WorldWideScience

Sample records for gastrointestinal tract tumors

  1. [Atypical vascular tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: four uncommon cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, L; Gutiérrez, J C López; Barrena, S; De la Torre, C; Suárez, O; Luis, A L

    2009-07-01

    A small but significant percentage of vascular tumors may develop at extracutaneous location. They are difficult to detect on the physical exam and usually they require immediate intervention. Pediatric surgeons must have acknowledge of its prognostic and therapeutic implications. We report 4 of these patients. Patient 1 was a healthy newborn who presented in the second week of life, recurrent severe gastrointestinal bleeding, thrombocytopenia and anemia. Diagnosis of multifocal linfangioendoteliomatosis with thrombocytopenia was established. Patient 2 had prenatal diagnosis of ascites and presented at birth sepsis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypoproteinemia. Upon laparotomy hemorrhagic ascites and thickening of rectum-sigmoid wall and mesentery were found. Pathologic diagnosis was Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and the clinical course was consistent with Kassabach-Merrit phenomenon. Patient 3 had at birth, multifocal hepatic GLUT1- hemangiomatosis with severe cardiac insufficiency and coagulopathy. She died while waiting for a liver transplantation. Patient 4 is a girl who presented in the newborn period with vomiting and hematochezia. She required several transfusions and endoscopic biopsies showed a vascular tumor that infiltrated duodenum, jejunum and mesentery. Imaging studies and histologic findings on biopsy led to the diagnostic of juvenile hemangioma GLUT-1+. Vascular tumors of the digestive tract may be difficult to diagnosis and their classification is still incomplete. Pediatric surgeons must be acquainted with these varieties of tumors because they are always involved in diagnosis and therapeutic decision making.

  2. [Application of precise radiotherapy in the combined modality therapy of gastrointestinal tract tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-ming; Meng, Xiang-jiao

    2013-06-01

    Single modality treatment of advanced gastrointestinal cancer has been associated with unfavorable outcomes. Radiotherapy as an important component of the combined modality therapy of gastrointestinal tract tumors may achieve down-staging, increase resection rate while preserving sphincter function, decrease local recurrence rate, and improve survival rate. Precision radiotherapy has better conformity, accuracy, and lower toxicity. Precision radiotherapy will become more and more important in the combined modality therapy of gastrointestinal tract cancer.

  3. Vasohibin-2 modulates tumor onset in the gastrointestinal tract by normalizing tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Shuji; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Morishima, Masae; Yoshii, Asuka; Kikuta, Sachiko; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Morikawa, Shunichi; Sato, Yasufumi; Ezaki, Taichi

    2014-05-04

    the gastrointestinal tract by regulating tumor angiogenesis.

  4. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.D.; Pointon, R.C.S.

    1985-01-01

    At the time of writing, radiotherapy is of only minor use in the management of adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, for a number of reasons. First, an exploratory laparotomy is generally needed for diagnosis, and if possible the tumour is resected or by-passed. Second, radiotherapy planning in the upper abdomen is complicated by the proximity of small bowel, kidneys, and spinal cord. Third, it has been assumed that these tumours cause death largely as a result of distant metastases, so that local radiotherapy, even if effective, would contribute little to survival. The continued interest in radiotherapy for this group of tumours arises out of the poor survival rates following surgery, which have not changed for many years, and the morbidity associated with their resection. It was hoped that the addition of cytotoxic agents to radical surgery would improve survival rates in carcinoma of the stomach and intraperitoneal colon. Despite a large number of well-organised prospective trials, using a variety of cytotoxic drugs, there is so far no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to radical surgery improves survival for either tumour site. The authors are therefore faced with a group of tumours which are not only common, but commonly fatal and many surgeons would accept that a new approach using modern radiotherapy techniques may well be justified. There is evidence that this movement is already taking place for carcinoma of the rectum, and the indications for radiotherapy in this condition will be dealt with below. Before considering these it is worth dwelling briefly on recent changes in surgical and radiological practices which, if they fulfil expectations, might allow radiotherapy to be used for carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas as it is now used for rectal cancer

  5. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; Multimodale Bildgebung neuroendokriner Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltrakts

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    Holzapfel, Konstantin; Eiber, Matthias; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Gaertner, Florian C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2014-03-15

    Neuroendocrine tumors (neuroendokrine Tumoren) are rare entities. They can be found in all organs and show substantial biologic heterogeneity depending on involved organ, clinical symptoms and histopathologic morphology. Involvement of organs like larynx, cervix uteri, ovary, gallbladder, liver or kidney is extensively rare. The majority of neuroendokrine Tumoren are found in gastrointestinal tract and lung and are classified as neuroendokrine Tumoren of foregut (stomach, duodenum, pancreas, lung), midgut (jejunum, ileum, appendix, right side of the colon) and hindgut (left side of the colon, rectum). The role of imaging is to localize and delineate the primary tumor and to detect metastases. In the diagnosis of neuroendokrine Tumoren radiologic techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied. In certain cases nuclear medicine techniques like somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using radioactively labelled somatostatin analogues are used. The present article reviews characteristic imaging findings of neuroendokrine Tumoren of the gastrointestinal tract. (orig.)

  6. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of metastatic ovarian tumors from gastrointestinal tract origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Lim; Yoo, Ie Ryung; O, Joo Hyun; Han, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-01

    To review the F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of metastatic ovarian tumors and to determine any correlation between FDG uptake by metastatic ovarian tumors and that by the primary tumors. PET/CT performed from June 2005 to March 2011 on patients with metastatic ovarian tumors of gastrointestinal tract origin malignancies was analyzed retrospectively. The SUV(max) of metastatic ovarian tumors and primary tumors, when available, was measured. Thirty-two patients were included. Of the 32 cases, 20 had metastatic tumors in bilateral ovaries and 12 had in a single ovary. The mean SUV(max) of the 52 total lesions was 4.1 ± 3.1 (range 1.2-13.3), and 46 lesions showed a heterogeneous FDG uptake pattern. In 22 cases with available primary tumor SUV(max) values, there was a moderate positive correlation with the SUV(max) of the corresponding metastatic tumors (r = 0.559, p = 0.007). There was no significant correlation between the size and SUV(max) of metastatic ovarian tumors (p = 0.128). The mean SUV(max) of metastatic ovarian tumors from colorectal cancers was significantly higher than that of stomach cancers (p = 0.039). Metastatic ovarian tumors showed FDG uptake of variable intensity, depending on the primary tumor type. The FDG uptake pattern was heterogeneous by PET imaging in vast majority of the cases. When the primary tumor demonstrates a low FDG uptake, careful evaluation is necessary since the metastatic ovarian tumors may also show low FDG uptake.

  7. Computertomographie of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, H.W.; Roedl, W.

    1982-01-01

    Besides the demonstration of parenchymatous organs CT can be used also in the diagnosis of hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract, e.g. the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and the small and large bowels, since the development of fast scanners with higher resolution. Conventional X-ray and endoscopy have to be primary diagnostics. CT, on the other hand, is capable of assessing of extraluminal and intramural tumor extension. In inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, CT can show the environmental reaction. In penetrating ulcers of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, the extension and direction of penetration can be figured by CT well. Extraenteral masses with secondary displacement, impression or infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract are often verified by CT only. One of the CT domains is the local relapse of rectum carcinoma following rectum amputation especially in differentiation from local scar formation. The importance of CT in radiotherapy treatment planning is not subject of this paper. (orig.) [de

  8. Immunohistochemical antigenic expression and in vivo tumor uptake of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douillard, J.Y.; Lehur, P.A.; Aillet, G.; Kremer, M.; Bianco-Arco, A.; Peltier, P.; Chatal, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies with specificity for carcinoembryonic antigen and Ca 19-9 gastrointestinal tract tumor associated antigens were infused after iodination with 125 I and 131 I, respectively, in six patients 3 days and in one patient 4 days before radical surgery for colon or rectal carcinoma. Biopsy specimens from tumor, normal colon, fat, muscle, and skin along with a blood sample were excised at surgery and counting was performed for gamma emission. Fragments were then studied by two independent pathologists for immunohistochemical expression of corresponding antigens using the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex. A correlation study was thereafter performed between the amount of antibody bound in vivo, expressed as the percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue and the quantitative expression of tumor associated antigens, taking into account both the percentage of cells expressing the antigen and intensity of staining. For this limited number of patients a good correlation was found between amount of targeted antibodies and amount of expressed antigens. For carcinoembryonic antigen, r values were 0.69 and 0.90 for each pathologist (with an r value of interobserver correlation of 0.74); for Ca 19-9, values of 0.78 and 0.84 were obtained for each observer, with an interobserver r value of 0.97. Based on this limited study, it may be assumed that the possibility of imaging a given tumor is in part correlated to intensity of antigenic expression at the tumor site; other parameters, like tumor vascularization and blood flow for instance, are, however, to be considered for accessibility of antibodies to corresponding antigens

  9. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  10. Tumor markers for diagnosis, monitoring of recurrence and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jie-Xian; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Ting; Tian, Bao-Guo; Du, Li-Li; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were examined preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively by ELISA. The sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were 26.8%, 36.2%, 42.9%, 2.84%, 25.4%, 34.6%, 34.2% and 30.9%, respectively. The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). Elevation of preoperative CEA, CA19-9 and CA24-2, SCC and CA72-4 was significantly associated with pathological types (pCEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC decreased obviously 3 months after operations. When metastasis and recurrence occurred, the levels of TMs significantly increased. On multivariate analysis, high preoperative CA72-4, CA24-2 and SCC served as prognostic factors for cardiac carcinoma, GC and EC, respectively. combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC proved to be the most economic and practical strategy in diagnosis of EC; CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 proved to be a better evaluation indicator for cardiac cancer and GC. CEA and CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC, examined postoperatively during follow-up, were useful to find early tumor recurrence and metastasis, and evaluate prognosis. AFP, TPA and TPS have no significant value in diagnosis of patients with upper GIT cancer.

  11. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palankezhe Sashidharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report presents a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor operated recently in a 47-year-old female patient and the outcome, as well as literature review of the pathological identification, sites of origin, and factors predicting its behavior, prognosis and treatment.

  12. MSCT manifestations with pathologic correlation of abdominal gastrointestinal tract and mesenteric tumor and tumor-like lesions in children: A single center experience

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    Liu Yue, E-mail: liuyue20036@yahoo.com.c [Department of Radiology, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. 56 Nanlishi Road, West District, Beijing 100045 (China); Peng Yun, E-mail: ppengyun@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. 56 Nanlishi Road, West District, Beijing 100045 (China); Li Jianying; Zeng Jinjin; Sun Guoqiang [Department of Radiology, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. 56 Nanlishi Road, West District, Beijing 100045 (China); Gao Peiyi, E-mail: cjr.gaopeiyi@vip.163.co [Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. 6 Tiantanxili Road, Chongwen District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2010-09-15

    To study the multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) manifestations of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and mesenteric tumor and tumor-like lesions in children and correlation with pathologic findings. 22 patients (17 male, 5 female; age ranged from 3 days to 11 years; with mean of 4.2 years) were screened out by ultrasonography (US) at first, then were performed with abdominal non-enhanced CT (NECT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) scans. All CT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists and a consensus was reached regarding the morphologic features for lesions such as size, solid/cyst, unilocular/multilocular and thin/thick wall characteristics. The 26 lesions were categorized into two groups based on CT characteristics of lesions' nature, group 1 with the prominent cystic lesions, group 2 with prominent solid lesions. Group 1 was further divided into two subgroups: group 1A for the cystic lesions with thin walls, and group 1B for the cystic lesions with thick walls. In group 1A, 7 lesions were unilocular cysts (6 lymphangioma, 1 ileum mesenteric cyst) and 5 were multilocular cysts with internal septation (4 lymphangioma, 1 greater omental cyst). In group 1B, 10 lesions in 7 patients were unilocular without internal septation, which had two kinds of shape-cystic and tubular, their histopathological types were all enteric duplication cyst (10 segments, with two patients with 2 or 3 segments each); In group 2, all lesions had solid mass (2 gastrointestinal stromal tumors and 2 enteric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). The majority of gastrointestinal tumors and tumor-like lesions are cystic and benign. MSCT manifestations of cystic/solid and thin/thick wall may be great helpful for differentiating different types of GIT and mesenteric lesions. MSCT manifestations have close correlations with their topographic sites and histopathologic findings.

  13. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    One hundred and fourteen (114) and one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract respectively. Parasites recovered during the survey include two species from gills identified as. Ergasilus sarsi ((24.60%) a crustacean (copepod), and one protozoan (myxosporean) named.

  14. Mucoadhesion and the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, Felipe J O; McConnell, Emma L; Sousa, Joao J S; Veiga, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W

    2008-01-01

    The concept of mucoadhesion is one that has the potential to improve the highly variable residence times experienced by drugs and dosage forms at various sites in the gastrointestinal tract, and consequently, to reduce variability and improve efficacy. Intimate contact with the mucosa should enhance absorption or improve topical therapy. A variety of approaches have been investigated for mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly for the stomach and small intestine. Despite interesting results in these sites, mucoadhesive approaches have not yet shown success in humans. The potential of the lower gut for these applications has been largely neglected, although the large intestine in particular may benefit, and the colon has several factors that suggest mucoadhesion could be successful there, including lower motility and the possibility of a lower mucus turnover and thicker mucus layer. In vitro studies on colonic mucoadhesion show promise, and rectal administration has shown some positive results in vivo. This review considers the background to mucoadhesion with respect to the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the principles that underlie this concept. Mucoadhesive approaches to gastrointestinal drug delivery will be examined, with particular attention given to the lower gut.

  15. Tumor of the gastrointestinal stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Leon, Jorge Felipe; Silveira Pablos, Juan Mario; Figueroa, Alejandro Joan; Fuente Pelaez, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    The tumors of the gastrointestinal stroma, known in English language as GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors) are mesenchymal tumors appearing in any place throughout the intestinal tract. The objective of present paper is to present the case of a female patient aged 60 came to Gynecology consultation of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology due pain in epigastrium irradiating to right flank with increase of volume in the right iliac fossa and by ultrasonography it is a tumor of right ovary projecting to epigastrium and the right hypochondrium. The surgical intervention is described as well as the findings noted in macro- and microscopic studies, as well ass in latter studies by immunohistochemistry of lesion. We conclude with a diagnosis of tumor of gastrointestinal stroma and the results of performed surgical and drugs interventions. It is recommended to assess the significance of a close relationship among general surgeons and gynecologists in face of unexpected diseases due to its difficult preoperative diagnosis leading to a appropriate surgical treatment due to its complexity it is necessary the competence of both surgical specialties

  16. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  17. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals.

  18. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: a multicenter study of 58 patients including NF1-associated gastric schwannoma and unusual morphologic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaimy, Abbas; Märkl, Bruno; Kitz, Julia; Wünsch, Peter H; Arnholdt, Hans; Füzesi, Laszlo; Hartmann, Arndt; Chetty, Runjan

    2010-04-01

    The frequency and morphological spectrum of gastrointestinal peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) from consecutive case material has not been studied in the c-KIT era. We reviewed all mesenchymal gastrointestinal (GI) lesions at our departments according to current diagnostic criteria. PNSTs formed the third commonest group of mesenchymal GI tumors with a lower frequency (schwannomas (n = 22) were the most common types of PNSTs encountered. Rare tumors included neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)-associated PNSTs (n = 5) and gastric perineurioma (n = 1). Thirteen schwannomas (including also some recent cases) were initially diagnosed as GIST, leiomyoma, or neurofibroma. Unusual histological variants included sigmoid GCT with prominent lipomatous component (n = 1), reticular-microcystic schwannoma of small (n = 1) and large (n = 1) bowel, NF1-associated gastric schwannoma (the first case to date), and psammomatous melanotic colonic schwannoma unrelated to Carney complex (n = 1). PNSTs coexisted with GIST in four patients (three had definite NF1). In conclusion, PNSTs of the GI tract are rare uniformly benign neoplasms that may show schwannian, perineurial, fibroblastic, or mixed differentiation. Most of them (92%) occurred sporadically unassociated with NF1 or NF2. Gastrointestinal PNSTs are still underrecognized by general pathologists. Awareness of their diverse morphology will help to avoid confusing them with smooth muscle neoplasms and GIST that they may closely mimic.

  19. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus with symptoms arising from the whole GI tract. Common complaints include dysphasia, early satiety, reflux, constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of GI symptoms...

  20. Clinical feature of disturbance in the lower gastrointestinal tract development after radiation to tumor in the pelvis and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Sadahito; Sunagawa, Shigenobu; Matsumura, Shigejiro; Masaoka, Takao; Uegaki, Kazuo

    1975-01-01

    The clinical features and the countermeasure were examined on 40 disturbances in the lower gastrointestinal tract developed after radiotherapy of cancer of the uterus, the ovary and the penis. Two to nine months after the irradiation with 10,000 R of Telecobalt and about 5,000 mch of 60 Co, complications such as melena, stenosis and fistula formation were developed. Seventeen of the 40 patients complained of melena and were treated as outpatient. Of the rest 23 patients, 11 were radiation proctitis with a large amount of melena, 9 were recto-sigmoid stenosis, 2 were rectovaginal fistula and 1 was fecal fistula formation. These patients received internal therapy composed of transfusion, hemostatic agent, steroid, solcoseryl suppository, antiulcerative drug and vitamin. However, the prognosis of them, particularly of the patients who were exposed a large amount of radiation, was very poor and the death rate reached 9 to 43%. (Kanao, N.)

  1. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufliarsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the digestive tract. Better understanding of the molecular characteristics of GISTs led to the clinical development of imatinib for treating patients with this disease. New immuno markers and mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance were discovered. Adjuvant imatinib in intermediate or high risk GIST has improved the recurrence-free survival. Sunitinib in patients with intolerance or progression on imatinib demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival versus placebo. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as sorafenib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, have shown activity in patients with imatinib- and sunitinib-resistant GIST. (author)

  2. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  3. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  4. Unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, S; Rai, R R; Agarwal, S; Vijayvergiya, R

    1995-01-01

    We report management of unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract, namely beer bottle cap, raisins and pistachu, mango peel, betelnut and plum seed at a university hospital in Northern India.

  5. Large melanoma metastases to the gastrointestinal tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, J M; Hamlin, J A

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that malignant melanoma can metastasize widely. Although these metastases in the gastrointestinal tract usually appear as small 'bull's-eye' or 'target' lesions, there are a few reports of relatively large melanoma metastases. We report five cases of large melanoma lesions metastatic to the alimentary canal. We also emphasise the consideration of a thorough gastrointestinal tract evaluation in patients with malignant melanoma especially if they are symptomatic.

  6. Diagnosis of liver, biliary tract and gastrointestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio

    1981-01-01

    The role of RI imaging in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, biliary tracts and gastrointestinal tracts are reviewed, and representative cases are shown. Liver scintigraphy was of value for the diagnosis of lesions limitted to the liver such as primary and metastatic liver cancer and inflammatory liver diseases. However, RI methods were less useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the biliary tracts and stomach. RI scintigraphy was more sensitive than angiography in the detection of Meckel's deverticulum, Ballet's esophagus, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Gastrointestinal estromal tumor: Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Gonzalez, Alexis; Hernandez Perez, Arnaldo; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Diana; Hernandez Fernandez, Diana M; Castanneda Munnoz, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Since the first descriptions made by Golden and Stout, this group of mesenchymal lesions is considered of muscular origin and they were named as leiomyoma, cellular leiomyoma, epithelioid leiomyoma, leiomyoblastoma, bizarre leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. But Mazur and Clark created the term estromal tumor only after they began to use the inmunohistochemistry and subsequently showed the absence of muscular markers, and the occasional presence of neural markers. Nowadays, gastrointestinal estromal tumors are called the primary mesenchymal CD117 positive, fusiform or epithelioid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, epiplon, mesenterio, and retroperitoneum. The gastrointestinal estromal tumors appear at the wall of the digestive tube: stomach (50-60 %), small intestine (20-30 %), large intestine (10 %) and esophagus (5 %), and occasionally in epiplon, mesenterio, and retroperineum (5 %). In our work we present a 67 year-old patient, entered in our hospital for presenting high digestive bleeding. We studied the case, and found a 6 cm tumor of the gastric fundus. The tumor was operated and the definitive results of the pathologic anatomy showed a gastrointestinal estromal tumor

  8. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor – An Evolving Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornillo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with RTK inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan) the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other “entities,” have been discovered (e.g., succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, and mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway). The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data. PMID:25593916

  9. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  10. Diverticular Disease of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Aaron

    2017-12-01

    Almost all gastrointestinal tract diverticula require no intervention if they are asymptomatic. There is no clear diagnostic modality of choice for diagnosis and surveillance of diverticulum. Medical treatment should be attempted before surgical intervention because significant morbidity is may be associated with resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harm; Jansen, Peter L M; Moshage, Han

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  12. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Moshage, Han

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  13. Endocannabinoids in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunna; Jo, Jeongbin; Chung, Hae Young; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Im, Eunok

    2016-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system mainly consists of endogenously produced cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) and two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB 1 and CB 2 ). This system also includes enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids and molecules required for the uptake and transport of endocannabinoids. In addition, endocannabinoid-related lipid mediators and other putative endocannabinoid receptors, such as transient receptor potential channels and other GPCRs, have been identified. Accumulating evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid system is a key modulator of gastrointestinal physiology, influencing satiety, emesis, immune function, mucosal integrity, motility, secretion, and visceral sensation. In light of therapeutic benefits of herbal and synthetic cannabinoids, the vast potential of the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has been demonstrated. This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in gut homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of intestinal disorders associated with intestinal motility, inflammation, and cancer. Finally, links between gut microorganisms and the endocannabinoid system are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. [Multiple primary cancer of the gastro-intestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knysh, V I; Cherkes, V L; Anan'ev, V S; Sel'chuk, V Iu; Vladanov, I P

    1986-01-01

    Peculiarities of the clinical course of primary multiple malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are discussed. Out of 25 cases of synchronous gastrointestinal malignancies, both stomach and large bowel tumors were found in 10 patients and simultaneous neoplasms in different segments of the large bowel--in 15. In the latter group, radical surgery was performed in 13 patients. Out of 54 cases of metachronous cancer, 28 revealed combinations of stomach and large bowel tumors, while in 26 cases metachronous tumors appeared in succession in different segments of the large bowel. Synchronous single and multiple polyps of the large bowel were detected in 19 out of 54 patients. Radical surgery was carried out in 33 and palliative surgery--in 6 patients.

  15. Synchronous Acromegaly and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüsniye Başer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the manifestations of sustained hypersecretion of growth hormone and concomitant elevations in circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1. It has been reported that patients with acromegaly are at the increased risk of developing malignant tumors, particularly colorectal cancer. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. An association between gastrointestinal stromal tumors and insulin-like growth factor system has been reported. Here, we report a patient diagnosed with synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A 59-year-old man with iron deficiency anemia presented with enlarged hands, coarse facial feature and several skin tags. Thyroid function tests were within normal range. Growth hormone was 5.14 ng/mL, insulin-like growth factor-1 was 820 ng/mL, and no growth hormone suppression was observed on 75g oral glucose tolerance test. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed microadenoma, and the patient was diagnosed with acromegaly. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy revealed an ulcerovegetan mass in the duodenum and the results of the histopathologcal analysis was consistent with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The association of synchronous and asynchronous gastrointestinal stromal tumors with other malignancies have been reported. The most common accompanying neoplasms are colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas, as well as pancreatic tumors. However, in the literature, the number of reported cases of synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor are limited, and there are no sufficient data on this association. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 52-55

  16. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Small Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Yamamoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The source of most cases of gastrointestinal bleeding is the upper gastrointestinal tract. Since bleeding from the small intestine is very rare and difficult to diagnose, time is required to identify the source. Among small intestine bleeds, vascular abnormalities account for 70–80%, followed by small intestine tumors that account for 5–10%. The reported peak age of the onset of small intestinal tumors is about 50 years. Furthermore, rare small bowel tumors account for only 1–2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. We describe a 29-year-old man who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent laparotomy. Surgical findings revealed a well-circumscribed lesion measuring 45 × 40 mm in the jejunum that initially appeared similar to diverticulosis with an abscess. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with extramural growth.

  17. Considering the role of radiation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Liauw, Stanley; Corbin,Kimberly S.; Kindler,Hedy

    2014-01-01

    Kimberly S Corbin,1 Hedy L Kindler,2 Stanley L Liauw31Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Medical Center, Springfield, IL, USA; 2Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors arising in the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last decade, the management and prognosis of GISTs ...

  18. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  19. [Biliary tract tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, A; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C

    1996-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers are rare neoplasms including gallbladder cancer (the commonest), extrahepatic biliary tract cancer and cancer of the ampulla of Vater. Descriptive epidemiology of biliary tract cancers as a whole has two peculiarities: incidence and mortality rates are higher for women than men, and in some specific populations. Mortality rates are highest among New Mexico American Indian women, in Chile and Japan, lowest in Great Britain and Greece. Mortality trends vary widely: the largest increases have been observed in Japan, Hong-Kong and Spain and the largest decreases in the Anglo-Saxon populations. Our knowledge of biliary tract cancer etiology is limited. Defined risks include genetic factors (family history of biliary tract cancers, ethnicity), history of gallbladder disease, and cholelithiasis. Risk factors reported in some studies, on which, however, information is not consistent and which need further study, include overweight, some menstrual and reproductive factors (multiparity, young age at first birth, late menopause), low education, cigarette smoking, selected bacterial infections, some intestinal diseases and diabetes.

  20. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  1. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock [Hanil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jung Wha [Seoul Nationl Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric

  2. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock; Jang, Jung Wha

    1983-01-01

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, delayed

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-assisted endoscopic resection of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract Resección endoscópica asistida por ecoendoscopia de tumores carcinoides del aparato digestivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Ares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: usually found in the gastrointestinal tract, carcinoids are the most frequent neuroendocrine tumors. Most of these lesions are located in areas that are difficult to access using conventional endoscopy (small intestine and appendix; carcinoid tumors found in the gastroduodenal tract and in the large intestine can be studied endoscopically; in these cases, if localized disease is confirmed, local treatment by endoscopic resection may be the treatment of choice. Since endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be the technique of choice for the study of tumors exhibiting submucosal growth, the selection of patients who are candidates for a safe and effective local resection should be based on this technique. Patients and method: we selected patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors who were endoscopically treated between 1997 and 2002. Those patients with tumors measuring less than 10 mm, which had not penetrated the muscularis propria, and those with localized disease were considered candidates for endoscopic resection. The endpoints of this study were to assess the effectiveness (complete resection and safety (complications of the technique. Follow-up consisted of eschar biopsies performed one month and twelve months after the resection. Results: during the aforementioned period, we resected endoscopically 24 tumors in 21 patients (mean age: 51.7 years; 71.5% males. Most lesions were incidental discoveries made during examinations indicated for other reasons. Resection was indicated in most cases as a result of the suspected presence of a carcinoid tumor after endoscopic ultrasonography. Endoscopic ultrasonography also enabled us to clearly identify the layer where the lesion had originated, as well as the size of the lesion. The carcinoid tumor was removed in 13 cases (54.2% by using the conventional snare polypectomy technique, in 9 cases (37.5% assisted by a submucosal injection of saline solution and/or adrenaline, and

  4. MRI of the fetal gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saguintaah, Magali; Couture, Alain; Veyrac, Corinne; Baud, Catherine; Quere, Marie-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the MRI patterns of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in normal fetuses and some GI tract abnormalities. Materials and methods: A retrospective (1996-1998) and prospective (1999-2000) study of 48 fetal abdominal MRI scans was performed between 23 and 38 weeks of gestation. T1-weighted (T1-W) fast gradient-echo (Flash 2D) and T2-weighted (T2-W) HASTE sequences were obtained on a 1.5-T unit, in frontal and sagittal planes, after maternal premedication. Fresh meconium was also studied. Results: Normal patterns (40 cases): the rectum was seen in all cases and exhibited meconium-like high signal on T1-W images and low signal on T2-W images. It was close to the bladder whatever the fetal gender with its cul-de-sac being at least 10 mm below the bladder neck. The large bowel had a same signal; the distal colon was demonstrated more frequently than the proximal colon. The small bowel was transiently hyperintense on TI-W images early in gestation and then hyperintense on T2-W images. Normal measurements were obtained. GI tract abnormalities (eight cases): cysts close to normal bowel (n=2), atresias (n=5; microcolon, dilated small bowel with abnormal signal, one with a meconium cyst) and a cloacal malformation with midgut malrotation (n=1; abnormal liquid signal in the rectum separated from the bladder wall and colon located on the left side). Conclusions: MRI provided complete visualisation of the fetal GI tract, showed specific signal intensities, identified the level of an obstruction, detected a microcolon, and demonstrated communication between urinary and GI tracts. It shows great potential. (orig.)

  5. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  6. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg.,

  7. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Traverso

    Full Text Available Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage.

  8. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

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    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  9. Actinide absorption from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of our research is presented, describing the importance of the animal species, route of entry, oxidation state, solubility, and organic binding on the absorption of actinides from the gastrointestinal tract. The animal species tested made little difference in absorption, nor was the oxidation state a major factor in plutonium absorption under nonfasting conditions. The organic binding of actinides to either plant or animal tissues resulted in a 2- to 4-fold increase, except for 237 Np, which caused a 10-fold decrease. The age of the animals was the major influence on absorption. In all species studied, neonates absorbed more actinide than did the adults by two or three orders of magnitude. Retention of the actinide in the intestinal mucosa of rats and swine amounted to about half the dose of 238 Pu-nitrate administered; both after gavage and inhalation

  10. The gastrointestinal tract microbiome, probiotics, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, Luis; Bambling, Matthew; Alford, Hollie

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is closely linked to physical health. Depression (e.g., major depression) is highly prevalent worldwide and a major cause of disability. In a subgroup with treatment-resistant depression, standard pharmacotherapy interventions provide small if any incremental improvement in patient outcomes and may also require the application of an alternate approach. Therefore, in addition to the standard pharmacotherapies prescribed, patients will also be advised on the benefits of psychological counseling, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation or increasing physical activity and reducing harmful substance consumption. Numerous nutraceuticals have a beneficial role in treatment-resistant depression and include, herbal medicines of which Hypericum perforatum is the best studied, omega-3 fatty acid preparations, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), various mineral formulations (e.g., magnesium) and folate (singly or in combination with B group vitamins) are prescribed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, a largely neglected area of research activity has been the role of live probiotic cultures that contribute to repairing dysbiosis (a leaky gut barrier abnormality) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this commentary, we build a hypothesis that in addition suggests that GIT metabolites that are elaborated by the microbiome cohort may provide novel and significant avenues for efficacious therapeutic interventions for mood disorders. We posit that the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract is implicit as an important participant for the amelioration of adverse mood conditions via the diverse metabolic activities provided by live beneficial bacteria (probiotics) as an active adjuvant treatment. This activity is in part triggered by a controlled release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence further questions the antioxidant/oxidative stress postulate.

  11. Gastrointestinal tract disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Marilena; Campion, Daniela; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Pellicano, Rinaldo

    2017-12-01

    The number and the proportion of older people in the world have both increased substantially in recent years in most countries, and the growth is projected to accelerate in the coming decades. It is thus important to gain a better understanding of the most frequent diseases in people living to advanced old age. Although the aging process has clinically significant effects on oropharyngeal and upper esophageal motility, colonic function and gastrointestinal (GI) immunity, no specific GI disease of the aged population is known. Nevertheless, the prevalence of GI symptoms and signs have increased, due to aging processes and to the superimposed effects of comorbidities and environmental exposure (medications, alcohol, tobacco). As a consequence, GI morbidity in the elderly represents an increasingly relevant burden for public health systems. This review focuses on the most frequent GI disorders of the elderly, describing their epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical implications. The main benign diseases, symptoms or signs involving the GI tract are discussed, debating the potential role of a multidisciplinary approach when appropriate. Finally, it is highlighted that age-related physiologic changes in most systems, including the GI tract, affect diagnostic test interpretation and response to treatments, and may be difficult to differentiate from disease. This should be considered together with the fact that, with multiple coexisting diseases, there is a less consistent relationship between disease and clinical manifestations in the elderly.

  12. The Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyburz, Andreas; Müller, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is required for optimal digestion of foods, for the development of resistance against pathogens (termed colonization resistance), for the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and for local as well as systemic immune homeostasis. Certain constituents of the GI tract microbiota are widely recognized as critical regulators and modulators of their host's immune response. These include bacterial members of the microbiota as well as parasitic nematodes. Immune regulation by immunomodulatory members of the GI microbiota primarily serves to subvert host antimicrobial immune defenses and promote persistent colonization, but as a side effect may prevent or suppress immunological disorders resulting from inappropriate responses to harmless antigens, such as allergy, colitis or autoimmunity. Many of the best understood GI-resident immunomodulatory species have co-evolved with their mammalian hosts for tens of thousands of years and masterfully manipulate host immune responses. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological evidence for the role of the GI tract microbiota as a whole, and of specific members, in protection against allergic and other immunological disorders. We then focus on the mechanistic basis of microbial immunomodulation, which is presented using several well-understood paradigmatic examples, that is, helminths, Helicobacter pylori, Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. In a final chapter, we highlight past and ongoing attempts at harnessing the immunomodulatory properties of GI microbiota species and their secreted products for intervention studies and describe the promises and limitations of these experimental approaches. The effects of pro- and prebiotics, bacterial lysates, as well as of fecal microbiota transplantation are presented and compared. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhanda Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common site is stomach, followed by small intestine, colon, and esophagus. However, GIST from the anal canal is an extremely rare tumor. Here, we report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in a 40-year-old female with a history of irregular bowel habits mixed with blood and constipation for 4 months. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histopathological and immunohistochemical examination.

  14. Prion Diseases and the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwynivere A Davies

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract plays a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. These are human and animal diseases that include bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They are uniformly fatal neurological diseases, which are characterized by ataxia and vacuolation in the central nervous system. Alhough they are known to be caused by the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to its infectious conformational isoform (PrPsc the process by which this isoform is propagated and transported to the brain remains poorly understood. M cells, dendritic cells and possibly enteroendocrine cells are important in the movement of infectious prions across the GI epithelium. From there, PrPsc propagation requires B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and follicular dendritic cells of Peyer’s patches. The early accumulation of the disease-causing agent in the plexuses of the enteric nervous system supports the contention that the autonomic nervous system is important in disease transmission. This is further supported by the presence of PrPsc in the ganglia of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves that innervate the GI tract. Additionally, the lymphoreticular system has been implicated as the route of transmission from the gut to the brain. Although normal cellular prion protein is found in the enteric nervous system, its role has not been characterized. Further research is required to understand how the cellular components of the gut wall interact to propagate and transmit infectious prions to develop potential therapies that may prevent the progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

  15. Assessing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 2: TILs in Melanoma, Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas, Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Mesothelioma, Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, Genitourinary Carcinomas, and Primary Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Shona; Salgado, Roberto; Gevaert, Thomas; Russell, Prudence A; John, Tom; Thapa, Bibhusal; Christie, Michael; van de Vijver, Koen; Estrada, M V; Gonzalez-Ericsson, Paula I; Sanders, Melinda; Solomon, Benjamin; Solinas, Cinzia; Van den Eynden, Gert G G M; Allory, Yves; Preusser, Matthias; Hainfellner, Johannes; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Vingiani, Andrea; Demaria, Sandra; Symmans, Fraser; Nuciforo, Paolo; Comerma, Laura; Thompson, E A; Lakhani, Sunil; Kim, Seong-Rim; Schnitt, Stuart; Colpaert, Cecile; Sotiriou, Christos; Scherer, Stefan J; Ignatiadis, Michail; Badve, Sunil; Pierce, Robert H; Viale, Giuseppe; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Sugie, Tomohagu; Fineberg, Susan; Paik, Soonmyung; Srinivasan, Ashok; Richardson, Andrea; Wang, Yihong; Chmielik, Ewa; Brock, Jane; Johnson, Douglas B; Balko, Justin; Wienert, Stephan; Bossuyt, Veerle; Michiels, Stefan; Ternes, Nils; Burchardi, Nicole; Luen, Stephen J; Savas, Peter; Klauschen, Frederick; Watson, Peter H; Nelson, Brad H; Criscitiello, Carmen; O'Toole, Sandra; Larsimont, Denis; de Wind, Roland; Curigliano, Giuseppe; André, Fabrice; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; van de Vijver, Mark; Rojo, Federico; Floris, Giuseppe; Bedri, Shahinaz; Sparano, Joseph; Rimm, David; Nielsen, Torsten; Kos, Zuzana; Hewitt, Stephen; Singh, Baljit; Farshid, Gelareh; Loibl, Sibylle; Allison, Kimberly H; Tung, Nadine; Adams, Sylvia; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Horlings, Hugo M; Gandhi, Leena; Moreira, Andre; Hirsch, Fred; Dieci, Maria V; Urbanowicz, Maria; Brcic, Iva; Korski, Konstanty; Gaire, Fabien; Koeppen, Hartmut; Lo, Amy; Giltnane, Jennifer; Rebelatto, Marlon C; Steele, Keith E; Zha, Jiping; Emancipator, Kenneth; Juco, Jonathan W; Denkert, Carsten; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Loi, Sherene; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma. In part 2 of this review, we discuss the available evidence for the prognostic and predictive value of TILs in common solid tumors, including carcinomas of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, gynecologic system, and head and neck, as well as primary brain tumors, mesothelioma and melanoma. The particularities and different emphases in TIL assessment in different tumor types are discussed. The standardized methodology we propose can be adapted to different tumor types and may be used as a standard against which other approaches can be compared. Standardization of TIL assessment will help clinicians, researchers and pathologists to conclusively evaluate the utility of this simple biomarker in the current era of immunotherapy.

  16. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi.

    1984-01-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi

    1984-11-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.).

  18. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Furtwaengler, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST ( 5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  19. Localization in the gastrointestinal tract of immunoreactive prosomatostatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    Antisera against 5 different regions of the entire prosomatostatin molecule were used for immunohistochemical mapping of prosomatostatin-containing structures in the pig gastrointestinal tract, and for radioimmunological and chromatographical analysis of the products of prosomatostatin in extract...

  20. Gastric Schwannoma Mimicking Malignant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Exhibiting Increased Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Jin Oh; Byoung Jo Suh; Jong Kwon Park

    2016-01-01

    A schwannoma is a kind of neurogenic tumor that rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric schwannomas make up 0.2% of all gastric neoplasms. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors and up to 60?70% of GIST occur in the stomach. Schwannoma and GIST are similar in clinical features, so they are difficult to differentiate preoperatively. Differential diagnosis of these two submucosal tumors is important because of the malignant potential of GIST a...

  1. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  2. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The HIV manifestations within the gastrointestinal tract: A pictorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the pictorial review are to review the HIV manifestations within the gastrointestinal tract. We have detailed five conditions, with reference to the patients' CD4 count – gastrointestinal tuberculosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, small bowel lymphoma, cytomegalovirus colitis and anal carcinoma.

  4. Drugs Approved for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Molecular characterization of bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex ecosystem in which host and microbial cells live in close contact with each other. The microbial community in the human GI tract has an important nutritional and protective function and mainly consists of anaerobic bacteria. After birth,

  6. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease. The biome...

  7. Incidence of piscine parasites on the gills and gastrointestinal tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of piscine parasites on the gills and gastrointestinal tract of clarias gariepinus (teugels) at bagauda fish farm, Kkano. ... The aim of this work is to investigate piscine parasites of gills and intestinal tract of Clarias gariepinus. Six hundred and forty five (645) specimens of specie were examined fortnightly for a period ...

  8. Management of hemorrhage in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Kong, Fanmin; Zhou, Jianping; Dong, Ming; Dong, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively common mesenchymal tumors. They originate from the wall of hollow viscera and may be found in any part of the digestive tract. The prognosis of patients with stromal tumors depends on various risk factors, including size, location, presence of mitotic figures, and tumor rupture. Emergency surgery is often required for stromal tumors with hemorrhage. The current literature suggests that stromal tumor hemorrhage indicates poor prognosis. Although the optimal treatment options for hemorrhagic GISTs are based on surgical experience, there remains controversy with regard to optimum postoperative management as well as the classification of malignant potential. This article reviews the biological characteristics, diagnostic features, prognostic factors, treatment, and postoperative management of GISTs with hemorrhage.

  9. Current management and prognostic features for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba Gurpreet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stromal or mesenchymal neoplasms affecting the gastrointestinal (GI tract have undergone a remarkable evolution in how they are perceived, classified, approached, diagnosed and managed over the last 30 years. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST account for approximately 1% to 3% of all malignant GI tumors. The clinical features can vary depending on the anatomic location, size and aggressiveness of the tumor. Metastatic GIST represents a successful example of molecular targeted therapy. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and diagnostic modalities for GIST. We also describe treatment options for early stage, locally advanced and metastatic GIST. Indications for neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy along with duration of therapy are also explained. A brief discussion of latest biomarkers and updates from recent meetings is also provided.

  10. Acute ingestion dosimetry using the ICRP 30 gastrointestinal tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the gastrointestinal (GI) tract model used for dosimetry as outlined in ICRP30, to allow quick calculations of effective dose equivalents for acute radionuclide ingestion. A computer program has been developed to emulate the GI tract model. The program and associated data files are structured so that the GI tract model parameters can be varied, while the file structure and algorithm for the GI tract model should require minimal modification to allow the same theories that apply in this model to be used for other dosimetric models

  11. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein /tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs

  12. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takaaki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9–3.5 cm (mean ± standard deviation, 2.1 ± 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 ± 14.5 mL; range, 10–60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic–fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0–1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 ± 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 ± 3.2 months (range, 0.4–9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA

  13. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takaaki, E-mail: hasegawat@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  14. DIET CORRECTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DYSFUNCTIONS OF INFANTS AFTER CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Yatsyk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes mechanisms of occurrence of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions of infants after cerebral ischemia. It describes the clinical symptomatology of gastrointestinal impairment, particularly associated with vegetovisceral impairment, lactase deficiency, cow's milk protein intolerance. It gives recommendations about diet correction of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions of infants.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions, dietotherapy.

  15. Fluoroscopic studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: techniques and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carpintero de la Vega, M; García Villar, C

    Fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract are becoming increasing less common due to the introduction of other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and to the increased availability of endoscopy. Nevertheless, fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract continue to appear in clinical guidelines and some of their indications are still valid. These studies are dynamic, operator-dependent examinations that require training to obtain the maximum diagnostic performance. This review aims to describe the technique and bring the indications for this imaging modality up to date. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  17. Vascular Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Harki (Jihan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractChronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) results from insufficient blood supply to the stomach, small intestine and colon. In most cases this is caused by stenosis of the supplying arteries with lack of sufficient collateral circulation. Most often the stenosis is due to

  18. Endoscopic stent placement throughout the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we focussed our research on stent placement throughout the GI tract. In search for ideal stents for treatment of malignant oesophageal stenosis and gastric outlet obstruction we evaluated new stent designs in prospective cohort studies. Smaller research projects mainly aimed to

  19. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  20. Induced gastrointestinal tract (GIT) derangement following a long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug administration commenced from 10th day of gestation to the end of parturition. On the 13th day after parturition the maternal rats were then sacrified for tissue processing. The results showed that the control animals had a normal architecture of the gastrointestinal tract. While the paracetamol treated animals showed a ...

  1. Manometry of the gastrointestinal tract: toy or tool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the eyes of scientific researchers, there are various manometric techniques that are useful tools for studying the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinicians, however, regard most of these techniques as toys, either because they do not lead to clinically relevant results, or because they

  2. Concepts and controversies in disorders of upper gastrointestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upper gastrointestinal tract is one part of the digestive system where tremendous innovations and advancements in knowledge have been recorded in the last several decades. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshal in 1983 and the introduction of Rome process for the classification, diagnosis and ...

  3. Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in Paediatric Gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-03-16

    Since the first report of use of endoscopy in children in the 1970s, there has seen an exponential growth in published experience and innovation in the field. In this review article we focus on modern age therapeutic endoscopy practice, explaining use of traditional as well as new and innovative techniques, for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the paediatric upper gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Investigation of insoluble endogenous fractions of gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunova, V. A.; Zvereva, V. V.

    2005-05-01

    For the determination of the elemental composition of insoluble endogenous fractions from gastrointestinal tract by SRXRF (XRF experimental beam line, VEPP-3, INP SU RAS, Novosibirsk), an analytical method was developed for producing epithelial tissue in vivo. The metrological characteristics were determined using a number of international biological standards.

  5. Incidentally detected gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Canbak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are mesenchymal tumors located primarily in the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to present a case report of GIST incidentally detected during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to abdominal pain for one day. The physical examination revealed sensitivity on the right upper quadrant. In the laboratory examinations, white blood cell count 6,490 k/uL, hemoglobin 12 g/dL, hematocrit 35% and other biochemical tests were normal. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hydropic gallbladder, several gallstones with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and pericholecystic fluid collection was present. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was planned due to acute cholecystitis. In exploration, beside the presence of acute cholecystitis, a mass of approximately 5 cm, located 15 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz was detected. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conversion to open laparotomy was done; small intestine resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with CD117, CD34 and S100 positivity was detected on histopathologic examination.It is thought that GISTs are mesenchymal tumors originating from precursors of Kajal cells. GISTs are usually detected in their 60s. The first option for treatment is surgical resection.

  6. Tachykinins and their functions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Matsuyama, H; Shiina, T; Takewaki, T; Furness, J B

    2008-01-01

    In the gastrointestinal tract, tachykinins are peptide neurotransmitters in nerve circuits that regulate intestinal motility, secretion, and vascular functions. Tachykinins also contribute to transmission from spinal afferents that innervate the gastrointestinal tract and have roles in the responses of the intestine to inflammation. Tachykinins coexist with acetylcholine, the primary transmitter of excitatory neurons innervating the muscle, and act as a co-neurotransmitter of excitatory neurons. Excitatory transmission is mediated through NK1 receptors (primarily on interstitial cells of Cajal) and NK2 receptors on the muscle. Tachykinins participate in slow excitatory transmission at neuro-neuronal synapses, through NK1 and NK3 receptors, in both ascending and descending pathways affecting motility. Activation of receptors (NK1 and NK2) on the epithelium causes fluid secretion. Tachykinin receptors on immune cells are activated during inflammation of the gut. Finally, tachykinins are released from the central terminals of gastrointestinal afferent neurons in the spinal cord, particularly in nociceptive pathways.

  7. Disorders of the thyroid status in patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchagina, G.V.; Klimenkov, A.A.; Romanova, L.F.; Alekseev, V.M.; Kuznetsova, L.F.; Aslanov, Ya.A.

    1986-01-01

    With the help of radioimmunoassay a quantitative assessment of T 3 pool was performed in patients with malignant tumors of the esophagus, stomach, pancreatic head, rectum and colon as well as in patients with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and benign stomach tumors. A high T 3 pool deficiency was noted in patients with malignant G gastrointestinal tract IT tumors. It was assumed that such a deficiency was indicative of profound disorder of hormone supply of tissues which could be regarded as an endogenous factor of predisposition to the development of malignant neoplasms

  8. Metastasis of the gastrointestinal tract. FDG-PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Nihashi, Takashi; Matsuura, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We assess the usefulness of F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the evaluation of gastrointestinal metastases. Four cases (five lesions) in which metastases from three lung cancers and one malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the femur were found in the gastrointestinal tract were reviewed (men/women 3:1, age 63-78 years, mean 72 years). The five lesions were duodenal, jejunal metastasis, and two stomach metastases from lung carcinoma, and rectal metastasis from MFH of the femur. FDG-PET was unable to detect small masses, but it was able to detect unforeseen lesions such as gastrointestinal metastases because FDG-PET is a whole-body scan in a single-operation examination. FDG-PET imaging provided valuable information for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal metastasis. (author)

  9. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease. The biome......The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease....... The biomechanical properties are crucial for GI motor function because peristaltic motion that propels the food through the GI tract is a result of interaction of the passive and active tissue forces and the hydrodynamic forces in the food bolus and remodeling of the mechanical properties reflects the changes...... in the tissue structure that determine a specific motor dysfunction. Therefore, biomechanical data on the GI wall are important to understand the pathogenesis to the GI motor-sensory function and dysfunction. Moreover, biomechanical studies of the GI tract pave the way for further mathematical and computational...

  10. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 cases. A.B Olokoba, L.B Olokoba, A.A.G Jimoh. Abstract. Background: Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding refers to blood loss within the intraluminal gastrointestinal tract from any location between the upper oesophagus to the duodenum at the ligament ...

