 major lakes in 1976 showed that Biomphalaria glabrata had gradually been displaced from most of the lakes by Marisa cornuarietis and Tarebia granifera, two foreign snails which do not transmit bilharzia. Of the 17 lakes containing B. glabrata in 1956, only 8 remained infested in 1966 and only 5 in 1976, twenty years after the introduction of Marisa cornuarietis. Although the trend indicates that the lakes may be safe from transmission a monitoring system is necessary before the lakes could be used for recreation.

  5. Biological control and invading freshwater snails. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P; Augustin, D

    1999-12-01

    Introductions of four species of freshwater snails occurred between 1972 and 1996 onto Guadeloupe Island. Two of them, Melanoides tuberculata and Marisa cornuarietis, were subsequently used as biological control agents against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of intestinal schistosomiasis. In 1996, a general survey was carried out in 134 sites which had already been investigated in 1972. The total number of mollusc species had increased from 19 to 21. Site numbers housing B. glabrata and two other species had strongly declined. This decline may be mainly attributed to a competitive displacement by M. tuberculata and M. cornuarietis as illustrated by several biological control programmes. There were no changes in the remainder of the malacological fauna.

  6. Change in schistosome sex ratio under the influence of a biotic environmental-related factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moné, H

    1997-04-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a dioecious trematode responsible for intestinal schistosomiasis in man. The sex ratio was determined for S. mansoni adults derived from cercariae obtained from infected Biomphalaria glabrata maintained in the presence of the nonvector molluse. Marisa cornuarietis. The presence of M. cornuarietis is responsible for enhanced growth of B. glabrata and for a change in the sex ratio of the schistosome, which becomes more male-biased as compared to control snails maintained in aquaria lacking M. cornuarietis. This is the first time the presence of another species in the environment has been shown to influence schistosome sex ratios. Two nonexclusive hypotheses are proposed to explain this variation in the sex ratio: sexual competition between male and female sporocysts; and sex reversal.

  7. Lymnaea columella: two new Brazilian localities in the states of Amazonas and Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Lymnaea columella is recorded in Tefé, Amazonas state, where it was found together with Drepanotrema anatinum, Physa marmorata and pomacea sp. L. columella was also collected in Salvador, Bahia state, at the dique do Tororó, an urban lake formely mentioned (as "lac Baril" by Moricand (1853 as a breeding-place of Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata and Ancylus moricandi. The four first-mentioned species, as well as physa cubensis and Hemisinus brasiliensis, were also collected now. This is the first record of a lymnaeid in the Northeastern region of Brazil.É registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella em Tefé, Estado do Amazonas, onde foi encontrada juntamente com Physa marmorata e Pomacea sp. L. columella foi também coletada em Salvador, Estado da Bahia, no Dique do Tororó, lago urbano antes mencionado por Moricand (1853 como criadouro de Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata e Ancylus moricandi. As quatro primeiras espécies mencionadas, assim como Physa cubensis e Hemisinus brasiliensis, também foram agora coletadas. Este é o primeiro registro de um limneídeo na região Nordeste do Brasil

  8. The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, F; Lämmler, G

    1975-10-16

    Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Stagnicola elodes; the physid snail Physa acuta (an Egyptian and a German strain) and the ampullariid snails Marisa cornuarietis and Lanistes carinatus. All these snail species proved to be susceptible to infection with A. cantonensis, and first stage larvae reached the infective third stage in all of them. However, the rate and intensity of infection varied with different species. B. glabrata was the most susceptible snail species with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 26.1. This was followed by S. elodes and B. africanus, with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 15.6 and 14.6 respectively. The rest of snail species proved to be less susceptible. For comparative evaluation of the suitability of the various snail species as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis a "Capacity Index" was determined. This index should provide a useful method for the evaluation of the suitability of various snails as intermediate hosts of nematode parasites under standardized conditions in the laboratory.

