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Sample records for gastrointestinal tract tumors

  1. Malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    International histological classification and classification according to TNM systems, domestic clinical classification according to stages of carcinoma of stomach, large intestine and rectum are presented. Diagnosis of tumoral processes of the given localizations should be based on complex application of diagnostic methods: clinical, ultrasonic, radiological and others. Surgical method and variants of surgical method with preoperative radiotherapy play a leading role in treatment of mentioned tumors. Combined method of treatment-surgical intervention with postoperation intravenous injection of colloid 198 Au - is applied for preventing propagation of stomach cancer metastases. Advisability of combining operations with radiological and antitumoral medicamentous therapy is shown. Reliable results of treatment of malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract are presented

  2. Granular cells Tumor in the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano LL, Rodrigo; Gaitan B, Maria H; Juliao E, Fabian

    2005-01-01

    Granular cells tumors are ubiquitous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, are rare and asymptomatic and they are generally an incidental discovery at gastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy. In the gastrointestinal tract they are more frequently located in the esophagus, right colon and rectum, stomach, appendix, small intestine or biliopancreatic tract. This article describes three patients with four tumors of granular cells in rectum, esophagus (2 lesions) and appendix. It becomes special emphasis in their neural origin, their benign behavior that justifies the endoscopic resections or limited surgical excisions and the necessity of a pursuit for the possibility, although little, of malignant transformation

  3. [Neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal tract: the paradigm that lasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelović, Milos M; Babić, Tamara D

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the tumors that were morphologically different and clinically less agressive than the more common gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas were clasified under carcinoid tumors. However, the development of molecular biology tehniques revealed the heterogeneity of these tumors on cellular and subcellular level and ther different biological behaviour. Neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal tract originated from neuroendocrine cells scaterred across the gastrointestinal mucosa. As a result these tumors were capable of secreting many different neurotransmiters, which may or may not be biologically active. The incidence of gastrointestinal NETs has been incresing over the last 2 to 3 decades. Patients often presented with vague, nonspecific symptoms which resulted in delayed diagnosis and adequate treatment. In this article, we discuss the nature of gastrointestinal NETs, clinical presentation, treatment options and prognosis.

  4. Multifocal Synchronous Granular Cell Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lipkin-Moore, Zachary; Thomas, Rebecca M.; Rothstein, Robin D.

    2014-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCT) are rare and unusual tumors, which are usually benign and asymptomatic. Only 5?10% of cases involve the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly as singular, non-cancerous lesions in the esophagus. We report a rare case of symptomatic, multifocal, synchronous GCT involving the esophagus, stomach, and cecum.

  5. Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract

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    Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak; You, Jin Jong [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels. Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdominal pain or upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and those that grow intraluminally sometimes become pedunculated and occasionally prolapse to cause intussusception. Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary gastrointestinal tumor, accounting for approximately 90-95% of such lesions, while submucosal tumors account for approximately 2-6% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Because their overlying mucosa appears normal, submucosal tumors age after difficult to visualize endoscopically, and for this reason, barium studies or CT scans are helpful for diagnosis. In this paper, variable CT and barium study findings of the different types of gastrointestinal submucosal tumor are demonstrated, and a brief discussion of the respective disease entities is included. (author)

  6. Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak; You, Jin Jong

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels. Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdominal pain or upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and those that grow intraluminally sometimes become pedunculated and occasionally prolapse to cause intussusception. Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary gastrointestinal tumor, accounting for approximately 90-95% of such lesions, while submucosal tumors account for approximately 2-6% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Because their overlying mucosa appears normal, submucosal tumors age after difficult to visualize endoscopically, and for this reason, barium studies or CT scans are helpful for diagnosis. In this paper, variable CT and barium study findings of the different types of gastrointestinal submucosal tumor are demonstrated, and a brief discussion of the respective disease entities is included. (author)

  7. [Massive hemorrhage of upper gastrointestinal tract caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalović, Nenad; Dukić Vladicić, Nikolina; Marić, Radmil; Cuk, Mirjana; Simatović, Milan; Jokanović, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system is a medical emergency which is followed by high mortality rate, ranging from 6 to 15% in spite of modern diagnostic methods and treatment. Bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system may be caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach, which are mainly characterized by occult bleeding, while profuse bleeding rarely occurs accompanied by hemorrhagic shock. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of stomach are the most common mesenchimal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In our study we showed a 60-year-old female patient with profuse bleeding from the stomach and the clinical picture of severe hemorrhagic shock, caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor. An ovoid junction, raised towards the lumen, covered with ulcerated mucosa in several places and followed by massive arterial bleeding was found intraoperatively, after the performed gastrotomy. Histopathological examination with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that this was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. Acute bleeding from the digestive system is a sudden and serious condition of the body. Urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a sensitive and specific diagnostic and therapeutic method of choice. Massive bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract is very rarely caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumors, whose clinical picture is very heterogeneous and depends on tumor size and location. Abundant bleeding from the tumor is an indication for urgent surgical intervention. According to the literature massive hemorrhage of the upper digestive system can rarely be caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. It is shown that abundant hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract can be caused with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Surgical resection is the main form of treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the digestive system and bleeding from these tumors caused by failure of endoscopic hemostasis.

  8. gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Vaicekauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  9. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.D.; Pointon, R.C.S.

    1985-01-01

    At the time of writing, radiotherapy is of only minor use in the management of adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, for a number of reasons. First, an exploratory laparotomy is generally needed for diagnosis, and if possible the tumour is resected or by-passed. Second, radiotherapy planning in the upper abdomen is complicated by the proximity of small bowel, kidneys, and spinal cord. Third, it has been assumed that these tumours cause death largely as a result of distant metastases, so that local radiotherapy, even if effective, would contribute little to survival. The continued interest in radiotherapy for this group of tumours arises out of the poor survival rates following surgery, which have not changed for many years, and the morbidity associated with their resection. It was hoped that the addition of cytotoxic agents to radical surgery would improve survival rates in carcinoma of the stomach and intraperitoneal colon. Despite a large number of well-organised prospective trials, using a variety of cytotoxic drugs, there is so far no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to radical surgery improves survival for either tumour site. The authors are therefore faced with a group of tumours which are not only common, but commonly fatal and many surgeons would accept that a new approach using modern radiotherapy techniques may well be justified. There is evidence that this movement is already taking place for carcinoma of the rectum, and the indications for radiotherapy in this condition will be dealt with below. Before considering these it is worth dwelling briefly on recent changes in surgical and radiological practices which, if they fulfil expectations, might allow radiotherapy to be used for carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas as it is now used for rectal cancer

  10. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; Multimodale Bildgebung neuroendokriner Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltrakts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Konstantin; Eiber, Matthias; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Gaertner, Florian C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2014-03-15

    Neuroendocrine tumors (neuroendokrine Tumoren) are rare entities. They can be found in all organs and show substantial biologic heterogeneity depending on involved organ, clinical symptoms and histopathologic morphology. Involvement of organs like larynx, cervix uteri, ovary, gallbladder, liver or kidney is extensively rare. The majority of neuroendokrine Tumoren are found in gastrointestinal tract and lung and are classified as neuroendokrine Tumoren of foregut (stomach, duodenum, pancreas, lung), midgut (jejunum, ileum, appendix, right side of the colon) and hindgut (left side of the colon, rectum). The role of imaging is to localize and delineate the primary tumor and to detect metastases. In the diagnosis of neuroendokrine Tumoren radiologic techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied. In certain cases nuclear medicine techniques like somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using radioactively labelled somatostatin analogues are used. The present article reviews characteristic imaging findings of neuroendokrine Tumoren of the gastrointestinal tract. (orig.)

  11. Fluorescent Endoscopy of Tumors in Upper Part of Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, E.; Vladimirov, B.; Angelov, I.; Avramov, L.

    2007-04-01

    In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built for LED to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system (Olimpus Corp.). Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer (USB4000, OceanOptics Inc.). Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  12. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: Case reports and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; J; Salyers; Kenneth; J; Vega; Juan; Carlos; Munoz; Bruce; W; Trotman; Silvio; S; Tanev

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors(NET)previously called carcinoid tumors are neoplasms of enterochromaffin/neuroendocrine cell origin which display neurosecretory capacity that may result in the carcinoid syndrome.The annual incidence of patients with NET is 8.4 per 100000;yet many NET remain asymptomatic and clinically undetected.A majority of NET follows a benign course;however,some will display malignant characteristics.NET most commonly occur in the gastrointestinal tract(67%)and bronchopulmonary system(25%).Gastrointestinal NET occur within the stomach,small intestine,liver,and rectum.We report a retrospective study of 11 subjects:Eight with benign carcinoid tumors:duodenal bulb(n=2),terminal ileum(n=1),sigmoid colon(n=2),and rectum(n=3);three with malignant carcinoid:liver(n=1)and intra-abdominal site(n=2).The diagnosis,endoscopic images,outcome,treatment and review of the literature are presented.

  13. Liver scanning in the diagnosis of metastases from malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleites, G.; Gomez, E.; Bell, L.; Peralta, R.; Suarez, J.C.; Cassola, J.R.; Fraga, A.

    1989-01-01

    The National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (INOR) established a line of clinical investigation in January, 1974, which was later added to clinical care. This line consisted of trying to arrive at a preoperative diagnosis - by means of liver scanning - of the potential liver metastases of primitive tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. Metastable 113 Indium was used. A review of the results obtained in the 50 patients included in the investigation program is made. The results of preoperative scanning were compared with operative findings. Twelve liver metastases (24%) were found. In 40 patients there was agreement (80%) between preoperative scanning and operatory findings. At present, ultrasound is a necessary supplement to scans, which supplements it but does not exclude it. The tracer element used now is technetium-99 M coloidal sulphide

  14. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  15. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Tumor markers for diagnosis, monitoring of recurrence and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jie-Xian; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Ting; Tian, Bao-Guo; Du, Li-Li; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were examined preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively by ELISA. The sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were 26.8%, 36.2%, 42.9%, 2.84%, 25.4%, 34.6%, 34.2% and 30.9%, respectively. The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). Elevation of preoperative CEA, CA19-9 and CA24-2, SCC and CA72-4 was significantly associated with pathological types (pCEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC decreased obviously 3 months after operations. When metastasis and recurrence occurred, the levels of TMs significantly increased. On multivariate analysis, high preoperative CA72-4, CA24-2 and SCC served as prognostic factors for cardiac carcinoma, GC and EC, respectively. combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC proved to be the most economic and practical strategy in diagnosis of EC; CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 proved to be a better evaluation indicator for cardiac cancer and GC. CEA and CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC, examined postoperatively during follow-up, were useful to find early tumor recurrence and metastasis, and evaluate prognosis. AFP, TPA and TPS have no significant value in diagnosis of patients with upper GIT cancer.

  18. Imprint cytology of clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract in the small intestine: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takashi; Ichihara, Shin; Gotoda, Hiroko; Muraoka, Shunji; Kubo, Terufumi; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi

    2017-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (CCSLGT) is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm in the digestive tract. Its cytomorphologic features have never previously been reported. Here, we describe a case of CCSLGT, including its cytologic examination findings. A 47-year-old woman presented with a mass in the small intestine, which was resected and sent for imprint cytology. Imprint smears revealed tumor cells with light eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm in a necrotic background. Many of the tumor cells were arranged in a perivascular growth with a pseudopapillary formation, and there were some non-neoplastic osteoclast-like giant cells. Histological examination revealed solid nests and a pseudopapillary pattern of the tumor cells with clear or pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei with small nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry showed positive for vimentin, S-100, and SOX-10, and negative for SMA, c-KIT, cytokeratin, HMB-45, and MelanA. The EWSR1 gene split signal was detected by reverse transcriptase fluorescence in situ hybridization, and EWSR1-CREB1 gene fusion was indicated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. From these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as CCSLGT. To best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the imprint cytology features of CCSLGT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sashidharan, Palankezhe; Matele, Apoorva; Matele, Usha; Al Felahi, Nowfel; Kassem, Khalid F.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report present...

  20. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT......-related GIT damage and dysfunction. New and novel aspects of drug delivery and drug-dietary supplement interactions are discusses and much needed areas of focus in terms of drug GIT testing are identified....... is not one of the core battery of tests that pharmaceutical companies are obliged to investigate as part of drug development. This review aims to cover the basics of GIT function before highlighting aspects of relevance for safety pharmacology in terms of age, cancerogenesis, and noth drug and diet...

  1. Stromal gastrointestinal tumors (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balev, B.; Boykova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: GIST are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with varying tumor grade and frequency of 1: 100 000 per year. Mazur and Clark introduced the term for the first time in 1983. GIST constitute approximately 2% of the tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. The average age is 60 years. The most common locations are the stomach (60%), small intestine (30%), esophagus (1%), and rectum (5%). Learning objective: to demonstrate the imaging characteristics of the disease according to the current ESMO guidelines and to present the diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalitiesnbased on review of literature and on own observations. GIST originate from interstitial cells (of Cajal) in the GIT wall, belonging to the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for motility. 90% of GIST show overexpression of the KIT receptor, also known as CD117 or stem cell factor receptor. those that do not express c-KIT mutations, activate mutations in PDGFRA gene. Tumor’s macromorphology determines the imaging features on different modalities. Most of these tumors are exophytic, subepithelial, reach large size and enhance inhomogeneous due to necrosis. They usually do not cause obstruction. Ultrasound as the initiation method shows low sensitivity and specificity in GIST detection, CT with intravenous contrast is the gold standard. MRI contributes with assessing the vascularisation, cellularity and pH. FDG-PET/CT registers the metabolism of intratumoral acidosis. CT is the method of choice in the early diagnosis and determination of resectability of GIST. MRI is an additional method. PET FDG-CT is useful for the monitoring of patients treated with Imatinib

  2. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palankezhe Sashidharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report presents a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor operated recently in a 47-year-old female patient and the outcome, as well as literature review of the pathological identification, sites of origin, and factors predicting its behavior, prognosis and treatment.

  3. Multiple primary malignant tumors of upper gastrointestinal tract:A novel role of ~(18)F-FDG PET/CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the capacity of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) for detecting multiple primary cancer of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. METHODS: Fifteen patients (12 without cancer histories and 3 with histories of upper GI tract cancer) were investigated due to the suspicion of primary cancer of UGI tract on X-ray barium meal and CT scan. Subsequent whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was carried out for initial staging or restaging. All the patient...

  4. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Esophagus: Report of a Case

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Erol

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare neoplasms to be thought to arise from mesenchymal cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) of the esophagus are well documented but are very much rarer than gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach and small bowel. We describe a case of GIST of the esophagus that was resected with wide surgical resection.

  5. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract .... Body cavity of fish were dissected using a pair of scissors and different portion of the gut (Oesophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum) were isolated and kept in .... Arme, C. and Wakey, M. (1970): The physiology of fishes.

  6. Immunoscintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, B.; Peshev, N.

    1995-01-01

    The results of labelled monoclonal antibodies (MoA) immunoscintigraphy in malignant tumors involving the gastrointestinal tract are presented. The obtained data have an essential practical bearing on the early diagnosis and radical treatment undertaken. Immunoscintigraphy is performed with Imacis-I ( 131 I, monoclonal antibody, 19-9 F(ab') 2 anti-CEA F(ab') 2 ) obtained from the CIS company, and Jodomab-R-2( 131 I, anti-CEA monoclonal antibody F(ab') 2 ) of the Sorin Biomedica Company, inserted at activity ranging from 11 to 185 MBq. Scanning by a planar gamma-camera is performed at 72 hours. A total of twenty-four patients are examined: 14 preoperatively (with gastric cancer - 2, pancreatic cancer - 1 and location of the neoplasm in different segments of the colon - 11), and ten postoperatively. Positive results are obtained in twenty-two (92 per cent) of the total number of patients under study. In twelve (86 per cent) of those examined preoperatively intensive accumulation of labelled autoantibodies in the cancer area is documented with a negative result recorded in two cases only. Metastases are found in two patients operated on, while in the remainder the results are negative and consistent with those of the other methods of examination. 13 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  7. Normal wall thickness and tumorous changes in the gastrointestinal tract demonstrated by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, M.; Gmelin, E.; Borgis, K.J.; Neubauer, B.

    1991-01-01

    55 patients with tumours of the gastroinstinal tract were ecamined by CT, using a paraffin emulsion as a negative oral contrast medium. These were compared with 119 normal patients. The appearance of normal and tumour bearing portions of the gut wall against the contrast medium was studied. Under hypotonic conditions the gut wall could regularly be distinguished from surrounding organs and gut content. Mural thickness of the oesophagus > 7 mm and of the stomach and colon > 8 mm must be regarded as abnormal. Benign diseases cannot be distinguished from malignant conditions on the basis of wall thickness. Artifacts, such as are caused by positive oral contrast, were of less significance when using paraffin emulsion. (orig.) [de

  8. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  9. Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children

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    Couture, Alain; Baud, Catherine; Ferran, Jean Louis; Saguintaah, Magali; Veyrac, Corinne [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34 - Montpellier (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique

    2008-07-01

    Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  10. Tumor del estroma gastrointestinal Tumor of the gastrointestinal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Felipe Montero León

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal, conocidos según sus siglas en inglés como GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors, son tumores mesenquimales que aparecen en cualquier lugar a lo largo del tracto intestinal. Este trabajo tiene el propósito de presentar una paciente de 60 años de edad que asiste a la consulta de ginecología del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología, por presentar dolor en el epigastrio, que se irradia al flanco derecho, con un aumento de volumen en la fosa iliaca derecha, y por ultrasonografía se plantea un tumor de ovario derecho, que se proyecta hacia el epigastrio y a hipocondrio derecho. Se describe la intervención quirúrgica y los hallazgos encontrados en estudios macro y microscópicos, así como en estudios posteriores por inmunohistoquímica de la lesión. Se concluye con un diagnóstico de tumor del estroma gastrointestinal y los resultados de las intervenciones quirúrgicas y medicamentosas realizadas. Se recomienda valorar la importancia de una estrecha relación entre cirujanos generales y ginecólogos frente a enfermedades inesperadas, por su difícil diagnóstico preoperatorio, que conllevan a un tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado, y que por la complejidad que requieren, necesitan de la competencia de ambas especialidades quirúrgicas.The tumors of the gastrointestinal stroma, known in English language as GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors appearing in any place throughout the intestinal tract. The objective of present paper is to present the case of a female patient aged 60 came to Genecology consultation of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology due pain in epigastrium irradiating to right flank with increase of volume in the right iliac fossa and by ultrasonography it is a tumor of right ovarium projecting to epigastrium and the right hypochondrium. The surgical intervention is described as well as the findings noted in macro- and microscopic studies

  11. Radionuclide and X-ray diagnosis of metastatic tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. [/sup 198/Au; sup(99m)Tc; sup(113m)In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makeev, A I; Ostrovtsev, I V; Roshchin, E M [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr

    1982-02-01

    A study was made of the spread of a tumor process in 161 patients with gastric cancer and in 9 patients with colorectal cancer. Diagnostic examinations preceeded treatment. The concentrations of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ..cap alpha..- fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood plasma were demonstrated in 170 patients. Liver scanning was done to 122, and computerized tomography to 18 patients. It has been shown that the determination of the CEA level in the blood plasma can serve as an additional parameter to define tumor spread in the gastrointestinal tract. In gastric and colorectal cancer, a hepatic large focal lesion is accompanied by the highest CEA level. The CEA level and the gastric primary tumor mass show direct correlation. No correlation has been found between the AFP level and the degree of spread of a tumor process, both local and metastatic.

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals and the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frier, M. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom); Perkins, A.C. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    A review is presented of the design of radiolabelled test meals for the evaluation of gastrointestinal function, including oesophageal transit, gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying, enterogastric reflux and transit through the whole bowel. Descriptions of different systems are presented, together with validations of the procedures used. Published methods for assessment of oesophageal transit show a marked degree of consistency, whereas gastric emptying studies employ a wide range of both liquid and solid test meals. Recommendations are made concerning the optimal system for investigation of each part of the gastrointestinal tract, but whichever system is adopted, it is important to employ some validation procedures, and to establish normal ranges in the population under study. (orig.)

  13. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufliarsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the digestive tract. Better understanding of the molecular characteristics of GISTs led to the clinical development of imatinib for treating patients with this disease. New immuno markers and mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance were discovered. Adjuvant imatinib in intermediate or high risk GIST has improved the recurrence-free survival. Sunitinib in patients with intolerance or progression on imatinib demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival versus placebo. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as sorafenib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, have shown activity in patients with imatinib- and sunitinib-resistant GIST. (author)

  14. Clinical feature of disturbance in the lower gastrointestinal tract development after radiation to tumor in the pelvis and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Sadahito; Sunagawa, Shigenobu; Matsumura, Shigejiro; Masaoka, Takao; Uegaki, Kazuo

    1975-01-01

    The clinical features and the countermeasure were examined on 40 disturbances in the lower gastrointestinal tract developed after radiotherapy of cancer of the uterus, the ovary and the penis. Two to nine months after the irradiation with 10,000 R of Telecobalt and about 5,000 mch of 60 Co, complications such as melena, stenosis and fistula formation were developed. Seventeen of the 40 patients complained of melena and were treated as outpatient. Of the rest 23 patients, 11 were radiation proctitis with a large amount of melena, 9 were recto-sigmoid stenosis, 2 were rectovaginal fistula and 1 was fecal fistula formation. These patients received internal therapy composed of transfusion, hemostatic agent, steroid, solcoseryl suppository, antiulcerative drug and vitamin. However, the prognosis of them, particularly of the patients who were exposed a large amount of radiation, was very poor and the death rate reached 9 to 43%. (Kanao, N.)

  15. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  16. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  17. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  18. The application of PET-CT in gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian Weijun; Feng Yanlin

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential that arises predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract. Due to lack of specific physical signs, imagin g-x examination is an important auxiliary means in diagnosing gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Compared to other conventional imaging examinations, PET-CT has demonstrated unique superiority in staging, response evaluation and follow-up of gastrointestinal stromal tumor. And now it presents an overview of the application valuation of PET-CT and related imaging technology in gastrointestinal stromal tumor as follow. (authors)

  19. Oncolytic virotherapy in upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoda R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Raquel Yokoda,1 Bolni M Nagalo,1 Mansi Arora,1 Jan B Egan,1 James M Bogenberger,1 Thomas T DeLeon,1 Yumei Zhou,1 Daniel H Ahn,1 Mitesh J Borad1–3 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 3Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies are among the most challenging cancers with regard to response to treatment and prognosis. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and biliary tree have dismal 5-year survival, and very modest improvements in this rate have been made in recent times. Oncolytic viruses are being developed to address these malignancies, with a focus on high safety profiles and low off-target toxicities. Each viral platform has evolved to enhance oncolytic potency and the clinical response to either single-agent viral therapy or combined viral treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A panel of genomic alterations, chimeric proteins, and pseudotyped capsids are the breakthroughs for vector success. This article revisits developments for each viral platform to each tumor type, in an attempt to achieve maximum tumor selectivity. From the bench to clinical trials, the scope of this review is to highlight the beginnings of translational oncolytic virotherapy research in upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies and provide a bioengineering perspective of the most promising platforms. Keywords: oncolytic viruses, hepatopancreatobiliary, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, biliary cancer

  20. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Jones, B.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters and five case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: CT of the Stomach; CT and Other Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Evaluation of Crohn's Disease; Periotoneal Metastasis; CT and MRI Correlation of the Gastrointestinal Tract; CT of Acute Gastrointestinal Abnormlities; and CT of Colorectal Cancer

  1. Diagnosis of liver, biliary tract and gastrointestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio

    1981-01-01

    The role of RI imaging in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, biliary tracts and gastrointestinal tracts are reviewed, and representative cases are shown. Liver scintigraphy was of value for the diagnosis of lesions limitted to the liver such as primary and metastatic liver cancer and inflammatory liver diseases. However, RI methods were less useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the biliary tracts and stomach. RI scintigraphy was more sensitive than angiography in the detection of Meckel's deverticulum, Ballet's esophagus, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Gastrointestinal estromal tumor: Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Gonzalez, Alexis; Hernandez Perez, Arnaldo; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Diana; Hernandez Fernandez, Diana M; Castanneda Munnoz, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Since the first descriptions made by Golden and Stout, this group of mesenchymal lesions is considered of muscular origin and they were named as leiomyoma, cellular leiomyoma, epithelioid leiomyoma, leiomyoblastoma, bizarre leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. But Mazur and Clark created the term estromal tumor only after they began to use the inmunohistochemistry and subsequently showed the absence of muscular markers, and the occasional presence of neural markers. Nowadays, gastrointestinal estromal tumors are called the primary mesenchymal CD117 positive, fusiform or epithelioid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, epiplon, mesenterio, and retroperitoneum. The gastrointestinal estromal tumors appear at the wall of the digestive tube: stomach (50-60 %), small intestine (20-30 %), large intestine (10 %) and esophagus (5 %), and occasionally in epiplon, mesenterio, and retroperineum (5 %). In our work we present a 67 year-old patient, entered in our hospital for presenting high digestive bleeding. We studied the case, and found a 6 cm tumor of the gastric fundus. The tumor was operated and the definitive results of the pathologic anatomy showed a gastrointestinal estromal tumor

  3. Stages of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used: Endoscopic resection : Surgery to remove a small tumor that is on the inside lining of the GI tract. An endoscope is inserted through the mouth and passed through the esophagus to the stomach and sometimes, the duodenum . An ...

  4. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  5. Characteristics of Emergency Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Ahmet Deniz; Oymaci, Erkan; Carti, Erdem Bariş; Yakan, Savaş; Vardar, Enver; Erkan, Nazif; Mehmet, Yildirim

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Importance of GISTs is increasing while surgeons are facing with more frequent either in emergency setting of elective cases. Delineating the presentation and management of emergency GIST is important. From 2005 to 2014, emergency cases with final diagnosis of GIST were examined retrospectively. Total of 13 operated cases were evaluated by patients characteristics, clinical presentation, operational findings and postoperative prognosis. There were 9 male and 4 female with the mean age of 48.15 years. The most frequent presentations are ileus and GIT hemorrhage both covering the 84% of patients. Small bowel was the dominating site with ileus. Stomach was the second frequent site of the disease with the finding of hemorrhage. Emergency patients are more likely to come with small bowel GIST and obstruction symptoms. Hemorrhage is the most frequent symptom for emergency GIST of stomach and duodenum.

  6. Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Presenting as Mediastinal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kafeel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and are predominant in the stomach and intestine but rare in the esophagus. Here, we report a case of esophageal GIST which presented as a mediastinal mass on chest X-ray and dyspnea. The case was initially diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma, which could create a diagnostic dilemma. Therefore, recognizing this uncommon presentation as a mediastinal mass with esophageal GIST is important in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  8. Radiodiagnosis of tumours of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Yu.N.; Antonovich, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic description of X-ray picture of tumours of gastrointestinal tract organs is given. The possibilities of contemporary methods of X-ray examination in their revealing are shown. Clinical and X-ray trend of tumour diagnosis is underlined. The basic and accessory symptoms are analyzed from which X-ray semiotics of tumours is turned out. The expressiveness of X-ray symptoms is shown in relation to morphological forms and localization of the tumours. Much attention is given to radiodiagnosis of early tumours of stomach. Differential diagnosis of tumours with non-tumoural diseases is given. X-ray semiotics of lesions of gastrointestinal tract organs in malignant diseases of blood system is presented [ru

  9. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    New generation CT scans combined with high-detail barium studies have now allowed radiologists to see and gain a more complete understanding of the wall and surrounding structures of the gastrointestinal tract. The editors state that their intent is to ''present in a comprehensive volume an up-to-date evaluation o the role, significance, indications, and limitations of computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract.'' There is an initial chapter on CT scanning techniques and the use of oral contrast agents. Chapters follow on Ct of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, and colon. The chapters start with a description of the anatomic structures and then cover in detail common pathologic conditions that affect the organ. Indications for examinations are also included in many chapters. There are final chapters on percutaneous drainage of abscesses and fluid collections and on radiologic-patholoic correlation of some of the more common entities

  10. Conservative treatment of perforated upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoi, Daishi; Sano, Wataru; Nakata, Yasuyuki; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Tsuguhiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the validity of indication criteria of the conservative treatment for perforated upper gastrointestinal tract, a retrospective study was carried out. We enrolled 28 patients with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract who were determined to receive conservative treatment at the time of hospitalization from January 2000 to December 2007. When the following criteria were satisfied, we treated the patients by the conservative treatment after informed consent was gained from them and their families: stable condition of vital signs; peritoneal signs localized in the upper abdomen; and no or slight fluid collection at the Douglas' pouch determined by computed tomography. Patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection during follow-up were promptly converted to surgery. Six patients were converted to surgery, but all of them were discharged very much improved. We compared patient's data of the conservative treatment group and the converted surgery group at the time of consultation. All data were not statistically different between two groups. If all criteria are satisfied, it seemed that we can start conservative treatment for perforated gastrointestinal tract with careful observation and the system of prompt conversion to operation for patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection. (author)

  11. Interventional studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide a means whereby physiologic and pathophysiologic features can be observed from a unique and noninvasive perspective. While nuclear medicine studies by their very nature lack the high spatial resolution of the radiographic approach, the data derived are readily quantitated and presented in numerical fashion to provide functional and dynamic information in which the influences of interventions may be observed. This chapter outlines the scope of such interventions in studies of the upper GI tract with emphasis on examinations for gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying. The interactions of nutrients, physical maneuvers of pharmacologic agents on nuclear medicine studies of the upper GI tract may be intentional to render a test more sensitive or to evaluate the effect of therapy, or may represent an unintentional side effect that must be taken into account if misinterpretation is to be avoided

  12. Adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy in gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendler, A.; Feldmann, H.J.; Fink, U.; Molls, M.; Siewert, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    In modern surgical oncology, adjuvant therapies are important complementary strategies. In local advanced carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, 5-year survival data are still disappointing despite standardized surgery. In this context, it has to be differentiated between adjuvant therapy following complete tumor exstirpation (so-called UICC R 0 resection) and additive therapies following incomplete tumor resections (UICC R 1 or R 2 resection). Modalities in the adjuvant setting are chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the combined radio-/chemotherapy. In esophageal and gastric cancer there is up to now no benefit of postoperative adjuvant therapy. In pancreatic cancer, there are studies indicating a benefit of combined radio-/chemotherapy after complete tumor resection. A standard adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment is proven in colon cancer stage III (Dukes C) with levamisole and 5-FU. Completely resected rectal carcinoma should be treated postoperatively with combined radio-/chemotherapy. In the common clinical or practical setting, adjuvant therapy is indicated only in locally advanced gastrointestinal tumors following R 0 resection. Postoperative therapy following incomplete tumor resection has its reason only in a palliative intention. (orig.) [de

  13. Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hendrik Koelzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: 1 Validation of prognostic scoring systems for tumor budding in large, multi-center studies 2 Consensus on the optimal assessment method 3 Inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.

  14. Malignancies of gastrointestinal tract in geriatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystricky, B.

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of gastrointestinal cancer rises with age. In spite of this fact, older patients are underrepresented in clinical trials. We need to take into account several variables prior to selection of therapy in these patients. These are physiologic aging processes, comorbidities, functional and cognitive status. There are several assessment tools in geriatric population – the most used is comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). A close cooperation with geriatrician is useful before starting cancer treatment. This article reviews treatment algorithms in selected malignancies of GI tract in geriatric patients. (author)

  15. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  16. [Risk factors for malignant evolution of gastrointestinal stromal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, S; Andrei, Adriana; Tonea, A; Andronesi, D; Becheanu, G; Dumbravă, Mona; Pechianu, C; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent non-epithelial digestive tumors, being classified in the group of primitive mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. These tumors have a non predictable evolution and where stratified regarding the risk for malignant behavior in 4 categories: very low risk, low risk, intermediate risk and high risk. We performed a retrospective non randomised study including the patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation of Fundeni Clinical Institute in the period January 2002 - June 2007, to define the epidemiological, clinico-paraclinical, histological and especially evolutive features of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors from this group, with a special regard to the risk factors for their malignant behavior. The most important risk factors in gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the tumor size and the mitotic index, based on them being realised the classification of Fletcher in the 4 risk categories mentioned above. In our group all the local advanced or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors, regardless of their location, were classified in the group of high risk for the malignant behavior. The gastric location and the epithelioid type were positive prognostic factors, and the complete resection of the tumor, an other important positive prognostic feature, was possible in about 80% of the cases, probably because the gastrointestinal stromal tumors in our study were diagnosed in less advanced evolutive situations, only about one third being metastatic and about 14% being locally advanced at the time of diagnose. The association with other neoplasias was in our cases insignificant, only 5% of the patients presenting concomitant malignant digestive tumors and 7.6% intraabdominal benign tumors. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors remain a challenge for the medical staff, regarding their diagnose and therapeutical management, the stratification of the

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound-assisted endoscopic resection of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract Resección endoscópica asistida por ecoendoscopia de tumores carcinoides del aparato digestivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Ares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: usually found in the gastrointestinal tract, carcinoids are the most frequent neuroendocrine tumors. Most of these lesions are located in areas that are difficult to access using conventional endoscopy (small intestine and appendix; carcinoid tumors found in the gastroduodenal tract and in the large intestine can be studied endoscopically; in these cases, if localized disease is confirmed, local treatment by endoscopic resection may be the treatment of choice. Since endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be the technique of choice for the study of tumors exhibiting submucosal growth, the selection of patients who are candidates for a safe and effective local resection should be based on this technique. Patients and method: we selected patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors who were endoscopically treated between 1997 and 2002. Those patients with tumors measuring less than 10 mm, which had not penetrated the muscularis propria, and those with localized disease were considered candidates for endoscopic resection. The endpoints of this study were to assess the effectiveness (complete resection and safety (complications of the technique. Follow-up consisted of eschar biopsies performed one month and twelve months after the resection. Results: during the aforementioned period, we resected endoscopically 24 tumors in 21 patients (mean age: 51.7 years; 71.5% males. Most lesions were incidental discoveries made during examinations indicated for other reasons. Resection was indicated in most cases as a result of the suspected presence of a carcinoid tumor after endoscopic ultrasonography. Endoscopic ultrasonography also enabled us to clearly identify the layer where the lesion had originated, as well as the size of the lesion. The carcinoid tumor was removed in 13 cases (54.2% by using the conventional snare polypectomy technique, in 9 cases (37.5% assisted by a submucosal injection of saline solution and/or adrenaline, and

  18. Validation of a Cytotechnologist Manual Counting Service for the Ki67 Index in Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Pancreas and Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottenden, Jennielee; Filter, Emily R; Cottreau, Jon; Moore, David; Bullock, Martin; Huang, Weei-Yuarn; Arnason, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    - Pathologists routinely assess Ki67 immunohistochemistry to grade gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Unfortunately, manual counts of the Ki67 index are very time consuming and eyeball estimation has been criticized as unreliable. Manual Ki67 counts performed by cytotechnologists could potentially save pathologist time and improve accuracy. - To assess the concordance between manual Ki67 index counts performed by cytotechnologists versus eyeball estimates and manual Ki67 counts by pathologists. - One Ki67 immunohistochemical stain was retrieved from each of 18 archived gastrointestinal or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor resections. We compared pathologists' Ki67 eyeball estimates on glass slides and printed color images with manual counts performed by 3 cytotechnologists and gold standard manual Ki67 index counts by 3 pathologists. - Tumor grade agreement between pathologist image eyeball estimate and gold standard pathologist manual count was fair (κ = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.030-0.60). In 9 of 20 cases (45%), the mean pathologist eyeball estimate was 1 grade higher than the mean pathologist manual count. There was almost perfect agreement in classifying tumor grade between the mean cytotechnologist manual count and the mean pathologist manual count (κ = 0.910; 95% CI, 0.697-1.00). In 20 cases, there was only 1 grade disagreement between the 2 methods. Eyeball estimation by pathologists required less than 1 minute, whereas manual counts by pathologists required a mean of 17 minutes per case. - Eyeball estimation of the Ki67 index has a high rate of tumor grade misclassification compared with manual counting. Cytotechnologist manual counts are accurate and save pathologist time.

  19. Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaino, C; Farrugia, G; Beyder, A

    2017-01-01

    Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling. Several mechanosensitive ionic conductances have been identified in the mechanosensory GI cells, ranging from mechanosensitive voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels to the mechanogated ion channels, such as the two-pore domain potassium channels K2P (TREK-1) and nonselective cation channels from the transient receptor potential family. The recently discovered Piezo channels are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to cellular mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are nonselective cationic ion channels that are directly activated by mechanical forces and have well-defined biophysical and pharmacologic properties. The role of Piezo channels in the GI epithelium is currently under investigation and their role in the smooth muscle syncytium and enteric neurons is still not known. In this review, we outline the current state of knowledge on mechanosensitive ion channels in the GI tract, with a focus on the known and potential functions of the Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST masquerading as an ovarian mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beneduce Pasquale

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are rare mesenchymal tumors originating in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Myogenic gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a distinctive morphologic variant is characterized by an unusually prominent myxoid stromal background. Case presentation We report a case of myxoid variant of GIST in a 42 years old woman presenting as an epigastric mass associated to an ovarian cyst and elevated CA-125. Histologically, the lesions was composed of a proliferation of spindle cells in an abundant myxoid stroma, without evidence of atypia or anaplasia. Immunohistochemical stains showed strong positive staining with muscle actin, positive staining with CD34 and weak positive staining with CD117, while showed negative for S-100. Conclusion At surgery every effort should be made to identify the origin of the tumor. A complete surgical removal of the tumor should be obtained, as this is the only established treatment that offers long term survival.