  11. The use of rifaximin in pre-operative period of patients with tumors of the gastrointestinal tract - a retrospective study (2013-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Nina; Sitarz, Robert; Mruk, Andrzej; Bakalarz, Robert; Maciąg, Ewa; Litwiński, Jakub; Wierzbicki, Ryszard

    2018-02-28

    ntroduction: One of the most important goals of preparing a patient for elective gastrointestinal cancer surgery is prevention of postoperative complications. The literature gives many ways to prepare for surgery, but only a few suggests that pre-operative use of rifaximin provides benefits in the form of fewer perioperative complications and reduces the severity of pain during this period. O bjective: The presented project is a retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of rifaximin in the prevention of perioperative complications in patients treated in the Unit of General Surgery with the Orthopedic and Urology in the Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration in Lublin, and a review of international literature in this subject. A retrospective analysis of the results of pre-operative use of rifaximin was performed in 181 patients scheduled for rectal and colorectal cancer between 2013 and 2016 in the General Surgery Unit with the Orthopedic and Urology in the Hospital of the Ministry of Interior and Administration in Lublin. Patients undergoing urgent surgery were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group of 139 patients - patients operated on for rectal and colorectal cancer in 2013 until 2015, in whom rifaximine was not used in the preoperative period. The second group is 42 patients, operated on in 2016, in which the rifaximin was used in the pre-operative period at a dose of 2x2 tablets (400 mg) per day, 12-hour interval, for 7 days before the planned operation. Additionally, a probiotic was administered for 7 days. Drugs were ordained at the Oncological Outpatient Clinic as part of the pre-hospitalization check. R esults: The use of rifaximin in the preoperative period in patients with colorectal cancer had an effect on shortening the time of post-operative hospitalization and reduced post-surgical pain in comparison with the control group. The analysis of the cynumber and intensity of surgical

  12. Considering the role of radiation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin KS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly S Corbin,1 Hedy L Kindler,2 Stanley L Liauw31Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Medical Center, Springfield, IL, USA; 2Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare mesenchymal tumors arising in the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last decade, the management and prognosis of GISTs has changed dramatically with molecular characterization of the c-kit mutation and the adoption of targeted systemic therapy. Currently, the standard of care for resectable tumors is surgery, followed by adjuvant imatinib for tumors at high risk for recurrence. Inoperable or metastatic tumors are treated primarily with imatinib. Despite excellent initial response rates, resistance to targeted therapy has emerged as a common clinical problem, with relatively few therapeutic solutions. While the treatment of GISTs does not commonly include radiotherapy, radiation therapy could be a valuable contributing modality. Several case reports indicate that radiation can control locally progressive, drug-resistant disease. Further study is necessary to define whether radiation could potentially prevent or delay the onset of drug resistance, or improve outcomes when given in combination with imatinib.Keywords: GIST, imatinib, radiotherapy

  13. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Rydberg, Jonas; Akisik, Fatih M. [Indiana University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Rajesh, Arumugam [United Leicester Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Rushing, Daniel A. [Indiana University Medical Center, Department of Oncology, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Henley, John D. [Indiana University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to report the CT and MRI appearances of primary and metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The clinical and imaging findings of 31 patients with histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of GIST were reviewed. The CT and MRI findings were assessed independently for size, location, enhancement characteristics, and pattern of metastatic disease. The tumors were of enteric (n=13), gastric (n=12), duodenal (n=2), and rectal (n=3) origin. In one case the primary site was the mesentery, without involvement of bowel. Primary tumors were typically exophytic (79%), larger than 5 cm (84%), and inhomogeneously enhancing (84%). Central necrosis of all tumors (37%) and aneurysmal dilation of enteric tumors (33%) were less common. Metastases were most commonly to mesentery (26%) or liver (32%). Less common findings were ascites (7%) and omental caking (3%). Liver metastases were hypervascular in 92% of patients and rapidly became cystic following therapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ, USA). Lung metastases, bowel obstruction, vascular invasion, and significant lymphadenopathy were not seen in any patient. GISTs have some specific CT findings which could help differentiate them from other gastrointestinal tumors. Liver metastases became cystic following therapy, mimicking simple cysts. MRI was better than single-phase CT for assessing liver metastases, while CT was more sensitive for mesenteric metastases. (orig.)

  14. A roentgenologic study of diverticular throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Song, Ho Young; Lim, Kyu Yeob

    1983-01-01

    Diverticulum is considered as a common lesion involving any gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum. We reviewed 5,806 cases of upper G-I series and 801 cases of double contrast barium enema during the period from Jan.1978 to Dec. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Jeonbug National University Hospital to analyze diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract. The results were as follows: 1. Roentgen examination of 5,806 esophagus, stomachs, duodenums and small bowels, and 801 colons during the past four years: diverticula of the esophagus, 60 cases (1.0%); diverticula of the stomach, 42 cases (0.7%); diverticula of the duodenum, 358 cases (6.2%); diverticula of the small bowel, 20 cases (0.3%); diverticula of the colon, 26 cases (3.2%). The location of diverticula in order of frequency was duodenum, colon, esophagus, stomach and small bowel. 2. The most common site of diverticula of each gastrointestinal tract was as follows: diverticula of the esophagus, middle portion (84.7%); diverticula of the stomach, the cardia (59.5%); diverticula of the duodenum, the second portion (81.3%); diverticula of the small bowel, the jejunum (96.4%)-especially the larger percentage were observed at the upper jejunum near the ligament of Treitz; diverticula of the colon, the right sided colon (80.8%)-the cecum and ascending colon (57.1%). 3. Diverticula may occur at any age. The majority of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract were observed over 40 years of age. Especially in diverticula of the duodenum and colon, their frequency increase with age. 4. Duodenal diverticula were observed more frequently in woman than in man but in diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, male was more frequently affected. 5. The size of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was variable. The majority of diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel were intermediate in size (10-49 mm). Diverticula of

  15. Dental Floss Traction Assists in Treating Gastrointestinal Mucosal Tumors by Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Lun; Shi, Qiang; Chen, Tao; Zhong, Yun-Shi

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a relatively new but widely used medical technique that has been used to remove gastrointestinal mucosal tumors. This study aimed to identify the usefulness of ESD-assisted dental floss traction for the removal of gastrointestinal tumors. This was a retrospective study performed at a single institution. From April 2014 to August 2014, 20 consecutive patients presenting with gastrointestinal mucosal tumors at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, were enrolled. The tumor characteristics, en bloc resection rates, treatments, and follow-up care practices were evaluated for all patients. Of the lesions presenting in the 20 patients, 10 were located in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the remainder were located in the lower gastrointestinal tract. All the resected tumors were removed completely without interrupting the tumor capsule. No bleeding or perforation occurred, and no recurrences were identified at the time of follow-up. The dental floss traction method benefits the ESD procedure during the treatment of gastrointestinal mucosal tumors.

  16. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence of gastrointestinal tumors: initial clinical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Plamenova, Lilia; Keremedchiev, Momchil; Vladimirov, Borislav; Avramov, Latchezar

    2013-03-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection and evaluation of cancerous changes in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are significant challenge and initiate development of new diagnostic modalities. Therefore many spectral and optical techniques are applied recently into the clinical practice for obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively new data from gastrointestinal neoplasia with different level of clinical applicability and diagnostic success. One of the most promising approaches is fluorescence detection using naturally existing fluorescent molecules or added fluorescent markers. Deltaaminolevulinic acid / protoporphyrin IX is applied for exogenous fluorescent tumor detection in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. Highpower light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as a source and the excitation light is passed through the light-guide of standard video-endoscopic system to obtain 2-D visualization. Both kinds of spectra - autofluorescence signals and protoporphyrin IX signal are recorded and stored using a fiber-optic microspectrometer, as in endoscopy instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence signals. In such way 1-D detection and 2-D visualization of the lesions' fluorescence are received. The results from in vivo detection show significant differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues in 1-D spectroscopic regime, but only moderate discrimination in 2-D imaging.

  17. Reliability of nutritional assessment in patients with gastrointestinal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Fruchtenicht, Ana Valeria Gonçalves; Kabke, Georgia Brum; Volkweis, Bernardo Silveira; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal cancer and malnutrition are less likely to tolerate major surgical procedures, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. In general, they display a higher incidence of complications such as infection, dehiscence and sepsis, which increases the length of stay and risk of death, and reduces quality of life. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of different points of view to assess nutritional risk in patients with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumors and their viability, considering the current understanding and screening approaches in the field. A better combination of anthropometric, laboratory and subjective evaluations is needed in patients with GIT cancer, since malnutrition in these patients is usually much more severe than in those patients with tumors at sites other than the GIT. RESUMO Pacientes com neoplasia gastrointestinal e desnutridos são menos propensos a tolerar procedimentos cirúrgicos de grande porte, radioterapia ou quimioterapia. Em geral, apresentam maior incidência de complicações, como infecção, deiscência e sepse, o que aumenta o tempo de internação e o risco de morte, e reduz a qualidade de vida. O objetivo desta revisão é abordar os prós e contras de diferentes pontos de vista que avaliam risco nutricional em pacientes com tumores do Trato Gastrointestinal (TGI) e sua viabilidade, considerando o atual entendimento e abordagens de triagem neste campo. Melhor combinação de avaliações antropométricas, laboratoriais e subjetivas se faz necessária em pacientes com câncer do TGI, uma vez que a desnutrição nestes pacientes costuma ser muito mais grave do que naqueles indivíduos com tumores em outros sítios que não o TGI.

  18. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells......Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component...

  19. Neuroendokrine Tumore (NET des Gastrointestinaltraktes: Nuklearmedizinische Optionen in Diagnose und Therapie // Neuroendocrine Tumours (NET of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Nuclear Medicine Methods in Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M

    2017-01-01

    Stadieneinteilung und weiteren Therapieentscheidung als essentiell, mit nachgewiesener besserer diagnostischer Performance als radiologische Schnittbildverfahren. Der Nachweis unerwarteter Läsionen verändert das Therapiemanagement in etwa einem Drittel der Fälle. Auch zur Therapie- und Verlaufsbeobachtung ist diese nuklearmedizinische Untersuchungsmethodik gut geeignet, währenddessen das in der Onkologie hauptsächlich verwendete 18F-FDG nur bei schlecht differenzierten neuroendokrinen Tumoren (NET und in gewisser Weise zur Prognoseabschätzung eingeschränkt Anwendung findet.br Neue Erkenntnisse im Rahmen einer prospektiven randomisierten Multicenterstudie ( NETTER-1 Phase-III-Studie bestätigten eindrucksvoll die Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit der Radionuklidpeptidtherapie (PRRT unter Verwendung von 177Lu-DOTATATE (Lutathera®. Es wurden in mehreren europäischen und US-amerikanischen Zentren insgesamt 230 Patienten mit einem Grad 1–2-Midgut-Tumor rekrutiert. Es ist aufgrund der bisherigen Daten evident, dass Patienten mit fortgeschrittenem Midgut-NET, welche mit Lutathera behandelt werden, ein statistisch signifikant längeres PFS aufweisen und es ist weiters sehr naheliegend, dass auch das OS deutlich positiv beeinflusst wird. Obgleich dzt. noch keine vergleichbare Studie für 90Y-DOTA-TOC vorliegt, weisen zahlreiche monozentrische Studien mit z. T. hohen Fallzahlen auf eine vergleichbare Therapieeffizienz und ebenfalls gute Verträglichkeit hin.br Bei Patienten mit bevorzugtem Leberbefall stellt die Selektive Interne Radiotherapie (SIRT, auch Radioembolisation genannt, zur lokalen intrahepatischen Strahlenbehandlung von Leberherden eine mögliche Alternative dar.

  20. Internal medical therapy of gastrointestinal stroma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichardt, P.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently no active treatment for advanced or metastatic gastrointestinal stroma tumors (GIST) was available. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib has revolutionized the treatment of this disease and the median overall survival now reaches 5 years. The standard dose of imatinib is 400 mg per day. Locally advanced GIST should be treated with systemic therapy prior to surgical resection. Imatinib was recently licensed for adjuvant therapy following complete surgical removal of GIST in patients with a significant risk of recurrence. (orig.) [de

  1. [Serrated neoplasia of the gastro-intestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Denis; Terris, Benoît; Fléjou, Jean-François

    2006-04-01

    Serrated neoplasia of the gastro-intestinal tract have peculiar microscopic and molecular features that are still incompletely described. Some serrated polyps seem to be involved in a new carcinogenic pathway in the colon: the serrated neoplasia pathway, with hypermethylation of the cytosine-guanine dinucleotides, located in the promoter of some genes such as h-MLH1, BRAF and MGMT. The natural history of the serrated polyps and their risk for progression to malignancy are still unclear. There is no official guideline for the management of serrated polyps. The aim of this article is to describe the epidemiological, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics of the serrated neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract: hyperplastic polyps, "traditional" serrated adenomas, mixed hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps, sessile serrated adenomas, hyperplastic polyposis and serrated adenocarcinomas.

  2. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  3. Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

  4. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis; Tumor estromal gastrointestinal: diagnostico y pronostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M. [Fundacion Hospital de Alcorcon. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein (tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Persistence of colicinogenic Escherichia coli in the mouse gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giladi Itamar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of a bacterial strain to competitively exclude or displace other strains can be attributed to the production of narrow spectrum antimicrobials, the bacteriocins. In an attempt to evaluate the importance of bacteriocin production for Escherichia coli strain residence in the gastrointestinal tract, a murine model experimental evolution study was undertaken. Results Six colicin-producing, yet otherwise isogenic, E. coli strains were administered and established in the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mice. The strains' persistence, population density, and doubling time were monitored over a period of 112 days. Early in the experiment only minor differences in population density between the various colicin-producing and the non-producing control strains were detected. However, over time, the density of the control strains plummeted, while that of the colicin-producing strains remained significantly higher (F(7,66 = 2.317; P Conclusion The data presented here support prior claims that bacteriocin production may play a significant role in the colonization of E. coli in the gastrointestinal tract. Further, this study suggests that the ability to produce bacteriocins may prove to be a critical factor in determining the success of establishing probiotic E. coli in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.

  6. Development of a revised mathematical model of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this research are as follows. First, to incorporate new biological data into a revised mathematical adult gastrointestinal tract model that includes: ingestion in both liquid and solid forms; consideration of absorption in the stomach, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon or not at all; gender and age of the adult; and whether the adult is a smoker or not. Next, to create a computer program in basic language for calculating residence times in each anatomical section of the GI tract for commonly used radionuclides. Also, to compare and contrast the new model with the ICRP 30 GI tract model in terms of physiological concepts, mathematical concepts, and revised residence times for several commonly used radionuclides. Finally, to determine whether the new model is sufficiently better than the current model to warrant its use as a replacement for the Eve model

  7. The Inside Mystery of Jejunal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dhull, A. K.; Kaushal, V.; Dhankhar, R.; Atri, R.; Singh, H.; Marwah, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are malignant and rare form of soft tissue sarcoma of the digestive tract. The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors is very low Kramer et al. 2005 Jejunal GISTs are extremely rare. Here we present a rare case of jejunal GIST with unusually large size at presentation. The patient presented with severe abdomen pain, exophytic growth, and dimorphic anemia. Surgical resection of the tumor was carried out, and operative findings revealed a 15 × 10 cm...

  8. A Microbiological Map of the Healthy Equine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C Ericsson

    Full Text Available Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota. Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon. Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples (a proxy for feces may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut.

  9. Update on gastrointestinal stromal tumors for radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; O' Neill, Alibhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States); Baheti, Akahay D. [Dept. of Radiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Tirumani, Harika [Dept. of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has evolved significantly in the last two decades due to better understanding of their biologic behavior as well as development of molecular targeted therapies. GISTs with exon 11 mutation respond to imatinib whereas GISTs with exon 9 or succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations do not. Risk stratification models have enabled stratifying GISTs according to risk of recurrence and choosing patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Assessing response to targeted therapies in GIST using conventional response criteria has several potential pitfalls leading to search for alternate response criteria based on changes in tumor attenuation, volume, metabolic and functional parameters. Surveillance of patients with GIST in the adjuvant setting is important for timely detection of recurrences.

  10. Mantle Cell Lymphoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract (Lymphomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A74-year-old male with a history of a tonsillar lymphoma developed diarrhea. Investigations led to detection of extensive intestinal lymphomatous polyposis (mantle cell lymphoma. After an aggressive clinical course with associated nodal and peripheral blood involvement, death followed within three months. Postmortem studies revealed widespread dissemination within the entire gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. Although this type of lymphoma is rare and accounts for only about 1% to 8% of all forms of primary B cell gastrointestinal lymphomas in North America, separation from other subtypes has become more important because of reported responses of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphomas to antibiotics aimed at Helicobacter pylori eradication.

  11. Targeting cancers in the gastrointestinal tract: role of capecitabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Wasif SaifYale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Capecitabine is currently the only novel, orally home-administered fluorouracil prodrug. It offers patients more freedom from hospital visits and less inconvenience and complications associated with infusion devices. The drug has been extensively studied in large clinical trials in many solid tumors, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and many others. Furthermore, the drug compares favorably with fluorouracil in patients with such cancers, with a safe toxicity profile, consisting mainly of gastrointestinal and dermatologic adverse effects. Whereas gastrointestinal events and hand-foot syndrome occur often with capecitabine, the tolerability profile is comparatively favorable. Prompt recognition of severe adverse effects is the key to successful management of capecitabine. Ongoing and future clinical trials will continue to examine, and likely expand, the role of capecitabine as a single agent and/or in combination with other anticancer agents for the treatment of gastrointestinal as well as other solid tumors, both in the advanced palliative and adjuvant settings. The author summarizes the current data on the role of capecitabine in the management of gastrointestinal cancers. Keywords: 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, chemotherapy, adjuvant, advanced, colon cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular cancer, pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, rectal cancer, anal cancer

  12. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginai-Karamat, A.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium (CM) for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the reactions of various available CM in the bronchi and lungs, mediastinum, pleura and peritoneum of rats. The CM evaluated in the experimental study were, pure barium sulphate (without any additives), commercial barium sulphate (Micropaque, with additives), Dionosil, Hytrast, Gastrografin, Amipaque (in pleura Omnipaque) and Hexabrix. (Auth.)

  13. ROLE OF MICROELEMENTS IN INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the role of some microelements in functioning of antioxidant systems of child’s organism. It’s marked, that disorders in children’s nutrition, including deficiency of zinc, selenium and vitamins in ration may lead to some severe diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Balanced dietary intake, including milk foods, fortified by zinc, allows preventing a development of chronic diseases, especially in children in period of social and biological adaptation.Key words: children, microelements, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:121-124

  14. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells...

  15. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Lo Curto, Alberto; Faulks, Richard Martin; Le Marc, Yvan; Bisignano, Carlo; Caggia, Cinzia; Wickham, Martin Sean John

    2010-12-01

    In the present study six probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were investigated for their ability to survive in the human upper gastrointestinal tract through a dynamic gastric model of digestion. MRS broth was used as delivery vehicle and survival was investigated during in vitro gastric and gastric plus duodenal digestion. Results highlighted that all tested strains showed good survival rate during both gastric and duodenal digestion. In particular, three strains exhibited a great survival showing a recovery percentage in the range between 117 and 276%. In agreement with survival data, high lactic acid production was detected for all strains, confirming their metabolic activity during digestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extensive papillomatosis of the bovine upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirimonaki, E; O'Neil, B W; Williams, R; Campo, M S

    2003-01-01

    Extensive papillomatosis was identified in a heifer born and raised in Scotland and a steer born and raised in England. In both cases, the papillomas extended from the mouth and tongue to the reticulum. Although cases of florid papillomatosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract occur relatively frequently in cattle grazing on bracken fern in the Scottish Highlands, no such cases have been reported previously in English cattle. Histopathological examination of the papillomas showed that the lesions were wholly epithelial, with acanthosis, hyperkeratosis and the pathognomonic koilocytes characteristic of papillomavirus infection. Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) was identified by molecular amplification and sequencing of the viral genome.

  17. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative......Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells...

  18. The role of positron emission tomography in the detection of incidental gastrointestinal tract lesions in patients examined for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Kazutoshi; Hata, Yoshinobu; Sakaguchi, Shinji; Takai, Yujiro; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Takagi, Keigo; Homma, Sakae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of lung cancer patients with abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract by fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). Of the 968 consecutive patients with primary lung cancer who underwent PET from October 2005 through September 2009, 26 patients had local abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract. We retrospectively compared the localization of abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, standardized uptake value (SUV)max (1 hour), and the final clinical diagnosis. The site of abnormal accumulation was the esophagus in 1 case, the stomach in 8 and the small intestine to large intestine in 17. In 15 out of 26 (57%) cases with true PET positive results, there was esophageal cancer in 1 case, gastric cancer in 2, gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 1, colon cancer in 8, and 1 each of metastasis to the stomach, small intestine and large intestine from lung cancer. In 11 cases with false PET-positive results, there was a stomach polyp in 1 case, gastritis in 3, colon polyp in 1, diverticulitis in 1 and normal physiologic accumulation in 5. There were no differences in mean SUVmax among malignant lesions, benign lesions, and normal physiologic accumulation. We should perform endoscopy of the digestive tract to detect malignant lesions with high incidence rates when PET shows localalized abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal, tract in patients with lung cancer. (author)

  19. Small bud of probable gastrointestinal stromal tumor within a laparoscopically-resected gastric schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Takafumi; Aoyama, Toru; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Ogata, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Tsuburaya, Akira; Sekiguchi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Sakuma, Yuji; Kameda, Yoichi; Miyagi, Yohei

    2012-06-01

    Submucosal tumors (SMTs) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be potentially difficulty to diagnose pathologically. We report a case of a gastric SMT that was resected by laparoscopic partial gastrectomy. Although the initial histological and immunohistochemical examinations considered the tumor as a schwannoma, mRNA-based KIT genotyping indicated that the tumor included cells with KIT gene expression, and that a small number of cells carried a deletion mutation in exon 11. Additional histopathological investigations revealed small aggregates of enlarged spindle to epithelioid cells, which were positive for KIT, CD34 and DOG1, and negative for S-100, scattered among the S-100-positive schwannoma cells. We consider that the cells carrying the KIT gene mutation are microscopic buds of a gastrointestinal stroma tumor (GIST), and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of probable GIST tissues identified in a schwannoma. Our observations raised the significance of genotyping for diagnosis of GI tract SMTs.

  20. Carcinoids tumors of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.M.R. de; Prais, M.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen cases of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract have been analyzed. They have been selected at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, taking into account patients, age and sex, lesions' location and size, clinical manifestations, presence of metastases as well as a classical carcinoid syndrome establisment. Carcinoid tumors come from the digestive tract 'argenta fim'' cells, the ones which produce endocrines. Such endocrines are responsible for a great number of clinical manifestations. The classical syndrome is directly related to the presence of hepatic metastases. The authors propose to correlate what has been found with descriptions in medical literature emphasizing the radiographic aspects which have been observed. A frequent ''apendicular'' location and the difficulty of giving a precise diagnosis before surgery is also emphasized. (author) [pt

  1. Biology of nitrogen oxides in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2013-04-01

    Throughout the human gastrointestinal tract a variety of reactive nitrogen oxides are continuously formed as a result of a complex interplay between the host, commensal bacteria and dietary factors. These compounds include nitric oxide, nitrite, nitrate, peroxynitrite, S-nitrosothiols, nitrated fatty acids and N-nitrosamines, all of which are bioactive with the potential to affect physiological and pathological processes locally in the gut as well as systemically after absorption. Historically, the literature has been dominated by studies on the formation of potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines, but the focus was shifted in the 1980s with the seminal discovery of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and its profound impact on normal physiological functions. More recently, a nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been discovered, with implications for local host defence and gut mucosal integrity and, intriguingly, also for systemic regulation of cardiovascular and metabolic function. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the formation, biochemistry, physiology and pathophysiology of reactive nitrogen oxides in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, opportunities for nitric oxide-based pharmacological or dietary interventions are highlighted.

  2. The gastrointestinal tract and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallet, Richard H; Quinn, Thomas E

    2005-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is believed to play an important role in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), because during critical illness the stomach often is colonized with enteric Gram-negative bacteria. These are the same bacteria that frequently are isolated from the sputum of patients with VAP. Interventions such as selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), use of sucralfate for stress ulcer prophylaxis, and enteral feeding strategies that preserve gastric pH, or lessen the likelihood of pulmonary aspiration, are used to decrease the incidence of VAP. A review of both meta-analyses and large randomized controlled trials providing Level I evidence on these topics has led to the following conclusions. First, SDD substantially decreases the incidence of VAP and may have a modest positive effect on mortality. However, there is strong contravening evidence that SDD promotes infections by Gram-positive bacteria. In the context of an emerging public health crisis from the steady rise in drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, we cannot endorse the general use of SDD to prevent VAP. Rather, therapy should be focused on strategies other than antibiotic prophylaxis. Second, in patients who are at risk for clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding, a histamine-2 receptor antagonist should be used for stress ulcer prophylaxis, rather than sucralfate, because histamine-2 receptor antagonist provides substantially better protection without substantially increasing the risk of VAP. Third, post-pyloric enteral feeding may reduce the incidence of VAP.

  3. A Rare Case of Mesenteric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare tumours arising from mesenchyme of gastrointestinal tract and overexpress C-kit protein. Mainly seen in stomach and small bowel. Mesenteric GIST are rarely reported as they constitute less than 1% of total GIST. We here report such a rare case of GIST arising from ...

  4. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  5. Primary omental Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirahara Nobutsune

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report herein a rare case of primary omental gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. Case presentation A 65 year-old man was referred to our hospital with a huge abdominal mass occupying the entire left upper abdomen as shown by sonography. On computed tomography (CT, this appeared as a heterogeneous low-density mass with faint enhancement. Abdominal angiography revealed that the right gastroepiploic artery supplied the tumor. With such an indication of gastric GIST, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma or mesothelioma laparotomy was performed and revealed that this large mass measured 20 × 17 × 6 cm, arising from the greater omentum. It was completely resected. Histopathologically, it was composed of proliferating spindle and epithelioid cells with an interlacing bundle pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for myeloid stem cell antigen (CD34, weakly positive for c-KIT (CD117 and slightly positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE, but negative for cytokeratin (CK, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA and S-100 protein. A mutation was identified in the platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA juxtamembrane domain (exon 12, codon561 and the tumor was diagnosed as an omental GIST. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient is treated by Glevec® and is alive well with no sign of relapse. Conclusion Our case demonstrated a weak immunohistochemical expression of c-kit (CD117 and a point mutation in PDGFRA exon 12 resulting in an Asp for Val561 substitution. Imatinib therapy as an adjuvant to complete resection has been carried out safely. Because of the rarity of primary omental GISTs, it is inevitable to analyze accumulating data from case reports for a better and more detailed understanding of primary omental GISTs.

  6. Gastrointestinal tract spindle cell lesions--just like real estate, it's all about location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal lesions is simplified merely by knowing in which anatomic layer they are usually found. For example, Kaposi sarcoma is detected on mucosal biopsies, whereas inflammatory fibroid polyp is nearly always in the submucosa. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are generally centered in the muscularis propria. Schwannomas are essentially always in the muscularis propria. Mesenteric lesions are usually found in the small bowel mesentery. Knowledge of the favored layer is even most important in interpreting colon biopsies, as many mesenschymal polyps are encountered in the colon. Although GISTs are among the most common mesenchymal lesions, we will concentrate our discussion on other mesenchymal lesions, some of which are in the differential diagnosis of GIST, and point out some diagnostic pitfalls, particularly in immunolabeling.

  7. Small cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract: clinicopathological features and treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Baruch; Tang, Laura H; Shia, Jinruh; Klimstra, David S; Kelsen, David P

    2007-02-01

    Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma (SmCC) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy. To date, fewer than 1,000 cases have been reported, with an estimated prevalence of 0.1% to 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tumors. Data on the disease are scarce due to its rarity and the fact that most authors have focused on one site within the GIT. In light of the limited data and its perceived similarity to SmCC of the lung, the disease has usually been treated as the latter. Nevertheless, recent clinicopathologic and molecular data imply several differences between the two entities, questioning the extent to which extrapolations from one to the other can be made. We review the available data on GI SmCC with emphasis on outlining its clinicopathologic features and the recommended treatment approach.

  8. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONTENT IN CANCEROUS AND HEALTHY TISSUES OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

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    Marta Głogowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies concerning concentration of biogenic metals in tissues of digestive system are sparse and diversified. The objectives of this study were to determine the mean concentration of biogenic metals: Mg and Ca, in cancerous and normal tissues of digestive system. Research was conducted on samples taken from different segments of human digestive tract. Tissues were taken during biopsy, surgery, and post-mortem from Military Hospital and PROSMED Health Center Patients’ located in Cracow. Samples were mineralized by wet digestion. First, they were dried and after dry mass were obtained the samples were put into digestion flasks and 1cm3 of nitric acid 65% was added to each of them. The samples were heated for about 2 hours, at 105°C. Mineralized material was moved to tubes with a capacity of 10 cm3 and filled with distilled water up to this volume. The resulting solutions were used to analyze the content of selected elements by FAAS method. The results are expressed in micrograms per gram of dry weight of tissue (µg•g-1d.m.. Average calcium content is higher in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract of both healthy women (15890,28 µg•g-1d.m. and men (13040,24 µg•g-1d.m. in comparison with tumor tissues of the gastrointestinal tract of women (5365,19 µg•g-1 d.m. and men (2459,42 µg•g-1d.m.. Average magnesium content is higher in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract of both healthy women (2887,19 µg•g-1 d.m. and men (1112,69 µg•g-1 d.m., in comparison with gastrointestinal cancerous tissues of women (1146,77 µg•g-1 d.m. and men (621,42 µg•g-1 d.m.. It was shown that differences between calcium and magnesium contents in the digestive tract tissues depend on the state of health - significantly higher contents of Ca and Mg were present in the tissues of healthy men and women in comparison to the tissues of men and women with digestive tract cancer. Magnesium and calcium have protective properties (they prevent the

  9. Nuclear morphometric analysis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Sükrü Oğuz; Bektaş, Sibel; Erdem Ozdamar, Sevim; Gedikoğlu, Gökhan; Doğan Gün, Banu; Bahadir, Burak

    2007-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are considered a specialized group of mesenchymal neoplasms. In this study, the histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors are compared with nuclear morphometric results. Morphometric nuclear parameters such as mean area, mean roundness factor, mean form ellipse, mean length and mean perimeter were evaluated in hematoxylin and eosin stained slides of 22 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (9 benign and 13 malignant) by using a computer-assisted image analysis system. Morphometric results were compared with tumor behavior and tumor size, the presence of necrosis, mitotic index, and immunohistochemical expressions of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. We found that tumor necrosis was correlated with mean nuclear roundness factor, mean nuclear form ellipse, mean nuclear length and mean nuclear perimeter (pmorphometric features and gastrointestinal stromal tumor behavior, tumor size, or index of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p53 expressions (p>0.05). In this preliminary study, the relative concordance of the morphometric results and general histomorphologic data exhibited the importance of nuclear morphometric analysis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Studies including larger series of cases investigating detailed nuclear morphometric analysis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors are needed.

  10. Infections and infestations of the gastrointestinal tract. Part 1: Bacterial, viral and fungal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R., E-mail: rakslide@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick (United Kingdom); Rajesh, A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Rawat, S. [Department of Radiology, Ruby Hall Clinic, Pune (India); Rajiah, P. [Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Ramachandran, I. [Department of Clinical Radiology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the imaging findings of various infections affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Barium examinations, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography all play an important role in the diagnostic workup of gastrointestinal tract infections. Knowledge of differential diagnosis, sites of involvement, and typical imaging features of different infections can help in accurate diagnosis and guide treatment.

  11. Imaging and intervention in the gastrointestinal tract in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Robin D; Towbin, R B

    2002-09-01

    Vascular and interventional techniques have become an integral component of modern pediatric healthcare. Minimally invasive procedures of the gastrointestinal tract now comprise a large part of any active pediatric interventional practice. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography offers a reliable, non-invasive means to evaluate patients with possible pancreatic or biliary pathology. This article reviews treatment of esophageal strictures and placement of gastronomy and gastrojejunostomy tubes and discusses new developments. Placement of percutaneous cecostomy tubes is a relatively new procedure that creatively uses the techniques developed for placement of percutaneous gastronomy tubes. This procedure offers significant benefits and lasting positive lifestyle changes for patients suffering from fecal incontinence. Liver biopsy in high-risk patients can be performed safely using measures designed to significantly decrease the risk of post-biopsy hemorrhage, such as track embolization or the transjugular approach.

  12. Foreign Material in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Cocaine Packets

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    Nurten Turkel Kucukmetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smuggling drugs by swallowing or inserting into a body cavity is not only a serious and growing international crime, but can also lead to lethal medical complications. The most common cause of death in ‘body packers', people transporting drugs by ingesting a packet into the gastrointestinal tract, is acute drug toxicity from a ruptured packet. However, more than 30 years after the initial report of body packing, there is still no definitive treatment protocol for the management of this patient group. The treatment strategy is determined according to the particular condition of the patient and the clinical experience of the treatment center. Surgical intervention is also less common now, due to both the use of improved packaging materials among smugglers and a shift towards a more conservative medical approach. Herein, we report a case of toxicity from ingested packets of cocaine that leaked and, despite surgery, resulted in exitus of the patient.

  13. Gastrointestinal tract microbiota and probiotics in production animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; White, Bryan A

    2014-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiomes of production animals are now firmly established as a key feature underscoring animal health, development, and productivity. In particular, early gut colonization is critically important to the morphological and immunological development of the GIT, development of a functional fermentative environment, and neonatal resistance to pathogenic challenge. Although perturbations of an animal's GIT microbiome at any age can have profound consequences, perturbations during early GIT development can be particularly severe and result in significant and long-lasting sequelae. As the GIT microbiome matures, it exhibits significant diversity, ostensibly an important indicator of ecosystem health. Recognition of the immense importance of the GIT microbiota to the host has led to the development of probiotic and prebiotic feedstuffs with the express aim of ensuring animal health. We herein review the current collective understanding of the GIT microbiota of production animals.

  14. Review of the gastrointestinal tract: from macro to micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kathleen K; Wickham, Rita

    2009-02-01

    To review the normal anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the malignant transformations in GI cancers, and the rationale for targeted therapy for these cancers. Published articles, book chapters and web sources. Oncology nurses require an understanding of normal GI anatomy and physiology, along with an understanding of malignant transformations at the cellular and molecular level, to effectively educate and care for the patient with a diagnosis of a GI cancer. Challenges for the oncology nurse include continuing education related to GI cancer, the development of effective patient education skills, ensuring safe administration of oral agents and remaining current regarding GI clinical trial opportunities. Education of nursing colleagues, development of an area of expertise through specialization, and development of leadership skills are opportunities associated with practicing in the dynamic environment of oncology nursing.

  15. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

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    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  16. Effect of DSS on Bacterial Growth in Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinková, J; Svobodová, H; Brachtlová, T; Gardlík, R

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an idiopathic autoimmune disorder that is mainly divided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Probiotics are known for their beneficial effect and used as a treatment option in different gastrointestinal problems. The aim of our study was to find suitable bacterial vectors for gene therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were investigated as potential vectors. Our results show that the growth of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 was inhibited in the majority of samples collected from dextran sodium sulphate-treated animals compared with control growth in phosphate-buffered saline. The growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in all investigated samples was enhanced or unaffected in comparison with phosphate-buffered saline; however, it did not reach the growth rates of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Dextran sodium sulphate treatment had a stimulating effect on the growth of both strains in homogenates of distant small intestine and proximal colon samples. The gastrointestinal tract contents and tissue homogenates did not inhibit growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in comparison with the negative control, and provided more suitable environment for growth compared to Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. We therefore conclude that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 is a more suitable candidate for a potential bacterial vector, even though it has no known probiotic properties.

  17. Impact of Oat-Based Products on Human Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Staka Aiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat is rich in valuable nutrients. In comparison to other cereals, oat contains more total proteins, carbohydrate, fat, non-starch fibre, as well as unique antioxidants (one of them - avenanthramides, vitamins, and minerals. One of the most often studied components of oats is β-glucan - a type of soluble dietary fibre located throughout the starch endosperm, but with highest concentration in the bran. Many studies have shown the beneficial health effects of oat β-glucan as a soluble dietary fibre. Until now, most of the studies on this nutrient have been conducted in the cardiovascular and diabetology field. This article aimed to review the literature on studies that investigated the effects of oat-based products on human gastrointestinal tract - gastrointestinal microflora, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease as well as prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed database. More than 80 potential articles were identified, which were selected afterwards according to aims of our study. Studies done on human were preferred. A long-term dietary intake of oat-based products improves human intestinal microflora, could have benefits in irritable bowel syndrome, and probable effects were seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, but this remains to be proven. There are few studies regarding prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer and they do not show clear benefit nor provide recommendations.

  18. Synchronous Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor and Colon Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

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    Thivi Vasilakaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs represent the majority of primary mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They are generally considered to be solitary tumors and therefore the synchronous occurrence with other primary malignancies of gastrointestinal track is considered a rare event. Here we present the case of a 75-year-old man admitted to our hospital with a 10-day history of gastrointestinal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerative mass of 4 cm in diameter in the ascending colon. Gastroscopy revealed a bulge in the gastric body measuring 1 cm in diameter with normal overlying mucosa. Surgical intervention was suggested and ileohemicolectomy with regional lymph node resection along with gastric wedge resection was performed. Pathologic examination of the ascending colon mass showed an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma stage III B (T3N1M0. Grossly resected wedge of stomach showed a well circumscribed intramural tumor which microscopically was consistent with essentially benign gastrointestinal stromal tumor (according to Miettinen criteria. The patient did not receive additional treatment. Two years later the patient showed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  19. Effects of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts on the risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, B; Filipovic, S; Nikolic, M; Petrovic, B

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are the largest group of water-soluble pigments in the plant kingdom. Anthocyanins are responsible for most of the red, blue, and purple colors of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and other plant tissues or products. In recent years, numerous studies have shown that anthocyanins display a wide range of biological activities. This review summarises recent literature evidence on the association of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts consumption with the risk for gastrointestinal tract cancer, concentrating on the results from in vivo animal model tumor systems, as well as data from human epidemiological studies. Potential cancer chemopreventive activities of anthocyanins were revealed from in vitro studies. In vivo animal model tumor systems showed that dietary anthocyanins inhibit cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Some epidemiological studies have revealed protective effects of anthocyanins consumption on gastrointestinal cancer risk in humans. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that absorption of anthocyanins into the bloodstream of rodents and humans is minimal, suggesting that they may have little efficacy in tissues other than the gastrointestinal tract and skin. Future studies should be undertaken to determine if the anticancer effects of anthocyanins are due to the parent compounds and/or to their metabolites.

  20. Hybrid schwannoma-perineurioma of the gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic study of 2 cases and reappraisal of perineurial cells in gastrointestinal schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaimy, Abbas; Michal, Michal

    2011-10-01

    Soft tissue neoplasms with features of both schwannoma and perineurioma (hybrid schwannoma-perineurioma) have been increasingly recognized in recent years. To date, only a single case of this entity has been documented in the gastrointestinal tract (sigmoid colon). We herein describe 2 new cases of this entity. For comparison, we reevaluated 12 classic gastrointestinal schwannomas for the perineurial cell component. The 2 hybrid schwannoma-perineuriomas were detected incidentally in the gastric antrum and the vermiform appendix in a 50-year-old woman and a 17-year-old man during surgery for gastric GIST and appendicitis-like symptoms, respectively. None of the patients had neurofibromatosis 1 or 2. Patients were alive with no evidence of recurrence or new tumors at 8 and 12 months, respectively. The tumors measured 1.2 cm and 1.5 cm in size. Histologically, they showed prominent storiform, lamellar, and fascicular patterns. Notably, both lacked peripheral lymphoid cuffs and the trabecular pattern of gastrointestinal schwannomas. Both tumors coexpressed protein S100 (≥80%), CD34 (80%), and the perineurial cell markers (20% to 40% of tumor cells). The perineurial cell component formed alternating fascicles with S100-positive cells throughout the neoplasm. Reevaluation of 12 classic gastrointestinal schwannomas showed isolated claudin-1/epithelial membrane antigen-positive cells. However, 4 schwannomas (33%) strongly expressed glucose transporter-1 in most of the tumor cells indicating its limited specificity in this setting. Compared with gastrointestinal schwannomas, CD34 expression was stronger and more diffuse in hybrid schwannoma-perineuriomas. We conclude that hybrid schwannoma-perineuriomas are distinct from gastrointestinal schwannoma, both histologically and immunohistochemically.

  1. Imatinib and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST: a selective targeted therapy Imatinib y tumor del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST: un tratamiento selectivo frente a una diana molecular

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    A. Fernández

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. They originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal and are characterized by an anomalous receptor for a growth factor with tyrosine-kinase activity (c-kit. This anomaly causes a permanent activation of the receptor and uncontrolled cell growth. These tumors show a poor response to traditional chemotherapy drugs, and are thus associated with low survival in cases of advanced disease. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an example of selective targeted oncologic therapy that induces improved survival in these patients. We discuss two cases of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors with a good response to imatinib, and also review the pathophysiology and treatment-related outcome of this type of tumors. We include results from clinical phase-III studies.Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal son los tumores mesenquimales más frecuentes del tracto digestivo y se originan de las células intersticiales de Cajal. Se caracterizan por presentar un receptor para el factor de crecimiento con actividad tirosin kinasa (c-kit anómalo que condiciona su activación permanente y un crecimiento celular incontrolado. Tienen una baja supervivencia en casos de enfermedad avanzada, con escasa respuesta a los agentes quimioterápicos tradicionales. El imatinib es un fármaco inhibidor de la tirosín kinasa y un ejemplo de terapia oncológica selectiva que condiciona un importante aumento en la supervivencia de estos pacientes. Se presentan 2 casos de enfermedad metastásica con buena respuesta a imatinib, así como una revisión sobre la fisiopatología y evolución en el tratamiento de este tipo de tumores, incluyendo resultados de estudios en fase III.

  2. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  3. Gastric Schwannoma Mimicking Malignant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Exhibiting Increased Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sung Jin; Suh, Byoung Jo; Park, Jong Kwon

    2016-01-01

    A schwannoma is a kind of neurogenic tumor that rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric schwannomas make up 0.2% of all gastric neoplasms. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors and up to 60-70% of GIST occur in the stomach. Schwannoma and GIST are similar in clinical features, so they are difficult to differentiate preoperatively. Differential diagnosis of these two submucosal tumors is important because of the malignant potential of GIST and the relatively benign course of gastric schwannomas. We report a 49-year-old woman who was diagnosed after operation with a gastric schwannoma, which was suspected a malignant GIST by fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography imaging.

  4. Gastric Schwannoma Mimicking Malignant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Exhibiting Increased Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake

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    Sung Jin Oh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A schwannoma is a kind of neurogenic tumor that rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric schwannomas make up 0.2% of all gastric neoplasms. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are the most common mesenchymal tumors and up to 60-70% of GIST occur in the stomach. Schwannoma and GIST are similar in clinical features, so they are difficult to differentiate preoperatively. Differential diagnosis of these two submucosal tumors is important because of the malignant potential of GIST and the relatively benign course of gastric schwannomas. We report a 49-year-old woman who was diagnosed after operation with a gastric schwannoma, which was suspected a malignant GIST by fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography imaging.

  5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of large size, extragastrointestinal localization and different morphological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpon’ka I.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of accurate verification of the gastro¬intestinal stromal tumor are relevant today for many reasons. Thus, the histological diagnosis is complicated by the morphological similarity of other gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal neoplasms and by histologicaly different zones within the same investigation. We present the situation with the above issues: the differential diagnosis includes an analysis of morphological criteria and received immunohisto-chemical reactions. Between immunophenotypes of histologicaly different zones principal difference is not revealed.

  6. A pragmatic approach to vasculitis in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Runjan; Serra, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    Although vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an uncommon occurrence, occasionally vasculitis can present as haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia for which a length of bowel is removed. Invariably, the appropriate clinical history is not forthcoming, or vasculitis is not clinically suspected. The purpose of this overview is to provide the practising gastrointestinal (GI) pathologist with a framework to recognise and diagnose vasculitides within the GIT. The classification may be approached by aetiological agent or size of vessel involved; an international consensus group now favours the latter approach. The symptoms that systemic and/or localised vasculitis may cause in the GIT are protean and non-specific. As a result, pathologists examining resection specimens for unexplained haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia should be aware that vasculitis may be a potential cause. Several well-known systemic vasculitides such as polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Churg-Strauss syndrome and granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Wegener's granulomatosis can occur in the GIT. The latter three constitute the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitides. In addition, the so-called solitary organ vasculitis (SOV) can occur in the GIT as the harbinger of later onset systemic vasculitis, and be the cause of the GIT symptoms. In addition, SOV can occur incidentally and coexist with GIT disease such as gallstones or polyps, and there may be no manifestations of systemic vasculitis for years, or not at all. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor masquerading as a lung neoplasm. A case presentation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannopoulos K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Their incidence in the esophagus is 1%–3%. Never has a GIST been documented to directly invade the lung. We report a primary esophageal GIST with direct invasion into the lung parenchyma, presenting predominantly with respiratory symptoms. We include a retrospective literature review. Although the principle 'common things are common' usually guides our everyday clinical practice, this case emphasizes that rare entities can mimic common pathologies and underlines the importance of having a clearly defined differential diagnostic list which should be meticulously scrutinized.

  8. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleed from a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Jejunal Diverticulum: A Rare Case Report

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    A. Sadaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of small bowel diverticulum with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. This GIST in the diverticulum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and was of low-grade malignant potential.

  9. Review of Pure Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) using flexible endoscopy has attracted attention as a minimally invasive surgical method that does not cause an operative wound on the body surface. However, minimizing the number of devices involved in endoscopic, compared to laparoscopic, surgeries has remained a challenge, causing endoscopic surgeries to gradually be phased out of use. If a flexible endoscopic full-thickness suturing device and a counter-traction device were developed to expand the surgical field for gastrointestinal-tract collapse, then endoscopic full-thickness resection using NOTES, which is seen as an extension of endoscopic submucosal dissection for full-thickness excision of tumors involving the gastrointestinal-tract wall, might become an extremely minimally invasive surgical method that could be used to resect only full-thickness lesions approached by the shortest distance via the mouth. It is expected that gastroenterological endoscopists will use this surgery if device development is advanced. This extremely minimally invasive surgery would have an immeasurable impact with regard to mitigating the burden on patients and reducing healthcare costs. Development of a new surgical method using a multipurpose flexible endoscope is therefore considered a socially urgent issue. PMID:26343069

  10. High-energy particle-induced tumorigenesis throughout the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Daniela; Nelson, Scott A; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Swedlow, Jan J; Williams, Elizabeth M; Strawn, Steven J; Appleton, Paul L; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Näthke, Inke; Fornace, Albert J

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological data reveals the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as one of the main sites for low-LET radiation-induced cancers. Importantly, the use of particle therapy is increasing, but cancer risk by high-LET particles is still poorly understood. This gap in our knowledge also remains a major limiting factor in planning long-term space missions. Therefore, assessing risks and identifying predisposing factors for carcinogenesis induced by particle radiation is crucial for both astronauts and cancer survivors. We have previously shown that exposure to relatively high doses of high-energy (56)Fe ions induced higher intestinal tumor frequency and grade in the small intestine of Apc(Min/+) mice than γ rays. However, due to the high number of spontaneous lesions (∼30) that develop in Apc(Min/+) animals, this Apc mutant model is not suitable to investigate effects of cumulative doses astronauts and particle radiotherapy patients. However, Apc(1638N/+) mice develop a relatively small number of spontaneous lesions (∼3 per animal) in both small intestine and colon, and thus we propose a better model for studies on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated model particle radiation increases tumor frequency and grade in the entire gastrointestinal tract (stomach and more distal intestine) after high- and low-radiation doses whether in the Apc(1638N/+). We have previously reported that an increase in small intestinal tumor multiplicity after exposure to γ rays was dependent on gender in Apc(1638N/+) mice, and here we investigated responses to particle radiation in the same model. Phenotypical and histopathological observations were accompanied by late changes in number and position of mitotic cells in intestinal crypts from animals exposed to different radiation types.

  11. The use of metrizamide (amipaque) to visualise the gastrointestinal tract in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Smith, W.L.; Smith, J.A.; Gresham, E.L.; Schreiner, R.; Lemons, J.