  9. Estudos sobre o comportamento dos Planorbídeos: I - uma técnica de observação e registro comportamental por cinematografia Studies on the behavior of planorbids: I - a technique for behavioral observation and recording by use of cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio S. Pieri

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma técnica envolvendo cinematografia com lapso de tempo foi elaborada para o estudo da atividade comportamental dos planorbídeos em condições de laboratório. As observações realizam-se em uma câmara dotada de ciclo de iluminação dia-noite, e os registros são feitos com uma filmadora super-8, operada quadro a quadro, sob luz de flash estroboscópico. Essa técnica tem permitido mensurações rigorosas de diferentes aspectos do comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata (say, 1818, e pode ser utilizada na análise do nível de resposta dos planorbídeos aos moluscicidas, em testes experimentais, e dos comportamentos de proteção frente a condições adversas em geral.A technique involving time-lapse cinematography was developed for studying the behavioral repertoire of planorbids in laboratory conditions. Observations were carried out within a chamber with controlled light and temperature; recording was done by single frame shooting at 10 second intervals, with synchronized strobed flash. This technique has allowed accurate measurements of different aspects of the activity of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, and can be useful in analysing the level of response of planorbids to molluscicides, in experimental tests, as well as their protective behavior under general adverse conditions.

  10. Riesgo de establecimiento del gasterópodo dulceacuícola invasor Melanoides tuberculatus (Thiaridae en el Río de la Plata (Argentina-Uruguay Colonization risks of the invading freshwater gastropod Melanoides tuberculatus (Thiaridae in Río de la Plata (Argentina-Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Gutiérrez-Gregoric

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Melanoides tuberculatus es un gasterópodo cosmopolita que ha invadido y se ha establecido en casi todos los países del continente americano, desconociéndose en la mayoría de los casos el origen de su introducción. En este trabajo se menciona el riesgo de establecimiento de esta especie en áreas de influencia del Río de la Plata como consecuencia de su registro en acuarios de la ciudad de La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina dedicados a la venta de flora y fauna limnética. A principios de 2009, la especie fue identificada a partir de 26 ejemplares procedentes de un comercio, siendo éste el registro más austral de la especie para una localidad de la cuenca del Plata. Revisiones posteriores en 3 locales comerciales de la ciudad confirmaron la presencia de la especie en 2 de ellos. Dicha presencia se relacionó con la adquisición de plantas ornamentales por parte de los establecimientos. La identificación del gasterópodo en la ciudad de La Plata debe considerarse cuidadosamente, debido a las posibles consecuencias que tendría la liberación accidental de este molusco en el Río de la Plata en lo relacionado con el desplazamiento de fauna local y salud pública.Melanoides tuberculatus is a cosmopolitan gastropod that has invaded and has now spread into most countries of the American continent. Introduction pathways remain unknown in most cases. This work draws attention on the colonization risks of this species in the Río de la Plata area as a consequence of its record in flower and pet shops - in the city of La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina - in which limnic species are sold. The species was identified at the beginning of 2009 within a lot of 29 specimens from a shop, and this is the southernmost record of this species in the Plata Basin. Subsequent surveys in 3 commercial shops in the same city revealed its presence in 2 of them. This was related to the purchase of ornamental plants by the shops. Identification of this species in the

  11. Variabilidad geográfica en la tolerancia térmica y economía hídrica del gastrópodo intermareal Nodilittorina peruviana (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822 Geographic variability in thermal tolerance and water economy of the intertidal gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE MIGUEL ROJAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El gastrópodo Nodilittorina peruviana es un habitante común de la zona intermareal rocosa de la costa norte y centro de Chile. Las poblaciones de esta especie se caracterizan por presentar distribuciones agregadas. Por medio de mediciones de terreno y ensayos de laboratorio se evaluó la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades de termorregulación y conservación de agua, en individuos pertenecientes a dos localidades de la costa de Chile que presentan distintos regímenes termales (Taltal 25º 25' S; 70º 29' W y Las Cruces 33º 35' S; 71º 38' W. Los resultados indican que la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades termorregulatorias es dependiente de las condiciones locales. A pesar de que los individuos de ambas localidades presentaron puntos de tolerancia térmica similares, los caracoles de Taltal mostraron tasas de pérdidas de agua menores. El tamaño de las agregaciones se relacionó en forma negativa con la tasa de pérdida de agua de los individuos de ambas localidades. En el caso de Taltal se observó un límite de tolerancia menor que en Las Cruces y una relación positiva entre tamaño de la agregación y temperatura grupal. Los resultados demuestran que las condiciones ambientales locales puede ser determinante para la efectividad de los mecanismos de termorregulación.The gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana inhabit rocky intertidal of the north and center Chile. Populations of this species exhibits aggregated distributions. Through field and lab records we studied the effect of spatial distribution of snails on their thermoregulatory and water conservation efficiencies. We studied individuals from two localities of the Chilean coast with different climatic conditions (Taltal 25° 25 ` S; 70° 29 ` W and Las Cruces 33° 35 ` S; 71° 38 ` W. Results indicate that the influence of spatial distribution thermoregulatory efficiency is dependent of the local conditions. Although individuals from both localities