  1. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg.,

  2. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  3. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  4. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isete Fares Franco

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastrointestinal multiple lymphomatous polyposis is a rare type of malignant lymphoma that has aggressive biological behavior, early systemic dissemination and poor prognosis. It is considered to be a manifestation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents the gastrointestinal counterpart of mantle cell nodal lymphoma. OBJECTIVE: A case of gastrointestinal multiple lymphomatous polyposis is presented and the anatomopathological, clinical, diagnostic and treatment aspects of this unusual neoplasia are discussed. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 59-year-old white male with a complaint of asthenia, night sweating, alteration in intestinal habit and weight loss over the preceding two months. The physical examination showed pallid mucosa and a palpable mass in the epigastrium and mesogastrium. Endoscopy of the upper digestive tract showed the presence of gastric and duodenal polyps. An opaque enema showed multiple polypoid lesions, especially in the cecum. A rectal biopsy revealed infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa by diffuse lymphoma consisting of small cleaved cells. Immunohistochemical study showed lymphocytes that expressed the antibody CD20 (L-26 and light-chain kappa (k immunoglobulin, but not light-chain lambda (l immunoglobulin. The patient presented a condition of acute intestinal obstruction with the presence of a mesenteric mass formed by agglutinated lymph nodes that surrounded the proximal ileum, thereby obstructing its lumen. He was submitted to a segmental enterectomy and gastrotomy with excisional biopsies of the gastric polypoid lesions. After two cycles of chemotherapy there was a worsening of the general state, with an increase in the dimensions of the abdominal masses and sepsis, accompanied by progressive respiratory insufficiency, leading to death.

  5. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal de intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marivaldo Benício da Silva

    Full Text Available Stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (gists represent relatively rare lesions that arise from connective tissue elements located along the entire length of the gut. They were initially identified by immunohistochemical investigation, proving their origin from nondifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Only a minority of this lesions, mainly those confined to the esophagus and rectum, have been shown to correspond to mature, well-differentiated types of neoplasms such as leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. The majority of gists corresponds to a heterogeneous group of lesions that have as their common denominator an immature proliferation of epithelioid or spindle cells arising from its muscle layers, or between them, showing partial or incomplete myoide, neural, ganglionic, or mixed features of differentiation. This case report intends to show a gist of small bowel in a male, 46 years old, with a two-year of evolution.

  6. TRP channel functions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Mingran; Liu, Yingzhe; Yu, Shaoyong

    2016-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are predominantly distributed in both somatic and visceral sensory nervous systems and play a crucial role in sensory transduction. As the largest visceral organ system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract frequently accommodates external inputs, which stimulate sensory nerves to initiate and coordinate sensory and motor functions in order to digest and absorb nutrients. Meanwhile, the sensory nerves in the GI tract are also able to detect potential tissue damage by responding to noxious irritants. This nocifensive function is mediated through specific ion channels and receptors expressed in a subpopulation of spinal and vagal afferent nerve called nociceptor. In the last 18 years, our understanding of TRP channel expression and function in GI sensory nervous system has been continuously improved. In this review, we focus on the expressions and functions of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in primary extrinsic afferent nerves innervated in the esophagus, stomach, intestine, and colon and briefly discuss their potential roles in relevant GI disorders.

  7. Laparoscopic resection of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors presenting as left adrenal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiu-Dong Chung; Jeff Shih-chieh Chueh; Hong-Jeng Yu

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare gastrointestinal malignancies. They are rarely seen near the urinary tract. In a literature review, only one case of GIST presenting as a left adrenal tumor was reported. We report two documented cases of gastric GISTs mimicking left adrenal tumors which were successfully treated with pure laparoscopic adrenalectomy and wedge resection of the stomach by excising the tumor from the stomach with serial firing of endoscopic gastrointestinal staplers. The surgical margins were clear, and the patients recovered smoothly. No adjuvant therapy with imatinib was prescribed. During the surveillance for 9 mo and 44 mo respectively, no tumor recurrence and metastasis were documented. Laparoscopic tumor excision, when adhering to the principles of surgical oncology, seems feasible and the prognosis is favorable for such tumors.

  8. Alpha-linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol oil does not promote tumor development in tongue and gastrointestinal tract tissues in a medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay using male F344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Doi, Yuko; Matsumura, Shoji; Ito, Yuichi; Imai, Norio; Ikeda, Naohiro; Mera, Yukinori; Morita, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil is an edible oil enriched with DAG (>80%) and ALA (>50%). The present study investigated whether ALA-DAG oil promotes tumorigenesis in the tongue and gastrointestinal tract, using a rat medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay model. Rats were treated with five genotoxic carcinogens to induce multi-organ tumorigenesis until week 4, and from 1 week after withdrawal, fed a semi-synthetic diet (AIN-93G) containing ALA-DAG oil at concentrations of 0, 13,750, 27,500, and 55,000 ppm. Rats fed AIN-93G containing 55,000 ppm ALA-triacylglycerol or a standard basal diet served as reference and negative control groups, respectively. Animals were euthanized at week 30. ALA-DAG oil was shown to have no effects on survival, general condition, body weight, food consumption, or organ weight. More discolored spots were observed in the stomachs of the 13,750- and 55,000-ppm ALA-DAG groups than in those of the control groups; however, there were no differences in the frequency of histopathological findings across groups. There were no meaningful increases in the incidence of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the tongue and gastrointestinal tract among the groups. We therefore conclude that ALA-DAG oil does not promote tumor development in the digestive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of Meckel's diverticulum: a rare cause of intestinal volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengız, Fevzi; Sun, Mehmet Ali; Esen, Özgür Sipahi; Erkan, Nazif

    2012-08-01

    Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract. Most cases are asymptomatic; however, when symptomatic, it is often misdiagnosed at presentation. Common complications presenting in adults include bleeding, obstruction, diverticulitis, and perforation. Tumors within a Meckel's diverticulum are rare. Herein, we present a gastrointestinal stromal tumor arising from the Meckel's diverticulum that led to intestinal obstruction by volvulus.

  10. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi.

    1984-01-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi

    1984-11-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Furtwaengler, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST ( 5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  13. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Narcotic smuggling and radiography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamilo, M.; Suoranta, H.; Suramo, I.

    1986-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is being used to an increasing extent as a route for smuggling narcotics. Small, swallowed packages overwrapped with condoms or other materials are usually not detected by the customs authorities. Conventional abdominal radiography may indicate foreign bodies surrounded by a characteristic thin layer of gas and located in the gastrointestinal tract. Some short case histories, and the radiologic findings in four heroin 'body packers' are presented. (orig.)

  15. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shailaja; Singh, Sanjeet K; Pujani, Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS). Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  16. MR imaging of the gastro-intestinal tract in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoermann, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital, Department of General and Paediatric Radiology, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: marcus.hoermann@meduniwien.ac.at

    2008-11-15

    MR imaging (MRI) is an established method for the evaluation of particularly inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as for acute abdominal pain in pregnant women. Despite the fact that MRI is ideally suited for the evaluation of children the method is still not established in these patients. The value of MRI in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and appendicitis as well as intestinal tumors and malformations has been documented in children. There will be more indications in the future depending on the development of new imaging techniques, faster sequences, stronger gradients and increasing availability. Furthermore, the radiologist's attention must be drawn to decrease the radiation burden in children and to replace ionizing techniques especially in chronic disease with the need for repeated follow-up studies and in younger children. This review will discuss some general considerations for the use of MRI in evaluating the paediatric gastro-intestinal tract.

  17. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Management of hemorrhage in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Kong, Fanmin; Zhou, Jianping; Dong, Ming; Dong, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively common mesenchymal tumors. They originate from the wall of hollow viscera and may be found in any part of the digestive tract. The prognosis of patients with stromal tumors depends on various risk factors, including size, location, presence of mitotic figures, and tumor rupture. Emergency surgery is often required for stromal tumors with hemorrhage. The current literature suggests that stromal tumor hemorrhage indicates poor prognosis. Although the optimal treatment options for hemorrhagic GISTs are based on surgical experience, there remains controversy with regard to optimum postoperative management as well as the classification of malignant potential. This article reviews the biological characteristics, diagnostic features, prognostic factors, treatment, and postoperative management of GISTs with hemorrhage.

  20. General Information about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used: Endoscopic resection : Surgery to remove a small tumor that is on the inside lining of the GI tract. An endoscope is inserted through the mouth and passed through the esophagus to the stomach and sometimes, the duodenum . An ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used: Endoscopic resection : Surgery to remove a small tumor that is on the inside lining of the GI tract. An endoscope is inserted through the mouth and passed through the esophagus to the stomach and sometimes, the duodenum . An ...

  2. Current management and prognostic features for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba Gurpreet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stromal or mesenchymal neoplasms affecting the gastrointestinal (GI tract have undergone a remarkable evolution in how they are perceived, classified, approached, diagnosed and managed over the last 30 years. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST account for approximately 1% to 3% of all malignant GI tumors. The clinical features can vary depending on the anatomic location, size and aggressiveness of the tumor. Metastatic GIST represents a successful example of molecular targeted therapy. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and diagnostic modalities for GIST. We also describe treatment options for early stage, locally advanced and metastatic GIST. Indications for neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy along with duration of therapy are also explained. A brief discussion of latest biomarkers and updates from recent meetings is also provided.

  3. Could imatinib replace surgery in esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salam, Suhail N.; El-Teraifi, Hassan A.; Taha, Mazen S.

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are cellular spindle, or epithelioid tumors that occur in the stomach, intestine and rarely in the esophagus. A 61-years-old man was complaining of resistant dry cough with dysphagia for one month duration. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic examination showed a polypoid mass 30 cm from the incisors obstructing 50% of the lumen, where multiple biopsies were taken. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass in the wall of the esophagus extending into the thoracic cavity. Histologically, the stained sections with routine hematoxylin and eosin as well as the immunohistochemical stainsfor CD117, CD34, S100, vimentin and smooth muscle actin confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal GIST. The patient was treated with imatinib 400mg/day. There was a dramatic reduction in the size of the tumor with successful improvement of his symptoms after 2 months of treatment, which was confirmed by reapeated upper GIT endoscopy, and MRI. (author)

  4. Acute ingestion dosimetry using the ICRP 30 gastrointestinal tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the gastrointestinal (GI) tract model used for dosimetry as outlined in ICRP30, to allow quick calculations of effective dose equivalents for acute radionuclide ingestion. A computer program has been developed to emulate the GI tract model. The program and associated data files are structured so that the GI tract model parameters can be varied, while the file structure and algorithm for the GI tract model should require minimal modification to allow the same theories that apply in this model to be used for other dosimetric models

  5. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takaaki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9–3.5 cm (mean ± standard deviation, 2.1 ± 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 ± 14.5 mL; range, 10–60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic–fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0–1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 ± 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 ± 3.2 months (range, 0.4–9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA

  6. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takaaki, E-mail: hasegawat@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  7. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein /tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs

  8. Absorption of 249Bk from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalikin, G.A.; Nisimov, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    In experimets with albino mongrel female rats a study was made of the absorption of 249 Bk from the gastrointestinal tract after a single per os administration. The bulk of 249 Bk (96 per cent) administered either intravenously or per os was mainly deposited in the skeleton and liver. The value of 249 Bk absorption from the gastrointestinal trat by days 4 and 8 following administration was 0.05 per cent

  9. A rare case with synchronous gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabadzhieva, Elena; Yonkov, Atanas; Bonev, Sasho; Bulanov, Dimitar; Taneva, Ivanka; Vlahova, Alexandrina; Dikov, Tihomir; Dimitrova, Violeta

    2016-11-15

    Although gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, they comprise less than 1% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the gastro-enteropancreatic system are also rare, representing about 2% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Pancreatic localization of NET is extremely uncommon-these tumors are only 1-5% of all pancreatic cancers. We describe an unusual case with triple tumor localization-a gastric tumor, a formation in the pancreas, which involves the retroperitoneal space, and a uterine leiomyoma. The exact diagnosis was confirmed with immunohistochemical study after surgical treatment of the patient. Distal pancreatic resection, splenectomy, partial gastrectomy, omentectomy, and hysterectomy were performed. The histological examination proved an epithelioid type of gastric GIST. Immunostaining showed focal positive expression of c-kit and no mitotic figures per 50 HPF. Histology of the pancreatic and retroperitoneal formation proved a well-differentiated NET with origin from the islets of Langerhans. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated co-expression of chromogranin A and synaptophysin. This is the fourth case published so far of a patient with synchronous pancreatic NET and gastric GIST. The main objective of the study is to present a unique case because we have not found any reports for coexistence of the described three types of neoplasm, as in our patient, and we hope that it will be valuable in the future investigations about the genesis, diagnosis, and treatment of these types of tumors.

  10. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kusdiyantini; T. Yudiarti; V. D.Yunianto; R. Murwani

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung). The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two ...

  11. [Microflora of gastrointestinal tract in patients with chronic cholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlova, E S; Chervinets, V M; Chervinets, Iu V; Barashkov, A P; Sekareva, E V

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of gastrointestinal microflora in patients with chronic cholecystitis. Bacteriological analysis of biopsy samples of esophageal and gastric mucosae as well as stool samples was performed in 10 healthy volunteers and 28 patients with chronic cholecystitis. Opportunistic microorganisms are acquiring greater significance in formation of gastrointestinal microbiocenosis. Significant increase of both isolation rate and density of gastrointestinal tract colonization by staphylococci, enterobacteriae and anaerobic microorganisms was revealed. Obtained results showed abnormalities of microbiocenosis of esophageal and gastric mucosae and presence of intestinal disbacteriosis of different degrees of intensity.

  12. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  13. Angiography and angiotherapy of gastrointestinal tract bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, R.; Grassot, A.; Souchon, R.

    1982-03-01

    In selected patients with upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage there is an indication for angiography. Vasoconstrictive drugs or embolization materials can be submitted through the catheter to stop the hemorrhage (angiotherapy). 81 patients were diagnosed by this method. Treatment through the angiographic catheter followed the diagnostic procedure in 41 cases. The hemorrhage was controlled in 36 patients.

  14. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  15. Induced gastrointestinal tract (GIT) derangement following a long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug administration commenced from 10th day of gestation to the end of parturition. On the 13th day after parturition the maternal rats were then sacrified for tissue processing. The results showed that the control animals had a normal architecture of the gastrointestinal tract. While the paracetamol treated animals showed a ...

  16. Concepts and controversies in disorders of upper gastrointestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upper gastrointestinal tract is one part of the digestive system where tremendous innovations and advancements in knowledge have been recorded in the last several decades. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshal in 1983 and the introduction of Rome process for the classification, diagnosis and ...

  17. [Biotherapy of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Knigge, U.

    2008-01-01

    Biotherapy of hormonal symptoms and tumour growth is a mainstay in the therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Symptomatic relief can be achieved by somatostatin analogues and interferon, either alone or in combination. The effect on tumour growth...

  18. Manometry of the gastrointestinal tract: toy or tool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the eyes of scientific researchers, there are various manometric techniques that are useful tools for studying the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinicians, however, regard most of these techniques as toys, either because they do not lead to clinically relevant results, or because they

  19. Incidentally detected gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Canbak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are mesenchymal tumors located primarily in the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to present a case report of GIST incidentally detected during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to abdominal pain for one day. The physical examination revealed sensitivity on the right upper quadrant. In the laboratory examinations, white blood cell count 6,490 k/uL, hemoglobin 12 g/dL, hematocrit 35% and other biochemical tests were normal. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hydropic gallbladder, several gallstones with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and pericholecystic fluid collection was present. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was planned due to acute cholecystitis. In exploration, beside the presence of acute cholecystitis, a mass of approximately 5 cm, located 15 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz was detected. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conversion to open laparotomy was done; small intestine resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with CD117, CD34 and S100 positivity was detected on histopathologic examination.It is thought that GISTs are mesenchymal tumors originating from precursors of Kajal cells. GISTs are usually detected in their 60s. The first option for treatment is surgical resection.

  20. Regulation of UDP glucuronosyltransferases in the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Philip A.; Lewinsky, Rikke H.; Gardner-Stephen, Dione A.; Mackenzie, Peter I.

    2004-01-01

    The UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have a crucial role in protection against the toxic effects of lipophilic chemicals in the environment. UGTs such as UGT1A7, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 are exclusively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, each with a unique tissue distribution pattern that is subject to interindividual variation. The factors regulating this tissue-specific expression and that contribute to variability are beginning to be elucidated. Studies on the UGT1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 gene promoters in Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of enterocytes of the gastrointestinal tract, have identified the caudal homeodomain transcription factor, Cdx2, as an important regulator of the UGT1A8 and 1A10 gene proximal promoters. This transcription factor is found exclusively in the small intestine and colon: it is absent in the gastric epithelium and the esophagus. Cdx2 regulates the UGT1A8 and 1A10 promoters in cooperation with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α). It is noteworthy that UGT1A7 is not expressed in gastrointestinal tissue distal to the gastric mucosa and does not contain a Cdx2 binding site in its proximal promoter. Transcription factors, including Sp1, which differentially bind to the initiator regions of the UGT1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 promoters, also contribute to the differences in expression of these UGTs in Caco-2 cells. The identification of important regulatory regions of UGT genes expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, and the transcription factors that bind to these regions, will aid in the elucidation of factors that contribute to interindividual differences in gastrointestinal UGT expression. In turn, this will lead to further understanding of interindividual variation in the capacity of the GI tract to metabolize lipophilic chemicals and to act as a barrier to dietary toxins and orally administered drugs

  1. Analysis of failures and complications of neodymium: YAG laser photocoagulation in gastrointestinal tract tumors. A retrospective survey of 18 years' experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    Eight years of experience with endoscopic Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation were analyzed in retrospect in an attempt to identify factors relating to both failures and complications of laser therapy, and to delineate its limits and pitfalls in benign and malignant tumors. Three hundred and seventy-eight

  2. Disorders of the thyroid status in patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchagina, G.V.; Klimenkov, A.A.; Romanova, L.F.; Alekseev, V.M.; Kuznetsova, L.F.; Aslanov, Ya.A.

    1986-01-01

    With the help of radioimmunoassay a quantitative assessment of T 3 pool was performed in patients with malignant tumors of the esophagus, stomach, pancreatic head, rectum and colon as well as in patients with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and benign stomach tumors. A high T 3 pool deficiency was noted in patients with malignant G gastrointestinal tract IT tumors. It was assumed that such a deficiency was indicative of profound disorder of hormone supply of tissues which could be regarded as an endogenous factor of predisposition to the development of malignant neoplasms

  3. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 cases. A.B Olokoba, L.B Olokoba, A.A.G Jimoh. Abstract. Background: Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding refers to blood loss within the intraluminal gastrointestinal tract from any location between the upper oesophagus to the duodenum at the ligament ...

  4. Chemical Carcinogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Rodents: An Overview with Emphasis on NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Sundeep A.; Nolan, Michael W.; Malarkey, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Cancers of the stomach and large intestine (LI) are the second and fourth leading causes of human cancer mortality. A review of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) database and the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) reveals that chemically induced neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are relatively common. Within the GIT, epithelial tumors of the forestomach in mice and rats and LI of the rat are most common. Generally, there is a high species concordance for forestomach with at ...

  5. Metastasis of the gastrointestinal tract. FDG-PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Nihashi, Takashi; Matsuura, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We assess the usefulness of F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the evaluation of gastrointestinal metastases. Four cases (five lesions) in which metastases from three lung cancers and one malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the femur were found in the gastrointestinal tract were reviewed (men/women 3:1, age 63-78 years, mean 72 years). The five lesions were duodenal, jejunal metastasis, and two stomach metastases from lung carcinoma, and rectal metastasis from MFH of the femur. FDG-PET was unable to detect small masses, but it was able to detect unforeseen lesions such as gastrointestinal metastases because FDG-PET is a whole-body scan in a single-operation examination. FDG-PET imaging provided valuable information for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal metastasis. (author)

  6. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    several years, several studies demonstrated that experimental diabetes induces GI morphological and biomechanical remodeling. Following the development of diabetes, the GI wall becomes thicker and the stiffness of the GI wall increases in a time-dependent manner. It is well known that mechanosensitive...... the biomechanical environment of the mechanosensitive nerve endings, therefore, the structure as well as the tension, stress and strain distribution in the GI wall is important for the sensory and motor function. Biomechanical remodeling of diabetic GI tract including alterations of residual strain and increase...

  7. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D.

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26939867

  8. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2016-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Considering the role of radiation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin KS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly S Corbin,1 Hedy L Kindler,2 Stanley L Liauw31Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Medical Center, Springfield, IL, USA; 2Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare mesenchymal tumors arising in the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last decade, the management and prognosis of GISTs has changed dramatically with molecular characterization of the c-kit mutation and the adoption of targeted systemic therapy. Currently, the standard of care for resectable tumors is surgery, followed by adjuvant imatinib for tumors at high risk for recurrence. Inoperable or metastatic tumors are treated primarily with imatinib. Despite excellent initial response rates, resistance to targeted therapy has emerged as a common clinical problem, with relatively few therapeutic solutions. While the treatment of GISTs does not commonly include radiotherapy, radiation therapy could be a valuable contributing modality. Several case reports indicate that radiation can control locally progressive, drug-resistant disease. Further study is necessary to define whether radiation could potentially prevent or delay the onset of drug resistance, or improve outcomes when given in combination with imatinib.Keywords: GIST, imatinib, radiotherapy

  10. A roentgenologic study of diverticular throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Song, Ho Young; Lim, Kyu Yeob

    1983-01-01

    Diverticulum is considered as a common lesion involving any gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum. We reviewed 5,806 cases of upper G-I series and 801 cases of double contrast barium enema during the period from Jan.1978 to Dec. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Jeonbug National University Hospital to analyze diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract. The results were as follows: 1. Roentgen examination of 5,806 esophagus, stomachs, duodenums and small bowels, and 801 colons during the past four years: diverticula of the esophagus, 60 cases (1.0%); diverticula of the stomach, 42 cases (0.7%); diverticula of the duodenum, 358 cases (6.2%); diverticula of the small bowel, 20 cases (0.3%); diverticula of the colon, 26 cases (3.2%). The location of diverticula in order of frequency was duodenum, colon, esophagus, stomach and small bowel. 2. The most common site of diverticula of each gastrointestinal tract was as follows: diverticula of the esophagus, middle portion (84.7%); diverticula of the stomach, the cardia (59.5%); diverticula of the duodenum, the second portion (81.3%); diverticula of the small bowel, the jejunum (96.4%)-especially the larger percentage were observed at the upper jejunum near the ligament of Treitz; diverticula of the colon, the right sided colon (80.8%)-the cecum and ascending colon (57.1%). 3. Diverticula may occur at any age. The majority of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract were observed over 40 years of age. Especially in diverticula of the duodenum and colon, their frequency increase with age. 4. Duodenal diverticula were observed more frequently in woman than in man but in diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, male was more frequently affected. 5. The size of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was variable. The majority of diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel were intermediate in size (10-49 mm). Diverticula of

  11. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence of gastrointestinal tumors: initial clinical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Plamenova, Lilia; Keremedchiev, Momchil; Vladimirov, Borislav; Avramov, Latchezar

    2013-03-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection and evaluation of cancerous changes in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are significant challenge and initiate development of new diagnostic modalities. Therefore many spectral and optical techniques are applied recently into the clinical practice for obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively new data from gastrointestinal neoplasia with different level of clinical applicability and diagnostic success. One of the most promising approaches is fluorescence detection using naturally existing fluorescent molecules or added fluorescent markers. Deltaaminolevulinic acid / protoporphyrin IX is applied for exogenous fluorescent tumor detection in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. Highpower light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as a source and the excitation light is passed through the light-guide of standard video-endoscopic system to obtain 2-D visualization. Both kinds of spectra - autofluorescence signals and protoporphyrin IX signal are recorded and stored using a fiber-optic microspectrometer, as in endoscopy instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence signals. In such way 1-D detection and 2-D visualization of the lesions' fluorescence are received. The results from in vivo detection show significant differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues in 1-D spectroscopic regime, but only moderate discrimination in 2-D imaging.

  12. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim ofthe research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (AyamKampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled fromchicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi.Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week andtwo months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was foundin ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to sevenspecies, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides,Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  13. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  14. Pancreatic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor after Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Performance of Whipple Procedure: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziret, Mehmet; Çetinkünar, Süleyman; Aktaş, Elife; İrkörücü, Oktay; Bali, İlhan; Erdem, Hasan

    2015-08-03

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal system. These types of tumors originate from any part of the tract as well as from the intestine, colon, omentum, mesentery or retroperitoneum. GIST is a rare tumor compared to other types of tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal tumors. A 56-year-old male patient was hospitalized due to an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the start of abdominal pain on the same day. In the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy that was performed, a solitary mass was found in the second section of the duodenum and a blood vessel (Forrest type 2a) was seen. The extent and location of the mass was detected by abdominal tomography. After hemodynamic recovery, a Whipple procedure was performed without any complications. A subsequent histopathological examination detected a c-kit-positive (CD117) pancreatic GIST with high mitotic index. The most effective treatment method for GISTs is surgical resection. In patients with a head of pancreatic GIST, the Whipple procedure can be used more safely and effectively.

  15. Mucosal defence along the gastrointestinal tract of cats and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes , Chris; Waly , Nashwa

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Diseases that are associated with infections or allergic reactions in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are major causes of morbidity in both cats and dogs. Future strategies for the control of these conditions require a greater understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of responses at the mucosal surfaces. Historically, the majority of the fundamental studies have been carried out in rodents or with tissu...

  16. Systemic Sclerosis and the Gastrointestinal Tract-Clinical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Brun, Rita; Braun, Marius

    2016-10-31

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disease characterized by functional and structural abnormalities of small blood vessels, fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, immune system activation, and autoimmunity. The gastrointestinal tract is involved in nearly all patients and is a source of significant morbidity and even mortality. The aim of this review is to summarize the pathogenesis and to provide a clinical approach to these patients.

  17. Current opinion on PET for gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederichs, C.G.; Schirrmeister, H.; Staib, L.

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of FDG-PET for restaging of colorectal carcinoma and for the differentiation of indeterminate hepatic lesions is well-documented. Accuracies of FDG-PET for recurrence, lymph node status and the detection of distant metastases are higher compared with computed tomography, for example. For other epithelial gastrointestinal tumors similar results have also been demonstrated in smaller trials or case presentations. The differentiation of recurrent rectal carcinoma from scar and PET for endocrine tumors are described elsewhere (Der Nuklearmediziner PET II, in preparation). Almost no data exist for rare tumors like anal carcinoma or tumors of the small intestines. For hepatocellular carcinoma, FDG-PET has a high positive predictive value, and the intensity of the uptake correlates well with grading. However, FDG-PET is not suitable for the exclusion of hepatocellular carcinoma due to insufficient sensitivity. The differentiation of benign and malignant pancreatic masses works well for selected patients. FDG-PET for lymph node staging is at least as accurate as conventional staging, and for the detection of distant metastases FDG-PET is superior compared with conventional staging. Few data exist on therapy control of gastrointestinal tumors. (orig.) [de

  18. A rare case of primary mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumor with metastasis to the cervix uteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nupur; Mittal, Suneeta; Lal, Neena; Misra, Renu; Kumar, Lalit; Bhalla, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are CD117 (C Kit) positive mesenchymal neoplasms, that may arise anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Their current therapy is imatinib mesylate before or after surgery. Case presentation We describe a case of 17-year-old female with metastasis to the cervix uteri of a primary mesenteric gastrointestinal tumor. Conclusion Surgery remains the mainstay of known curative treatment. The manifestations of GIST are not restricted to the typical locations within the bowel; may have very unusual metastatic sites or infiltrations per continuitatem. PMID:18045506

  19. Upper gastrointestinal tract injuries by intraoperative radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, I; Isawa, T; Satomi, T; Tazima, T [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)

    1981-08-01

    Twenty-one patients with unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas were treated by intraoperative irradiation with a large electron dose of 1500 - 3000 rads and upper gastrointestinal complications were encountered in five cases. All of those five cases were for carcinoma of the pancreatic head, and were seen for gastrointestinal tract injuries of the duodenum as follows, gastric ulcer in 2 cases, ulcer of the 1st duodenal portion in one case and ulcer with severe stenosis of the 2nd or 3rd duodenal portion in one case, respectively. Endoscopic features of these postirradiation gastrointestinal ulcers were characterized by deep, punched-out ulcers with grayish bases and sharp margins. Clinically these ulcers and stenosis were very difficult to treat, so by-pass operations were performed in two cases, resulting in prolonged survival.

  20. Neuroendokrine Tumore (NET des Gastrointestinaltraktes: Nuklearmedizinische Optionen in Diagnose und Therapie // Neuroendocrine Tumours (NET of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Nuclear Medicine Methods in Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M

    2017-01-01

    Stadieneinteilung und weiteren Therapieentscheidung als essentiell, mit nachgewiesener besserer diagnostischer Performance als radiologische Schnittbildverfahren. Der Nachweis unerwarteter Läsionen verändert das Therapiemanagement in etwa einem Drittel der Fälle. Auch zur Therapie- und Verlaufsbeobachtung ist diese nuklearmedizinische Untersuchungsmethodik gut geeignet, währenddessen das in der Onkologie hauptsächlich verwendete 18F-FDG nur bei schlecht differenzierten neuroendokrinen Tumoren (NET und in gewisser Weise zur Prognoseabschätzung eingeschränkt Anwendung findet.br Neue Erkenntnisse im Rahmen einer prospektiven randomisierten Multicenterstudie ( NETTER-1 Phase-III-Studie bestätigten eindrucksvoll die Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit der Radionuklidpeptidtherapie (PRRT unter Verwendung von 177Lu-DOTATATE (Lutathera®. Es wurden in mehreren europäischen und US-amerikanischen Zentren insgesamt 230 Patienten mit einem Grad 1–2-Midgut-Tumor rekrutiert. Es ist aufgrund der bisherigen Daten evident, dass Patienten mit fortgeschrittenem Midgut-NET, welche mit Lutathera behandelt werden, ein statistisch signifikant längeres PFS aufweisen und es ist weiters sehr naheliegend, dass auch das OS deutlich positiv beeinflusst wird. Obgleich dzt. noch keine vergleichbare Studie für 90Y-DOTA-TOC vorliegt, weisen zahlreiche monozentrische Studien mit z. T. hohen Fallzahlen auf eine vergleichbare Therapieeffizienz und ebenfalls gute Verträglichkeit hin.br Bei Patienten mit bevorzugtem Leberbefall stellt die Selektive Interne Radiotherapie (SIRT, auch Radioembolisation genannt, zur lokalen intrahepatischen Strahlenbehandlung von Leberherden eine mögliche Alternative dar.

  1. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis; Tumor estromal gastrointestinal: diagnostico y pronostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M. [Fundacion Hospital de Alcorcon. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein (tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. Development of a revised mathematical model of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this research are as follows. First, to incorporate new biological data into a revised mathematical adult gastrointestinal tract model that includes: ingestion in both liquid and solid forms; consideration of absorption in the stomach, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon or not at all; gender and age of the adult; and whether the adult is a smoker or not. Next, to create a computer program in basic language for calculating residence times in each anatomical section of the GI tract for commonly used radionuclides. Also, to compare and contrast the new model with the ICRP 30 GI tract model in terms of physiological concepts, mathematical concepts, and revised residence times for several commonly used radionuclides. Finally, to determine whether the new model is sufficiently better than the current model to warrant its use as a replacement for the Eve model

  3. CT and MR imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of stomach: a pictorial review

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Jingshan; Kang, Wenyan; Zhu, Jin; Xu, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    This pictorial review illustrates CT and MR imaging appearance of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach and other lesions with similar imaging appearance. GIST of the stomach appears as well-defined enhanced masses with characteristics of subeppthial neoplasms. Majority are exophytic growth, but can also be of intra-luminal growth. GIST can growth into a large mass without gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Necrosis is often seen in GIST and results in heterogeneous enhancemen...

  4. Radiotherapy in the treament of gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Heintzelman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are uncommon mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Up to one-third of GISTs are malignant with a high rate of metastasis. Surgical resection is the mainstay of care for patients with resectable disease. Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the current standard of care for GISTs that cannot be completely resected or in cases of metastatic GIST. Although often overlooked, radiation therapy is a viable option for select patients with GIST. We report the case of a patient with unresectable GIST who was treated with local radiotherapy and achieved longterm response. We also present a review of the literature regarding the use of radiotherapy in the treatment of GIST. GIST has been shown to be a radiosensitive tumor. Radiotherapy can offer long-term local control and should be considered in the adjuvant or palliative setting. The role of radiotherapy delivered concurrently with imatinib in the treatment of GIST may warrant further investigation.

  5. A Microbiological Map of the Healthy Equine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C Ericsson

    Full Text Available Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota. Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon. Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples (a proxy for feces may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut.

  6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasites from the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lynne S; Arrowood, Michael; Kokoskin, Evelyne; Paltridge, Graeme P; Pillai, Dylan R; Procop, Gary W; Ryan, Norbert; Shimizu, Robyn Y; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2018-01-01

    This Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology document on the laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract provides practical information for the recovery and identification of relevant human parasites. The document is based on a comprehensive literature review and expert consensus on relevant diagnostic methods. However, it does not include didactic information on human parasite life cycles, organism morphology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, treatment, or epidemiology and prevention. As greater emphasis is placed on neglected tropical diseases, it becomes highly probable that patients with gastrointestinal parasitic infections will become more widely recognized in areas where parasites are endemic and not endemic. Generally, these methods are nonautomated and require extensive bench experience for accurate performance and interpretation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. The role of positron emission tomography in the detection of incidental gastrointestinal tract lesions in patients examined for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Kazutoshi; Hata, Yoshinobu; Sakaguchi, Shinji; Takai, Yujiro; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Takagi, Keigo; Homma, Sakae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of lung cancer patients with abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract by fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). Of the 968 consecutive patients with primary lung cancer who underwent PET from October 2005 through September 2009, 26 patients had local abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract. We retrospectively compared the localization of abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, standardized uptake value (SUV)max (1 hour), and the final clinical diagnosis. The site of abnormal accumulation was the esophagus in 1 case, the stomach in 8 and the small intestine to large intestine in 17. In 15 out of 26 (57%) cases with true PET positive results, there was esophageal cancer in 1 case, gastric cancer in 2, gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 1, colon cancer in 8, and 1 each of metastasis to the stomach, small intestine and large intestine from lung cancer. In 11 cases with false PET-positive results, there was a stomach polyp in 1 case, gastritis in 3, colon polyp in 1, diverticulitis in 1 and normal physiologic accumulation in 5. There were no differences in mean SUVmax among malignant lesions, benign lesions, and normal physiologic accumulation. We should perform endoscopy of the digestive tract to detect malignant lesions with high incidence rates when PET shows localalized abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal, tract in patients with lung cancer. (author)

  8. Update on gastrointestinal stromal tumors for radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; O' Neill, Alibhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States); Baheti, Akahay D. [Dept. of Radiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Tirumani, Harika [Dept. of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has evolved significantly in the last two decades due to better understanding of their biologic behavior as well as development of molecular targeted therapies. GISTs with exon 11 mutation respond to imatinib whereas GISTs with exon 9 or succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations do not. Risk stratification models have enabled stratifying GISTs according to risk of recurrence and choosing patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Assessing response to targeted therapies in GIST using conventional response criteria has several potential pitfalls leading to search for alternate response criteria based on changes in tumor attenuation, volume, metabolic and functional parameters. Surveillance of patients with GIST in the adjuvant setting is important for timely detection of recurrences.

  9. Diagnosis and Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liong Chin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are rare tumors which are increasingly recognised by practising endoscopists. After confirmation by endoscopic biopsies of these focal lesions, many questions may arise. As NETs are less frequently encountered compared to other malignancies or gastrointestinal pathology, many endoscopists may not fully understand the natural history, diagnosis and management of these tumors. In this review, we aim to update the practising endoscopist on the key clinical features and management of patients with upper gastrointestinal NET.