    1980-01-01

    Metrizamide (amipaque) has not been used previously as a diagnostic contrast agent in the gastrointestinal tract. Metrizamide is a water-soluble isotonic contrast material having many advantages over barium and existing hypertonic water-soluble agents. There are many clinical situations in children in which metrizamide should be the contrast agent of choice for investigating the gastrointestinal tract. Four neonates are presented in whom barium or gastrografin were absolutely contraindicated. In each case metrizamide gave excellent visualisation of the gastrointestinal tract. It could be followed through the bowel giving excellent visualisation even up to 120h after ingestion. No harmful effects were noted in the four cases studied. (author)

  12. Indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of the gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anamarija M.; Warnke, Roger A.; Hu, Qinglong; Gaulard, Philippe; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Alkan, Serhan; Wang, Huan-You; Cheng, Jason X.; Bacon, Chris M.; Delabie, Jan; Ranheim, Erik; Kucuk, Can; Hu, XiaoZhou; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2013-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal (GI) T-cell lymphoma is an infrequent and aggressive disease. However, rare indolent clonal T-cell proliferations in the GI tract have been described. We report 10 cases of GI involvement by an indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disease, including 6 men and 4 women with a median age of 48 years (range, 15-77 years). Presenting symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, food intolerance, and dyspepsia. The lesions involved oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon. The infiltrates were dense, but nondestructive, and composed of small, mature-appearing lymphoid cells. Eight cases were CD4−/CD8+, 1 was CD4+/CD8−, and another was CD4−/CD8−. T-cell receptor-γ chain gene rearrangement identified a clonal population in all 10 cases. There was no evidence of STAT3 SH2 domain mutation or activation. Six patients received chemotherapy because of an initial diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, with little or no response, whereas the other 4 were followed without therapy. After a median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-175 months), 9 patients were alive with persistent disease and 1 was free of disease. We propose the name “indolent T-LPD of the GI tract” for these lesions that can easily be mistaken for intestinal peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and lead to aggressive therapy. PMID:24009234

  13. Our experience with unusual gastrointestinal tract duplications in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classical duplications may present along any part of gastrointestinal tract (GIT from mouth to anus. Atypical or unusual rare varieties of GIT duplications may also occur, but with different anatomical features. Materials and Methods: We reviewed our 5-year record (February 2008-January 2013 to describe clinical profile of unusual GIT duplications in neonates and small infants. Results: Three patients with atypical variety of GIT duplications were managed in our department during this tenure. Two were females and one male. Age was ranged between 11 days and 2 months. All patients presented with massive abdominal distension causing respiratory embarrassment in two of them. In all patients, the pre-operative differential diagnoses also included GIT duplication cysts. Computerized tomography (CT scan showed single huge cyst in one and multiple cysts in two patients. In one patient the CT scan also depicted a thoracic cyst in relation to posterior mediastinum. At operation, one patient had colonic tubular duplication cyst along with another isolated duplication cyst, the second case had a tubular duplication cyst of ileum with its segmental dilatation, and in the third case two isolated duplications were found. Duplication cysts were excised along with mucosal stripping in one patient, cyst excision and intestinal resection and anastomosis in one patient, and only cysts excision in one. All patients did well post-operatively. Conclusion: We presented unusual GIT duplications. These duplications are managed on similar lines as classical duplications with good prognosis when dealt early.

  14. Novel functional roles for enteric glia in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Sharkey, Keith A

    2012-11-01

    Enteric glia are a unique class of peripheral glial cells within the gastrointestinal tract. Major populations of enteric glia are found in enteric ganglia in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the enteric nervous system (ENS); these cells are also found outside of the ENS, within the circular muscle and in the lamina propria of the mucosa. These different populations of cells probably represent unique classes of glial cells with differing functions. In the past few years, enteric glia have been found to be involved in almost every gut function including motility, mucosal secretion and host defence. Subepithelial glia seem to have a trophic and supporting relationship with intestinal epithelial cells, but the necessity of these roles in the maintenance of normal epithelial functions remains to be shown. Likewise, glia within enteric ganglia are activated by synaptic stimulation, suggesting an active role in synaptic transmission, but the precise role of glial activation in normal enteric network activity is unclear. Excitingly, enteric glia can also give rise to new neurons, but seemingly only under limited circumstances. In this Review, we discuss the current body of evidence supporting functional roles of enteric glia and identify key gaps in our understanding of the physiology of these unique cells.

  15. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections.

  16. Antibiotics influence on lactic acid bacteria inhibiting gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Čanžek Majhenič

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are common inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and have important role in maintaining the equilibrium of GI flora, which can be influenced by various factors like diets, antimicrobials and stress. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC of 6 antibiotics, commonly used in human medicine for 8 selected lactobacilli strains were determined by macrodilution and microdilution methods in liquid media and by diffusion method on agar plates. The effects of Penicillin G and Ampicillin on intestinal LAB were tested in vivoon mice as well. Lactobacilli were sensitive to Penicillin G, (penicillines and their derivatives and Erythromycin (macrolides by in vitro testing. Clyndamycin (pyranosid showed moderate inhibitory effect. All lactobacilli strains were resistant to Kanamycin and Neomycin (aminoglycosides, while L. salivarius IM 124 has shown extra resistance to Erythromycin and Clyndamycin. The influence of orally administered Ampicillin showed no significant influence on LAB count in mice faeces. The effect of Penicillin G on mice LAB total count was significant, while no effect of orally administered lactobacilli was determined.

  17. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, Luis; Briskey, David; Alford, Hollie; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-06-01

    The microbiome located in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) comprises the largest community (diverse and dense) of bacteria, and in conjunction with a conducive internal milieu, promotes the development of regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory signals within the GIT that promotes immunological and metabolic tolerance. In addition, host-microbial interactions govern GIT inflammation and provide cues for upholding metabolic regulation in both the host and microbes. Failure to regulate inflammatory responses can increase the risk of developing inflammatory conditions in the GIT. Here, we review clinical studies regarding the efficacy of probiotics/prebiotics and the role they may have in restoring host metabolic homeostasis by rescuing the inflammatory response. The clinical studies reviewed included functional constipation, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, infectious diarrhoea/gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and necrotizing enterocolitis. We have demonstrated that there was an overall reduction in risk when probiotics were administered over placebo in the majority of GIT inflammatory conditions. The effect size of a cumulative reduction in relative risk for the GIT conditions/diseases investigated was 0.65 (0.61-0.70) (z = 13.3); p probiotics. We also progress a hypothesis that the GIT comprises numerous micro-axes (e.g. mucus secretion, Th1/Th2 balance) that are in operational homeostasis; hence probiotics and prebiotics may have a significant pharmacobiotic regulatory role in maintaining host GIT homeostasis in disease states partially through reactive oxygen species signalling.

  18. Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization Dynamics by Different Enterococcus faecium Clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-06-15

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) generally precedes infection with antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium We used a mouse GIT colonization model to test differences in the colonization levels by strains from different E. faecium lineages: clade B, part of the healthy human microbiota; subclade A1, associated with infections; and subclade A2, primarily associated with animals. After mono-inoculation, there was no significant difference in colonization (measured as the geometric mean number of colony-forming units per gram) by the E. faecium clades at any time point (P > .05). However, in competition assays, with 6 of the 7 pairs, clade B strains outcompeted clade A strains in their ability to persist in the GIT; this difference was significant in some pairs by day 2 and in all pairs by day 14 (P faecium are often replaced by clade B strains once patients leave the hospital. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Respiratory-Gated Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Adjacent to the Gastrointestinal Tract without Fiducial Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miu Mizuhata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been reported, but insertion of fiducial markers in the liver is usually required. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of respiratory-gated PBT without fiducial markers for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract. From March 2011 to December 2015 at our institution, 40 patients were evaluated (median age, 72 years; range, 38–87 years. All patients underwent PBT at a dose of 60 to 80 cobalt gray equivalents (CGE in 20 to 38 fractions. The median follow-up period was 19.9 months (range, 1.2–72.3 months. The median tumor size was 36.5 mm (range, 11–124 mm. Kaplan–Meier estimates of the 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local tumor control rates were 76%, 60%, and 94%, respectively. One patient (2.5% developed a grade 3 gastric ulcer and one (2.5% developed grade 3 ascites retention; none of the remaining patients developed grade >3 toxicities (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.0.. This study indicates that PBT without fiducial markers achieves good local control without severe treatment-related toxicity of the gastrointestinal tract for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Definitions and Outcome Measures in Pediatric Functional Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, Amara Nassar-Sheikh; Taminiau, Jan A.; Benninga, Marc A.; Saps, Miguel; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract are frequently diagnosed in children. Four different clinical entities are addressed by the Rome III committee: functional dyspepsia (FD), cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), adolescent rumination syndrome (ARS), and aerophagia. Management of

  1. Molecular approaches for the detection and identification of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satokari, R.M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Smidt, H.; Saarela, M.; Matto, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this review an overview of various molecular techniques and their application for the detection and identification of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is presented. The techniques include molecular typing techniques such as amplified ribosomal DNA restriction

  2. Post-corrosive injuries of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, A; Simonovska, N; Shikole, A

    2010-01-01

    Acute poisonings with corrosive substances may cause serious chemical injuries to upper gastrointestinal tract, the most common location being the esophagus and the stomach. If the patient survives the acute phase of the poisoning, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis and increased risk for esophageal cancer. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. In establishing the diagnosis of acute corrosive poisonings, the severity of the post-corrosive endoscopic changes of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum is of major importance. According to Holinder and Fridman classification, post-corrosive endoscopic changes are classified in three degrees: First degree--superficial damage associated with hyperthermia, epithelial desquamation and mucous edema. Second degree--transmucous damage affecting all of the mucosal layers, followed by exudation, erosions and ulcerations. Third degree--transmural damage associated with ulcer's penetration in the deep layers of the tissue and neighboring organs. Severity of the lesions depends on the nature, quantity and concentration of the corrosive substance, the duration of exposure and current state of the exposed organs. Most often caustic injuries occur to the esophagus and stomach since the corrosive substance remains there for a longer period of time. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, corticosteroids, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. The most common complications that may appear are: perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, sepsis, esophageal strictures and stenosis, stenosis of gastric antrum and pylorus, cancer of the esophagus and the stomach. Today, owing to the substantially enhanced

  3. Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnostic Complexity and Management Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos G. Markakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the esophagus are rare. Case Presentation. This is a case of a 50-year-old male patient who was referred to our department complaining of atypical chest pain. A chest computed tomographic scan and endoscopic ultrasound revealed a submucosal esophageal tumor measuring 5 cm in its largest diameter. Suspecting a leiomyoma, we performed enucleation via right thoracotomy. The pathology report yielded a diagnosis of an esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient has shown no evidence of recurrence one year postoperatively. Conclusions. This report illustrates the complexity and dilemmas inherent in diagnosing and treating esophageal GISTs.

  4. Prophylaxis Versus Treatment Use of Laxative for Paralysis of Lower Gastrointestinal Tract in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Begoña; Llompart-Pou, Juan A; Ibáñez, Jordi; Raurich, Joan M

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of lower gastrointestinal tract paralysis and to compare the success to achieve defecation between treatment and prophylaxis strategies. Laxatives use is commonly the first-level measure to achieve defecation in critically ill patients with lower gastrointestinal tract paralysis. Studies comparing prophylaxis versus treatment of lower gastrointestinal tract paralysis have not been performed yet. We designed 3 sequential phases of 4 months each: observational phase, treatment phase, and prophylaxis phase. First-level measure was intermittent polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 by nasogastric tube. Second-level measures were enema, neostigmine, and continuous PEG. Primary endpoints were the prevalence of constipation for the observational phase and the number of patients that failed to achieve defecation with first-level measures for the treatment and prophylaxis phases. Paralysis of lower gastrointestinal tract in the observational phase was found in 57 of 63 patients (90.5%). Failure to achieve defecation with the first-level measure occurred in 16 of 64 patients (25%) in the treatment phase and in 6 of 70 patients (8.6%) in the prophylaxis phase (P=0.01). Eighteen measures of second level were applied in the treatment phase and 6 in the prophylaxis phase. Paralysis of the lower gastrointestinal tract in mechanically ventilated ICU patients is common. PEG given as prophylaxis on the first day after mechanical ventilation is associated with faster resolution of paralysis of gastrointestinal tract than PEG given as a treatment on day 4.

  5. Tumor del estroma gastrointestinal del intestino delgado Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Marión Luna Gozá

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal fueron catalogados originalmente como otros tumores (leiomioma, leiomioblastoma o leiomiosarcoma, debido a su apariencia histológica similar; sin embargo, los avances en la biología molecular y la inmunohistoquímica, han permitido diferenciarlos de otras neoplasias digestivas, y definirlos como una entidad clínica e histopatológica propia. Se presenta un paciente, de sexo femenino, de la raza negra, de 79 años de edad, con dolor abdominal de 3 días de evolución, que se había iniciado en fosa ilíaca derecha y luego se mantuvo en bajo vientre, acompañado de vómitos, fatiga y decaimiento. Se decide intervenir quirúrgicamente y se lleva al salón de operaciones con el diagnóstico de una apendicitis aguda, del muñón, tipo oclusiva en el anciano, sin descartar una oclusión por bridas. Al realizar laparotomía se encuentra sangre libre en cavidad que no coagula, y se observó tumor hemorrágico, pediculado, muy móvil, hacia íleon terminal. Se realiza exéresis de este, se resecan aproximadamente 5 cm de intestino delgado y se realiza sutura termino-terminal posteriormente. Se realizó amplia toillette de la cavidad peritoneal y el cierre habitual, con evolución satisfactoria, y con alta a los 7 días. Se mantiene asintomática al año y medio de operada, y la biopsia arrojó tumor de intestino delgado, de bajo grado de malignidad, de 5 cm de diámetro.The tumors of the gastrointestinal stroma were originally classified as other type of tumors (leiomyoma, leiomyobastoma or leiomyosarcoma due to it similar histological appearance; however, the advances in the molecular biology and the immunohistochemistry have allowed its differentiation of other digestive neoplasms and to define them as an own clinical and histopathological entity. This is the case of a black female patient aged 79 presenting with abdominal pain during 3 days of evolution started in the right iliac fossa and then it remains in

  6. Atresia of the gastrointestinal tract: imaging evaluation; Atresia do trato gastrintestinal: avaliacao por metodos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da; Ribeiro, Luiza Helena Vilela; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bittencourt; Monteiro, Soraya Silveira; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: brunoradiol@hotmail.com; Oliveira, Galba Leite [Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Esteves, Edward [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia e Urologia Pediatrica

    2005-04-01

    A wide spectrum of congenital anomalies may affect the gastrointestinal tract at any level from the esophagus to the anus. Atresia is an important cause of gastrointestinal obstruction with high morbidity rate in neonates. Different pathogenetic mechanisms could cause this malformation and the two classical explanations are: a defect of recanalization of the intestinal tube or an interruption of blood supply during intrauterine life. The authors present a literature review with an iconographic essay of imaging findings in children with gastrointestinal atresia. (author)

  7. Treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST during bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Barros

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal tumor. One should pay special attention when the GIST comes in obese patients during surgery. The laparoscopic resections with standard techniques, such as gastric bypass, have been described with good results. However, GIST resection associated sleeve gastrectomy for the treatment of obesity is rare, but can be done safely, depending on the location of the tumor.

  8. Small intestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a young adult woman: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Kerliu, Irma; Juniku-Shkololli, Argjira; Kerliu, Lloreta; Kastrati, Mevlyde; Kotorri, Vesa

    2014-09-28

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a small intestine, initially suspected for leiomyosarcoma given that gastrointestinal stromal tumors in young adult patients are limited due to their rarity. A 30-year-old Caucasian ethnic Albanian woman from Kosovo presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Subsequently, the tumor was detected in her small intestine, as an infiltrating mass approximately 10 cm in diameter. The tumor was resected en bloc and duodenojejunal terminal-terminal anastomosis was performed. The tumor was a large, bulky, intramural mass, with fish-flesh to tan-brown appearance, as well as with foci of hemorrhage and necrosis. On histological examination the tumor showed transmural growth, deep infiltrative pattern and malignant feature, with mitotic count >5 per 50 high-power field, dense cellularity with plump spindle cells, and with eosinophilic cytoplasm within variably hyalinized and edematous stroma, skeinoid fibers (extracellular collagen globules) and foci of hemorrhage. In addition, the tumor was composed of areas with epithelioid morphology. The immunohistochemistry results showed high expression of proto-oncogene c-kit, CD117, CD34 and vimentin, whereas α-smooth muscle actin was focally positive. Desmin and S-100 protein were negative. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor should be included in the differential diagnoses of intestinal mesenchymal tumors presenting as a single mass in young female adults. Given that gastrointestinal stromal tumors in young adults represent a more heterogeneous group than gastrointestinal stromal tumor in pediatric cases, more effort should be made to investigate its pathogenesis and potentially more specific treatment.

  9. High-throughput diversity and functionality analysis of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota plays a pivotal role in our health. For more than a decade a major input for describing the diversity of the GI tract microbiota has been derived from the application of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA)-based technologies. These not only

  10. Balancing on Sox: Involvement of Sox2 in determination and maintenance of organ identity of the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Raghoebir (Lalini)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHistology of the mature gastro-intestinal tract: The gastro-intestinal tract is organized in four distinct layers, which are consistent from mouth to anus. Surrounding the gastro-intestinal lumen is the mucosa, followed by the submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The inner layer

  11. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract | Wright | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximately 50% of athletes will develop gastrointestinal symptoms at some stage in their careers. These range in severity from heartburn to gastro-intestinal bleeding. Fortunately symptoms are usually mild and inconvenient, but in certain individuals they can be incapacitating. It is important to exclude the more common ...

  12. Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and bilateral pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Klaus; Hasel, Cornelia; Aschoff, Andrik J; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Wuerl, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The coincidence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is described only five times within the literature. We report on a 63 year old Caucasian female with the rare condition of neurofibromatosis type 1 coinciding with recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor plus bilateral pheochromocytoma (PCC). After a history of palpitations and dizziness that lasted for years, a left adrenal mass was detected by CT. Laparotomy revealed a pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland while an ileoterminal GIST was found incidentally intraoperatively. After six months contralateral PCC and multiple recurrent GIST were resected again. After four years the patient is doing well without any signs of further recurrent tumors. Discussion includes review of the literature. PMID:17659681

  13. Large Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Mimicking A Gynecologic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sew-Khee Yeat

    2005-06-01

    Conclusion: GISTs express c-kit proteins (CD-117 on immunohistochemistry. They may mimic gynecologic tumors since they share the same pelvic cavity. One should always consider GISTs as part of the differential diagnosis in pelvic tumors.

  14. Prevalence of liver fluke infections and other gastrointestinal tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educating the Fulani herdsmen on better field management, drug administration, and subsidizing the supply of better anthelminthic drugs will lead to improved cattle production and animal proteins. Keywords: Liverflukes, Gastrointestinal parasites, Slaughter house, cattle, Prevalence, Intensity, Douala, Cameroon ...

  15. Pattern of Endoscopic Findings of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UGT) including gastro esophageal reflux (GERD), peptic ulcer diseases (PU), and upper gastrointestinal malignancies was not studied recently in Sudan. Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the pattern of endoscopic findings of upper ...

  16. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal wall in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Documented reports of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are relatively few in the sub-Saharan continent. The body of evidence points towards anal wall involvement being a rarity indeed. In this article we document a 61 year old Nigerian man who presented with bleeding per rectum and in whom the histological ...

  17. A Rare Case of Mesenteric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We here report such a rare case of GIST arising from mesentery of small bowel and presenting as acute abdomen. Good surgical clearance ensures good survival whereas incomplete resection results in a high incidence of recurrences with distant metastasis. Keywords: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, imatinib, mesenteric ...

  18. Sonographic findings of ascaris lumbricoides in the gastrointestinal and biliary tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Size

    2009-12-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides may obstruct bowel, biliary tree, pancreatic ducts, and appendix and induce biliary stones. The purpose of this article was to illustrate typical sonographic findings of A. lumbricoides in the gastrointestinal and biliary tracts. Clinical data of 57 patients undergoing sonographic examination with confirmed ascariasis were studied retrospectively, and features of sonographic characteristics of A. lumbricoides in gastrointestinal and biliary tracts were studied. Sonographic characteristics of A. lumbricoides were single or multiple echogenic nonshadowing linear, tubular structures; curved strips or rodlike with or without echoic tubular central lines; and a spaghettilike appearance, a target sign, or a pseudotumor appearance in the transverse section. Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastrointestinal and biliary tracts has various features. Sonographic examination in the diagnosis of ascaridiasis has a high value.

  19. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism...... with atypical autism, a total of 22 (24.7%) were registered with at least one diagnosis of any disease of the gastrointestinal tract, against 47 of 258 (18.2%) in the comparison group (p = 0.22; odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 0.8-2.6). Without reaching statistical significance, the rate of diseases...... of the gastrointestinal tract was particularly high (odds ratio = 1.2) in those with intelligence quotient autism had about the same frequency of gastric, intestinal and hepatic diseases as had controls....

  20. Commercial Dairy Cow Milk microRNAs Resist Digestion under Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, Abderrahim; Lee, Chan Ho C; Laffont, Benoit; Savard, Patricia; Laugier, Jonathan; Boilard, Eric; Gilbert, Caroline; Fliss, Ismail; Provost, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs are small, gene-regulatory noncoding RNA species present in large amounts in milk, where they seem to be protected against degradative conditions, presumably because of their association with exosomes. We monitored the relative stability of commercial dairy cow milk microRNAs during digestion and examined their associations with extracellular vesicles (EVs). We used a computer-controlled, in vitro, gastrointestinal model TNO intestinal model-1 (TIM-1) and analyzed, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the concentration of 2 microRNAs within gastrointestinal tract compartments at different points in time. EVs within TIM-1 digested and nondigested samples were studied by immunoblotting, dynamic light scattering, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and density measurements. A large quantity of dairy milk Bos taurus microRNA-223 (bta-miR-223) and bta-miR-125b (∼10 9 -10 10 copies/300 mL milk) withstood digestion under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, with the stomach causing the most important decrease in microRNA amounts. A large quantity of these 2 microRNAs (∼10 8 -10 9 copies/300 mL milk) was detected in the upper small intestine compartments, which supports their potential bioaccessibility. A protocol optimized for the enrichment of dairy milk exosomes yielded a 100,000 × g pellet fraction that was positive for the exosomal markers tumor susceptibility gene-101 (TSG101), apoptosis-linked gene 2-interacting protein X (ALIX), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and containing bta-miR-223 and bta-miR-125b. This approach, based on successive ultracentrifugation steps, also revealed the existence of ALIX - , HSP70 -/low , and TSG101 -/low EVs larger than exosomes and 2-6 times more enriched in bta-miR-223 and bta-miR-125b (P dairy cow milk contains numerous microRNAs that can resist digestion and are associated mostly with ALIX - , HSP70 -/low , and TSG101 -/low EVs. Our results support the existence of interspecies transfer of micro

  1. A Mathematical model for gastrointestinal tract dosimetry, and its application to adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca, G.; Bazin, J.P.; Karhausen, L.

    1969-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the computation of the dose delivered to any level of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of radioactive substances. The same method is used as that proposed by ICRP. The concentration of the radionuclide during the progression of the meal is the central concept of this model. A graph relates the MPC with the radioactive half life of the radionuclide and with any level of the gastrointestinal tract of adults.Soluble and insoluble radionuclides are considered. The case of daughter products is discussed in the Appendix. (author) [fr

  2. A spectroscopic screening of the chemical speciation of europium(III) in gastrointestinal tract. The intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the health risks of lanthanides (Ln) and radiotoxic actinides (An), investigations into the chemical reactions of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. In order to identify the dominant binding partners (i.e. counter ions and/or ligands) of An/Ln in the gastrointestinal tract, a spectroscopic screening was performed by Time-Resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) using artificial digestive juices containing Eu(III), a representative of Ln(III) and An(III). In the intestine, Eu(III) show a strong complexation especially with organic substances of the pancreatic and bile juice like the protein mucin.

  3. The HIV manifestations within the gastrointestinal tract: A pictorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-14

    Nov 14, 2017 ... Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: < 200 cells/μL5. • Tuberculosis: < 200 cells/μL6. • Cytomegalovirus colitis: < 100 cells/μL7. Clinical findings. We have pictorially reviewed the various gastrointestinal manifestations in HIV, with reference to patients CD4 count. Small bowel lymphoma. We have focused specifically ...

  4. Diversity of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early days of microbiology, more than a century ago, representatives of over 400 different microbial species have been isolated and fully characterized from human gastrointestinal samples. However, during the past decade molecular ecological studies based on ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences

  5. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers at Endoscopy in Kano, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer registration in Nigeria is poorly done, this is even so in North-Western Nigeria. It is only of recent that attempts are being made to know the profile of cancers seen in clinical practice in our environment. This study was done to establish the pattern of upper gastrointestinal cancers at Kano, North-Western Nigeria.

  6. Endocrine tumor of the digestive tract - clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwedziak, K.; Olejniczak, W.; Brichkovkiy, V.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)

  7. Mesenchymal (non-epithelial) "non-GIST" tumors of the digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, M R; Diaconescu, S

    2012-01-01

    Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural but also clinical and prognostic differences between multiple types of mesenchimal (stromal, nonepithelial) tumors of the gastrointestinal tract prompted us the remembrance of an anecdotic series of sixteen observations of mesenchymal "nonstromal" gastrointestinal tumors (MNSGIT) encountered in four decades of surgical practice. The diagnosis was mainly established on clinical grounds (dyspepsia, pains, digestive hemorrhage or obstruction, palpable tumor) - some lesions being incidentally discovered - and confirmed by radiology, endoscopy, intraoperative exploration and microscopic pathology examination which revealed 9 schwannomas, three leiomyomas, two lipomas, fibroma and "mixoma" one case each. Our cases were located on the stomach (n=12), small bowell (n=1) and right colon (n=3). All the cases were operated on being practiced tumor exeresis with mucous or parietal ruff excision, atypical, conservative and standard (segmentar or sectorial) visceral resection. There was no postoperative morbidity or mortality in our series. Median follow-up for our cases was 24 (range 6 - 60) months and there are not evidence of recurrences or metastatic disease. Even if the actual concerns are prioritary oriented towards the study of GIST, the current nosology of the tiny subgroup of mesenchymal (non-epithelial) "non-GIST" lesions of the digestive tract must be reloaded helping the practioner which can be confronted with this pathology to a better evaluation and optimal therapy. Celsius.

  8. Diffuse aggressive B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract. An immunophenotypic and gene rearrangement analysis of 22 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krieken, J. H.; Medeiros, L. J.; Pals, S. T.; Raffeld, M.; Kluin, P. M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two diffuse aggressive B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract were studied using light microscopic examination, immunohistochemical methods, and Southern blot analysis. The results suggest that diffuse aggressive B-cell gastrointestinal tract lymphomas may be divided into two groups:

  9. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component (e...

  10. Gastric schwannoma: a benign tumor often misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva S. Shah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from the nerve plexus of gut wall. They present with nonspecific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Preoperative investigation is not pathognomic and many are therefore misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report a rare case of a 37-year old woman who underwent laparotomy for complex bilateral ovarian cyst with resection of gastric-gastrointestinal stromal tumor preoperatively, but confirmed to have a gastric schwannomas postoperatively. This case underscores the differential diagnosis of submucosal, exophytic gastric mass as schwannoma.

  11. Gastric Schwannoma: A Benign Tumor Often Misdiagnosed as Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Apurva S; Rathi, Pravin M; Somani, Vaibhav S; Mulani, Astha M

    2015-09-28

    Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from the nerve plexus of gut wall. They present with nonspecific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Preoperative investigation is not pathognomic and many are therefore misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report a rare case of a 37-year old woman who underwent laparotomy for complex bilateral ovarian cyst with resection of gastric-gastrointestinal stromal tumor preoperatively, but confirmed to have a gastric schwannomas postoperatively. This case underscores the differential diagnosis of submucosal, exophytic gastric mass as schwannoma.

  12. Impact of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) on surgical decision-making in upper gastrointestinal tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau; Edwin, B; Hünerbein, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is an integrated part of the pretherapeutic evaluation program for patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer. Whether the clinical impact of EUS differs between surgeons from different countries is unknown. The same applies to the potential...... patients with upper GI tract cancer were randomly selected from all upper GI tract cancer patients treated at Odense University Hospital between 1997 and 2000. Based on patient records and EUS database results, a case story was created with and without the EUS result for each patient. Four surgeons were...

  13. Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep’s health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum of sheep. Methods This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep.

  14. Tumor regression grading of gastrointestinal cancers after neoadjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Rupert; Becker, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy has been successfully introduced in the treatment of locally advanced gastrointestinal malignancies, particularly esophageal, gastric, and rectal cancers. The effects of preoperative chemo- or radiochemotherapy can be determined by histopathological investigation of the resection specimen following this treatment. Frequent histological findings after neoadjuvant therapy include various amounts of residual tumor, inflammation, resorptive changes with infiltrates of foamy histiocytes, foreign body reactions, and scarry fibrosis. Several tumor regression grading (TRG) systems, which aim to categorize the amount of regressive changes after cytotoxic treatment in primary tumor sites, have been proposed for gastroesophageal and rectal carcinomas. These systems primarily refer to the amount of therapy-induced fibrosis in relation to the residual tumor (e.g., the Mandard, Dworak, or AJCC systems) or the estimated percentage of residual tumor in relation to the previous tumor site (e.g., the Becker, Rödel, or Rectal Cancer Regression Grading systems). TRGs provide valuable prognostic information, as in most cases, complete or subtotal tumor regression after neoadjuvant treatment is associated with better patient outcomes. This review describes the typical histopathological findings after neoadjuvant treatment, discusses the most commonly used TRG systems for gastroesophageal and rectal carcinomas, addresses the limitations and critical issues of tumor regression grading in these tumors, and describes the clinical impact of TRG.

  15. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer through GIS over 2007-2012 in Kermanshah-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshadat, Sohyla; Saeidi, Shahram; Zangeneh, Ali Reza; Khademi, Nahid; Khasi, Keyvan; Ghasemi, SayedRamin; Gilan, Nader Rajabi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the common causes of disability and mortality in the world. The present study aimed to define the spatiotemporal distribution of gastrointestinal tract cancers using a geographic information system (GIS) over the time period of 2007-2012 in Kermanshah-Iran. The method of studying was descriptive-analytical as well as comparative with gastrointestinal tract cancer patients based in the City of Kermanshah over the time period covered. For data analysis, the GIS and SPSS 16.0 were applied. According to the pathological reports within the space of 5 years, 283 cases of gastrointestinal tract cancer (157 in males, 156 in females) were reported. The performed tests in terms of spatial distribution in the environment of GIS indicated that the disease demonstrated a clustered pattern in the City of Kermanshah. More to the point, some loci of this disease have emerged in the City of Kermanshah that in the first level, 6 neighborhoods with 29-59 cases of this disease per square kilometer and in the second level, 15-29 cases. Gastrointestinal tract cancer demonstrated an ascending trend within the space of 5 years of research and the spatiotemporal distribution of cancer featured a concentrated and clustered pattern in the City of Kermanshah.

  16. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes that are induced in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Grangette, C.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of environmental niches, including the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Moreover, this lactic acid bacterium can survive passage through the human or mouse stomach in an active form. To investigate the

  17. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  18. Effect of fermented feed on the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Keuzenkamp, D.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed with pigs to study the inhibitory effect of fermented feed on the bacterial population of the gastrointestinal tract. Results demonstrated a significant positive correlation between pH and lactobacilli in the stomach contents of pigs in dry feed as well as in the

  19. Saliva cations composition in humans with the disorders of gastrointestinal tract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Markina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Connection between the pathologies of alimentary canal and the changes of concentrations of microelements in human saliva is under consideration. The decrease of the cations content in saliva under forming and developing the pathological process in gastrointestinal tract is shown.

  20. Biomechanical and morphological remodelings of gastrointestinal tract in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Hong; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Gui-Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the biomechanical and morphometrical remodeling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. METERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen SD male rats of diabetic group(DM, a single tail vein injection 40mg/kg of STZ, 9 rats) and no...

  1. Activity in the gastrointestinal tract after administration of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Experimental studies in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronhjort, M.; Garmelius, B.; Jacobsson, H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To test the possibility that (radio)activity of non-pertechnetate nature is excreted into the gastrointestinal tract at bone scintigraphy. Material and Methods: The distribution of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical ( 99m Tc-HDP) was studied in an experimental mouse system by dissecting different organs and assessing their activity with a gamma-counter. Results: A comparison of the activity of the submandibular glands, which are assumed to accumulate only pertechnetate, and the gastrointestinal tract showed that a significant fraction of the activity excreted into the gastrointestinal tract did not consist of pertechnetate. Part of the excretion took place in the stomach. It was not connected to a specific bone-seeking agent or 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator. Nor did it increase with time between make-up and injection. The excretion of the non-pertechnetate activity was reduced by cimetidine and omeprazole. These gastric-secretion blocking drugs did not reduce excretion of pertechnetate or significantly affect the general distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusion: There is a significant excretion of non-pertechnetate activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Part of this may be caused by excretion of the undegraded radiopharmaceutical by the stomach mucosa. (orig.)

  2. Molecular identification and characterisation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satokari, R.

    2002-01-01

    Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are considered to be members of the beneficial microbiota in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The present study describes the development and validation of new molecular methods for the detection and analysis of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and the

  3. Morphometry of the Gastro-intestinal Tract in Broiler Finisher Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometric analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.05) only in length of the liver with birds on control diet (11.43) having higher mean values. The proventriculus, small ... gastro-intestinal tract. Keywords: Exogenous enzymes, Fiber utilization, Growth performance, Poultry diets, Gastro- intestinal morphometry ...

  4. Study on the macrometry of gastrointestinal tract of wild west African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and those in domestication end up in animal units of schools and houses of the wealthy individuals. The wild African Senegal parrot population is at risk of extinction due to its high popularity with urban dweller. Despite their high popularity, there is scanty documentation of the anatomical features of its gastrointestinal tract ...

  5. Pathology and molecular biology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildhaus, H.U.; Merkelbach-Bruse, S.; Buettner, R.; Wardelmann, E.

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) show an aggressive behavior with metastases and recurrences in up to 50% of cases. They can be clearly distinguished from other mesenchymal tumors by immunohistochemistry in the vast majority of cases. Of the tumors 85% carry somatic activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinases KIT or PDGFRA. The detection of these molecular events has changed the treatment of inoperable and metastatic GISTs dramatically as up to 80% of tumors respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This treatment has become the gold standard in the last few years with only few side effects. Knowledge of the underlying KIT or PDGFRA mutation is both relevant for the prognosis and treatment response. (orig.) [de

  6. Balancing on Sox: Involvement of Sox2 in determination and maintenance of organ identity of the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Raghoebir, Lalini

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHistology of the mature gastro-intestinal tract: The gastro-intestinal tract is organized in four distinct layers, which are consistent from mouth to anus. Surrounding the gastro-intestinal lumen is the mucosa, followed by the submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The inner layer of any epithelial-lined hollow organ (e.g., mouth, gut, trachea, lung, etc) is called the mucosa, which itself consists of the epithelium, lamina propria and the muscularis mucosa, which forms the boun...

  7. DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT FUNCTION IN INFANTS: THE PROBLEM AND THE ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the modern opinion on the problem of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract, which are peculiar to infants. The peculiarities of nutrition and intestinal microbiocenosis in healthy infants are discussed. Authors observe the ways of its correction and propose the principles of a choice of medications, having proven clinical effectiveness in children on early stages of postnatal development. The advantages of natural smectite dioctaedric (Smecta in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal system, acute and chronic diseases in children are presented.Key words: children of early age, gastrointestinal tract, function, nutrition, probiotics, smectite.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:48-54

  8. UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT HEMORRHAGE AND NONSTEROIDALANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs – A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a common cause of digestive tract hemorrhage.Study aims. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the percent of patients taking NSAIDs with upper digestive tract hemorrhage.Type of study. Prospective, analytical.Patients and methods. The study includes patients in which urgent endoscopic investigations of the upper digestive tract were carried out due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1998.Results. 3366 patients were investigated: 1222 women and 2144 men; the average age of our patients was 57.5 years (SD ± 17.1, a 2–97 year span. In 2905 patients (86.3% the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Among our patients 55% were aged over 60 years, 26.7% were older than 80 years. Sequelae of peptic ulcer disease were the most significant cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, in 47.7% of our patients (1387/2905. In the last week prior to bleeding, 19% of patients (552/2905 were taking regularly NSAIDs, corticosteroids, salycilates or anticoagulant therapy at least in single daily dose. The majority of patients, 94.5%, were taking NSAIDs or salycilates. Among NSAIDs they were taking most often ketoprofen, diclofenac or naproxen/ naproxen natrium, less often ibuprofen, nabumeton, etodolac or piroxicam.Conclusions. Upper digestive tract hemorrhage is a serious complication of NSAIDs medication, particularly in older patients

  9. Key nutrients and growth factors for the neonatal gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrin, Douglas G; Stoll, Barbara

    2002-03-01

    The nutritional support of gastrointestinal growth and function is an important consideration in the clinical care of neonatal infants. In most health infants, the provision of either breast milk or formula seems to support normal intestinal mucosal growth, but the most significant advantages of breast milk may be for host defense or gut barrier-related functions that are involved in reducing infection. The specific effects of various milk-borne growth factors on key mucosal immune and barrier functions are likely to provide valuable new clues to the advantages of human milk. A substantial number of preterm, low-birth weight babies or those suffering from compromised intestinal function, however, often cannot tolerate oral feedings and instead receive TPN. The consequences of TPN on gastrointestinal function and how this contributes to morbidity of these infants warrants further study, with respect to both clinical and basic research questions. Although enteral nutrition seems to be a critical stimulus for intestinal function, the minimal amounts and composition of nutrients necessary to maintain specific intestinal functions remain to be established. The experimental tools exist to start defining the specific nutrient requirements for the infant gut and some of these nutrients are known (e.g., glutamate, glutamine, and threonine). Peptide growth factors and gut hormones clearly play a role in gut growth and in several ways mediate the trophic actions of enteral nutrition. Although a number of these growth factors are good candidates for therapeutic use, their clinical application in the management of gastrointestinal insufficiency and disease has been slow. The emergence of GLP-2 as a trophic peptide that seems to target the gut is a promising candidate on the horizon.

  10. Recent Update of Embolization of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is a frequent complication with significant morbidity and mortality. Although endoscopic hemostasis remains the initial treatment modality, severe bleeding despite endoscopic management occurs in 5-10% of patients, necessitating surgery or interventional embolotherapy. Endovascular embolotherapy is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding that is refractory to endoscopic management. Interventional radiologists need to be familiar with the choice of embolic materials, technical aspects of embolotherapy, and the factors affecting the favorable or unfavorable outcomes after embolotherapy for UGI bleeding.

  11. Gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1981-10-15

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier.

  12. The gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier. (orig.)

  13. The gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, W N

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier.

  14. Personalized Medicine in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST: Clinical Implications of the Somatic and Germline DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Ravegnini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They are characterized by gain of function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA tyrosine kinase receptors, with their consequent constitutive activation. The gold standard therapy is imatinib that offers a good and stable response for approximately 18–36 months. However, resistance is very common and it is vital to identify new biomarkers. Up until now, there have been two main approaches with focus to characterize novel targets. On the one hand, the focus is on the tumor genome, as the final clinical outcome depends mainly from the cancer specific mutations/alterations patterns. However, the germline DNA is important as well, and it is inconceivable to think the patients response to the drug is not related to it. Therefore the aim of this review is to outline the state of the art of the personalized medicine in GIST taking into account both the tumor DNA (somatic and the patient DNA (germline.

  15. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the liver coexisting with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Moraes Neto, Francisco Alves; Agaimy, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) develop other neoplasms, either synchronously or metachronously. In this report we describe coexistence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor and a hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) in a 51-year-old woman...... with no evidence of tuberous sclerosis. A subcapsular hepatic nodule (0.8 cm in diameter) was found during surgery for symptomatic gastric neoplasm (15 cm in diameter) arising from the lesser curvature. Both tumors revealed histomorphological and immunohistochemical features confirming a diagnosis of a small...... incidental hepatic PEComa and a high risky extramural gastric GIST, respectively. The patient remained disease-free 25 mo after surgery with no evidence of tumor recurrence or new neoplasms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PEComa in a patient with GIST. Hepatic lesions detected synchronously...

  17. Awareness about causes of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.; Gumgumji, A.A.; Anwar, M.S.; AI-Ahmadi, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge of doctors, nurses, patients and public about the causes of gastrointestinal cancers and dissemination of this knowledge. Subjects and Methods: About 200 doctors, nurses and patients suffering from GIT cancer and general public were selected. Each subject was asked to fill up a proforma designed to assess his knowledge about the risk factors for GIT malignancies. Results: A majority of doctors and nurses had good knowledge about the causes of GIT malignancies. The knowledge of patients and general public was low. Out of all four groups, it was poorest in the patient's group. Conclusion: The difference in the knowledge of medicos and patients/public reflects that medicos should convey this knowledge to the patients in particular and general public in general, which is their responsibility besides medical treatment. (author)

  18. Mutations in Exons 9 and 13 of KIT Gene Are Rare Events in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Jerzy; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; Rys, Janusz; Kordek, Radzislaw; Nassar, Aziza; Sobin, Leslie H.; Miettinen, Markku

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, typically express the KIT protein. Activating mutations in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) of the c-kit gene have been shown in a subset of GISTs. These mutations lead into ligand-independent activation of the tyrosine kinase of c-kit, and have a transforming effect in vitro. Several groups have studied the clinical implication of the c-kit mutation status of exon 11 in GISTs and a possible relationship between c-kit mutations and malignant behavior has been established. Recently, a 1530ins6 mutation in exon 9 and missense mutations, 1945A>G in exon 13 of the c-kit gene were reported. The frequency and clinical importance of these findings are unknown. In this study we evaluated 200 GISTs for the presence of mutations in exons 9 and 13 of c-kit. Six cases revealed 1530ins6 mutation in exon 9 and two cases 1945A>G mutation in exon 13. All tumors with mutations in exon 9 and 13 lacked mutations in exon 11 of c-kit. None of the analyzed tumors had more than one type of c-kit mutation. All but one of the eight tumors with mutations in exon 9 or 13 of the c-kit gene were histologically and clinically malignant. All four of six cases with exon 9 mutation of which location of primary tumor was known, were small intestinal, suggesting that this type of mutation could preferentially occur in small intestinal tumors. Exon 9 and 13 mutations seem to be rare, and they cover only a small portion (8%) of the balance of GISTs that do not have mutations in exon 11 of c-kit. This finding indicates that other genetic alterations may activate c-kit in GISTs, or that KIT is not activated by mutations in all cases. PMID:11021812

  19. Superficial leiomyomas of the gastrointestinal tract with interstitial cells of Cajal

    OpenAIRE

    Janevska, Vesna; Qerimi, Adelina; Basheska, Neli; Stojkova, Elena; Janevski, Vlado; Jovanovic, Rubens; Zhivadinovik, Julija; Spasevska, Liljana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Some authors suggest common origin of gastrointestinal stromal tumors from stem cells, which may show diverse differentiation. There are reports in which cells morphologically identical to the interstitial cells of Cajal are found in deep leiomyomas. The aim of this study was to demonstrate CD117 positive cells in superficial gastrointestinal (GI) leiomyomas and to find other cells that would suggest diverse differentiation in histologically typical leiomyoma. Materials and methods...

  20. Angiodysplasia and lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Gorbien, M J

    1995-04-24

    Angiodysplasia of the colon is one of the most common causes of major lower intestinal tract bleeding in the elderly; it occurs predominantly in the cecum and on the right side of the colon and is thought to result from degenerative changes associated with aging. The clinical presentation is varied, ranging from hematochezia or melena to iron-deficiency anemia resulting from long-term blood loss. Accurate diagnosis may require a combination of diagnostic techniques, such as angiography, nuclear scanning, and colonoscopy. The management plan should be individualized for each patient depending on severity, rate of rebleeding, and issues of comorbidity. Although conservative medical management is a reasonable option for many patients, endoscopic treatment has generally replaced surgery as the first line of definitive treatment for angiodysplasias in most of these patients. The risk of rebleeding is a considerable problem, and surgical therapy yields better results in this aspect. The role of hormonal therapy is not clearly established.

  1. Linfomas plasmoblásticos del tracto gastrointestinal en pacientes con sida Plasmablastic lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Avilés-Salas

    2011-12-01

    was to review the clinical-pathologic features of PL of the gastrointestinal tract in 5 patients with HIV/aids disease. We performed a retrospective study of PL of the gastrointestinal tract diagnosed at the National Institute of Cancer at Mexico City, from 2000 to 2009. Clinical and pathological information was obtained and immunohistochemical studies were performed in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV was examined by in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Four male and 1 female were included with a median of age of 29 years. Three tumors involved the ano-rectal area, one tumor the ascendant colon and one tumor the stomach. All tumors were histologically characterized by a monotonous proliferation of large lymphoid cell with plasmablastic features. Tumor cells were CD 138 / MUM-1positive and CD 20 / PAX-5 negative in all cases. EVB genome was detected by in situ PCR in 4 cases. The median of follow-up was 18 months, and revealed that three patients are alive with neoplasm disease and two patients are still alive with no evidence of the neoplasm. Recognition of this entity by pathologists and clinicians is important in order to establish the correct diagnosis and the early treatment of these patients.

  2. Tumores del estroma gastrointestinal: Estudio retrospectivo de 43 casos Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a retrospective study of 43 cases

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    S. Alberto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST son poco frecuentes, con una incidencia de 10 a 20 casos por millón de habitantes y año. Aparecen en todo el tubo digestivo, mesenterio o epiplón adyacente; siendo más frecuentes en el estómago (60-70%; también pueden aparecer en el intestino delgado (20-25%, colon y recto (5% y esófago (Background: gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare (10 to 20/million. They exist in the whole digestive system and its surroundings, and are most common in the stomach (70%, followed by the small intestine (20-25%, colon and rectum (5%, and esophagus (< 5%. Their clinical presentation varies from small, incidentally found nodules to large and aggressive tumors. Nowadays GISTs are classified according to Fletcher's classification. Objective: to review the features of our GIST population. Methods: a retrospective study of GIST patients identified by immunohistochemical criteria, from 1997 to December 2007, and classified according to Fletcher's criteria. Results: 43 patients were included (24 men, 19 women with a mean age of 62.7 years. Gastric GISTs (20 cases, 46.5%, small intestine GISTs (18 cases, 41.9%; in 5 cases metastases of occult tumors were found. Eighteen cases had no symptoms. Tumors were classified according to Fletcher's criteria as high-risk (n = 19, intermediate-risk (n = 7, low-risk (n = 12, and indeterminate-risk (n = 5. Death occurred in 10 patients, and 13 patients had metastatic disease. Conclusions: our results are in accordance with the world literature, in which a majority of cases are men with gastric tumors. The 5-year survival rate was 42%. Fletcher's criteria were easily applicable criteria and could predict tumor behavior.

  3. Use of diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of gastrointestinal tract duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Katarzyna; Gałązka, Przemysław; Daniluk-Matraś, Irena; Leszczyński, Waldemar; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract duplication is a rare malformation associated with the presence of additional segment of the fetal gut. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review clinical features and imaging findings in intraoperatively confirmed cases of gastrointestinal tract duplication in children. The analysis included own material from the years 2002-2012. The analyzed group included 14 children, among them 8 boys and 6 girls. The youngest patient was diagnosed at the age of three weeks, and the oldest at 12 years of age. The duplication cysts were identified in the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=5), duodenum (n=1), terminal ileum (n=5), and rectum (n=1). In four cases, the duplication coexisted with other anomalies, such as patent urachus, Meckel's diverticulum, mesenteric cyst, and accessory pancreas. Clinical manifestation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts was variable, and some of them were detected accidently. Thin- or thick-walled cystic structures adjacent to the wall of neighboring gastrointestinal segment were documented on diagnostic imaging. Ultrasound and computed tomography are the methods of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Apart from the diagnosis of the duplication cyst, an important issue is the detection of concomitant developmental pathologies, including pancreatic heterotopy.