  12. Neglected tropical diseases: prevalence and risk factors for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in a region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Luzivalda D; Tibiriça, Sandra H C; Pinheiro, Izabella O; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Lima, Adilson C; Castro, Milton F; Gonçalves, Murilo; Silva, Marcio R; Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Rosa, Florence M; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2014-06-01

    Among the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), schistosomiasis and the three main soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs), i.e., ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, represent the most common infections in developing countries. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiological data in many parts of the country, which favors the unawareness of the real situation concerning these diseases. Due to this, we investigated the occurrence of schistosomiasis and STHs in a region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. One stool sample was collected from 503 individuals, whose ages ranged from 0.1 to 91.2 years, and screened using both the Kato-Katz and the Formol-Ether methods. In parallel, a malacological survey was carried out in the main water bodies of the district, and Biomphalaria susceptibility assays and kernel-based techniques were also performed. No individual was found infected with Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm. Schistosoma mansoni was the most common parasite found (1.6%). The prevalence was higher in males and the chance of acquiring the disease increased by 43.35 times with contact with a body of water. None of the Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. glabrata specimens were found naturally infected, but B. glabrata was highly susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Using kernel-based techniques, clusters of Biomphalaria were found near the households where the infected individuals lived. Schistosomiasis was the most prevalent parasitic infection found. Our findings show that the occurrence of this disease has been underestimated by the local health care service, and highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance in areas of low prevalence for schistosomiasis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Marine Gastropods from Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de K.M.; Coomans, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    The present study is based on the well-known publication “Caribbean Seashells” by Warmke & Abbott (1961); its data are not repeated here, but a large number of mainly small species were added. Most data from “Gegevens over Mariene Gastropoden van Curaçao” by De Jong & Kristensen (1965) have been

  14. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water chemistry did differ between fish landing sites and undisturbed habitats at some sampling times, indicating that differences due to human impact do exist, but these are dependent on periods of calm weather. The study shows that anthropogenic disturbances cause ecological changes that can be exploited by some ...

  15. Acetylcholinesterase activity in marine gastropods as biomarker of neurotoxic contaminants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Gaitonde, D.C.S.; Vashistha, D.

    stream_size 22135 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Environ_Pollut_Ecol_impacts_Health_Issu_Mgmt_100.pdf.txt stream_source_info Environ_Pollut_Ecol_impacts_Health_Issu_Mgmt_100.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content...-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Environmental Pollution Ecological Impacts, Health Issues and Management Complied and Edited by Dr. Badal Bhattacharya, Prof. Arabinda Ghosh & Prof. Shyamal Kumar Majumdar Mudrakar 18A, Radhanath Mullick...

  16. Rodriguesic acids, modified diketopiperazines from the gastropod mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabio R.; Santos, Mario F.C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S., E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Williams, David E.; Andersen, Raymond J. [Departments of Chemistry and Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Padula, Vinicius [SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, München, Germany and Department Biology II and GeoBio-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, (Germany); Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    In the present investigation, two specimens of the nudipleuran mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus have shown to accumulate oxidized rodriguesin A derivatives. Rodriguesic acid presents a carboxylic acid replacing the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain of rodriguesin A. A hydroxamate group was also present on the diketopiperazine moiety of a rodriguesic acid derivative. The structures of both rodriguesic acid and of rodriguesic acid hydroxamate have been established by analysis of spectroscopic data, including their absolute configuration. Two methyl esters of the rodriguesic acids have been isolated as major compounds, but were considered to be isolation artifacts. (author)

  17. COMPARATIVE SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE OF BAIKALIAN ENDEMIC PROSOBRANCH GASTROPODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropstorf, PETER; Healy, JOHN M.; Riedel, FRANK; Sitnikova, TATIANA Y.