  10. Targeting cancers in the gastrointestinal tract: role of capecitabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Wasif SaifYale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Capecitabine is currently the only novel, orally home-administered fluorouracil prodrug. It offers patients more freedom from hospital visits and less inconvenience and complications associated with infusion devices. The drug has been extensively studied in large clinical trials in many solid tumors, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and many others. Furthermore, the drug compares favorably with fluorouracil in patients with such cancers, with a safe toxicity profile, consisting mainly of gastrointestinal and dermatologic adverse effects. Whereas gastrointestinal events and hand-foot syndrome occur often with capecitabine, the tolerability profile is comparatively favorable. Prompt recognition of severe adverse effects is the key to successful management of capecitabine. Ongoing and future clinical trials will continue to examine, and likely expand, the role of capecitabine as a single agent and/or in combination with other anticancer agents for the treatment of gastrointestinal as well as other solid tumors, both in the advanced palliative and adjuvant settings. The author summarizes the current data on the role of capecitabine in the management of gastrointestinal cancers. Keywords: 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, chemotherapy, adjuvant, advanced, colon cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular cancer, pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, rectal cancer, anal cancer

  11. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginai-Karamat, A.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium (CM) for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the reactions of various available CM in the bronchi and lungs, mediastinum, pleura and peritoneum of rats. The CM evaluated in the experimental study were, pure barium sulphate (without any additives), commercial barium sulphate (Micropaque, with additives), Dionosil, Hytrast, Gastrografin, Amipaque (in pleura Omnipaque) and Hexabrix. (Auth.)

  12. Sonographic diagnosis of intramural hematoma of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Cheon, S. K.; Seong, N. G.

    1989-01-01

    Sonographic findings of nine cases of intramural hematoma of the gastrointestinal tract are presented. The duodenum was the most common site, followed by the ascending colon and the stomach. Intramural hematomas present as centrally or eccentrically located bowel mass of variable echogenicity: heter-ogeneously echogenic in six cases; hypoechoic in two case; anechoic in one case. In five cases of duodenal hematoma, the stomach and/or duodenal bulb were distended and filled with fluid. It is concluded that ultrasonography is a simple and useful tool in the diagnosis of intramural hematoma of the intestine

  13. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Lo Curto, Alberto; Faulks, Richard Martin; Le Marc, Yvan; Bisignano, Carlo; Caggia, Cinzia; Wickham, Martin Sean John

    2010-12-01

    In the present study six probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were investigated for their ability to survive in the human upper gastrointestinal tract through a dynamic gastric model of digestion. MRS broth was used as delivery vehicle and survival was investigated during in vitro gastric and gastric plus duodenal digestion. Results highlighted that all tested strains showed good survival rate during both gastric and duodenal digestion. In particular, three strains exhibited a great survival showing a recovery percentage in the range between 117 and 276%. In agreement with survival data, high lactic acid production was detected for all strains, confirming their metabolic activity during digestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Passage of an Anterior Odontoid Screw through Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, L; Brückmann, C I; Gilg, M M; Bratschitsch, G; Sadoghi, P; Leithner, A; Radl, R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose . Anterior screw fixation has become a popular surgical treatment method for instable odontoid fractures. Screw loosening and migration are a rare, severe complication following anterior odontoid fixation, which can lead to esophagus perforation and requires revision operation. Methods . We report a case of screw loosening and migration after anterior odontoid fixation, which perforated the esophagus and was excreted without complications in a 78-year-old male patient. Results . A ventral dislocated anterior screw perforated through the esophagus after eight years after implantation and was excreted through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. At a 6-month follow-up after the event the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion . Extrusion via the GI tract is not safe enough to be considered as a treatment option for loosened screws. Some improvements could be implemented to prevent such an incident. Furthermore, this case is a fine example that recent preoperative imaging is mandatory before revision surgery for screw loosening.

  15. Passage of an Anterior Odontoid Screw through Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Leitner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Anterior screw fixation has become a popular surgical treatment method for instable odontoid fractures. Screw loosening and migration are a rare, severe complication following anterior odontoid fixation, which can lead to esophagus perforation and requires revision operation. Methods. We report a case of screw loosening and migration after anterior odontoid fixation, which perforated the esophagus and was excreted without complications in a 78-year-old male patient. Results. A ventral dislocated anterior screw perforated through the esophagus after eight years after implantation and was excreted through the gastrointestinal (GI tract. At a 6-month follow-up after the event the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion. Extrusion via the GI tract is not safe enough to be considered as a treatment option for loosened screws. Some improvements could be implemented to prevent such an incident. Furthermore, this case is a fine example that recent preoperative imaging is mandatory before revision surgery for screw loosening.

  16. The radioimmunoassay and physiology of somatostatin in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, C; Arnold, R

    1978-05-01

    Radioimmunoassays for somatostain have demonstrated that high concentrations of the polypeptide are present in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract of a number of species. Although measurement in tissue extracts is relatively unproblematic, detection and characterization of somatostatin-like material in plasma has proved technically difficult. Studies of pancreatic somatostatin release in vitro suggest a possible function in the regulation of islet hormone secretion, but the mode of action remains to be elucidated. Although, at present, no clinical relevance can be attributed to the somatostain radioimmunoassay reports of somatostatin secreting tumors and changes in stomach tissue content in patients with ulcer disease indicate a contributory role in the pathophysiology of certain disease states.

  17. The gastrointestinal tract and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallet, Richard H; Quinn, Thomas E

    2005-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is believed to play an important role in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), because during critical illness the stomach often is colonized with enteric Gram-negative bacteria. These are the same bacteria that frequently are isolated from the sputum of patients with VAP. Interventions such as selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), use of sucralfate for stress ulcer prophylaxis, and enteral feeding strategies that preserve gastric pH, or lessen the likelihood of pulmonary aspiration, are used to decrease the incidence of VAP. A review of both meta-analyses and large randomized controlled trials providing Level I evidence on these topics has led to the following conclusions. First, SDD substantially decreases the incidence of VAP and may have a modest positive effect on mortality. However, there is strong contravening evidence that SDD promotes infections by Gram-positive bacteria. In the context of an emerging public health crisis from the steady rise in drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, we cannot endorse the general use of SDD to prevent VAP. Rather, therapy should be focused on strategies other than antibiotic prophylaxis. Second, in patients who are at risk for clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding, a histamine-2 receptor antagonist should be used for stress ulcer prophylaxis, rather than sucralfate, because histamine-2 receptor antagonist provides substantially better protection without substantially increasing the risk of VAP. Third, post-pyloric enteral feeding may reduce the incidence of VAP.

  18. Digestive tract neural control and gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Liubiana A; Silva, Luciana R; Mendes, Fabiana A A

    2012-01-01

    To examine the neural control of digestive tract and describe the main gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy (CP), with attention to the importance of early diagnosis to an efficient interdisciplinary treatment. Systematic review of literature from 1997 to 2012 from Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, and Cochrane Library databases. The study included 70 papers, such as relevant reviews, observational studies, controlled trials, and prevalence studies. Qualitative studies were excluded. The keywords used were: cerebral palsy, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, recurrent respiratory infections, and gastrostomy. The appropriate control of the digestive system depends on the healthy functioning and integrity of the neural system. Since CP patients have structural abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, they are more likely to develop eating disorders. These range from neurological immaturity to interference in the mood and capacity of caregivers. The disease has, therefore, a multifactorial etiology. The most prevalent digestive tract disorders are dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and constipation, with consequent recurrent respiratory infections and deleterious impact on nutritional status. Patients with CP can have neurological abnormalities of digestive system control; therefore, digestive problems are common. The issues raised in the present study are essential for professionals within the interdisciplinary teams that treat patients with CP, concerning the importance of comprehensive anamnesis and clinical examination, such as detailed investigation of gastrointestinal disorders. Early detection of these digestive problems may lead to more efficient rehabilitation measures in order to improve patients' quality of life.

  19. Transcatheter arterial embolization for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širvinskas, Audrius; Smolskas, Edgaras; Mikelis, Kipras; Brimienė, Vilma; Brimas, Gintautas

    2017-12-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization is a possible treatment for patients with recurrent bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract after failed endoscopic management and is also an alternative to surgical treatment. To analyze the outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization and identify the clinical and technical factors that influenced the rates of morbidity and mortality. A retrospective analysis was carried out, based on the data of 36 patients who underwent transcatheter arterial embolization for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 2013 to 2015 in our center. An analysis was performed between early rebleeding rates, mortality and the following factors: patient sex, age, number of units of packed red blood cells and packed plasma administered to the patients, length of hospital stay, therapeutic or prophylactic embolization. The technical success rate of the embolization procedure was 100%. There were 15 (41.70%) therapeutic embolizations and 21 (58.3%) prophylactic embolizations. There was a 77.8% clinical success rate. Following embolization, 10 (27.80%) patients had repeated bleeding and 9 (25.0%) patients died. Significant associations were found between rebleeding and prophylactic embolization (OR = 10.53; p = 0.04) and between mortality and prophylactic embolization (OR = 10.53; p = 0.04) and units of packed red blood cells (OR = 1.25; p < 0.01). In our experience, transcatheter arterial embolization is a safe treatment method for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a possible alternative to surgery for high-risk patients.

  20. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  1. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance.

  2. Gastrointestinal tract spindle cell lesions--just like real estate, it's all about location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal lesions is simplified merely by knowing in which anatomic layer they are usually found. For example, Kaposi sarcoma is detected on mucosal biopsies, whereas inflammatory fibroid polyp is nearly always in the submucosa. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are generally centered in the muscularis propria. Schwannomas are essentially always in the muscularis propria. Mesenteric lesions are usually found in the small bowel mesentery. Knowledge of the favored layer is even most important in interpreting colon biopsies, as many mesenschymal polyps are encountered in the colon. Although GISTs are among the most common mesenchymal lesions, we will concentrate our discussion on other mesenchymal lesions, some of which are in the differential diagnosis of GIST, and point out some diagnostic pitfalls, particularly in immunolabeling.

  3. Small cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract: clinicopathological features and treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Baruch; Tang, Laura H; Shia, Jinruh; Klimstra, David S; Kelsen, David P

    2007-02-01

    Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma (SmCC) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy. To date, fewer than 1,000 cases have been reported, with an estimated prevalence of 0.1% to 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tumors. Data on the disease are scarce due to its rarity and the fact that most authors have focused on one site within the GIT. In light of the limited data and its perceived similarity to SmCC of the lung, the disease has usually been treated as the latter. Nevertheless, recent clinicopathologic and molecular data imply several differences between the two entities, questioning the extent to which extrapolations from one to the other can be made. We review the available data on GI SmCC with emphasis on outlining its clinicopathologic features and the recommended treatment approach.

  4. Carcinoids tumors of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.M.R. de; Prais, M.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen cases of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract have been analyzed. They have been selected at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, taking into account patients, age and sex, lesions' location and size, clinical manifestations, presence of metastases as well as a classical carcinoid syndrome establisment. Carcinoid tumors come from the digestive tract 'argenta fim'' cells, the ones which produce endocrines. Such endocrines are responsible for a great number of clinical manifestations. The classical syndrome is directly related to the presence of hepatic metastases. The authors propose to correlate what has been found with descriptions in medical literature emphasizing the radiographic aspects which have been observed. A frequent ''apendicular'' location and the difficulty of giving a precise diagnosis before surgery is also emphasized. (author) [pt

  5. [Gastrointestinal bleeding--concepts of surgical therapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoefel, W T; Rehders, A

    2006-02-01

    Bleeding of the upper gastrointestinal tract is the main symptom of a variety of possible conditions and still results in considerable mortality. Endoscopy is the first diagnostic modality, enabling rapid therapeutic intervention. In case of intractable or relapsing bleeding, surgery is often inevitable. However, emergency operations result in significantly higher mortality rates. Therefore the option of early elective surgical intervention should be considered for patients at increased risk of relapsing bleeding. If bleeding is symptomatic due to a complex underlying condition such as hemosuccus pancreaticus or hemobilia, angiography is now recognized as the definitive investigation. Angiographic hemostasis can be achieved in most cases. Due to the underlying condition, surgical management still remains the mainstay in treating these patients. This paper reviews surgical strategy in handling upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  6. Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing tumors that originate in the neuroendocrine cells in the GI tract. Find evidence-based information on gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors treatment and research.

  7. Smoothelin expression in the gastrointestinal tract: implication in colonic inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Owen T M; Chiles, Lauren; Levy, Mary; Zhai, Jing; Yerian, Lisa M; Xu, Haodong; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Soffer, Edy E; Conklin, Jeffrey L; Dhall, Deepti; Kahn, Melissa E; Balzer, Bonnie L; Amin, Mahul B; Wang, Hanlin L

    2013-10-01

    Colonic inertia is a frustrating motility disorder to patients, clinicians, and pathologists. The pathogenesis is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) characterize the expression of smoothelin, a novel smooth muscle-specific contractile protein expressed only by terminally differentiated smooth muscle cells, in the normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract; and (2) determine whether smoothelin is aberrantly expressed in patients with colonic inertia. A total of 57 resections of the normal GI tract (distal esophagus to left colon) were obtained from patients without GI motor dysfunction. Sixty-one colon resections were obtained from patients with a clinical diagnosis of colonic inertia. Smoothelin immunostaining was conducted on full-thickness tissue sections. In the nondysmotile controls, strong and diffuse cytoplasmic staining for smoothelin was observed in both the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis propria (MP) throughout the entire GI tract. The muscularis mucosae (MM) and muscular vessel walls were either completely negative or only patchily and weakly stained. The 1 exception to this pattern was observed in the distal esophagus, in which the MM was also diffusely and strongly stained. In cases with colonic inertia, a moderate to marked reduction of smoothelin immunoreactivity was observed in 15 of 61 (24.6%) colon resections, selectively seen in the outer layer of the MP. The data demonstrate that smoothelin is differentially expressed in the MP and MM of the normal GI tract and suggest that defective smoothelin expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of colonic inertia in a subset of patients.

  8. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Autoradiography using 125 I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat

  9. Review of the gastrointestinal tract: from macro to micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kathleen K; Wickham, Rita

    2009-02-01

    To review the normal anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the malignant transformations in GI cancers, and the rationale for targeted therapy for these cancers. Published articles, book chapters and web sources. Oncology nurses require an understanding of normal GI anatomy and physiology, along with an understanding of malignant transformations at the cellular and molecular level, to effectively educate and care for the patient with a diagnosis of a GI cancer. Challenges for the oncology nurse include continuing education related to GI cancer, the development of effective patient education skills, ensuring safe administration of oral agents and remaining current regarding GI clinical trial opportunities. Education of nursing colleagues, development of an area of expertise through specialization, and development of leadership skills are opportunities associated with practicing in the dynamic environment of oncology nursing.

  10. Imaging and intervention in the gastrointestinal tract in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Robin D; Towbin, R B

    2002-09-01

    Vascular and interventional techniques have become an integral component of modern pediatric healthcare. Minimally invasive procedures of the gastrointestinal tract now comprise a large part of any active pediatric interventional practice. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography offers a reliable, non-invasive means to evaluate patients with possible pancreatic or biliary pathology. This article reviews treatment of esophageal strictures and placement of gastronomy and gastrojejunostomy tubes and discusses new developments. Placement of percutaneous cecostomy tubes is a relatively new procedure that creatively uses the techniques developed for placement of percutaneous gastronomy tubes. This procedure offers significant benefits and lasting positive lifestyle changes for patients suffering from fecal incontinence. Liver biopsy in high-risk patients can be performed safely using measures designed to significantly decrease the risk of post-biopsy hemorrhage, such as track embolization or the transjugular approach.

  11. Sonographic identification of drug containers in the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzen, G.; Banning, S.; Guenther, R.

    1987-01-01

    A 'body-pack' is a swallowed plastic or rubber container used by drug smugglers to carry drugs. We report our experience in diagnoses of such packs in vivo. We simulated the pack by stuffing a fingerstall of a latex handglove with a mixture of 10% barium powder and flour to render it radiopaque. Eight serial examinations were made. In each series, an adult Alsatian dog was fed upto 10 such 'body-packs'. The passage of these packs through the gastrointestinal tract was followed at 2, 24 and 48 hours postprandially. Immediately after each sonographic localisation of 'body-pack' was made, an X-ray examination of the abdomen in this region was also carried out. Ultrasound correctly determined the position of the 'body-pack' in 20 out of 24 examinations as compared to X-ray results. In 4 cases ultrasound could not confirm the location of the 'pack'. (orig.) [de

  12. Stenting of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Sabharwal, Tarun; Adam, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Colon obstruction due to colorectal cancer is a major surgical emergency. Patients with acute bowel obstruction are usually poor surgical candidates with 10–20% operative mortality and 40–50% operative morbidity rates. Colorectal stenting is an image-guided, minimally invasive procedure, and typical indications include either palliation of inoperable malignant disease or temporary bowel decompression as a bridge to surgery. Colorectal stenting allows the patient to recover before definite elective surgical resection, reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, overall hospital stay, and associated health care costs. Palliative stenting improves quality of life compared to surgery. A concise review is provided of contemporary stenting practice of the lower gastrointestinal tract, the colon in particular, and both palliative and preoperative adjuvant procedures are evaluated in terms of relevant patient oncology, insertion technique, available stent designs, technical and clinical outcomes, associated complications, and cost–benefit analysis.

  13. Foreign Material in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Cocaine Packets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurten Turkel Kucukmetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smuggling drugs by swallowing or inserting into a body cavity is not only a serious and growing international crime, but can also lead to lethal medical complications. The most common cause of death in ‘body packers', people transporting drugs by ingesting a packet into the gastrointestinal tract, is acute drug toxicity from a ruptured packet. However, more than 30 years after the initial report of body packing, there is still no definitive treatment protocol for the management of this patient group. The treatment strategy is determined according to the particular condition of the patient and the clinical experience of the treatment center. Surgical intervention is also less common now, due to both the use of improved packaging materials among smugglers and a shift towards a more conservative medical approach. Herein, we report a case of toxicity from ingested packets of cocaine that leaked and, despite surgery, resulted in exitus of the patient.

  14. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  15. Impact of Oat-Based Products on Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staka Aiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat is rich in valuable nutrients. In comparison to other cereals, oat contains more total proteins, carbohydrate, fat, non-starch fibre, as well as unique antioxidants (one of them - avenanthramides, vitamins, and minerals. One of the most often studied components of oats is β-glucan - a type of soluble dietary fibre located throughout the starch endosperm, but with highest concentration in the bran. Many studies have shown the beneficial health effects of oat β-glucan as a soluble dietary fibre. Until now, most of the studies on this nutrient have been conducted in the cardiovascular and diabetology field. This article aimed to review the literature on studies that investigated the effects of oat-based products on human gastrointestinal tract - gastrointestinal microflora, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease as well as prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed database. More than 80 potential articles were identified, which were selected afterwards according to aims of our study. Studies done on human were preferred. A long-term dietary intake of oat-based products improves human intestinal microflora, could have benefits in irritable bowel syndrome, and probable effects were seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, but this remains to be proven. There are few studies regarding prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer and they do not show clear benefit nor provide recommendations.

  16. Obesity and the gastrointestinal tract: you are what you eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, M Michael; Boylan, Michael O

    2014-01-01

    Obesity represents a complex multifactorial syndrome that develops from interactions among genetic and environmental factors and is a leading cause of illness and death. The prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased dramatically since 1975. Although often ignored, the gastrointestinal tract, and the gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in particular, constitutes an ideal starting point for defining and investigating obesity as it represents the route by which all nutrients are ingested, processed, and absorbed. Another important factor to consider when evaluating the etiology of obesity is the capacity for all animals to store nutrients. Insulin is the most potent anabolic hormone, and it appears to have evolved from the need to maximize energy efficiency, obviating the requirement to continuously forage for food. Organisms expressing this important peptide possessed a distinct survival advantage and flourished. During the course of evolution, insulin biosynthesis translocated from the intestine to pancreatic islets, which necessitated a messenger from the intestine to complete the "enteroinsular axis." The eventual development of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and other incretins fulfilled this requirement. GIP appears to offer an additional survival benefit by not only stimulating intestinal glucose transport and maximally releasing insulin to facilitate nutrient storage but also by its insulin-mimetic properties, including enhanced uptake of glucose by adipocytes. This physiological redundancy offered by insulin and GIP ensured the survival of organisms during times when food was scarce. As food is no longer scarce, at least in the West, this survival advantage appears to have contributed to the current obesity epidemic.

  17. The nutritional management of gastrointestinal tract disorders in companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilford, W G; Matz, M E

    2003-12-01

    Dietary protein, carbohydrates, fats and fibre have marked influences on gastrointestinal tract function and dysfunction. This article reviews the nutritional management of common gastrointestinal disorders in companion animals and introduces some of the current areas of research including probiotics, prebiotics, protein-hydrolysate diets, immunonutrition and dietary fibre. Nutritional management of oesophageal disease revolves around varying the consistency of the diet and feeding the animal from an elevated container. Provision of bowel rest remains the mainstay of the management of acute gastroenteritis but food-based oral rehydration solutions are a useful adjunct. The recommended diet for chronic small bowel diarrhoea is a highly digestible, hypoallergenic, gluten-free, low-lactose and low-fat diet with modest amounts of fermentable fibre. The use of probiotics in the management of diarrhoea in companion animals has not yet been shown to be beneficial. It is likely that prebiotics will prove more effective than probiotics in the prevention of enteropathogenic infections. Approximately 50% of cats in New Zealand that suffer from chronic idiopathic vomiting or diarrhoea will respond to a novel-protein-elimination diet and approximately 30% meet the diagnostic criteria for food sensitivity. Growing evidence supports the use of protein-hydrolysate diets in the management of inflammatory bowel disease and further advances in immunonutrition are expected. The dietary management of colitis should include a hypoallergenic diet with a fermentable fibre source. Manipulation of the diet provides clinicians a powerful therapeutic strategy to be used alone or concurrently with drug therapy in the management of gastrointestinal disorders.

  18. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors; Diagnostik bei Tumoren im Gastrointestinaltrakt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1998-07-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  19. Synchronous Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor and Colon Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

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    Thivi Vasilakaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs represent the majority of primary mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They are generally considered to be solitary tumors and therefore the synchronous occurrence with other primary malignancies of gastrointestinal track is considered a rare event. Here we present the case of a 75-year-old man admitted to our hospital with a 10-day history of gastrointestinal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerative mass of 4 cm in diameter in the ascending colon. Gastroscopy revealed a bulge in the gastric body measuring 1 cm in diameter with normal overlying mucosa. Surgical intervention was suggested and ileohemicolectomy with regional lymph node resection along with gastric wedge resection was performed. Pathologic examination of the ascending colon mass showed an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma stage III B (T3N1M0. Grossly resected wedge of stomach showed a well circumscribed intramural tumor which microscopically was consistent with essentially benign gastrointestinal stromal tumor (according to Miettinen criteria. The patient did not receive additional treatment. Two years later the patient showed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  20. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  1. Imatinib and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST: a selective targeted therapy Imatinib y tumor del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST: un tratamiento selectivo frente a una diana molecular

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    A. Fernández

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. They originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal and are characterized by an anomalous receptor for a growth factor with tyrosine-kinase activity (c-kit. This anomaly causes a permanent activation of the receptor and uncontrolled cell growth. These tumors show a poor response to traditional chemotherapy drugs, and are thus associated with low survival in cases of advanced disease. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an example of selective targeted oncologic therapy that induces improved survival in these patients. We discuss two cases of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors with a good response to imatinib, and also review the pathophysiology and treatment-related outcome of this type of tumors. We include results from clinical phase-III studies.Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal son los tumores mesenquimales más frecuentes del tracto digestivo y se originan de las células intersticiales de Cajal. Se caracterizan por presentar un receptor para el factor de crecimiento con actividad tirosin kinasa (c-kit anómalo que condiciona su activación permanente y un crecimiento celular incontrolado. Tienen una baja supervivencia en casos de enfermedad avanzada, con escasa respuesta a los agentes quimioterápicos tradicionales. El imatinib es un fármaco inhibidor de la tirosín kinasa y un ejemplo de terapia oncológica selectiva que condiciona un importante aumento en la supervivencia de estos pacientes. Se presentan 2 casos de enfermedad metastásica con buena respuesta a imatinib, así como una revisión sobre la fisiopatología y evolución en el tratamiento de este tipo de tumores, incluyendo resultados de estudios en fase III.

  2. Flushing Disorders Associated with Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Part 1, Neuroendocrine Tumors, Mast Cell Disorders and Hyperbasophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Singh, Devina; Mazza, Joseph J; Yang, Dennis; Parajuli, Dipendra; Yale, Steven H

    2018-04-12

    Flushing is the subjective sensation of warmth accompanied by visible cutaneous erythema occurring throughout the body with a predilection for the face, neck, pinnae, and upper trunk where the skin is thinnest and cutaneous vessels are superficially located and in greatest numbers. Flushing can be present in either a wet or dry form depending upon whether neural-mediated mechanisms are involved. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in wet flushing, accompanied by diaphoresis, due to concomitant stimulation of eccrine sweat glands. Wet flushing is caused by certain medications, panic disorder and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). Vasodilator mediated flushing due to the formation and release of a variety of biogenic amines, neuropeptides and phospholipid mediators such as histamine, serotonin and prostaglandins respectively, typically presents as dry flushing where sweating is characteristically absent. Flushing occurring with neuroendocrine tumors accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms is generally of the dry flushing variant, which may be an important clinical clue to the differential diagnosis. A number of primary diseases of the gastrointestinal tract cause flushing, and conversely extra-intestinal conditions are associated with flushing and gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal findings vary and include one or more of the following non-specific symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. The purpose of this review is to provide a focused comprehensive discussion on the presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation and management of those diseases that arise from the gastrointestinal tract or other site that may cause gastrointestinal symptoms secondarily accompanied by flushing. The paper is divided into two parts given the scope of conditions that cause flushing and affect the gastrointestinal tract. Part 1 covered is neuroendocrine tumors, (carcinoid, pheochromocytomas, vasoactive

  3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of large size, extragastrointestinal localization and different morphological features

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    Shpon’ka I.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of accurate verification of the gastro¬intestinal stromal tumor are relevant today for many reasons. Thus, the histological diagnosis is complicated by the morphological similarity of other gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal neoplasms and by histologicaly different zones within the same investigation. We present the situation with the above issues: the differential diagnosis includes an analysis of morphological criteria and received immunohisto-chemical reactions. Between immunophenotypes of histologicaly different zones principal difference is not revealed.

  4. A pragmatic approach to vasculitis in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Runjan; Serra, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    Although vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an uncommon occurrence, occasionally vasculitis can present as haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia for which a length of bowel is removed. Invariably, the appropriate clinical history is not forthcoming, or vasculitis is not clinically suspected. The purpose of this overview is to provide the practising gastrointestinal (GI) pathologist with a framework to recognise and diagnose vasculitides within the GIT. The classification may be approached by aetiological agent or size of vessel involved; an international consensus group now favours the latter approach. The symptoms that systemic and/or localised vasculitis may cause in the GIT are protean and non-specific. As a result, pathologists examining resection specimens for unexplained haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia should be aware that vasculitis may be a potential cause. Several well-known systemic vasculitides such as polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Churg-Strauss syndrome and granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Wegener's granulomatosis can occur in the GIT. The latter three constitute the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitides. In addition, the so-called solitary organ vasculitis (SOV) can occur in the GIT as the harbinger of later onset systemic vasculitis, and be the cause of the GIT symptoms. In addition, SOV can occur incidentally and coexist with GIT disease such as gallstones or polyps, and there may be no manifestations of systemic vasculitis for years, or not at all. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor masquerading as a lung neoplasm. A case presentation and literature review

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    Papagiannopoulos K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Their incidence in the esophagus is 1%–3%. Never has a GIST been documented to directly invade the lung. We report a primary esophageal GIST with direct invasion into the lung parenchyma, presenting predominantly with respiratory symptoms. We include a retrospective literature review. Although the principle 'common things are common' usually guides our everyday clinical practice, this case emphasizes that rare entities can mimic common pathologies and underlines the importance of having a clearly defined differential diagnostic list which should be meticulously scrutinized.

  6. [Grading of tumors in the tubular digestive tract : Esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläker, H

    2016-07-01

    Grading of tumors located in the tubular digestive tract is an integral component of pathology assessment reports but is subordinate to the histological typing of tumors with respect to the prognostic significance. Tumor grading has not been shown to be an independent prognostic marker for most tumor entities in the gastrointestinal tract; however, it may be relevant for further routine treatment decision making in early Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) stage cancers in which the prognosis for patients is less dominated by advanced tumor spread. Owing to the more favorable prognosis of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that poorly differentiated tumors should be tested and graded as low grade (G1/G2) when microsatellite instability is detected. This recommendation has been integrated into the German S3 guidelines for colorectal cancers. Accordingly, microsatellite instability testing for grading purposes should become routine practice.

  7. The use of metrizamide (amipaque) to visualise the gastrointestinal tract in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Smith, W.L.; Smith, J.A.; Gresham, E.L.; Schreiner, R.; Lemons, J.

    1980-01-01

    Metrizamide (amipaque) has not been used previously as a diagnostic contrast agent in the gastrointestinal tract. Metrizamide is a water-soluble isotonic contrast material having many advantages over barium and existing hypertonic water-soluble agents. There are many clinical situations in children in which metrizamide should be the contrast agent of choice for investigating the gastrointestinal tract. Four neonates are presented in whom barium or gastrografin were absolutely contraindicated. In each case metrizamide gave excellent visualisation of the gastrointestinal tract. It could be followed through the bowel giving excellent visualisation even up to 120h after ingestion. No harmful effects were noted in the four cases studied. (author)

  8. Our experience with unusual gastrointestinal tract duplications in infants

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    Bilal Mirza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classical duplications may present along any part of gastrointestinal tract (GIT from mouth to anus. Atypical or unusual rare varieties of GIT duplications may also occur, but with different anatomical features. Materials and Methods: We reviewed our 5-year record (February 2008-January 2013 to describe clinical profile of unusual GIT duplications in neonates and small infants. Results: Three patients with atypical variety of GIT duplications were managed in our department during this tenure. Two were females and one male. Age was ranged between 11 days and 2 months. All patients presented with massive abdominal distension causing respiratory embarrassment in two of them. In all patients, the pre-operative differential diagnoses also included GIT duplication cysts. Computerized tomography (CT scan showed single huge cyst in one and multiple cysts in two patients. In one patient the CT scan also depicted a thoracic cyst in relation to posterior mediastinum. At operation, one patient had colonic tubular duplication cyst along with another isolated duplication cyst, the second case had a tubular duplication cyst of ileum with its segmental dilatation, and in the third case two isolated duplications were found. Duplication cysts were excised along with mucosal stripping in one patient, cyst excision and intestinal resection and anastomosis in one patient, and only cysts excision in one. All patients did well post-operatively. Conclusion: We presented unusual GIT duplications. These duplications are managed on similar lines as classical duplications with good prognosis when dealt early.

  9. Pharmacological Therapy of Vascular Malformations of the Gastrointestinal Tract

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    Andrew Szilagyi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular malformation (AVM in the gastrointestinal tract is an uncommon, but not rare, cause of bleeding and iron deficiency anemia, especially in an aging population. While endoscopic coagulative therapy is the method of choice for controlling bleeding, a substantial number of cases require additional therapy. Adjunctive or even primary phamacotherapy may be indicated in recurrent bleeding. However, there is little evidence-based proof of efficacy for any agent. The bulk of support is derived from anecdotal reports or case series. The present review compares the outcome of AVM after no intervention, coagulative therapy or focus on pharmacological agents. Most of the literature encompasses two common AVMs, angiodysplasia and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Similarly, the bulk of information evaluates two therapies, hormones (estrogen and progesterone and the somatostatin analogue octreotide. Of these, the former is the only therapy evaluated in randomized trials, and the results are conflicting without clear guidelines. The latter therapy has been reported only as case reports and case series without prospective trials. In addition, other anecdotally used medications are discussed.

  10. A large gastrointestinal stromal tumor of duodenum: a case report

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    Hadi Ahmadi Amoli

    2014-01-01

    Case presentation: The patient is a forty six years old man. He complained of frequent colic pain in left upper quadrant of abdomen for two months before admitting to the hospital. The pain resolved spontaneously after a few hours. This situation almost has been repeated every week. The patient had severe repeated melena and faint for two weeks. As soon as the patient was entered the Sina Hospital in 2012, supportive care was started. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed for him and the bleeding point was detected. Also abdominal and pelvic computed tomography with oral and intravenous contrast was done. Finally the patient was operated on tumor diagnosis in duodenal area according to classic Whipple procedure. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common symptom of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The bleeding is minimal and chronic. It will be progress to sudden and severe bleeding. Diagnosis is done by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy. The large tumors with high mitotic

  11. Respiratory-Gated Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Adjacent to the Gastrointestinal Tract without Fiducial Markers

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    Miu Mizuhata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been reported, but insertion of fiducial markers in the liver is usually required. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of respiratory-gated PBT without fiducial markers for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract. From March 2011 to December 2015 at our institution, 40 patients were evaluated (median age, 72 years; range, 38–87 years. All patients underwent PBT at a dose of 60 to 80 cobalt gray equivalents (CGE in 20 to 38 fractions. The median follow-up period was 19.9 months (range, 1.2–72.3 months. The median tumor size was 36.5 mm (range, 11–124 mm. Kaplan–Meier estimates of the 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local tumor control rates were 76%, 60%, and 94%, respectively. One patient (2.5% developed a grade 3 gastric ulcer and one (2.5% developed grade 3 ascites retention; none of the remaining patients developed grade >3 toxicities (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.0.. This study indicates that PBT without fiducial markers achieves good local control without severe treatment-related toxicity of the gastrointestinal tract for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Studies on the usefulness of negative contrast medium for CT-fatty emulsion-in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Tsuneo; Kameda, Kyoko; Tanaka, Koji; Nishimura, Shigeru; Higashide, Toshiaki [Osaka Police Hospital (Japan)

    1983-09-01

    Investigation was made on the usefulness of negative contrast medium for CT-fatty emulsion-, which is applicable to the whole area of the gastrointestinal tract, in diagnoses of diseases of the stomach, pancreas, colon and the organs adjacent to the three. After the administration of the drug, CT was performed and the thickness of the walls were measured for the normal upper gastrointestinal tract in 50 patients and for the normal colon in 25. The normal gastric walls did not exceed 5 mm and the walls of the colon measured about 2.1 mm. Gastric tumors were projected at 80.4%. Especially, the drug was useful for the early diagnosis of schirrus. The pancreas was more clearly projected in 88.4% of the patients. The reconstruction method using the present drug was useful for the investigation of the relationship between the two organs, the stomach and the duodenum, and the pancreas. When CT was performed on a patient laying this right side on the bed, invasion of pancreatic cancer and gastric antrum cancer into the circumferntial organs could be diagnosed. The drug was useful for the identification of tumors in the colon and intrapelvic lesions. The medium was also given to four patients with colitis ulcerosa and the obtained findings on the wall features were same as those obtained by barium enema. The present drug was little associated with side effects and is considered to be an excellent negative contrast medium for all the gastrointestinal tracts.

  13. Limited stage small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic and prognostic analysis of 27 cases

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    Chunyan Peng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and potential prognostic factors for patients with limited stage small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract. The records of 27 patients with limited stage small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, who all received surgery with lymphadenectomy, were retrieved and analyzed retrospectively. The median age of patients was 60 years old (range 38-79. The primary locations of tumor were the esophagus (74.1% and stomach (14.8%. The rate of preoperative accurate diagnosis (16.7% was low for small cell carcinoma of the esophagus and stomach. 40.7% of all the patients had regional lymph node metastases. Five patients underwent surgery alone, and the other 22 were treated with surgery + postoperative chemotherapy. All patients had disease progression or recurrence. The overall median survival time was 10 months and the 1-year survival rate was 37.0%. Patients who received postoperative chemotherapy had a median survival time of 12 months, which was superior to the 5-month survival of for those who only had surgery (P<0.0001. TNM stage (P=0.02 and postoperative chemotherapy (P<0.0001 were considered as two prognostic factors in univariate analysis. Postoperative chemotherapy was a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P=0.01. The prognosis for patients with limited stage small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract remains dismal, however, postoperative chemotherapy may have the potential to improve the outcome for these patients.