  4. New developments in management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: regorafenib, the new player in the team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boichuk S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sergei Boichuk,1,2 Jessica L Rausch,1 Anette Duensing1,31Cancer Virology Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia; 3Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and the most frequent single type of sarcoma, at least in some geographical regions. They arise from the interstitial cells of Cajal (or a common progenitor cell. The vast majority of GISTs are characterized by oncogenically activating mutations in the KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA receptor tyrosine kinase genes. This molecular feature has been successfully exploited for therapeutic purposes, and as of a decade ago, GISTs have become the prototype of a solid tumor that can be targeted with small molecule kinase inhibitors. Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec®/Glivec® benefits more than 85% of patients with unresectable and/or metastatic GIST. Unfortunately, the majority of patients develop resistance to imatinib within the first 2 years of treatment and new therapeutic options are needed. Although the broad-range kinase inhibitor sunitinib malate (Sutent® has been the second-line therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration since 2006, it was not until recently (February 2013 that regorafenib (Stivarga® was approved as a third-line therapeutic agent for GIST. This review summarizes the development process of regorafenib for GIST and highlights its biochemical, pharmacologic, and clinical properties.Keywords: gastrointestinal stromal tumors, GIST, regorafenib

  5. Hemorragia digestiva provocada por tumor estromal gastrointestinal avançado de duodeno Gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by advanced duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor

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    Ruy Jorge Cruz Jr

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O tumor estromal gastrointestinal (GIST é neoplasia pouco freqüente, sendo rara a combinação de acometimento duodenal e hemorragia digestiva, por isso apresenta-se este relato. RELATO DO CASO: Homem de 64 anos admitido com quadro de dor abdominal, melena e tumoração palpável em epigástrio e hipocôndrio esquerdo, sendo notado um tumor de paredes espessadas e conteúdo cístico na tomografia computadorizada de abdome, em topografia de cauda pancreática. Encontrado na laparotomia de urgência tumor em quarta porção duodenal com invasão de cólon em ângulo esplênico, sendo realizada ressecção em bloco do duodeno acometido, segmento de cólon transverso e descendente, com boa evolução pós-operatória. Diagnosticado por imunoistoquímica GIST de duodeno com invasão de parede colônica, sendo o tratamento complementado com mesilato de imatinib. CONCLUSÃO: A hemorragia digestiva é uma das possíveis complicações do GIST. Apenas o tratamento cirúrgico precoce é capaz de prevenir as graves complicações do choque hemorrágico.BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST represents an uncommon form of neoplasm. The combination of duodenal GIST and gastrointestinal bleeding consist of a rare presentation for such tumors. AIM: To report duodenal GIST case complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old male was admitted presenting abdominal pain, melena and a palpable mass in epigastrium and left upper abdomem regions. CT scan reveled a thick wall tumor containing cystic content in the pancreatic tail topography. At emergency laparotomy, a tumor in the fourth portion of the duodenum presenting colonic invasion in splenic flexure was found. En-bloc resection of the tumor was carried out, included the fourth portion of the duodenum and the transverse and descending colon, without postoperative complications. Immunohistochemical staining of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of

  6. Chloroquine-Azithromycin Combination Antimalarial Treatment Decreases Risk of Respiratory- and Gastrointestinal-Tract Infections in Malawian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliams, Elizabeth A.; Jumare, Jibreel; Claassen, Cassidy W.; Thesing, Phillip C.; Nyirenda, Osward M.; Dzinjalamala, Fraction K.; Taylor, Terrie; Plowe, Christopher V.; Tracy, LaRee A.; Laufer, Miriam K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chloroquine-azithromycin is being evaluated as combination therapy for malaria. It may provide added benefit in treating or preventing bacterial infections that occur in children with malaria. Objective. We aim to evaluate the effect of treating clinical malaria with chloroquine-azithromycin on the incidence of respiratory-tract and gastrointestinal-tract infections compared to treatment with chloroquine monotherapy. Methods. We compared the incidence density and time to first events of respiratory-tract and gastrointestinal-tract infections among children assigned to receive chloroquine-azithromycin or chloroquine for all symptomatic malaria episodes over the course of 1 year in a randomized longitudinal trial in Blantyre, Malawi. Results. The incidence density ratios of total respiratory-tract infections and gastrointestinal-tract infections comparing chloroquine-azithromycin to chloroquine monotherapy were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], .48, .94) and 0.74 (95% CI, .55, .99), respectively. The time to first lower-respiratory-tract and gastrointestinal-tract infections were significantly longer in the chloroquine-azithromycin arm compared to the chloroquine arm (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). Conclusions. Children treated routinely with chloroquine-azithromycin had fewer respiratory and gastrointestinal-tract infections than those treated with chloroquine alone. This antimalarial combination has the potential to reduce the burden of bacterial infections among children in malaria-endemic countries. PMID:24652498

  7. Diagnostic algorithm and peculiarities of monitoring for infants with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchko, Tetyana O; Nesina, Inna M; Tkachenko, Olha Ya

    2017-01-01

    The most common medical conditions in infants, which belong to pediatric and gastroenterological disease areas, are functional gastrointestinal disorders, food hypersensitivity and food allergy. First of all, these symptoms can disguise lactase deficiency, cow's milk protein allergy, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, allergic proctocolitis, gastrointestinal manifestations of atopic dermatitis, functional disorders of gastrointestinal and biliary tract, etc. The aim of our study was to develop an algorithm of monitoring for infants with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and to study the efficacy of probiotic and enzyme replacement therapy. Materials and metods: 47 children aged 1 to 3 years with gastrointestinal and atopic dermatitis symptoms underwent clinical and laboratory examinations. Analysis of additional examination revealed the causes of gastrointestinal disorders, and the following diagnoses were made: 15 children (32 %) had secondary lactase deficiency, 9 children (19 %) had sensitization to cow's milk protein and caseins. Molecular-genetic analysis of С > Т polymorphism at position 13910 of lactase gene (LСT) demonstrated that C/C-13910 genotype was observed in 44.7 % of children, С/Т-13910 heterozygous genotype was found in 36.2 %, and 19.1 % of children had Т/Т-13910 genotype; these were interpreted in conjunction with other clinical criteria for verification of secondary lactase deficiency diagnosis. Assessment of children over time during their treatment showed that combined therapy using lactase preparation and probiotics contributed to relief of clinical symptoms. All patients had their fecal pH increased (> 5.5), whereas the majority of children demonstrated improvement yet on days 2-3 (i.e., decrease in pain syndrome, flatulency, and stool frequency; restoration of normal stool consistency). Based on the obtained data, we proposed a practical algorithm for verification and monitoring of children with gastrointestinal disorders.

  8. Giant Rectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Report of Two Cases

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    C. Dickhoff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs of the rectum are rare and often difficult to remove surgically. At the time metastases are found, GISTs are considered to be incurable and until recently no adequate therapy was of any value for these patients. Recently, imatinib was introduced: a signal transducing inhibitor acting specifically on the KIT-tyrosine kinase, which can be used to downsize giant GIST (neo-adjuvant before surgery or induce stable disease in case of metastases with few minor side-effects. Two patients with giant rectal GIST are presented, one of which was treated before the imatinib era, the other when imatinib was available.

  9. Modulation of the enterohemorrhagic E. coli virulence program through the human gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett Foster, Debora

    2013-01-01

    Enteric pathogens must not only survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract but must also coordinate expression of virulence determinants in response to localized microenvironments with the host. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a serious food and waterborne human pathogen, is well equipped with an arsenal of molecular factors that allows it to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and successfully colonize the large intestine. This review will explore how EHEC responds to various environmental cues associated with particular microenvironments within the host and how it employs these cues to modulate virulence factor expression, with a view to developing a conceptual framework for understanding modulation of EHEC’s virulence program in response to the host. In vitro studies offer significant insights into the role of individual environmental cues but in vivo studies using animal models as well as data from natural infections will ultimately provide a more comprehensive picture of the highly regulated virulence program of this pathogen. PMID:23552827

  10. Statoviruses, A novel taxon of RNA viruses present in the gastrointestinal tracts of diverse mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Andrew B; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth R; Lim, Efrem S; Zhao, Guoyan; Brenchley, Jason M; Barouch, Dan H; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Manary, Mark J; Holtz, Lori R; Wang, David

    2017-04-01

    Next-generation sequencing has expanded our understanding of the viral populations that constitute the mammalian virome. We describe a novel taxon of viruses named Statoviruses, for Stool associated Tombus-like viruses, present in multiple metagenomic datasets. These viruses define a novel clade that is phylogenetically related to the RNA virus families Tombusviridae and Flaviviridae. Five distinct statovirus types were identified in human, macaque, mouse, and cow gastrointestinal tract samples. The prototype genome, statovirus A, was frequently identified in macaque stool samples from multiple geographically distinct cohorts. Another genome, statovirus C1, was discovered in a stool sample from a human child with fever, cough, and rash. Further experimental data will clarify whether these viruses are infectious to mammals or if they originate from another source present in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interdisciplinary Canadian guidelines on the use of metal stents in the gastrointestinal tract for oncological indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baerlocher, M.O.; Asch, M.R.; Dixon, P.; Kortan, P.; Myers, A.; Law, C.

    2008-01-01

    To provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the appropriate use of gastrointestinal stents for oncologic indications. This document describes the use of gastrointestinal stents by appropriately trained physicians. This document is based on a review of the published evidence and supplemented by consensus expert opinion. Gastrointestinal stenting has been evaluated in terms of technical success, complications, patient satisfaction, clinical outcome, and cost-benefit analysis. This document was approved by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association; approval from the other relevant Canadian societies is pending. Gastrointestinal stenting has a valuable role in the management of the gastrointestinal malignancy. The decision to use such devices should be taken after comprehensive multidisciplinary clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic evaluation. This interdisciplinary Canadian guideline on the use of metal stents in the gastrointestinal tract for ontological indications is based on a scientific literature review and relevant clinical experience. This guideline attempts to define principles of practice for most circumstances, though adherence to this guideline will not, of course, produce successful outcomes in every case. (author)

  12. Interdisciplinary Canadian guidelines on the use of metal stents in the gastrointestinal tract for oncological indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baerlocher, M.O. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: mark.baerlocher@utoronto.ca; Asch, M.R. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Lakeridge Health Corp., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Dixon, P. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Durham Regional Cancer Centre, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Dept. of Oncology, Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kortan, P. [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Medicine, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Myers, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Lakeridge Health Corp., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Law, C. [Dept. of Surgical Oncology, Div. of General Surgery, Sunnybrook HSC, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    To provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the appropriate use of gastrointestinal stents for oncologic indications. This document describes the use of gastrointestinal stents by appropriately trained physicians. This document is based on a review of the published evidence and supplemented by consensus expert opinion. Gastrointestinal stenting has been evaluated in terms of technical success, complications, patient satisfaction, clinical outcome, and cost-benefit analysis. This document was approved by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association; approval from the other relevant Canadian societies is pending. Gastrointestinal stenting has a valuable role in the management of the gastrointestinal malignancy. The decision to use such devices should be taken after comprehensive multidisciplinary clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic evaluation. This interdisciplinary Canadian guideline on the use of metal stents in the gastrointestinal tract for ontological indications is based on a scientific literature review and relevant clinical experience. This guideline attempts to define principles of practice for most circumstances, though adherence to this guideline will not, of course, produce successful outcomes in every case. (author)

  13. Multiple non-metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors: Differential features Tumores del estroma gastrointestinal múltiples no metastásicos: Aspectos diferenciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz Delgado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are specific, generally KIT (CD117-positive, mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract displaying KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations. Clinically, they tend to present as solitary tumors of the intestinal wall; more rarely, multiple tumors may occur in one or more organs. Objective: to review the morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of multiple, non-metastatic forms of GIST. Sources: review of the literature on Medline, and authors' own experience. Conclusions: multiples GISTs may occur in three different contexts: as spontaneous lesions (in both adults and children; due to familial GIST syndrome (autosomal dominant inheritance; or in association with specific syndromes (e.g. Carney's triad, Carney-Stratakis syndrome, type I neurofibromatosis. Outside these contexts, the existence of multiple GISTs is deemed to be the result of tumor metastasis, and therefore indicative of advanced-stage disease. Clinicians need to be aware of these variants, whose prognosis and treatment differ.Introducción: los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST son neoplasias mesenquimales del tubo digestivo que generalmente expresan el receptor KIT (CD117 y muestran mutaciones en los genes KIT o PDGFRA. Aunque la forma de presentación clínica habitual es como una neoplasia mural solitaria, excepcionalmente pueden presentarse formas múltiples en el mismo o diferente órgano. Objetivo: revisar las características morfológicas, inmunohistoquímicas y moleculares de las formas de GIST múltiples no metastásicos. Fuentes: revisión de la literatura en Medline y la propia experiencia. Conclusiones: los GIST múltiples pueden presentarse en tres contextos diferentes: lesiones espontáneas (del adulto o de la edad infantil; síndrome familiar propio (transmitido con herencia autosómica dominante; y lesiones asociadas a síndromes específicos (tríada de Carney, síndrome de Carney-Stratakis, y

  14. Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting with hemoperitoneum in puerperium: report of a case with review of the literature

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    Vasilakaki Thivi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are mesenchymal tumors that develop in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and their diagnosis during pregnancy or puerperium is extremely rare. Case A 28-year old patient presented with acute abdomen due to hemoperitoneum from a large mass arising of the small intestine with distended vessels on its top and a ruptured superficial vessel bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. The patient was at the tenth postpartum day of her first pregnancy. The preoperative diagnosis was a possible ovarian or uterine mass. After an emergency exploratory laparotomy a segmental bowel resection was performed, removing the tumor with a part of 3-cm of the small intestine. Histology revealed GIST with maximum diameter of 13 cm and mitotic rates more than 5 mitoses per 50 high power fields with some atypical forms, indicating a high risk malignancy. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor tissue demonstrated strongly positive reactivity to CD 117 (c-kit and CD34 in almost all the tumor cells. The patient was treated with oral imatinib mesylate (Gleevec 400 mg daily for one year. Three years after surgery, the patient was alive without evidence of metastases or local recurrence. Conclusion Considering that only few patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors have been reported in the obstetrical and gynecological literature, the awareness of such an entity by the obstetricians-gynecologists is necessary in order to facilitate coordinated approach with the general surgeons and oncologists for the optimal care of the patients.

  15. Parasitofauna in the gastrointestinal tract of the Cervids (Cervidae) in northern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Burlinski P.; Janiszewski P.; Kroll Anna; Gonkowski S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine parasite species and their prevalence in the gastrointestinal tract of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) from selected areas of northern Poland. A total of 1668 fecal samples, obtained from animals living in three various regions, were analyzed. The samples were examined by coproscopic techniques, including flotation (according to Fulleborn), decantation (accor...

  16. POTENTIALLY GRAVE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT PROBLEMS IN PREGNANCY - A CHALLENGE TO THE OBSTETRICIAN!

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    Chaitra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Acute surgical pathology may be overlooked in pregnancy. Despite advances in medical technology, preoperative diagnosis of potentially grave pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT is often delayed due to overlap with symptoms of pregnancy non-specific elevation of some laboratory parameters due to pregnancy and a dilemma for obstetricians and surgeons in ordering radiological imaging modalities given the risk associated with fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and contrast. AIMS The aim of this study is to analyse the cases of gastrointestinal tract problems encountered in pregnancy so that increasing awareness can be created among obstetricians. This is important because early diagnosis and timely intervention can significantly improve maternal and fetal outcome in these cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN There is a retrospective case study of potentially grave GIT problems encountered at Vanivilas hospital, Bangalore, a tertiary referral institute wherein the clinical presentation was confounded by pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the included cases were analysed for age of the patient, pre-existing gastrointestinal tract disorders, gestational age at diagnosis, maternal and fetal outcome. RESULTS A total of 8 cases of GIT problems in pregnancy were studied. Though acute appendicitis is the most common cause of GIT emergency in pregnancy as quoted in literature 5, we did not encounter any case of acute appendicitis in pregnancy in the study period. Other conditions which were encountered were small bowel obstruction, stomach and bowel perforation and bleeding oesophageal varices. Whilst few of the conditions could be managed conservatively without harm to the pregnancy, others required a laparotomy and reparative procedures. Delay in diagnosis and intervention proved to be fatal in some of these women. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about potentially grave gastrointestinal tract problems during pregnancy, high index of clinical suspicion

  17. Ontogenesis of Peptide Transport and Morphological Changes in the Ovine Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Catherine Ann

    2001-01-01

    Nutrient absorption is important in all stages of life. As the diet of an animal changes from birth on, morphological and biochemical adaptation can be anticipated in order to accommodate changing demands. The main focus of the present study was to examine the relationship between age and diet on the potential for peptide transport via PepT1 in the gastrointestinal tract of lambs and to relate changes of peptide transport capability to morphological changes. A 2x4 factorial arrangement of ...

  18. The peculiarities of combined pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract with allergic dermatoses in children

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    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The recent studies indicate that one of the causes of allergic dermatoses (AD in children and adults is pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. However, many problems of the emergence of these combinations have not yet been resolved. The purpose of the study was to establish the incidence and the nature of lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT in children with allergic dermatoses. Materials and methods. On the base of the Chernivtsi Regional Children’s Hospital, 40 children with allergic dermatoses combined with the pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract and 20 patients with AD, but without the UGIT pathology, aged 3 to 18 years were examined. A clinical and laboratory studies were conducted twice (routine clinical tests, chamber scratch test with non-infectious allergens during AD remission, as well as fibrogastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound, pH-measuring biochemical blood tests (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutaminetransferase (GGTP, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, identification of H.pylori. Results. It was indicated that out of 40 examined children with AD, 30 (75 % persons had various lesions of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In 10 (25 % children, the functional changes, such as duodenogastral reflex (70 % and failure of the cardia (30 %, were detected. A multiple nature of reflux was observed in 85.7 % of children with chronic gastroduodenitis and in 100 % of children with esophagitis and duodenal ulcer disease. The contamination with H.pylori was detected in 72.5 % of cases. The increased activity of ALT and AST, GGTP, alkaline phosphatase and serum cholesterol was established. Conclusion. In 75 % of children with allergic dermatoses, an organic pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract was diagnosed, thus, a gastroenterological examination should be recommended to all patients.

  19. Interpretation of Pathologic Margin after Endoscopic Resection of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of the pathologic margin of a specimen from a resected tumor is important because local recurrence can be predicted by the presence of tumor cells in the resection margin. Although a sufficient resection margin is recommended in the resection of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, it is not usually regarded strictly in cases of mesenchymal tumor, especially gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), because the tumor is usually encapsulated or well demarcated, and not infiltrative. Th...

  20. [Pathogenic mechanism of NSAIDs-induced mucosal injury in lower gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Kazuko; Osada, Taro; Shibuya, Tomoyoshi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2011-06-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for musculoskeletal pain and inflammation. Because low-dose aspirins reduce the risk of coronary and cerebrovascular events, consumption of them are rising worldwide. However, NSAIDs induce ulcers and bleeding not only in upper gastrointestinal tract but also in the small and large intestine. The recent advanced modalities such as double balloon endoscopy and video-capsule endoscopy enable the detection of NSAIDs-induced mucosal injury in the small intestine accurately. Topical direct injury of NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhabitation resulting in prostaglandin (PG) suppression are two main pathogenic mechanisms of lower gastrointestinal damage. Further analysis for the mechanism of effect and side effect of NSAIDs are warranted to develop the therapeutic and prevention method of NSAIDs-induced lower gastrointestinal mucosal injury.

  1. Neoadjuvant imatinib in locally advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri Ramakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To study the role of neoadjuvant imatinib mesylate in downsizing tumors in patients with locally advanced nonmetastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, thus improving the possibility of complete resection. Materials and Methods : We used neoadjuvant imatinib in six patients with locally advanced GISTs, at a dose of 400 mg daily, given orally in all patients for a median period of 3.5 months (range 1-20 months. All patients had a computerized tomography scan (CT scan once before starting the treatment and a repeat CT scan 1 month after starting imatinib. Some patients had another CT scan done at 3 months. The tumor volume was calculated using the formula V=4/3 πr 3 . Results : Following imatinib therapy, the median reduction in the tumor volume was 40% (range 20-50%. Four of the six patients underwent successful complete resection of the tumor following neoadjuvant imatinib for a median period of 2 months, and are disease free after a median follow-up of 10.5 months (range 3-20 months. Two patients in whom the tumors were deemed to be operable after downsizing refused surgery and are continuing imatinib. Imatinib did not produce serious toxicity in any patient. Conclusion : Neoadjuvant imatinib can be used successfully in patients with locally advanced nonmetastatic GISTs to improve the rates of complete resection and reduce the chance of tumor spill. The optimal duration of neoadjuvant treatment needs to be tailored based on response assessment at frequent intervals to identify the ideal window period for surgery.

  2. Impaired contractility and remodeling of the upper gastrointestinal tract in diabetes mellitus type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frokjaer, Jens Brondum; Andersen, Soren-Due; Ejskjaer, Niels; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Drewes, Asbjorn-Mohr; Gregersen, Hans

    2007-09-28

    To investigate that both the neuronal function of the contractile system and structural apparatus of the gastrointestinal tract are affected in patients with longstanding diabetes and auto mic neuropathy. The evoked esophageal and duodenal contractile activity to standardized bag distension was assessed using a specialized ultrasound-based probe. Twelve type-1 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy and severe gastrointestinal symptoms and 12 healthy controls were studied. The geometry and biomechanical parameters (strain, tension/stress, and stiffness) were assessed. The diabetic patients had increased frequency of distension-induced contractions (6.0 +/- 0.6 vs 3.3 +/- 0.5, P 0.14). The impaired contractile activity with an imbalance in the distension-induced contractions likely reflects neuronal abnormalities due to autonomic neuropathy. However, structural changes and remodeling of the gastrointestinal tract are also evident and may add to the neuronal changes. This may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic gut dysfunction and impact on future management of diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.

  3. Butyrate presence in distinct gastrointestinal tract segments modifies differentially digestive processes and amino acid bioavailability in young broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moquet, P.C.A.; Salami, S.A.; Onrust, L.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2018-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that butyrate presence in the digesta of distinct gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments of broilers leads to differential effects on digesta retention time, gut morphology, and proteolytic enzymatic activities, ultimately resulting in differences in protein digestibility. A

  4. Anatomic-physiological schema of the gastrointestinal tract, to be taken in account in determining the levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, C.

    1964-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological data of the gastrointestinal tract of adults and children were summarized in a standard schema, to be used in calculating the levels of radioactive contamination, in the food chain. (author) [fr

  5. Lithium and renal and upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A recent alarming finding suggested an increased risk of renal tumors among long-term lithium users. The objectives of the present study were to estimate rates of renal and upper urinary tract tumors (RUT), malignant and benign, among individuals exposed to successive prescriptions......) benign. Analyses were adjusted for the number of prescriptions for lithium/anticonvulsants, antipsychotic agents, antidepressants, and use of all other types of medication; age; gender; employment status; calendar year; and a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. RESULTS: Continued treatment with lithium...

  6. Three cases of bone metastases in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Zompatori

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare, but represent the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Tumor resection is the treatment of choice for localized disease. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, sunitinib are the standard therapy for metastatic or unresectable GISTs. GISTs usually metastasize to the liver and peritoneum. Bone metastases are uncommon. We describe three cases of bone metastases in patients with advanced GISTs: two women (82 and 54 years of age, and one man (62 years of age. Bones metastases involved the spine, pelvis and ribs in one patient, multiple vertebral bodies and pelvis in one, and the spine and iliac wings in the third case. The lesions presented a lytic pattern in all cases. Two patients presented with multiple bone metastases at the time of initial diagnosis and one patient after seven years during the follow-up period. This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of the lesions and may help clinicians to manage bones metastases in GIST patients.

  7. The Role of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ie Ryung [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract, and can be distinguished from the smooth muscle or neural tumors in approximately 95% of patients by expression of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase (CD117). GISTs are known to have high malignant potential and none can be labeled definitely as benign. However, GISTs are unresponsive to standard sarcoma chemotherapy, and only complete surgical resection provides chance for cure. Although the imaging modality of choice is enhanced CT scan in patients with GIST, FDG PET can reflect the malignant potential of GIST. Clinical management of patients with GISTs has dramatically changed with the introduction of novel therapeutics, such as imatinib mesylate (Glivec). This has created a need to re-evaluate the existing criteria used to assess treatment response. FDG PET as functional imaging modality proved to be significantly more accurate than CT alone when assessing GIST response to imatinib. And, FDG PET and PET/CT have been found to be highly sensitive in detecting early response, and to be useful in predicting long-term response to imatinib in patients with recurrent or metastatic GISTs.

  8. Preoperative imatinib mesylate (IM) for huge gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sumin; Yin, Yuan; Shen, Chaoyong; Chen, Jiaju; Yin, Xiaonan; Zhang, Bo; Yao, Yuqin; Yang, Jinliang; Chen, Zhixin

    2017-04-11

    Preoperative imatinib mesylate (IM) treatment has not yet been standardized. Here, we aim to further explore such therapy on patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) retrospectively. Patients experiencing preoperative IM were identified from January 2009 to February 2015. A total of 28 GIST patients were identified. The patients received preoperative IM treatment for a median length of 13.5 months, ranging from 5 to 37 months. PR and SD were observed in 24 (85.7%) and 4 (15.3%) patients, respectively. The tumor shrinkage occurred predominantly within 6 to 12 months, and slight tumor shrinkage could be observed after 12 months in certain patients. Nineteen patients (67.9%) received surgery, and R0 resection was acquired in 18 (94.7%) patients. The initial mean maximum diameter was 10.5 (5.2 to 19.0) cm and decreased to 5.9 (2.7 to 19.0) cm after preoperative treatment with a median length of 12 (ranging from 5 to 36) months (P < 0.001) in patients receiving operations. Three in 7 cases of rectum GIST underwent abdominoperineal resection, and four others adopted sphincter-sparing resection. Partial gastrectomy was performed in four patients. IM prior to surgery can effectively prevent tumor rupture and facilitate surgery with low surgical morbidity for GIST patients. Tumor shrinkage following IM occurred predominantly within 6 to 12 months, and slight tumor shrinkage could be observed after 12 months in certain patients. In selected patients, prolonged exposure to IM is seemingly advisable under close radiological surveillance.

  9. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from

  10. Artemisia vulgaris pollen allergoids digestibility in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATKO M. JANKOV

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified allergens (allergoids have found use in both traditional and novel forms of immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Novel forms of immunotherapy include local allergen delivery, via the gastrointestinal tract. This study conveys the gastrointestinal stability of three types ofmugwort pollen allergoids under simulated conditions of the gut. Allergoids of the pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, succinic and maleic anhydride. Gastrointestinal tract conditions (saliva, and gastric fluid were simulated in accordance with the EU Pharmacopoeia. The biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives following exposure to different conditions were monitored by determining the number of residual amino groups with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, SDS PAGE, immunoblotting and inhibition of mugwort-specific IgE. Exposure to saliva fluid for 2 min did not influence the biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives. In the very acidic conditions of the simulated gastric fluid, the degree of demaleylation and desuccinylation, even after 4 h exposure, was low, ranging from 10 to 30 %. The digestion patterns with pepsin proceeded rapidly in both the unmodified and modified samples. In all four cases, a highly resistant IgE-binding protein theMwof which was about 28 – 35 kD, was present. Within the physiological conditions, no new IgE binding epitopes were revealed, as demonstrated by immunoblot and CAP inhibition of the mugwort specific IgE binding. An important conclusion of this study is the stability of the modified derivatives in the gastrointestinal tract of patients, within physiological conditions. The means that they are suitable for use inmuch higher concentrations in local forms of immunotherapy than unmodified ones.

  11. NBI-Endoscopy. Method of Early Diagnosis of Chronic Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim D. Kreymer, PhD, ScD²

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Narrow Band Imaging (NBI is a modern method of electronic chromoendoscopy, which is based on the visualization of vascular structures. This method has become very important to detect the early stages of cancer pathology. In 2007-2010, for the first time in the world’s practice, this method was applied for the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory, inflammatory destructive and early structural changes in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and the trachea and bronchial tree. To examine the patients, a digital video endoscope system EVIS EXERA-II (OLYMPUS, Japan was used. Targeted biopsy was performed according to the images obtained by using the NBI system. In this study, we examined 2166 patients with various chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The patients were divided into two groups: 1151 – who were subjected to NBI (a group of observations and 1015 – who were subjected to standard endoscopy without NBI (control group. Thecapabilities of digital video endoscopy using NBI have been studied for the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory and destructive changes in the mucous membrane of the digestive tract. The results showed a high diagnostic and prognostic significance; we particularly noted an increase of more than 30% in the detection of inflammatory, destructive, and structural changes in the mucosa of the organs we observed. This method proved to be more than 99.8% sensitive, with a specificity of more than 78.0%. The results obtained indicate that this imaging system can be used with high diagnostic and prognostic significance for the diagnosis of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum γ-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

  13. Characterization of novel bovine gastrointestinal tract Treponema isolates and comparison with bovine digital dermatitis treponemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas J; Brown, Jennifer M; Murray, Richard D; Getty, Brian; Birtles, Richard J; Hart, C Anthony; Carter, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize treponemes present in the bovine gastrointestinal (GI) tract and compare them with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) treponemes. Seven spirochete isolates were obtained from the bovine GI tract, which, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, clustered within the genus Treponema as four novel phylotypes. One phylotype was isolated from several different GI tract regions, including the omasum, colon, rumen, and rectum. These four phylotypes could be divided into two phylotype pairs that clustered closest with each other and then with different, previously reported rumen treponemes. The treponemes displayed great genotypic and phenotypic diversity between phylotypes and differed considerably from named treponeme species and those recently reported by metagenomic studies of the bovine GI tract. Phylogenetic inference, based on comparisons of 16S rRNA sequences from only bovine treponemes, suggested a marked divergence between two important groups. The dendrogram formed two major clusters, with one cluster containing GI tract treponemes and the other containing BDD treponemes. This division among the bovine treponemes is likely the result of adaptation to different niches. To further differentiate the bovine GI and BDD strains, we designed a degenerate PCR for a gene encoding a putative virulence factor, tlyC, which gave a positive reaction only for treponemes from the BDD cluster.

  14. A survey of folk remedies for gastrointestinal tract diseases from Thailand's three southern border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Tuwaemaengae, Tuwaeyah; Bensulong, Fatin; Asae, Asma; Mosamae, Kholeel

    2012-10-31

    Gastrointestinal tract diseases commonly occur in Thailand. However, surveying for finding out traditional drugs has never been done. To quantify and categorize the folk medicinal remedies that are used for healing the gastrointestinal tract by the traditional healers living in Thailand's three southern border provinces. The Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat provinces were selected. Semi-structured interviews of nine healers were conducted to collect information that included the remedy names, herbal ingredients, plant parts used, preparation, properties and treatment methods. The data were then further analyzed. The results revealed that 39 multi-species remedies and 36 single-species remedies were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 103 plant species and 5 other materia medica were used as therapeutics. Most of the plants used were of the Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae families. Furthermore, it was found that although most of the healers used different remedies for a particular disease, some of the ingredients might have been similar. For example, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. was an ingredient used for parasitic disease remedies, and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. was used for constipation remedies. A review of the literature revealed 57 plant species and 2 other materia medica that have already been tested for their biological activities, whereas 46 plant species and 3 materia medica have never been tested. Consequently, research should be performed to confirm the pharmacological properties of folk remedies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytomegalovirus infection in gastrointestinal tract: A case series of three patients and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus disease can involve any site of gastrointestinal tract from oral cavity to rectum. CMV disease most frequently occurs in patients′ with immune deficiency, such as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, after organ transplantation, after cancer chemotherapy and in patients on immunosuppressive medications. The number of patients with immune deficiency has increased in recent years and has lead to a substantial increase in incidence of opportunistic CMV virus. Gastrointestinal CMV infection has also been reported in immunocompetent adults. Symptoms and signs depend on part of the gastrointestinal tract involved. Diagnosis depends either on a positive mucosal biopsy or by serology, quantitative PCR or CMV antigenemia. We report three cases of CMV infection in patients with three different underlying conditions and discuss the clinical features, diagnostic approach and treatment. All patients had positive serology with high viral load on PCR. Histology with immunohistochemistry was positive for CMV in two of the three cases. Ganciclovir response was seen in all patients in respect to clinical improvement, endoscopic resolution of lesions and clearing of the virus load.

  16. Mutations in Exons 9 and 13 of KIT Gene Are Rare Events in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors : A Study of 200 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lasota, Jerzy; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; Rys, Janusz; Kordek, Radzislaw; Nassar, Aziza; Sobin, Leslie H.; Miettinen, Markku

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, typically express the KIT protein. Activating mutations in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) of the c-kit gene have been shown in a subset of GISTs. These mutations lead into ligand-independent activation of the tyrosine kinase of c-kit, and have a transforming effect in vitro. Several groups have studied the clinical implication of the c-kit mutation status of exon 11 in GISTs and a po...

  17. Influence of pH on Drug Absorption from the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Simple Chemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Raymond J. S.; Neill, Jane

    1997-07-01

    A simple model of the gastrointestinal tract is obtained by placing ethyl acetate in contact with water at pH 2 and pH 8 in separate test tubes. The ethyl acetate corresponds to the lipid material lining the tract while the water corresponds to the aqueous contents of the stomach (pH 2) and intestine (pH 8). The compounds aspirin, paracetamol and 3-aminophenol are used as exemplars of acidic, neutral and basic drugs respectively to illustrate the influence which pH has on the distribution of each class of drug between the aqueous and organic phases of the model. The relative concentration of drug in the ethyl acetate is judged by applying microlitre-sized samples of ethyl acetate to a layer of fluorescent silica which, after evaporation of the ethyl acetate, is viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. Each of the three drugs, if present in the ethyl acetate, becomes visible as a dark spot on the silica layer. The observations made in the model system correspond well to the patterns of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract described in pharmacology texts and these observations are convincingly explained in terms of simple acid-base chemistry.

  18. Imaging of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors before and after Imatinib Mesylate Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, S.; Dundamadappa, S.K.; Karam, A.R. (Radiology Dept., Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)); Stay, R.M. (Radiology Dept., Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Sonnenberg, E. van (Radiology Dept., Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (United States))

    2009-10-15

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. Recent advances in treatment using the molecular targeting agent imatinib mesylate have shown startling response rates and variegated imaging findings. We present the various imaging appearances of GIST on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both before and after treatment.

  19. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the rectum with scapular metastasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcukbiricik Fatih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare tumors. They commonly metastasize within the abdominal cavity, particularly to the liver. Less commonly, metastases can be found in the bone. Case presentation We here present a case of metastasis to the scapula in a 54-year-old Caucasian male patient with an advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor, which was subsequently successfully treated with resection and sunitinib. Conclusion The present study is, to the best of our knowledge, the second to describe scapular metastasis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Our patient was treated by scapulectomy. The overwhelming majority of scapular tumors are metastases that arise from soft tissue, hepatocellular and thyroid tumors. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor metastasis occurs rarely. Scapular surgery can successfully provide local control of the disease. After the surgery, patients should continue with medical treatment.

  20. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 1. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreyer, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract with all parenchymatous abdominal organs. In addition to the clinical and scientific further development of abdominal radiology, the education of radiologists within this core discipline of radiology is one of the major aims. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. This manuscript focuses on the most recent literature on the diagnosis of the stomach, small bowel, colon and rectum. The review with a focus on the most recent studies published by German radiologists concludes with a synopsis of mesenterial bleeding and ischemia followed by a critical appraisal of the current literature on conventional abdominal radiography.

  1. Gastrointestinal Tumor Board: An Evolving Experience in Tehran Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiman Haddad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancers are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in Iran, with stomach adenocarcinoma as the most common cancer in men and the second common cancer in women. Also, some parts of Northern Iran have one of the highest incidences of esophageal cancer in the world. Multi-disciplinary organ-based joint clinics and tumor boards are a well-recognized necessity for modern treatment of cancer and are routinely utilized in developed countries, especially in major academic centres. But this concept is relatively new in developing countries, where cancer treatment centres are burdened by huge loads of patients and have to cope with a suboptimum availability of resources and facilities. Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the oldest and the only comprehensive cancer treatment centre in Iran, with a long tradition of a general tumor board for all cancers. But with the requirements of modern oncology, there has been a very welcome attention to sub-specialized organ-based tumor boards and joint clinics here in the past few years. Considering this, we started a multi-disciplinary tumor board for GI cancers in our institute in early 2010 as the first such endeavor here. We hereby review this 2-year evolving experience. The process of establishment of a GI tumor board, participations from different oncology disciplines and related specialties, the cancers presented and discussed in the 2 years of this tumor board, the general intents of treatment for the decisions made and the development of interest in this tumor board among the Tehran oncology community will be reviewed. The GI tumor board of Tehran Cancer Institute started its work in January 2010, with routine weekly sessions. A core group of 2 physicians from each surgical, radiation and medical oncology departments plus one gastroenterologist, GI pathologist and radiologist was formed, but participation from all interested physicians was encouraged. An

  2. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9+-3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3+-88.9 ng/ml, 62.1+-99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7+-106.7 ng/ml, 69+-84.8 ng/ml, 15.7+-9.1 ng/ml, 7.5+-10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8

  3. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1983-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9±3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3±88.9 ng/ml, 62.1±99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7±106.7 ng/ml, 69±84.8 ng/ml, 15.7±9.1 ng/ml, 7.5±10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8.8±11.4 ng

  4. Intraperitoneal ectopic infestation of parasites invading through gastrointestinal tract : CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Chul [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun [St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Soo Youn [Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of parasitic ectopic infestation in the peritoneal cavity, a transitional route for parasites invading the gastrointestinal tract, to migrate to various target organs. CT scans of nine patients with pathologically(n=8) or serologically(n=1) proven intraperitoneal involvement of parasitic infestation were retrospectively reviewed. The primary causes of parasitic infestation in nine patients were Paragonimus westermani(n=5), Sparganosis(n=2), and hepatic fascioliasis(n=2). We analyzed the CT findings with regard to the sites and patterns of lesions in the peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal track, as well as in other solid organs. The clinical features of these patients were also evaluated. The clinical symptoms and signs were chronic abdominal pain and general weakness in seven patients, while peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed in four. The CT features of these nine patients included multiseptated cystic masses of 2-6cm, diameter (mean 4.1{+-}1.7cm) in the omentum or mesentery in six(67%), omental or mesenteric infiltration in seven(78%), focal peritoneal thickening in seven(78%), 1ymphadenopathy in five(56%), and ascites in four(44%). In six of the nine patients, the gastrointestinal tract(stomach in four, colon in one, both stomach and colon in one) was concomitantly involved with focal wall thickening. Branching patterns of hypoattenuating lesions were noted in the liver of three patients; two of these had hepatic fascioliasis and one had paragonimiasis. Ectopic parasitic infestation in the peritoneal cavity manifests as mass formation, adjacent gastrointestinal wall thickening, and focal peritonitis. An understanding of these image features is important for both early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors as an incidental finding in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mario; Ramirez, Pedro T; Echeverri, Carolina; Alvarez, Luis Guillermo; Palomino, Maria Alejandra; Pareja, Luis René

    2012-01-01

    To report the clinical presentation and oncologic outcomes of a series of patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass and were diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Data were obtained on all patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass between September 2007 and June 2010 and who were ultimately diagnosed with a GIST. The patients' medical records were reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria. All six patients had a tumor in the intestinal tract arising from the small bowel. The mean tumor size was 12 cm (range, 6 to 22 cm). A complete resection was achieved in five of the six patients. There were no intraoperative complications; one patient had a postoperative complication. Two patients were treated with imatinib after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 32 months (range, 0.3 to 40 months). At the last follow-up, five of the six patients were without any evidence of disease. One patient died of an unrelated hepatic encephalopathy. The incidence in our institution is 3%. GISTs are uncommon; however, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an abdominal or pelvic mass.

  6. [The experimental and clinical effect of ciprofloxacin on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, V M; Il'chenko, A A; Dugasheva, L G; Romanchuk, L A; Busch, W; Radakova, E D; Zhukhovitskiĭ, V G; Gorodinskaia, V S

    1991-05-01

    The study of the influence of cyprofloxacin on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract has been made under experimental and clinical conditions. As revealed in this study, cyprofloxacin produces a corrective effect on the intestinal microflora; the action of this preparation, in contrast to that of other antimicrobial preparations, is retained for a long time. In patients having duodenal ulcer with bacteriosis caused by Campylobacter pylori and with intestinal dysbacteriosis the combination of cyprofloxacin and cimetidine yields a higher therapeutic effect than the use of cimetidine alone.

  7. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract: Cajal and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells...

  8. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT IN PIGLETS FED A SESAME MEAL OR SOYBEAN MEAL DIET

    OpenAIRE

    Araceli Aguilera Barreyro; Tércia Reis de Souza; Gerardo Mariscal-Landín; Guerrero Carrillo María de Jesús; Konisgmar Escobar García; Guadalupe Bernal Santos; Teresa García Gasca

    2014-01-01

    An important indicator to recommend a protein source for piglet nutrition is the absence of intestinal damage. The effects of sesame or soybean meal based diets on Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) morphophysiology, diarrhea incidence and severity in piglets were studied during the first two weeks post-weaning. Thirty-six piglets weaned at 21 days of age were fed one of three diets: A control casein diet (C), a Sesame Meal diet (SM), or a Soybean Meal Diet (SBM). Diarrhea incidence and fecal score...

  9. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders in such patients...... and correlated with GE parameters. Results were given in means +/- SD. Compared with CON, GE half time (T) was prolonged by 50% in CD (115 +/- 55 vs. 182 +/- 95 min, P = 0.037). Six CD, 2 DIV, and 2 UC patients had pathological T (>200 min). Postprandial plasma glucose was increased in all patients...

  10. Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of Chernobyl she-minks of different age and immunological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudenko, V.I.; Podgorskij, V.S.; Ryasenko, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative and species characteristics of bacteria and yeast isolated from the food and gastrointestinal tract of she-minks of different age groups and different immunological state have been established. The species composition of bacteria forming the basic and accompanying microflora of small and large intestine of minks is determined. An increase in the quantity of anaerobic (bifidobacteria), microaerophilic (lactic acid bacilli, enterococci) and aerobic (intestinal bacilli) bacteria in the content of the large intestine of minks has been established in comparison with the stomach and small intestine in all examined groups of animals of various age and immunological state

  11. Biodistribution and endocytosis of ICAM-1-targeting antibodies versus nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Viraj Mane,1 Silvia Muro1, 21Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, 2Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USAAbstract: Drug delivery to the gastrointestinal (GI tract is key for improving treatment of GI maladies, developing oral vaccines, and facilitating drug transport into circulation. However, delivery of formulations to the GI tract is hindered by pH changes, degradative enzymes, mucus, and peristalsis, leading to poor GI retention. Targeting may prolong residence of therapeutics in the GI tract and enhance their interaction with this tissue, improving such aspects. We evaluated nanocarrier (NC and ligand-mediated targeting in the GI tract following gastric gavage in mice. We compared GI biodistribution, degradation, and endocytosis between control antibodies and antibodies targeting the cell surface determinant intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, expressed on GI epithelium and other cell types. These antibodies were administered either as free entities or coated onto polymer NCs. Fluorescence and radioisotope tracing showed proximal accumulation, with preferential retention in the stomach, jejunum, and ileum; and minimal presence in the duodenum, cecum, and colon by 1 hour after administration. Upstream (gastric retention was enhanced in NC formulations, with decreased downstream (jejunal accumulation. Of the total dose delivered to the GI tract, ~60% was susceptible to enzymatic (but not pH-mediated degradation, verified both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of peristalsis by sedation increased upstream retention (stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Conversely, alkaline NaHCO3, which enhances GI transit by decreasing mucosal viscosity, favored downstream (ileal passage. This suggests passive transit through the GI tract, governed by mucoadhesion and peristalsis. In contrast, both free anti-ICAM and anti-ICAM NCs demonstrated significantly enhanced upstream (stomach and duodenum

  12. "It's a gut feeling" - Escherichia coli biofilm formation in the gastrointestinal tract environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Elio; Cimdins, Annika; Luthje, Petra

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli can commonly be found, either as a commensal, probiotic or a pathogen, in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Biofilm formation and its regulation is surprisingly variable, although distinct regulatory pattern of red, dry and rough (rdar) biofilm formation arise in certain...... pathovars and even clones. In the GI tract, environmental conditions, signals from the host and from commensal bacteria contribute to shape E. coli biofilm formation within the multi-faceted multicellular communities in a complex and integrated fashion. Although some major regulatory networks, adhesion...... number of genes encoding surface appendages on the core or accessory genome of E. coli suggests the complexity of the biofilm process to be far from being fully understood. In this review, we summarize biofilm formation mechanisms of commensal, probiotic and pathogenic E. coli in the context...

  13. Expression and Regulation of Drug Transporters and Metabolizing Enzymes in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzik, M; Oswald, S

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered drugs must pass through the intestinal wall and then through the liver before reaching systemic circulation. During this process drugs are subjected to different processes that may determine the therapeutic value. The intestinal barrier with active drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in enterocytes plays an important role in the determination of drug bioavailability. Accumulating information demonstrates variable distribution of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters along the human gastrointestinal tract (GI), that creates specific barrier characteristics in different segments of the GI. In this review, expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the healthy and diseased human GI as well as their regulatory aspects: genetic, miRNA, DNA methylation are outlined. The knowledge of unique interplay between drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in specific segments of the GI tract allows more precise definition of drug release sites within the GI in order to assure more complete bioavailability and prediction of drug interactions.

  14. Survival of gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients in the imatinib era: life raft group observational registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Call Jerry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, prior to routine immunohistochemical staining and the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, were often mistaken for neoplasms of smooth muscle origin such as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas or leiomyoblastomas. Since the advent of imatinib, GIST has been further delineated into adult- (KIT or PDGFRα mutations and pediatric- (typified by wild-type GIST/succinate dehydrogenase deficiencies types. Using varying gender ratios at age of diagnosis we sought to elucidate prognostic factors for each sub-type and their impact on overall survival. Methods This is a long-term retrospective analysis of a large observational study of an international open cohort of patients from a GIST research and patient advocacy's lifetime registry. Demographic and disease-specific data were voluntarily supplied by its members from May 2000-October 2010; the primary outcome was overall survival. Associations between survival and prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses, with backward selection at P Results Inflections in gender ratios by age at diagnosis in years delineated two distinct groups: above and below age 35 at diagnosis. Closer analysis confirmed the above 35 age group as previously reported for adult-type GIST, typified by mixed primary tumor sites and gender, KIT or PDGFRα mutations, and shorter survival times. The pediatric group ( Conclusions Pediatric- and adult-type GIST have been previously characterized in clinical settings and these observations confirm significant prognostic factors for each from a diverse real-world cohort. Additionally, these findings suggest that extra diligence be taken with "young adults" (aged 18-35 at diagnosis as pediatric-type GIST may present well beyond adolescence, particularly as these distinct sub-types have different causes, and consequently

  15. Non-toxic lead sulfide nanodots as efficient contrast agents for visualizing gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Ran, Xiang; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) tract using novel but efficient contrast agents is of the most important issues in the diagnosis and prognosis of GI diseases. Here, for the first time, we reported the design and synthesis of biothiol-decorated lead sulfide nanodots, as well as their usages in functional dual-modality imaging of GI tract in vivo. Due to the presence of glutathione on the surface of the nanodots, these well-prepared contrast agents could decrease the unwanted ion leakage, withstand the harsh conditions in GI tract, and avoid the systemic absorption after oral administration. Compared with clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agents, these nanodots exhibited much more significant enhancement in contrast efficiency during both 2D X-ray imaging and 3D CT imaging. Different from some conventional invasive imaging modalities, such as gastroscope and enteroscope, non-invasive imaging strategy by using glutathione modified PbS nanodots as contrast agents could reduce the painfulness towards patients, facilitate the imaging procedure, and economize the manipulation period. Moreover, long-term toxicity and bio-distribution of these nanodots after oral administration were evaluated in detail, which indicated their overall safety. Based on our present study, these nanodots could act as admirable contrast agents to integrate X-ray imaging and CT imaging for the direct visualization of GI tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Substance P and substance K receptor binding sites in the human gastrointestinal tract: localization by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize and quantify the distribution of binding sites for 125 I-radiolabeled substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) in the human GI tract using histologically normal tissue obtained from uninvolved margins of resections for carcinoma. The distribution of SP and SK binding sites is different for each gastrointestinal (GI) segment examined. Specific SP binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules, myenteric plexus, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, muscularis mucosa, epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the germinal centers of lymph nodules. SK binding sites are distributed in a pattern distinct from SP binding sites and are localized to the external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and the muscularis mucosa. Binding sites for NK were not detected in any part of the human GI tract. These results demonstrate that: (1) surgical specimens from the human GI tract can be effectively processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography; (2) of the three mammalian tachykinins tested, SP and SK, but not NK binding sites are expressed in detectable levels in the human GI tract; (3) whereas SK receptor binding sites are expressed almost exclusively by smooth muscle, SP binding sites are expressed by smooth muscle cells, arterioles, venules, epithelial cells of the mucosa and cells associated with lymph nodules; and (4) both SP and SK binding sites expressed by smooth muscle are more stable than SP binding sites expressed by blood vessels, lymph nodules, and mucosal cells

  17. Dietary Proteins as Determinants of Metabolic and Physiologic Functions of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Harvey Anderson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake.

  18. Mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract: maintaining balance between the good and the bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Bani; Magnusson, Maria K; Öhman, Lena

    2017-11-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is a unique organ inhabited by a range of commensal microbes, while also being exposed to an overwhelming load of antigens in the form of dietary antigens on a daily basis. The GI tract has dual roles in the body, in that it performs digestion and uptake of nutrients while also carrying out the complex and important task of maintaining immune homeostasis, i.e., keeping the balance between the good and the bad. It is equally important that we protect ourselves from reacting against the good, meaning that we stay tolerant to harmless food, commensal bacteria and self-antigens, as well as react with force against the bad, meaning induction of immune responses against harmful microorganisms. This complex task is achieved through the presence of a highly efficient mucosal barrier and a specialized multifaceted immune system, made up of a large population of scattered immune cells and organized lymphoid tissues termed the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This review provides an overview of the primary components of the human mucosal immune system and how the immune responses in the GI tract are coordinated and induced.

  19. Survival of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract with Daily Consumption of a Low-Fat Probiotic Spread▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dommels, Yvonne E. M.; Kemperman, Robèr A.; Zebregs, Yvonne E. M. P.; Draaisma, René B.; Jol, Arne; Wolvers, Danielle A. W.; Vaughan, Elaine E.; Albers, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Therefore, probiotic strains should be able to survive passage through the human gastrointestinal tract. Human gastrointestinal tract survival of probiotics in a low-fat spread matrix has, however, never been tested. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human intervention study was to test the human gastrointestinal tract survival of Lactobacillus...

  20. Magnetic marker monitoring: high resolution real-time tracking of oral solid dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitschies, Werner; Blume, Henning; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about the performance of dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract is essential for the development of new oral delivery systems, as well as for the choice of the optimal formulation technology. Magnetic Marker Monitoring (MMM) is an imaging technology for the investigation of the behaviour of solid oral dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract, which is based on the labelling of solid dosage forms as a magnetic dipole and determination of the location, orientation and strength of the dipole after oral administration using measurement equipment and localization methods that are established in biomagnetism. MMM enables the investigation of the performance of solid dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract with a temporal resolution in the range of a few milliseconds and a spatial resolution in 3D in the range of some millimetres. Thereby, MMM provides real-time tracking of dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract. MMM is also suitable for the determination of dosage form disintegration and for quantitative measurement of in vivo drug release in case of appropriate extended release dosage forms like hydrogel-forming matrix tablets. The combination of MMM with pharmacokinetic measurements (pharmacomagnetography) enables the determination of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIC) and the delineation of absorption sites in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G 1 (IgG 1 ) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, 125 I-labelled bovine IgG 1 anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of 125 I-IgG 1 from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of 125 I-IgG 1 appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal 125 I-IgG 1 excretion, and (2) by the amount of 125 I-IgG 1 in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity

  2. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G/sub 1/ (IgG/sub 1/) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, /sup 125/I-labelled bovine IgG/sub 1/ anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ excretion, and (2) by the amount of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity.