    2002-05-01

    Mature euspermatozoan ultrastructure is described for seven species of the rissooidean family Baicaliidae (endemic to Lake Baikal, Russia)-Liobaicalia stiedae, Teratobaikalia ciliata, T. macrostoma, Baicalia carinata, Pseudobaikalia pulla, Maackia bythiniopsis, M. variesculpta, and M. herderiana. For comparison with these species and previously investigated Rissooidea, two species of the Lake Baikal endemic genus Benedictia (B. cf. fragilis and B. baicalensis; Hydrobiidae: Benedictiinae of some authors, Benedictiidae of other authors) in addition to Lithoglyphus naticoides (Hydrobiidae: Lithoglyphinae) and Bythinella austriaca (Hydrobiidae: Bythinellinae) were also investigated. Paraspermatozoa were not observed in any of the species examined, supporting the view that these cells are probably absent in the Rissooidea. In general, the euspermatozoa of all species examined resemble those of many other caenogastropods (basally invaginated acrosomal vesicle, mid-piece with 7-13 helical mitochondria, an annulus, glycogen piece with nine peri-axonemal tracts of granules). However, the presence of a completely flattened acrosomal vesicle and a specialized peri-axonemal membranous sheath (a scroll-like arrangement of 4-6 double membranes) at the termination of the mid-piece, clearly indicates a close relationship between the Baicaliidae and other rissooidean families possessing these features (Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Pyrgulidae, and Stenothyridae). Euspermatozoa of Benedictia, Lithoglyphus, Bythinella, and Pyrgula all have a solid nucleus, which exhibits a short, posterior invagination (housing the centriolar complex and proximal portion of the axoneme). Among the Rissooidea, this form of nucleus is known to occur in the Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Truncatellidae, Pyrgulidae, Iravadiidae, Pomatiopsidae, and Stenothyridae. In contrast, the euspermatozoa of the Baicaliidae all have a long, tubular nucleus, housing not only the centriolar derivative, but also a substantial portion of the axoneme. Among the Rissooidea, a tubular nuclear morphology has previously been seen in the Rissoidae, which could support the view, based on anatomical grounds, that the Baicaliidae may have arisen from a different ancestral source than the Hydrobiidae. However, the two styles of nuclear morphology (short, solid versus long, tubular) occur widely within the Caenogastropoda, and sometimes both within a single family, thereby reducing the phylogenetic importance of nuclear differences within the Rissooidea. More significantly, the occurrence of the highly unusual membranous sheath within the mid-piece region in the Baicaliidae appears to tie this family firmly to the Bithyniidae + Hydrobiidae + Stenothyridae + Pyrgulidae assemblage. Eusperm features of Benedictia spp. strongly resemble those of hydrobiids and bithyniids, and neither support recognition of a distinct family Benedictiidae (at best this is a subfamily of Hydrobiidae) nor any close connection with the hydrobiid subfamily Lithoglyphinae.

  18. Molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the gastropod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The freshwater snails belonging to the genus Melanoides Olivier, 1804 are widespread across tropical regions of the world and endemic species have evolved in the African Lakes Malawi, Mweru and Tanganyika. The endemic Melanoides species of Lake Malawi have been investigated several times during the last century ...