  14. Patients with brain metastases from gastrointestinal tract cancer treated with whole brain radiation therapy:Prognostic factors and survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanne Bartelt; Felix Momm; Christian Weissenberger; Johannes Lutterbach

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To identify the prognostic factors with regard to survival for patients with brain metastasis from primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.METHODS: Nine hundred and sixteen patients with brain metastases, treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) between January 1985 and December 2000 at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg, were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients presented with a primary tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (esophagus: n = 0, stomach:n = 10, colorectal: n = 47). Twenty-six patients had a solitary brain metastasis, 31 patients presented with multiple brain metastases. Surgical resection was performed in 25 patients.WBRTwas applied with daily fractions of 2 Gray (Gy) or 3 Gy to a total dose of 50 Gy or 30 Gy, respectively. The interval between diagnoses of the primary tumors and brain metastases was 22.6 mo vs8.0 mo for patients with primary tumors of the colon/rectum vs other primary tumors,respectively (P<0.01, log-rank). Median overall survival for all patients with brain metastases (n = 916) was 3.4 mo and 3.2 mo for patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms.Patients with gastrointestinal primary tumors presented significantly more often with a solitary brain metastasis than patients with other primary tumors (P<0.05, log-rank). In patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms (n = 57), the median overall survival was 5.8 mo for patients with solitary brain metastasis vs 2.7 mo for patients with multiple brain metastases (P<0.01, log-rank). The median overall survival for patients with a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥70was 5.5 mo vs2.1 mo for patients with KPS <70 (P<0.01,log-rank). At multivariate analysis (Cox Model) the performance status and the number of brain metastases were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival.CONCLUSION: Brain metastases occur late in the course of gastrointestinal tumors. Pretherapeutic variables like KPS and the

  15. Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnostic Complexity and Management Pitfalls

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    Charalampos G. Markakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the esophagus are rare. Case Presentation. This is a case of a 50-year-old male patient who was referred to our department complaining of atypical chest pain. A chest computed tomographic scan and endoscopic ultrasound revealed a submucosal esophageal tumor measuring 5 cm in its largest diameter. Suspecting a leiomyoma, we performed enucleation via right thoracotomy. The pathology report yielded a diagnosis of an esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient has shown no evidence of recurrence one year postoperatively. Conclusions. This report illustrates the complexity and dilemmas inherent in diagnosing and treating esophageal GISTs.

  16. The cryptic plasmid is more important for Chlamydia muridarum to colonize the mouse gastrointestinal tract than to infect the genital tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Shao

    Full Text Available Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, the mechanism by which Chlamydia colonizes the gut remains unclear. Chlamydia muridarum is known to spread from the genital to the gastrointestinal tracts hematogenously. The C. muridarum plasmid is a key pathogenic determinant in the mouse upper genital tract although plasmid-deficient C. muridarum is still able to colonize the upper genital tract. We now report that plasmid-deficient C. muridarum exhibits significantly delayed/reduced spreading from the mouse genital to the gastrointestinal tracts. C. muridarum with or without plasmid maintained similar levels in the mouse circulatory system following intravenous inoculation but the hematogenous plasmid-deficient C. muridarum was significantly less efficient in colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. Consistently, plasmid-deficient C. muridarum failed to restore normal colonization in the gastrointestinal tract even after intragastric inoculation at a high dose. Thus, we have demonstrated a plasmid-dependent colonization of C. muridarum in the gastrointestinal tract, supporting the concept that C. muridarum may have acquired the plasmid for adaptation to the mouse gastrointestinal tract during oral-fecal transmission. Since the plasmid is more important for C. muridarum to colonize the gastrointestinal tract than to infect the genital tract, the current study has laid a foundation for further defining the host pathways targeted by the plasmid-encoded or -regulated chlamydial effectors.

  17. [Nutritional implications of bariatric surgery on the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M A; Moreno, C

    2007-05-01

    Anatomical change in the anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract after bariatric surgery leads to modification of dietary patterns that have to be adapted to new physiological conditions, either related with the volume of intakes or the characteristics of the macro- and micronutrients to be administered. Restrictive diet after bariatric surgery (basically gastric bypass and restrictive procedures) is done at several steps. The first phase after surgery consists in the administration of clear liquids for 2-3 days, followed by completely low-fat and high-protein content (> 50-60 g/day) liquid diet for 2-4 weeks, normally by means of formula-diets. Soft or grinded diet including very soft protein-rich foods, such as egg, low-calories cheese, and lean meats such as chicken, cow, pork, or fish (red meats are not so well tolerated) is recommended 2-4 weeks after hospital discharge. Normal diet may be started within 8 weeks from surgery or even later. It is important to incorporate hyperproteic foods with each meal, such egg whites, lean meats, cheese or milk. All these indications should be done under the supervision of an expert nutrition professional to always advise the patients and adapting the diet to some special situations (nausea/vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, dumping syndrome, dehydration, food intolerances, overfeeding, etc.). The most frequent vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the different types of surgeries are reviewed, with a special focus on iron, vitamin B12, calcium, and vitamin D metabolism. It should not be forgotten that the aim of obesity surgery is making the patient loose weight and thus post-surgery diet is designed to achieve that goal although without forgetting the essential role that nutritional education has on the learning of new dietary habits contributing to maintain that weight loss over time.

  18. Surgical Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Practical Implications of Morphologic and Molecular Heterogeneity for Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charville, Gregory W; Longacre, Teri A

    2017-11-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract, exhibits diverse histologic and clinical manifestations. With its putative origin in the gastrointestinal pacemaker cell of Cajal, GIST can arise in association with any portion of the tubular gastrointestinal tract. Morphologically, GISTs are classified as spindled or epithelioid, though each of these subtypes encompasses a broad spectrum of microscopic appearances, many of which mimic other histologic entities. Despite this morphologic ambiguity, the diagnosis of GIST is aided in many cases by immunohistochemical detection of KIT (CD117) or DOG1 expression. The natural history of GIST ranges from that of a tumor cured by surgical resection to that of a locally advanced or even widely metastatic, and ultimately fatal, disease. This clinicopathologic heterogeneity is paralleled by an underlying molecular diversity: the majority of GISTs are associated with spontaneous activating mutations in KIT, PDGFRA, or BRAF, while additional subsets are driven by genetic lesions-often inherited-of NF1 or components of the succinate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex. Specific gene mutations correlate with particular anatomic or morphologic characteristics and, in turn, with distinct clinical behaviors. Therefore, prognostication and treatment are increasingly dictated not only by morphologic clues, but also by accompanying molecular genetic features. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of the heterogenous molecular underpinnings of GIST, including implications for the practicing pathologist with regard to morphologic identification, immunohistochemical diagnosis, and clinical management.

  19. Absorption and excretion of zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, H [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1975-10-01

    The absorption and excretion of inorganic zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract were compared using /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 203/Hg. A single dose of /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was administered orally or injected intravenously to investigate the distribution, excretion into bile and excretion into feces or urine. Absorption and excretion through the gastrointestinal tract of mice were studied by the tied loop method. Groups of eight mice or rats were used to measure the radioactivity in sample with a scintillation counter. Most of the orally administered /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was excreted into feces and was less absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Absorption rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 203/Hg>/sup 65/Zn>/sup 109/Cd. Intravenously injected /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was escreted into the gastrointestinal tract through the gastrointestinal wall and bile duct, respectively. Excretion rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 65/Zn>/sup 203/Hg>/sup 109/Cd. When comparing the absorption and excretion in each gastrointestinal tract divided into 10 parts, /sup 65/Zn, and /sup 109/Cd were relatively well absorbed from the upper and lower part of small intestine and excreted into the upper, middle, lower part. /sup 203/Hg was relatively well absorbed from the upper, lower part of small intestine and excreted into the stomach and the caecum. The major organs that accumulated absorbed /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg were the pancreas and liver, liver and kidney, kidney and liver, respectively.

  20. Bevacizumab plus capecitabine in patients with progressive advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the gastro-intestinal (GI-NETs) tract (BETTER trial)--a phase II non-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Emmanuel; Walter, Thomas; Baudin, Eric; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Dominguez-Tinajero, Sophie; Bengrine-Lefevre, Leïla; Cadiot, Guillaume; Dromain, Clarisse; Farace, Françoise; Rougier, Philippe; Ducreux, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Gastro-intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (GI-NETs) are chemotherapy-resistant tumours. Bevacizumab, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has shown promising results in several phase II trials of gastro-entero-pancreatic-NETs. We assessed bevacizumab combined with capecitabine, specifically in GI-NET patients. BEvacizumab in The Treament of neuroEndocrine tumoRs (BETTER) was a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, two-group phase II trial. Here we present the group of patients with progressive, metastatic, well-differentiated GI-NETs. Patients Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG-PS)⩽2, Ki-67 proliferation rate <15% and no prior systemic chemotherapy were treated with bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg/q3w) and capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily, orally d1-14, resumed on d22) for 6-24 months. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end-points included overall survival (OS), response rate, safety and quality of life. Of the 49 patients included, 53% were men, median age was 60 years (41-82), primary tumour site was ileal in 82% patients and Ki-67 was <15% in 48 patients and not available for one patient. After a maximum of 24 month follow-up per patient, the median PFS by investigator assessment was 23.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 13.2; not reached] and the overall disease control rate was 88% (18% partial response, 70% stable disease). The 2-year survival rate was 85%. Median OS was not reached. The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were hypertension (31%), diarrhoea (14%) and hand-foot syndrome (10%). The combination of bevacizumab and capecitabine showed clinical activity and a manageable safety profile in the treatment of GI-NETs that warrant confirmation in a randomised phase III trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract | Wright | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximately 50% of athletes will develop gastrointestinal symptoms at some stage in their careers. These range in severity from heartburn to gastro-intestinal bleeding. Fortunately symptoms are usually mild and inconvenient, but in certain individuals they can be incapacitating. It is important to exclude the more common ...

  2. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract in clinically normal alpacas and llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Cebra, Christopher K

    2013-01-15

    To assess the feasibility and usefulness of CT enterography to evaluate the gastrointestinal tract in clinically normal llamas and alpacas. Prospective observational study. 7 clinically normal alpacas and 8 clinically normal llamas. The imaging protocol included orogastric administration of iodinated contrast material mixed with water. Three hours later, helical CT scanning was performed of the entire abdomen with transverse and multiplanar sagittal and dorsal projections before and after IV iodinated contrast agent injection. Both oral and IV contrast agents were well tolerated, and no adverse reactions were observed. Transverse images depicted the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in the short axis; however, dorsal and sagittal projections aided in localizing and differentiating the various gastrointestinal segments, including the pancreas. In all camelids, the wall of the gastrointestinal tract was well differentiated. In all but 2 camelids, all gastrointestinal segments were well visualized and differentiated. In those 2 animals, the cecum was difficult to identify. Good distention of the small intestine was achieved by use of the oral contrast agent. The dorsal projections were useful to identify the pancreas in its entire length. The present study supplied new information about gastrointestinal wall thickness, intestinal diameter, and location of the pancreas and ileocecocolic junction in alpacas and llamas. Multiplanar contrast-enhanced CT was useful to reveal the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and abdominal lymph nodes. The shorter time delay before imaging, compared with the delay with conventional barium studies, makes this technique complementary or superior to conventional radiographic or ultrasonographic studies for evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract.

  3. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ANASTOMOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjani; Amit; Vikram Singh; Rajesh; Jalaj

    2014-01-01

    : Aim of this prospective study to identify the factor which affects the morbidity and mortality of gastrointestinal anastomosis. This prospective study was conducted in G.R. Medical College from November 2012 to October 2013. Our study plan was approved by Ethical Committee of our institute 80 patients were included in this study who underwent gastrointestinal anastomosis whether elective or emergency irrespective of age and gender. A detailed history and relevant preoper...

  4. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism...... with atypical autism, a total of 22 (24.7%) were registered with at least one diagnosis of any disease of the gastrointestinal tract, against 47 of 258 (18.2%) in the comparison group (p = 0.22; odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 0.8-2.6). Without reaching statistical significance, the rate of diseases...... of the gastrointestinal tract was particularly high (odds ratio = 1.2) in those with intelligence quotient autism had about the same frequency of gastric, intestinal and hepatic diseases as had controls....

  5. Artemisia vulgaris pollen allergoids digestibility in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    RATKO M. JANKOV; NATALIJA DJ. POLOVIC; MARIJA DJ. GAVROVIC-JANKULOVIC; LIDIJA BURAZER; DANICA DJERGOVIC-PETROVIC; OLGA VUCKOVIC; OLIKA DROBNJAK; ZORICA SPORCIC; MARINA ATANASKOVIC-MARKOVIC; RATKO M. JANKOV

    2006-01-01

    Chemically modified allergens (allergoids) have found use in both traditional and novel forms of immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Novel forms of immunotherapy include local allergen delivery, via the gastrointestinal tract. This study conveys the gastrointestinal stability of three types ofmugwort pollen allergoids under simulated conditions of the gut. Allergoids of the pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, succinic and maleic anhydride. Gastro...

  6. A Mathematical model for gastrointestinal tract dosimetry, and its application to adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca, G.; Bazin, J.P.; Karhausen, L.

    1969-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the computation of the dose delivered to any level of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of radioactive substances. The same method is used as that proposed by ICRP. The concentration of the radionuclide during the progression of the meal is the central concept of this model. A graph relates the MPC with the radioactive half life of the radionuclide and with any level of the gastrointestinal tract of adults.Soluble and insoluble radionuclides are considered. The case of daughter products is discussed in the Appendix. (author) [fr

  7. A spectroscopic screening of the chemical speciation of europium(III) in gastrointestinal tract. The intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the health risks of lanthanides (Ln) and radiotoxic actinides (An), investigations into the chemical reactions of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. In order to identify the dominant binding partners (i.e. counter ions and/or ligands) of An/Ln in the gastrointestinal tract, a spectroscopic screening was performed by Time-Resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) using artificial digestive juices containing Eu(III), a representative of Ln(III) and An(III). In the intestine, Eu(III) show a strong complexation especially with organic substances of the pancreatic and bile juice like the protein mucin.

  8. Endoscopic clipping for gastrointestinal tumors. A method to define the target volume more precisely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepl, M.; Klautke, G.; Fehr, R.; Fietkau, R.; Pietsch, A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: In many cases it is not possible to exactly define the extension of carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract with the help of computertomography scans made for 3-D-radiation treatment planning. Consequently, the planning of external beam radiotherapy is made more difficult for the gross tumor volume as well as, in some cases, also for the clinical target volume. Patients and Methods: Eleven patients with macrosocpic tumors (rectal cancer n = 5, cardiac cancer n = 6) were included. Just before 3-D planning, the oral and aboral border of the tumor was marked endoscopically with hemoclips. Subsequently, CT scans for radiotherapy planning were made and the clinical target volume was defined. Five to 6 weeks thereafter, new CT scans were done to define the gross tumor volume for boost planning. Two investigators independently assessed the influence of the hemoclips on the different planning volumes, and whether the number of clips was sufficient to define the gross tumor volume. Results: In all patients, the implantation of the clips was done without complications. Start of radiotherapy was not delayed. With the help of the clips it was possible to exactly define the position and the extension of the primary tumor. The clinical target volume was modified according to the position of the clips in 5/11 patients; the gross tumor volume was modified in 7/11 patients. The use of the clips made the documentation and verification of the treatment portals by the simulator easier. Moreover, the clips helped the surgeon to define the primary tumor region following marked regression after neoadjuvant therapy in 3 patients. Conclusions: Endoscopic clipping of gastrointestinal tumors helps to define the tumor volumes more precisely in radiation therapy. The clips are easily recognized on the portal films and, thus, contribute to quality control. (orig.) [de

  9. Extravasation of contrast medium into the gastrointestinal tract following lymphangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, K.; Koga, K.; Tsurudome, H.; Nakano, T.; Hoshi, H.; Yamada, H.; Kawahira, K.; Inakura, M.; Watanabe, K.; Haraguchi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Two cases with roentgenologic findings of extravasation of contrast medium into the stomach and colon following lymphangiography are presented. One is clinically diagnosed as primary intestinal lymphangiectasia; the other as retroperitoneal spread from uterine cancer. The significance of lymphangiography in gastrointestinal or retroperitoneal disorders is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Extravasation of contrast medium into the gastrointestinal tract following lymphangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, K.; Koga, K.; Tsurudome, H.; Nakano, T.; Hoshi, H.; Yamada, H.; Kawahira, K.; Inakura, M.; Watanabe, K.; Haraguchi, Y.

    1981-07-15

    Two cases with roentgenologic findings of extravasation of contrast medium into the stomach and colon following lymphangiography are presented. One is clinically diagnosed as primary intestinal lymphangiectasia; the other as retroperitoneal spread from uterine cancer. The significance of lymphangiography in gastrointestinal or retroperitoneal disorders is discussed.

  11. Diversity of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early days of microbiology, more than a century ago, representatives of over 400 different microbial species have been isolated and fully characterized from human gastrointestinal samples. However, during the past decade molecular ecological studies based on ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences

  12. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    (electrical slow waves of depolarization) of the smooth musculature and are involved in neurotransmission. By integration of ICC functions, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the neuromuscular control of gastrointestinal motility, opening novel therapeutic perspectives. In this article...

  13. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers at Endoscopy in Kano, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer registration in Nigeria is poorly done, this is even so in North-Western Nigeria. It is only of recent that attempts are being made to know the profile of cancers seen in clinical practice in our environment. This study was done to establish the pattern of upper gastrointestinal cancers at Kano, North-Western Nigeria.

  14. Late effects of radiation therapy on the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coia, Lawrence R.; Myerson, Robert J.; Tepper, Joel E.

    1995-01-01

    Late gastrointestinal complications of radiation therapy have been recognized but not extensively studied. In this paper, the late effects of radiation on three gastrointestinal sites, the esophagus, the stomach, and the bowel, are described. Esophageal dysmotility and benign stricture following esophageal irradiation are predominantly a result of damage to the esophageal wall, although mucosal ulcerations also may persist following high-dose radiation. The major late morbidity following gastric irradiation is gastric ulceration caused by mucosal destruction. Late radiation injury to the bowel, which may result in bleeding, frequency, fistula formation, and, particularly in small bowel, obstruction, is caused by damage to the entire thickness of the bowel wall, and predisposing factors have been identified. For each site a description of the pathogenesis, clinical findings, and present management is offered. Simple and reproducible endpoint scales for late toxicity measurement were developed and are presented for each of the three gastrointestinal organs. Factors important in analyzing late complications and future considerations in evaluation and management of radiation-related gastrointestinal injury are discussed

  15. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors from minute specimens: cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular diagnostic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layfield, Lester J; Wallander, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Workup of these lesions includes morphologic study and immunohistochemical and often molecular diagnostic analysis. Historically, these neoplasms had been included under a number of diagnostic categories including leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, schwannoma, and leiomyoblastoma. The lesions that were clearly sarcomatous were difficult to treat and therapeutically refractory to chemotherapeutic agents. Significant progress in our understanding of these neoplasms and our ability to successfully treat them occurred following the discovery that they were immunoreactive for KIT protein and harbored activating mutations in the KIT gene. Many are initially diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) but workup may include mutational analysis to help direct therapy. This review outlines a practical approach to the cytologic diagnosis of GISTs and their molecular workup on small specimens obtained by FNA or core biopsy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    . The biomechanical properties are crucial for GI motor function because peristaltic motion that propels the food through the GI tract is a result of interaction of the passive and active tissue forces and the hydrodynamic forces in the food bolus and remodeling of the mechanical properties reflects the changes...... of the efficacy and safety of new drugs on GI function....

  17. Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep’s health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum of sheep. Methods This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep.

  18. Effect of fermented feed on the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Keuzenkamp, D.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed with pigs to study the inhibitory effect of fermented feed on the bacterial population of the gastrointestinal tract. Results demonstrated a significant positive correlation between pH and lactobacilli in the stomach contents of pigs in dry feed as well as in the

  19. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes that are induced in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Grangette, C.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of environmental niches, including the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Moreover, this lactic acid bacterium can survive passage through the human or mouse stomach in an active form. To investigate the

  20. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer through GIS over 2007-2012 in Kermanshah-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshadat, Sohyla; Saeidi, Shahram; Zangeneh, Ali Reza; Khademi, Nahid; Khasi, Keyvan; Ghasemi, SayedRamin; Gilan, Nader Rajabi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the common causes of disability and mortality in the world. The present study aimed to define the spatiotemporal distribution of gastrointestinal tract cancers using a geographic information system (GIS) over the time period of 2007-2012 in Kermanshah-Iran. The method of studying was descriptive-analytical as well as comparative with gastrointestinal tract cancer patients based in the City of Kermanshah over the time period covered. For data analysis, the GIS and SPSS 16.0 were applied. According to the pathological reports within the space of 5 years, 283 cases of gastrointestinal tract cancer (157 in males, 156 in females) were reported. The performed tests in terms of spatial distribution in the environment of GIS indicated that the disease demonstrated a clustered pattern in the City of Kermanshah. More to the point, some loci of this disease have emerged in the City of Kermanshah that in the first level, 6 neighborhoods with 29-59 cases of this disease per square kilometer and in the second level, 15-29 cases. Gastrointestinal tract cancer demonstrated an ascending trend within the space of 5 years of research and the spatiotemporal distribution of cancer featured a concentrated and clustered pattern in the City of Kermanshah.

  1. "It's a gut feeling" - Escherichia coli biofilm formation in the gastrointestinal tract environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Elio; Cimdins, Annika; Luthje, Petra

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli can commonly be found, either as a commensal, probiotic or a pathogen, in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Biofilm formation and its regulation is surprisingly variable, although distinct regulatory pattern of red, dry and rough (rdar) biofilm formation arise in certain pat...

  2. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  3. Study on the macrometry of gastrointestinal tract of wild west African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and those in domestication end up in animal units of schools and houses of the wealthy individuals. The wild African Senegal parrot population is at risk of extinction due to its high popularity with urban dweller. Despite their high popularity, there is scanty documentation of the anatomical features of its gastrointestinal tract ...

  4. Gastric schwannoma: a benign tumor often misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva S. Shah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from the nerve plexus of gut wall. They present with nonspecific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Preoperative investigation is not pathognomic and many are therefore misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report a rare case of a 37-year old woman who underwent laparotomy for complex bilateral ovarian cyst with resection of gastric-gastrointestinal stromal tumor preoperatively, but confirmed to have a gastric schwannomas postoperatively. This case underscores the differential diagnosis of submucosal, exophytic gastric mass as schwannoma.

  5. Origin and fate of dietary nanoparticles and microparticles in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jonathan J; Faria, Nuno; Thomas-McKay, Emma; Pele, Laetitia C

    2010-05-01

    Humans have evolved with oral exposure to dietary microparticles and nanoparticles as a normal occurrence but the ever-growing exploitation of nanotechnology is likely to increase exposure further, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, unlike the situation with respirable particles, relatively little is known about gastrointestinal intake and handling of nanoparticles. With a long term interest in gut exposure and responses to dietary microparticles, our group is now applying its expertise to nanoparticles in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we aim to address (i) the current challenges associated with the characterisation of particle-host or particle-cell interactions, (ii) the origin and mechanisms of uptake of particles in the gastrointestinal tract, especially via the Peyer's patch and (iii) potential cellular effects of nanoparticles in the generation of reactive oxygen species and inflammasome activation, or microparticles in their adjuvant activity in pro-inflammatory signalling and immune responsiveness. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT FUNCTION IN INFANTS: THE PROBLEM AND THE ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the modern opinion on the problem of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract, which are peculiar to infants. The peculiarities of nutrition and intestinal microbiocenosis in healthy infants are discussed. Authors observe the ways of its correction and propose the principles of a choice of medications, having proven clinical effectiveness in children on early stages of postnatal development. The advantages of natural smectite dioctaedric (Smecta in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal system, acute and chronic diseases in children are presented.Key words: children of early age, gastrointestinal tract, function, nutrition, probiotics, smectite.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:48-54

  7. UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT HEMORRHAGE AND NONSTEROIDALANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs – A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a common cause of digestive tract hemorrhage.Study aims. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the percent of patients taking NSAIDs with upper digestive tract hemorrhage.Type of study. Prospective, analytical.Patients and methods. The study includes patients in which urgent endoscopic investigations of the upper digestive tract were carried out due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1998.Results. 3366 patients were investigated: 1222 women and 2144 men; the average age of our patients was 57.5 years (SD ± 17.1, a 2–97 year span. In 2905 patients (86.3% the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Among our patients 55% were aged over 60 years, 26.7% were older than 80 years. Sequelae of peptic ulcer disease were the most significant cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, in 47.7% of our patients (1387/2905. In the last week prior to bleeding, 19% of patients (552/2905 were taking regularly NSAIDs, corticosteroids, salycilates or anticoagulant therapy at least in single daily dose. The majority of patients, 94.5%, were taking NSAIDs or salycilates. Among NSAIDs they were taking most often ketoprofen, diclofenac or naproxen/ naproxen natrium, less often ibuprofen, nabumeton, etodolac or piroxicam.Conclusions. Upper digestive tract hemorrhage is a serious complication of NSAIDs medication, particularly in older patients

  8. Endocrine tumor of the digestive tract - clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwedziak, K.; Olejniczak, W.; Brichkovkiy, V.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)

  9. Early outcomes of empiric embolization of tumor-related gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with advanced malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, Daniel J; Smith, Tony P; Suhocki, Paul V; Pabon-Ramos, Waleska; Nelson, Rendon C; Desai, Svetang; Branch, Stanley; Kim, Charles Y

    2012-11-01

    To report short-term results of empiric transcatheter embolization for patients with advanced malignancy and gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage directly from a tumor invading the GI tract wall. Between 2005 and 2011, 37 mesenteric angiograms were obtained in 26 patients with advanced malignancy (20 men, six women; mean age, 56.2 y) with endoscopically confirmed symptomatic GI hemorrhage from a tumor invading the GI tract wall. Angiographic findings and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical success was defined as absence of signs and symptoms of hemorrhage for at least 30 day following embolization. Active extravasation was demonstrated in three cases. Angiographic abnormalities related to a GI tract tumor were identified on 35 of 37 angiograms, including tumor neovascularity (n = 21), tumor enhancement (n = 24), and luminal irregularity (n = 5). In the absence of active extravasation, empiric embolization with particles and/or coils was performed in 25 procedures. Cessation of hemorrhage (ie, clinical success) occurred more frequently when empiric embolization was performed (17 of 25 procedures; 68%) than when embolization was not performed (two of nine; 22%; P = .03). Empiric embolization resulted in clinical success in 10 of 11 patients with acute GI bleeding (91%), compared with seven of 14 patients (50%) with chronic GI bleeding (P = .04). No ischemic complications were encountered. In patients with advanced malignancy, in the absence of active extravasation, empiric transcatheter arterial embolization for treatment of GI hemorrhage from a direct tumor source demonstrated a 68% short-term success rate, without any ischemic complications. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of serotonin in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Koza

    2017-12-01

    Description of the current knowledge and conclusions. Serotonin is responsible for some symptoms of carcinoid syndrome. It is the result of higher 5-hydroxytryptamine content in the body. Moreover disrupted serotonin system is found in different gastrointestinal disorders e.g. in gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional heartburn, hypersensitive esophagus, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (both diarrhoea predominant and constipation predominant as well as in inflammatory bowel diseases. Knowledge of changed mechanisms in particular diseases facilitates the optimal choice of treatment. Drugs affecting the serotonin system in gastroenterological clinical practice are useful especially in the case of abnormalities in the brain - gut axis.

  11. The gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier. (orig.)

  12. Gastrointestinal tract as a vehicle for drug smuggling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N.

    1981-10-15

    Four cases of attempts to smuggle narcotics (marijuana, heroin, and cocaine) by swallowing a large number of drug-filled foreign bodies (condoms and capsules) and hiding them from customs authorities in the gastrointestinal canal during transit are described. This is compared with a psychiatric patient who swallowed 48 Vicks Inhalers. Drug smuggling by swallowing condoms or capsules containing narcotics is now a worldwide ethical-legal problem. It also is of therapeutic and prognostic importance as this may lead to such emergencies as mechanical obstruction, rupture of the drug-containing foreign bodies, and life-threatening intoxication of the carrier.

  13. Recent Update of Embolization of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is a frequent complication with significant morbidity and mortality. Although endoscopic hemostasis remains the initial treatment modality, severe bleeding despite endoscopic management occurs in 5-10% of patients, necessitating surgery or interventional embolotherapy. Endovascular embolotherapy is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding that is refractory to endoscopic management. Interventional radiologists need to be familiar with the choice of embolic materials, technical aspects of embolotherapy, and the factors affecting the favorable or unfavorable outcomes after embolotherapy for UGI bleeding.

  14. Gastric Glomus Tumor: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Handa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman was referred to our department because of melena. These symptoms combined with severe anemia prompted us to perform an emergency upper endoscopy, which showed bleeding from an ulcerated 30 mm submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum. A computed tomography scan revealed a homogeneously enhanced mass, and endoscopic ultrasonography identified a well-demarcated mass in the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Because analysis of the possible medical causes remained inconclusive and the risk of rebleeding, laparoscopy-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed after administration of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Histological and immunohistological analysis revealed the tumor to be a gastric glomus tumor. Gastric submucosal tumors remain challenging to diagnose preoperatively as they show a variety of radiologic and clinicopathologic features and are associated with the risk of bleeding upon biopsy, as is indicated in the guidelines for gastric submucosal tumors. Gastric glomus tumors characteristically present with exsanguinating gastrointestinal hemorrhaging that often requires blood transfusion. Additionally, gastric submucosal tumors typically occur in elderly patients; however, this case involved a young patient who was 24 years old. Here, we describe this case in order to identify features that may aid in early differentiation of gastric submucosal tumors.

  15. Radiation injury of the gastrointestinal tract. Pathogenesis, protection and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, V.; Mandel, L.

    1990-01-01

    The review deals in detail with all aspects of the gastrointestinal syndrome following irradiation with various doses. After the action of low doses, 10 to 15 Gy, a fraction of unaffected hemopoietic tissues remains preserved, and spontaneous repair of the intestinal mucosa and survival take place. In the first 24 hours after irradiation, the following symptoms appear: vomiting, anorexia, arterial pressure drop, tachycardia, blockage of gastric secretion, hyperglycemia, blockage of mitoses in the active tissues, increased secretion of urea, etc. In 24 to 72 hours after irradiation, seeming adjustment takes place and depletion of the intestinal mucosa sets in. In 72 hours, edema of the submucosa, hemorrhage and diarrhea appear and depletion of lymphatic tissues commences. The last stage is agony and death. A detailed description is given of the kinetics of the intestinal epithelium and of its changes following irradiation, changes in the resorption and in the enzymatic activity of the intestine and of infections. Changes in the bile are also described. The various methods of treating the gastrointestinal syndrome are discussed; these include a dietary regimen, hypoxia, acholia, temporary ligation of the pancreatic duct, and chemoprotection. (M.D.). 195 refs

  16. Effects of radiation on the human gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.M.; Collins, J.T.; Donowitz, M.; Farman, J.; Sheahan, D.G.; Spiro, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen may damage the digestive tract, the type and extent of injury depending on the dose of the radiation and the radiation sensitivity of the gut. Characteristic early changes are manifest in the mucosa of the gut: for later ulceration, changes in the collagen tissues and particularly in the vascular channels occur. This paper describes and characterizes injuries to the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon. It emphasizes the importance of recognizing radiation-induced damage to the gut which may occur early or late after radiation

  17. Guideline for fluoroscopy of low gastrointestinal tract in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yun Woo; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Mi Jung; Lim, Yun Jung; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Lim, Gye Yeon; Lee, Hee Jung

    2015-01-01

    Although the availability of CT, MRI and endoscopy has resulted in a marked decline in fluoroscopic procedures in adult patients, fluoroscopy remains an important and frequently used procedure in pediatric patients because there is no appropriate choice of diagnostic imaging or treatment modality for certain diseases. The Korean Society of Pediatric Radiology has formulated evidence-based guidelines for fluoroscopy of the lower intestinal tract in the pediatric population (under age 18 including neonates) in order to assist physicians in clinical practice. The guidelines offer standards of examination practice including radiation doses that are as low as reasonably achievable for children under 18 years old, including neonates, for fluoroscopy of the lower intestinal tract, which has typically used relatively high doses. The recommendations of these guidelines should not be used as an absolute standard, and physicians should always refer to methods that do not adhere to the guidelines when those methods are considered more reasonable and beneficial to an individual patient's medical situation

  18. Awareness about causes of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.; Gumgumji, A.A.; Anwar, M.S.; AI-Ahmadi, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge of doctors, nurses, patients and public about the causes of gastrointestinal cancers and dissemination of this knowledge. Subjects and Methods: About 200 doctors, nurses and patients suffering from GIT cancer and general public were selected. Each subject was asked to fill up a proforma designed to assess his knowledge about the risk factors for GIT malignancies. Results: A majority of doctors and nurses had good knowledge about the causes of GIT malignancies. The knowledge of patients and general public was low. Out of all four groups, it was poorest in the patient's group. Conclusion: The difference in the knowledge of medicos and patients/public reflects that medicos should convey this knowledge to the patients in particular and general public in general, which is their responsibility besides medical treatment. (author)

  19. Computerized tomography using water to render the gastrointestinal tract opaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaa, J.; Deininger, H.K.; Georgi, M.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the technical procedure and results of computerized tomography in the examination of various gastrointestinal disorders using water as an oral and rectal contrast medium. The experience gained so far points to the fact that water as a contrast medium is mainly suitable in the preoperative staging of malignant gastric and colorectal tumours. The rectal injection of water further appears to be favourable in investigations for recidivation following deep anterior resection without impairment of the excretory functions. Our own results were contrary to the findings of other authors in that we had no difficulty in visualizing distal sections of the small intestine in patients suffering from Crohn's disease. The use of water as a contrast medium can, however, not be recommended in the presence of intra-abdominal abscesses, ascites or cystic tumours, as such changes cannot clearly be differentiated from intestinal loops filled with water. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Linfomas plasmoblásticos del tracto gastrointestinal en pacientes con sida Plasmablastic lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Avilés-Salas

    2011-12-01

    was to review the clinical-pathologic features of PL of the gastrointestinal tract in 5 patients with HIV/aids disease. We performed a retrospective study of PL of the gastrointestinal tract diagnosed at the National Institute of Cancer at Mexico City, from 2000 to 2009. Clinical and pathological information was obtained and immunohistochemical studies were performed in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV was examined by in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Four male and 1 female were included with a median of age of 29 years. Three tumors involved the ano-rectal area, one tumor the ascendant colon and one tumor the stomach. All tumors were histologically characterized by a monotonous proliferation of large lymphoid cell with plasmablastic features. Tumor cells were CD 138 / MUM-1positive and CD 20 / PAX-5 negative in all cases. EVB genome was detected by in situ PCR in 4 cases. The median of follow-up was 18 months, and revealed that three patients are alive with neoplasm disease and two patients are still alive with no evidence of the neoplasm. Recognition of this entity by pathologists and clinicians is important in order to establish the correct diagnosis and the early treatment of these patients.

  1. Use of diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of gastrointestinal tract duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Katarzyna; Gałązka, Przemysław; Daniluk-Matraś, Irena; Leszczyński, Waldemar; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract duplication is a rare malformation associated with the presence of additional segment of the fetal gut. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review clinical features and imaging findings in intraoperatively confirmed cases of gastrointestinal tract duplication in children. The analysis included own material from the years 2002-2012. The analyzed group included 14 children, among them 8 boys and 6 girls. The youngest patient was diagnosed at the age of three weeks, and the oldest at 12 years of age. The duplication cysts were identified in the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=5), duodenum (n=1), terminal ileum (n=5), and rectum (n=1). In four cases, the duplication coexisted with other anomalies, such as patent urachus, Meckel's diverticulum, mesenteric cyst, and accessory pancreas. Clinical manifestation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts was variable, and some of them were detected accidently. Thin- or thick-walled cystic structures adjacent to the wall of neighboring gastrointestinal segment were documented on diagnostic imaging. Ultrasound and computed tomography are the methods of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Apart from the diagnosis of the duplication cyst, an important issue is the detection of concomitant developmental pathologies, including pancreatic heterotopy.

  2. New developments in management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: regorafenib, the new player in the team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boichuk S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sergei Boichuk,1,2 Jessica L Rausch,1 Anette Duensing1,31Cancer Virology Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia; 3Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and the most frequent single type of sarcoma, at least in some geographical regions. They arise from the interstitial cells of Cajal (or a common progenitor cell. The vast majority of GISTs are characterized by oncogenically activating mutations in the KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA receptor tyrosine kinase genes. This molecular feature has been successfully exploited for therapeutic purposes, and as of a decade ago, GISTs have become the prototype of a solid tumor that can be targeted with small molecule kinase inhibitors. Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec®/Glivec® benefits more than 85% of patients with unresectable and/or metastatic GIST. Unfortunately, the majority of patients develop resistance to imatinib within the first 2 years of treatment and new therapeutic options are needed. Although the broad-range kinase inhibitor sunitinib malate (Sutent® has been the second-line therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration since 2006, it was not until recently (February 2013 that regorafenib (Stivarga® was approved as a third-line therapeutic agent for GIST. This review summarizes the development process of regorafenib for GIST and highlights its biochemical, pharmacologic, and clinical properties.Keywords: gastrointestinal stromal tumors, GIST, regorafenib

  3. HIV-1 infection: the role of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-06-01

    The intestinal mucosa has an important role as portal of entry during mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and during sexual transmission. Tissue morphology and integrity, as well as distribution of relevant cell types within the mucosa, spanning from the oropharynx to the rectum, can greatly influence viral infection, replication, presentation, and persistence. The relative contribution to transmission by cell-associated or cell-free virus is still not defined for the different routes of transmission. Although the main target cells for HIV-1 replication are the CD4+ T lymphocytes, which are rapidly depleted both in the periphery and in the mucosal tissues, dendritic cells, Langerhans' cells, and macrophages are players in each of these processes. The predominant cells involved may differ according to the tract of the gut and the route of transmission. The microenvironment of the intestinal mucosa, including mucus, antibodies, or chemo-cytokines, can as well influence infection and replication of the virus: their role is still under investigation. The understanding of these processes may help in developing efficient prevention strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Non-invasive investigation of the upper gastrointestinal tract using technetium - 99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T V [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)

    1979-01-01

    The use of technetium - 99m in the non-invasive investigation of the upper gastrointestinal tract is discussed with particular reference to the evolution of a method of assessing gastric function or gastric acid secretion non-invasively and to the applications of this method in the investigation of surgical patients with disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The assessment of maximal acid output and the insulin response is described and the use of the test in the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia, hypo- and hyperchlorhydric states, gastric cancer, hiatus hernia and Barrett's oesophagus, coeliac disease, Meckel's diverticulum, and abdominal aortic aneurism outlined. The use of chemicals labelled with this tracer in hepatobilary scanning is briefly described.