  3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Leonardo Lopes de; Torres, Lucas Rios; Faucz, Rafael Artigas; Tornin, Olger de Souza; Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Fonseca, Carlos Alberto Marcovechio

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common mesenchymal tumors and are characterized by expression of KIT (CD117), a tyrosine-kinase growth factor receptor. They occur in individuals over 50 years of age and commonly arise in stomach or in the small intestine. To emphasize our paper we report a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor that showed the typical image and pathologic findings of the primary lesion and its metastases. (author)

  4. Point-of-care gastrointestinal and urinary tract sonography in daily evaluation of gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients (GUTS Protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Calatayud, Angel Augusto; Carrillo-Esper, Raul; Anica-Malagon, Eduardo Daniel; Briones-Garduño, Jesus Carlos; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Wise, Robert; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2018-01-01

    There is currently a lack of universally accepted criteria for gastrointestinal (GI) failure or dysfunction in critical care. Moreover, the clinical assessment of intestinal function is notoriously difficult and thus often goes unrecognized, contributing to poor outcomes. A recent grading system has been proposed to define acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) in conjunction with other organ function scores (e.g., SOFA). Ultrasonography has become widely accepted as a diagnostic tool for GI problems and pathology. We propose a sonographic examination of the abdomen, using the GUTS protocol (gastrointestinal and urinary tract sonography) in critically ill patients as part of the point-of-care ultrasound evaluation in patients with AGI. This article reviews possible applications of ultrasonography that may be relevant to monitor the GI function in critically ill patients. The GI ultrasound protocol (GUTS) focuses on four gastrointestinal endpoints: gastrointestinal diameter, mucosal thickness, peristalsis, and blood flow. Moreover, it is possible to examine the urinary tract and kidney function. Real-time ultrasound with the GUTS protocol is a simple, inexpensive, bedside imaging technique that can provide anatomical and functional information of the GI tract. Further studies are needed to investigate the utility of GUTS with other parameters, such as GI biomarkers, AGI class, and clinical outcomes.

  5. Nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with PEG coating as an effective oral MRI contrast agent for gastrointestinal tract imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Vindya S; Chen, Guojun; Cai, Qing; Huang, Songping D

    2016-03-21

    Biocompatible nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with the empirical formula K(0.94)Gd(0.02)Fe[Fe(CN)6] exhibit extremely high stability against the release of Gd(3+) and CN(-) ions under the acidic conditions similar to stomach juice. The high r1 relaxivity, low cytotoxicity and the ability of such nanoparticles to penetrate the cell membrane suggest that this coordination-polymer structural platform offers a unique opportunity for developing the next generation of T1-weighted oral cellular MRI probes for the early detection of tumors in the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4 in the porcine gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bartłomiej Arciszewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4 is a protein widely expressed on plasma membrane of a variety of epithelial cells. In this study we investigated the expression of AQP4 in the gastrointestinal tract of the pig using immunohistochemical staining. We found no presence of AQP4 in the different regions of the pig stomach. In the porcine small intestine moderate immunoreactivity to AQP4 was detected in enterocytes (along the villi and in the bottom of the crypts, duodenal Brunner’s glands and in enteric ganglia in cells lying in close vicinity to myenteric as well as submucous neurons. In superficial epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa as well as of caecal and colonic glands a very strong immunoreactivity to AQP4 was found. Both in the myenteric and submucous ganglia of the large intestine AQP4-positive cells surrounding enteric neurons were observed. We concluded that AQP4 expression in the porcine gastrointestinal tract showed some species-dependent differences in relation to other species. Based on the presented distribution pattern of AQP4, it is likely that the aquaporin plays a role in mucous (but not acid secretion and intestinal absorptive processes in the pig.

  7. Computer-aided decision support systems for endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedlgruber, Michael; Uhl, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Today, medical endoscopy is a widely used procedure to inspect the inner cavities of the human body. The advent of endoscopic imaging techniques-allowing the acquisition of images or videos-created the possibility for the development of the whole new branch of computer-aided decision support systems. Such systems aim at helping physicians to identify possibly malignant abnormalities more accurately. At the beginning of this paper, we give a brief introduction to the history of endoscopy, followed by introducing the main types of endoscopes which emerged so far (flexible endoscope, wireless capsule endoscope, and confocal laser endomicroscope). We then give a brief introduction to computer-aided decision support systems specifically targeted at endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract. Then we present general facts and figures concerning computer-aided decision support systems and summarize work specifically targeted at computer-aided decision support in the gastrointestinal tract. This summary is followed by a discussion of some common issues concerning the approaches reviewed and suggestions of possible ways to resolve them.

  8. Newly developed biodegradable stents for benign gastrointestinal tract stenoses: a preliminary clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Masashi; Nitta, Norihisa; Furukawa, Akira; Andoh, Akira; Saito, Yasuharu; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    We developed an Ultraflex-type stent by knitting polylactic acid monofilaments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stent's clinical usefulness for treating benign stenoses in the gastrointestinal tract. The radial force of the biodegradable stent was compared with those of commercially available metallic stents. The measured radial force of the new biodegradable stent was higher than that of commercially available metallic stents. The biodegradable stents were applied in 2 patients with benign gastrointestinal stenoses. The first patient was a 19-year-old female with esophageal stenosis, due to drinking of caustic potash in an attempt to commit suicide. The second patient was a 75-year-old male who had a stenosis at the anastomotic site after esophageal cancer resection. In both cases, the placement of the stent was performed successfully, and the patients' complaints improved immediately after stent placement. There were no complications during stent placement. The stenosis had not recurred at the six-month follow-up examination. In conclusion, the newly developed biodegradable stents were useful in treating benign stenoses of the alimentary tract. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Phase III study of pentosanpolysulfate (PPS) in treatment of gastrointestinal tract sequelae of radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilepich, Miljenko V; Paulus, R; St Clair, William; Brasacchio, Ralph A; Rostock, Robert; Miller, Robert C

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pentosanpolysulfate (PPS) in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract sequelae of radiotherapy. Eligible patients were those with grade 1 to 3 radiation related proctitis, diarrhea and/or melena. At least 4 weeks had to elapse since the completion of the radiotherapy course. Patients with bleeding diathesis or ulcers, and patients receiving anticoagulants or chemotherapy were excluded. Stratification criteria included the type of sequelae (proctitis, diarrhea, melena), the severity grade and the onset (3 months post-RT). Patients were randomized to one of the following arms: 100 mg PPS 3 times per day (300 mg/day), 200 mg PPS 3 times per day (600 mg/day), or placebo 3 times per day. If there was no improvement in symptoms after 2 months, the protocol treatment was discontinued. If the symptoms improved or resolved, the protocol treatment was continued for additional 4 months. Patients under treatment were evaluated monthly, than every 2 to 3 months for the next 18 months. A symptom assessment questionnaire was used to measure quality of life endpoints. From June 1999 to March 2001 180 patients were accessioned from 34 institutions. A total of 168 were analyzable. Neither the best observed response within 3 months for the entire population, nor the response rate within sequelae category or the quality of life measures differed significantly between the 3 arms of the study. Administration of PPS has not been associated with an improvement in the clinical course of radiation related morbidity of the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. [Cocaine smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract--the case report with the review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Hydzik, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Body-packing is the way of psychoactive substances smuggling by swallowing of carefully prepared packages with drugs into the gastrointestinal tract or by insertion them into the vagina or the rectum, especially in order to avoid finding them by the custom service. Cocaine, as well as opiates, is the one of the most often smuggled drugs by so called body-packers. In the present study the first case of the body-packer from Malopolska region in Poland, who was observed in the Toxicology Department of the Collegium Medicum UJ, was described. The 29-year-old man swallowed 60 packages containing cocaine with a total net weight of about 500 grams. The plain abdominal radiography revealed multiple shadows of foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract, but the results of blood and urine cocaine measurements were negative. During the 37-hours stay in our department the patient was monitored (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature), laxatives and oral fluids were administered. All the packages were evacuated through the natural way and it was followed up by the control abdominal radiography. No symptoms of acute cocaine intoxication or any other complications were observed. According to the case there is also the thorough review of literature presented including the kinds of body-packing, the diagnostic methods used in recognizing of body-packers and the ways of their treatment taking into consideration the conservative management as well as surgical methods.

  11. The inside mystery of jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhull, A K; Kaushal, V; Dhankhar, R; Atri, R; Singh, H; Marwah, N

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are malignant and rare form of soft tissue sarcoma of the digestive tract. The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors is very low Kramer et al. 2005 Jejunal GISTs are extremely rare. Here we present a rare case of jejunal GIST with unusually large size at presentation. The patient presented with severe abdomen pain, exophytic growth, and dimorphic anemia. Surgical resection of the tumor was carried out, and operative findings revealed a 15 × 10 cm growth, arising from serosal surface of jejunum, at the antimesenteric surface. Diagnosis in this case was made by subjecting the resected specimen to immunohistochemical analysis. In view of large size of the resected tumor, and high-risk histopathological features, imatinib mesylate 400 mg once daily was given as adjuvant chemotherapy. Patient is asymptomatic without any evidence of tumor recurrence after six months of postoperative followup. Imatinib as such is recommended in metastatic, residual or recurrent cases of GISTs or which are surgically not removable; however, recent recommendations suggests the use of imatinib mesylate after radical surgery in high-risk cases, because it has shown a significant decrease in the recurrence rate, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also approved the use of imatinib as adjuvant therapy after complete resection of localized, primary GIST.

  12. The Inside Mystery of Jejunal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Dhull

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are malignant and rare form of soft tissue sarcoma of the digestive tract. The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors is very low Kramer et al. 2005 Jejunal GISTs are extremely rare. Here we present a rare case of jejunal GIST with unusually large size at presentation. The patient presented with severe abdomen pain, exophytic growth, and dimorphic anemia. Surgical resection of the tumor was carried out, and operative findings revealed a 15 × 10 cm growth, arising from serosal surface of jejunum, at the antimesenteric surface. Diagnosis in this case was made by subjecting the resected specimen to immunohistochemical analysis. In view of large size of the resected tumor, and high-risk histopathological features, imatinib mesylate 400 mg once daily was given as adjuvant chemotherapy. Patient is asymptomatic without any evidence of tumor recurrence after six months of postoperative followup. Imatinib as such is recommended in metastatic, residual or recurrent cases of GISTs or which are surgically not removable; however, recent recommendations suggests the use of imatinib mesylate after radical surgery in high-risk cases, because it has shown a significant decrease in the recurrence rate, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA has also approved the use of imatinib as adjuvant therapy after complete resection of localized, primary GIST.

  13. Superficial leiomyomas of the gastrointestinal tract with interstitial cells of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevska, Vesna; Qerimi, Adelina; Basheska, Neli; Stojkova, Elena; Janevski, Vlado; Jovanovic, Rubens; Zhivadinovik, Julija; Spasevska, Liljana

    2015-01-01

    Some authors suggest common origin of gastrointestinal stromal tumors from stem cells, which may show diverse differentiation. There are reports in which cells morphologically identical to the interstitial cells of Cajal are found in deep leiomyomas. The aim of this study was to demonstrate CD117 positive cells in superficial gastrointestinal (GI) leiomyomas and to find other cells that would suggest diverse differentiation in histologically typical leiomyoma. We analyzed 8 cases of superficial leiomyomas and one deep leiomyoma, received in our institutions as endoscopically or surgically obtained material. The tumor sections were immunohistochemicaly stained with CD117, CD34, NF, S100, αSMA, desmin, caldesmon and mast cell antigen. All leiomyomas showed diffuse positivity for αSMA, caldesmon and desmin. All of them had CD117 and CD34 positive cells morphologically identical to the interstitial cells of Cajal between smooth muscle fibers, 5 had S-100 and NF positive cells and 2 showed positivity for GFAP. The cells were found in different quantity; they were usually diffusely scattered through the tumors without predilection site, forming small groups in some areas. CD177, CD34, S-100 and NF positive cells are present in superficial leiomyomas and they may suggest common origin of GI stromal tumors.

  14. Preoperative predictive factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors: analysis of 375 surgically resected gastric subepithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yang Won; Park, Ha Na; Min, Byung-Hoon; Choi, Dongil; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kim, Sung

    2015-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and non-GIST subepithelial tumors (SETs) account for about 75 and 25% of gastric hypoechoic SETs ≥2 cm, respectively. Therefore, identifying preoperative predictive factors for GISTs are required to refine surgical indications. We performed a retrospective review of 375 surgically resected gastric hypoechoic SETs ≥2 cm. Demographic data and tumor characteristics based on upper endoscopy and CT findings were compared between GIST and non-GIST SETs originating from muscularis propria layer (leiomyomas, Schwannomas, glomus tumors, and ectopic pancreas). In cardia, leiomyomas were found twice more frequently than GISTs (63.6 versus 31.8%). Perilesional lymph node enlargement (PLNE) was found only in patients with GIST or Schwannomas. Patients with GIST showed a significantly lower rate of PLNE than those with Schwannomas (3.5 versus 29.0%). In multivariate analysis, tumor site outside cardia (odds ratio, 9.157), absence of PLNE (odds ratio, 11.519), old age, large tumor size, exophytic growth pattern, and ulceration or dimpling were identified as independent preoperative predictive factors for GISTs versus non-GIST SETs. The effort for preoperative pathologic diagnosis such as endosonography-guided tissue sampling might be positively considered for SETs at cardia and SETs with PLNE where the possibility of GIST is low.

  15. Pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlenterie, Myrella; Flucke, Uta; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Timmers, Henri J L M; Gastmeier, Joerg; Aust, Daniela E; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Wesseling, Pieter; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2013-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis I may rarely predispose to pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A 59-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis I presented with pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland. During surgery, 3 gastrointestinal stromal tumors adjacent to the stomach and small intestine were removed. Despite appropriate thrombosis prophylaxis, the patient died of a pulmonary embolus 2 days postoperatively. The second patient, a 55-year-old man with neurofibromatosis I and bilateral pheochromocytomas, had several small gastrointestinal stromal tumors adjacent to the jejunum during surgery. A review of the literature was conducted to identify patients with neurofibromatosis I with concurrence of pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors and to define the specific clinical features of these patients. In addition to our 2 patients, 12 other cases of neurofibromatosis I with concomitant occurrence of pheochromocytomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have been reported. Pheochromocytomas had adrenal locations in all patients. Two of the 14 patients had a mixed pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroma. In 4 of the 14 patients, gastrointestinal stromal tumors were located along the stomach. The gastrointestinal stromal tumors in our 2 patients showed no somatic mutations in KIT and PDGFRA genes. A pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 4 patients. The simultaneous occurrence of pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor should be considered in all patients with neurofibromatosis I presenting with an abdominal mass with symptoms suggestive of pheochromocytoma. Therefore, a pheochromocytoma should be excluded before a patient with neurofibromatosis I undergoes surgery for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor because an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma carries a high risk of life-threatening cardiovascular complications during surgery. Finally, this combination may be associated with an increased risk for thromboembolic events, but more studies are necessary to

  16. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meirong; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-06-01

    The quantification and community of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) were examined by using real-time PCR and paired-end Illumina sequencing. The quantification of bacteria showed that the number of bacteria in jejunum and rectum was significantly lower than that in colon and cecum (P < 0.05). A total of 1,872,590 sequences was remained after quality-filtering and 50,948 OTUs were identified at the 97 % similarity level. The dominant phyla in the GI tract of red kangaroos were identified as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the level of genus, the samples from different parts of GI tract clustered into three groups: stomach, small intestine (jejunum and ileum) and large intestine (cecum and rectum). Prevotella (29.81 %) was the most dominant genus in the stomach and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in other parts of GI tract. In the small intestine, Bifidobacterium (33.04, 12.14 %) and Streptococcus (22.90, 19.16 %) were dominant genera. Unclassified Ruminococcaceae was the most dominant family in large intestine and the total relative abundance of unclassified bacteria was above 50 %. In identified genera, Dorea was the most important variable to discriminate large intestine and it was significantly higher in cecum than in stomach, small intestine and colon (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium (21.89 %) was the only dominant genus in colon. Future work on culture in vitro and genome sequencing of those unidentified bacteria might give us insight into the function of these microorganisms in the GI tract. In addition, the comparison of the bacterial community in the foregut of kangaroos and other herbivores and the rumen might give us insight into the mechanism of fiber degradation and help us exploit approaches to improve the feed efficiency and subsequently, reduce the methane emission from herbivores.

  17. Distribution Dynamics of Recombinant Lactobacillus in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Sujin; Zhu, Libin; Zhuang, Qiang; Wang, Lucia; Xu, Pin-Xian; Itoh, Keiji; Holzman, Ian R.; Lin, Jing

    2013-01-01

    One approach to deliver therapeutic agents, especially proteins, to the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is to use commensal bacteria as a carrier. Genus Lactobacillus is an attractive candidate for use in this approach. However, a system for expressing exogenous proteins at a high level has been lacking in Lactobacillus. Moreover, it will be necessary to introduce the recombinant Lactobacillus into the GI tract, ideally by oral administration. Whether orally administered Lactobacillus can reach and reside in the GI tract has not been explored in neonates. In this study, we have examined these issues in neonatal rats. To achieve a high level of protein expression in Lactobacillus, we tested the impact of three promoters and two backbones on protein expression levels using mRFP1, a red fluorescent protein, as a reporter. We found that a combination of an L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) promoter of Lactobacillus sakei with a backbone from pLEM415 yielded the highest level of reporter expression. When this construct was used to transform Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus acidophilus, high levels of mRFP1 were detected in all these species and colonies of transformed Lactobacillus appeared pink under visible light. To test whether orally administered Lactobacillus can be retained in the GI tract of neonates, we fed the recombinant Lactobacillus casei to neonatal rats. We found that about 3% of the bacteria were retained in the GI tract of the rats at 24 h after oral feeding with more recombinant Lactobacillus in the stomach and small intestine than in the cecum and colon. No mortality was observed throughout this study with Lactobacillus. In contrast, all neonatal rats died within 24 hours after fed with transformed E. coli. Taken together, our results indicate that Lactobacillus has the potential to be used as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to neonates. PMID:23544119

  18. 'Horses for courses' in the upper gastrointestinal tract: a rational approach to diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    In Australia, the number of barium studies performed in teaching hospitals has fallen markedly while in the community at large a 113% increase occurred in the number of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed between 1980 and 1986. Protagonists of primary endoscopy cite studies that report on the superiority of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in patients with dyspepsia and related symptoms but several studies have shown that upper gastrointestinal barium studies miss very few important lesions. Fibreoptic endoscopy and radiology each have strengths and weaknesses which determine their respective places in the investigation of the different symptom complexes that are referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Double-contrast barium-meal examination is the suggested imaging modality for simple dyspepsia, for the oesophagitis-reflux-hiatus hernia complex and for dysphagia; while oesophagogastroduodenoscopy is the method of choice for the investigation of complicated dyspepsia, haematemesis and melaena. In patients who have previously undergone gastric surgery, endoscopy and radiology are complementary procedures - the former more accurate in the diagnosis of recurrent disease like ulceration, and the later useful for the delineation of anatomical changes. The time for the across-the-board replacement of barium studies by primary endoscopy has not yet arrived. 57 refs

  19. Staphylococcal enterotoxins in the Etiopathogenesis of Mucosal Autoimmunity within the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryAnn Principato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs are the products of Staphylococcus aureus and are recognized as the causative agents of classical food poisoning in humans following the consumption of contaminated food. While illness evoked by ingestion of the SE or its producer organism in tainted food are often self-limited, our current understanding regarding the evolution of S. aureus provokes the utmost concern. The organism and its associated toxins, has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states including infections of the skin, heart, sinuses, inflammatory gastrointestinal disease, toxic shock, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The intricate relationship between the various subsets of immunocompetent T cells and accessory cells and the ingested material found within the gastrointestinal tract present daunting challenges to the maintenance of immunologic homeostasis. Dysregulation of the intricate balances within this environment has the potential for extreme consequences within the host, some of which are long-lived. The focus of this review is to evaluate the relevance of staphylococcal enterotoxin in the context of mucosal immunity, and the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune disease.

  20. Angiosarcoma Involving Solid Organs and the Gastrointestinal Tract with Life-Threatening Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Maeyashiki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of angiosarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, lung and vertebrae, as well as bulky dissemination in the pleuroperitoneal membranes. A 72-year-old man with no history of illness became aware of melena. Laboratory findings revealed anemia, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple reddish nodules in the stomach and duodenum. However, biopsy specimens showed no evidence of histological features. Computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed space-occupying lesions in the spleen, liver and vertebrae. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy of the spleen and repeated endoscopic biopsy of the stomach. We performed laparoscopic splenectomy to avoid rupture of the involved spleen. Due to continuous gastrointestinal bleeding, double balloon endoscopy was performed and multiple bleeding lesions were detected throughout the small intestine. Surgical hemostasis was performed by partial enterectomy, but anemia continued to worsen. Therefore, we conducted transcatheter arterial embolization. Despite attempting several modalities and frequent daily blood transfusion, the anemia did not improve, and the patient expired due to hemorrhagic shock. Subsequent autopsy revealed the cause of death as rupture and bleeding due to disseminated involvement of the small intestine.

  1. Apparition of iodinated contrast agents in twin neonatal gastrointestinal tracts after maternal contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kato, Zenichiro; Kondo, Naomi; Orii, Kenji E.; Morimoto, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of the appearance of iodinated contrast agents in the same locations of twins' neonatal gastrointestinal tracts 1 day after maternal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT examination had been performed on the expectant mother for suspected deep venous thrombosis on the day previous to the twin delivery. At 23 h after the CT examination and after cesarean section, iodinated contrast agents appeared in the same place in the twins' neonatal gastrointestinal tracts, mainly in the ascending colon, on plain abdominal radiographs. Radiologists, obstetricians, and pediatricians should understand the mechanism of appearance of iodinated contrast agents in fetal gastrointestinal tracts when the expectant mother had been given iodinated contrast agents intravenously shortly before delivery. (author)

  2. Educational Effects of Radiation Reduction During Fluoroscopic Examination of the Adult Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moon Hyung; Jung, Seung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Byun, Jae Young

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of educating radiology residents and radiographers about radiation exposure on reduction of dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time in diagnostic fluoroscopy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in adult patients. In April 2015, we offered 1 hour of education to radiology residents and radiographers on how to reduce radiation doses during fluoroscopic examinations. Fluoroscopic examinations of the GI tracts of adult patients performed from June 2014 to February 2016 were evaluated. A total of 2326 fluoroscopic examinations (779 and 1547 examinations before and after education, respectively) were performed, including 10 kinds of examinations. Fluoroscopy time and DAP were collected. A radiologist evaluated the number of spot images, captured images, cine video, captured video, and the use of collimation or magnification. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to assess the difference in fluoroscopy-related factors before and after education. Median DAP decreased significantly after education, from 21.1 to 18.2 Gy∙cm 2 (P < .001) in all examinations. After education DAP decreased significantly in defecography (P < .001) and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly in upper gastrointestinal series with water-soluble contrast (P < .001). Spot and cine images that increased the radiation dose were used less frequently after education than before in some kinds of examinations, especially in defecography (P < .001). More images were collimated after education in barium swallow than before (P < .001). Educating radiologist residents and radiographers could reduce DAP in fluoroscopy examinations of the GI tract in adult patients. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeting gastrointestinal stromal tumors: the role of regorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brett Schroeder,1 Zula Li,2,3 Lee D Cranmer,2,3 Robin L Jones,4 Seth M Pollack2,3 1College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI, 2Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, 3Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 4Royal Marsden Hospital, Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a devastating disease in the metastatic setting, but its natural history has been dramatically altered by the development of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, most notably imatinib. Although patients with advanced GIST live much longer today than they did in the past, imatinib-refractory disease remains a tremendous problem. For disease that is refractory to imatinib and sunitinib, regorafenib is an excellent option. In this review, we discuss the biology and clinical work establishing regorafenib as the standard of care for advanced GIST refractory to both imatinib and sunitinib. Keywords: regorafenib, GIST, refractory, imatinib

  4. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Trusov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the “macrolevel” that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the “mesolevel” of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown.

  5. Mammalian gastrointestinal tract parameters modulating the integrity, surface properties, and absorption of food-relevant nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, Susann; Carlander, David; Fasano, Alessio; Momcilovic, Dragan; Scimeca, Joseph A; Waldman, W James; Gombau, Lourdes; Tsytsikova, Lyubov; Canady, Richard; Pereira, Dora I A; Lefebvre, David E

    2015-01-01

    Many natural chemicals in food are in the nanometer size range, and the selective uptake of nutrients with nanoscale dimensions by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a normal physiological process. Novel engineered nanomaterials (NMs) can bring various benefits to food, e.g., enhancing nutrition. Assessing potential risks requires an understanding of the stability of these entities in the GI lumen, and an understanding of whether or not they can be absorbed and thus become systemically available. Data are emerging on the mammalian in vivo absorption of engineered NMs composed of chemicals with a range of properties, including metal, mineral, biochemical macromolecules, and lipid-based entities. In vitro and in silico fluid incubation data has also provided some evidence of changes in particle stability, aggregation, and surface properties following interaction with luminal factors present in the GI tract. The variables include physical forces, osmotic concentration, pH, digestive enzymes, other food, and endogenous biochemicals, and commensal microbes. Further research is required to fill remaining data gaps on the effects of these parameters on NM integrity, physicochemical properties, and GI absorption. Knowledge of the most influential luminal parameters will be essential when developing models of the GI tract to quantify the percent absorption of food-relevant engineered NMs for risk assessment. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The gastrointestinal tract – a central organ of cannabinoid signaling in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenoehrl, Carina; Taschler, Ulrike; Storr, Martin; Schicho, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose In ancient medicine, extracts of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa were used against diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Today, our knowledge of the ingredients of the Cannabis plant has remarkably advanced enabling us to use a variety of herbal and synthetic cannabinoid compounds to study the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a physiologic entity that controls tissue homeostasis with the help of endogenously produced cannabinoids and their receptors. After many anecdotal reports suggested beneficial effects of Cannabis in GI disorders, it was not surprising to discover that the GI tract accommodates and expresses all the components of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, participate in the regulation of GI motility, secretion, and the maintenance of the epithelial barrier integrity. In addition, other receptors, such as the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and the G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), are important participants in the actions of cannabinoids in the gut and critically determine the course of bowel inflammation and colon cancer. The following review summarizes important and recent findings on the role of cannabinoid receptors and their ligands in the GI tract with emphasis on GI disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. PMID:27561826

  7. Application of endoscopic hemoclips for nonvariceal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shi-Bin; Gong, Ai-Xia; Leng, Jing; Ma, Jing; Ge, Lin-Mei

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate acute nonvariceal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and evaluate the effects of endoscopic hemoclipping. METHODS: Sixty-eight cases of acute nonvariceal bleeding in the upper GI tract were given endoscopic treatment with hemoclip application. Clinical data, endoscopic findings, and the effects of the therapy were evaluated. RESULTS: The 68 cases (male:female = 42:26, age from 9 to 70 years, average 54.4) presented with hematemesis in 26 cases (38.2%), melena in nine cases (13.3%), and both in 33 cases (48.5%). The causes of the bleeding included gastric ulcer (29 cases), duodenal ulcer (11 cases), Dieulafoy’s lesion (11 cases), Mallory-Weiss syndrome (six cases), post-operative (three cases), post-polypectomy bleeding (five cases), and post-sphincterotomy bleeding (three cases); 42 cases had active bleeding. The mean number of hemoclips applied was four. Permanent hemostasis was obtained by hemoclip application in 59 cases; 6 cases required emergent surgery (three cases had peptic ulcers, one had Dieulafoy’s lesion, and two were caused by sphincterotomy); three patients died (two had Dieulafoy’s lesion and one was caused by sphincterotomy); and one had recurrent bleeding with Dieulafoy’s lesion 10 mo later, but in a different location. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic hemoclip application was an effective and safe method for acute nonvariceal bleeding in the upper GI tract with satisfactory outcomes. PMID:19750577

  8. Effect of inhaled 90Y in fused clay particles on the gastrointestinal tract of beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Barnes, J.E.; Hobbs, C.H.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1974-01-01

    Ten Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 90 Y in fused clay particles to study the radiation dose to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and effects resulting from clearance of the upper respiratory tract after the deposition of high initial body burdens of inhaled 90 Y. Focal colonic lesions were found in 2 dogs, 8 and 12 days after inhalation of 90 Y which resulted in transient GI burdens (GIB) of 18 and 34 mCi. Similar, but less severe, lesions were found in 2 dogs sacrificed 27 days after exposure with GIBs of 18 and 32 mCi. No GI lesions were found in 6 dogs with GIBs of 9 to 18 mCi. Two of the 10 dogs had thermoluminescent dosimeters surgically implanted in the GI tract lumen and submucosa. Highest radiation doses were measured in the colon. One dog, with measured doses to the colon of 3200 to 5700 rads, had focal colitis when sacrificed 8 days after exposure. The other dog, with doses to colon of 1000 to 2800 rads had no GI lesions at sacrifice 8 days after exposure. Although focal colitis was found, no dogs died due primarily to GI injury. Other significant findings were nasal dermatitis and radiation pneumonitis. The latter was more severe and life threatening than the GI injury. (U.S.)

  9. Radiological spectrum of late sequelae of corrosive injury to upper gastrointestinal tract. A pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Thapa, B.R.; Singh, K.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the radiological spectrum of sequelae of corrosive acid and alkali injury to the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract using barium contrast examination. Barium contrast radiographic films of 155 patients with a history of corrosive ingestion, acid in 120 and alkali in 35 patients with grade 2b and 3 injury on initial endoscopy, were retrospectively evaluated. Barium contrast examination of the upper GI tract was performed in the course of follow-up, beyond 3 weeks of corrosive ingestion. The esophagus was involved in 131 patients and the stomach in 74. Fifty patients had simultaneous involvement of esophagus and stomach. Radiological findings in the esophagus were solitary or multiple strictures of varying length, intramural pseudo diverticula, and carcinoma in long-standing corrosive injury. The stomach showed cicatrization, predominantly involving the antrum, linitis plastica type deformity with multiple pseudo diverticula. There was no difference in the radiological findings as to the type of corrosive ingested. Barium examination of the upper GI tract is useful in the evaluation of late sequelae of corrosive injury (acid/alkali). There was no difference in the radiological findings as to the type of corrosive ingested. Thus, contrary to general belief, we found that acid and alkali damage both the esophagus and the stomach with equal degree of severity

  10. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from experimental studies are limited with regard to comparability and clinical translation. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched for experimental studies investigating anastomotic healing in the lower...

  11. Adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy in gastrointestinal tumors; Adjuvante Chemo- und Strahlentherapie bei gastrointestinalen Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendler, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Feldmann, H.J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Fink, U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Siewert, J.R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik

    1995-04-21

    In modern surgical oncology, adjuvant therapies are important complementary strategies. In local advanced carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, 5-year survival data are still disappointing despite standardized surgery. In this context, it has to be differentiated between adjuvant therapy following complete tumor exstirpation (so-called UICC R{sub 0} resection) and additive therapies following incomplete tumor resections (UICC R{sub 1} or R{sub 2} resection). Modalities in the adjuvant setting are chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the combined radio-/chemotherapy. In esophageal and gastric cancer there is up to now no benefit of postoperative adjuvant therapy. In pancreatic cancer, there are studies indicating a benefit of combined radio-/chemotherapy after complete tumor resection. A standard adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment is proven in colon cancer stage III (Dukes C) with levamisole and 5-FU. Completely resected rectal carcinoma should be treated postoperatively with combined radio-/chemotherapy. In the common clinical or practical setting, adjuvant therapy is indicated only in locally advanced gastrointestinal tumors following R{sub 0} resection. Postoperative therapy following incomplete tumor resection has its reason only in a palliative intention. (orig.) [Deutsch] Adjuvante Therapiestrategien sind wichtige flankierende Massnahmen der modernen onkologischen Chirurgie, da u.a. die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensquoten bei lokal fortgeschrittenen Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltraktes nach wie vor unbefriedingend sind. Dabei muss grundsaetzlich zwischen adjuvanten Behandlungen nach kompletter Tumorexstirpation (UICC-R{sub 0}-Resektion) und der additiven Therapie nach palliativer Resektion (UICC-R{sub 1}- oder -R{sub 2}-Resektion) unterschieden werden. Als Modalitaeten kommen Chemotherapie, Strahlentherapie und ihre Kombination in Frage. Bei Oesophagus- und Magenkarzinomen kann derzeit keine gueltige Empfehlung zur adjuvanten Therapie gegeben werden. Die Radio

  12. Canine and human gastrointestinal stromal tumors display similar mutations in c-KIT exon 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory-Bryson, Emmalena; Bartlett, Elizabeth; Kiupel, Matti; Hayes, Schantel; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are common mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and dogs. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these tumors. This study evaluated the role of c-KIT in canine GISTs; specifically, we investigated activating mutations in exons 8, 9, 11, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA), all of which have been implicated in human GISTs. Seventeen canine GISTs all confirmed to be positive for KIT immunostaining were studied. Exons 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA, were amplified from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Of these seventeen cases, six amplicons of exon 11 of c-KIT showed aberrant bands on gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed heterozygous in-frame deletions in six cases. The mutations include two different but overlapping six base pair deletions. Exons 8, 9, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA had no abnormalities detected by electrophoresis and sequencing did not reveal any mutations, other than synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in exon 11 of c-KIT and exons 12 and 14 of PDGFRA. The deletion mutations detected in canine GISTs are similar to those previously found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors in our laboratory as well as to those reported in human GISTs. Interestingly, none of the other c-KIT or PDGFRA exons showed any abnormalities in our cases. This finding underlines the critical importance of c-KIT in the pathophysiology of canine GISTs. The expression of KIT and the identification of these activating mutations in c-KIT implicate KIT in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Our results indicate that mutations in c-KIT may be of prognostic significance and that targeting KIT may be a rational approach to treatment of these malignant tumors. This study further

  13. The distribution of advanced glycation end products and their receptor in the gastrointestinal tract in the rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to provide a basis for further study of the association between AGE/RAGE and diabetic GI dysfunction. METHODS: The distribution of AGEs [N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)......To investigate the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to provide a basis for further study of the association between AGE/RAGE and diabetic GI dysfunction. METHODS: The distribution of AGEs [N epsilon...

  14. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, somatic mutations and candidate genetic risk variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M O'Brien

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare but treatable soft tissue sarcomas. Nearly all GISTs have somatic mutations in either the KIT or PDGFRA gene, but there are no known inherited genetic risk factors. We assessed the relationship between KIT/PDGFRA mutations and select deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 279 participants from a clinical trial of adjuvant imatinib mesylate. Given previous evidence that certain susceptibility loci and carcinogens are associated with characteristic mutations, or "signatures" in other cancers, we hypothesized that the characteristic somatic mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes in GIST tumors may similarly be mutational signatures that are causally linked to specific mutagens or susceptibility loci. As previous epidemiologic studies suggest environmental risk factors such as dioxin and radiation exposure may be linked to sarcomas, we chose 208 variants in 39 candidate genes related to DNA repair and dioxin metabolism or response. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between each variant and 7 categories of tumor mutation using logistic regression. We also evaluated gene-level effects using the sequence kernel association test (SKAT. Although none of the association p-values were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, SNPs in CYP1B1 were strongly associated with KIT exon 11 codon 557-8 deletions (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 for rs2855658 and OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7 for rs1056836 and wild type GISTs (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8 for rs1800440 and OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9 for rs1056836. CYP1B1 was also associated with these mutations categories in the SKAT analysis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. Other potential risk variants included GSTM1, RAD23B and ERCC2. This preliminary analysis of inherited genetic risk factors for GIST offers some clues about the disease's genetic

  15. MR imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with half-fourier single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Houjun; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Isogai, Satoshi; Kaneko, Masao

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to implement a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique combined with concentrated milk ingestion for depicting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and detecting gastrointestinal motility and transit. The half-Fourier SSFSE (single-shot fast spin echo) sequence was optimized on the basis of a phantom study. In order to determine the feasibility of milk ingestion as a substitute for contrast medium, ten human volunteers were examined with SSFSE after two types of liquid ingestion (i.e., milk and water). The snapshot images provided subsecond data acquisition for each coronal plane, allowing visualization of peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract in an almost real-time fashion, without motion-related image degradation, as would normally be seen using conventional MRI. There was no significant difference between concentrated milk and water in terms of depiction of the upper gastrointestinal tract; however, 10 min and 30 min after ingestion, concentrated milk showed better delineation of the intestine than that observed after water ingestion (p<0.01). MR gastrointestinal imaging is a non-invasive method that allows gastrointestinal depiction as well as analysis of motility and passage. Especially with concentrated milk ingestion, the distal intestines were well depicted with adequate contrast filling and distention. (author)

  16. MR imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with half-fourier single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boku, Houjun; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Isogai, Satoshi; Kaneko, Masao [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Our objective was to implement a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique combined with concentrated milk ingestion for depicting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and detecting gastrointestinal motility and transit. The half-Fourier SSFSE (single-shot fast spin echo) sequence was optimized on the basis of a phantom study. In order to determine the feasibility of milk ingestion as a substitute for contrast medium, ten human volunteers were examined with SSFSE after two types of liquid ingestion (i.e., milk and water). The snapshot images provided subsecond data acquisition for each coronal plane, allowing visualization of peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract in an almost real-time fashion, without motion-related image degradation, as would normally be seen using conventional MRI. There was no significant difference between concentrated milk and water in terms of depiction of the upper gastrointestinal tract; however, 10 min and 30 min after ingestion, concentrated milk showed better delineation of the intestine than that observed after water ingestion (p<0.01). MR gastrointestinal imaging is a non-invasive method that allows gastrointestinal depiction as well as analysis of motility and passage. Especially with concentrated milk ingestion, the distal intestines were well depicted with adequate contrast filling and distention. (author)

  17. Extensive horizontal transfer of core genome genes between two Lactobacillus species found in the gastrointestinal tract

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    Maguin Emmanuelle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While genes that are conserved between related bacterial species are usually thought to have evolved along with the species, phylogenetic trees reconstructed for individual genes may contradict this picture and indicate horizontal gene transfer. Individual trees are often not resolved with high confidence, however, and in that case alternative trees are generally not considered as contradicting the species tree, although not confirming it either. Here we conduct an in-depth analysis of 401 protein phylogenetic trees inferred with varying levels of confidence for three lactobacilli from the acidophilus complex. At present the relationship between these bacteria, isolated from environments as diverse as the gastrointestinal tract (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus johnsonii and yogurt (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, is ambiguous due to contradictory phenotypical and 16S rRNA based classifications. Results Among the 401 phylogenetic trees, those that could be reconstructed with high confidence support the 16S-rRNA tree or one alternative topology in an astonishing 3:2 ratio, while the third possible topology is practically absent. Lowering the confidence threshold for trees to be taken into consideration does not significantly affect this ratio, and therefore suggests that gene transfer may have affected as much as 40% of the core genome genes. Gene function bias suggests that the 16S rRNA phylogeny of the acidophilus complex, which indicates that L. acidophilus and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus are the closest related of these three species, is correct. A novel approach of comparison of interspecies protein divergence data employed in this study allowed to determine that gene transfer most likely took place between the lineages of the two species found in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion This case-study reports an unprecedented level of phylogenetic incongruence, presumably resulting from extensive

  18. The dynamic distribution of porcine microbiota across different ages and gastrointestinal tract segments.

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    Wenjing Zhao

    Full Text Available Metagenome of gut microbes has been implicated in metabolism, immunity, and health maintenance of its host. However, in most of previous studies, the microbiota was sampled from feces instead of gastrointestinal (GI tract. In this study, we compared the microbial populations from feces at four different developmental stages and contents of four intestinal segments at maturity to examine the dynamic shift of microbiota in pigs and investigated whether adult porcine fecal samples could be used to represent samples of the GI tract. Analysis results revealed that the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes from the feces of the older pigs (2-, 3-, 6- month were 10 times higher compared to those from piglets (1-month. As the pigs matured, so did it seem that the composition of microbiome became more stable in feces. In adult pigs, there were significant differences in microbial profiles between the contents of the small intestine and large intestine. The dominant genera in the small intestine belonged to aerobe or facultative anaerobe categories, whereas the main genera in the large intestine were all anaerobes. Compared to the GI tract, the composition of microbiome was quite different in feces. The microbial profile in large intestine was more similar to feces than those in the small intestine, with the similarity of 0.75 and 0.38 on average, respectively. Microbial functions, predicted by metagenome profiles, showed the enrichment associated with metabolism pathway and metabolic disease in large intestine and feces while higher abundance of infectious disease, immune function disease, and cancer in small intestine. Fecal microbes also showed enriched function in metabolic pathways compared to microbes from pooled gut contents. Our study extended the understanding of dynamic shift of gut microbes during pig growth and also characterized the profiles of bacterial communities across GI tracts of mature pigs.

  19. Upper Urinary Tract Tumors: Which Diagnostic Methods Are Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruschke, Matthias; Kram, Wolfgang; Zimpfer, Annette; Kundt, Günther; Hakenberg, Oliver W

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed the data of patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) tumors to evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures. This retrospective study evaluated tumor characteristics, imaging procedures, epidemiological and follow-up data of 113 patients. We analyzed the importance of non-invasive and endoscopic diagnosis in addition to imaging as well as the influence of stage and grade on recurrence rate. Most tumors were urothelial carcinomas (92.9%). The cardinal symptoms were hematuria (40.7%), flank pain (2.7%), and urinary obstruction (14.2%). Forty-seven patients received intravenous urograms (IVUs), 57 retrograde ureteropyelography (RUP), 89 CTs, 6 an MRI. The correct positive tumor identification was reached by IVU in 27/47 patients, by RUP in 50/57, by CT in 74/89, and by MRI in 3/6 patients representing sensitivities of 57.4% (IVU), 87.7% (RUP), 83.1% (CT), and 50% (MRI). Sixty-four patients had urine cytology, which was correctly positive in 60.9% and 56 had a diagnostic ureterorenoscopy, which was correctly positive in 83.9%. During follow-up more than 20% of patients developed a recurrence. In patients with hematuria and flank pain, UUT must be considered a differential diagnosis. UUT to the extent of 76.6% showed more invasive growth (>Ta). Thus, rapid and efficient diagnosis based primarily on imaging is required. Contrast CT scan seems to be the imaging modality with the best performance. However, often only a combination of diagnostic procedures gives a certain diagnosis. Due to the high recurrence rate, close follow-up is needed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Survival of gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients in the imatinib era: life raft group observational registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Call, Jerry; Walentas, Christopher D; Eickhoff, Jens C; Scherzer, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, prior to routine immunohistochemical staining and the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, were often mistaken for neoplasms of smooth muscle origin such as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas or leiomyoblastomas. Since the advent of imatinib, GIST has been further delineated into adult- (KIT or PDGFRα mutations) and pediatric- (typified by wild-type GIST/succinate dehydrogenase deficiencies) types. Using varying gender ratios at age of diagnosis we sought to elucidate prognostic factors for each sub-type and their impact on overall survival. This is a long-term retrospective analysis of a large observational study of an international open cohort of patients from a GIST research and patient advocacy's lifetime registry. Demographic and disease-specific data were voluntarily supplied by its members from May 2000-October 2010; the primary outcome was overall survival. Associations between survival and prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses, with backward selection at P < 0.05 used to identify independent factors. Inflections in gender ratios by age at diagnosis in years delineated two distinct groups: above and below age 35 at diagnosis. Closer analysis confirmed the above 35 age group as previously reported for adult-type GIST, typified by mixed primary tumor sites and gender, KIT or PDGFRα mutations, and shorter survival times. The pediatric group (< age 18 at diagnosis) was also as previously reported with predominantly stomach tumors, females, wild-type GIST or SDH mutations, and extended survival. 'Young adults' however formed a third group aged 18-35 at diagnosis, and were a clear mix of these two previously reported distinct sub-types. Pediatric- and adult-type GIST have been previously characterized in clinical settings and these observations confirm significant prognostic factors for each

  1. Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus

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    Muhammad U. Sohail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Although the exact cause of the disease is not fully clear, perhaps, genetics, ethnic origin, obesity, age, and lifestyle are considered as few of many contributory factors for the disease pathogenesis. In recent years, the disease progression is particularly linked with functional and taxonomic alterations in the gastrointestinal tract microbiome. A change in microbial diversity, referred as microbial dysbiosis, alters the gut fermentation profile and intestinal wall integrity and causes metabolic endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, autoimmunity, and other affiliated metabolic disorders. This article aims to summarize the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Additionally, we summarize gut microbial dysbiosis in preclinical and clinical diabetes cases reported in literature in the recent years.

  2. Histological analysis of the gastrointestinal tracts of young ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The histological aspects of the gastrointestinal tract of the ostrich (Struthio camelus have been little studied, so this research is focused on such analysis. To this end, samples were obtained from different segments of the digestive tubes of five young ostriches aged 20 to 30 days. Based on the results, the authors conclude that the different segments of the digestive tube of the young ostrich presents the same general structure as that of other domestic birds and mammals, with some differences that may be due to age, the species involved, or feeding habits. It is hopes that this analysis will contribute to a better understanding of the physiological processes related to the nutrition and management of ostriches during their growth.

  3. Computer modelling of the chemical speciation of lanthanide and actinide elements in the human gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, L.M.; Taylor, D.M.; Williams, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Joint expert speciation system (JESS) computer modelling is used to produce biokinetic models of the gastrointestinal tract, for the radiation dose from internally deposited radionuclides to be calculated. Preliminary estimations of the interactions of Gd and Cm with all the metal binding species present in the small intestine, i.e. bile and pancreatic fluid, over a pH range of pH 5.0-9.0, have been made. The development of the models and these initial validation results for the use of Gd as a surrogate for Cm, will be presented and discussed. From these aqueous studies it appears that the use of Gd as a surrogate for Cm in bile or pancreatic fluid is doubtful. However, further speciation modelling, incorporating solids, is in process to confirm these findings. (orig.)

  4. The Endocannabinoid System and Its Role in Regulating the Intrinsic Neural Circuitry of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Samantha M; Sharkey, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are important neuromodulators in the central nervous system. They regulate central transmission through pre- and postsynaptic actions on neurons and indirectly through effects on glial cells. Cannabinoids (CBs) also regulate neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The ENS consists of intrinsic primary afferent neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons arranged in two ganglionated plexuses which control all the functions of the gut. Increasing evidence suggests that endocannabinoids are potent neuromodulators in the ENS. In this review, we will highlight key observations on the localization of CB receptors and molecules involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids in the ENS. We will discuss endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms, endocannabinoid tone and concepts of CB receptor metaplasticity in the ENS. We will also touch on some examples of enteric neural signaling in relation neuromuscular, secretomotor, and enteroendocrine transmission in the ENS. Finally, we will briefly discuss some key future directions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chitinolytic enzymes from bacterium inhabiting human gastrointestinal tract -- critical parameters of protein isolation from anaerobic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušková, Jarmila; Tishchenko, Galina; Ponomareva, Evgenia; Šimůnek, Jiří; Koppová, Ingrid; Skálová, Tereza; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich; Dohnálek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The object of this study are chitinolytic enzymes produced by bacterium Clostridium paraputrificum J4 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy human. In particular, we focus on the development of purification protocols, determination of properties of the enzymes and their activity profiles. The process of bacteria cultivation and isolation of chitinolytic complex of enzymes showing specific activities of endo-, exo-chitinase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase was optimized. A range of various purification procedures were used such as ultrafiltration, precipitation, chromatographic separations (ion-exchange, size exclusion, chromatofocusing) in altered combinations. The optimal purification protocol comprises two or three steps. Individual samples were analyzed by SDS/PAGE electrophoresis and after renaturation their activity could be detected using zymograms. Mass spectroscopy peptide fragment analysis and MALDI analysis of the purest samples indicate presence of endochitinase B (molecular mass about 85 kDa) and of 60-kDa endo- and exochitinases.