  19. Rodriguesic acids, modified diketopiperazines from the gastropod mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Fabio R.; Santos, Mario F.C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Padula, Vinicius; Ferreira, Antonio G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, two specimens of the nudipleuran mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus have shown to accumulate oxidized rodriguesin A derivatives. Rodriguesic acid presents a carboxylic acid replacing the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain of rodriguesin A. A hydroxamate group was also present on the diketopiperazine moiety of a rodriguesic acid derivative. The structures of both rodriguesic acid and of rodriguesic acid hydroxamate have been established by analysis of spectroscopic data, including their absolute configuration. Two methyl esters of the rodriguesic acids have been isolated as major compounds, but were considered to be isolation artifacts. (author)

  20. Ecology and distribution of gastropod snails of medical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the ecology and distribution of snails of medical importance was conducted in water bodies from four different communities (Old Karmo, Gwagwa, ... The following floras were identified from the study-sites; Megathyrsus maximus, Guinea grass and Commelina nigritana (African dayflower) were identified from the ...

  1. EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL ON THE GASTROPOD, Tympanotomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES VOL. 8, NO. ... pollution occurs in the estuaries and near shore ... petroleum production facilities located adjacent to ... This poses a great risk to aquatic ... Oban hill and basin, covers an estimated area of ..... mangrove of Cross River estuary where they ... Assessment.

  2. The reproductive cycle of the intertidal gastropod Turbo coronatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological methods were used to determine the reproductive cycle of Turbo coronatus. Ovarian development was assessed from the relative proportions of mature and immature oocytes in sectioned material. Testicular tissues ware subjectively given a maturity index based on the relative proportions of the various ...

  3. Soil manganese enrichment from industrial inputs: a gastropod perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina-Maria Bordean

    Full Text Available Manganese is one of the most abundant metal in natural environments and serves as an essential microelement for all living systems. However, the enrichment of soil with manganese resulting from industrial inputs may threaten terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of manganese exposure by cutaneous contact and/or by soil ingestion to a wide range of soil invertebrates. The link between soil manganese and land snails has never been made although these invertebrates routinely come in contact with the upper soil horizons through cutaneous contact, egg-laying, and feeding activities in soil. Therefore, we have investigated the direct transfer of manganese from soils to snails and assessed its toxicity at background concentrations in the soil. Juvenile Cantareus aspersus snails were caged under semi-field conditions and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil manganese concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher manganese concentrations. Manganese levels were measured in the snail hepatopancreas, foot, and shell. The snail survival and shell growth were used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of manganese exposure. The transfer of manganese from soil to snails occurred independently of food ingestion, but had no consistent effect on either the snail survival or shell growth. The hepatopancreas was the best biomarker of manganese exposure, whereas the shell did not serve as a long-term sink for this metal. The kinetics of manganese retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to manganese-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The results of this study reveal the importance of land snails for manganese cycling in terrestrial biotopes and suggest that the direct transfer from soils to snails should be considered when precisely assessing the impact of anthropogenic Mn releases on soil ecosystems.

  4. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S.; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from 60 Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from 60 Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The analysis

  5. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR) . Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane Borges da [Centro Academico de Vitoria. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S., E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The

  6. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: II. Número de ovos nas fezes e número e tamanho dos granulomas nas vísceras Relationship between the pathogenicity of Schistoma mansoni in mice and the susceptibility of the vector mollusc: II. Number of eggs in the feces and number and size of granulomas in the visceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da susceptibilidade de moluscos vetores do S. mansoni no desenvolvimento da patogenicidade do trematódeo no hospedeiro definitivo. Foram utilizadas progênies de moluscos Biomphalaria tenagophila e Biomphalaria glabrata selecionadas para o caráter susceptibilidade ao S. mansoni das linhagens SJ e BH, respectivamente. Cercárias oriundas das gerações P, F1 F2, F3 e F4 foram usadas para a infecção de camundongos Swiss, que foram sacrificados oito semanas após a exposição às larvas. Por esta ocasião verificou-se o número de ovos nas fezes e o número de granulomas no fígado, baço e intestino. Avaliou-se também o tamanho das reações granulomatosas nestas vísceras. Concluiu-se que a maior susceptibilidade de B. tenagophila induziu a uma maior eliminação de ovos do parasita nas fezes. Verificou-se maior número de granulomas por área de tecido hepático em roedores infectados com cercárias oriundas de moluscos mais susceptíveis. Nos mesmos roedores, constatou-se relação inversa entre a área dos granulomas esplênicos, hepáticos e intestinais e a taxa de infecção dos moluscos que forneceram as cercárias para a infecção dos camundongos.The influence of the susceptibility of the vector snails of S. mansoni on the development of the pathogenicity of the worm to the host was studied. Off-spring of snails Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila were used, selected with regard to the susceptibility to S. mansoni of the strains BH and SJ trait, respectively. Parenteral, F1,F2, F3 and F4 generation cercariae were used for the infection of Swiss mice, which were killed eight weeks after infection. The number of eggs in the feces and the number of granulomas in the liver, spleen and intestines were counted. The size of the granulomatous reactions was evaluated. The results led to the conclusion that greater susceptibility of B. tenagophila was associated with a larger egg production in the feces