  5. PERFORATION AS A COMPLICATION OF THE DIAGNOSTIC UPPER AND LOWER ENDOSCOPY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivailo P. Vazharov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this examination is to evaluate the risk of perforation during endoscopy of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.Patients and methods used: 1210 diagnostic gastroduodenoscopies and 412 colonoscopies of hospitalized patients were performed by two experienced endoscopists for the period March 2007 – March 2012 at MHAT Varna, MMA. The endoscopies were performed without premedication and sedation. The patients were examined for complications of the procedure during and after the endoscopy. One of the most serious complications is the perforation of the oesophagus, stomach or the large intestine.Results: We had no perforations caused by the examination during the 1210 upper endoscopies performed. We had 2 perforations (0,48% from the 412 colonoscopies performed, which were treated successfully surgically.Conclusions: The perforation is a rare but serious complication of the endoscopy of gastrointestinal tract, which can be healed completely.

  6. Interdisciplinary Canadian guidelines on the use of metal stents in the gastrointestinal tract for oncological indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baerlocher, M.O.; Asch, M.R.; Dixon, P.; Kortan, P.; Myers, A.; Law, C.

    2008-01-01

    To provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the appropriate use of gastrointestinal stents for oncologic indications. This document describes the use of gastrointestinal stents by appropriately trained physicians. This document is based on a review of the published evidence and supplemented by consensus expert opinion. Gastrointestinal stenting has been evaluated in terms of technical success, complications, patient satisfaction, clinical outcome, and cost-benefit analysis. This document was approved by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association; approval from the other relevant Canadian societies is pending. Gastrointestinal stenting has a valuable role in the management of the gastrointestinal malignancy. The decision to use such devices should be taken after comprehensive multidisciplinary clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic evaluation. This interdisciplinary Canadian guideline on the use of metal stents in the gastrointestinal tract for ontological indications is based on a scientific literature review and relevant clinical experience. This guideline attempts to define principles of practice for most circumstances, though adherence to this guideline will not, of course, produce successful outcomes in every case. (author)

  7. Interdisciplinary Canadian guidelines on the use of metal stents in the gastrointestinal tract for oncological indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baerlocher, M.O. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: mark.baerlocher@utoronto.ca; Asch, M.R. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Lakeridge Health Corp., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Dixon, P. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Durham Regional Cancer Centre, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Dept. of Oncology, Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kortan, P. [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Medicine, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Myers, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Lakeridge Health Corp., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Law, C. [Dept. of Surgical Oncology, Div. of General Surgery, Sunnybrook HSC, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    To provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the appropriate use of gastrointestinal stents for oncologic indications. This document describes the use of gastrointestinal stents by appropriately trained physicians. This document is based on a review of the published evidence and supplemented by consensus expert opinion. Gastrointestinal stenting has been evaluated in terms of technical success, complications, patient satisfaction, clinical outcome, and cost-benefit analysis. This document was approved by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association; approval from the other relevant Canadian societies is pending. Gastrointestinal stenting has a valuable role in the management of the gastrointestinal malignancy. The decision to use such devices should be taken after comprehensive multidisciplinary clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic evaluation. This interdisciplinary Canadian guideline on the use of metal stents in the gastrointestinal tract for ontological indications is based on a scientific literature review and relevant clinical experience. This guideline attempts to define principles of practice for most circumstances, though adherence to this guideline will not, of course, produce successful outcomes in every case. (author)

  8. Characterizing the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract segments of the Bactrian camel

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jing; Yi, Li; Hai, Le; Ming, Liang; Gao, Wanting; Ji, Rimutu

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial community plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of animals. However, our understanding of the microbial communities in the GIT of Bactrian camels remains limited. Here, we describe the bacterial communities from eight different GIT segments (rumen, reticulum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, caecum, colon) and faeces determined from 11 Bactrian camels using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Twenty-seven bacterial phyla were found in the GIT, with Firmic...

  9. Transmission Electron Microscopy of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Nile Perch Lates niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Namulawa, V. T; Kato, C. D; Nyatia, E; Rutaisire, J; Britz, P. J

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the gastrointestinal tract of Nile perch was described using Transmission Electron Microscopy standard procedures. Investigations revealed the presence of mucous cells, blood vessels and oil droplets plus several nerve cells and muscle bundles in the oral cavity. Further observations revealed columnar epithelial cells in the oesophagus, with a ragged surface, high electron dense cytoplasm, intercellular spaces, mitochondria and mucus granules. The lamina propria of the o...

  10. The peculiarities of combined pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract with allergic dermatoses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The recent studies indicate that one of the causes of allergic dermatoses (AD in children and adults is pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. However, many problems of the emergence of these combinations have not yet been resolved. The purpose of the study was to establish the incidence and the nature of lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT in children with allergic dermatoses. Materials and methods. On the base of the Chernivtsi Regional Children’s Hospital, 40 children with allergic dermatoses combined with the pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract and 20 patients with AD, but without the UGIT pathology, aged 3 to 18 years were examined. A clinical and laboratory studies were conducted twice (routine clinical tests, chamber scratch test with non-infectious allergens during AD remission, as well as fibrogastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound, pH-measuring biochemical blood tests (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutaminetransferase (GGTP, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, identification of H.pylori. Results. It was indicated that out of 40 examined children with AD, 30 (75 % persons had various lesions of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In 10 (25 % children, the functional changes, such as duodenogastral reflex (70 % and failure of the cardia (30 %, were detected. A multiple nature of reflux was observed in 85.7 % of children with chronic gastroduodenitis and in 100 % of children with esophagitis and duodenal ulcer disease. The contamination with H.pylori was detected in 72.5 % of cases. The increased activity of ALT and AST, GGTP, alkaline phosphatase and serum cholesterol was established. Conclusion. In 75 % of children with allergic dermatoses, an organic pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract was diagnosed, thus, a gastroenterological examination should be recommended to all patients.

  11. DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT FUNCTION IN INFANTS: THE PROBLEM AND THE ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED DATA

    OpenAIRE

    N.I. Ursova

    2009-01-01

    The review analyzes the modern opinion on the problem of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract, which are peculiar to infants. The peculiarities of nutrition and intestinal microbiocenosis in healthy infants are discussed. Authors observe the ways of its correction and propose the principles of a choice of medications, having proven clinical effectiveness in children on early stages of postnatal development. The advantages of natural smectite dioctaedric (Smecta) in prophylaxis and t...

  12. Anatomic-physiological schema of the gastrointestinal tract, to be taken in account in determining the levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, C.

    1964-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological data of the gastrointestinal tract of adults and children were summarized in a standard schema, to be used in calculating the levels of radioactive contamination, in the food chain. (author) [fr

  13. The effect of surgery and grade on outcome of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierie, J P; Choudry, U; Muzikansky, A; Yeap, B Y; Souba, W W; Ott, M J

    2001-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are aggressive, rare, and difficult-to-cure gastrointestinal tumors. We believe that the clinical behavior of these tumors can be predicted by reproducible prognostic factors. A retrospective review of all patients (N = 70) with GIST treated at a tertiary care center from 1973 to 1998. Adequate data for evaluation were available for 69 patients. Male-female distribution was 40:29. Median age was 60 years. Median follow-up duration was 38 months. Tumor grade, stage, and histologic subtype at presentation; effect of grade, surgery and adjuvant therapy on recurrence, salvage, and survival. Tumor distribution included 61% in the upper, 23% in the middle, and 16% in the lower digestive tract, with a median tumor size of 7.9 cm (range, 1.8-25 cm). Tumors with more than 1 mitosis per 10 high-power fields constituted 57% of neoplasia in the series. Distant disease at initial visit occurred in 49% of patients. Complete gross resection occurred in 59% of patients. After complete resection, the 5-year survival rate was 42%, compared with 9% after incomplete resection (hazard ratio = 0.27, P<.001). Neither radiation nor chemotherapy demonstrated any significant benefit. Among 39 patients who were disease free after complete resection, 2% developed lymph node recurrence, 25% developed local recurrence, and 33% developed distant recurrences (54% liver, 20% peritoneum). By multivariate analysis the risk of local and/or distant metastases was significantly increased for tumors with more than 1 mitosis and size larger than 5 cm (P<.05). Multivariate analysis in all 69 patients revealed that incomplete resection, age greater than 50 years, non-smooth muscle histological feature, tumor with more than 1 mitosis, and tumor size larger than 5 cm significantly decreased survival. Complete gross surgical resection is presently the only means of cure for GIST. Tumors with more than 1 mitosis and a size larger than 5 cm have an especially poor

  14. Enrichment and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Kiran D; Dar, Mudasir A; Rajput, Bharati P; Kulkarni, Girish J

    2015-02-01

    The cellulolytic bacterial community structure in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Achatina fulica was studied using culture-independent and -dependent methods by enrichment in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Culture-dependent method indicated that GI tract of snail was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae members. When tested for cellulase activities, all isolates obtained by culture-dependent method showed both or either of CMCase or avicelase activity. Isolate identified as Citrobacter freundii showed highest CMCase and medium avicelase activity. Sequencing of clones from the 16S rRNA gene clone library identified ten operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae of phylum Gammaproteobacteria. Of these ten OTUs, eight OTUs closely matched with Enterobacter and Klebsiella genera. The most abundant OTU allied to Klebsiella oxytoca accounted for 70 % of the total sequences. The members of Klebsiella and Enterobacter were observed by both methods indicating their dominance among the cellulolytic bacterial community in the GI tract of the snail.

  15. Enteric Micromotor Can Selectively Position and Spontaneously Propel in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Liu, Wenjuan; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Sandraz, Elodie; Wang, Jianxing; Xu, Tailin; Soto, Fernando; Ramez, Valentin; Wang, Xiaolei; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2016-09-22

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which hosts hundreds of bacteria species, becomes the most exciting organ for the emerging microbiome research. Some of these GI microbes are hostile and cause a variety of diseases. These bacteria colonize in different segments of the GI tract dependent on the local physicochemical and biological factors. Therefore, selectively locating therapeutic or imaging agents to specific GI segments is of significant importance for studying gut microbiome and treating various GI-related diseases. Herein, we demonstrate an enteric micromotor system capable of precise positioning and controllable retention in desired segments of the GI tract. These motors, consisting of magnesium-based tubular micromotors coated with an enteric polymer layer, act as a robust nanobiotechnology tool for site-specific GI delivery. The micromotors can deliver payload to a particular location via dissolution of their enteric coating to activate their propulsion at the target site toward localized tissue penetration and retention.

  16. Impact of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) on surgical decision-making in upper gastrointestinal tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau; Edwin, B; Hünerbein, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is an integrated part of the pretherapeutic evaluation program for patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer. Whether the clinical impact of EUS differs between surgeons from different countries is unknown. The same applies to the potential...... clinical influence of EUS misinterpretations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interobserver agreement on predefined treatment strategies between surgeons from four different countries, with and without EUS, and to evaluate the clinical consequences of EUS misinterpretations. METHODS: One hundred...... patients with upper GI tract cancer were randomly selected from all upper GI tract cancer patients treated at Odense University Hospital between 1997 and 2000. Based on patient records and EUS database results, a case story was created with and without the EUS result for each patient. Four surgeons were...

  17. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from

  18. Survival of gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients in the imatinib era: life raft group observational registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jerry; Walentas, Christopher D; Eickhoff, Jens C; Scherzer, Norman

    2012-03-19

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, prior to routine immunohistochemical staining and the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, were often mistaken for neoplasms of smooth muscle origin such as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas or leiomyoblastomas. Since the advent of imatinib, GIST has been further delineated into adult- (KIT or PDGFRα mutations) and pediatric- (typified by wild-type GIST/succinate dehydrogenase deficiencies) types. Using varying gender ratios at age of diagnosis we sought to elucidate prognostic factors for each sub-type and their impact on overall survival. This is a long-term retrospective analysis of a large observational study of an international open cohort of patients from a GIST research and patient advocacy's lifetime registry. Demographic and disease-specific data were voluntarily supplied by its members from May 2000-October 2010; the primary outcome was overall survival. Associations between survival and prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses, with backward selection at P diligence be taken with "young adults" (aged 18-35 at diagnosis) as pediatric-type GIST may present well beyond adolescence, particularly as these distinct sub-types have different causes, and consequently respond differently to treatments.

  19. Sunitinib in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulet-Margalef N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuria Mulet-Margalef, Xavier Garcia-del-Muro Sarcoma Multidisciplinary Unit and Medical Oncology Department, Institut Català d’Oncologia Hospitalet, IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. In advanced setting and after progression to imatinib, the multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has clearly demonstrated a clinical benefit in terms of response rate and progression-free survival with an acceptable toxicity profile. The recommended schedule for sunitinib administration is 50 mg per day 4 weeks ON and 2 weeks OFF; however, potential alternative schedules are also reviewed in the present article. Several biomarkers have been explored to better select candidates for sunitinib therapy, such as the value of early changes in standardized uptake value assessed by positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, circulating biomarkers, clinical biomarkers such as the appearance of arterial hypertension during treatment that correlates with better outcomes, and the GIST genotype. GISTs with KIT mutations at exon 9 and the so-called wild-type GISTs seem to better respond to sunitinib. Nonetheless, further investigation is required to confirm these findings as well as to understand the mechanisms of sunitinib resistance such as the development of new KIT mutations or conformational changes in KIT receptor. Keywords: sunitinib, GIST, KIT, refractory GIST

  20. The standard diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of gastrointestinal stromal tumors based on guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Toshirou; Blay, Jean-Yves; Hirota, Seiichi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Kang, Yoon-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Although gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are a rare type of cancer, they are the commonest sarcoma in the gastrointestinal tract. Molecularly targeted therapy, such as imatinib therapy, has revolutionized the treatment of advanced GIST and facilitates scientific research on GIST. Nevertheless, surgery remains a mainstay of treatment to obtain a permanent cure for GIST even in the era of targeted therapy. Many GIST guidelines have been published to guide the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. We review current versions of GIST guidelines published by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, by the European Society for Medical Oncology, and in Japan. All clinical practice guidelines for GIST include recommendations based on evidence as well as on expert consensus. Most of the content is very similar, as represented by the following examples: GIST is a heterogeneous disease that may have mutations in KIT, PDGFRA, HRAS, NRAS, BRAF, NF1, or the succinate dehydrogenase complex, and these subsets of tumors have several distinctive features. Although there are some minor differences among the guidelines--for example, in the dose of imatinib recommended for exon 9-mutated GIST or the efficacy of antigen retrieval via immunohistochemistry--their common objectives regarding diagnosis and treatment are not only to improve the diagnosis of GIST and the prognosis of patients but also to control medical costs. This review describes the current standard diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of GISTs based on the recommendations of several guidelines and expert consensus.

  1. Three cases of bone metastases in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Zompatori

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare, but represent the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Tumor resection is the treatment of choice for localized disease. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, sunitinib are the standard therapy for metastatic or unresectable GISTs. GISTs usually metastasize to the liver and peritoneum. Bone metastases are uncommon. We describe three cases of bone metastases in patients with advanced GISTs: two women (82 and 54 years of age, and one man (62 years of age. Bones metastases involved the spine, pelvis and ribs in one patient, multiple vertebral bodies and pelvis in one, and the spine and iliac wings in the third case. The lesions presented a lytic pattern in all cases. Two patients presented with multiple bone metastases at the time of initial diagnosis and one patient after seven years during the follow-up period. This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of the lesions and may help clinicians to manage bones metastases in GIST patients.

  2. Artemisia vulgaris pollen allergoids digestibility in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATKO M. JANKOV

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified allergens (allergoids have found use in both traditional and novel forms of immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Novel forms of immunotherapy include local allergen delivery, via the gastrointestinal tract. This study conveys the gastrointestinal stability of three types ofmugwort pollen allergoids under simulated conditions of the gut. Allergoids of the pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, succinic and maleic anhydride. Gastrointestinal tract conditions (saliva, and gastric fluid were simulated in accordance with the EU Pharmacopoeia. The biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives following exposure to different conditions were monitored by determining the number of residual amino groups with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, SDS PAGE, immunoblotting and inhibition of mugwort-specific IgE. Exposure to saliva fluid for 2 min did not influence the biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives. In the very acidic conditions of the simulated gastric fluid, the degree of demaleylation and desuccinylation, even after 4 h exposure, was low, ranging from 10 to 30 %. The digestion patterns with pepsin proceeded rapidly in both the unmodified and modified samples. In all four cases, a highly resistant IgE-binding protein theMwof which was about 28 – 35 kD, was present. Within the physiological conditions, no new IgE binding epitopes were revealed, as demonstrated by immunoblot and CAP inhibition of the mugwort specific IgE binding. An important conclusion of this study is the stability of the modified derivatives in the gastrointestinal tract of patients, within physiological conditions. The means that they are suitable for use inmuch higher concentrations in local forms of immunotherapy than unmodified ones.

  3. Emergency arterial embolization of upper gastrointestinal and jejunal tumors: An analysis of 12 patients with severe bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandrino, F; Tettoni, S M; Gallesio, I; Summa, M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy of emergency percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with severe bleeding due to upper gastrointestinal or jejunal tumor. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 74 years±14 (SD); range: 54-86 years) with severe bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, with failed endoscopic treatment not eligible for emergency surgery were treated by emergency percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization. The bleeding cause was gastric tumor in 7 patients, duodenal tumor in 4 patients and jejunal tumor in one patient. Procedure details and follow-up were reviewed. Twelve embolization procedures were performed using various embolic agents. Embolization was achieved and bleeding was stopped in all patients. Five patients underwent surgery within the 30 days following embolization. In the remaining 7 patients, no bleeding occurred at 1 month follow-up in 6 patients and bleeding recurred in one patient at 1 month. In this later patient, endoscopic treatment was successful. The results of our study suggest that transcatheter arterial embolization is safe and effective in patients with severe arterial bleeding due to upper gastrointestinal or jejunal tumor. In some patients, transcatheter arterial embolization can be used as a bridge to surgery. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. New Principles In Operating Gastro-Intestinal Tract With CO2 Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobelkin, O. K.; Litwin, G. D.; Smoljaninov, M. V.; Brehov, E. I.; Rjabov, V. I.; Kirpitchev, A. G.

    1988-06-01

    Laser devicea are becoming morn popular in surgery. They are mainly used for controling hemorrages through an endoscope, for radicalevaporating benign and small malignant tumors in esophagus, stomach, colon, and for palliative destruction of inoperable tumors to recanalize the lumen. According, to literature operations on abdominal parenchymal organs with laser are rather seldom. And the operations with laser on hollow organs of digestive tract are being mainly performed in the USSR, and they being rather effective.

  5. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-12-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum γ-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. [Expression of neuropeptide Y and long leptin receptor in gastrointestinal tract of giant panda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qihui; Tang, Xiuying; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Li, Caiwu

    2015-08-01

    To study the expression and distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and long leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the gastrointestinal tract of giant panda, samples of three animals were collected from the key laboratory for reproduction and conservation genetics of endangered wildlife of Sichuan province, China conservation and research center for the giant panda. Paraffin sections of giant panda gastrointestinal tissue samples were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and strept actividin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The results show that the intestinal histology of three pandas was normal and no pathological changes, and there were rich single-cell and multi-cell mucous glands, long intestinal villi and thick muscularis mucosa and muscle layer. Positive cells expressing NPY and OB-Rb were widely detected in the gastrointestinal tract by IHC methods. NPY positive nerve fibers and neuronal cell were widely distributed in submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus, especially in the former. They were arranged beaded or point-like shape. NPY positive cells were observed in the shape of ellipse and polygon and mainly located in the mucous layer and intestinal glands. OB-Rb positive cells were mainly distributed in the mucous layer and the laminae propria, especially the latter. These results confirmed that NPY and OB-Rb are widely distributed in the gut of the giant panda, which provide strong reference for the research between growth and development, digestion and absorption, and immune function.

  7. Linear distribution of nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of tracer lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovcová, Katerina; Langrová, Iva; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Jankovská, Ivana; Lytvynets, Andriy; Borkovcová, Marie

    2008-12-01

    Forty-eight tracer lambs were killed in 2004-2007. The abomasum, duodenum, small intestine (jejunum and ileum), colon and caecum were collected and processed for parasites enumeration and identification-mucosal scrapings of both abomasums and intestines were digested. Out of 48 gastrointestinal tracts examined, all were found to be positive for nematode infection. Seventeen species of gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered: Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Cooperia curticei, Haemonchus contortus, Chabertia ovina, Nematodirus battus, Nematodirus filicollis, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Strongyloides papillosus, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosa, Trichuris skrjabini and Skrjabinema ovis. All species were searched for in the entire gastrointestinal tract. Six species of nematodes were recovered from abnormal sites, naturally in small numbers of lambs as well as in small amounts: Nematodirus battus in the abomasums (6.67% of lambs), N. filicollis in the caecum and in the colon (%4 and 8%, respectively), T. axei in the colon (9.52%), T. colubriformis in the colon (13.89%), T. vitrinus in the caecum (16.67%), in the colon (20.00%) and in the abomasum (3.33%). T. ovis was found in one case in the small intestine.

  8. Influence of pH on Drug Absorption from the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Simple Chemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Raymond J. S.; Neill, Jane

    1997-07-01

    A simple model of the gastrointestinal tract is obtained by placing ethyl acetate in contact with water at pH 2 and pH 8 in separate test tubes. The ethyl acetate corresponds to the lipid material lining the tract while the water corresponds to the aqueous contents of the stomach (pH 2) and intestine (pH 8). The compounds aspirin, paracetamol and 3-aminophenol are used as exemplars of acidic, neutral and basic drugs respectively to illustrate the influence which pH has on the distribution of each class of drug between the aqueous and organic phases of the model. The relative concentration of drug in the ethyl acetate is judged by applying microlitre-sized samples of ethyl acetate to a layer of fluorescent silica which, after evaporation of the ethyl acetate, is viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. Each of the three drugs, if present in the ethyl acetate, becomes visible as a dark spot on the silica layer. The observations made in the model system correspond well to the patterns of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract described in pharmacology texts and these observations are convincingly explained in terms of simple acid-base chemistry.

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux and upper gastrointestinal tract disorders in children with persistent or recurrent respiratory symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urioste, A.; Orellana, P.; Harris, P.; Sanchez, I.; Holgren, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER) and gastrointestinal (GI) dismotility disorders, can coexist in children with persistent and/or recurrent bronchopulmonary symptoms(RBPS) condition that eventually improve or disappear after the treatment of these GI disorders The goal of this study was to evaluated the presence of GER, abnormal esophageal transit, swallowing disorders and lung aspiration in children with RBPS. We performed standard scintigraphic gastrointestinal procedures in 67 children.; 36 boys, with a mean age of 1.75 yrs. (10 days-15 yrs),all of them presented with RBPS, 21 of them associated with GI symptoms and 20 with neurological symptoms. Thirty four out of 67 children (50.74%) had an abnormal scintigraphic finding; single or combined. Swallowing abnormalities was observed in 11 (16.4%), esophageal transit abnormalities was observed in 16 (23.9%), GER in 9 (13.4%) and lung aspiration in 6 (8.95%). 10 children had more than one abnormalities (14.9%). Among the 20 children with neurological symptoms, 75% had an abnormal scintigraphic study versus the 40.4% of children without neurological symptoms. In children with RBPS, abnormalities of gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon; 50.74% in our group, specially in children with neurological symptoms (75%). Scintigraphic procedure is a safe, sensible and non invasive technique that allows the simultaneous evaluation of different parameters of the gastrointestinal motility, in order to detect abnormalities that could explain the clinical features in children with RBPS

  10. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 1. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreyer, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract with all parenchymatous abdominal organs. In addition to the clinical and scientific further development of abdominal radiology, the education of radiologists within this core discipline of radiology is one of the major aims. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. This manuscript focuses on the most recent literature on the diagnosis of the stomach, small bowel, colon and rectum. The review with a focus on the most recent studies published by German radiologists concludes with a synopsis of mesenterial bleeding and ischemia followed by a critical appraisal of the current literature on conventional abdominal radiography.

  11. Effect of hyoscine butylbromide on gastroesophageal reflux in barium studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, R.F.; Mathieson, J.R.; Chipperfield, P.M.; Grymaloski, M.R.; Wong, A.D.

    1994-12-01

    The presence or absence and severity of gastroesophageal reflux before and after intravenous injection of 120 mg Buscopan were evaluated in 112 consecutive patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal examination. The study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan) could artificially induce gastroesophageal reflux during barium examination of the upper intestinal tract. Gastroesophageal reflux was seen in 49 (44%) of the patients. There was no significant difference in the overall occurrence or degree of gastroesophageal reflux before and after injection of Buscopan. The routine use of Buscopan was therefore unlikely to spuriously increase the frequency or degree of gastroesophageal reflux observed on upper gastrointestinal barium studies. The study also showed that Buscopan had a satisfactory antispasmodic effect and few side effects. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Efficacy of deep biopsy for subepithelial lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaicekauskas, Rolandas; Stanaitis, Juozas; Valantinas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1-2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm) by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7-89.7%). The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36) and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm) were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008). Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  13. Treatment of Postoperative Leaks of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract with Colonic Self-Expandable Metal Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Castanheira, António; Martins, Diana; Pinho, Juliana; Araújo, Ricardo; Cancela, Eugénia; Ministro, Paula; Silva, Américo

    2017-07-01

    The use of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) for the treatment of postoperative leaks of the upper gastrointestinal tract is already established. However, there are discrepancies between the relatively small caliber of the esophageal stents available and the postsurgical luminal size, which may determine an inadequate juxtaposition. As colonic stents have a bigger diameter, they might be more adequate. Additionally, stents with a larger diameter might have a lower risk of migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and complications associated with the use of colonic fully covered SEMS (FSEMS) in the treatment of postoperative leaks in critical patients. All patients with postoperative leaks of the upper gastrointestinal tract treated with colonic stents (Hanarostent® CCI) between 2010 and 2013 were retrospectively included. Four patients with postoperative leaks were treated with colonic SEMS. The underlying surgeries were a gastric bypass, an esophagogastrectomy for Boerhaave syndrome, a primary repair of esophagopleural fistula due to Boerhaave syndrome, and an esophagectomy due to esophageal cancer. The leaks were detected on average 17 days after the initial surgery. All patients needed admission to a critical care unit after index surgery. Stent placement was technically feasible in all patients. The median residence time of the stents was 7 weeks, and no complications were verified when they were removed. There were no cases of stent migration. The treatment was successful in all patients, with complete healing of the leaks. The placement of colonic FSEMS seems to be successful and safe in the treatment of postoperative leaks of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Intraperitoneal ectopic infestation of parasites invading through gastrointestinal tract : CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Chul [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun [St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Soo Youn [Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of parasitic ectopic infestation in the peritoneal cavity, a transitional route for parasites invading the gastrointestinal tract, to migrate to various target organs. CT scans of nine patients with pathologically(n=8) or serologically(n=1) proven intraperitoneal involvement of parasitic infestation were retrospectively reviewed. The primary causes of parasitic infestation in nine patients were Paragonimus westermani(n=5), Sparganosis(n=2), and hepatic fascioliasis(n=2). We analyzed the CT findings with regard to the sites and patterns of lesions in the peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal track, as well as in other solid organs. The clinical features of these patients were also evaluated. The clinical symptoms and signs were chronic abdominal pain and general weakness in seven patients, while peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed in four. The CT features of these nine patients included multiseptated cystic masses of 2-6cm, diameter (mean 4.1{+-}1.7cm) in the omentum or mesentery in six(67%), omental or mesenteric infiltration in seven(78%), focal peritoneal thickening in seven(78%), 1ymphadenopathy in five(56%), and ascites in four(44%). In six of the nine patients, the gastrointestinal tract(stomach in four, colon in one, both stomach and colon in one) was concomitantly involved with focal wall thickening. Branching patterns of hypoattenuating lesions were noted in the liver of three patients; two of these had hepatic fascioliasis and one had paragonimiasis. Ectopic parasitic infestation in the peritoneal cavity manifests as mass formation, adjacent gastrointestinal wall thickening, and focal peritonitis. An understanding of these image features is important for both early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  15. Intraperitoneal ectopic infestation of parasites invading through gastrointestinal tract : CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho; Choi, Byung Ihn; Shim, Jae Chul; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Soo Youn

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of parasitic ectopic infestation in the peritoneal cavity, a transitional route for parasites invading the gastrointestinal tract, to migrate to various target organs. CT scans of nine patients with pathologically(n=8) or serologically(n=1) proven intraperitoneal involvement of parasitic infestation were retrospectively reviewed. The primary causes of parasitic infestation in nine patients were Paragonimus westermani(n=5), Sparganosis(n=2), and hepatic fascioliasis(n=2). We analyzed the CT findings with regard to the sites and patterns of lesions in the peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal track, as well as in other solid organs. The clinical features of these patients were also evaluated. The clinical symptoms and signs were chronic abdominal pain and general weakness in seven patients, while peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed in four. The CT features of these nine patients included multiseptated cystic masses of 2-6cm, diameter (mean 4.1±1.7cm) in the omentum or mesentery in six(67%), omental or mesenteric infiltration in seven(78%), focal peritoneal thickening in seven(78%), 1ymphadenopathy in five(56%), and ascites in four(44%). In six of the nine patients, the gastrointestinal tract(stomach in four, colon in one, both stomach and colon in one) was concomitantly involved with focal wall thickening. Branching patterns of hypoattenuating lesions were noted in the liver of three patients; two of these had hepatic fascioliasis and one had paragonimiasis. Ectopic parasitic infestation in the peritoneal cavity manifests as mass formation, adjacent gastrointestinal wall thickening, and focal peritonitis. An understanding of these image features is important for both early diagnosis and adequate treatment

  16. Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of Chernobyl she-minks of different age and immunological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudenko, V.I.; Podgorskij, V.S.; Ryasenko, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative and species characteristics of bacteria and yeast isolated from the food and gastrointestinal tract of she-minks of different age groups and different immunological state have been established. The species composition of bacteria forming the basic and accompanying microflora of small and large intestine of minks is determined. An increase in the quantity of anaerobic (bifidobacteria), microaerophilic (lactic acid bacilli, enterococci) and aerobic (intestinal bacilli) bacteria in the content of the large intestine of minks has been established in comparison with the stomach and small intestine in all examined groups of animals of various age and immunological state

  17. Biodistribution and endocytosis of ICAM-1-targeting antibodies versus nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Viraj Mane,1 Silvia Muro1, 21Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, 2Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USAAbstract: Drug delivery to the gastrointestinal (GI tract is key for improving treatment of GI maladies, developing oral vaccines, and facilitating drug transport into circulation. However, delivery of formulations to the GI tract is hindered by pH changes, degradative enzymes, mucus, and peristalsis, leading to poor GI retention. Targeting may prolong residence of therapeutics in the GI tract and enhance their interaction with this tissue, improving such aspects. We evaluated nanocarrier (NC and ligand-mediated targeting in the GI tract following gastric gavage in mice. We compared GI biodistribution, degradation, and endocytosis between control antibodies and antibodies targeting the cell surface determinant intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, expressed on GI epithelium and other cell types. These antibodies were administered either as free entities or coated onto polymer NCs. Fluorescence and radioisotope tracing showed proximal accumulation, with preferential retention in the stomach, jejunum, and ileum; and minimal presence in the duodenum, cecum, and colon by 1 hour after administration. Upstream (gastric retention was enhanced in NC formulations, with decreased downstream (jejunal accumulation. Of the total dose delivered to the GI tract, ~60% was susceptible to enzymatic (but not pH-mediated degradation, verified both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of peristalsis by sedation increased upstream retention (stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Conversely, alkaline NaHCO3, which enhances GI transit by decreasing mucosal viscosity, favored downstream (ileal passage. This suggests passive transit through the GI tract, governed by mucoadhesion and peristalsis. In contrast, both free anti-ICAM and anti-ICAM NCs demonstrated significantly enhanced upstream (stomach and duodenum

  18. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9+-3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3+-88.9 ng/ml, 62.1+-99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7+-106.7 ng/ml, 69+-84.8 ng/ml, 15.7+-9.1 ng/ml, 7.5+-10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8.8+-11.4 ng

  19. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1983-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9±3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3±88.9 ng/ml, 62.1±99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7±106.7 ng/ml, 69±84.8 ng/ml, 15.7±9.1 ng/ml, 7.5±10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8.8±11.4 ng

  20. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9+-3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3+-88.9 ng/ml, 62.1+-99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7+-106.7 ng/ml, 69+-84.8 ng/ml, 15.7+-9.1 ng/ml, 7.5+-10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8

  1. Absorbed dose to the skin in radiological examinations of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonca, G.; Brusa, A.; Somigliana, A.; Pasqualotto, C.; Sichirollo, A.E.; Bellomi, M.; Cozzi, G.; Severini, A.

    1995-01-01

    Absorbed doses to the skin in radiological examinations of the upper and lower gastronintestinal tract in conventional and digital radiology are evaluated and compared. Absorbed doses were measured with LiF thermoluminescence dosemeters placed on the lower pelvis, umbilicus and forehead of the patient to evaluate the absorbed dose in and outside the primary beam. On 10 patients a reduction in absorbed dose of about 34% for double contrast barium enema and of 66% for upper gastrointestinal tract examinations was revealed with digital radiography equipment. In our working conditions the lower dose requirement for digital radiography is mainly due to image intensifiers and television chains and also, due to our equipment settings, to the dose reduction with digital spot fluorography compared with conventional spot film radiography. (Author)

  2. Helminths in the gastrointestinal tract as modulators of immunity and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varyani, Fumi; Fleming, John O; Maizels, Rick M

    2017-06-01

    Helminth parasites are highly prevalent in many low- and middle-income countries, in which inflammatory bowel disease and other immunopathologies are less frequent than in the developed world. Many of the most common helminths establish themselves in the gastrointestinal tract and can exert counter-inflammatory influences on the host immune system. For these reasons, interest has arisen as to how parasites may ameliorate intestinal inflammation and whether these organisms, or products they release, could offer future therapies for immune disorders. In this review, we discuss interactions between helminth parasites and the mucosal immune system, as well as the progress being made toward identifying mechanisms and molecular mediators through which it may be possible to attenuate pathology in the intestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Expression and Regulation of Drug Transporters and Metabolizing Enzymes in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzik, M; Oswald, S

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered drugs must pass through the intestinal wall and then through the liver before reaching systemic circulation. During this process drugs are subjected to different processes that may determine the therapeutic value. The intestinal barrier with active drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in enterocytes plays an important role in the determination of drug bioavailability. Accumulating information demonstrates variable distribution of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters along the human gastrointestinal tract (GI), that creates specific barrier characteristics in different segments of the GI. In this review, expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the healthy and diseased human GI as well as their regulatory aspects: genetic, miRNA, DNA methylation are outlined. The knowledge of unique interplay between drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in specific segments of the GI tract allows more precise definition of drug release sites within the GI in order to assure more complete bioavailability and prediction of drug interactions.

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors as an incidental finding in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mario; Ramirez, Pedro T; Echeverri, Carolina; Alvarez, Luis Guillermo; Palomino, Maria Alejandra; Pareja, Luis René

    2012-01-01

    To report the clinical presentation and oncologic outcomes of a series of patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass and were diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Data were obtained on all patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass between September 2007 and June 2010 and who were ultimately diagnosed with a GIST. The patients' medical records were reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria. All six patients had a tumor in the intestinal tract arising from the small bowel. The mean tumor size was 12 cm (range, 6 to 22 cm). A complete resection was achieved in five of the six patients. There were no intraoperative complications; one patient had a postoperative complication. Two patients were treated with imatinib after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 32 months (range, 0.3 to 40 months). At the last follow-up, five of the six patients were without any evidence of disease. One patient died of an unrelated hepatic encephalopathy. The incidence in our institution is 3%. GISTs are uncommon; however, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an abdominal or pelvic mass.