  6. Nuclear medicine methods used in diagnosing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.

    2001-01-01

    Using physiologic tracer scintigraphy may give unique information on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function, supplementing the findings of rather invasive methods. Conventional barium-contrast x-ray studies of the GI tract, computed tomography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging afford high resolution images of the GI anatomy, but have a serious shortcoming - hardly lending themselves to quantification. As shown by the results functional scintigraphy is a sensitive, quantitative and noninvasive procedure. The potential of nuclear medicine methods to diagnose successfully diseases of the salivary glands, esophagus, stomach and visualization of GI bleeding and hepatobiliary system are comprehensively discussed. The advantages and drawbacks of radionuclide techniques are outlined, and compared with other methods of visualization. (author)

  7. Radiology of upper gastrointestinal tract with ASGB (adjustable silicone gastric banding) for morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, Grzegorz; Maliborski, Artur; Żukowski, Paweł; Bogusławska, Romana

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a result of multiple risk factors of atherosclerosis and diabetes. Obesity is an especially well recognized etiological factor. A rapidly increasing number of obese people constitutes a major social health problem in the developed, as well as developing countries. Bariatric surgeries are among methods of obesity treatment that gain on popularity. They include adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB), and adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding (ALGB). The aim of our study was to analyze and present the most typical radiological images obtained during 130 upper gastrointestinal tract examinations in patients after ASGB or ALGB in the last three years. ASGB and ALGB are effective and safe. However, they are connected with some postoperative complications. Application of these surgical procedures requires periodic, long-term radiological evaluations and cooperation between surgeons and radiologists. The radiologist must be familiar with bariatric surgical techniques, their complications and typical radiological presentations

  8. Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althani, Asmaa; Anwar, Haseeb; Rizzi, Roberto; Marei, Hany E.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Although the exact cause of the disease is not fully clear, perhaps, genetics, ethnic origin, obesity, age, and lifestyle are considered as few of many contributory factors for the disease pathogenesis. In recent years, the disease progression is particularly linked with functional and taxonomic alterations in the gastrointestinal tract microbiome. A change in microbial diversity, referred as microbial dysbiosis, alters the gut fermentation profile and intestinal wall integrity and causes metabolic endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, autoimmunity, and other affiliated metabolic disorders. This article aims to summarize the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Additionally, we summarize gut microbial dysbiosis in preclinical and clinical diabetes cases reported in literature in the recent years. PMID:29082264

  9. Mini Review: Basic Physiology and Factors Influencing Exogenous Enzymes Activity in the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Meyer, Anne S.; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    activity during intestinal transit are few, it is known that the enzymes, being protein molecules, can be negatively affected by the gastrointestinal proteolytic enzymes and the low pH in the stomach ventricle. In this review, the pH-values, endogenous proteases and other factors native to the digestive......The addition of exogenous enzymes to pig feed is used to enhance general nutrient availability and thus increase daily weight gain per feed unit. The enzymes used are mainly beta-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) and phytase (EC 3.1.3.8). Although in vivo data assessing feed enzyme...... tract of the adult pig and the piglet are discussed in relation to the stability of exogenous feed enzymes. Development of more consistent assessment methods which acknowledge such factors is warranted both in vitro and in vivo for proper evaluation and prediction of the efficiency of exogenous enzymes...

  10. Lymphomas of the gastro-intestinal tract - Pathophysiology, pathology, and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract (GIT is the most commonly involved site of extranodal lymphomas. The close association between chronic inflammation and specific GIT lymphomas not only provide interesting insights into the pathobiology of lymphomas but also poses unique diagnostic challenges. A clear understanding of marginal zone and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT in health and disease is helpful to place GIT lymphomas in proper context. A wide variety of lymphomas besides MALT lymphomas occur in various parts of the GIT. The characteristic pathological, immunophenotypic, and genetic features of different GIT lymphomas categorized according to World Health Organization (WHO classification are presented. The epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of lymphomas occurring in each part of the GIT are summarized and the key points regarding lymphomas at each site are emphasized. A tabular summary of the important differential diagnostic considerations at each site is given and suggestions for a minimal diagnostic work up are provided.

  11. Small submucosal tumors of the stomach: differentiation of gastric schwannoma from gastrointestinal stromal tumor with CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Wook; Choi, Dongil; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Sohn, Tae Sung; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Soon Jin

    2012-01-01

    To identify the CT features that help differentiate gastric schwannomas (GS) from small (5 cm or smaller) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and to assess the growth rates of both tumors. We included 16 small GSs and 56 GISTs located in the stomach. We evaluated the CT features including size, contour, surface pattern, margins, growth pattern, pattern and degree of contrast enhancement, and the presence of intralesional low attenuation area, hemorrhage, calcification, surface dimpling, fistula, perilesional lymph nodes (LNs), invasion to other organs, metastasis, ascites, and peritoneal seeding. We also estimated the tumor volume doubling time. Compared with GISTs, GSs more frequently demonstrated a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs (each p < 0.05). The intralesional low attenuation area was more common in GISTs than GSs (p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Tumor volume doubling times for GSs (mean, 1685.4 days) were significantly longer than that of GISTs (mean, 377.6 days) (p = 0.004). Although small GSs and GISTs show similar imaging findings, GSs more frequently show an exophytic or mixed growth pattern, homogeneous enhancement pattern, perilesional LNs and grow slower than GISTs.

  12. Small Submucosal Tumors of the Stomach: Differentiation of Gastric Schwannoma from Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Wook; Choi, Dong Gil; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Sohn, Tae Sung; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Soon Jin [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    To identify the CT features that help differentiate gastric schwannomas (GS) from small (5 cm or smaller) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and to assess the growth rates of both tumors. We included 16 small GSs and 56 GISTs located in the stomach. We evaluated the CT features including size, contour, surface pattern, margins, growth pattern, pattern and degree of contrast enhancement, and the presence of intralesional low attenuation area, hemorrhage, calcification, surface dimpling, fistula, perilesional lymph nodes (LNs), invasion to other organs, metastasis, ascites, and peritoneal seeding. We also estimated the tumor volume doubling time. Compared with GISTs, GSs more frequently demonstrated a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs (each p < 0.05). The intralesional low attenuation area was more common in GISTs than GSs (p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Tumor volume doubling times for GSs (mean, 1685.4 days) were significantly longer than that of GISTs (mean, 377.6 days) (p = 0.004). Although small GSs and GISTs show similar imaging findings, GSs more frequently show an exophytic or mixed growth pattern, homogeneous enhancement pattern, perilesional LNs and grow slower than GISTs.

  13. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Prasettho, Supaporn; Janchawee, Benjamas; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2008-02-28

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an indigenous plant of Thailand used traditionally in folk medicine although it is claimed to cause addiction. It is used to treat diarrhea, however, there is no scientific evidence to support the use. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of kratom leaves on the rat gastrointestinal tract. Kratom extract at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) caused a dose dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and also inhibited intestinal transit. The antidiarrheal effect was not antagonized by naloxzone. The inhibition of intestinal transit by kratom extract was significantly different from the control when treated with a single dose for 1 day. For longer-term treatments of 15 and 30 days, kratom extract did not decrease the intestinal transit time indicating that adaptation had occurred. Kratom extract at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 30 days and morphine at 3 mg/kg (i.p.) caused a decrease in the increment of body weight that was significantly different from the control and kratom extract at lower doses (50 and 100 mg/kg). However it had no effect on the level of plasma cholecystokinin. The results suggested that methanolic kratom extract exhibited its antidiarrheal effect on rat gastrointestinal tract. The effects may occur via pathways in addition to the action on opioid receptors. High does of kratom extract decreased the increment of body weight similar to the effect of morphine.

  14. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis.

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    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2% and Firmicutes (47.6%. The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8% and Firmicutes (58.9%. The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver.

  15. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruninger, Robert J; McAllister, Tim A; Forster, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2%) and Firmicutes (47.6%). The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8%) and Firmicutes (58.9%). The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver.

  16. [How to carry out the translational medicine research effectively in gastrointestinal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xin-yu; Liu, Feng-lin

    2013-01-01

    As a new concept, the definition of translational medicine remains obscure. The translational medicine connects the bench to bedside, and its importance would be more remarkable. The development of gastrointestinal surgery reflects the idea of translational medicine. To carry out the translational study, the gastrointestinal surgeon must learn how to find subjects from clinical problems, how to collect complete information and tissues, how to collect complete information and tissues, how to collaborate with others from different fields and how to utilize all kinds of resources. By translational studies, gastrointestinal surgeons may further improve the survival of patients with gastrointestinal tumor.

  17. New insights into immune mechanisms underlying autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Antonio; Lenti, Marco Vincenzo; Giuffrida, Paolo; Vanoli, Alessandro; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Recent progresses in the immune mechanisms implicated in chronic inflammatory disorders have led to a more in-depth knowledge of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including autoimmune atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, autoimmune enteropathy and ulcerative colitis. While the pathogenic role of specific circulating autoantibodies, i.e., respectively anti-parietal cell, anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-enterocyte and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic, is still controversial, some common T-cell mediated mechanisms for inflammation - increase in T helper cell type 1/type 17 pro-inflammatory cytokines- or losing self-tolerance-abnormal regulatory T cell function - are recognized as crucial mediators of the tissue damage causing atrophy of the stomach mucosa in autoimmune atrophic gastritis, villous flattening of the small bowel in celiac disease and autoimmune enteropathy, and mucosal ulceration of the colon in ulcerative colitis. This review deals with novel advances in the immunological bases of the aforementioned autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders, and it also highlights immune mechanisms of progression from chronic inflammation to cancer and implications for new therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta, Verónica; Casadesús, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome–bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors. However, bile salts are antibacterial compounds that disrupt bacterial membranes, denature proteins, chelate iron and calcium, cause oxidative damage to DNA, and control the expression of eukaryotic genes involved in host defense and immunity. Bacterial species adapted to the mammalian gut are able to endure the antibacterial activities of bile salts by multiple physiological adjustments that include remodeling of the cell envelope and activation of efflux systems and stress responses. Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica. A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections. PMID:29043249

  19. What is safer for the gastrointestinal-tract: Coxibs or meloxicam?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Satybaldyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Are high cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 selectivity and the absence of its impact on COX-1 the most important benefit of coxibs? Based on the classical concepts that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are implicated in the pathogenesis of the most well-known complication – NSAID gastropathy, this must be so. Indeed, the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT diseases associated with NSAID use is mainly related to the blockade of COX-1 and to the decreased synthesis of cytoprotective prostaglandins. However, the clinical experience with etoricoxib, one of the most selective coxibs, casts doubt on this fact. There are well-known data of the MEDAL study, which show the equal rate of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving etoricoxib and diclofenac. At the same time, moderately selective NSAIDs that include very popular meloxicam demonstrate a good tolerability and a low risk for GIT complications. A network meta-analysis of 36 studies covering a total of 112,351 patients indicates that there are no significant differences in the incidence of complicated and uncomplicated ulcers in patients receiving coxibs (a group analysis and moderately selective NSAIDs (meloxicam, nabumetone, and etodolac. It is important that meloxicam demonstrates not only the low total frequency of GIT complications, but a quite moderate (as compared with diclofenac and etoricoxib risk for cardiovascular and renal complications, which determines its benefit when used in real clinical practice.

  20. Distinct stages during colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract by Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePrieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a member of the human microbiota, colonizing both the vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts. This yeast is devoid of a life style outside the human body and the mechanisms underlying the adaptation to the commensal status remain to be determined. Using a model of mouse gastrointestinal colonization, we show here that C. albicans stably colonizes the mouse gut in about 3 days starting from a dose as low as 100 cells, reaching steady levels of around 107 cells/g of stools. Using fluorescent labeled strains we have assessed the competition between isogenic populations from different sources in cohoused animals. We show that long term (15 days colonizing cells have increased fitness in the gut niche over those grown in vitro or residing in the gut for 1-3 days. Therefore, two distinct states, proliferation and adaptation, seem to exist in the adaptation of this fungus to the mouse gut, a result with potential significance in the prophylaxis and treatment of Candida infections.

  1. Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Urdaneta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome–bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors. However, bile salts are antibacterial compounds that disrupt bacterial membranes, denature proteins, chelate iron and calcium, cause oxidative damage to DNA, and control the expression of eukaryotic genes involved in host defense and immunity. Bacterial species adapted to the mammalian gut are able to endure the antibacterial activities of bile salts by multiple physiological adjustments that include remodeling of the cell envelope and activation of efflux systems and stress responses. Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica. A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections.

  2. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  3. Investigating different skin and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) pathologies ex vivo by autofluorescence spectroscopy and optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelyazkova, A.; Kuzmina, I.; Borisova, E.; Penkov, N.; Genova, Ts.; Spigulis, J.; Avramov, L.

    2016-01-01

    The skin neoplasias are on a second place in the world statistics of cancer incidence, and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumours are also in the "top ten" list. For the most of cutaneous and gastrointestinal tumours could be obtained better prognoses for patients, if an earlier and precise diagnostics procedure is applied. One of the most promising approaches for development of improved diagnostic techniques, is based on optical detection, and analysis of the signatures of biological tissues for detecting the presence of pathological alterations in the investigated objects. It is important to develop and combine novel diagnostic techniques for an accurate early stage diagnosis to improve the chances for skin and GIT tumours treatment. Optical techniques are very promising methods for such noninvasive diagnosis of skin and mucosa tumours, possessing the advantages of deep imaging depth, high resolution, fast imaging speed, and noninvasive character of detection. In this study we combine autofluorescence spectroscopy and optical imaging techniques to develop more precise evaluation of the tissue pathologies investigated. We obtain chromophore maps for GIT and cutaneous samples, with better visualization of the tumours borders and margins. In addition, fluorescence spectra give us information about the early changes in chromophores' contents into the tissues during neoplasia growth.

  4. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R.; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition. PMID:26091351

  5. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Colin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Results In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P n = 5, following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Conclusion Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract.

  6. Embolization for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsadraee, S.; Tirukonda, P.; Nicholson, A. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Everett, S.M. [Department of Gastroenterology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); McPherson, S.J., E-mail: simon.mcpherson@leedsth.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To assess the published evidence on the endovascular treatment of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Materials and methods: An Ovid Medline search of published literature was performed (1966-2009). Non-English literature, experimental studies, variceal haemorrhage and case series with fewer than five patients were excluded. The search yielded 1888 abstracts. Thirty-five articles were selected for final analysis. Results: The total number of pooled patients was 927. The technical and clinical success of embolization ranged from 52-100% and 44-100%, respectively. The pooled mean technical/clinical success rate in primary upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage (PUGITH) only, trans-papillary haemorrhage (TPH) only, and mixed studies were 84%/67%, 93%/89%, and 93%/64%, respectively. Clinical outcome was adversely affected by multi-organ failure, shock, corticosteroids, transfusion, and coagulopathy. The anatomical source of haemorrhage and procedural variables did not affect the outcome. A successful embolization improved survival by 13.3 times. Retrospective comparison with surgery demonstrated equivalent mortality and clinical success, despite embolization being applied to a more elderly population with a higher prevalence of co-morbidities. Conclusions: Embolization is effective in this very difficult cohort of patients with outcomes similar to surgery.

  7. Examination of the gastrointestinal tract using the tussian X-ray contrast substance BAR-VIPS based on barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratobyl'skij, G.V.; Kaluzhskij, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of X-ray studies of gastrointestinal tract using domestic X-ray contrast preparation based on barium sulfate BAR-VIPS developed by VIPS-MED company (t. Fryazino, Moscow region). Testing of the preparation has shown that BAR-VIPS permits to diagnose every pathological changes in esophagus, stomach, rectum, small intestine as well as to diagnose successfully large intestine diseases

  8. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among HIV seropositive patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaitey, Yaw Agyekum; Nkrumah, Bernard; Idriss, Ali; Tay, Samuel Crowther Kofi

    2012-08-21

    Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections are aggravating the incidence and progression of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) more especially in the developing countries. This study was conducted to assess the common gastrointestinal and urinary infections among HIV/AIDS patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Ghana between April and December 2008. This work reports on gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among 500 HIV seropositive and 300 HIV seronegative patients. There was a 35% (175/500) prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV seropositive patients compared to 4.3% (13/300) in HIV seronegative patients. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium accounted for 19% (95/500) and 14% (70/500) respectively, while Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm together accounted for 2% (10/500) of intestinal parasitic infections among the HIV seropositive patients. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in urinary parasitic infection between HIV seropositive 1% (2/500) and seronegative patients 0.7% (2/300). Most, 60 (86%) out of 70, of the urinary tract infection among the HIV seropositive patients was due to bacteria with E. coli being the most predominant isolate, 28 (47%) out of 60. There was no significant difference in infections based on age and gender. G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium were the most common gastrointestinal parasites detected while bacteria accounted for majority of the urinary tract infections among the HIV seropositive patients at the hospital.

  9. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2017-01-01

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to

  10. Value of laboratory investigations in clinical suspicion of cytomegalovirus-induced upper gastrointestinal tract ulcerations in HIV-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; van der Meer, J. T.; Tersmette, M.; ten Kate, F. J.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.; van der Noordaa, J.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the value of laboratory investigations for the diagnosis and treatment of cytomegalovirus-induced upper gastrointestinal tract ulcerations, the medical records and biopsy material from HIV-infected patients were reviewed retrospectively during a 12-month period. Clinical diagnosis of

  11. PREVALENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DISEASES AND EFFICACY OF ERADICATION THERAPY FOR H.PYLORI INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Zhdanova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal tract pathology and estimations of clinical and pharmacoeconomic efficacy of different algorithms of therapy for H. pyloria assosiated diseases in children dwelling in Krasnodar region are presented in this article.Key words: h. Pylori, prevalence, treatment, eradication therapy, children.

  12. Effect of feeding on myoelectric activity of the sphincter of Oddi and the gastrointestinal tract in the opossum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, J. C.; Gouma, D. J.; Moody, F. G.; Schlegel, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of different foods on the myoelectric activity of the sphincter of Oddi and gastrointestinal tract was evaluated in the opossum. Gallbladder pressure was also recorded. Feeding fat and mixed food resulted in the greatest incidence of spike activity in the duodenum and jejunum, followed by

  13. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Rutten, P.G.P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta

  14. Gorlin syndrome associated with small bowel carcinoma and mesenchymal proliferation of the gastrointestinal tract: case report and review of literature

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    Meyer Günther

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Case Presentation A patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome presented with two unusual clinical features, i.e. adenocarcinoma of the small bowel and extensive mesenchymal proliferation of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions We discuss the possibility that these two features are pathogenetically linked to the formerly undescribed patient's PTCH germ line mutation.

  15. Effects of ergot alkaloid exposure on serotonin receptor mRNA in the smooth muscle of the bovine gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various serotonin (5HT) receptor subtypes have been located in the gastrointestinal tract and some are associated with gut motility. Cattle exposed to ergot alkaloids through consumption of contaminated feedstuffs have demonstrated signs (e.g. - increased rumen DM content and total content) that sug...

  16. Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to in vivo experimental results: Lead bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Oomen, A.G.; Wragg, J.; Cave, M.; Minekus, M.; Hack, A.; Cornelis, C.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Zwart, L.L. de; Klinck, B.; Wijnen, J. van; Verstraete, W.; Sips, A.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference

  17. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F

    2017-01-01

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close...

  18. Investigation into the fungal diversity within different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of Panaque nigrolineatus, a wood-eating fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L. Marden

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus have several physiological adaptions enabling the scraping and consumption of wood (xylivory, facilitating a detritivorous dietary strategy. Composed of lignocellulose, wood is a difficult substrate to degrade and as yet, it is unclear whether the fish obtains any direct nutritional benefits from wood ingestion and degradation. However, there are numerous systems that rely on microbial symbioses to provide energy and other nutritional benefits for host organisms via lignocellulose decomposition. While previous studies on the microbial community of P. nigrolineatus have focused upon the bacterial population, the role of fungi in lignocellulose degradation in the fish has not yet been examined. This study describes the detection of fungi within the fish gastrointestinal tract. Using next generation sequencing, the effects of diet on enteric fungal populations were examined in each gastrointestinal tract region. Fungal species were found to vary in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract as a function of diet. This study is the first to examine the fungal community in a xylivorous fish and results support the hypothesis that diet influences fungal distribution and diversity within the gastrointestinal tract of P. nigrolineatus.

  19. The Vagus Nerve in the Neuro-Immune Axis: Implications in the Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Bruno Bonaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The vagus nerve (VN is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS, with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI tract. A dual anti-inflammatory role of the VN is observed using either vagal afferents, targeting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, or vagal efferents, targeting the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The sympathetic nervous system and the VN act in synergy, through the splenic nerve, to inhibit the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα by macrophages of the peripheral tissues and the spleen. Because of its anti-inflammatory effect, the VN is a therapeutic target in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders where TNFα is a key component. In this review, we will focus on the anti-inflammatory role of the VN in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The anti-inflammatory properties of the VN could be targeted pharmacologically, with enteral nutrition, by VN stimulation (VNS, with complementary medicines or by physical exercise. VNS is one of the alternative treatments for drug resistant epilepsy and depression and one might think that VNS could be used as a non-drug therapy to treat inflammatory disorders of the GI tract, such as IBD, irritable bowel syndrome, and postoperative ileus, which are all characterized by a blunted autonomic balance with a decreased vagal tone.

  20. Design of a wireless anchoring and extending micro robot system for gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Shi, Yuting; Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis and treatment using a conventional endoscope in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are very common nowadays. However, endoscopy has some disadvantages. This paper describes a wireless micro-robot for active locomotion in the GI tract. After design and analysis of the anchoring-extending gait, two mechanisms were developed to meet the gait requirements. These actuation and transmission mechanisms were demonstrated in detail to explain the gait implementation. The mechanisms were driven by a micro-brush direct current motor with a micro-normal module (m = 0.2 mm) gearbox. The force of the mechanisms was tested to guarantee the sufficiency of the gait and the safety of the robot. After mounting a dedicated video capture unit and wireless power receiving coils, in vitro experiments were conducted to show the feasibility of locomotion by wireless power supply. The assembled micro-robot was 13 mm in diameter and 90 mm in length, with a velocity of 1 mm/s at 500 mW power consumption. The proposed anchoring and extending intestinal micro-robot met the requirements of intestinal disease diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of digestive tract involvement in cystic fibrosis. Part 2: pancreatic and gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Prieto, C.; Miralles, M.; Pozo, G. del; Martinez, A.; Manzanares, J.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal, autosomal recessive disease among the white population. Although recurrent pulmonary infections and pulmonary insufficiency are the major causes of morbidity and mortality, gastrointestinal symptoms generally present earlier and may suggest the diagnosis in the newborn or even prior to birth. The changes are attributed to the secretion of an abnormally thick mucous into the intestinal lumen, leading to the hallmark of diseases of the digestive tract: obstruction. This can be detected at birth in the form of mecanium ileus, ileal atresia, mecanium peritonitis and mecomiun plug, or present later on in childhood and adolescence as distal bowel obstruction syndrome or fibrosing colonopathy. This thick mucous can also trigger intussusception or acute appendicitis. Pancreatic insufficiency or pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is the direct cause of most of these disorders. Plain radiography is of the utmost utility in assessing the digestive tract in CF. When the disease is detected in a newborn, the recommended approach is to perform plain abdominal X-ray, followed by barium enema, always accompanied by ultrasound. In older children and adolescents, enema and ultrasound are usually sufficient, although computed tomography and magnetic resonance may sometimes be necessary. (Author) 52 refs

  2. Metabolic Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT: Host, Commensal, Probiotics, and Bacteriophage Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vitetta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Life on this planet has been intricately associated with bacterial activity at all levels of evolution and bacteria represent the earliest form of autonomous existence. Plants such as those from the Leguminosae family that form root nodules while harboring nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria are a primordial example of symbiotic existence. Similarly, cooperative activities between bacteria and animals can also be observed in multiple domains, including the most inhospitable geographical regions of the planet such as Antarctica and the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. In humans bacteria are often classified as either beneficial or pathogenic and in this regard we posit that this artificial nomenclature is overly simplistic and as such almost misinterprets the complex activities and inter-relationships that bacteria have with the environment as well as the human host and the plethora of biochemical activities that continue to be identified. We further suggest that in humans there are neither pathogenic nor beneficial bacteria, just bacteria embraced by those that tolerate the host and those that do not. The densest and most complex association exists in the human gastrointestinal tract, followed by the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and skin, where bacteria—pre- and post-birth—instruct the human cell in the fundamental language of molecular biology that normally leads to immunological tolerance over a lifetime. The overall effect of this complex output is the elaboration of a beneficial milieu, an environment that is of equal or greater importance than the bacterium in maintaining homeostasis.

  3. Protection of the gastrointestinal tract epithelium against damage from low pH beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R E

    2008-09-01

    Extensive consumption of low pH beverages such as citrus juices (pHs 2.3 to 4.3), alcoholic beverages (pHs 2.7 to 4.5), and soft drinks (pHs 2.3 to 4.2) has raised the question of whether exposure of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to acidic beverages will cause damage to the epithelial lining. To evaluate the potential effects of low pH beverages on the GI tract epithelium, a detailed examination of the literature was undertaken. In some animal models, there is evidence of damage to GI epithelial cells following exposure to low pH beverages; however, in these studies there is no definitive relationship between acidity and the amount or severity of damage. Results from several other studies, conducted in both animals and humans, indicate a lack of adverse effects on epithelial cells. Furthermore, there is no evidence that damage is irreversible. Permanent damage from routine exposure to acidic beverages in humans would not be expected because of repair mechanisms that are available to maintain a healthy epithelium. Additionally, numerous physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms are in place to prevent damage to the epithelial cells. Finally, the safe history of consumption of low pH beverages, including various fruit juices, supports the conclusion that low pH beverage ingestion does not cause damage to the GI epithelium.

  4. Underlying—Disease Risk for Antispasmodic Premedication in Older Patients Undergoing Investigations of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Saito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Improve risk management of patients undergoing investigations of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, in regard to underlying diseases and choice of premedication. According to a nationwide survey in Japan, 74% of the deaths associated with premedication were patients aged 60 years or over. Methods Subjects were 418 patients undergoing investigations of the GI tract (367 endoscopy, 51 barium contrast radiography between October 2001 and January 2004. Age distribution peaked in the 65-69 years group, and 40% of subjects were aged 65 years and over. Using a questionnaire, each subject was interviewed prior to the investigation to determine contraindications for anticholinergic agents or glucagon preparations. To confirm the risk associated with antispasmodic agents in elderly subjects, the group was subdivided into those aged under 65 years and those aged 65 and over, and compared. Results Anticholinergic agents were contraindicated in more than 50% of subjects aged 65 years and over, and glucagon was contraindicated in 11% of subjects aged 65 years and over. The proportion of elderly subjects in whom antispasmodic agents, including anticholinergics and glucagon, were contraindicated was significantly greater than for subjects aged under 65 years. Conclusions Using a written questionnaire at the time of obtaining informed consent facilitates the identification of underlying diseases and selection of appropriate premedication.

  5. Development of putative probiotics as feed additives: validation in a porcine-specific gastrointestinal tract model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Soyoung; Lee, Suro; Park, Hyunjoon; Shin, Heuynkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Huh, Chul Sung

    2016-12-01

    Enforced restrictions on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production have prompted investigations into alternative feed additives in recent decades. Probiotics are currently the main feed additive used in livestock. However, the selection of probiotic candidates relies on human-based methods and little is known about the verification criteria for host-specific selection. We investigated the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from fed pig feces for their use as porcine feed additives. Two methods were developed that simulated the pig gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the intestinal epithelium, and these were compared with human-based in vitro methods and used for selecting porcine probiotics. Lactobacillus salivarius strain LS6 was identified as a promising probiotic strain for potential use as a porcine feed additive. This strain prevented disruption of the epithelial integrity of pig small intestine (PSI) cells by inhibiting the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. It also showed high survival rates in the in vitro pig GI tract model and good adhesion to PSI cells. We propose that host target-specific screening and validation methods are important tools in the development of effective probiotic feed additives, and this approach may support future-oriented agriculture.

  6. Enhancing the culturability of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of farmed adult turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengxin; Hou, Zhanhui; Qu, Yanmei; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Eighteen agar media were tested for the culture of gut-associated bacteria from farmed adult turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), including 16 agar media with or without 1% gastrointestinal (GI) supernatant, or with 2% or 4% GI supernatant. A total of 1 711 colonies were analyzed and 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The greatest bacterial diversity was isolated on Zobell 2216E/Zobell 2216E+ agar media, whereas MRS/MRS+ agar media produced a low diversity of colonies. Agar media with GI supernatant (1%, 2%, or 4%) showed increased diversity and yielded different profiles of OTUs from the corresponding original media, suggesting that GI supernatant provides substances that enhance the culture efficiency of bacteria from the turbot GI tract. The large majority of the colonies (82%) were γ-Proteobacteria, whereas 15.6% and 2.4% of colonies were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, respectively. At the genus level, 49.4% of all colonies were assigned to Vibrio. Other potential pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Photobacterium, and Enterobacter, and potential probiotics, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas, were also isolated on agar media. Most cultured bacteria belonged to species that were first described in the turbot GI tract. The impact of these species on turbot physiology and health should be investigated further.

  7. Epidemic Trends of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities: Hospital-based study on Endoscopic Data Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed Khaliq; Chowdavaram, Suman; Bogadi, Varun; Prabhakar, Boddu; Rao, Kondadasula Pandu Ranga; Devi, Suneetha; Mohan, Vasavi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of different upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract related abnormalities through endoscopic data analysis. A retrospective study of three years from January 2009 to December 2011 was conducted with data from endoscopic surveillance of upper GI tract problems, collected from the Gastroenterology Unit, Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad. MS excel and Medcalc software (comparison of proportions) were used for data analysis. A total of 10,029 (6,468 in males and 3,561 in females) endoscopies were performed during this three-year period. The male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Overall, ~30% of endoscopies evaluated showed patients with acid peptic disorders, 13.6% with vascular- related abnormalities, 10.6% showed structural abnormalities, followed by 6.3% with malignancies. Burden of malignancies was mostly observed in the older age group (60-69 years). Esophageal cancer cases decreased (p=0.0001) whereas stomach cancers increased over this period (p=0.0345). We also observed an increased incidence of acid peptic disease (APD) (p=0.0036) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (p=0.0002) cases during this period. Endoscopic diagnosis is useful for early detection of UGI anomalies and helpful for physicians to manage and treat varied kinds of UGI disorders. Analysis of data revealed changing trends in the incidence of various pathologies of the UGI tract. Functional dyspepsia and GERD definitely reduce the quality of life of the individual. The role of our diverse dietary habits and lifestyle associated with these problems have not yet been established, though there have been reports on the effect of coffee, spicy food, wheat-based diet, screening of UGI pathologies along with collection of complete personal and medical history details, can help in correlating the patients' condition with various aspects of lifestyle and diet.

  8. Local Acetaldehyde—An Essential Role in Alcohol-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko T. Nieminen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resident microbiome plays a key role in exposure of the upper gastrointestinal (GI tract mucosa to acetaldehyde (ACH, a carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol. Poor oral health is a significant risk factor for oral and esophageal carcinogenesis and is characterized by a dysbiotic microbiome. Dysbiosis leads to increased growth of opportunistic pathogens (such as Candida yeasts and may cause an up to 100% increase in the local ACH production, which is further modified by organ-specific expression and gene polymorphisms of ethanol-metabolizing and ACH-metabolizing enzymes. A point mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene has randomized millions of alcohol consumers to markedly increased local ACH exposure via saliva and gastric juice, which is associated with a manifold risk for upper GI tract cancers. This human cancer model proves conclusively the causal relationship between ACH and upper GI tract carcinogenesis and provides novel possibilities for the quantitative assessment of ACH carcinogenicity in the human oropharynx. ACH formed from ethanol present in “non-alcoholic” beverages, fermented food, or added during food preparation forms a significant epidemiologic bias in cancer epidemiology. The same also concerns “free” ACH present in mutagenic concentrations in multiple beverages and foodstuffs. Local exposure to ACH is cumulative and can be reduced markedly both at the population and individual level. At best, a person would never consume tobacco, alcohol, or both. However, even smoking cessation and moderation of alcohol consumption are associated with a marked decrease in local ACH exposure and cancer risk, especially among established risk groups.

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Gastro-Intestinal Tract of Chicken: Potential Use as Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Harimurti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been suggested to have several beneficial effects on human and animals. These bacteria, indigenous to the gastro-intestinal tract, are important in regulating the balance among the desirable and undesirable intestinal microflora and in controlling enteric pathogenic infection in the host. Objectives of this research are to obtain lactic acid bacteria isolates from gastro-intestinal tract of chicken and to screen their ability as a probiotic agent i.e., their antagonistic against pathogenic bacteria, their survival at low pH and high concentration of bile salt. In this research, 74 samples used as sources of bacteria, and among them only 11 samples could be isolated as lactic acid bacteria with the total number of isolates of 61. Based on the preliminary screening i.e., their antagonistic factor against pathogenic bacteria, 20 isolates was further studied. Based on the identification scheme, these isolates belong to three species, i.e., Lactobacillus murinus, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The result showed that most isolates grow well in the media with the initial pH of 5.5, but their growth were retarded when the initial pH 3.5. Only one isolate Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2 showed its growth at initial pH of 3.5. All isolates did not show any growth at initial pH 2.5, though their viability still high. The result based on the isolates resistance to bile salt showed that most isolates could grow at media with 0.20% of bile salt. Their growth was inhibited with the increasing bile salt concentration. However, few isolates could grow well at media with 1% of bile salt. Based on their characteristics three isolates i.e., Lactobacillus murinus Ar-3, Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2, and Pediococcus acidilactici Kd-6 were selected as probiotic agents for the continuing research. i.e. production of biomass and its application to chicken production. (Animal Production 9(2: 82-91 (2007 Key Words

  10. Interpretation of Pathologic Margin after Endoscopic Resection of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of the pathologic margin of a specimen from a resected tumor is important because local recurrence can be predicted by the presence of tumor cells in the resection margin. Although a sufficient resection margin is recommended in the resection of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, it is not usually regarded strictly in cases of mesenchymal tumor, especially gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), because the tumor is usually encapsulated or well demarcated, and not infiltrative. Therefore, margin positivity is not rare in the pathological evaluation of surgically or endoscopically resected GIST, and does not always indicate incomplete resection. Although a GIST may have a tumor-positive pathologic margin, complete resection may be achieved if no residual tumor is visible, and long-term survival can be predicted as in the cases with a negative pathologic margin. PMID:27055454

  11. Epidemiology, survival, and costs of localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime L Rubin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Jaime L Rubin1, Myrlene Sanon1, Douglas CA Taylor1, John Coombs2, Vamsi Bollu2, Leonardo Sirulnik21i3 Innovus, Medford, MA, USA; 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAPurpose: The aim of this study is to examine the epidemiologic and economic burden in surgically resected localized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST patients versus age- and gender-matched controls.Method: Two data sources were used to conduct a series of complementary analyses. First, the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER cancer registry was used to identify diagnosed GIST patients from 1993 to 2002 and determine incidence, prevalence, and 3-year survival. Second, using the SEER–Medicare linked database, a matched case-control analysis was conducted to determine resource utilization, GIST recurrence, and costs. Because GIST recurrence is not explicitly defined in the database, patterns in resource use were used to identify probable recurrence. Kaplan–Meier Sample Average (KMSA Estimator technique was used to estimate costs of GIST and recurrence.Results: SEER registry results show over the 10-year time horizon average annual GIST incidence was 0.32 per 100,000 persons in the United States, 15-year limited-duration prevalence was 1.62 per 100,000 persons, and 3-year survival was 73%. A total of 292 GIST patients were included in the SEER–Medicare analyses; 35 were identified with probable recurrence. GIST patients had increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence intervals: 0.94–1.61 compared to controls. Median recurrence-free and postrecurrence survival was 45 and 46 months, respectively. GIST patients incurred significantly higher medical care costs in the first year after initial resection, with $23,221 attributable to GIST. GIST recurrence costs totaled $101,700 over 5 years after initial resection.Conclusions: GIST is associated with substantial medical care costs, estimated recurrence costs more than $100

  12. Robot-Assisted Excision of a Pararectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Patient with Previous Ileal Neobladder

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    A. Ploumidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with surgical resection remaining the cornerstone of therapy. Pararectal lesions are considered to be technically difficult and pose in some cases a challenge. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first robotic-assisted pararectal GIST excision. A 43-year-old man was referred to our center with pararectal GIST recurrence, despite treatment with targeted therapy. Eleven years ago, he underwent extensive abdominal surgery including cystoprostatectomy with ileal neobladder diversion due to GIST resection in the rectoprostatic space. Robot-assisted surgical resection was successfully performed without the need for temporary colostomy. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful, and the pathology report confirmed a GIST recurrence with negative surgical margins and pelvic lymph nodes free of any tumor. Robotic-assisted pelvic surgery can be extended to incorporate excision of pararectal GISTs, as a safe, less invasive surgical alternative with promising oncological results and minimal injury to adjacent structures.

  13. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the vermiform appendix: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Manabu; Kawai, Kazushige; Murono, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Hayashi, Akimasa; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the vermiform appendix are rare, measuring vermiform appendix, and that the peritoneal metastasis was located in the ascending mesocolon. The patient underwent laparoscopic appendectomy and excision of the peritoneal metastasis, without tumor rupture. Therefore, in appropriately selected patients, neoadjuvant imatinib for borderline resectable or oligometastatic GISTs may be a reasonable choice.

  14. Surgical treatment and prognostic analysis for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs of the small intestine: before the era of imatinib mesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Yi-Yin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, the most common type of mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, demonstrate positive kit staining. We report our surgical experience with 100 small intestine GIST patients and identify predictors for long-term disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS to clarify the difference between high- and low-risk patients. Methods The clinicopathologic and follow-up records of 100 small intestine GIST patients who were treated at Chung Gung Memorial Hospital between 1983 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and pathological factors were assessed for long-term DFS and OS by using a univariate log-rank test and a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results The patients included 52 men and 48 women. Their ages ranged from 27 to 82 years. Among the 85 patients who underwent curative resection, 44 (51.8% developed disease recurrence (liver metastasis was the most common form of recurrence. The follow-up period ranged from 5 to 202 months (median: 33.2 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS and OS rates were 85.2%, 53.8%, and 43.7%, and 91.5%, 66.6%, and 50.5%, respectively. Using multivariate analysis, it was found that high tumor cellularity, mitotic count >5/50 high-power field, and a Ki-67 index ≧10% were three independent factors that were inversely associated with DFS. However, absence of tumor perforation, mitotic count Conclusion Tumors with low cellularity, low mitotic count, and low Ki-67 index, which indicate low risk, predict a more favorable DFS for small intestine GIST patients undergoing curative resection. Absence of tumor perforation with low mitotic count and low cellularity, which indicates low risk, can predict long-term OS for small intestine GIST patients who have undergone curative resection.

  15. Bladder augmentation using the gastrointestinal tract. Indication, follow up and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, R Molina; Patiño, G Escribano; Fernández, E Rodríguez; Gil, M J Cancho; García, E Lledó; Alonso, A Husillos; Piniés, G Ogaya; Sánchez, J Piñeiro; Fernández, C Hernández

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of bladder augmentation using the gastrointestinal tract is to create a low-pressure and high-capacity reservoir, permitting suitable continence and voiding, preserving the upper urinary tract. To analyze the indications, complications and results of our series of augmentation enterocystoplasties. We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing augmentation enterocystoplasty in our department between 1997 and 2010, both included. The indications were: Interstitial cystitis, neurogenic bladder and inflammatory bladder retraction. In all cases a cystography, urethrocystoscopy, urodynamic study and studies of each condition. Bladder release is performed by means of medial laparotomy and an extraperitoneal approach with bivalve opening to the urethral orifices. The bladder augmentation is performed with a 15-20 cm segment of detubularized ileum obtained at 20 cm from the ileocecal valve; in cases of kidney failure, a 7-cm gastric body wedge is added. The bladder catheter was removed following cystogram after 15 days. Monitoring was performed by means of ultrasound with postvoid residual, blood analyses, urine culture and voiding diary. We performed a descriptive study of the demographic characteristics, postoperative complications according to the Clavien classification and in the long term. We included 24 patients, 19 women and 5 men with a mean age of 48.5 years and a median of 47 (21-77). Mean follow up was 7.5 years with a median of 8 (1-11). The indications were: 7 interstitial cystitis, 8 bladder retraction and 7 neurogenic bladder. There were no intraoperative complications. The postoperative complications were 3 Clavien I, 2 type II, 2 IIIA and 1 IIIB. In the long term, 3 patients presented urinary incontinence, 2 mild metabolic acidosis, 5 required self-catheterization, 6 bladder stones, 2 febrile urinary tract infections and 1 stricture of the anastomotic mouth. In three cases, an ileogastrocystoplasty was performed without hydroelectrolytic

  16. Interaction of Helicobacter pylori infection and low-dose aspirin in the upper gastrointestinal tract: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Ki, En-Ling; Chan, Francis K L

    2012-04-01

    Low-dose aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal tract injury. Risk factors in upper gastrointestinal complications in low-dose aspirin users are less well defined than in other NSAID users, and there are enough intrinsic differences in the two agents to discuss them separately. In particularly, the role of Helicobacter pylori and the benefit of its eradication in decreasing the risk of upper gastrointestinal tract injury in low-dose ASA users remains controversial. Various consensus groups have recommended H. pylori testing and eradication in low-dose ASA users with a prior history of peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding. The basis of this recommendation is derived from a limited, albeit expanding evidence on the role of H. pylori in upper gastrointestinal tract injury in low-dose ASA users and on the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication in reducing the risk of complications such as rebleeding in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes, functional disorders, and diseases in the gastrointestinal tract of elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, M; Petraccia, L; Mennuni, G; Fontana, M; Scarno, A; Sabetta, S; Fraioli, A

    2011-01-01

    This article describes changes in the basic digestive functions (motility, secretion, intraluminal digestion, absorption) that occur during aging. Elderly individuals frequently have oropharyngeal muscle dysmotility and altered swallowing of food. Reductions in esophageal peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressures are also more common in the aged and may cause gastroesophageal reflux. Gastric motility and emptying and small bowel motility are generally normal in elderly subjects, although delayed motility and gastric emptying have been reported in some cases. The propulsive motility of the colon is also decreased, and this alteration is associated with neurological and endocrine-paracrine changes in the colonic wall. Decreased gastric secretions (acid, pepsin) and impairment of the mucous-bicarbonate barrier are frequently described in the elderly and may lead to gastric ulcer. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is often decreased, as is the bile salt content of bile. These changes represent the underlying mechanisms of symptomatic gastrointestinal dysfunctions in the elderly, such as dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, primary dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, primary constipation, maldigestion, and reduced absorption of nutrients. Therapeutic management of these conditions is also described. The authors also review the gastrointestinal diseases that are more common in the elderly, such as atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, colon diverticulosis, malignant tumors, gallstones, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, Hepato Cellular Carcinoma (HCC), and chronic pancreatitis.

  18. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system

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    Enrique Montalvillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  19. Tumor del estroma extra gastrointestinal (E-GIST) gigante de omento

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo V,René; Beltrán N,José; Díaz,Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST) fueron clasificados inicialmente dentro de otros grupos de tumores (leiomioma, leiomioblastoma, leiomiosarcoma), llamándolos leiomiomas bizarros o leiomiomas celulares debido a su apariencia histológica similar. Con el advenimiento de la microscopia electrónica se demostró que sólo algunos de estos tumores presentaban evidencias ultraestructurales de diferenciación muscular lisa. Posteriormente, los avances en la biología molecular...

  20. Intranodal Schwannoma Mimicking a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Bum; Namkyoung, Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Chuncheon Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Sung; Ryu, Byoung Yoon [Dept. of General Surgery, Chuncheon Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Young Hee [Dept. of Pathology, Chuncheon Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A 66-year-old-woman is presented with intranodal schwannoma of the retroperitoneum. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) results demonstrated a large encapsulated mass with internal cystic or necrotic portions in the gastrosplenic space. The tumor abutted the greater curvature of the gastric body and slightly indented the proximal small bowel loops on a small bowel series. The observations suggested a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The mass was surgically proven to be a retroperitoneal tumor and histopathologically intranodal ancient schwannoma.

  1. Transformation and bioaccessibility of lead induced by steamed bread feed in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Junhong; Sima, Jingke; Cao, Xinde

    2017-03-01

    Accidental ingestion of contaminated soil has been recognized as an important pathway of human exposure to lead (Pb), especially for children through hand-to-mouth activities. Intake of food following the soil ingestion may affect the bioaccessibility of Pb in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the effect of steamed bread on the transformation and subsequent bioaccessibility of Pb in two soils was determined by the physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Two compounds, Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and PbCO 3 , were included in the evaluation for comparison. In the gastric phase, Pb bioaccessibility decreased as the steamed bread increased due to the sorption of Pb on the undissolved steamed bread, especially in PbCO 3 , Pb bioaccessibility decreased from 95.03% to 85.40%. Whereas in the intestinal phase, Pb bioaccessibility increased from 1.85% to 5.66% and from 0.89% to 1.80% for Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and PbCO 3 , respectively. The increase was attributed to the transformation of formed Pb carbonates into soluble organic-Pb complexes induced by the dissolved steamed bread at neutral pH as indicated by MINTEQ modeling. For the PbCO 3 -contaminated soil, the change in Pb bioaccessibility in both gastric and intestinal phases behaved like that in the pure PbCO 3 compound, the steamed bread increased the bioaccessibility of Pb in the intestinal phase, but the decreased bioaccessibility of Pb was observed in the gastric phase after the steamed bread was added. However, in the soil contaminated with free Pb 2+ or sorbed Pb forms, the steamed bread increased the Pb bioaccessibility in both gastric and intestinal phases. This was probably due to the higher dissolved organic carbon induced transformation of sorbed Pb (Pb sorbed by Fe/Mn oxides) into soluble Pb-organic complex. Results from this study indicated that steamed bread had an influence on the Pb speciation transformation, correspondingly affecting Pb bioaccessibility in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2016. Published

  2. An Intra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumor, Embedded in the Pancreas, Preoperatively Diagnosed as an Extragastric Growing Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

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    Mari Mizuno

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman was found to have a pancreatic tumor by abdominal ultrasound performed for a medical check-up. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a hypovascular tumor measuring 30 mm in diameter in the pancreatic tail. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed. An extragastric growing gastrointestinal stromal tumor was thereby diagnosed preoperatively, and surgical resection was planned. Laparoscopic surgery was attempted but conversion to open surgery was necessitated by extensive adhesions, and distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and partial gastrectomy were performed. The histological diagnosis was an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor. A desmoid tumor is a fibrous soft tissue tumor arising in the fascia and musculoaponeurotic tissues. It usually occurs in the extremities and abdominal wall, and only rarely in the abdominal cavity. We experienced a case with an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor that was histologically diagnosed after laparotomy, which had been preoperatively diagnosed as an extragastric growing gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Although rare, desmoid tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumors. Herein, we report this case with a literature review.

  3. Neural plasticity in the gastrointestinal tract: chronic inflammation, neurotrophic signals, and hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Tieftrunk, Elke; Friess, Helmut; Ceyhan, Güralp O

    2013-04-01

    Neural plasticity is not only the adaptive response of the central nervous system to learning, structural damage or sensory deprivation, but also an increasingly recognized common feature of the gastrointestinal (GI) nervous system during pathological states. Indeed, nearly all chronic GI disorders exhibit a disease-stage-dependent, structural and functional neuroplasticity. At structural level, GI neuroplasticity usually comprises local tissue hyperinnervation (neural sprouting, neural, and ganglionic hypertrophy) next to hypoinnervated areas, a switch in the neurochemical (neurotransmitter/neuropeptide) code toward preferential expression of neuropeptides which are frequently present in nociceptive neurons (e.g., substance P/SP, calcitonin-gene-related-peptide/CGRP) and of ion channels (TRPV1, TRPA1, PAR2), and concomitant activation of peripheral neural glia. The functional counterpart of these structural alterations is altered neuronal electric activity, leading to organ dysfunction (e.g., impaired motility and secretion), together with reduced sensory thresholds, resulting in hypersensitivity and pain. The present review underlines that neural plasticity in all GI organs, starting from esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine to liver, gallbladder, and pancreas, actually exhibits common phenotypes and mechanisms. Careful appraisal of these GI neuroplastic alterations reveals that--no matter which etiology, i.e., inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic/malignant, or degenerative--neural plasticity in the GI tract primarily occurs in the presence of chronic tissue- and neuro-inflammation. It seems that studying the abundant trophic and activating signals which are generated during this neuro-immune-crosstalk represents the key to understand the remarkable neuroplasticity of the GI tract.

  4. Comparative microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal tracts of food animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joyce M; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana A; Aminov, Roustam I; Skerlos, Laura T; Bradley, Terence M; Mackie, Roderick I; White, Bryan A

    2002-04-01

    Molecular tools based on small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences offer a powerful and rapid tool for the analysis of complex microbial communities found in the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of food animal species. Extensive comparative sequence analysis of SSU rRNA molecules representing a wide diversity of organisms shows that different regions of the molecule vary in sequence conservation. Oligonucleotides complementing regions of universally conversed SSU rRNA sequences are used as universal probes, while those complementing more variable regions of sequence are useful as selective probes targeting species, genus, or phylogenetic groups. Different approaches derive different information and this is highly dependent on the type of target nucleic acid employed and the conceptual and technical basis used for nucleic acid probe design. Generally these approaches can be divided into DNA-based methods employing empirically characterized probes and rRNA-based methods based on comparative sequence analysis for design and interpretation of "rational" probes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques can also be applied to the analysis of microbial communities in the GIT. Direct cloning of SSU rDNA genes amplified from these complex communities can be used to determine the extent of diversity in these GIT communities. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is another powerful tool for profiling microbial diversity of microbial communities in GI tracts. Sequence analysis of the excised DGGE amplicons can then be used to presumptively identify predominant bacterial species. Examples of how these molecular approaches are being used to study the microbial diversity of communities from steers fed different diets, swine fed probiotics, and Atlantic salmon fed aquaculture diets are presented.