  7. Biological and environmental factors associated with risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco State, Brazil Factores biológicos y ambientales asociados al riesgo de transmisión de la esquistosomiasis mansoni en la localidad de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil Fatores biológicos e ambientais associados ao risco de transmissão da esquistossomose mansoni na localidade de Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onicio Batista Leal Neto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis has expanded to the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where there are frequent reports of Biomphalaria glabrata snails and human cases of the disease. This study analyzes factors related to schistosomiasis transmission risk in Porto de Galinhas. A one-year malacological survey was conducted to identify biological, abiotic, and environmental factors related to the host snail breeding sites. Data analysis used Excel 2010, GTM Pro, and ArcGis 10. A total of 11,012 B. glabrata snails were captured in 36 breeding sites, and 11 schistosomiasis transmission foci were identified. A negative correlation was found between breeding site temperature and snail density and infection rate, and a positive correlation with pH and salinity. The rainy season showed a positive correlation with snail density and infection rate. The study emphasizes the factors involved in the maintenance of schistosomiasis breeding sites, in light of persistence of this disease in Porto de Galinhas for more than 10 years.La esquistosomiasis se expande hacia el litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, donde han sido frecuentes los registros de caracoles Biomphalaria glabrata y casos humanos de la enfermedad. Este estudio presenta factores relacionados con el riesgo de transmisión de la esquistosomiasis en la localidad Porto de Galinhas. Durante un año se llevó a cabo una investigación malacológica para identificar factores biológicos, abióticos y ambientales, relacionados con los criaderos de los moluscos huéspedes. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizaron los softwares Excel 2010, GTM Pro y ArcGis 10. Se recogieron 11.012 caracoles B. glabrata en los 36 criaderos identificados, siendo diagnosticados 11 focos de transmisión de la esquistosomiasis. Se verificó la correlación negativa entre la temperatura de los criaderos, densidad y tasa de infección de los caracoles, y la correlación positiva entre el pH y salinidad. El período de lluvia presentó una

  8. Ocorrência de linhagens humana e silvestre de Schistosoma mansoni, na pré-amazônia: I - estudo em moluscos Occurrence of wild and human strains of Schistosoma mansoni in lower Amazonia: I - study in moluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram isoladas na região da Baixada Maranhense (Brasil, linhagens humana (H e silvestre(S de Schistosoma mansoni a partir de miracídios eclodidos de ovos encontrados em fezes de doentes humanos autóctones da Região e de fígados de roedores silvestres naturalmente infectados. Biomphalaria glabrata, descentes de caramujos coletados no campo, foram expostos, isoladamente, aos miracídios H e S, mantidos isolados em moluscário e observados durante 100 dias. Moluscos normais foram mantidos nas mesmas condições de ambiente em que foram submetidos os infectados e tomados como controle da experiência. Foram anotados os indices de infecção dos moluscos, as datas da eliminação de cercárias, quantidade de larvas eliminadas e mortalidade dos moluscos. Os dados sugeriram melhor adaptação do esquistossomo da linhagem H à B. glabrata. A linhagem S, por sua vez, foi três vezes mais virulenta do que a linhagem H. Estes dados foram comparados com os encontrados na literatura especializada e verificado diversidades nos comportamentos parasitológicos das linhagens em estudo, quando comparados com os encontrados nas linhagens H e S oriundas do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil.The wild (W and human (H strains of Schistosoma mansoni were isolated in the Lowland Region of the Maranhão State (Brazil. The snail progenies from Biomphalaria glabrata collected from that region were exposed to the W miracidia, obtained from livers of wild rodents, and H miracidia from eggs in human stools. A control gruop of normal snails was kept in the same conditions as the infected one. The date of the elimination of cercariae, the quantity of eliminated larvae, the infection index of the moluscs and the mortality rate of the snails were recorded. These data suggested better adaptation of the H strain to B. glabrata. The W strain presented three times more virulence to snails than the H strain. These results were compared with published