  5. Survival of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract with Daily Consumption of a Low-Fat Probiotic Spread▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dommels, Yvonne E. M.; Kemperman, Robèr A.; Zebregs, Yvonne E. M. P.; Draaisma, René B.; Jol, Arne; Wolvers, Danielle A. W.; Vaughan, Elaine E.; Albers, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Therefore, probiotic strains should be able to survive passage through the human gastrointestinal tract. Human gastrointestinal tract survival of probiotics in a low-fat spread matrix has, however, never been tested. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human intervention study was to test the human gastrointestinal tract survival of Lactobacillus...

  6. Survival of gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients in the imatinib era: life raft group observational registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Call Jerry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, prior to routine immunohistochemical staining and the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, were often mistaken for neoplasms of smooth muscle origin such as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas or leiomyoblastomas. Since the advent of imatinib, GIST has been further delineated into adult- (KIT or PDGFRα mutations and pediatric- (typified by wild-type GIST/succinate dehydrogenase deficiencies types. Using varying gender ratios at age of diagnosis we sought to elucidate prognostic factors for each sub-type and their impact on overall survival. Methods This is a long-term retrospective analysis of a large observational study of an international open cohort of patients from a GIST research and patient advocacy's lifetime registry. Demographic and disease-specific data were voluntarily supplied by its members from May 2000-October 2010; the primary outcome was overall survival. Associations between survival and prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses, with backward selection at P Results Inflections in gender ratios by age at diagnosis in years delineated two distinct groups: above and below age 35 at diagnosis. Closer analysis confirmed the above 35 age group as previously reported for adult-type GIST, typified by mixed primary tumor sites and gender, KIT or PDGFRα mutations, and shorter survival times. The pediatric group ( Conclusions Pediatric- and adult-type GIST have been previously characterized in clinical settings and these observations confirm significant prognostic factors for each from a diverse real-world cohort. Additionally, these findings suggest that extra diligence be taken with "young adults" (aged 18-35 at diagnosis as pediatric-type GIST may present well beyond adolescence, particularly as these distinct sub-types have different causes, and consequently

  7. Selection of target mutation in rat gastrointestinal tract E. coli by minute dosage of enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Li, Ruichao; Liu, Lizhang; Guo, Jiubiao; Yao, Wen; Chen, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that bacterial resistance is selected within a mutation selection window of antibiotics. More recent studies showed that even extremely low concentration of antibiotic could select resistant bacteria in vitro. Yet little is known about the exact antibiotic concentration range that can effectively select for resistant organisms in animal gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study, the effect of different dosages of enrofloxacin on resistance and mutation development in rat GI tract E. coli was investigated by determining the number of resistant E. coli recoverable from rat fecal samples. Our data showed that high dose antibiotic treatment could effectively eliminate E. coli with single gyrA mutation in the early course of treatment, yet the eradication effects diminished upon prolonged treatment. Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dose (1/10 and 1/100 of therapeutic doses) of enrofloxacin could effectively select for mutation in GI tract E. coli at the later course of enrofloxacin treatment and during the cessation periods. Surprisingly, very low dose of enrofloxacin (1/1000 therapeutic dose) could also select for mutation in GI tract E. coli at the later course of enrofloxacin treatment, only with slightly lower efficiency. No enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli could be selected at all test levels of enrofloxacin during long term treatment and the strength of antibiotic treatment does not alter the overall level of E. coli in rat GI tract. This study demonstrated that long term antibiotic treatment seems to be the major trigger for the development of target mutations in GI tract E. coli, which provided insight into the rational use of antibiotics in animal husbandry.

  8. Functional modifications associated with gastrointestinal tract organogenesis during metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana S; Kamisaka, Yuko; Harboe, Torstein; Power, Deborah M; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2014-02-19

    Flatfish metamorphosis is a hormone regulated post-embryonic developmental event that transforms a symmetric larva into an asymmetric juvenile. In altricial-gastric teleost fish, differentiation of the stomach takes place after the onset of first feeding, and during metamorphosis dramatic molecular and morphological modifications of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract occur. Here we present the functional ontogeny of the developing GI-tract from an integrative perspective in the pleuronectiforme Atlantic halibut, and test the hypothesis that the multiple functions of the teleost stomach develop synchronously during metamorphosis. Onset of gastric function was determined with several approaches (anatomical, biochemical, molecular and in vivo observations). In vivo pH analysis in the GI-tract lumen combined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) of α and β subunits of the gastric proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) and pepsinogen A2 indicated that gastric proteolytic capacity is established during the climax of metamorphosis. Transcript abundance of ghrelin, a putative orexigenic signalling molecule produced in the developing stomach, correlated (p metamorphosis, and was thus independent of this event. Mechanical breakdown of food and transportation of chyme through the GI-tract was observed in vivo and resulted from phasic and propagating contractions established well before metamorphosis. The number of contractions in the midgut decreased at metamorphic climax synchronously with establishment of the stomach's proteolytic capacity and its increased peristaltic activity. Putative osmoregulatory competence of the GI-tract, inferred by abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase α transcripts, was already established at the onset of exogenous feeding and was unmodified by metamorphosis. The functional specialization of the GI-tract was not exclusive to metamorphosis, and its osmoregulatory capacity and reservoir function were established before first feeding. Nonetheless, acid production and the

  9. Substance P and substance K receptor binding sites in the human gastrointestinal tract: localization by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize and quantify the distribution of binding sites for 125 I-radiolabeled substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) in the human GI tract using histologically normal tissue obtained from uninvolved margins of resections for carcinoma. The distribution of SP and SK binding sites is different for each gastrointestinal (GI) segment examined. Specific SP binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules, myenteric plexus, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, muscularis mucosa, epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the germinal centers of lymph nodules. SK binding sites are distributed in a pattern distinct from SP binding sites and are localized to the external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and the muscularis mucosa. Binding sites for NK were not detected in any part of the human GI tract. These results demonstrate that: (1) surgical specimens from the human GI tract can be effectively processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography; (2) of the three mammalian tachykinins tested, SP and SK, but not NK binding sites are expressed in detectable levels in the human GI tract; (3) whereas SK receptor binding sites are expressed almost exclusively by smooth muscle, SP binding sites are expressed by smooth muscle cells, arterioles, venules, epithelial cells of the mucosa and cells associated with lymph nodules; and (4) both SP and SK binding sites expressed by smooth muscle are more stable than SP binding sites expressed by blood vessels, lymph nodules, and mucosal cells

  10. Non-toxic lead sulfide nanodots as efficient contrast agents for visualizing gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Ran, Xiang; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) tract using novel but efficient contrast agents is of the most important issues in the diagnosis and prognosis of GI diseases. Here, for the first time, we reported the design and synthesis of biothiol-decorated lead sulfide nanodots, as well as their usages in functional dual-modality imaging of GI tract in vivo. Due to the presence of glutathione on the surface of the nanodots, these well-prepared contrast agents could decrease the unwanted ion leakage, withstand the harsh conditions in GI tract, and avoid the systemic absorption after oral administration. Compared with clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agents, these nanodots exhibited much more significant enhancement in contrast efficiency during both 2D X-ray imaging and 3D CT imaging. Different from some conventional invasive imaging modalities, such as gastroscope and enteroscope, non-invasive imaging strategy by using glutathione modified PbS nanodots as contrast agents could reduce the painfulness towards patients, facilitate the imaging procedure, and economize the manipulation period. Moreover, long-term toxicity and bio-distribution of these nanodots after oral administration were evaluated in detail, which indicated their overall safety. Based on our present study, these nanodots could act as admirable contrast agents to integrate X-ray imaging and CT imaging for the direct visualization of GI tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression pattern of the homeotic gene Bapx1 during early chick gastrointestinal tract development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sandrine; Georges, Maxime; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Regulation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway is essential for the normal development of vertebrate gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but also for the differentiation of the digestive mesenchymal layer into smooth muscles and submucosal layer. Different studies demonstrated that Bapx1 (for bagpipe homeobox homolog 1) negatively regulates the BMP pathway, but its precise expression pattern during the development and the differentiation of the GI tract mesenchyme actually remains to be examined. Here, we present the spatio-temporal expression profile of Bapx1 in the chick GI tract. We show that Bapx1 is first expressed in the undifferentiated mesenchyme of the gizzard and the colon. After the differentiation of the digestive mesenchyme, we found Bapx1 strongly expressed in the gizzard smooth muscle and in the submucosa layer of the colon. This expression pattern provides new insights into the roles of Bapx1 during the regionalization of the GI tract and the differentiation of the digestive mesenchyme of the colon and the stomach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances and Challenges on Management of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs originate from interstitial cells of Cajal and account for over 5,000 newly diagnosed cases in the United States. The discovery of activated KIT and PDGFRA mutations and introduction of imatinib revolutionized the treatment strategy and opened up the new era of target therapy for solid tumors. Although surgery remains the primary modality of treatment for curative purpose, almost half of the patients experienced disease recurrence. Tailoring (neo-adjuvant treatment with imatinib is ongoing to meet the need for an effective therapy. Currently, two drugs (sunitinib and regorafenib have obtained Food and Drug Administration approval for GISTs after imatinib failure. However, most of the patients eventually progress due to primary or secondary resistance. Deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms will guide us to develop personalized strategies in the future. Discussion in this review includes current standard management and the most recent advances and multiple ongoing clinical trials with different approaches. This review will provide further steps to be taken to conquer refractory disease.

  13. Effect of Antifungal Treatment in a Diet-Based Murine Model of Disseminated Candidiasis Acquired via the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Olivo, Marcos; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans, normally found as a commensal in the gut, is a major human fungal pathogen responsible for both mucosal and systemic infections in a wide variety of immunocompromised individuals, including cancer patients and organ transplant recipients. The gastrointestinal tract represents a major portal of entry for the establishment of disseminated candidiasis in many of these individuals. Here we report the development of a diet-based mouse model for disseminated candidiasis acquired via the gastrointestinal tract. Using this model, as well as an appropriate immunosuppression regimen, we demonstrate that dissemination of C. albicans from the gastrointestinal tract can result in mortality within 30 days postinfection. We also show a significant increase in fungal burden in systemic organs, but not gastrointestinal tract organs, upon immunosuppression. Importantly, we demonstrate that the administration of two widely used antifungals, fluconazole and caspofungin, either pre- or postimmunosuppression, significantly reduces fungal burdens. This model should prove to be of significant value for testing the ability of both established and experimental therapeutics to inhibit C. albicans dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract in an immunocompromised host as well as the subsequent mortality that can result from disseminated candidiasis. PMID:27572393

  14. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G 1 (IgG 1 ) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, 125 I-labelled bovine IgG 1 anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of 125 I-IgG 1 from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of 125 I-IgG 1 appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal 125 I-IgG 1 excretion, and (2) by the amount of 125 I-IgG 1 in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity

  15. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G/sub 1/ (IgG/sub 1/) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, /sup 125/I-labelled bovine IgG/sub 1/ anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ excretion, and (2) by the amount of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity.

  16. Biokinetic modelling development and analysis of arsenic dissolution into the gastrointestinal tract using SAAM II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perama, Yasmin Mohd Idris; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2018-04-01

    A mathematical model comprising 8 compartments were designed to describe the kinetic dissolution of arsenic (As) from water leach purification (WLP) waste samples ingested into the gastrointestinal system. A totally reengineered software system named Simulation, Analysis and Modelling II (SAAM II) was employed to aid in the experimental design and data analysis. As a powerful tool that creates, simulate and analyze data accurately and rapidly, SAAM II computationally creates a system of ordinary differential equations according to the specified compartmental model structure and simulates the solutions based upon the parameter and model inputs provided. The experimental design of in vitro DIN approach was applied to create an artificial gastric and gastrointestinal fluids. These synthetic fluids assay were produced to determine the concentrations of As ingested into the gastrointestinal tract. The model outputs were created based upon the experimental inputs and the recommended fractional transfer rates parameter. As a result, the measured and predicted As concentrations in gastric fluids were much similar against the time of study. In contrast, the concentrations of As in the gastrointestinal fluids were only similar during the first hour and eventually started decreasing until the fifth hours of study between the measured and predicted values. This is due to the loss of As through the fractional transfer rates of q2 compartment to corresponding compartments of q3 and q5 which are involved with excretion and distribution to the whole body, respectively. The model outputs obtained after best fit to the data were influenced significantly by the fractional transfer rates between each compartment. Therefore, a series of compartmental model created with the association of fractional transfer rates parameter with the aid of SAAM II provides better estimation that simulate the kinetic behavior of As ingested into the gastrointestinal system.

  17. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Leonardo Lopes de; Torres, Lucas Rios; Faucz, Rafael Artigas; Tornin, Olger de Souza; Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Fonseca, Carlos Alberto Marcovechio

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common mesenchymal tumors and are characterized by expression of KIT (CD117), a tyrosine-kinase growth factor receptor. They occur in individuals over 50 years of age and commonly arise in stomach or in the small intestine. To emphasize our paper we report a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor that showed the typical image and pathologic findings of the primary lesion and its metastases. (author)

  18. [Cocaine smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract--the case report with the review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Hydzik, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Body-packing is the way of psychoactive substances smuggling by swallowing of carefully prepared packages with drugs into the gastrointestinal tract or by insertion them into the vagina or the rectum, especially in order to avoid finding them by the custom service. Cocaine, as well as opiates, is the one of the most often smuggled drugs by so called body-packers. In the present study the first case of the body-packer from Malopolska region in Poland, who was observed in the Toxicology Department of the Collegium Medicum UJ, was described. The 29-year-old man swallowed 60 packages containing cocaine with a total net weight of about 500 grams. The plain abdominal radiography revealed multiple shadows of foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract, but the results of blood and urine cocaine measurements were negative. During the 37-hours stay in our department the patient was monitored (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature), laxatives and oral fluids were administered. All the packages were evacuated through the natural way and it was followed up by the control abdominal radiography. No symptoms of acute cocaine intoxication or any other complications were observed. According to the case there is also the thorough review of literature presented including the kinds of body-packing, the diagnostic methods used in recognizing of body-packers and the ways of their treatment taking into consideration the conservative management as well as surgical methods.

  19. Apparition of iodinated contrast agents in twin neonatal gastrointestinal tracts after maternal contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kato, Zenichiro; Kondo, Naomi; Orii, Kenji E.; Morimoto, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of the appearance of iodinated contrast agents in the same locations of twins' neonatal gastrointestinal tracts 1 day after maternal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT examination had been performed on the expectant mother for suspected deep venous thrombosis on the day previous to the twin delivery. At 23 h after the CT examination and after cesarean section, iodinated contrast agents appeared in the same place in the twins' neonatal gastrointestinal tracts, mainly in the ascending colon, on plain abdominal radiographs. Radiologists, obstetricians, and pediatricians should understand the mechanism of appearance of iodinated contrast agents in fetal gastrointestinal tracts when the expectant mother had been given iodinated contrast agents intravenously shortly before delivery. (author)

  20. Distribution Dynamics of Recombinant Lactobacillus in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Sujin; Zhu, Libin; Zhuang, Qiang; Wang, Lucia; Xu, Pin-Xian; Itoh, Keiji; Holzman, Ian R.; Lin, Jing

    2013-01-01

    One approach to deliver therapeutic agents, especially proteins, to the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is to use commensal bacteria as a carrier. Genus Lactobacillus is an attractive candidate for use in this approach. However, a system for expressing exogenous proteins at a high level has been lacking in Lactobacillus. Moreover, it will be necessary to introduce the recombinant Lactobacillus into the GI tract, ideally by oral administration. Whether orally administered Lactobacillus can reach and reside in the GI tract has not been explored in neonates. In this study, we have examined these issues in neonatal rats. To achieve a high level of protein expression in Lactobacillus, we tested the impact of three promoters and two backbones on protein expression levels using mRFP1, a red fluorescent protein, as a reporter. We found that a combination of an L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) promoter of Lactobacillus sakei with a backbone from pLEM415 yielded the highest level of reporter expression. When this construct was used to transform Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus acidophilus, high levels of mRFP1 were detected in all these species and colonies of transformed Lactobacillus appeared pink under visible light. To test whether orally administered Lactobacillus can be retained in the GI tract of neonates, we fed the recombinant Lactobacillus casei to neonatal rats. We found that about 3% of the bacteria were retained in the GI tract of the rats at 24 h after oral feeding with more recombinant Lactobacillus in the stomach and small intestine than in the cecum and colon. No mortality was observed throughout this study with Lactobacillus. In contrast, all neonatal rats died within 24 hours after fed with transformed E. coli. Taken together, our results indicate that Lactobacillus has the potential to be used as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to neonates. PMID:23544119

  1. Kinetics and regional specificity of irinotecan-induced gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, Joanne M.; Tsykin, Anna; Stringer, Andrea M.; Logan, Richard M.; Gibson, Rachel J.; Keefe, Dorothy M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity remains a significant and dose-limiting complication of cancer treatment. While the pathophysiology is becoming clearer, considerable gaps in the knowledge remain surrounding the timing and site-specific gene changes which occur in response to insult. As such, this study aimed to assess gene expression profiles in a number of regions along the gastrointestinal tract following treatment with the chemotherapy agent, irinotecan, and correlate them with markers of cell death and tissue damage. Data analysis of microarray results found that genes involved in apoptosis, mitogen activated kinase (MAPK) signalling and inflammation were upregulated within 6 h, while genes involved in cell proliferation, wound healing and blood vessel formation were upregulated at later time points up to 72 h. Cell death was significantly increased at 6 and 24 h, and the stomach showed the lowest severity of overt tissue damage. Real time PCR of MAPK signalling pathway genes found that the jejunum and colon had significantly increased expression in a number of genes at 72 h, where as the stomach was unchanged. These results indicate that overall severity of tissue damage may be determined by precisely timed target gene responses specific to each region. Therapeutic targeting of key gene responses at the appropriate time point may prove to be effective for prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal damage.

  2. Endoscopic Management of Foreign Bodies in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: An Evidence-Based Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Magalhães-Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal foreign bodies (FB are comprised of food bolus impaction and intentionally or unintentionally ingested or inserted true FB. Food bolus impaction and true FB ingestion represent a recurrent problem and a true challenge in gastrointestinal endoscopy. More than 80–90% of the ingested true FB will pass spontaneously through the gastrointestinal tract without complications. However, in 10–20% of the cases an endoscopic intervention is deemed necessary. True FB ingestion has its greatest incidence in children, psychiatric patients and prisoners. On the other hand, food bolus impaction typically occurs in the elderly population with an underlying esophageal pathology. The most serious situations, with higher rates of complications, are associated with prolonged esophageal impaction, ingestion of sharp and long objects, button batteries and magnets. Physicians should recognize early alarm symptoms, such as complete dysphagia, distressed patients not able to manage secretions, or clinical signs of perforation. Although many papers are yearly published regarding this subject, our knowledge is mainly based on case-reports and retrospective series. Herein, the authors summarize the existing evidence and propose an algorithm for the best approach to FB ingestion.

  3. 'Horses for courses' in the upper gastrointestinal tract: a rational approach to diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    In Australia, the number of barium studies performed in teaching hospitals has fallen markedly while in the community at large a 113% increase occurred in the number of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed between 1980 and 1986. Protagonists of primary endoscopy cite studies that report on the superiority of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in patients with dyspepsia and related symptoms but several studies have shown that upper gastrointestinal barium studies miss very few important lesions. Fibreoptic endoscopy and radiology each have strengths and weaknesses which determine their respective places in the investigation of the different symptom complexes that are referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Double-contrast barium-meal examination is the suggested imaging modality for simple dyspepsia, for the oesophagitis-reflux-hiatus hernia complex and for dysphagia; while oesophagogastroduodenoscopy is the method of choice for the investigation of complicated dyspepsia, haematemesis and melaena. In patients who have previously undergone gastric surgery, endoscopy and radiology are complementary procedures - the former more accurate in the diagnosis of recurrent disease like ulceration, and the later useful for the delineation of anatomical changes. The time for the across-the-board replacement of barium studies by primary endoscopy has not yet arrived. 57 refs

  4. Staphylococcal enterotoxins in the Etiopathogenesis of Mucosal Autoimmunity within the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryAnn Principato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs are the products of Staphylococcus aureus and are recognized as the causative agents of classical food poisoning in humans following the consumption of contaminated food. While illness evoked by ingestion of the SE or its producer organism in tainted food are often self-limited, our current understanding regarding the evolution of S. aureus provokes the utmost concern. The organism and its associated toxins, has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states including infections of the skin, heart, sinuses, inflammatory gastrointestinal disease, toxic shock, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The intricate relationship between the various subsets of immunocompetent T cells and accessory cells and the ingested material found within the gastrointestinal tract present daunting challenges to the maintenance of immunologic homeostasis. Dysregulation of the intricate balances within this environment has the potential for extreme consequences within the host, some of which are long-lived. The focus of this review is to evaluate the relevance of staphylococcal enterotoxin in the context of mucosal immunity, and the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune disease.

  5. Pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlenterie, Myrella; Flucke, Uta; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Timmers, Henri J L M; Gastmeier, Joerg; Aust, Daniela E; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Wesseling, Pieter; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2013-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis I may rarely predispose to pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A 59-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis I presented with pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland. During surgery, 3 gastrointestinal stromal tumors adjacent to the stomach and small intestine were removed. Despite appropriate thrombosis prophylaxis, the patient died of a pulmonary embolus 2 days postoperatively. The second patient, a 55-year-old man with neurofibromatosis I and bilateral pheochromocytomas, had several small gastrointestinal stromal tumors adjacent to the jejunum during surgery. A review of the literature was conducted to identify patients with neurofibromatosis I with concurrence of pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors and to define the specific clinical features of these patients. In addition to our 2 patients, 12 other cases of neurofibromatosis I with concomitant occurrence of pheochromocytomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have been reported. Pheochromocytomas had adrenal locations in all patients. Two of the 14 patients had a mixed pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroma. In 4 of the 14 patients, gastrointestinal stromal tumors were located along the stomach. The gastrointestinal stromal tumors in our 2 patients showed no somatic mutations in KIT and PDGFRA genes. A pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 4 patients. The simultaneous occurrence of pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor should be considered in all patients with neurofibromatosis I presenting with an abdominal mass with symptoms suggestive of pheochromocytoma. Therefore, a pheochromocytoma should be excluded before a patient with neurofibromatosis I undergoes surgery for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor because an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma carries a high risk of life-threatening cardiovascular complications during surgery. Finally, this combination may be associated with an increased risk for thromboembolic events, but more studies are necessary to

  6. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy for a giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermansaravi, Mohammad; Rokhgireh, Samaneh; Darabi, Sattar; Pazouki, Abdolreza

    2017-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) include 80% of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors that originate from interstitial Cajal cells and include 0.1-3% of GI malignancies, and the stomach is the most commonly involved organ. The only potentially curative treatment is surgical resection with clear margins. Although laparoscopic resection of small GISTs is a standard treatment, there is controversy about laparoscopic surgical resection for large and giant GISTs. A 52-year-old woman, a known case of large GIST of the stomach that was under neoadjuvant imatinib therapy, was admitted to the emergency department due to acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). The patient underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy and received adjuvant imatinib after surgery. Laparoscopic resection is a safe and feasible method in large and giant GISTs with oncologic and long-term outcomes comparable to open surgery, and with better short-term outcomes.

  7. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from experimental studies are limited with regard to comparability and clinical translation. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched for experimental studies investigating anastomotic healing in the lower...

  8. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Trusov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the “macrolevel” that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the “mesolevel” of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown.

  9. Proposals for setting possible limits on intake of transuranium radionuclides absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalikin, G.A.; Nisimov, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The absorption of transuranium elements ( 238 Pu, 241 Am, 252 Cf) from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as influenced by physiological factors (e.g. age) and physical and chemical properties of compounds incorporated has been studied in 600 white mongrel rats. Average values of absorption have been determined for simple salts and a complex citrate. A number of factors increasing absorption have been found. Thus, originally bound compounds contained in the meat of animals incorporated with 238 Pu and 241 Am when alive, 241 Am-containing potato juice and green oat stalks enhanced absorption by a factor of 5 to 30 as compared with an adequate control. Ethanol administered orally as a 20% solution increased the absorption of americium nitrate by 60% and that of citrate by 23%. Oral administratio of 241 Am nitrate solution together with ferric chloride changes the metabolic kinetics of the nuclide completely. The total absorption of americium from DI tract is 7.1 times that of the control, but a considerable fraction absorbed into blood is excreted with urine (4.2% over 8 days). Among physiological factors age effects the absorption of transuranics from the GI tract to acertain degree. The absorption of 252 Cf in 7 day-old young rats proves to be 8.1 times that of adults. Gestation brought about a 2.7 fold increase of 241 Am absorption

  10. Dynamics and establishment of Clostridium difficile infection in the murine gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsknecht, Mark J; Theriot, Casey M; Bergin, Ingrid L; Schumacher, Cassie A; Schloss, Patrick D; Young, Vincent B

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) following antibiotic therapy is a major public health threat. While antibiotic disruption of the indigenous microbiota underlies the majority of cases of CDI, the early dynamics of infection in the disturbed intestinal ecosystem are poorly characterized. This study defines the dynamics of infection with C. difficile strain VPI 10463 throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using a murine model of infection. After inducing susceptibility to C. difficile colonization via antibiotic administration, we followed the dynamics of spore germination, colonization, sporulation, toxin activity, and disease progression throughout the GI tract. C. difficile spores were able to germinate within 6 h postchallenge, resulting in the establishment of vegetative bacteria in the distal GI tract. Spores and cytotoxin activity were detected by 24 h postchallenge, and histopathologic colitis developed by 30 h. Within 36 h, all infected mice succumbed to infection. We correlated the establishment of infection with changes in the microbiota and bile acid profile of the small and large intestines. Antibiotic administration resulted in significant changes to the microbiota in the small and large intestines, as well as a significant shift in the abundance of primary and secondary bile acids. Ex vivo analysis suggested the small intestine as the site of spore germination. This study provides an integrated understanding of the timing and location of the events surrounding C. difficile colonization and identifies potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. [Diagnosis of upper urinary tract tumors. A pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendarp, M; Laguna, M P; de la Rosette, J J M C

    2014-07-01

    Early diagnosis of upper urinary tract tumors is not easy. The development of endoscopic equipment has expanded the group of patients candidates for minimally invasive treatment. Only by providing accurate tumor staging and grading can clinicians decide which patients should be offered conservative therapies. We need diagnostic methods that allow us to make an early and accurate diagnosis for these lesions, as well as safe follow-up. Our proposal is to present a review of the most used diagnostic method, their features, and future diagnostic tools. The diagnostic arsenal requires further improvement. Only through accurate diagnosis, we will be able to safely provide conservative treatment. Developing new diagnostic techniques seem to move us closer to this goal even more. We propose a working algorithm on the management of these lesions.

  12. Targeting gastrointestinal stromal tumors: the role of regorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brett Schroeder,1 Zula Li,2,3 Lee D Cranmer,2,3 Robin L Jones,4 Seth M Pollack2,3 1College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI, 2Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, 3Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 4Royal Marsden Hospital, Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a devastating disease in the metastatic setting, but its natural history has been dramatically altered by the development of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, most notably imatinib. Although patients with advanced GIST live much longer today than they did in the past, imatinib-refractory disease remains a tremendous problem. For disease that is refractory to imatinib and sunitinib, regorafenib is an excellent option. In this review, we discuss the biology and clinical work establishing regorafenib as the standard of care for advanced GIST refractory to both imatinib and sunitinib. Keywords: regorafenib, GIST, refractory, imatinib

  13. MR imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with half-fourier single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Houjun; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Isogai, Satoshi; Kaneko, Masao

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to implement a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique combined with concentrated milk ingestion for depicting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and detecting gastrointestinal motility and transit. The half-Fourier SSFSE (single-shot fast spin echo) sequence was optimized on the basis of a phantom study. In order to determine the feasibility of milk ingestion as a substitute for contrast medium, ten human volunteers were examined with SSFSE after two types of liquid ingestion (i.e., milk and water). The snapshot images provided subsecond data acquisition for each coronal plane, allowing visualization of peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract in an almost real-time fashion, without motion-related image degradation, as would normally be seen using conventional MRI. There was no significant difference between concentrated milk and water in terms of depiction of the upper gastrointestinal tract; however, 10 min and 30 min after ingestion, concentrated milk showed better delineation of the intestine than that observed after water ingestion (p<0.01). MR gastrointestinal imaging is a non-invasive method that allows gastrointestinal depiction as well as analysis of motility and passage. Especially with concentrated milk ingestion, the distal intestines were well depicted with adequate contrast filling and distention. (author)

  14. Recommendations for diagnostics and therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, P.; Kulig, J.; Osuch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last years advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of GIST pathogenesis have resulted in the emerging of GIST as a distinct sarcoma entity. This paper presents the guidelines for diagnostics and therapy of these tumors based on scientific research and experts' experience, These guidelines are commonly accepted and worthy of recommendation. Overexpression of the KIT receptor, as a consequence of mutation of the KIT protooncogene is highly specific for GIST and enables immunohistochemical detection staining (CD117) in tumor specimens. It is the most important criterion in microscopic diagnostics and for indicating treatment with small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Sending material for molecular analysis is strongly recommended (for KIT and PDGFRA genotyping). Radical surgery is still the mainstay treatment for primary, localized, resectable GISTs, although although a significant ratio of patients after potentially curative operations develop recurrent or metastatic disease. In inoperable/metastatic lesions the treatment of choice is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor - imatynib mesylate - the first effective systemic therapy in advanced CD117(+) GIST. The recommended initial dose should be 400 mg daily (800 mg for exon 9 KIT mutants). Treatment monitoring should be based on serial computed tomography imaging of the abdominal cavity with the assessment of changes of tumor size and density. In case of disease progression the increase of imatynib dose to 800 mg daily is recommended and - if progression maintains - sunitinib in the initial dose of 50 mg daily should be introduced. Clinical trials evaluating the role of surgery combined with imatynib and the efficacy of other molecular targeted drugs in resistant cases are ongoing. Existing data indicate the beneficial role of adjuvant imatynib therapy in terms of relapse-free survival

  15. Adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy in gastrointestinal tumors; Adjuvante Chemo- und Strahlentherapie bei gastrointestinalen Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendler, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Feldmann, H.J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Fink, U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Siewert, J.R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik

    1995-04-21

    In modern surgical oncology, adjuvant therapies are important complementary strategies. In local advanced carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, 5-year survival data are still disappointing despite standardized surgery. In this context, it has to be differentiated between adjuvant therapy following complete tumor exstirpation (so-called UICC R{sub 0} resection) and additive therapies following incomplete tumor resections (UICC R{sub 1} or R{sub 2} resection). Modalities in the adjuvant setting are chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the combined radio-/chemotherapy. In esophageal and gastric cancer there is up to now no benefit of postoperative adjuvant therapy. In pancreatic cancer, there are studies indicating a benefit of combined radio-/chemotherapy after complete tumor resection. A standard adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment is proven in colon cancer stage III (Dukes C) with levamisole and 5-FU. Completely resected rectal carcinoma should be treated postoperatively with combined radio-/chemotherapy. In the common clinical or practical setting, adjuvant therapy is indicated only in locally advanced gastrointestinal tumors following R{sub 0} resection. Postoperative therapy following incomplete tumor resection has its reason only in a palliative intention. (orig.) [Deutsch] Adjuvante Therapiestrategien sind wichtige flankierende Massnahmen der modernen onkologischen Chirurgie, da u.a. die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensquoten bei lokal fortgeschrittenen Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltraktes nach wie vor unbefriedingend sind. Dabei muss grundsaetzlich zwischen adjuvanten Behandlungen nach kompletter Tumorexstirpation (UICC-R{sub 0}-Resektion) und der additiven Therapie nach palliativer Resektion (UICC-R{sub 1}- oder -R{sub 2}-Resektion) unterschieden werden. Als Modalitaeten kommen Chemotherapie, Strahlentherapie und ihre Kombination in Frage. Bei Oesophagus- und Magenkarzinomen kann derzeit keine gueltige Empfehlung zur adjuvanten Therapie gegeben werden. Die Radio

  16. Canine and human gastrointestinal stromal tumors display similar mutations in c-KIT exon 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory-Bryson, Emmalena; Bartlett, Elizabeth; Kiupel, Matti; Hayes, Schantel; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are common mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and dogs. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these tumors. This study evaluated the role of c-KIT in canine GISTs; specifically, we investigated activating mutations in exons 8, 9, 11, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA), all of which have been implicated in human GISTs. Seventeen canine GISTs all confirmed to be positive for KIT immunostaining were studied. Exons 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA, were amplified from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Of these seventeen cases, six amplicons of exon 11 of c-KIT showed aberrant bands on gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed heterozygous in-frame deletions in six cases. The mutations include two different but overlapping six base pair deletions. Exons 8, 9, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA had no abnormalities detected by electrophoresis and sequencing did not reveal any mutations, other than synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in exon 11 of c-KIT and exons 12 and 14 of PDGFRA. The deletion mutations detected in canine GISTs are similar to those previously found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors in our laboratory as well as to those reported in human GISTs. Interestingly, none of the other c-KIT or PDGFRA exons showed any abnormalities in our cases. This finding underlines the critical importance of c-KIT in the pathophysiology of canine GISTs. The expression of KIT and the identification of these activating mutations in c-KIT implicate KIT in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Our results indicate that mutations in c-KIT may be of prognostic significance and that targeting KIT may be a rational approach to treatment of these malignant tumors. This study further

  17. Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors in type I neurofibromatosis: a pathologic and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantiss, Rhonda K; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Sarran, Lisa; Besmer, Peter; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2005-04-01

    Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors typically occur in familial form associated with KIT receptor tyrosine kinase or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) germline mutations, but may also develop in the setting of type 1 neurofibromatosis. The molecular abnormalities of gastrointestinal stromal tumors arising in neurofibromatosis have not been extensively studied. We identified three patients with type 1 neuro-fibromatosis and multiple small intestinal stromal tumors. Immunostains for CD117, CD34, desmin, actins, S-100 protein, and keratins were performed on all of the tumors. DNA was extracted from representative paraffin blocks from separate tumor nodules in each case and subjected to a nested polymerase chain reaction, using primers for KIT exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 and PDGFRA exons 12 and 18, followed by direct sequencing. The mean patient age was 56 years (range: 37-86 years, male/female ratio: 2/1). One patient had three tumors, one had five, and one had greater than 10 tumor nodules, all of which demonstrated histologic features characteristic of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and stained strongly for CD117 and CD34. One patient died of disease at 35 months, one was disease free at 12 months and one was lost to follow-up. DNA extracts from 10 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (three from each of two patients and four from one patient) were subjected to polymerase chain reactions and assessed for mutations. All of the tumors were wild type for KIT exons 9, 13, and 17 and PDGFRA exons 12 and 18. Three tumors from one patient had identical point mutations in KIT exon 11, whereas the other tumors were wild type at this locus. We conclude that, although most patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumors do not have KIT or PDGFRA mutations, KIT germline mutations might be implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in some patients.

  18. Assimilation of water and dietary ions by the gastrointestinal tract during digestion in seawater-acclimated rainbow trout

    OpenAIRE

    Bucking, Carol; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Nadella, Sunita R.; McGaw, Iain J.; Wood, Chris M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies focusing on the consequences of feeding for ion and water balance in freshwater fish have revealed the need for similar comparative studies in seawater fish. A detailed time course sampling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract contents following the ingestion of a single meal of a commercial diet revealed the assimilation of both water and dietary ions (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) along the GI tract of seawater-acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which had been fasted for 1 ...

  19. Gene expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors is distinguished by KIT genotype and anatomic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Viale, Agnes; Sarran, Lisa; Tschernyavsky, Sylvia J; Gonen, Mithat; Segal, Neil H; Maki, Robert G; Socci, Nicholas D; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Besmer, Peter

    2004-05-15

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are specific KIT expressing and KIT-signaling driven mesenchymal tumors of the human digestive tract, many of which have KIT-activating mutations. Previous studies have found a relatively homogeneous gene expression profile in GIST, as compared with other histological types of sarcomas. Transcriptional heterogeneity within clinically or molecularly defined subsets of GISTs has not been previously reported. We tested the hypothesis that the gene expression profile in GISTs might be related to KIT genotype and possibly to other clinicopathological factors. An HG-U133A Affymetrix chip (22,000 genes) platform was used to determine the variability of gene expression in 28 KIT-expressing GIST samples from 24 patients. A control group of six intra-abdominal leiomyosarcomas was also included for comparison. Statistical analyses (t tests) were performed to identify discriminatory gene lists among various GIST subgroups. The levels of expression of various GIST subsets were also linked to a modified version of the growth factor/KIT signaling pathway to analyze differences at various steps in signal transduction. Genes involved in KIT signaling were differentially expressed among wild-type and mutant GISTs. High gene expression of potential drug targets, such as VEGF, MCSF, and BCL2 in the wild-type group, and Mesothelin in exon 9 GISTs were found. There was a striking difference in gene expression between stomach and small bowel GISTs. This finding was validated in four separate tumors, two gastric and two intestinal, from a patient with familial GIST with a germ-line KIT W557R substitution. GISTs have heterogeneous gene expression depending on KIT genotype and tumor location, which is seen at both the genomic level and the KIT signaling pathway in particular. These findings may explain their variable clinical behavior and response to therapy.