  5. Building a three-dimensional model of the upper gastrointestinal tract for computer simulations of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Alfonso; Mata, Lucely; Brito-de-la-Fuente, Edmundo; Delmas, Patrice; Vicente, William; Salinas-Vázquez, Martín; Ascanio, Gabriel; Marquez, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to provide realistic three-dimensional (3D) models to be used in numerical simulations of peristaltic flow in patients exhibiting difficulty in swallowing, also known as dysphagia. To this end, a 3D model of the upper gastrointestinal tract was built from the color cryosection images of the Visible Human Project dataset. Regional color heterogeneities were corrected by centering local histograms of the image difference between slices. A voxel-based model was generated by stacking contours from the color images. A triangle mesh was built, smoothed and simplified. Visualization tools were developed for browsing the model at different stages and for virtual endoscopy navigation. As result, a computer model of the esophagus and the stomach was obtained, mainly for modeling swallowing disorders. A central-axis curve was also obtained for virtual navigation and to replicate conditions relevant to swallowing disorders modeling. We show renderings of the model and discuss its use for simulating swallowing as a function of bolus rheological properties. The information obtained from simulation studies with our model could be useful for physicians in selecting the correct nutritional emulsions for patients with dysphagia.

  6. Gastrointestinal tract access for enteral nutrition in critically ill and trauma patients: indications, techniques, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, M; Latifi, R; El-Menyar, A; Al Thani, H

    2013-06-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is a widely used, standard-of-care technique for nutrition support in critically ill and trauma patients. To review the current techniques of gastrointestinal tract access for EN. For this traditional narrative review, we accessed English-language articles and abstracts published from January 1988 through October 2012, using three research engines (MEDLINE, Scopus, and EMBASE) and the following key terms: "enteral nutrition," "critically ill," and "gut access." We excluded outdated abstracts. For our nearly 25-year search period, 44 articles matched all three terms. The most common gut access techniques included nasoenteric tube placement (nasogastric, nasoduodenal, or nasojejunal), as well as a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Other open or laparoscopic techniques, such as a jejunostomy or a gastrojejunostomy, were also used. Early EN continues to be preferred whenever feasible. In addition, evidence is mounting that EN during the early phase of critical illness or trauma trophic feeding has an outcome comparable to that of full-strength formulas. Most patients tolerate EN through the stomach, so postpyloric tube feeding is not needed initially. In critically ill and trauma patients, early EN through the stomach should be instituted whenever feasible. Other approaches can be used according to patient needs, available expertise, and institutional guidelines. More research is needed in order to ensure the safe use of surgical tubes in the open abdomen.

  7. Requiem for the Term ‘Carcinoid Tumour’ in the Gastrointestinal Tract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runjan Chetty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the term ‘carcinoid tumour’ to describe a unique type of tumour in the gastroenteropancreatic system is endemic in the medical literature and in daily clinical and pathological parlance. However, it is a somewhat misleading moniker because a spectrum of histopathological changes and hence, biological outcomes may occur in these tumours. The World Health Organization classification scheme recommends the use of the terms neuroendocrine tumours or carcinomas, which may be stratified as well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours with benign or uncertain behaviour, well-differentiated tumours with low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma behaviour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. These categories may be applied within different sites in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, and convey a sense of biological behaviour. In addition, a recently suggested tumour-node-metastasis scheme has been proposed and awaits clinical validation and acceptance. Thus, the term ‘carcinoid’ has served its purpose well, but its use should be phased out in favour of ‘neuroendocrine tumour’ or ‘neuroendocrine carcinoma’.

  8. Carbon monoxide in human physiology – its role in the gastrointestinal tract

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    Katarzyna Jasnos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter – nitric oxide (NO. Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. [Carbon monoxide in human physiology--its role in the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnos, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Sławomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter - nitric oxide (NO). Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Effect of encapsulation of selected probiotic cell on survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract condition

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    Hasiah Ayama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of probiotic bacteria have been led to their increasing use in foods. Encapsulation has been investigated to improve their survival. In this study, the selection, encapsulation and viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with probiotic properties in simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT condition were investigated. One hundred and fifty isolates of LAB were obtained from 30 samples of raw cow and goat milk and some fermented foods. Nine isolates could survive under GIT condition and only 3 isolates exhibited an antimicrobial activity against all food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Among them, 2 isolates (CM21 and CM53 exhibited bile salt hydrolase activity on glycocholate and glycodeoxycholate agar plates and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. CM53 was selected for encapsulation using 1-3% alginate and 2% Hi-maize resistant starch by emulsion system. Viability and releasing ability of encapsulated CM53 in simulated GIT condition was increased in accordance to the alginate concentration and incubation time, respectively.

  11. Microplastic in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast

    KAUST Repository

    Baalkhuyur, Fadiyah M.

    2018-04-24

    This study assesses the presence of microplastic litter in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of 26 commercial and non-commercial fish species from four difference habitats sampled along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea. A total of 178 individual were examined for microplastics. In total, 26 microplastic fragments were found. Of these, 16 being films (61.5%) and 10 being fishing thread (38.5%). FTIR analysis revealed that the most abundant polymers were polypropylene and polyethylene. The grouper (Epinephelus spp.) sampled at Jazan registered the highest number of ingested microplastics. This fish species is benthic and feeds on benthic invertebrates. Although differences in the abundance of microplastic ingestion among species were not statistically significant, a significant change was observed when the level of ingestion of microplastics particles was compared among the habitats. The higher abundance of microplastics particles may be related to the habitats of fish and the presence of microplastics debris near the seabed. The results of this study represent a first evidence that microplastic pollution represents an emerging threat to Red Sea fishes, their food web and human consumers.

  12. Radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract in Hodgkin's disease: the role of exploratory laparotomy and fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallez-Marchal, D.; Fayolle, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Rougier, P.; Cosset, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Out of 134 patients irradiated below the diaphragm to a dose of 40 Gy for Hodgkin's disease at the Institut Gustave-Roussy, 19 (14%) were subsequently found to present with radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract. Since five patients presented with two different injuries, 24 radiolesions were observed. Most of them (17 out of 24) were gastric or duodenal. Twelve (out of 24) were ulcers. Nine patients required surgery. A complete cure of the radiation injuries was obtained in 15 out of 19 patients. Sex, age, stage, histology or initial chemotherapy were not found to play a role in the occurrence of radiation damage. On the contrary, the role of a previous exploratory laparotomy appeared important; for the patients who underwent laparotomy and irradiation, the complication rate was 23%. For the patients treated by irradiation alone, the complication rate was 7% (p < 0.01). Fractionation was found to be another important parameter: for 52 patients treated using 3 weekly fractions of 3.3 Gy, the complication rate was 25% compared to 8% (p < 0.01) for 76 patients treated using 4 weekly fractions of 2.5 Gy. Combining these two factors, the authors found a 42% complication rate for the group of patients who underwent laparotomy and who were treated by means of 3 fractions of 3.3 Gy per week, whereas patients irradiated using 4 weekly fractions of 2.5 Gy, without any previous laparotomy, has only a 5% complication risk (p < 0.001). (Auth.)

  13. Repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays for quinoline in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Fuyumi; Tanaka, Jin; Ueda, Maya; Nagai, Miho; Fukumuro, Masahito; Natsume, Masakatsu; Oba, Michiyo; Akahori, Ayaka; Masumori, Shoji; Takami, Shigeaki; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kougo, Yuriko; Ohyama, Wakako; Narumi, Kazunori; Fujiishi, Yohei; Okada, Emiko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-dose liver, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays that use young adult rats were evaluated in a collaborative study that was organized by the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group. A genotoxic hepatocarcinogen quinoline was orally administered to independent groups of five Crl:CD (SD) male rats at doses of 30, 60 and 120mg/kg for 14 days and at doses of 15, 30 and 60mg/kg for 28 days. After treatment, the livers were harvested and hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase treatment. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) increased significantly in both the 14- and 28-day repeated dose studies. However, the frequency of micronucleated cells did not increase in the bone marrow, stomach or colon cells, which were not quinoline-induced carcinogenic target organs in the rats. These results indicate that a repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats is capable of detecting the genotoxicity of quinoline at the target organ of carcinogenicity. The protocol may also permit the integration of the genotoxic endpoint into general repeated-dose toxicity studies. Furthermore, we elucidated that conducting the micronucleus assay in multiple organs could potentially assess organ specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Single bioreactor gastrointestinal tract simulator for study of survival of probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumeri, Ingrid; Arike, Liisa; Adamberg, Kaarel; Paalme, Toomas

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an in vitro model system to evaluate the probiotic potential of food. A single bioreactor system-gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS) was chosen for process simulation on account of its considerable simplicity compared to multi-vessel systems used in previous studies. The bioreactor was evaluated by studying the viability of four known probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) as a function of their physiological state. L. acidophilus and L. johnsonii survived in GITS better when introduced at an early stationary or exponential phase compared to being previously stored for 2 weeks at 4 degrees C. These two species were more resistant to bile salts and survived better than L. casei and L. rhamnosus GG. The latter two species gave large losses (up to 6 log) in plate counts independent of growth state due to the bile. However, experiments with some commercial probiotic products containing Lb. GG bacteria showed much better survival compared with model food (modified deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe growth medium), thus demonstrating the influence of the food matrix on the viability of bacteria. The study demonstrated that GITS can be successfully used for evaluation of viability of probiotic bacteria and functionality of probiotic food.

  15. Fasting and refeeding modulate the expression of stress proteins along the gastrointestinal tract of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallès, J P; David, J C

    2011-08-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of young mammals is submitted to aggressions early in life and GIT stress proteins are up-regulated in pigs following weaning. We hypothesized that transient food deprivation may contribute to these changes. Therefore, the effects of fasting and refeeding on GIT stress proteins in weaned pigs were investigated. A complete block experimental design with three groups of five pigs each was set up with the following treatments: A - food offered, B - fasted for 1.5 days, C - fasted for 1.5 days and then re-fed for 2.5 days. After slaughter, the GIT was removed, weighed and sampled. Intestinal villi and crypts were measured and alkaline phosphatase activity was determined. GIT tissue stress protein concentrations were measured by Western blotting. Fasting led to intestinal mucosa and villous-crypt atrophy (p fasting. Inducible NOS (iNOS) did so in the stomach (p fasting and refeeding modulate GIT HSP proteins and nNOS in pigs following weaning. Changes in digesta and intestinal mucosa weights and alkaline phosphatase activity may be involved in the modulation of stress proteins along the GIT. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (Proe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  17. Some Gastrointestinal Tract Characteristics of Karayaka Ram Lambs Slaughtered at Different Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one Karayaka ram lambs were slaughtered at different body weights (30 n=7, 35 n=6, 40 n=7, 45 n=6, and 50 n=5 kg of body weight at fast to evaluate the growth of their gastrointestinal tract (GIT characteristics, to determine the relationship among slaughter body weight (SBW and empty body weight (EBW, whole GIT and segments, and the influence of slaughter weight on the pH of rumen, jejunum, and cecal contents. The effects of the SBW on GIT weight P<0.05, stomach P<0.001, and intestine P<0.05, the body length P<0.001 and caecum P<0.05, and the relative weights of GIT P<0.05, stomach P<0.001, and intestine P<0.001 were linear whereas that for the length of intestine were quadratic. The effect of SBW were quadratic P<0.05 on ratios of stomach to GIT weight and intestine length to intestine weight and rumen pH while, for the intestine to GIT weight ratio P<0.001 and caecum pH P<0.05, this effect was linear. The results indicated that for all parameters studied, with the exception of intestinal length and cecal pH, linear relationships were observed with SBW indicating steady growth rates for these tissues.

  18. Effects of oil thermally processed with vegetable protein on gastrointestinal tract content transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Araki, Yurika; Tateishi, Sayuri

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that oil heated with vegetable protein under reduced pressure, followed by filtration (soy oil), decreased body, liver and retroperitoneal fat tissue weights and serum triacylglycerol levels in Wistar rats. In order to clarify the mechanism of these weight-loss promoting effects, gastrointestinal tract content transfer was traced. Fasted 10-week-old rats were fed a slurry containing AIN93G without fat, Cr(2)O(3) (marker), and 7 wt% soy oil or fresh oil (control) and sacrificed at 20, 60, 120, or 360 min; then, blood, stomach, small intestine, cecum, colon and feces were collected. The results indicated that the content transferred faster from stomach to small intestine in the soy oil group than in the control group. At 60 min after the ingestion of diet, an increased serum triacylglycerol level was found in the soy oil group. In addition, fecal excretion in the soy oil group was significantly higher 120 min after the administration than in the control group, suggesting that soy oil stimulated peristalsis of the colon and that colon contents (food ingested before administration) were actively excreted.

  19. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  20. Biological diversity of yeasts in the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets kept under different farm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urubschurov, Vladimir; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Souffrant, Wolfgang B

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine yeasts present in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of piglets kept under experimental farm (EF) and commercial farm (CF) conditions. Ninety five German Landrace full- and half-sibling piglets were sacrificed at 39 days of age. Sixty eight piglets were weaned at 28th day of life, when they were offered one diet ad libitum. Twenty seven piglets remained unweaned by their dams. None of the piglets received any creep feed before weaning. Digesta samples were collected from 1/3 distal small intestine (SI), caecum and proximal colon. One hundred seventy three colonies of isolated yeasts were characterized by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene with following alignment of the recovered sequences to GenBank entries. From the 17 phylotypes found, isolates most closely related to Galactomyces geotrichum, Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida catenulata dominated in the GIT of CF piglets. Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida glabrata dominated in GIT of EF piglets. Sørenson and Morisita-Horn similarity indices between farms were low (0.44 and 0.54 respectively) and the Simpson diversity index was higher for EF (7.58) than for CF (4.34). The study brings new data on yeasts composition in the pig GIT and shows differences in yeasts biodiversity between farms operated at different hygiene conditions.

  1. Endoscopic Management of Foreign Bodies in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhael Bekkerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion is a common diagnosis that presents in emergency departments throughout the world. Distinct foreign bodies predispose to particular locations of impaction in the gastrointestinal tract, commonly meat boluses in the esophagus above a preexisting esophageal stricture or ring in adults and coins in children. Several other groups are at high risk of foreign body impaction, mentally handicapped individuals or those with psychiatric illness, abusers of drugs or alcohol, and the geriatric population. Patients with foreign body ingestion typically present with odynophagia, dysphagia, sensation of having an object stuck, chest pain, and nausea/vomiting. The majority of foreign bodies pass through the digestive system spontaneously without causing any harm, symptoms, or necessitating any further intervention. A well-documented clinical history and thorough physical exam is critical in making the diagnosis, if additional modalities are needed, a CT scan and diagnostic endoscopy are generally the preferred modalities. Various tools can be used to remove foreign bodies, and endoscopic treatment is safe and effective if performed by a skilled endoscopist.

  2. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    A survey of past case reports about radiation-induced cancer in the gastrointestinal tract was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1923 revealed 80 cases of radiation-induced large intestine cancer and one case of stomach cancer. The cases of radiation-induced cancer in the large intestine had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant conditions, fibroma, ovarial cyste, myoma, endometritis and duodenal ulcer. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 460 rads. Adenocarcinoma was the histopathological finding in all cases of radiation-induced cancer in the caecum, colon and rectum, and squamous cell carcinoma in the cases of anal cancer. The latent period ranged from 1 to 31 years, with the average of 13.6 years. There were some reports of statistical studies of radiation-induced stomach cancer. Three groups were the subjects of these studies. The first group was composed of atomic bomb survivors, the second of patients who had undergone radiation treatment for ankylosing spondilitis, and the third of duodenal ulcer patients subjected to radiation treatment for the purpose of suppressing gastric acid secretion. These statistical studies showed no significant increase of the incidence of stomach cancer in the irradiated groups. (auth.)

  3. Surface Proteins of Lactococcus lactis: Bacterial Resources for Muco-adhesion in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Mercier-Bonin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food and probiotic bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria, are ingested in large amounts by humans and are part of the transient microbiota which is increasingly considered to be able to impact the resident microbiota and thus possibly the host health. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures to produce dairy fermented food. Also because of a generally recognized as safe status, L. lactis has been considered as a possible vehicle to deliver in vivo therapeutic molecules with anti-inflammatory properties in the gastrointestinal tract. One of the key factors that may favor health effects of beneficial bacteria to the host is their capacity to colonize transiently the gut, notably through close interactions with mucus, which covers and protects the intestinal epithelium. Several L. lactis strains have been shown to exhibit mucus-binding properties and bacterial surface proteins have been identified as key determinants of such capacity. In this review, we describe the different types of surface proteins found in L. lactis, with a special focus on mucus-binding proteins and pili. We also review the different approaches used to investigate the adhesion of L. lactis to mucus, and particularly to mucins, one of its major components, and we present how these approaches allowed revealing the role of surface proteins in muco-adhesion.

  4. Diet-induced obesity suppresses ghrelin in rat gastrointestinal tract and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ibrahim; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Guzel, Saadet Pilten; Catak, Zekiye; Ozercan, Mehmet Resat

    2011-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine ghrelin expression in serum and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tissues, and to measure tissue ghrelin levels and obesity-related alterations in some serum biochemical variables in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). The study included 12 male rats, 60 days old. The rats were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 6). Rats in the DIO group were fed a cafeteria-style diet to induce obesity, while those in the control group were fed on standard rat pellets. After a 12 week diet program including an adaptation period all rats were decapitated, tissues were individually fixed, ghrelin expression was examined by immunohistochemistry , and tissue and serum ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum biochemical variables were measured using an autoanalyzer. When the baseline and week 12 body mass index and GIT ghrelin expression were compared between DIO and control rats, BMI had increased and ghrelin expression decreased due to obesity. The RIA results were consistent with these findings. Serum glucose, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol levels were elevated and HDL cholesterol significantly decreased in the DIO group. A comparison of GIT tissues between the control and obese groups demonstrated that ghrelin was decreased in all tissues of the latter. This decrease was brought about a decline in the circulating ghrelin pool. This suggests that rather than being associated with a change in a single tissue, obesity is a pathological condition in which ghrelin expression is changed in all tissues.

  5. Live Probiotic Cultures and the Gastrointestinal Tract: Symbiotic Preservation of Tolerance Whilst Attenuating Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVitetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co–operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome. A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others has been exploited to highlight mitochondria as arising from a bacterial progenitor. As such the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activity. This is embodied, by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotes (alphaproteobacteria contribution, a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. During the twentieth century there was an increasing dependency on anti–microbials as mainline therapy against bacterial infections. It is only comparatively recently that the essential roles played by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiome in animal health and development has been recognized as opposed to the GIT microbiome being a toxic collection of micro–organisms. It is now well documented that t

  6. Gastrointestinal Tract Commensal Bacteria and Probiotics: Influence on End-Organ Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, Luis; Palacios, Talia; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria represent the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included cooperative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). It is generally agreed upon that the fusion of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryotic cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryotes. This is expressed by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells (an alpha-proteobacteria input), a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. As such, the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activities. Hence, microbial colonization of mammals has been a progressively driven process. The interactions between the human host and the microbiome inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for example, afford the human host the necessary cues for the development of regulated signals that in part are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). This regulated activity then promotes immunological tolerance and metabolic regulation and stability, which then helps establish control of local and extraintestinal end-organ (e.g., kidneys) physiology. Pharmacobiotics, the targeted administration of live probiotic cultures, is an advancing area of potential therapeutics, either directly or as adjuvants. Hence the continued scientific understanding of the human microbiome in health and disease may further lead to fine tuning the targeted delivery of probiotics for a therapeutic gain.

  7. Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we monitored antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts  (GIT. We isolated Enterobacteriaceae from chicken, ducks, lambs, pigs, sheeps, cows and rabbits collected from slovakian farms. Enterobacteriaceae strains were cultivated on MacConkey agar at 35° ± 2°C at 24 hours. Pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae strains were obtained by four-way streak method on Chromogenic coliform agar. Identification of purified Enterobacteriaceae strains were done by Enterotest 24 and MALDI TOF MS. For susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used according by EUCAST. We determined the most resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains against streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, piperecillin, levofloxacine, chloramphenicol and smaller level of resistance against amikacin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacine. Equally we detected resistance to more antibiotics in one strain. The most resistance was Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Also E. coli was resistance against four antibiotics and Raoultella ornithinolytica too. Antibiotic resistance was found in other isolated strains too.

  8. Alterations and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract caused by old age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayerl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The dissertation reviews the publications on 'The gastrointestinal tract in old age' since 1941. As in the 1941 publication by Heinrich, particular interest is taken in diagnostic radiology. The lower age limit of the cases described was set at 55 to 60 years. Oesophageal changes ranged from functional disturbances (e.g. atonia, changes in peristalsis, or dilatation) to chronic inflammation, displacement caused by the surrounding organs, and tumours (mainly carcinoma). Formation of diverticula takes an intermediate position. Of the gastric and duodenal changes, hiatal hermia and chronic atrophic gastritis were the most frequent. Ulcers caused by old age differ from 'common' ulcers in some respects, and the symptoms may be confused with those of gastric carcinoma. Early gastric carcinoma is another disease whose incidence increases with age. Thoracic and spinal changes may cause impressions on the stomach. The effects of old age on the time of passage of contrast media, on gastric tone, and on the shape of the stomach remain unclear. Changes caused by old age in the small and large intestine range from formation of diverticula and vascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic colitis and obstruction of the mesenteric vessels) to the frequent carcinoma of the large intestine and rectum. According to this study it has to be supposed that the degenerative atrophic processes of aging and previous diseases occurring increasingly in old age, favour the provocation of ratrogenic injuries. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and leiomyoma of the ileum mimicking adnexal mass: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Levent; Hurşitoğlu, Behiye Seda; Farajov, Rasim; Terek, Mustafa Coşan; Sezak, Murat; Şimşek, Deniz; Yılmaz, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Adnexal masses are formations seen in women of all ages; they most often include cystic elements. Medical history, physical examination, different imaging methods, and tumor marker determinations must be used together for preoperative evaluation of an adnexal mass. Both benign and malignant tumors of the small intestine are more rarely encountered than malignant tumors of other gastrointestinal system components; although advanced imaging methods and other diagnostic techniques are used, they do not always allow these tumors to be differentiated from adnexal masses. We report here on two cases operated on with the preliminary diagnosis of an adnexal mass, in which the presence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor and a leiomyoma of the ileum, respectively, was established.

  10. Repair of accurate radiation damage and development and consequence of chronic radiation damage of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlert, W.; Brendlein, F.

    1976-01-01

    The first part of the essay deals with structural, proliferation kinetic, and functional considerations important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of radiolesions and their repair. Then acute radiolesions of the vesophagus, the gastric mucosa and the mucosa of the small intestine and the colon as well as its repair are discussed with reference to experiments on rats. Another chapter deals with the histo- and pathogenesis of chronic radiolesions and the development of radiolesions in the capillary system. Late radiolesions in the vesophagus and phrenic ampulla, in the glandular stomach, duodenum and jejunum, colon and capillary and vessel system in the gastro-intestinal tract of rats are discussed in detail. Finally the importance of chronic radiolesions in the gastro-intestinal tract for civil protection is shown. It is required to protect persons with primary radiolesions from infections during the following time and to assure cell regeneration by suitable nutrition. (MG) [de

  11. Consideration of the Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract in the Choice of Species for Regulatory Juvenile Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Noel John

    2018-01-15

    Although the rat is close to being the automatic choice for regulatory juvenile toxicity studies, there are several shortcomings in this model. Choosing a species should take into serious consideration the importance of gastrointestinal tract development in the period before weaning as this may have a major effect on exposure. A comparison of the anatomical changes in the stomach and small intestine of mini-pig and rat show that the mini-pig is a far closer model for man than is the rat, although there are a few unusual aspects of small intestinal development in the mini-pig. Considerations of the development of the gastrointestinal tract and choice of species have the potential to affect safety assessment and should be a prime consideration when planning an investigation. Birth Defects Research 110:56-62, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in the Diagnostic Assessment of Subepithelial Lesions of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Dias de Castro

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: EUS is the method of choice in the study of subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, in most cases defining a diagnosis. The need for a definitive diagnosis or therapeutic approaches can be based on ultrasound risk features, presented, in the majority, at presentation. This study shows that EUS is capable of safely and accurately define those subepithelial lesions that can be managed only with surveillance ultrasound while waiting for better results with fine needle aspiration.

  13. STUDY OF CORROSIVE POISONING AND ITS EFFECTS ON UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND SURGICAL MANAGEMENT- A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Lingala; Ramesh Kota

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Corrosive injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract is an agonising experience for both the patient and surgeon. Caustic ingestion may cause wide spread injury to the lips, oral cavity, pharynx and the upper airway. The effect that these agents have on the oesophagus accounts for most of the serious injuries and on stomach, which may result in perforation and death in the acute phase. 1,2 If the patient survives the acute effects of caustic ingestion, the repa...

  14. Isolation of a complete circular virus genome sequence from an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Zachary R.; Runckel, Charles; Fuchs, Jerome; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Mindell, David P.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Dumbacher, John P.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of a circular virus isolated from samples of an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract. The genome is 2,152 bp in length and is most similar (30 to 44.5% amino acid identity) to the genome sequences of other single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) circular viruses belonging to the gemycircularvirus group.

  15. Quality of life and its related factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Heydari Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Quality of life (QoL is an important issue in all cancer patients; especially in patients with metastatic cancer. But there is very little information available about QoL in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and its associated factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 250 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer were recruited from the one oncology center related to the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, between March 2012 and August 2013. Their QoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire (Persian version. Results: In this study, the overall QoL score of patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer was 57.63, which was relatively optimal. There was a statistically significant relationship between symptoms scale and general health status domains of quality of life with age ( P < 0.05. Also, there was a significant association between patients′ gender and their social functioning ( P = 0.017 and also their emotional functioning ( P = 0.015. Conclusions: The findings suggest that in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers, the most affected functions in their QoL were social and emotional functioning which get worse with age. Thus, providing psychological counseling and psychotherapy services to deliver culturally appropriate mental health care and social support for these patients and their families′ which can lead to the improvement of QoL in these patients is strongly recommended.

  16. H. pylori May Not Be Associated with Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Normal Gastrointestinal Tract Endoscopy Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyibe Saler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori in patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results. Materials and Methods. A total of 117 male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results were included in this retrospective study. The study and control groups included 69 and 48 patients with and without iron deficiency anemia, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori, the number of RBCs, and the levels of HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin were calculated and compared. Results. There was no statistically significant difference found between the groups according to the prevalence of H. pylori (65.2% versus 64.6%, P=0.896. Additionally, the levels of RBCs, HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin in the patients in the study group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. Finally, there was no association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori (OR 1.02, Cl 95% 0.47–2.22, and P=0.943. Conclusion. H. pylori is not associated with iron deficiency anemia in male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results.

  17. Adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil after curative resection of cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: phase III trial of the EORTC gastrointestinal tract cancer cooperative group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenbijl, J. H.; Jeekel, J.; Sahmoud, T.; van Pel, R.; Couvreur, M. L.; Veenhof, C. H.; Arnaud, J. P.; Gonzalez, D. G.; de Wit, L. T.; Hennipman, A.; Wils, J.

    1999-01-01

    The survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil versus observation alone after surgery was investigated in patients with pancreatic head and periampullary cancers. A previous study of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in these cancers by the Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer

  18. Extra-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Presenting as an Anterior Chest Wall Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyeon Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old man was referred for an anterior chest wall mass. Chest computed tomography (CT and positron emission tomography-CT suggested a malignant tumor. Surgical biopsy through a vertical subxiphoid incision revealed an extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST. En bloc resection of the tumor, including partial resection of the sternum, costal cartilage, pericardium, diaphragm, and peritoneum, was performed. Pathologic evaluation revealed a negative resection margin and confirmed the tumor as an EGIST. On postoperative day 17, the patient was discharged without any complications. At the 2-week follow-up, the patient was doing well and was asymptomatic.

  19. Taste and move: glucose and peptide transporters in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hannelore; Zietek, Tamara

    2015-12-01

    What is the topic of this review? Nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract requires membrane proteins embedded in the apical membrane of epithelial cells that allow bulk quantities of nutrients, such as monosaccharides and amino acids, to be moved into epithelial cells. Very recently, a new function of the transporters as nutrient sensors mediating peptide hormone release from enteroendocrine cells has been discovered. What advances does it highlight? The review covers recent advances in membrane transporter functions for the absorption and sensing of dietary peptides and sugars and their putative interplay. Nutrient transporters are integral membrane proteins responsible for uptake into enterocytes and release of nutrients into the circulation. Absorption of food breakdown products, such as fatty acids, monosaccharides or amino acids, requires high-capacity transporters. In the case of glucose, amino acids and peptides, the transporters are electrogenic in nature, coupling substrate flux to ion movement. While glucose absorption is mediated by the Na(+)-dependent SGLT1 protein, uptake of short-chain peptides is mediated by the H(+)-coupled PEPT1 protein. Interestingly, both transporters were recently shown to fulfil an additional role as intestinal 'sensors' in enteroendocrine cells, mediating the release of gastrointestinal peptide hormones into the circulation. Sensing of D-glucose and of di- and tripeptides is particularly relevant for the secretion of the incretins glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 that promote insulin output from β-cells and mediate β-cell protection. In addition to these sensing pathways, a variety of G-protein-coupled receptors are involved in sensing of intestinal contents. D-Glucose is sensed not only by SGLT1 but also by the sweet taste receptor T1R2/3 expressed in enteroendocrine cells. Activation of T1R2/3 increases SGLT1 levels and intestinal glucose absorption. Although T1R2

  20. Association between oxidative status and the composition of intestinal microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuraszova, Marianna; Kovalcikova, Alexandra; Gardlik, Roman

    2017-06-01

    Studies have shown that the microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role when it comes to the maintenance of its proper functions. Many studies exist that have analyzed the composition of the bacterial community in the different regions of the GIT of humans and model animals. Microbial imbalance leads to several systemic disorders, including cardiovascular and renal disease. The imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidants leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays an important role in a variety of physiological processes, as well as disease. The continuous formation of ROS in the GIT is the result of the interaction between intestinal mucosa, symbiotic bacteria and dietary factors. It has also been proven that ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of several GI disorders, including IBD. We hypothesized that the levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) would be the highest in the ileum, caecum or colon, where the microbiota mostly consist of butyrate producing bacteria, Bacterioides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus or Bifidobacterium, which derive energy through carbohydrate fermentation. We also assumed that advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) mostly act in the segments, where bacteria reside and which are responsible for the amino acid fermentation, such as caecum or colon. Lipid hydroxyperoxides are generated during digestion in the stomach, which contains absorbed oxygen and has a low pH. According to this we hypothesized that the highest concentration of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) could be in the stomach, which, however, has not been confirmed. Because Lactobacilli are able to produce catalase, an endogenous antioxidant, and are abundant in the small intestine, we hypothesized that antioxidant capacity (measured by ferric reducing ability) would be the highest here. The highest levels of AGEs were found in the caecum. The highest level of

  1. Actions of crude hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia sp on gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Setim Freitas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The plants that compound the Pfaffia genus are used in folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. This study examined the effects of a crude hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia sp on the gastrointestinal tract. Female Wistar rats were pretreated orally (p.o. with the hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia (0.5, 1 and 2 g.kg-1 before the induction of ulcer with hypothermic restraint stress (HRS, ethanol (ET or indomethacin (IND. Control animals received water (C or ranitidine (60mg/kg p.o. The hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia (0.5, 1 and 2 mg.kg-1 protected rats against HRS and ET - induced ulcers, but was not able to protect the gastric mucosa against IND - induced ulcers. When injected into the duodenal lumen, the hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia inhibited basal and stimulated acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. These results indicate that this plant has a protective action against gastric lesions of the mucosa involving the reduction of gastric acid secretion.As plantas que compõem o gênero Pfaffia são utilizadas na medicina popular para tratar distúrbios gástricos. O presente estudo verificou os efeitos de um extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp sobre o trato gastrointestinal. Ratos Wistar fêmeas, foram pré-tratados por via oral (p.o. com o extrato hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp (0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 g/kg 1 hora antes da indução de úlceras com estresse por imobilização e frio, com etanol 70% ou indometacina. Animais controle receberam água (C ou ranitidina (R: 60mg/kg - p.o. O tratamento com o extrato protegeu a mucosa gástrica contra o aparecimento de úlceras induzidas por estresse e etanol, mas não foi capaz de proteger a mucosa contra úlceras induzidas por indometacina. Quando injetado pela via intraduodenal (na luz do duodeno - i.d., o extrato hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp inibiu tanto a secreção ácida gástrica basal quanto a estimulada com histamina e betanecol (drogas agonistas, em ratas com ligadura de piloro. Os

  2. Mucispirillum schaedleri gen. nov., sp nov., a spiral-shaped bacterium colonizing the mucus layer of the gastrointestinal tract of laboratory rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, B.R.; O'Rourke, J.L.; Neilan, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract is covered by a layer of mucus that can harbour a range of bacterial species specifically adapted to colonize this ecological niche. Examination of 110 bacterial isolates cultivated from the gastrointestinal tract of 23 mice revealed the presence of a subgroup......, Mucispirillum schaedleri gen. nov., sp. nov. These organisms are anaerobic, Gram-negative, spiral-shaped rods with bipolar flagella. The type strain is HRI 117(T) (=ATCC BAA-1009(T) = ACM 5223(T))....

  3. Assessment of the normal gastrointestinal tract of fetal MRI using 3D-gradient echo sequence. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract was evaluated using fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (FS-T1WI) with volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence (VIBE), which is a kind of fast low-angle shot (FLASH) contained in 3D-gradient echo (GRE). VIBE provides many imaging slices in a shorter time, higher special resolution, and better T1 contrast than conventional 3D sequences. In addition, it allows us to make high quality three-dimensional images. Compared to 2D-GRE in previous reports, 3D-GRE (VIBE) more consistently visualizes GI tract by high signal meconium. We believe that 3D-GRE is useful in depicting the fetal GI tract. (author)

  4. Spontaneous Rupture of Recurrent Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Mae Wang

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST among neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1 patients is approximately 3.9–25%, and this relationship is generally considered to be non-coincidental. We report a patient with NF-1 who underwent laparotomy 3 times due to recurrent intra-abdominal tumor rupture with internal bleeding in the space of 13 years. The pathologic diagnoses were schwannoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and GIST. Because of the similar histologic features of these tumors, we considered them to be of the same nature. Immunohistochemical staining can help in the differential diagnosis. We suggest that NF-1 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms receive further survey to rule out GISTs.

  5. Digestion of fat and fatty acids along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancharoenrat, P; Ravindran, V; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, G

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment investigated the digestion of fat and fatty acids (FA) from soybean oil and tallow along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. The second experiment was conducted to determine endogenous fat and FA losses and the FA profile of chicken bile. In experiment 1, 2-wk-old broilers were fed corn-soy diets supplemented with 50 g/kg of soybean oil or tallow for 7 d and digesta were collected from the duodenum, upper jejunum, upper ileum, and lower ileum. Apparent digestibility coefficients were calculated using the titanium marker ratio in diets, and digesta. Digestibility of fat was determined to be negative in the duodenum, indicating marked net secretion of fat into this segment. Fat was rapidly digested in the jejunum, with digestibility coefficients of 0.60 to 0.64 being determined at the end of the jejunum. The digestion of fat continued in the upper ileum. The apparent digestibility coefficient of fat determined at lower ileum in soybean oil diets was higher (P acid was digested throughout the intestinal tract, whereas the digestion of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids started only in the jejunum. Measurements at the lower ileal level showed that the unsaturated FA (linoleic and oleic acids) were well digested (0.90 to 0.94), irrespective of the source of fat. In contrast, the digestibility of saturated FA (palmitic and stearic acids) was influenced (P fat source. Digestibility coefficients of palmitic and stearic acids at lower ileum were markedly higher (P fat loss was determined to be 1,714 mg/kg of DM intake. Endogenous fat was composed mainly of palmitic (75 g/kg), stearic (131 g/kg), oleic (73 g/kg), linoleic (133 g/kg), and arachidonic (60 g/kg) acids. Fatty acid profile of endogenous fat was found to be remarkably similar to that of the bile, suggesting that the reabsorption of fat and FA from the bile was incomplete in growing broiler chickens.

  6. The pan-genome of Lactobacillus reuteri strains originating from the pig gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Udo; MacKenzie, Donald A; Zheng, Jinshui; Goesmann, Alexander; Roos, Stefan; Swarbreck, David; Walter, Jens; Crossman, Lisa C; Juge, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a gut symbiont of a wide variety of vertebrate species that has diversified into distinct phylogenetic clades which are to a large degree host-specific. Previous work demonstrated host specificity in mice and begun to determine the mechanisms by which gut colonisation and host restriction is achieved. However, how L. reuteri strains colonise the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of pigs is unknown. To gain insight into the ecology of L. reuteri in the pig gut, the genome sequence of the porcine small intestinal isolate L. reuteri ATCC 53608 was completed and consisted of a chromosome of 1.94 Mbp and two plasmids of 138.5 kbp and 9.09 kbp, respectively. Furthermore, we generated draft genomes of four additional L. reuteri strains isolated from pig faeces or lower GI tract, lp167-67, pg-3b, 20-2 and 3c6, and subjected all five genomes to a comparative genomic analysis together with the previously completed genome of strain I5007. A phylogenetic analysis based on whole genomes showed that porcine L. reuteri strains fall into two distinct clades, as previously suggested by multi-locus sequence analysis. These six pig L. reuteri genomes contained a core set of 1364 orthologous gene clusters, as determined by OrthoMCL analysis, that contributed to a pan-genome totalling 3373 gene clusters. Genome comparisons of the six pig L. reuteri strains with 14 L. reuteri strains from other host origins gave a total pan-genome of 5225 gene clusters that included a core genome of 851 gene clusters but revealed that there were no pig-specific genes per se. However, genes specific for and conserved among strains of the two pig phylogenetic lineages were detected, some of which encoded cell surface proteins that could contribute to the diversification of the two lineages and their observed host specificity. This study extends the phylogenetic analysis of L. reuteri strains at a genome-wide level, pointing to distinct evolutionary trajectories of porcine L. reuteri

  7. FGFR1 and NTRK3 actionable alterations in ?Wild-Type? gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Eileen; Chmielecki, Juliann; Tang, Chih-Min; Wang, Kai; Heinrich, Michael C.; Kang, Guhyun; Corless, Christopher L.; Hong, David; Fero, Katherine E.; Murphy, James D.; Fanta, Paul T.; Ali, Siraj M.; De Siena, Martina; Burgoyne, Adam M.; Movva, Sujana

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10?15% of adult, and most pediatric, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) lack mutations in KIT, PDGFRA, SDHx, or RAS pathway components (KRAS, BRAF, NF1). The identification of additional mutated genes in this rare subset of tumors can have important clinical benefit to identify altered biological pathways and select targeted therapies. Methods We performed comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) for coding regions in more than 300 cancer-related genes of 186 GISTs to assess...

  8. [Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a series of 23 surgically treated cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, A; Brini, A; Montesani, C; Pronio, A; Chessa, A; Manzi, F; Ribotta, G

    2001-01-01

    The recently introduced new nosological category, Gastro Intestinal Stromal Tumors, brought the Authors to a revision of their series and to a critical analysis of surgical behaviour for the treatment of that pathology. A series of 23 cases of GIST, observed between 1977 and 1999 has been taken into account. In the earlier cases, histopathological classification has been reviewed according to the most used criterions in international scientific literature. 17 of 23 observed tumors were located on the stomach, 4 on the duodenum and 2 on the jejunum. 20 of these cases derived from muscular tissue and 3 cases derived both from muscular and neural tissues. In 7 cases (30%) tumors were accidentally discovered during surgical intervention or diagnostic procedures for other causes. Surgical treatment was performed in all cases and consisted in 6 gastric resections, 14 gastric free-margin excisions, 2 duodenal resections and 1 jejunal resection. The follow-up (performed on 18 patients, with a minimum of 1 year, a maximum of 17 years and a median of 6 years) showed 2 deaths (11%) due to oncological causes, while 2 of the patients (11%) died for other causes. The only treatment for that group of tumors is, at the moment, surgery. Although that kind of neoplasms has mainly non-aggressive biological behaviour, a radical resection must be performed, due to the absence of macroscopic criterions to help distinguishing, during surgical intervention, aggressive tumors from non-aggressive ones.

  9. Quality of ulcer healing in gastrointestinal tract: Its pathophysiology and clinical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Toshio; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Ken’ichi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we review the concept of quality of ulcer healing (QOUH) in the gastrointestinal tract and its role in the ulcer recurrence. In the past, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been a chronic disease with a cycle of repeated healing/remission and recurrence. The main etiological factor of PUD is Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is also the cause of ulcer recurrence. However, H. pylori-negative ulcers are present in 12%-20% of patients; they also recur and are on occasion intractable. QOUH focuses on the fact that mucosal and submucosal structures within ulcer scars are incompletely regenerated. Within the scars of healed ulcers, regenerated tissue is immature and with distorted architecture, suggesting poor QOUH. The abnormalities in mucosal regeneration can be the basis for ulcer recurrence. Our studies have shown that persistence of macrophages in the regenerated area plays a key role in ulcer recurrence. Our studies in a rat model of ulcer recurrence have indicated that proinflammatory cytokines trigger activation of macrophages, which in turn produce increased amounts of cytokines and chemokines, which attract neutrophils to the regenerated area. Neutrophils release proteolytic enzymes that destroy the tissue, resulting in ulcer recurrence. Another important factor in poor QOUH can be deficiency of endogenous prostaglandins and a deficiency and/or an imbalance of endogenous growth factors. Topically active mucosal protective and antiulcer drugs promote high QOUH and reduce inflammatory cell infiltration in the ulcer scar. In addition to PUD, the concept of QOUH is likely applicable to inflammatory bowel diseases including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:23002355

  10. Diet-induced regulation of bitter taste receptor subtypes in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Vegezzi

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138, selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108 are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment.

  11. Diet-Induced Regulation of Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegezzi, Gaia; Anselmi, Laura; Huynh, Jennifer; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rozengurt, Enrique; Raybould, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2014-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138), selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108) are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment. PMID:25238152

  12. Persistence of probiotic strains in the gastrointestinal tract when administered as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxelin, Maija; Lassig, Anna; Karjalainen, Heli; Tynkkynen, Soile; Surakka, Anu; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Mutanen, Marja; Hatakka, Katja

    2010-12-15

    Most clinical studies of probiotics use freeze-dried, powdered bacteria or bacteria packed in capsules. However, probiotics are commercially available in various food matrices, which may affect their persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the study was to compare oral and faecal recovery during and after administration of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese. This randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial (n=36) included a 4-week run-in, 2-week intervention, and 3-week follow-up period. Participants consumed 10(10)cfu/day of probiotic combination and provided saliva and faecal samples before, during, and after the intervention. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to quantify the strains. L. rhamnosus GG was the only probiotic strain regularly recovered in saliva samples. During the intervention period it was recovered in the saliva of 88% of the volunteers at least once. No difference was found between the yoghurt and cheese groups. At the end of the intervention, L. rhamnosus GG and LC705 counts were high in faecal samples of all product groups (8.08 and 8.67log(10) genome copies/g, respectively). There was no matrix effect on strain quantity in faeces or the recovery time after ceasing the intervention. For P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS and B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb12, a matrix effect was found at the end of the intervention (Pprobiotics in yoghurt matrix is highly suitable for studying potential health benefits and capsules provide a comparable means of administration when the viability of the strain in the capsule product is confirmed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard eSchütz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFPChAT and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFPChAT cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFPChAT cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFPChAT cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1 was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFPChAT cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT. EGFPChAT cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5, and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1 and 2 (COX2. The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFPChAT cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFPChAT brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  14. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

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    Pinto Aldair JW

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania. The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance.

  15. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional Development of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Hormone- and Growth Factor-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms

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    Daniel Ménard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the control of gastrointestinal (GI tract development. The first section addresses the differences in general mechanisms of GI development in humans versus rodents, highlighting that morphogenesis of specific digestive organs and the differentiation of digestive epithelia occur not only at different stages of ontogeny but also at different rates. The second section provides an overview of studies from the author's laboratory at the Université de Sherbrooke pertaining to the development of the human fetal small intestine and colon. While both segments share similar morphological and functional characteristics, they are nevertheless modulated by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Using the organ culture approach, the author and colleagues were able to establish that hormones and growth factors, such as glucocorticoids, epidermal growth factor, insulin and keratinocyte growth factor, not only exert differential effects within these two segments, they can also trigger opposite responses in comparison with animal models. In the third section, emphasis is placed on the functional development of human fetal stomach and its various epithelial cell types; in particular, the glandular chief cells responsible for the synthesis and secretion of gastric enzymes such as pepsinogen-5 and gastric lipase. Bearing in mind that limitations of available cell models have, until now, greatly impeded the comprehension of molecular mechanisms regulating human gastric epithelial cell functions, the last section focuses on new human gastric epithelial cell models recently developed in the author's laboratory. These models comprise a novel primary culture system of human fetal gastric epithelium including, for the first time, functional chief cells, and human gastric epithelium cell lines cloned from the parental NCI-N87 strain. These new cells lines could serve important applications in the study of pathogenic action and epithelial

  17. Design of a video capsule endoscopy system with low-power ASIC for monitoring gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Lu, Li

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been a state-of-the-art tool to examine disorders of the human gastrointestinal tract painlessly. However, system miniaturization, enhancement of the image-data transfer rate and power consumption reduction for the capsule are still key challenges. In this paper, a video capsule endoscopy system with a low-power controlling and processing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is designed and fabricated. In the design, these challenges are resolved by employing a microimage sensor, a novel radio frequency transmitter with an on-off keying modulation rate of 20 Mbps, and an ASIC structure that includes a clock management module, a power-efficient image compression module and a power management unit. An ASIC-based prototype capsule, which measures Φ11 mm × 25 mm, has been developed here. Test results show that the designed ASIC consumes much less power than most of the other WCE systems and that its total power consumption per frame is the least. The image compression module can realize high near-lossless compression rate (3.69) and high image quality (46.2 dB). The proposed system supports multi-spectral imaging, including white light imaging and autofluorescence imaging, at a maximum frame rate of 24 fps and with a resolution of 400 × 400. Tests and in vivo trials in pigs have proved the feasibility of the entire system, but further improvements in capsule control and compression performance inside the ASIC are needed in the future.

  18. The use of BLT humanized mice to investigate the immune reconstitution of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Angela; Victor Garcia, J

    2014-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) track represents an important battlefield where pathogens first try to gain entry into a host. It is also a universe where highly diverse and ever changing inhabitants co-exist in an exceptional equilibrium without parallel in any other organ system of the body. The gut as an organ has its own well-developed and fully functional immune organization that is similar and yet different in many important ways to the rest of the immune system. Both a compromised and an overactive immune system in the gut can have dire and severe consequences to human health. It has therefore been of great interest to develop animal models that recapitulate key aspects of the human condition to better understand the interplay of the host immune system with its friends and its foes. However, reconstitution of the GI tract in humanized mice has been difficult and highly variable in different systems. A better molecular understanding of the development of the gut immune system in mice has provided critical cues that have been recently used to develop novel humanized mouse models that fully recapitulate the genesis and key functions of the gut immune system of humans. Of particular interest is the presence of human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) aggregates in the gut of NOD/SCID BLT humanized mice that demonstrate the faithful development of bona fide human plasma cells capable of migrating to the lamina propria and producing human IgA1 and IgA2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

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    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  20. Probiotics and respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections in Finnish military conscripts - a randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalima, K; Lehtoranta, L; He, L; Pitkäniemi, J; Lundell, R; Julkunen, I; Roivainen, M; Närkiö, M; Mäkelä, M J; Siitonen, S; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-09-01

    Military conscripts are susceptible to respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In previous studies probiotics have shown potency to reduce upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim was to study whether probiotic intervention has an impact on seasonal occurrence of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in two different conscript groups. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled study (https://clinicaltrials.gov NCT01651195), a total of 983 healthy adults were enrolled from two intakes of conscripts. Conscripts were randomised to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 (BB12) or a control chewing tablet twice daily for 150 days (recruits) or for 90 days (reserve officer candidates). Clinical examinations were carried out and daily symptom diaries were collected. Outcome measures were the number of days with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and symptom incidence, number and duration of infection episodes, number of antibiotic treatments received and number of days out of service because of the infection. Statistically no significant differences were found between the intervention groups either in the risk of symptom incidence or duration. However, probiotic intervention was associated with reduction of specific respiratory infection symptoms in military recruits, but not in reserve officer candidates. Probiotics did not significantly reduce overall respiratory and gastrointestinal infection morbidity.

  1. The DREAM complex in antitumor activity of imatinib mesylate in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaprio, James A; Duensing, Anette

    2014-07-01

    Although most gastrointestinal stromal tumors respond well to treatment with the small molecule kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), complete remissions are rare and the majority of patients achieve disease stabilization. Furthermore, discontinuation of treatment in the presence of residual tumor mass almost inevitably leads to tumor progression. These observations suggest that a subset of tumor cells not only persists under imatinib treatment, but remains viable. The current article reviews the molecular basis for these findings and explores strategies to exploit them therapeutically. Although imatinib induces apoptosis in a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells, it leads to a reversible exit from the cell division cycle and entry into G0, a cell cycle state called quiescence, in the remaining cells. Mechanistically, this process involves the DREAM complex (DP, p130/RBL2, E2F4 and MuvB), a newly identified key regulator of quiescence. Interfering with DREAM complex formation either by siRNA-mediated knockdown or by pharmacological inhibition of the regulatory kinase dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A was shown to enhance imatinib-induced gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell death. Targeting the DREAM complex and imatinib-induced quiescence could provide opportunities for future therapeutic interventions toward more efficient imatinib responses.