  9. Molluscicidal saponins from Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1993-01-01

    Two new monodesmosidic saponins were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Ethiopian strain 44 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were established as 3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)] -beta-D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl......Two new monodesmosidic saponins were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Ethiopian strain 44 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were established as 3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)] -beta-D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid and 3-O......-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-gluco-pyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta -D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, HETCOR). The saponins are potent molluscicides against the schistosomiasis transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata with LC...

  10. Identification of planorbids from Venezuela by polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism of internal transcriber spacer of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the genus Biomphalaria from Venezuela were subjected to morphological assessment as well as polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Morphological identification was carried out by comparison of characters of the shell and the male and female reproductive apparatus. The PCR-RFLP involved amplification of the internal spacer region ITS1 and ITS2 of the RNA ribosomal gene and subsequent digestion of this fragment by the restriction enzymes DdeI, MnlI, HaeIII and MspI. The planorbids were compared with snails of the same species and others reported from Venezuela and present in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. All the enzymes showed a specific profile for each species, that of DdeI being the clearest. The snails were identified as B. glabrata, B. prona and B. kuhniana.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Brevibacillus laterosporus and Its Potential Use in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Edmar Justo; Rabinovitch, Leon; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Zahner, Viviane

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-three strains of Brevibacillus laterosporus, including three novel strains isolated from Brazilian soil samples, were examined for genetic variability by the use of different PCR-based methods. Molecular markers that could characterize bacterial strains with regards to their pathogenic potential were investigated. In addition, toxicity was assessed by the use of insects belonging to the orders Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata. Among the targets tested, Biomphalaria glabrata demonstrated the highest degree of sensitivity to B. laterosporus, with some strains inducing 90 to 100% mortality in snails aged 3 and 12 days posteclosion. Larvae of the coleopteron Anthonomus grandis were also susceptible, presenting mortality levels of between 33 and 63%. Toxicity was also noted towards the lepidopteron Anticarsia gemmatalis. In contrast, no mortality was recorded among test populations of Tenebrio molitor or Spodoptera frugiperda. The application of intergenic transcribed spacer PCR and BOX-PCR generated 15 and 17 different genotypes, respectively. None of the molecular techniques allowed the identification of a convenient marker that was associated with any entomopathogenic phenotype. However, a 1,078-bp amplicon was detected for all strains of B. laterosporus when a primer for amplification of the BOXA1R region was used. Similarly, a 900-bp amplicon was generated from all isolates by use of the primer OPA-11 for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. These amplicons were not detected for other phenotypically related Brevibacillus species, indicating that they represent markers that are specific for B. laterosporus, which may prove useful for the isolation and identification of new strains of this species. PMID:15528531