  20. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, somatic mutations and candidate genetic risk variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M O'Brien

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare but treatable soft tissue sarcomas. Nearly all GISTs have somatic mutations in either the KIT or PDGFRA gene, but there are no known inherited genetic risk factors. We assessed the relationship between KIT/PDGFRA mutations and select deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 279 participants from a clinical trial of adjuvant imatinib mesylate. Given previous evidence that certain susceptibility loci and carcinogens are associated with characteristic mutations, or "signatures" in other cancers, we hypothesized that the characteristic somatic mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes in GIST tumors may similarly be mutational signatures that are causally linked to specific mutagens or susceptibility loci. As previous epidemiologic studies suggest environmental risk factors such as dioxin and radiation exposure may be linked to sarcomas, we chose 208 variants in 39 candidate genes related to DNA repair and dioxin metabolism or response. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between each variant and 7 categories of tumor mutation using logistic regression. We also evaluated gene-level effects using the sequence kernel association test (SKAT. Although none of the association p-values were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, SNPs in CYP1B1 were strongly associated with KIT exon 11 codon 557-8 deletions (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 for rs2855658 and OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7 for rs1056836 and wild type GISTs (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8 for rs1800440 and OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9 for rs1056836. CYP1B1 was also associated with these mutations categories in the SKAT analysis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. Other potential risk variants included GSTM1, RAD23B and ERCC2. This preliminary analysis of inherited genetic risk factors for GIST offers some clues about the disease's genetic

  1. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) assessment using {sup 18}F-fluordeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massardo, L T; Gonzalez, P; Jaimovich, R [Nuclear Medicine Section, Medicine Department University of Chile Clinical Hospital (Chile); Jofrea, M J; Canessa, J; Sierralta, P [Molecular Imaging PET Center, Military Hospital, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    Introduction: Stromal gastrointestinal tumors (GIST) are relatively infrequent soft sarcomas, although correspond to the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. Surgery is the main therapy during initial stages. Nearly a third of them could be malignant (higher risk) depending on the localization, size and histological parameters. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have low therapeutic value. Specific molecular therapy associated to surgery using imatinib-mesylate (GLIVEC ) - a selective transductor signal inhibitor for some tyrosine-kinase receptors -is currently use. It is helpful in non-resecables, recurrent or metastatic tumors. Metabolic fluorine I8-deoxyglucose (FDG) allows to characterize tumor behavior demonstrating good predictive value. Promising results have been obtained using adjuvant and neoadjuvant protocols. There are some multicenter in-course trials including FDG in order to evaluate early response to GLIVEC therapy. Other recently developed molecules such as sunitinib malate (SUTENT) are used in non-responders. Method: We have performed 18 FDG studies to 15 GIST patients referred from different centers in a period of 48 months, corresponding approximately to 1% of all cancers in adults. and to 6% of gastrointestinal tumors. The mean age of the group was 57{+-}10.6 y.o., ranging from 33-72 years, 60% of the patients were male. GIST primary localization corresponded to jejunum or ileum (4), duodenum (3), esophagus, stomach (1) besides, 2 retroperitoneal/extra intestinal cases and 5 disseminated cases with no clear origin site. Eight out of fifteen patients presented known dissemination when FDG was performed. PET-FDG was performed to assess: a) medical therapy control in 9 cases: 7 with GLIVEC, 1 with SUTENT post GLIVEC and 1 post chemotherapy, b) re-staging in 6 and c) staging in the other 3 cases (1 submitted to surgery and l extensive tumor to decide GLIVEC therapy). All but one patients already had surgery performed with a mean

  2. Extensive horizontal transfer of core genome genes between two Lactobacillus species found in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguin Emmanuelle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While genes that are conserved between related bacterial species are usually thought to have evolved along with the species, phylogenetic trees reconstructed for individual genes may contradict this picture and indicate horizontal gene transfer. Individual trees are often not resolved with high confidence, however, and in that case alternative trees are generally not considered as contradicting the species tree, although not confirming it either. Here we conduct an in-depth analysis of 401 protein phylogenetic trees inferred with varying levels of confidence for three lactobacilli from the acidophilus complex. At present the relationship between these bacteria, isolated from environments as diverse as the gastrointestinal tract (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus johnsonii and yogurt (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, is ambiguous due to contradictory phenotypical and 16S rRNA based classifications. Results Among the 401 phylogenetic trees, those that could be reconstructed with high confidence support the 16S-rRNA tree or one alternative topology in an astonishing 3:2 ratio, while the third possible topology is practically absent. Lowering the confidence threshold for trees to be taken into consideration does not significantly affect this ratio, and therefore suggests that gene transfer may have affected as much as 40% of the core genome genes. Gene function bias suggests that the 16S rRNA phylogeny of the acidophilus complex, which indicates that L. acidophilus and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus are the closest related of these three species, is correct. A novel approach of comparison of interspecies protein divergence data employed in this study allowed to determine that gene transfer most likely took place between the lineages of the two species found in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion This case-study reports an unprecedented level of phylogenetic incongruence, presumably resulting from extensive

  3. Evaluation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors by multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Fabiano Elias; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Macedo, Antonio Luiz de Vasconcellos; Pelizon, Christina Helena de Toledo

    2005-01-01

    This article presents three cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors with clinical manifestations and pathological features, along with differential diagnoses, with special emphasis on multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. (author)

  4. C-kit-targeted imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumor using radiolabeled anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody in a mouse tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogawa, Chizuru; Tsuji, Atsushi B.; Sudo, Hitomi; Sugyo, Aya; Yoshida, Chisato; Odaka, Kenichi; Uehara, Tomoya; Arano, Yasushi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor arising from the gastrointestinal tract and highly expresses mutated c-kit. We aimed to develop a specific and sensitive method for detecting GISTs using radiolabeled anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody. Methods: A mutated c-kit-expressing cell clone was established by transfecting an expressing vector of mutated c-kit gene into HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. The tumors were developed by inoculating c-kit-expressing cells into nude mice. 125 I- and 111 In-labeled anti-c-kit antibodies (12A8 and 41A11) were evaluated in vitro by cell binding, competitive inhibition and cellular internalization assays, and in vivo by biodistribution and imaging studies in tumor-bearing mice. Results: Both 125 I- and 111 In-labeled antibodies showed specific binding with c-kit-expressing cells with high affinity (dissociation constants = 2.2-7.1x10 9 M -1 ). Internalization assay showed that 125 I-labeled antibodies were rapidly internalized and dehalogenated, with the release of 125 I from the cells, resulting in reduction of cell-associated radioactivity with time. In contrast, 111 In-labeled antibody was internalized but did not result in the reduced radioactivity associated with tumor cells. Reflecting this phenomenon, the in vivo tumor uptake of 125 I-labeled antibody was low on Day 1, further decreasing with time, while tumor uptake of 111 In-labeled antibody was high on Day 1, further increasing with time. The xenografted tumor was clearly visualized by scintigraphy after injection of 111 In-labeled antibody. Conclusion: The anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody labeled with a metal radionuclide would be promising for c-kit-targeted imaging of GISTs.

  5. Nuclear medicine methods used in diagnosing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.

    2001-01-01

    Using physiologic tracer scintigraphy may give unique information on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function, supplementing the findings of rather invasive methods. Conventional barium-contrast x-ray studies of the GI tract, computed tomography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging afford high resolution images of the GI anatomy, but have a serious shortcoming - hardly lending themselves to quantification. As shown by the results functional scintigraphy is a sensitive, quantitative and noninvasive procedure. The potential of nuclear medicine methods to diagnose successfully diseases of the salivary glands, esophagus, stomach and visualization of GI bleeding and hepatobiliary system are comprehensively discussed. The advantages and drawbacks of radionuclide techniques are outlined, and compared with other methods of visualization. (author)

  6. Radiology of upper gastrointestinal tract with ASGB (adjustable silicone gastric banding) for morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, Grzegorz; Maliborski, Artur; Żukowski, Paweł; Bogusławska, Romana

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a result of multiple risk factors of atherosclerosis and diabetes. Obesity is an especially well recognized etiological factor. A rapidly increasing number of obese people constitutes a major social health problem in the developed, as well as developing countries. Bariatric surgeries are among methods of obesity treatment that gain on popularity. They include adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB), and adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding (ALGB). The aim of our study was to analyze and present the most typical radiological images obtained during 130 upper gastrointestinal tract examinations in patients after ASGB or ALGB in the last three years. ASGB and ALGB are effective and safe. However, they are connected with some postoperative complications. Application of these surgical procedures requires periodic, long-term radiological evaluations and cooperation between surgeons and radiologists. The radiologist must be familiar with bariatric surgical techniques, their complications and typical radiological presentations

  7. Could clinical symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract disguise a life threatening condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajzak, E.; Kostalova, L.; Kovacs, L.; Bereczkova, E.; Rajzak, R.

    2016-01-01

    In paediatric practice encountering symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, diarrhoea, abdominal pain are generally associated with and credited to maladies of the gastrointestinal tract. This paper focuses on a case study of a nine-year-old boy tracing the causal background of his deteriorating condition. Within a period of two months he was admitted twice for ambulatory treatment of nausea and vomiting. First he was hospitalized for impaired digestion, however upon symptomatic treatment and rehydration he quickly recovered. Two months following his first hospitalization, he was yet again admitted for aggravated albeit similar and additional symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, emotional instability and an excessive use of salt. Given the thoroughly assessed anamnesis and study of his clinical symptoms along with the laboratory results, our team’s assumption of Addison’s disease had been confirmed. (author)

  8. Lymphomas of the gastro-intestinal tract - Pathophysiology, pathology, and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract (GIT is the most commonly involved site of extranodal lymphomas. The close association between chronic inflammation and specific GIT lymphomas not only provide interesting insights into the pathobiology of lymphomas but also poses unique diagnostic challenges. A clear understanding of marginal zone and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT in health and disease is helpful to place GIT lymphomas in proper context. A wide variety of lymphomas besides MALT lymphomas occur in various parts of the GIT. The characteristic pathological, immunophenotypic, and genetic features of different GIT lymphomas categorized according to World Health Organization (WHO classification are presented. The epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of lymphomas occurring in each part of the GIT are summarized and the key points regarding lymphomas at each site are emphasized. A tabular summary of the important differential diagnostic considerations at each site is given and suggestions for a minimal diagnostic work up are provided.

  9. Biomechanical and morphological remodelings of gastrointestinal tract in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Hong; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Gui-Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the biomechanical and morphometrical remodeling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. METERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen SD male rats of diabetic group(DM, a single tail vein injection 40mg/kg of STZ, 9 rats...... in the esophageal, jejunal and colonic segments. RESULTS: The blood glucose level, the wet weight per unit to body weight ratio, wall thickness, opening angle, absolute value of residual strain in DM group were significantly higher than those in C0N group (Pstiffness of the esophageal......, jejunal, colonic wall in circumferential direction and the esophageal, colonic wall in longitudinal direction increased in DM group compared those with CON group (P

  10. Mini Review: Basic Physiology and Factors Influencing Exogenous Enzymes Activity in the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Meyer, Anne S.; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    activity during intestinal transit are few, it is known that the enzymes, being protein molecules, can be negatively affected by the gastrointestinal proteolytic enzymes and the low pH in the stomach ventricle. In this review, the pH-values, endogenous proteases and other factors native to the digestive......The addition of exogenous enzymes to pig feed is used to enhance general nutrient availability and thus increase daily weight gain per feed unit. The enzymes used are mainly beta-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) and phytase (EC 3.1.3.8). Although in vivo data assessing feed enzyme...... tract of the adult pig and the piglet are discussed in relation to the stability of exogenous feed enzymes. Development of more consistent assessment methods which acknowledge such factors is warranted both in vitro and in vivo for proper evaluation and prediction of the efficiency of exogenous enzymes...

  11. Survival of gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients in the imatinib era: life raft group observational registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Call, Jerry; Walentas, Christopher D; Eickhoff, Jens C; Scherzer, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, prior to routine immunohistochemical staining and the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, were often mistaken for neoplasms of smooth muscle origin such as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas or leiomyoblastomas. Since the advent of imatinib, GIST has been further delineated into adult- (KIT or PDGFRα mutations) and pediatric- (typified by wild-type GIST/succinate dehydrogenase deficiencies) types. Using varying gender ratios at age of diagnosis we sought to elucidate prognostic factors for each sub-type and their impact on overall survival. This is a long-term retrospective analysis of a large observational study of an international open cohort of patients from a GIST research and patient advocacy's lifetime registry. Demographic and disease-specific data were voluntarily supplied by its members from May 2000-October 2010; the primary outcome was overall survival. Associations between survival and prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses, with backward selection at P < 0.05 used to identify independent factors. Inflections in gender ratios by age at diagnosis in years delineated two distinct groups: above and below age 35 at diagnosis. Closer analysis confirmed the above 35 age group as previously reported for adult-type GIST, typified by mixed primary tumor sites and gender, KIT or PDGFRα mutations, and shorter survival times. The pediatric group (< age 18 at diagnosis) was also as previously reported with predominantly stomach tumors, females, wild-type GIST or SDH mutations, and extended survival. 'Young adults' however formed a third group aged 18-35 at diagnosis, and were a clear mix of these two previously reported distinct sub-types. Pediatric- and adult-type GIST have been previously characterized in clinical settings and these observations confirm significant prognostic factors for each

  12. Bariatric surgery and incidental gastrointestinal stromal tumors - a single-center study: VSJ Competition, 1st place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walędziak, Maciej; Różańska-Walędziak, Anna; Kowalewski, Piotr K; Janik, Michał R; Brągoszewski, Jakub; Paśnik, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), originating from Cajal cells, are most commonly located in the stomach; therefore they can be found in the specimens excised during bariatric operations. The global prevalence of GISTs is about 130 cases per million population. Morbidity differs depending on geographical latitude. Although surgery is the treatment of choice for GISTs, 40-50% of patients after radical surgical treatment will have a relapse or metastases. To analyze the incidence of GISTs in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and to verify whether an operation performed according to the bariatric protocol is oncologically radical in case of GIST. A single-center retrospective study. The study group comprised 1252 obese patients qualified for bariatric procedures, with no upper gastrointestinal tract neoplasms found during preoperative diagnostic examinations. In case of suspicious macroscopic pathologies (n = 81) present during the operation, tissue specimens underwent histopathological examination with further investigation performed if GISTs were found, including tumor size and localization, mitotic index and immunohistochemical analysis. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors were found in 16 cases, and benign tumors of various histological origin in 33 cases. All cases of GIST found came from stomach specimens, 7 from the gastric corpus vs. 9 from the fundus. Fourteen GISTs were found during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies (LSGs) vs. 2 during laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (LRYGBs). In case of incidental findings of GISTs during bariatric surgery, tumor resection with negative margins of incision may be considered as complete oncological treatment if there was very low/low risk stratification of GIST's recurrence after surgery.

  13. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05. ii Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05. iii Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  14. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2% and Firmicutes (47.6%. The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8% and Firmicutes (58.9%. The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver.

  15. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruninger, Robert J; McAllister, Tim A; Forster, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2%) and Firmicutes (47.6%). The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8%) and Firmicutes (58.9%). The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver.

  16. Effects of ergot alkaloid exposure on serotonin receptor mRNA in the smooth muscle of the bovine gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various serotonin (5HT) receptor subtypes have been located in the gastrointestinal tract and some are associated with gut motility. Cattle exposed to ergot alkaloids through consumption of contaminated feedstuffs have demonstrated signs (e.g. - increased rumen DM content and total content) that sug...

  17. PREVALENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DISEASES AND EFFICACY OF ERADICATION THERAPY FOR H.PYLORI INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Zhdanova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal tract pathology and estimations of clinical and pharmacoeconomic efficacy of different algorithms of therapy for H. pyloria assosiated diseases in children dwelling in Krasnodar region are presented in this article.Key words: h. Pylori, prevalence, treatment, eradication therapy, children.

  18. Considerations concerning a tailored, individualized therapeutic management of patients with (neuro)endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. de Herder (Wouter); E.P. Krenning (Eric); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractEndocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas may present at different disease stages with either hormonal or hormone-related symptoms/syndromes, or without hormonal symptoms. They may occur either sporadically or as part of hereditary syndromes. In the

  19. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F

    2017-01-01

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close...

  20. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among HIV seropositive patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaitey, Yaw Agyekum; Nkrumah, Bernard; Idriss, Ali; Tay, Samuel Crowther Kofi

    2012-08-21

    Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections are aggravating the incidence and progression of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) more especially in the developing countries. This study was conducted to assess the common gastrointestinal and urinary infections among HIV/AIDS patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Ghana between April and December 2008. This work reports on gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among 500 HIV seropositive and 300 HIV seronegative patients. There was a 35% (175/500) prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV seropositive patients compared to 4.3% (13/300) in HIV seronegative patients. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium accounted for 19% (95/500) and 14% (70/500) respectively, while Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm together accounted for 2% (10/500) of intestinal parasitic infections among the HIV seropositive patients. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in urinary parasitic infection between HIV seropositive 1% (2/500) and seronegative patients 0.7% (2/300). Most, 60 (86%) out of 70, of the urinary tract infection among the HIV seropositive patients was due to bacteria with E. coli being the most predominant isolate, 28 (47%) out of 60. There was no significant difference in infections based on age and gender. G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium were the most common gastrointestinal parasites detected while bacteria accounted for majority of the urinary tract infections among the HIV seropositive patients at the hospital.

  1. Biomarkers in premalignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract: Studies on Barrett’s esophagus and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we have described our research on genetic abnormalities in (pre)malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The wide variation in biological behavior of cancerous and precancerous conditions may be largely explained by differences in genetic abnormalities. They are a source of

  2. Examination of the gastrointestinal tract using the tussian X-ray contrast substance BAR-VIPS based on barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratobyl'skij, G.V.; Kaluzhskij, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of X-ray studies of gastrointestinal tract using domestic X-ray contrast preparation based on barium sulfate BAR-VIPS developed by VIPS-MED company (t. Fryazino, Moscow region). Testing of the preparation has shown that BAR-VIPS permits to diagnose every pathological changes in esophagus, stomach, rectum, small intestine as well as to diagnose successfully large intestine diseases

  3. Genome Sequences of Shewanella baltica and Shewanella morhuae Strains Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Freshwater Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Daniel; Gram, Lone; Dailey, Frank E

    2018-06-21

    We present here the genome sequences of Shewanella baltica strain CW2 and Shewanella morhuae strain CW7, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Salvelinus namaycush (lean lake trout) and Coregonus clupeaformis (whitefish), respectively. These genome sequences provide insights into the niche adaptation of these specific species in freshwater systems. Copyright © 2018 Castillo et al.

  4. Investigation into the fungal diversity within different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of Panaque nigrolineatus, a wood-eating fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L. Marden

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus have several physiological adaptions enabling the scraping and consumption of wood (xylivory, facilitating a detritivorous dietary strategy. Composed of lignocellulose, wood is a difficult substrate to degrade and as yet, it is unclear whether the fish obtains any direct nutritional benefits from wood ingestion and degradation. However, there are numerous systems that rely on microbial symbioses to provide energy and other nutritional benefits for host organisms via lignocellulose decomposition. While previous studies on the microbial community of P. nigrolineatus have focused upon the bacterial population, the role of fungi in lignocellulose degradation in the fish has not yet been examined. This study describes the detection of fungi within the fish gastrointestinal tract. Using next generation sequencing, the effects of diet on enteric fungal populations were examined in each gastrointestinal tract region. Fungal species were found to vary in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract as a function of diet. This study is the first to examine the fungal community in a xylivorous fish and results support the hypothesis that diet influences fungal distribution and diversity within the gastrointestinal tract of P. nigrolineatus.

  5. Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to in vivo experimental results: Lead bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Oomen, A.G.; Wragg, J.; Cave, M.; Minekus, M.; Hack, A.; Cornelis, C.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Zwart, L.L. de; Klinck, B.; Wijnen, J. van; Verstraete, W.; Sips, A.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference

  6. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Colin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Results In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P n = 5, following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Conclusion Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract.

  7. Distinct stages during colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract by Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePrieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a member of the human microbiota, colonizing both the vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts. This yeast is devoid of a life style outside the human body and the mechanisms underlying the adaptation to the commensal status remain to be determined. Using a model of mouse gastrointestinal colonization, we show here that C. albicans stably colonizes the mouse gut in about 3 days starting from a dose as low as 100 cells, reaching steady levels of around 107 cells/g of stools. Using fluorescent labeled strains we have assessed the competition between isogenic populations from different sources in cohoused animals. We show that long term (15 days colonizing cells have increased fitness in the gut niche over those grown in vitro or residing in the gut for 1-3 days. Therefore, two distinct states, proliferation and adaptation, seem to exist in the adaptation of this fungus to the mouse gut, a result with potential significance in the prophylaxis and treatment of Candida infections.

  8. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R.; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition. PMID:26091351

  9. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  10. Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Urdaneta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome–bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors. However, bile salts are antibacterial compounds that disrupt bacterial membranes, denature proteins, chelate iron and calcium, cause oxidative damage to DNA, and control the expression of eukaryotic genes involved in host defense and immunity. Bacterial species adapted to the mammalian gut are able to endure the antibacterial activities of bile salts by multiple physiological adjustments that include remodeling of the cell envelope and activation of efflux systems and stress responses. Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica. A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections.

  11. What is safer for the gastrointestinal-tract: Coxibs or meloxicam?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Satybaldyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Are high cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 selectivity and the absence of its impact on COX-1 the most important benefit of coxibs? Based on the classical concepts that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are implicated in the pathogenesis of the most well-known complication – NSAID gastropathy, this must be so. Indeed, the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT diseases associated with NSAID use is mainly related to the blockade of COX-1 and to the decreased synthesis of cytoprotective prostaglandins. However, the clinical experience with etoricoxib, one of the most selective coxibs, casts doubt on this fact. There are well-known data of the MEDAL study, which show the equal rate of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving etoricoxib and diclofenac. At the same time, moderately selective NSAIDs that include very popular meloxicam demonstrate a good tolerability and a low risk for GIT complications. A network meta-analysis of 36 studies covering a total of 112,351 patients indicates that there are no significant differences in the incidence of complicated and uncomplicated ulcers in patients receiving coxibs (a group analysis and moderately selective NSAIDs (meloxicam, nabumetone, and etodolac. It is important that meloxicam demonstrates not only the low total frequency of GIT complications, but a quite moderate (as compared with diclofenac and etoricoxib risk for cardiovascular and renal complications, which determines its benefit when used in real clinical practice.

  12. Embolization for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsadraee, S.; Tirukonda, P.; Nicholson, A. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Everett, S.M. [Department of Gastroenterology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); McPherson, S.J., E-mail: simon.mcpherson@leedsth.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To assess the published evidence on the endovascular treatment of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Materials and methods: An Ovid Medline search of published literature was performed (1966-2009). Non-English literature, experimental studies, variceal haemorrhage and case series with fewer than five patients were excluded. The search yielded 1888 abstracts. Thirty-five articles were selected for final analysis. Results: The total number of pooled patients was 927. The technical and clinical success of embolization ranged from 52-100% and 44-100%, respectively. The pooled mean technical/clinical success rate in primary upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage (PUGITH) only, trans-papillary haemorrhage (TPH) only, and mixed studies were 84%/67%, 93%/89%, and 93%/64%, respectively. Clinical outcome was adversely affected by multi-organ failure, shock, corticosteroids, transfusion, and coagulopathy. The anatomical source of haemorrhage and procedural variables did not affect the outcome. A successful embolization improved survival by 13.3 times. Retrospective comparison with surgery demonstrated equivalent mortality and clinical success, despite embolization being applied to a more elderly population with a higher prevalence of co-morbidities. Conclusions: Embolization is effective in this very difficult cohort of patients with outcomes similar to surgery.

  13. Small Submucosal Tumors of the Stomach: Differentiation of Gastric Schwannoma from Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Wook; Choi, Dong Gil; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Sohn, Tae Sung; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Soon Jin [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    To identify the CT features that help differentiate gastric schwannomas (GS) from small (5 cm or smaller) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and to assess the growth rates of both tumors. We included 16 small GSs and 56 GISTs located in the stomach. We evaluated the CT features including size, contour, surface pattern, margins, growth pattern, pattern and degree of contrast enhancement, and the presence of intralesional low attenuation area, hemorrhage, calcification, surface dimpling, fistula, perilesional lymph nodes (LNs), invasion to other organs, metastasis, ascites, and peritoneal seeding. We also estimated the tumor volume doubling time. Compared with GISTs, GSs more frequently demonstrated a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs (each p < 0.05). The intralesional low attenuation area was more common in GISTs than GSs (p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Tumor volume doubling times for GSs (mean, 1685.4 days) were significantly longer than that of GISTs (mean, 377.6 days) (p = 0.004). Although small GSs and GISTs show similar imaging findings, GSs more frequently show an exophytic or mixed growth pattern, homogeneous enhancement pattern, perilesional LNs and grow slower than GISTs.

  14. Small Submucosal Tumors of the Stomach: Differentiation of Gastric Schwannoma from Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Wook; Choi, Dong Gil; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Sohn, Tae Sung; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Soon Jin

    2012-01-01

    To identify the CT features that help differentiate gastric schwannomas (GS) from small (5 cm or smaller) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and to assess the growth rates of both tumors. We included 16 small GSs and 56 GISTs located in the stomach. We evaluated the CT features including size, contour, surface pattern, margins, growth pattern, pattern and degree of contrast enhancement, and the presence of intralesional low attenuation area, hemorrhage, calcification, surface dimpling, fistula, perilesional lymph nodes (LNs), invasion to other organs, metastasis, ascites, and peritoneal seeding. We also estimated the tumor volume doubling time. Compared with GISTs, GSs more frequently demonstrated a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs (each p < 0.05). The intralesional low attenuation area was more common in GISTs than GSs (p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Tumor volume doubling times for GSs (mean, 1685.4 days) were significantly longer than that of GISTs (mean, 377.6 days) (p = 0.004). Although small GSs and GISTs show similar imaging findings, GSs more frequently show an exophytic or mixed growth pattern, homogeneous enhancement pattern, perilesional LNs and grow slower than GISTs.

  15. Diagnostic imaging of digestive tract involvement in cystic fibrosis. Part 2: pancreatic and gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Prieto, C.; Miralles, M.; Pozo, G. del; Martinez, A.; Manzanares, J.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal, autosomal recessive disease among the white population. Although recurrent pulmonary infections and pulmonary insufficiency are the major causes of morbidity and mortality, gastrointestinal symptoms generally present earlier and may suggest the diagnosis in the newborn or even prior to birth. The changes are attributed to the secretion of an abnormally thick mucous into the intestinal lumen, leading to the hallmark of diseases of the digestive tract: obstruction. This can be detected at birth in the form of mecanium ileus, ileal atresia, mecanium peritonitis and mecomiun plug, or present later on in childhood and adolescence as distal bowel obstruction syndrome or fibrosing colonopathy. This thick mucous can also trigger intussusception or acute appendicitis. Pancreatic insufficiency or pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is the direct cause of most of these disorders. Plain radiography is of the utmost utility in assessing the digestive tract in CF. When the disease is detected in a newborn, the recommended approach is to perform plain abdominal X-ray, followed by barium enema, always accompanied by ultrasound. In older children and adolescents, enema and ultrasound are usually sufficient, although computed tomography and magnetic resonance may sometimes be necessary. (Author) 52 refs

  16. Metabolic Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT: Host, Commensal, Probiotics, and Bacteriophage Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vitetta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Life on this planet has been intricately associated with bacterial activity at all levels of evolution and bacteria represent the earliest form of autonomous existence. Plants such as those from the Leguminosae family that form root nodules while harboring nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria are a primordial example of symbiotic existence. Similarly, cooperative activities between bacteria and animals can also be observed in multiple domains, including the most inhospitable geographical regions of the planet such as Antarctica and the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. In humans bacteria are often classified as either beneficial or pathogenic and in this regard we posit that this artificial nomenclature is overly simplistic and as such almost misinterprets the complex activities and inter-relationships that bacteria have with the environment as well as the human host and the plethora of biochemical activities that continue to be identified. We further suggest that in humans there are neither pathogenic nor beneficial bacteria, just bacteria embraced by those that tolerate the host and those that do not. The densest and most complex association exists in the human gastrointestinal tract, followed by the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and skin, where bacteria—pre- and post-birth—instruct the human cell in the fundamental language of molecular biology that normally leads to immunological tolerance over a lifetime. The overall effect of this complex output is the elaboration of a beneficial milieu, an environment that is of equal or greater importance than the bacterium in maintaining homeostasis.

  17. Underlying—Disease Risk for Antispasmodic Premedication in Older Patients Undergoing Investigations of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Saito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Improve risk management of patients undergoing investigations of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, in regard to underlying diseases and choice of premedication. According to a nationwide survey in Japan, 74% of the deaths associated with premedication were patients aged 60 years or over. Methods Subjects were 418 patients undergoing investigations of the GI tract (367 endoscopy, 51 barium contrast radiography between October 2001 and January 2004. Age distribution peaked in the 65-69 years group, and 40% of subjects were aged 65 years and over. Using a questionnaire, each subject was interviewed prior to the investigation to determine contraindications for anticholinergic agents or glucagon preparations. To confirm the risk associated with antispasmodic agents in elderly subjects, the group was subdivided into those aged under 65 years and those aged 65 and over, and compared. Results Anticholinergic agents were contraindicated in more than 50% of subjects aged 65 years and over, and glucagon was contraindicated in 11% of subjects aged 65 years and over. The proportion of elderly subjects in whom antispasmodic agents, including anticholinergics and glucagon, were contraindicated was significantly greater than for subjects aged under 65 years. Conclusions Using a written questionnaire at the time of obtaining informed consent facilitates the identification of underlying diseases and selection of appropriate premedication.

  18. Local Acetaldehyde—An Essential Role in Alcohol-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko T. Nieminen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resident microbiome plays a key role in exposure of the upper gastrointestinal (GI tract mucosa to acetaldehyde (ACH, a carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol. Poor oral health is a significant risk factor for oral and esophageal carcinogenesis and is characterized by a dysbiotic microbiome. Dysbiosis leads to increased growth of opportunistic pathogens (such as Candida yeasts and may cause an up to 100% increase in the local ACH production, which is further modified by organ-specific expression and gene polymorphisms of ethanol-metabolizing and ACH-metabolizing enzymes. A point mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene has randomized millions of alcohol consumers to markedly increased local ACH exposure via saliva and gastric juice, which is associated with a manifold risk for upper GI tract cancers. This human cancer model proves conclusively the causal relationship between ACH and upper GI tract carcinogenesis and provides novel possibilities for the quantitative assessment of ACH carcinogenicity in the human oropharynx. ACH formed from ethanol present in “non-alcoholic” beverages, fermented food, or added during food preparation forms a significant epidemiologic bias in cancer epidemiology. The same also concerns “free” ACH present in mutagenic concentrations in multiple beverages and foodstuffs. Local exposure to ACH is cumulative and can be reduced markedly both at the population and individual level. At best, a person would never consume tobacco, alcohol, or both. However, even smoking cessation and moderation of alcohol consumption are associated with a marked decrease in local ACH exposure and cancer risk, especially among established risk groups.

  19. A Mathematical model for gastrointestinal tract dosimetry, and its application to adults; Modele mathematique destine a la dosimetrie du tractus gastrointestinal - application a l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacca, G; Bazin, J P; Karhausen, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A new method is proposed for the computation of the dose delivered to any level of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of radioactive substances. The same method is used as that proposed by ICRP. The concentration of the radionuclide during the progression of the meal is the central concept of this model. A graph relates the MPC with the radioactive half life of the radionuclide and with any level of the gastrointestinal tract of adults.Soluble and insoluble radionuclides are considered. The case of daughter products is discussed in the Appendix. (author) [French] Une methode nouvelle permet le calcul de la dose delivree a un niveau quelconque du tractus gastrointestinal apres ingestion de substances radioactives. Elle utilise d une part la technique de calcul proposee par l'ICRP et de l'autre la notion de concentration du radionuclide au cours de la progression du repas. Un graphique simple met en relation la valeur de la concentration maximale admissible avec la periode radioactive du radionuclide et le niveau considere du tractus gastrointestinal de l'adulte. Le cas d'un radionuclide soluble et celui d'un radionuclide insoluble sont envisages. Un appendice traite le cas des filiations. (auteur)

  20. A Mathematical model for gastrointestinal tract dosimetry, and its application to adults; Modele mathematique destine a la dosimetrie du tractus gastrointestinal - application a l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacca, G.; Bazin, J.P.; Karhausen, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A new method is proposed for the computation of the dose delivered to any level of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of radioactive substances. The same method is used as that proposed by ICRP. The concentration of the radionuclide during the progression of the meal is the central concept of this model. A graph relates the MPC with the radioactive half life of the radionuclide and with any level of the gastrointestinal tract of adults.Soluble and insoluble radionuclides are considered. The case of daughter products is discussed in the Appendix. (author) [French] Une methode nouvelle permet le calcul de la dose delivree a un niveau quelconque du tractus gastrointestinal apres ingestion de substances radioactives. Elle utilise d une part la technique de calcul proposee par l'ICRP et de l'autre la notion de concentration du radionuclide au cours de la progression du repas. Un graphique simple met en relation la valeur de la concentration maximale admissible avec la periode radioactive du radionuclide et le niveau considere du tractus gastrointestinal de l'adulte. Le cas d'un radionuclide soluble et celui d'un radionuclide insoluble sont envisages. Un appendice traite le cas des filiations. (auteur)

  1. Comparative Molecular Analysis of Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yang; Sethi, Nilay S; Hinoue, Toshinori; Schneider, Barbara G; Cherniack, Andrew D; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Seoane, Jose A; Farshidfar, Farshad; Bowlby, Reanne; Islam, Mirazul; Kim, Jaegil; Chatila, Walid; Akbani, Rehan; Kanchi, Rupa S; Rabkin, Charles S; Willis, Joseph E; Wang, Kenneth K; McCall, Shannon J; Mishra, Lopa; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Bullman, Susan; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Lazar, Alexander J; Sakai, Ryo; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bass, Adam J; Laird, Peter W; de Krijger, RR

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed 921 adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum to examine shared and distinguishing molecular characteristics of gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas (GIACs). Hypermutated tumors were distinct regardless of cancer type and comprised those enriched for

  2. Removal of foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract in adults: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Michael; Bauerfeind, Peter; Deprez, Pierre H; Häfner, Michael; Hartmann, Dirk; Hassan, Cesare; Hucl, Tomas; Lesur, Gilles; Aabakken, Lars; Meining, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the removal of foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract in adults. Recommendations Nonendoscopic measures 1 ESGE recommends diagnostic evaluation based on the patient's history and symptoms. ESGE recommends a physical examination focused on the patient's general condition and to assess signs of any complications (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 2 ESGE does not recommend radiological evaluation for patients with nonbony food bolus impaction without complications. We recommend plain radiography to assess the presence, location, size, configuration, and number of ingested foreign bodies if ingestion of radiopaque objects is suspected or type of object is unknown (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 3 ESGE recommends computed tomography (CT) scan in all patients with suspected perforation or other complication that may require surgery (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 ESGE does not recommend barium swallow, because of the risk of aspiration and worsening of the endoscopic visualization (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends clinical observation without the need for endoscopic removal for management of asymptomatic patients with ingestion of blunt and small objects (except batteries and magnets). If feasible, outpatient management is appropriate (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 6 ESGE recommends close observation in asymptomatic individuals who have concealed packets of drugs by swallowing ("body packing"). We recommend against endoscopic retrieval. We recommend surgical referral in cases of suspected packet rupture, failure of packets to progress, or intestinal obstruction (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). Endoscopic measures 7 ESGE recommends emergent (preferably within 2 hours, but at the latest within 6 hours) therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy for

  3. Robot-Assisted Excision of a Pararectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Patient with Previous Ileal Neobladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ploumidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with surgical resection remaining the cornerstone of therapy. Pararectal lesions are considered to be technically difficult and pose in some cases a challenge. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first robotic-assisted pararectal GIST excision. A 43-year-old man was referred to our center with pararectal GIST recurrence, despite treatment with targeted therapy. Eleven years ago, he underwent extensive abdominal surgery including cystoprostatectomy with ileal neobladder diversion due to GIST resection in the rectoprostatic space. Robot-assisted surgical resection was successfully performed without the need for temporary colostomy. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful, and the pathology report confirmed a GIST recurrence with negative surgical margins and pelvic lymph nodes free of any tumor. Robotic-assisted pelvic surgery can be extended to incorporate excision of pararectal GISTs, as a safe, less invasive surgical alternative with promising oncological results and minimal injury to adjacent structures.