  2. A novel complex KIT mutation in a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the vermiform appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassos, Nikolaos; Agaimy, Abbas; Günther, Klaus; Hohenberger, Werner; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Croner, Roland S

    2013-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the vermiform appendix are rare. To date, only 11 cases have been reported in the English literature. Here, we present a new case of appendiceal gastrointestinal stromal tumor associated with complete situs inversus. A 48-year-old man was operated on due to appendicitis-like symptoms. Laparotomy revealed a ruptured conglomerate tumor in the lower abdomen associated with extensive peritoneal adhesions. Histology showed a spindle cell gastrointestinal stromal tumor with prominent sclerosis and calcification without low mitotic activity. The tumor cells expressed strongly CD117 and CD34. The mutation analysis revealed a heterozygous deletion/insertion involving exon 11 of KIT (pK558_V559delNNins). Because the tumor was ruptured intraoperatively, a high risk was assigned according to the revised National Institute of Health criteria and adjuvant therapy with imatinib mesylate was recommended. The patient is currently alive without evidence of progression 27 months after surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preoperative detection of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors using endoscopic ultrasonography Detección preoperatoria de los tumores neuroendocrinos digestivos mediante ultrasonografía endoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Varas Lorenzo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: almost 30% of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPET escape preoperative identification using standard imaging techniques. The goal of this retrospective study is to present our cumulative experience in the assessment of GEPET by preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS, and to compare it with a literature review. Patients and methods: thirty-seven patients with suspected specific hormonal syndromes were sequentially examined with US, CT, MRI, angiography, OctreoScan, and radial and sectorial EUS. Sixteen were males (43% and 21 were females (57%, with a mean age of 61 years (interval: 40-84 a. Of all 37 patients, 27 had 19 endocrine tumors in the pancreas and 14 tumors in their gastrointestinal tract. No tumors were demonstrated in 10 patients, hence they were used as a control group. Of all 37 patients, 24 were operated on or had histological samples collected, with the presence of 26 GEPET (10 carcinoids being confirmed in 22 patients. Results: EUS sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy were 81% and 78%. Specificity was 80%. All these values were similar to the mean values obtained from the literature review. Three pancreatic rumors smaller than or equal to 1 cm (insulinomas were detected, which had escaped diagnosis with previous US, CT, and MRI studies. An echoendoscopic examination of the pancreas could not be completed in two cases (5%, a pancreas carcinoid and an already gastrectomized double pancreatic gastrinoma. Conclusion: EUS is a good preoperative technique for GEPET detection, and may likely be superior to other imaging techniques in the assessment of small tumors. The usefulness of EUS as a primary exploration after US or HCT has been posited for tumor diagnosis and localization before surgery.

  4. Gastrointestinal Stromal Cell Tumor (GIST) Presenting as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In second case an 53-year-old, postmenopausal, woman presented with abdominal fullness and constipation for the preceding 3-4 days. Physical examination and imaging studies revealed a huge pelvic mass, suggestive of a cystic degenerated myoma. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large tumor originating from ...

  5. Multi-centric clinical study of the effect of intervention time on efficacy of gastroparesis external application prescription treatment of gastrointestinal tumor postsurgical gastroparesis

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    Qin Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Gastroparesis external application prescription can effectively treat gastrointestinal tumor postsurgical gastroparesis and may be more efficacious in progressive disease compared placebo. Patients with gastrointestinal tumor postsurgical gastroparesis should therefore undergo intervention at an earlier stage.

  6. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05-1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood.

  7. Characterization of the most abundant Lactobacillus species in chicken gastrointestinal tract and potential use as probiotics for genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-01

    The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Survival and synergistic growth of mixed cultures of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli combined with prebiotic oligosaccharides in a gastrointestinal tract simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Adamberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics, especially in combination with non-digestible oligosaccharides, may balance the gut microflora while multistrain preparations may express an improved functionality over single strain cultures. In vitro gastrointestinal models enable to test survival and growth dynamics of mixed strain probiotics in a controlled, replicable manner. Methods: The robustness and compatibility of multistrain probiotics composed of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli combined with mixed prebiotics (galacto-, fructo- and xylo-oligosaccharides or galactooligosaccharides and soluble starch were studied using a dynamic gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS. The exposure to acid and bile of the upper gastrointestinal tract was followed by dilution with a continuous decrease of the dilution rate (de-celerostat to simulate the descending nutrient availability of the large intestine. The bacterial numbers and metabolic products were analyzed and the growth parameters determined. Results: The most acid- and bile-resistant strains were Lactobacillus plantarum F44 and L. paracasei F8. Bifidobacterium breve 46 had the highest specific growth rate and, although sensitive to bile exposure, recovered during the dilution phase in most experiments. B. breve 46, L. plantarum F44, and L. paracasei F8 were selected as the most promising strains for further studies. Conclusions: De-celerostat cultivation can be applied to study the mixed bacterial cultures under defined conditions of decreasing nutrient availability to select a compatible set of strains.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Gastrointestinal Tract of Broiler Chickens after Propolis and Bee Pollen Addition

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    Miroslav Kročko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the safety aspects of antimicrobials (propolis and bee pollen use in poultry farms as growth promoters is higher susceptibility of gastrointestinal microorganisms to antibiotics used for human treatment. Enterococci belong to the normal microbiota of gastrointestinal tract of chickens and are widely distributed in nature, but they are not generally recognized as safe (GRAS. Poultry enterococci carrying antimicrobial resistance genes may not only transfer these genes to other, possibly pathogenic, bacteria in the chicken gut, but upon transfer to zoonotic bacteria they also may pose a human health hazard. Antibiotic resistance prevalence of E. faecalis isolates found in the crop was subsequently found in the ileum and caecum within each group of broiler chickens. No resistance of E. faecalis isolates was found against vancomycin and teicoplanin. Intermediate resistance to erythromycin in the most E. faecalis isolates from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens with propolis supplement in their diet was eliminated. Our results suggest the probability of synergism effect of propolis and also bee pollen with some tested antibiotics against E. faecalis isolates.

  10. Development of a technique for contrast radiographic examination of the gastrointestinal tract in ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Russo, Elisa; Finotti, Luca; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    To develop a technique for radiographic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in ball pythons (Python regius). 10 ball python cadavers (5 males and 5 females) and 18 healthy adult ball pythons (10 males and 8 females). Live snakes were allocated to 3 groups (A, B, and C). A dose (25 mL/kg) of barium sulfate suspension at 3 concentrations (25%, 35%, and 45% [wt/vol]) was administered through an esophageal probe to snakes in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Each evaluation ended when all the contrast medium had reached the large intestine. Transit times through the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine were recorded. Imaging quality was evaluated by 3 investigators who assigned a grading score on the basis of predetermined criteria. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate differences in quality among the study groups. The esophagus and stomach had a consistent distribution pattern of contrast medium, whereas 3 distribution patterns of contrast medium were identified in the small intestine, regardless of barium concentration. Significant differences in imaging quality were detected among the 3 groups. Radiographic procedures were tolerated well by all snakes. The 35% concentration of contrast medium yielded the best imaging quality. Use of contrast medium for evaluation of the cranial portion of the gastrointestinal tract could be a reliable technique for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases in ball pythons. However, results of this study may not translate to other snake species because of variables identified in this group of snakes.

  11. Examination of a Culturable Microbial Population from the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Wood-Eating Loricariid Catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

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    Harold J. Schreier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish play a critical role in nutrient cycling and organic matter flow in aquatic environments. However, little is known about the microbial diversity within the gastrointestinal tracts that may be essential in these degradation activities. Panaque nigrolineatus is a loricariid catfish found in the Neotropics that have a rare dietary strategy of consuming large amounts of woody material in its natural environment. As a consequence, the gastrointestinal (GI tract of P. nigrolineatus is continually exposed to high levels of cellulose and other recalcitrant wood compounds and is, therefore, an attractive, uncharacterized system to study microbial community diversity. Our previous 16S rRNA gene surveys demonstrated that the GI tract microbial community includes phylotypes having the capacity to degrade cellulose and fix molecular nitrogen. In the present study we verify the presence of a resident microbial community by fluorescence microscopy and focus on the cellulose-degrading members by culture-based and 13C-labeled cellulose DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP approaches. Analysis of GI tract communities generated from anaerobic microcrystalline cellulose enrichment cultures by 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed phylotypes sharing high sequence similarity to known cellulolytic bacteria including Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Bacteroides, Eubacterium and Aeromonas spp. Related bacteria were identified in the SIP community, which also included nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum spp. Our ability to enrich for specialized cellulose-degrading communities suggests that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a favorable environment for this activity and these communities may be involved in providing assimilable carbon under challenging dietary conditions.

  12. Small bowel Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors can physiologically alter gut motility before causing mechanical obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Manish S; Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis; Meyrick-Thomas, John

    2005-01-01

    Background Gastro Intestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are rare stromal neoplasms that represent the most common mesenchymal tumor of the G.I. tract, accounting for 5% of all sarcomas [1,2]. Originating from interstitial cells of Cajal, which are regulators of gut peristalsis, they are preferentially located in the stomach and the small intestine [3] and clinical presentation is variable, ranging from vague complaints to major G.I. bleeding. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for pa...

  13. PCR Expression Analysis Of the Estrogeninducible Gene Bcei in Gastrointestinal and Other Human Tumors

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    Iris Wundrack

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was developed to test for tumor cell specific expression of the BCEI gene. This new marker gene, reported at first for human breast cancer, was found specifically active in various gastrointestinal carcinomas by previously applying immunohistochemistry and RNA (Northern blot analysis. Presently, by using reverse transcription -PCR analysis, a series of primary tumor tissues and established tumor cell lines were testcd for BCEI transcription. This approach was compared to immunostaining achieved by an antibody directed against the BCEI gene’s product. The result demonstrate the superior sensitivity of PCR by indicating the gene’ s expression in cases where immunohistochemical testing remained negative.

  14. Incidental detection of gastrointestinal stromal tumor by Tc-99m MDP bone scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Idakoji, Ibrahim A; Pampaloni, Miguel H

    2012-02-01

    This case demonstrates extraosseous 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) accumulation from a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A 75-year-old woman underwent a temporal bone CT for conductive hearing loss that showed sclerosis in the right occipital condyle. Follow-up Tc-99m MDP bone scan for osseous metastases instead showed a mass-like extraosseous accumulation of Tc-99m MDP in the anterior left upper quadrant. Differential diagnoses included gastric cancer, lymphoma, metastatic melanoma, systemic hypercalcemia, or heterotopic mesenteric ossification. Contrast CT showed a well-circumscribed mass arising from the stomach, and subsequent pathology confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumor. These tumors rarely can contain osteoclast-like giant cells and should be considered for extraosseous Tc-99m MDP accumulation.

  15. Chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of carob pods and leaves (Ceratonia siliqua L.) on the gastrointestinal tract: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kaïs; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Eto, Bruno; El-Benna, Jamel; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2017-09-01

    Carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L., is a medicinal plant used in Tunisian traditional medicine for the treatment of the gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders. In this respect, a relatively large number of scientific publications on the carob tree have been published in recent years. Therefore, the present review was aimed to analyze the traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Ceratonia siliqua on the GI tract. Indeed, previous investigations on the carob pods and leaves have revealed the presence of a number of compounds including high amounts of carbohydrates, dietary fibers, minerals, polyphenols, flavonoids and low amounts of protein and lipids. This plant possesses anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheique, antioxidant, anti-ulcer, anti-constipation and anti-absorptive of glucose activities in the gastrointestinal tract. Based on the chemical and pharmacological characteristics of C. siliqua, we concluded that this species has beneficial preventive and therapeutic properties, especially, in digestive tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Locoregional IL-2 low dose applications for gastrointestinal tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, Zachary; Koltchakov, V; Tomova, R; Deredjian, S; Alexiev, A; Popov, D; Tomov, B; Koten, Jan-Willem; Jacobs, John; Otter, Willem Den

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of local interleukin 2 (IL-2) in patients with different forms of abdominal cancer. This required experimentation with the time interval between IL-2 applications and the methods of application. METHODS: Sixteen patients with stages III and IV of gastrointestinal malignancies (primary or metastatic) who were admitted to our Department of Gastroenterology were treated with locoregionally applied IL-2 in low doses. RESULTS: No major problems applying locoregional IL-2 were encountered. In 6 out of 16 patients, a modest but clinically worthwhile improvement was obtained. Adverse effects were minimal. The therapeutic scheme was well tolerated, even in patients in a poor condition. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of low dose locoregional IL-2 application in advanced abdominal cancer. Local IL-2 therapy gives only negligible adverse effects. The results suggest that it is important to apply intratumorally. Local IL-2 may be given adjunct to standard therapeutic regimes and does not imply complex surgical interventions. These initial results are encouraging. PMID:16222748

  17. CAR-T cell therapy in gastrointestinal tumors and hepatic carcinoma: From bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Zimu; Peng, Meiyu; Fu, Shuyu; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a genetically engineered receptor that combines a scFv domain, which specifically recognizes the tumor-specific antigen, with T cell activation domains. CAR-T cell therapies have demonstrated tremendous efficacy against hematologic malignancies in many clinical trials. Recent studies have extended these efforts to the treatment of solid tumors. However, the outcomes of CAR-T cell therapy for solid tumors are not as remarkable as the outcomes have been for hematologic malignancies. A series of hurdles has arisen with respect to CAR-T cell-based immunotherapy, which needs to be overcome to target solid tumors. The major challenge for CAR-T cell therapy in solid tumors is the selection of the appropriate specific antigen to demarcate the tumor from normal tissue. In this review, we discuss the application of CAR-T cells to gastrointestinal and hepatic carcinomas in preclinical and clinical research. Furthermore, we analyze the usefulness of several specific markers in the study of gastrointestinal tumors and hepatic carcinoma.

  18. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from

  19. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    Full Text Available The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus. The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera. The phyla Firmicutes (51.2% and Bacteroidetes (39.4% were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01 different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004. These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  20. Invited review: Use of butyrate to promote gastrointestinal tract development in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Zabielski, R; Guilloteau, P

    2018-03-07

    Promotion of microbial butyrate production in the reticulorumen is a widely used method for enhancing forestomach development in calves. Additional acceleration of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, both the forestomach and lower parts of the GIT (e.g., abomasum, intestine, and also pancreas), can be obtained by dietary butyrate supplementation. For this purpose, different sources (e.g., butyrate salts or butyrins), forms (e.g., protected or unprotected), methods (e.g., in liquid feed or solid feed), and periods (e.g., before or after weaning) of butyrate administration can be used. The aim of this paper was to summarize the knowledge in the field of butyrate supplementation in feeds for newborn calves in practical situations, and to suggest directions of future studies. It has been repeatedly shown that supplementation of unprotected salts of butyrate (primarily sodium salt) in milk replacer (MR) stimulates the rumen, small intestine, and pancreas development in calves, with a supplementation level equating to 0.3% of dry matter being sufficient to exert the desired effect on both GIT development and growth performance. On the other hand, the effect of unprotected butyrins and protected forms of butyrate supplementation in MR has not been extensively investigated, and few studies have documented the effect of butyrate addition into whole milk (WM), with those available focusing mainly on the growth performance of animals. Protected butyrate supplementation at a low level (0.3% of protected product in DM) in solid feed was shown to have a potential to enhance GIT development and performance of calves fed MR during the preweaning period. Justification of this form of butyrate supplementation in solid feed when calves are fed WM or after weaning needs to be documented. After weaning, inclusion of unprotected butyrate salts in solid feed was shown to increase solid feed intake, but the effect on GIT development and function has not been determined in detail

  1. PET/CT imaging of 3D printed devices in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Majeed, Adil; Gomez-Lado, Noemí; Awad, Atheer; Luaces-Rodríguez, Andrea; Gaisford, Simon; Aguiar, Pablo; Basit, Abdul W

    2018-01-30

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP) is a revolutionary technology with the potential to transform drug product design in both the pre-clinical and clinical arena. The objective of this pilot study was to explore the intestinal behaviour of four different polymer-based devices fabricated using FDM 3DP technology in rats. Small capsular devices of 8.6 mm in length and 2.65 mm in diameter were printed from polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft-copolymer (PVA-PEG copolymer, Kollicoat IR), hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC, Klucel), ethylcellulose (EC, Aqualon N7) and hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS, Aquasolve-LG). A smaller sized device, 3.2 mm in length and 2.65 mm in diameter, was also prepared with HPMCAS to evaluate the cut off size of gastric emptying of solid formulations in rats. The devices were radiolabelled with Fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) and small animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) was used to track the movement and disintegration of the fabricated devices in the rats. The PVA-PEG copolymer and HPC devices disintegrated after 60min following oral administration. The EC structures did not disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tracts of the rats, whereas the HPMCAS-based systems disintegrated after 420 min. Interestingly, it was noted that the devices which remained intact over the course of the study had not emptied from the stomach of the rats. This was also the case with the smaller sized device. In summary, we report for the first time, the use of a microPET/CT imaging technique to evaluate the in vivo behaviour of 3D printed formulations. The manipulation of the 3D printed device design could be used to fabricate dosage forms of varying sizes and geometries with better gastric emptying characteristics suitable for rodent administration. The increased understanding of the capabilities of 3DP in dosage form design could, henceforth, accelerate pre-clinical testing of new drug candidates

  2. A Pleural Solitary Fibrous Tumor, Multiple Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Moyamoya Disease, and Hyperparathyroidism in a Patient Associated with NF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, also called von Recklinghausen’s disease, is a multisystemic disease caused by an alteration of the NF1 gene, a tumor suppressor located on the long arm of chromosome 17 (17q11.2. Loss of the gene function, due to a point mutation, leads to an increase in cell proliferation and the development of several tumors. We report a 60-year-old female patient manifesting hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism, a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT of the pleura, multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, and moyamoya disease associated with NF1. The SFT and GISTs were removed by staged operations. Then, hypercalcemia was successfully controlled after resection of the parathyroid adenoma. Based on a literature review, these combinations have never been reported, and the relevant literature is briefly discussed.

  3. Uptake of the glycosphingolipid sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in vivo and in isolated islets of Langerhans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredman Pam

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosphingolipid sulfatide has previously been found in several mammalian tissues, but information on the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide in different organs in vivo is limited. In pancreatic beta cells, sulfatide has been shown to be involved in insulin processing and secretion in vitro. In this study, we examined the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide and its distribution to the pancreatic beta cells. This might encourage future studies of the function(s of sulfatide in beta cell physiology in vivo. Radioactive sulfatide was given orally to mice whereafter the uptake of sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract and subsequent delivery to the pancreas was examined. Sulfatide uptake in pancreas was also studied in vivo by i.p. administration of radioactive sulfatide in mice, and in vitro in isolated rat islets. Isolated tissue/islets were analysed by scintillation counting, autoradiography and thin-layer chromatography-ELISA. Results Sulfatide was taken up in the gastrointestinal tract for degradation or further transport to other organs. A selective uptake of short chain and/or hydroxylated sulfatide fatty acid isoforms was observed in the small intestine. Exogenously administered sulfatide was found in pancreas after i.p, but not after oral administration. The in vitro studies in isolated rat islets support that sulfatide, independently of its fatty acid length, is endocytosed and metabolised by pancreatic islets. Conclusion Our study supports a selective uptake and/or preservation of sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration and with emphasises on pancreatic sulfatide uptake, i.p. administration results in sulfatide at relevant location.

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors arising from the stomach: a report of three children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Megan M; Gow, Kenneth W; Shehata, Bahig M; Katzenstein, Howard M; Lorenzo, Robert L; Ricketts, Richard R

    2004-10-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are a unique subset of intestinal mesenchymal tumors that behave in an aggressive fashion. They have been commonly described in adults but have been rarely observed in children. The authors review the presentation, diagnostic workup, operative records, pathologic specimens, and outcomes of 3 children with GISTs that originated from the stomach. All 3 children presented after upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the gastric tumor. The first was a 10-year-old girl who underwent partial gastrectomy but had recurrence 8 years later requiring a second resection. She subsequently had a hepatic metastasis 8 years later requiring a third resection. The second patient was a 9-year-old girl who had an antrectomy with a Bilroth I reconstruction and was noted to have a synchronous liver metastasis that was also resected. Despite Imatinib Mesylate, she had further hepatic metastases. The third child was a 4-year-old boy who recently underwent a partial gastrectomy and has no signs of metastatic disease at this time. GISTs are unusual tumors that have been rarely described in children. When they arise in the stomach, they often present after upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis can be made by endoscopy and biopsy. GISTs require resection and close observation for hepatic metastases. Current studies are ongoing for the potential role of Imatinib Mesylate for GISTs in children.

  5. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp. and Monocercomonas spp. in the gastrointestinal tract of snakes by in-situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Kübber-Heiss, A; Weissenböck, H; Schmidt, P

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a diagnostic method for protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal tract of captive snakes, based on chromogenic in-situ hybridization with probes designed for the detection of 18S rRNA genes from Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba invadens and Monocercomonas spp. The specificity of the probes was confirmed with the help of parasitic cultures and gene sequence analysis. The probes gave clear positive signals. Of 182 snakes examined, seven were positive with the Cryptosporidium probe, 13 with the Entamoeba probe (of which nine were also positive with the E. invadens probe), and 34 with the Monocercomonas probe.

  6. Advanced glycation end-product expression is upregulated in the gastrointestinal tract of type 2 diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans; Zhao, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate changes in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Eight inherited type 2 diabetic rats Goto-Kakizak (GK) and ten age-matched normal rats were used in the study. From 18 wk...... software. RESULTS: The blood glucose concentration (mmol/L) at 18 wk age was highest in the GK group (8.88 ± 1.87 vs 6.90 ± 0.43, P end of the experiment. The wet weight per unit length (mg/cm) increased in esophagus, jejunum and colon from...

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease affects density of nitrergic nerve fibers in the mucosal layer of the canine gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Rychlik, Andrzej; Gonkowski, Slawomir; Nowicki, Marcin; Calka, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the density of nitrergic nerve fibers in the mucosal layer of different sections of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. Twenty-eight German shepherd hybrid dogs of both sexes, weighing from 15 to 25 kg and aged 6 to 10 y, were studied. The dogs were divided into 4 groups with 7 animals in each group: healthy animals, as well as dogs suffering from mild, moderate, and severe IBD. Immunoreactivity to ...

  8. Metabolic Activation of Heterocyclic Amines and Expression of Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish, Wageh S.; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Itotani, Yuumi; Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines get entry into human body mainly through ingestion of pan-fried meats cooked at high temperatures. Exposure of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingested xenobiotics prior to delivery to the liver may lead to metabolic activation, which may explain the high incidence of GIT carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study investigated the mutagenic activation of 2 heterocyclic amines, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-prydo[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), in the GIT of rats....

  9. ROLE OF ENTEROSORPTION IN COMPREHENSIVE THERAPY FOR ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASES COMBINED DAMAGE TO WITH GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.B. Belan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of acute respiratory infections remains high in childhood. It is impossible to identify etiology most accurately in each particular case. However, according to multiple studies, viruses, their associations with each other and bacteria prevail as causative agents. In addition, it is quite often that a respiratory infection, especially in minor children, is combined with a condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Apart from symptomatic and antiviral therapies in these cases, as the authors of this article demonstrated, it is advisable to use enterosorbents. This tactics results in a decreased level of intoxication, lower intensity and duration of diarrheal syndrome, i.e. more speedy recovery.Key words: acute respiratory infections, condition of gastro tract, intoxication, diarrheal syndrome, treatment, enterosorbents, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:88-90

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Misawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA mutant (ΔtagO failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin.

  11. Stromal tumor presents as a large extragastrointestinal mass in the abdominal cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Chung-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Yang; Chan, Che-Chang; Li, Anna; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are nonepithelial neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract and have been increasingly recognized in recent years. In contrast, stromal tumor outside the gastrointestinal tract is not frequently found. Here, we present a 57-year-old male patient who had abdominal fullness for several months. It was caused by a 23-cm heterogeneous tumor mass that was successfully removed from the left upper abdominal cavity. The tumor adhered tightly to adjacent organs but postope...

  12. Promising novel therapeutic approaches in the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Zoltan; Thway, Khin; Fisher, Cyril; Bulusu, Ramesh; Constantinidou, Anastasia; Benson, Charlotte; van der Graaf, Winette Ta; Jones, Robin L

    2017-01-01

    Primary and secondary resistance to currently available licensed tyrosine kinase inhibitors poses a real clinical challenge in the management of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Within the frame of early phase clinical trials novel systemic treatments are currently being evaluated to target both the well explored and novel emerging downstream effectors of KIT and PDGFRA signaling. Alternative therapeutic approaches also include exploring novel inhibitors of the KIT/PDGFRA receptors, immune checkpoint and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. The final clinical trial outcome data for these agents are highly anticipated. Integration of new diagnostic techniques into routine clinical practice can potentially guide tailored delivery of agents in the treatment of a highly polyclonal, heterogeneous disease such as heavily pretreated advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

  13. Efficacy and safety of prolonged-release lanreotide in patients with gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors and hormone-related symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, ANM; Eriksson, B; Salmela, PI; Jacobsen, MB; Van Cutsem, EJDG; Fiasse, RH; Valimaki, MJ; Renstrup, J; de Vries, EGE; Oberg, KE

    Purpose: To evaluate the prolonged release (PR) of the long-acting somatostatin analog lanreotide in patients with gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors and its effect on hormone-related symptomatology, tumor markers, tumor size, tolerability, and quality of life (QOL), Patients and Methods:

  14. Gastric Schwannoma mimicking malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor and misdiagnosed by (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiu; Li, Beilei; Cai, Liang; Hou, Xiaoguang; Shi, Hongcheng; Hou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric Schwannoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor that accounts for only 0.2% of all gastric tumors. The current study presents a case of gastric Schwannoma misdiagnosed as malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) by esophagogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced or not enhanced and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

  15. Endoscopic balloon dilatation for Crohn's strictures of the gastrointestinal tract is feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Hendel, Jakob; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Despite optimized medical treatment, Crohn´s disease can cause gastrointestinal (GI) strictures, which requires surgical intervention. Lately, endoscopic balloon dilatation has been established as an alternative to surgery. In the following, we report our experiences with endoscopic dilatation...

  16. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  17. Concurrent Male Gynecomastia and Testicular Hydrocele after Imatinib Mesylate Treatment of a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hawk; Chang, Heung-Moon; Ryu, Min-Hee; Kim, Tae-Won; Sohn, Hee-Jung; Kim, So-Eun; Kang, Hye-Jin; Park, Sarah; Lee, Jung-Shin; Kang, Yoon-Koo

    2005-01-01

    We report a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patient with male gynecomastia and testicular hydrocele after treatment with imatinib mesylate. A 42 yr-old male patient presented for management of hepatic masses. Two years earlier, he had undergone a small bowel resection to remove an intraabdominal mass later shown to be a GIST, followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. At presentation, CT scan revealed multiple hepatic masses, which were compatible with metastatic GIST, and he was prescribe...

  18. Gynecomastia during imatinib mesylate treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a rare adverse event

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, HeLi; Liao, GuoQing; Yan, ZhongShu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Imatinib mesylate has been the standard therapeutic treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia, advanced and metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). It is well tolerated with mild adverse effects. Gynecomastia development during the course of treatment has been rarely reported. Methods Ninety-eight patients with advanced or recurrent GIST were treated with imatinib mesylate. Among the fifty-seven male patients six developed gynecomastia during the treatment. The lesi...

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tumor-Targeted Gene Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Niess, Hanno; Conrad, Claudius; Schwarz, Bettina; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Huss, Ralf; Nelson, Peter J.; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem (or stromal) cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic progenitor cells that can be obtained from bone marrow aspirates or adipose tissue, expanded and genetically modified in vitro, and then used for cancer therapeutic strategies in vivo. Here, we review available data regarding the application of MSC-based tumor-targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer, provide an overview of the general history of MSC-based gene therapy in cancer research, and discuss potential problems associa...

  20. Hypertensive crisis during wide excision of gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor (GIST): Undiagnosed paraganglioma -A case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Helen Ki; Jung, Jong Kwon; Park, Jay Kim; Kim, Jong Hoon; Jung, In Young; Lee, Hong Sik

    2012-03-01

    Although paraganglioma (PGL), an extra-adrenal retroperitoneal pheochromocytoma (PHEO), is a rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumor, it can cause severe hypertensive crisis during anesthesia or surgery if undiagnosed preoperatively. Extraluminal perigastric masses may be presumed to be gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) or soft tissue sarcomas even when histologic confirmation is not possible. Therefore, without a histologic diagnosis or symptoms of excessive catecholamine secretion, PGL may be mistaken for GIST. We report a case of preoperatively undiagnosed PGL which caused hypertensive crisis during anesthesia for retroperitoneal mass excision.

  1. Current concepts in non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor soft tissue sarcomas: A primer for radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baheti, Akahay D. [Dept. of Radiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Tirumani, Harika [Dept. of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States); O' Neill, Alibhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms whose classification and management continues to evolve with better understanding of their biologic behavior. The 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) has revised their classification based on new immunohistochemical and cytogenetic data. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of the revised WHO classification of soft tissue tumors, discuss in detail the radiology and management of the two most common adult non-GIST STS, namely liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma, and review some of the emerging histology-driven targeted therapies in non-GIST STS, focusing on the role of the radiologist.

  2. Cystic changes in intraabdominal extrahepatic metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated with imatinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Cheol; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Seoung Hong; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heon; Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hyun [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of describing the CT features of intra-abdominal extra-hepatic metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients who were treated with imatinib. Eleven patients with intra-abdominal extra-hepatic metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors, who were treated with imatinib between May 2001 and December 2003, were included in this study. The clinical findings and CT scans were retrospectively reviewed. The metastatic lesions were assessed according to the location, size (greatest diameter), attenuation, and the enhancing pattern before and after imatinib treatment. Prior to the treatment, the sizes and attenuation values of the metastatic lesions ranged from 5 to 20 cm and from 63 to 131 H, respectively. The metastatic lesions showed a heterogeneous enhancement pattern on the contrast-enhanced CT scans. After the treatment, the metastatic lesions became smaller in all 11 patients, and the corresponding attenuation value ranged from 15 to 51 H. The metastatic lesions became homogeneous and cystic in appearance on the follow-up CT scans, mimicking ascites. Intra-abdominal extra-hepatic metastases of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated with imatinib may appear as well-circumscribed cystic lesions on contrast-enhanced CT. These metastases are likely to become smaller and resemble ascites, but may persist indefinitely on the follow-up CT.

  3. Electrophysiological and mechanical activity of the upper gastrointestinal tract after duodenoplasty or segmental resection of benign gastric outlet stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiper, C; Titkova, S M; Polivoda, M; Anurov, M; Arlt, G; Ottinger, A P; Schumpelick, V

    2000-03-01

    In an animal experimental study we examined the postoperative recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract after operative treatment of a benign gastric outlet obstruction. At 45 Days after induction, a duodenal stenosis was resected in six dogs, and resolved by Finney's duodenoplasty in another six dogs. Fourteen days after segmental resection, the gastric emptying was faster [half evacuation time (T1/2) for semisolid food = 44.4 +/- 16.8 min] than following duodenoplasty [T1/2 = 56.8 +/- 25.3). Here motor migrating complexes (MMCs) started in the antrum and could be traced down to the jejunum. After segmental resection we recognized MMC only distal to the anastomosis. The duration of the whole MMC cycle (69.0 +/- 18.6 min) as well as of the single phases was significantly shorter in the resection group than after duodenoplasty (108.0 +/- 15.1 min). At 28 days after operation the differences in the electromyographic findings were smaller (82.0 +/- 15.1 min vs. 111.4 +/- 11.2 min), but still significant. Obviously humoral transmitters and the extrinsic neural system lead to good propagation of the MMC across the anastomosis, even before the intramural pathways are reestablished. Concerning the fast recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract, duodenoplasty is superior to segmental duodenal resection.

  4. Composition and diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota along the entire length of the pig gastrointestinal tract; dietary influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jennifer; Daly, Kristian; Moran, Andrew W; Ryan, Sheila; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2017-04-01

    Mucosa-associated microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract are in intimate contact with the outer mucus layer. This proximity offers these populations a higher potential, than lumenal microbiota, in exerting effects on the host. Functional characteristics of the microbiota and influences of host-physiology shape the composition and activity of the mucosa-associated bacterial community. We have shown previously that inclusion of an artificial sweetener, SUCRAM, included in the diet of weaning piglets modulates the composition of lumenal-residing gut microbiota and reduces weaning-related gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, using Illumina sequencing we characterised the mucosa-associated microbiota along the length of the intestine of piglets, and determined the effect of SUCRAM supplementation on mucosa-associated populations. There were clear distinctions in the composition of mucosa-associated microbiota, between small and large intestine, concordant with differences in regional oxygen distribution and nutrient provision by the host. There were significant differences in the composition of mucosa-associated compared with lumenal microbiota in pig caecum. Dietary supplementation with SUCRAM affected mucosa-associated bacterial community structure along the length of the intestinal tract. Most notably, there was a substantial reduction in predominant Campylobacter populations proposing that SUCRAM supplementation of swine diet has potential for reducing meat contamination and promoting food safety. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of cheddar cheese as a food carrier for delivery of a probiotic strain to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, G; Stanton, C; Lynch, P B; Collins, J K; Fitzgerald, G; Ross, R P

    1999-07-01

    Cheddar cheese was evaluated as a food carrier for the delivery of viable microorganisms of Enterococcus faecium (Fargo 688; Quest Int., Naarden, The Netherlands) to the gastrointestinal tract. This strain had previously been shown to possess properties required of a probiotic microorganism including the ability to relieve irritable bowel syndrome. The strain was found to survive to high numbers in Cheddar cheese during ripening at 8 degrees C for 15 mo (4 x 10(8) cfu/g) and in yogurt during storage at 4 degrees C for 21 d (4 x 10(7) cfu/g). In an in vitro model system, Cheddar cheese was found to have a greater protective effect than yogurt upon exposure of the probiotic culture to porcine gastric juice at pH 2. Subsequently, a feeding trial involving 8 pigs per group was performed in which a rifampicin-resistant variant of the probiotic strain was fed for 21 d at a mean daily intake of 1.3 x 10(10) cfu/d from Cheddar cheese or 3.7 x 10(9) cfu/d from yogurt. During the feeding period, Cheddar cheese yielded a significantly higher mean fecal probiotic count (2 x 10(6) cfu/g of feces) than did yogurt (5.2 x 10(5) cfu/g of feces). These data indicate that mature Cheddar cheese compares very favorably with fresh yogurt as a delivery system for viable probiotic microorganisms to the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. A physiologically relevant approach to characterize the microbial response to colloidal particles in food matrices within a simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooresh, Aishwarya; Zeng, Zhirui; Chandrasekharan, Jayashree; Pillai, Suresh D; Sayes, Christie M

    2012-09-01

    Colloids on the nanometer size scale are beginning to find increased applications in drinks, foods, food-contact surfaces, and food packaging. While these particles add intrinsic value to the food industry, their potential toxicities warrant careful studies. The physicochemical changes and possible perturbations to microbial communities within the gastrointestinal tract have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to design and perform a simulated digestion protocol to evaluate the effect of colloidal silver in an orange juice suspension when exposed to planktonic bacterial cultures and biofilms. The model system includes four precursor steps in which the silver is exposed to varying pH conditions and incubation times. The gastrointestinally "digested" samples were then incubated with Escherichia coli strains for up to 4h, the average residence time of foods in the GI tract. The physicochemical changes of the colloids and their corresponding biological effects were characterized at every step. The results showed differences between (1) bacterial cultures versus bacterial biofilms, (2) "digested" versus "undigested" silver on bacteria, and (3) differences between "digested" silver nitrate versus silver colloids on bacteria. We conclude that simulated digestion, as well as manner in which bacterial cells are grown, influences the results of toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Nutrition with Propolis and Bee Pollen Supplements on Bacteria Colonization Pattern in Gastrointestinal Tract of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For replace of banned antibiotics used as growth promoters in broiler chicken nutrition, the supplements as probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, acidifiers and enzymes, has been mainly studied. These alternative substances improved the feed conversion, performance, growth and health of broiler chickens through a mechanisms associated with gastrointestinal tract and bacteria colonization. Propolis and bee pollen belong to the group of naturally occurring substances of animal and plant origin with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The scope of this study was to find a counts of Enterococcus sp., Enterobacteriaceae family and lactic acid bacteria in crop, ileum and caecum of broiler chickens after propolis and bee pollen addition in their nutrition. Lower dosages of propolis and higher dosages of bee pollen in chicken nutrition significantly (P0.05 number of Enterobacteriaceae family isolates. The bacteria colonization pattern in gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens can be affected also by combination of nutrition supplements and pH value which can provide the advantage to some bacteria and influenced their competitiveness.

  8. The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body γ-radiation as acute doses.

  9. Identification of orexin A- and orexin type 2 receptor-positive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Dall’Aglio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence and distribution of cells positive to orexin A (OXA and to orexin type 2 receptor (OX2R were investigated in the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal dogs by means of immunohistochemical techniques. The orexin A-positive cells were identified with some of the endocrine cells in the stomach and in the duodenum; they were both of the open and closed type and were lacking in the large intestine. In the stomach, a large subset of orexin A-positive cells also showed gastrin-like immunoreactivity while, in the duodenum, many of them seemed to store serotonin. The orexin type 2 receptor-positive cells were evidenced all along the gastrointestinal tract examined, also in the large intestine, and they showed the same morphological characteristics as those positive to orexin A. Moreover, the immunohistochemical techniques revealed intense positivity for both orexin A and orexin type 2 receptor in the neurons and fibers of the enteric nervous system. A large subset of orexin A-positive neurons seemed to store substance P.

  10. THE MICROBIOTA OF UPPER PARTS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ITS ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OBESITY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of different habitats of the human body and definition of their role in the development of metabolic disorders are of great interest for investigators worldwide. The gut mi-crobiota is an obligatory contributor to the synthesis, recirculation and metabolism of steroid hormones, lipids, and bile acids. Infectious agents and their biologically active compounds initiate the atherogenesis. Disorders of lipid metabolism are associated with a change in bacterial entero-types. Microbiotal colonization of gastrointestinal tract starts at birth. Its composition in a newborn depends on a variety of environmental and nutritional factors, maternal health, the course of pregnancy and delivery. Infants born by cesarean section have a higher incidence of obesity, which is thought to be associated with a delay of bifido-bacterial colonization of gastrointestinal tract.Reduction of bifidobacteria counts in the gut in infants below 12 months of age predisposes to obesity in later life. Children born to mothers with obesity have significant differences in the composition of the gut microflora, compared to children born to normal weight mothers. This review presents the data on the association between metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, and persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Further in-depth research in this area would increase the knowledge on the mechanisms of hormonal and metabolic disorders in childhood and may help to develop algorithms for effective treatment and preventive measures.

  11. Characterization of proteases from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis (Sasaki)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yulan; Wang, Yurong; Xiao, Lin; Lin, Xiukun

    2016-05-01

    A crude protease produced from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 is described, and its effectiveness as an additive in liquid detergent evaluated. We isolate the protease-producing Planomicrobium sp. L-2 from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis. At least three caseinolytic protease clear bands were observed in zymogram analysis. The crude alkaline protease was highly tolerant of a pH range from 7.0 to 9.0, and temperatures to 50°C after incubation for 1 h. Proteolytic enzymes were stable towards three surfactants (5% Tween 80, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.05% SDS) and an oxidizing agent (1% hydrogen peroxide), in addition to being highly stable and compatible with popular commercial laundry powered detergent brands available in China. Our study demonstrates the potential these proteases have for development into novel classes of detergent additive. This study also suggests that the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis may be a rich source of commercially valuable strains of enzyme.

  12. Follow-up study and evaluation of benign stricture of upper gastrointestinal tract with interventional procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yingsheng; Li Minghua; Zhuang Qixin; Shang Kezhong; Chen Weixiong; Chen Niwei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To make follow-up study and evaluation of benign stricture of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) with interventional procedure. Methods: There were 85 cases of benign stricture of UGIT with interventional procedure. There were 35 cases with pneumatic dilation (group A), 25 cases with permanent (group B) placement, and 25 cases with temporary (group C) placement of expandable metallic stent, respectively. All cases were completed under fluoroscopy. 35 cases of group A had 67 times dilations (mean 1.9 times). Fifteen partial covered and 10 uncovered expandable metallic stents were permanently placed in the 25 cases of group B. 25 partial covered expandable metallic stents were temporarily placed in the 25 cases of group C, and the stents were drawn out via gastroscopy 3-7 days later. All stents placement and drawing were technically successful. The most strictured diameters of UGIT were 0.7-8.5 mm before dilations and 5.1-20.0 mm after dilations. Dysphagia scores of all cases were from grade 2 to 4 before dilations, and from grade 0 to 1 after dilations. Follow-up time of all cases was from 6 months to 36 months (mean 19.1 months). Results: Complications in group A included chest pain (n =10), reflux (n = 8), and bleeding (n = 3). Seven (20%) in 35 cases of group A had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months; 32 (91%) in 35 cases of group A had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months; 19(95%) in 20 cases of group A had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 36 months. Complications in group B included chest pain (n = 10), reflux (n = 15), bleeding (n = 3), and stent migration (n = 4). Five (20%) in 25 cases of group B had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months; 3(25%) in 12 cases of group B had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months; 3 (60%) in 5 cases of group B had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 36 months. Complications in group C included chest pain (n = 10), reflux (n = 3), and bleeding (n = 4). 3

  13. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsdóttir Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

  14. Distribution of CD4(pos) -, CD8(pos) - and regulatory T cells in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauschmann, Martin; Prietl, Barbara; Treiber, Gerlies; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Kump, Patrizia; Högenauer, Christoph; Pieber, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal immune system is involved in the development of several autoimmune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Alterations in T-cell populations, especially regulatory T cells (Tregs), are often evident in patients suffering from these diseases. To be able to detect changes in T-cell populations in diseased tissue, it is crucial to investigate T-cell populations in healthy individuals, and to characterize their variation among different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While limited data exist, quantitative data on biopsies systematically drawn from various regions of the GI tract are lacking, particularly in healthy young humans. In this report, we present the first systematic assessment of how T cells--including Tregs--are distributed in the gastrointestinal mucosa throughout the GI tract of healthy young humans by means of multi-parameter FACS analysis. Gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were performed on 16 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 32. Biopsies were drawn from seven GI regions, and were used to determine the frequencies of CD8(+)-, CD4(+)- and Tregs in the gastrointestinal mucosa by means of multi-parameter FACS analysis. Our data show that there is significant variation in the baseline T-cell landscape along the healthy human gastrointestinal tract, and that mucosal T-cell analyses from a single region should not be taken as representative of the entire gastrointestinal tract. We show that certain T-cell subsets in the gastrointestinal mucosa vary significantly among regions; most notably, that Tregs are enriched in the appendiceal orifice region and the ascending colon, and that CD8(pos) T cells are enriched in the gastric mucosa.

  15. Tumor Estromal Gastrintestinal de Localização Esofágica: Relato de Caso/ Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Location Esophageal: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ribeiro Matsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tumores estromais gastrintestinais (GIST são considerados as neoplasias mesenquimatosas mais comuns do trato gastrintestinal (TGI. São derivados das células intersticiais de Cajal, localizadas ao nível do plexo mioentérico e responsáveis pela motilidade gastrintestinal. Podem se originar em qualquer região do TGI, sendo apenas 5% provenientes do esôfago. Casuística: Foi relatado um caso de GIST de localização esofágica em um paciente que iniciou quadro de disfagia para alimentos sólidos e odinofagia, de caráter intermitente, acompanhado de náuseas e vômitos. Foram realizadas Seriografia contrastada de esôfago, Endoscopia Digestiva Alta, Tomografia Computadorizada de Abdome, o resultado histopatológico da biópsia da lesão foi inconclusivo e o diagnóstico foi confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que expressou CD117 (KIT pelas células neoplásicas. O serviço de oncologia de referência orientou a realização de cirurgia para ressecção tumoral, porém o paciente optou pela utilização do Mesilato de Imatinib (MI, tendo apresentado melhora progressiva do quadro clínico inicial. Discussão: O tratamento padrão para pacientes com GIST não metastático é a ressecção completa da lesão, pois oferece a maior chance de cura. Entretanto, o paciente optou somente pelo tratamento com o MI. Conclusão: Concluímos que o GIST deve ser considerado nas lesões exofíticas esofágicas e que o tratamento somente com o MI pode ser considerado, mesmo sabendo que o tratamento preconizado nestes casos é a ressecção cirúrgica, associada ao MI como terapia adjuvante, com melhora da sobrevida. Introduction: The gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST considered the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. It is derived from interstitial cells of Cajal, located at the myenteric plexus and responsible for gastrointestinal motility. It can originate anywhere in the GI tract, and only 5% come from

  16. Malignant tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract as seen in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract constitute a diverse heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms with unique epidemiological, pathological, and treatment considerations. Only few studies have been conducted so far on these tumors in Nigeria. This study aims to study in greater detail, the ...

  17. Behcet's syndrome involving the gastrointestinal tract - a diagnostic dilemma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, D.A.; Daneman, A.; Cleghorn, G.J.; Durie, P.R.; Hamilton, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Behcet's syndrome is very rare in children, especially those under 10 years of age. Clinical and radiological features are described in 4 children, including 2 under the age of 5 years, with the syndrome. As in other pediatric cases reported, the incomplete form of Behcet's syndrome was present in each case. All 4 patients had oral and genital mucosal effects, arthritis and gastrointestinal and dermatological manifestations. Ophthalmological symptoms occurred in only 1 patient. Radiologically, the 4 cases demonstrated the spectrum of gastrointestinal involvement, from minimal irregularity and thickening of the terminal ileum to gross irregularity and deformity of the terminal ileum and cecum. Because of the difficulty in differentiating Behcet's syndrome from other forms of inflammatory bowel disease it is suggested that in children with gastrointestinal involvement, 3 major criteria be present before the diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome is made. (orig.)

  18. Local and long-distance calling: Conversations between the gut microbiota and intra- and extra-gastrointestinal tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Denny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of health from infectious diseases depends upon both mucosal and systemic immunity via the collaborative effort of innate and adaptive immune responses. The proficiency of host immunity stems from robust defense mechanisms—physical barriers and specialized immune cells—and a failure of these mechanisms leads to pathology. Intriguingly, immunocompetence to pathogens can be shaped by the gut microbiome as recent publications highlight a dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome and host susceptibility to infection. Modulation of host immunity to enteric pathogens has long been studied where gut bacteria shape multiple facts of both innate and adaptive immunity. Conversely, the impact of gut commensals on host immunity to extra-gastrointestinal (GI tract infections has only recently been recognized. In this context, the gut microbiome can augment host immunity to extra-GI tract bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. This review explores the research that affords insight into the role of the gut microbiome in various infectious diseases, with a particular emphasis on extra-GI tract infections. A better understanding of the link between the gut microbiome and infectious disease will be critical for improving global health in the years ahead.

  19. Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M B; Pless, T; Durup, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Several studies have evaluated the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but so far no studies have specifically evaluated the clinical impact of EUS-FNAB in upper gastrointestinal tract...... cancer patients. In this consecutive and prospective study, EUS-FNAB was only performed if a positive malignant finding would change the therapeutic strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1997 and 1999, 307 consecutive patients were referred for EUS with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of esophageal...

  20. Tomographic findings of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a 14-case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelandre, Gustavo Lemos; Djahjah, Maria Celia; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Marchiori, Edson; Pereira, Bruno Vilhena; Valadao, Marcus; Linhares, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the tomographic findings of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with histopathologically and immunohistochemically confirmed gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors, who had already been submitted to computed tomography scans before the treatment, were evaluated in the period between January 1999 and December 2006. The following tomographic variables were analyzed: lesion topography, size/dimensions, homogeneity, contour, margins, morphology, pattern and intravenous contrast-enhancement intensity, growth pattern, invasion of adjacent organs, presence of ulceration, fistula, calcifications, mesenteric fat infiltration, lymphadenomegaly and presence of distant metastasis. Results: Tumors were found in the body (57.1%) or in the gastric fundus (42.9%), with sizes ranging between 6.0 cm and 23.0 cm (mean, 11.5 cm). Predominantly extra luminal growth was observed in 57.1% of cases and intra/extra luminal in 35.7%. Subtle contrast-enhancement was observed in 50%, moderate in 50%, and heterogeneous in 64.3% of cases. Additionally, central hypodensity was observed in 64.3%, invasion of adjacent organs in 42.9%, and hepatic metastasis in 7.2% of cases. Conclusion: In the present study, the majority of tumors were found in the gastric body, with an average size of 11.5 cm, presenting with central hypodensity, heterogeneous contrast-enhancement and predominantly extraluminal growth. (author)