  12. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  13. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  14. Estudos preliminares com bromoacetamida, um novo moluscicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A bromoacetamida tem sido testada como moluscicida na República Popular da China, para tratamento de criadouros de Oncomelania, hospedeiro do Schistosoma japonicum, com bons resultados. O produto é solúvel em água, o que simplifica seu uso. Foram feitos ensaios biológicos preliminares deste produto em caramujos adultos (Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, recém-eclodidos e desovas. Paralelamente foram feitos ensaios com o pentaclorofenol para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos caramujos. O produto foi testado também sobre peixes, Lebistes reticulatus. Os moluscos testados mediam 8-10 mm de diâmetro; os recém-eclodidos tinham 1-3 dias de idade e as desovas 0-1 dia de idade. A temperatura da água durante os experimentos variou de 24,3 a 27,0°C. O produto foi ativo para caramujos adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas, em concentrações em tomo de 1 a 4 ppm. Para os peixes o produto foi menos tóxico do que para os caramujos (CLço 7,5 ppm. Estes resultados indicam que a bromoacetamida apresenta propriedades moluscicidas promissoras para o controle da Biomphalaria spp.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of Different Strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Aurélio Euzébio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of three different Schistosoma mansoni strains from the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais (BH strain and São Paulo (SJ and SD strains was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. Observations of the most severe clinical cases among local patients treated (SD strain in the city of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil formed the basis of this study. Mice were used as definitive hosts and were infected with cercariae from Biomphalaria tenagophila (SJ and SD strains and Biomphalaria glabrata (BH strains. The parameters analyzed were as follows: number of S. mansoni eggs in mice feces; number of granulomas per tissue area in liver, spleen, lungs, pancreas, and ascending colon; measurements of hepatic and intestinal granulomas; number of adult worms; and measurements of trematode eggs. The comparison among the three strains indicated that the SD strain, isolated in Campinas, presented a higher worm recovery relative to the number of penetrating cercariae. In addition, when compared to the SJ and BH strains, the SD strain demonstrated similar pathogenicity to the BH strain, with a greater quantity of granulomas in the viscera, as well as larger granulomas and eggs. Furthermore, a greater quantity of trematode eggs was also shed in the feces.

  16. A geoprocessing approach for studying and controlling schistosomiasis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José de Paula Souza Guimarães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems (GIS are tools that have been recently tested for improving our understanding of the spatial distribution of disease. The objective of this paper was to further develop the GIS technology to model and control schistosomiasis using environmental, social, biological and remote-sensing variables. A final regression model (R² = 0.39 was established, after a variable selection phase, with a set of spatial variables including the presence or absence of Biomphalaria glabrata, winter enhanced vegetation index, summer minimum temperature and percentage of houses with water coming from a spring or well. A regional model was also developed by splitting the state of Minas Gerais (MG into four regions and establishing a linear regression model for each of the four regions: 1 (R² = 0.97, 2 (R² = 0.60, 3 (R² = 0.63 and 4 (R² = 0.76. Based on these models, a schistosomiasis risk map was built for MG. In this paper, geostatistics was also used to make inferences about the presence of Biomphalaria spp. The result was a map of species and risk areas. The obtained risk map permits the association of uncertainties, which can be used to qualify the inferences and it can be thought of as an auxiliary tool for public health strategies.

  17. Estudos preliminares com bromoacetamida, um novo moluscicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A bromoacetamida tem sido testada como moluscicida na República Popular da China, para tratamento de criadouros de Oncomelania, hospedeiro do Schistosoma japonicum, com bons resultados. O produto é solúvel em água, o que simplifica seu uso. Foram feitos ensaios biológicos preliminares deste produto em caramujos adultos (Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila e B. straminea, recém-eclodidos e desovas. Paralelamente foram feitos ensaios com o pentaclorofenol para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos caramujos. O produto foi testado também sobre peixes, Lebistes reticulatus. Os moluscos testados mediam 8-10 mm de diâmetro; os recém-eclodidos tinham 1-3 dias de idade e as desovas 0-1 dia de idade. A temperatura da água durante os experimentos variou de 24,3 a 27,0°C. O produto foi ativo para caramujos adultos, recém-eclodidos e desovas, em concentrações em tomo de 1 a 4 ppm. Para os peixes o produto foi menos tóxico do que para os caramujos (CLço 7,5 ppm. Estes resultados indicam que a bromoacetamida apresenta propriedades moluscicidas promissoras para o controle da Biomphalaria spp.Bromocetamide has been tested as molluscicide, with good results, in the People's Republic of China, on Oncomelania, host of Schistosoma japonicum. We have conducted preliminary assays with bromoacetamide on adult snails (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea, newly hatched smails and egg-masses. This product has been also tested on fishes (Lebistes reticulatus. Comparative assays have been made with pentaclorophenol to evaluate the suceptibility of the snails. Snails tested had a diameter of 8-10 mm; the newly hatched were 1-3 days old and the eggs-masses. 0-1 day old. The temperature of the water varied from 24.3 to 27.5° C. Bromoacetamide was active on adult and newly h