  4. Effects of berberine on a rat model of chronic stress and depression via gastrointestinal tract pathology and gastrointestinal flora profile assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Sun, Yangdong; Zhang, Chenggang; Liu, Haifeng

    2017-05-01

    Chronic stress and depression are challenging conditions to treat, owing to their complexity and lack of clinically available and effective therapeutic agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which berberine acts, by examining alterations to gastrointestinal tract histopathology and flora profile in a rat model, following the induction of stress. Research associating gastrointestinal flora and depression has increased, thus, the present study hypothesized that stress induces depression and changes in the gastrointestinal system. The chronic mild stress rat model was previously established based on a set of 10 chronic unpredictable stress methods. In the present study, the measurements of body weight, behavior, gastrointestinal tract histopathology and gastrointestinal flora profile were collected in order to elucidate understanding of chronic stress and depression in this region. In the present study, induced stress and the resulting depression was demonstrated to significantly decrease the body weight and sucrose preference of rats, as well as significantly increasing traverse time, vertical movement time, grooming time and motionless time in an open‑field test. Following modeling and subsequent treatment with low or high doses of berberine, the measurements were significantly different when compared with unstressed rats. Berberine appears to reverse the physical damage brought about by stress within the gastric mucosa and intestinal microvilli of the stomach, ileum, cecum and colon. Using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence‑based polymerase chain reaction analysis, several distinctive bands disappeared following modeling; however, novel distinctive bands appeared in response to the graded berberine treatment. In conclusion, the present study identified that high concentrations of berberine markedly protects rats from various symptoms of chronic stress and depression, with the potential of facilitating

  5. Feeding manipulation elicits different proliferative responses in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling and weanling rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanch A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Food deprivation has been found to stimulate cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa of suckling rats, whereas the weanling period has been reported to be unresponsive in terms of proliferative activity. In the present study we analyze regional differences in the effect of milk or food deprivation on cell proliferation of the epithelia of the esophagus and of five segments of small intestine in suckling, weanling and newly weaned Wistar rats of both sexes. DNA synthesis was determined using tritiated thymidine to obtain labeling indices (LI; crypt depth and villus height were also determined. Milk deprivation decreased LI by 50% in the esophagus (from 15 to 8.35% and small intestine (from 40 to 20% of 14-day-old rats. In 18-day-old rats, milk and food deprivation decreased LI in the esophagus (from 13 to 5% and in the distal segments of the small intestine (from 36-40 to 24-32%. In contrast, the LI of the epithelia of the esophagus (5% and of all small intestine segments (around 30% of 22-day-old rats were not modified by food deprivation. Crypt depth did not change after treatment (80 to 120 µm in 14- and 22-day-old rats, respectively. Villus height decreased in some small intestine segments of unfed 14- (from 400 to 300 µm and 18-day-old rats (from 480 to 360 µm. The results show that, contrary to the stomach response, milk deprivation inhibited cell proliferation in the esophagus and small intestine of suckling rats, demonstrating the regional variability of each segment of the gastrointestinal tract in suckling rats. In newly weaned rats, food deprivation did not alter the proliferation of these epithelia, similarly to the stomach, indicating that weanling is a period marked by the insensitivity of gastrointestinal epithelia to dietary alterations

  6. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Montalvillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  7. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Garrote, José Antonio; Bernardo, David; Arranz, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  8. Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their dietetic correction in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Yefanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 60–70 % of cases of visiting a doctor, the leading complaints from parents, who have children of the first months of life, are symptoms of discomfort from the infant’s gastrointestinal tract: regurgitation, intestinal colic, diarrhea, constipation, which in most cases are not associated with organic changes and arise in apparently healthy children, without causing significant changes in their health status. The most frequent manifestations of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract include regurgitation — passive reflux of a small amount of gastric contents into the pharynx, the oral cavity and outwards. The tendency to regurgitation, accor-ding to various authors, is observed in 20–85 % of apparently healthy infants, and in 47 % of them, it has a persistent nature. The aim of the study: to evaluate the clinical efficiency of antireflux mixture, in which non-digestible polysaccharides — locust bean gum are used as a thickening agent. Materials and methods. The study group consisted of 32 children aged 1 to 12 months with regurgitation. The intensity of regurgitation was assessed in points according to a specially developed and mo-dified scale (G. Vandenplas icnibali, 1993; Shadryn O., 2010. The main group included 20 children, who received antireflux mixture, as a thickening agent, locust bean gum was used; the comparison group — 12 infants, who received antireflux mixture, as a thickening agent, starch was used. Attention was also paid to the “therapeutic position” during feeding: the child’s semi-vertical position during feeding, keeping the child in a vertical position after feeding for at least 10 minutes. Results. The control of the efficiency of the resulting mixtures was monitored by a comparative analysis of the dynamics of complaints and objective data. After 10 days of “treatment” by nutrition and position, in the main group 5 children (25 % did not have regurgitations; in 13 children (65

  9. Reactive gastropathy is associated with inflammatory conditions throughout the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguilnik, I; Neumann, W L; Sonnenberg, A; Genta, R M

    2012-10-01

    The epidemiology of reactive gastropathy and its relationship with other conditions of the gastrointestinal tract associated with NSAID use have not been evaluated. To test the hypothesis that if reactive gastropathy shares common aetiological factors with these conditions, the analysis of a large cohort would unveil associations. We queried a national pathology database for subjects with a diagnosis of reactive gastropathy; controls were patients with normal gastric biopsies. We also extracted diagnoses of H. pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia, duodenal lymphocytosis, duodenitis, ileitis, microscopic colitis and focal colitis. Of 504 011 patients with gastric biopsies, 69 101 had oesophageal, 166 134 duodenal, 13 010 ileal and 83 334 colonic biopsies. Reactive gastropathy was diagnosed in 15.6% of patients, H. pylori infection in 10.3% and normal gastric mucosa in 16.3%. Reactive gastropathy was evenly distributed across the US and increased from 2.0% in the first decade of life to >20% in octogenarians. Compared with controls, reactive gastropathy was significantly associated with Barrett's mucosa (OR 1.21 95% CI 1.16-129); duodenitis (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.28-1.44); duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytosis (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.13-1.39); active ileitis (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.47-2.40); focal active colitis (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.33-1.86); and collagenous colitis (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.12-2.03). Reactive gastropathy, a common histopathological feature of the stomach, shows an age-dependent rise and is associated with changes of the digestive tract believed to be caused by NSAID use or duodenogastric reflux. However, a large fraction of reactive gastropathy remains unexplained; its frequent occurrence merits further efforts at elucidating its aetiology. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Sex differences in the gastrointestinal tract of rats and the implications for oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso-Pereira, Francisco; Dou, Liu; Trenfield, Sarah J; Madla, Christine M; Murdan, Sudaxshina; Sousa, Jõao; Veiga, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W

    2018-03-30

    Pre-clinical research often uses rodents as animal models to guide the selection of appropriate oral drug and dose selection in humans. However, traditionally, such research fails to consider the gastrointestinal differences between the sexes of rats and the impact on oral drug delivery. This study aimed to identify and characterise the potential sex-related differences in the gastrointestinal environment of sacrificed male and female Wistar rats. Their gastrointestinal tracts were excised and segmented into the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. The respective contents and tissue sections were collected and analysed for pH, buffer capacity, surface tension, osmolality and relative P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. The pH in the stomach of females was found to be lower than in males. Female rats also exhibited a higher buffer capacity in the caecum and colon when compared with their male counterparts. Males were found to have a higher osmolality than females in the duodenum, ileum and colon. Significant sex differences (p < 0.05) in surface tension were observed in the ileum, where females exhibited a higher surface tension. Interestingly, female rats displayed significantly higher relative P-gp expression levels (p < 0.05) when compared with male rats in the duodenum (1.24 ± 0.85 vs. 0.36 ± 0.26), jejunum (1.45 ± 0.88 vs. 0.38 ± 0.26) and ileum (0.92 ± 0.43 vs. 0.40 ± 0.18) but not in the colon (0.5 ± 0.32 vs. 0.33 ± 0.16) segments. The work reported has demonstrated the stark physiological differences between male and female rats at a physiological level, indicating how the 'sex of the gut' could influence oral drug delivery. These findings, therefore, are of critical importance in pre-clinical research and drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Endo-laparoscopic rendezvous approach for pericardia with gastric posterior wall of gastrointestinal stromal tumor: analysis of 52 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Po; Zhao, Yongjie

    2014-12-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and most frequently developed in the stomach, and surgical therapy is limited on removal of the tumor lesion. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical values of endo-laparoscopic rendezvous approach for pericardial GISTs within gastric posterior wall. Surgical outcome and clinical data of 52 patients with pericardial GISTs within gastric posterior wall treated at Tianjin Peoples' Hospital from January 2004 to October 2013 were analyzed. Endo-laparoscopic rendezvous approach was used as an operative procedure for tumor resection ranged from 10 to 50 mm. Endoscopic ultrasound, computed tomography and microscopic findings all certified the gastric spindle type GIST locating in the submucosa to muscle proper. Endo-laparoscopic rendezvous approach was attempted in 52 patients (male/female: 31/21) with median age of 51 years (25-71 years). The median operating time was 80 min (range: 40-120 min) and median intra-operative blood loss was 26 ml (range: 10-50 ml). The median hospital stay was 5 days (range: 4-6 days), while the median tumor size was 25 mm (range: 7-50 mm). All operative margins were clear. There were no recurrences or metastases of all patients in a median follow-up of 24 months (range: 6-36 months). Endo-laparoscopic rendezvous approach is considered to represent the next revolution in surgery. The new technique is reliable and effective in clinical application, due to the advantages of accurate and quick localization for pericardial GIST within gastric posterior wall.

  12. An Intra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumor, Embedded in the Pancreas, Preoperatively Diagnosed as an Extragastric Growing Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Mizuno

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman was found to have a pancreatic tumor by abdominal ultrasound performed for a medical check-up. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a hypovascular tumor measuring 30 mm in diameter in the pancreatic tail. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed. An extragastric growing gastrointestinal stromal tumor was thereby diagnosed preoperatively, and surgical resection was planned. Laparoscopic surgery was attempted but conversion to open surgery was necessitated by extensive adhesions, and distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and partial gastrectomy were performed. The histological diagnosis was an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor. A desmoid tumor is a fibrous soft tissue tumor arising in the fascia and musculoaponeurotic tissues. It usually occurs in the extremities and abdominal wall, and only rarely in the abdominal cavity. We experienced a case with an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor that was histologically diagnosed after laparotomy, which had been preoperatively diagnosed as an extragastric growing gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Although rare, desmoid tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumors. Herein, we report this case with a literature review.

  13. Single bioreactor gastrointestinal tract simulator for study of survival of probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumeri, Ingrid; Arike, Liisa; Adamberg, Kaarel; Paalme, Toomas

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an in vitro model system to evaluate the probiotic potential of food. A single bioreactor system-gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS) was chosen for process simulation on account of its considerable simplicity compared to multi-vessel systems used in previous studies. The bioreactor was evaluated by studying the viability of four known probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) as a function of their physiological state. L. acidophilus and L. johnsonii survived in GITS better when introduced at an early stationary or exponential phase compared to being previously stored for 2 weeks at 4 degrees C. These two species were more resistant to bile salts and survived better than L. casei and L. rhamnosus GG. The latter two species gave large losses (up to 6 log) in plate counts independent of growth state due to the bile. However, experiments with some commercial probiotic products containing Lb. GG bacteria showed much better survival compared with model food (modified deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe growth medium), thus demonstrating the influence of the food matrix on the viability of bacteria. The study demonstrated that GITS can be successfully used for evaluation of viability of probiotic bacteria and functionality of probiotic food.

  14. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  15. Technical note: preservation of tissues and gastrointestinal tract portions by plastic coating or plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, K R; Holladay, S D; Luginbuhl, J M

    1992-04-01

    Two methods to preserve gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organs and tissues, plastic coating (PC) and plastination (PN), were investigated and compared. Specimens to be preserved were removed from animals within 2 h of death and immediately cleaned with water. Digesta contents were removed by flushing desired portions of GIT with water until the exiting water was clear. In the PC method, cleaned specimens were dehydrated by immersion in an isopropanol solution, dried with forced air after positioning and orientation as in situ, and finally coated on the outer and inner surfaces with a clear plastic material. In the PN procedure, specimens were filled with, and submerged in, a low-formaldehyde fixative, then dehydrated by immersion in a cold acetone solution. Dehydrated specimens were immersed in silicone and placed in a freeze drier for impregnation under low vacuum, followed by overnight gas curing with a silicone crosslinker. Finally, viewing windows were cut out with a scalpel in GIT preserved by both methods. Preserved GIT and tissues had an appearance similar to their appearance in vivo. The PC method was simple and inexpensive. Plastinated specimens were more flexible, durable, and lifelike than those preserved by the PC method. In addition, many body parts, such as muscles, nerves, bones, ligaments, and central nervous system specimens, were preserved by PN. Both methods were found to be useful tools for postmortem studies of tissues and GIT organs.

  16. Surface Proteins of Lactococcus lactis: Bacterial Resources for Muco-adhesion in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Mercier-Bonin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food and probiotic bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria, are ingested in large amounts by humans and are part of the transient microbiota which is increasingly considered to be able to impact the resident microbiota and thus possibly the host health. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures to produce dairy fermented food. Also because of a generally recognized as safe status, L. lactis has been considered as a possible vehicle to deliver in vivo therapeutic molecules with anti-inflammatory properties in the gastrointestinal tract. One of the key factors that may favor health effects of beneficial bacteria to the host is their capacity to colonize transiently the gut, notably through close interactions with mucus, which covers and protects the intestinal epithelium. Several L. lactis strains have been shown to exhibit mucus-binding properties and bacterial surface proteins have been identified as key determinants of such capacity. In this review, we describe the different types of surface proteins found in L. lactis, with a special focus on mucus-binding proteins and pili. We also review the different approaches used to investigate the adhesion of L. lactis to mucus, and particularly to mucins, one of its major components, and we present how these approaches allowed revealing the role of surface proteins in muco-adhesion.

  17. Radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract in Hodgkin's disease: the role of exploratory laparotomy and fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallez-Marchal, D.; Fayolle, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Rougier, P.; Cosset, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Out of 134 patients irradiated below the diaphragm to a dose of 40 Gy for Hodgkin's disease at the Institut Gustave-Roussy, 19 (14%) were subsequently found to present with radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract. Since five patients presented with two different injuries, 24 radiolesions were observed. Most of them (17 out of 24) were gastric or duodenal. Twelve (out of 24) were ulcers. Nine patients required surgery. A complete cure of the radiation injuries was obtained in 15 out of 19 patients. Sex, age, stage, histology or initial chemotherapy were not found to play a role in the occurrence of radiation damage. On the contrary, the role of a previous exploratory laparotomy appeared important; for the patients who underwent laparotomy and irradiation, the complication rate was 23%. For the patients treated by irradiation alone, the complication rate was 7% (p < 0.01). Fractionation was found to be another important parameter: for 52 patients treated using 3 weekly fractions of 3.3 Gy, the complication rate was 25% compared to 8% (p < 0.01) for 76 patients treated using 4 weekly fractions of 2.5 Gy. Combining these two factors, the authors found a 42% complication rate for the group of patients who underwent laparotomy and who were treated by means of 3 fractions of 3.3 Gy per week, whereas patients irradiated using 4 weekly fractions of 2.5 Gy, without any previous laparotomy, has only a 5% complication risk (p < 0.001). (Auth.)

  18. Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we monitored antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts  (GIT. We isolated Enterobacteriaceae from chicken, ducks, lambs, pigs, sheeps, cows and rabbits collected from slovakian farms. Enterobacteriaceae strains were cultivated on MacConkey agar at 35° ± 2°C at 24 hours. Pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae strains were obtained by four-way streak method on Chromogenic coliform agar. Identification of purified Enterobacteriaceae strains were done by Enterotest 24 and MALDI TOF MS. For susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used according by EUCAST. We determined the most resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains against streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, piperecillin, levofloxacine, chloramphenicol and smaller level of resistance against amikacin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacine. Equally we detected resistance to more antibiotics in one strain. The most resistance was Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Also E. coli was resistance against four antibiotics and Raoultella ornithinolytica too. Antibiotic resistance was found in other isolated strains too.

  19. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    A survey of past case reports about radiation-induced cancer in the gastrointestinal tract was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1923 revealed 80 cases of radiation-induced large intestine cancer and one case of stomach cancer. The cases of radiation-induced cancer in the large intestine had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant conditions, fibroma, ovarial cyste, myoma, endometritis and duodenal ulcer. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 460 rads. Adenocarcinoma was the histopathological finding in all cases of radiation-induced cancer in the caecum, colon and rectum, and squamous cell carcinoma in the cases of anal cancer. The latent period ranged from 1 to 31 years, with the average of 13.6 years. There were some reports of statistical studies of radiation-induced stomach cancer. Three groups were the subjects of these studies. The first group was composed of atomic bomb survivors, the second of patients who had undergone radiation treatment for ankylosing spondilitis, and the third of duodenal ulcer patients subjected to radiation treatment for the purpose of suppressing gastric acid secretion. These statistical studies showed no significant increase of the incidence of stomach cancer in the irradiated groups. (auth.)

  20. Indigenous bacteria and bacterial metabolic products in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Habib Ur; Vahjen, Wilfried; Awad, Wageha A; Zentek, Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is a dynamic ecosystem containing a complex microbial community. In this paper, the indigenous intestinal bacteria and the microbial fermentation profile particularly short chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate, and ammonia concentrations are reviewed. The intestinal bacterial composition changes with age. The bacterial density of the small intestine increases with age and comprises of lactobacilli, streptococci, enterobacteria, fusobacteria and eubacteria. Strict anaerobes (anaerobic gram-positive cocci, Eubacterium spp., Clostridium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Fusobacterium spp. and Bacteroides) are predominating caecal bacteria in young broilers. Data from culture-based studies showed that bifidobacteria could not be isolated from young birds, but were recovered from four-week-old broilers. Caecal lactobacilli accounted for 1.5-24% of the caecal bacteria. Gene sequencing of caecal DNA extracts showed that the majority of bacteria belonged to Clostridiaceae. Intestinal bacterial community is influenced by the dietary ingredients, nutrient levels and physical structure of feed. SCFA and other metabolic products are affected by diet formulation and age. Additional studies are required to know the bacterial metabolic activities together with the community analysis of the intestinal bacteria. Feed composition and processing have great potential to influence the activities of intestinal bacteria towards a desired direction in order to support animal health, well-being and microbial safety of broiler meat.

  1. Alterations and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract caused by old age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayerl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The dissertation reviews the publications on 'The gastrointestinal tract in old age' since 1941. As in the 1941 publication by Heinrich, particular interest is taken in diagnostic radiology. The lower age limit of the cases described was set at 55 to 60 years. Oesophageal changes ranged from functional disturbances (e.g. atonia, changes in peristalsis, or dilatation) to chronic inflammation, displacement caused by the surrounding organs, and tumours (mainly carcinoma). Formation of diverticula takes an intermediate position. Of the gastric and duodenal changes, hiatal hermia and chronic atrophic gastritis were the most frequent. Ulcers caused by old age differ from 'common' ulcers in some respects, and the symptoms may be confused with those of gastric carcinoma. Early gastric carcinoma is another disease whose incidence increases with age. Thoracic and spinal changes may cause impressions on the stomach. The effects of old age on the time of passage of contrast media, on gastric tone, and on the shape of the stomach remain unclear. Changes caused by old age in the small and large intestine range from formation of diverticula and vascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic colitis and obstruction of the mesenteric vessels) to the frequent carcinoma of the large intestine and rectum. According to this study it has to be supposed that the degenerative atrophic processes of aging and previous diseases occurring increasingly in old age, favour the provocation of ratrogenic injuries. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Effect of encapsulation of selected probiotic cell on survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasiah Ayama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of probiotic bacteria have been led to their increasing use in foods. Encapsulation has been investigated to improve their survival. In this study, the selection, encapsulation and viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with probiotic properties in simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT condition were investigated. One hundred and fifty isolates of LAB were obtained from 30 samples of raw cow and goat milk and some fermented foods. Nine isolates could survive under GIT condition and only 3 isolates exhibited an antimicrobial activity against all food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Among them, 2 isolates (CM21 and CM53 exhibited bile salt hydrolase activity on glycocholate and glycodeoxycholate agar plates and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. CM53 was selected for encapsulation using 1-3% alginate and 2% Hi-maize resistant starch by emulsion system. Viability and releasing ability of encapsulated CM53 in simulated GIT condition was increased in accordance to the alginate concentration and incubation time, respectively.

  3. Characterizing the bacterial microbiota in different gastrointestinal tract segments of the Bactrian camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Yi, Li; Hai, Le; Ming, Liang; Gao, Wanting; Ji, Rimutu

    2018-01-12

    The bacterial community plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of animals. However, our understanding of the microbial communities in the GIT of Bactrian camels remains limited. Here, we describe the bacterial communities from eight different GIT segments (rumen, reticulum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, caecum, colon) and faeces determined from 11 Bactrian camels using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Twenty-seven bacterial phyla were found in the GIT, with Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes predominating. However, there were significant differences in microbial community composition between segments of the GIT. In particular, a greater proportion of Akkermansia and Unclassified Ruminococcaceae were found in the large intestine and faecal samples, while more Unclassified Clostridiales and Unclassified Bacteroidales were present in the in forestomach and small intestine. Comparative analysis of the microbiota from different GIT segments revealed that the microbial profile in the large intestine was like that in faeces. We also predicted the metagenomic profiles for the different GIT regions. In forestomach, there was enrichment associated with replication and repair and amino acid metabolism, while carbohydrate metabolism was enriched in the large intestine and faeces. These results provide profound insights into the GIT microbiota of Bactrian camels.

  4. Effect of Condensed Tannins on Bacterial Diversity and Metabolic Activity in the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) on rat fecal bacterial populations was ascertained in order to determine whether the proportion on tannin-resistant bacteria increased and if there was a change in the predominant bacterial populations. After 3 weeks of tannin diets the proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria increased significantly (P tannin diet and to 47.2% ± 5.1% with a 2% tannin diet. The proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria returned to preexposure levels in the absence of dietary tannins. A shift in bacterial populations was confirmed by molecular fingerprinting of fecal bacterial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Posttreatment samples were generally still distinguishable from controls after 3.5 weeks. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands and characterization of tannin-resistant isolates indicated that tannins selected for Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. Dot blot quantification confirmed that these gram-negative bacterial groups predominated in the presence of dietary tannins and that there was a corresponding decrease in the gram-positive Clostridium leptum group and other groups. Metabolic fingerprint patterns revealed that functional activities of culturable fecal bacteria were affected by the presence of tannins. Condensed tannins of Acacia angustissima altered fecal bacterial populations in the rat gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a shift in the predominant bacteria towards tannin-resistant gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. PMID:14766594

  5. Occurrence of microplastics in the gastrointestinal tract of pelagic and demersal fish from the English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, A L; McHugh, M; Thompson, R C

    2013-02-15

    Microplastics are present in marine habitats worldwide and laboratory studies show this material can be ingested, yet data on abundance in natural populations is limited. This study documents microplastics in 10 species of fish from the English Channel. 504 Fish were examined and plastics found in the gastrointestinal tracts of 36.5%. All five pelagic species and all five demersal species had ingested plastic. Of the 184 fish that had ingested plastic the average number of pieces per fish was 1.90±0.10. A total of 351 pieces of plastic were identified using FT-IR Spectroscopy; polyamide (35.6%) and the semi-synthetic cellulosic material, rayon (57.8%) were most common. There was no significant difference between the abundance of plastic ingested by pelagic and demersal fish. Hence, microplastic ingestion appears to be common, in relatively small quantities, across a range of fish species irrespective of feeding habitat. Further work is needed to establish the potential consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A rare case of langerhans cell histiocytosis of the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uday Shankar; Monika Prasad; Om P Chaurasia

    2012-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a group of idiopathic disorders characterized by the proliferation of specialized,bone marrow-derived langerhans cells and mature eosinophils.The clinical spectrum ranges from an acute,fulminant,disseminated disease called LettererSiwe disease to solitary or few,indolent and chronic lesions of the bone or other organs called eosinophilic granuloma.Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is very rare in LCH.We present the case of a 53-year-old woman referred by her primary care physician for a screening colonoscopy.A single sessile polyp,measuring 4 mm in size,was found in the rectum.Histopathological examination revealed that the lesion was relatively well circumscribed and comprised mainly a mixture of polygonal cells with moderate-to-abundant pink slightly granular cytoplasm.The nuclei within these cells had frequent grooves and were occasionally folded.Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD-1a which confirmed the diagnosis of LCH.On further workup,there was no evidence of involvement of any other organ.On follow up colonoscopy one year later,there was no evidence of disease recurrence.Review of the published literature revealed that LCH presenting as solitary colonic polyp is rare.However,with the increasing rates of screening colonoscopy,more colonic polyps may be identified as LCH on histopathology.This underscores the importance of recognizing this rare condition and ensuring proper follow-up to rule out systemic disease.

  7. Microplastic in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast

    KAUST Repository

    Baalkhuyur, Fadiyah M.

    2018-04-24

    This study assesses the presence of microplastic litter in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of 26 commercial and non-commercial fish species from four difference habitats sampled along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea. A total of 178 individual were examined for microplastics. In total, 26 microplastic fragments were found. Of these, 16 being films (61.5%) and 10 being fishing thread (38.5%). FTIR analysis revealed that the most abundant polymers were polypropylene and polyethylene. The grouper (Epinephelus spp.) sampled at Jazan registered the highest number of ingested microplastics. This fish species is benthic and feeds on benthic invertebrates. Although differences in the abundance of microplastic ingestion among species were not statistically significant, a significant change was observed when the level of ingestion of microplastics particles was compared among the habitats. The higher abundance of microplastics particles may be related to the habitats of fish and the presence of microplastics debris near the seabed. The results of this study represent a first evidence that microplastic pollution represents an emerging threat to Red Sea fishes, their food web and human consumers.

  8. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-05-01

    A survey of past case reports about radiation-induced cancer in the gastrointestinal tract was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of the literature published since 1923 revealed 80 cases of radiation-induced large intestine cancer and one case of stomach cancer. The cases of radiation-induced cancer in the large intestine had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant conditions, fibroma, ovarial cyste, myoma, endometritis and duodenal ulcer. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 460 rads. Adenocarcinoma was the histopathological finding in all cases of radiation-induced cancer in the caecum, colon and rectum, and squamous cell carcinoma in the cases of anal cancer. The latent period ranged from 1 to 31 years, with the average of 13.6 years. There were some reports of statistical studies of radiation-induced stomach cancer. Three groups were the subjects of these studies. The first group was composed of atomic bomb survivors, the second of patients who had undergone radiation treatment for ankylosing spondilitis, and the third of duodenal ulcer patients subjected to radiation treatment for the purpose of suppressing gastric acid secretion. These statistical studies showed no significant increase of the incidence of stomach cancer in the irradiated groups.

  9. Live Probiotic Cultures and the Gastrointestinal Tract: Symbiotic Preservation of Tolerance Whilst Attenuating Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVitetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co–operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome. A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others has been exploited to highlight mitochondria as arising from a bacterial progenitor. As such the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activity. This is embodied, by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotes (alphaproteobacteria contribution, a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. During the twentieth century there was an increasing dependency on anti–microbials as mainline therapy against bacterial infections. It is only comparatively recently that the essential roles played by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiome in animal health and development has been recognized as opposed to the GIT microbiome being a toxic collection of micro–organisms. It is now well documented that t

  10. Metamorphosis of Ichthyophonus Schizonts Transiting the Gastrointestinal Tract of Experimentally Exposed Rainbow Trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R M; LaPatra, S E

    2017-12-08

    Other than the initial infectious cell, schizonts are the only stage of the parasite Ichthyophonus sp. that has been identified in the tissues of a living host, and they are known to initiate new infections when ingested by a suitable host. However, after feeding Ichthyophonus-infected tissue to Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, we observed that once infection was initiated, some schizonts proceeded to develop into several other morphologic forms indistinguishable from those previously described from recently deceased hosts, decomposing infected corpses, and in vitro culture. It appeared that not all schizonts participated in the infection process; some initiated infection, as expected, while others passed into the intestines, where they morphed into multiple cell types (e.g., schizonts, some with partially digested or ruptured capsules, ameboid plasmodia, merozoites, hyphenated cells, and empty capsules). Some of these cells were viable when cultured, but none was infectious to naïve Rainbow Trout when administered by gavage. We posit that (1) not all tissue schizonts are programmed to perform the same function or (2) not all respond similarly to their environment. After consumption by a piscivore, those schizonts that do not initiate an infection do not die but rather metamorphose into different cell types as they transit the gastrointestinal tract and are ultimately released back into the aquatic environment through defecation. The fate of these cells after exiting the host is presently unknown, but they likely represent a segment of the Ichthyophonus life cycle. © 2017 American Fisheries Society.

  11. Endoscopic Management of Foreign Bodies in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhael Bekkerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion is a common diagnosis that presents in emergency departments throughout the world. Distinct foreign bodies predispose to particular locations of impaction in the gastrointestinal tract, commonly meat boluses in the esophagus above a preexisting esophageal stricture or ring in adults and coins in children. Several other groups are at high risk of foreign body impaction, mentally handicapped individuals or those with psychiatric illness, abusers of drugs or alcohol, and the geriatric population. Patients with foreign body ingestion typically present with odynophagia, dysphagia, sensation of having an object stuck, chest pain, and nausea/vomiting. The majority of foreign bodies pass through the digestive system spontaneously without causing any harm, symptoms, or necessitating any further intervention. A well-documented clinical history and thorough physical exam is critical in making the diagnosis, if additional modalities are needed, a CT scan and diagnostic endoscopy are generally the preferred modalities. Various tools can be used to remove foreign bodies, and endoscopic treatment is safe and effective if performed by a skilled endoscopist.

  12. Consideration of the Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract in the Choice of Species for Regulatory Juvenile Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Noel John

    2018-01-15

    Although the rat is close to being the automatic choice for regulatory juvenile toxicity studies, there are several shortcomings in this model. Choosing a species should take into serious consideration the importance of gastrointestinal tract development in the period before weaning as this may have a major effect on exposure. A comparison of the anatomical changes in the stomach and small intestine of mini-pig and rat show that the mini-pig is a far closer model for man than is the rat, although there are a few unusual aspects of small intestinal development in the mini-pig. Considerations of the development of the gastrointestinal tract and choice of species have the potential to affect safety assessment and should be a prime consideration when planning an investigation. Birth Defects Research 110:56-62, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The distribution of advanced glycation end products and their receptor in the gastrointestinal tract in the rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to provide a basis for further study of the association between AGE/RAGE and diabetic GI dysfunction. METHODS: The distribution of AGEs [N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)......To investigate the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to provide a basis for further study of the association between AGE/RAGE and diabetic GI dysfunction. METHODS: The distribution of AGEs [N epsilon......-(carboxymethyl) lysine and N epsilon-(carboxyethyl) lysine] and RAGE were detected in the esopha-geal, gastric, duodenal, jejunal, ileal, colonic and rectal tissues of normal adult Wistar rats using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In the esophagus, AGEs and RAGE were mainly distributed in striated muscle cells...

  14. Repair of accurate radiation damage and development and consequence of chronic radiation damage of the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlert, W; Brendlein, F [Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Experimentelle Pathologie

    1976-01-01

    The first part of the essay deals with structural, proliferation kinetic, and functional considerations important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of radiolesions and their repair. Then acute radiolesions of the vesophagus, the gastric mucosa and the mucosa of the small intestine and the colon as well as its repair are discussed with reference to experiments on rats. Another chapter deals with the histo- and pathogenesis of chronic radiolesions and the development of radiolesions in the capillary system. Late radiolesions in the vesophagus and phrenic ampulla, in the glandular stomach, duodenum and jejunum, colon and capillary and vessel system in the gastro-intestinal tract of rats are discussed in detail. Finally the importance of chronic radiolesions in the gastro-intestinal tract for civil protection is shown. It is required to protect persons with primary radiolesions from infections during the following time and to assure cell regeneration by suitable nutrition.

  15. miRNA-218-loaded carboxymethyl chitosan - Tocopherol nanoparticle to suppress the proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Lin; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Zi-Zhen; Tang, De-Feng; Zhang, Ye-Qian [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127 (China); Cao, Hui, E-mail: caohui10281@163.com [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Gang, E-mail: zhangzhiganggz@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are one of the most common forms of mesenchymal cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Although chemotherapeutic drugs inhibited the proliferation of GIST, however, sizable proportion of people developed resistance and therefore difficult to treat. In the present study, O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMC)-tocopherol polymer conjugate was synthesized and formulated into stable polymeric nanoparticles. The main aim of present study was to increase the therapeutic efficacy of miR-218 in GIST. The mean size of nanoparticles was ~ 110 nm with a spherical shape. The miR-218 NP has been shown inhibit the cell proliferation and exhibited a superior cell apoptosis. The miR-218 NP inhibited the cell invasion and promoted the apoptosis of GIST cancer cells. In the present study, we have successfully showed that KIT1 is the target gene of miR-218 as shown by the luciferase reporter assay. These findings collectively suggest the miR-218 loaded nanoparticle by virtue of effective transfection could act as a tumor suppressor miRNA in the treatment of GIST. - Highlights: • O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMC)-tocopherol polymer conjugate was synthesized and formulated in nanoparticles. • The miR-218 NP has been shown inhibit the cell proliferation and exhibited a superior cell apoptosis. • We have successfully showed that KIT1 is the target gene of miR-218 as shown by the luciferase reporter assay.

  16. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors with Unusual Localization: Report of Three Cases with a Brief Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sunar, Haldun; Hut, Adnan; Kocakusak, Ahmet; Pergel, Ahmet; Barut, Gul; Dikici, Suleyman

    2010-07-26

    The most common tumors derived from the mesenchyme of the gastrointestinal system are stromal tumors. These tumors are typically seen in the stomach and small intestine and less frequently in the colon, rectum and esophagus and are very rarely located outside the gastrointestinal system. Cure is provided with complete surgical resection with resection borders free of tumor. Tumor size, mitotic index, localization, CD117 and CD34 negativity in immunohistochemical studies, mucosal ulceration and presence of necrosis help to predict recurrence of the illness and patient survival. In high-risk gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) there is an increased rate of recurrence and shortened survival despite complete surgical resection. Thus patients with a high-risk GIST should be given adjuvant therapy with imatinib mesylate. Sunitinib maleate is another FDA-approved agent only for cases who cannot tolerate imatinib or who are resistant to it. Herein we present three cases with GISTs in different locations of the gastrointestinal system with a review of the relevant literature.

  17. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors with Unusual Localization: Report of Three Cases with a Brief Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Fikret Yucel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The most common tumors derived from the mesenchyme of the gastrointestinal system are stromal tumors. These tumors are typically seen in the stomach and small intestine and less frequently in the colon, rectum and esophagus and are very rarely located outside the gastrointestinal system. Cure is provided with complete surgical resection with resection borders free of tumor. Tumor size, mitotic index, localization, CD117 and CD34 negativity in immunohistochemical studies, mucosal ulceration and presence of necrosis help to predict recurrence of the illness and patient survival. In high-risk gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs there is an increased rate of recurrence and shortened survival despite complete surgical resection. Thus patients with a high-risk GIST should be given adjuvant therapy with imatinib mesylate. Sunitinib maleate is another FDA-approved agent only for cases who cannot tolerate imatinib or who are resistant to it. Herein we present three cases with GISTs in different locations of the gastrointestinal system with a review of the relevant literature.

  18. The Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in the Diagnostic Assessment of Subepithelial Lesions of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Dias de Castro

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: EUS is the method of choice in the study of subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, in most cases defining a diagnosis. The need for a definitive diagnosis or therapeutic approaches can be based on ultrasound risk features, presented, in the majority, at presentation. This study shows that EUS is capable of safely and accurately define those subepithelial lesions that can be managed only with surveillance ultrasound while waiting for better results with fine needle aspiration.

  19. Quality of life and its related factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Heydari Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Quality of life (QoL is an important issue in all cancer patients; especially in patients with metastatic cancer. But there is very little information available about QoL in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and its associated factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 250 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer were recruited from the one oncology center related to the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, between March 2012 and August 2013. Their QoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire (Persian version. Results: In this study, the overall QoL score of patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer was 57.63, which was relatively optimal. There was a statistically significant relationship between symptoms scale and general health status domains of quality of life with age ( P < 0.05. Also, there was a significant association between patients′ gender and their social functioning ( P = 0.017 and also their emotional functioning ( P = 0.015. Conclusions: The findings suggest that in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers, the most affected functions in their QoL were social and emotional functioning which get worse with age. Thus, providing psychological counseling and psychotherapy services to deliver culturally appropriate mental health care and social support for these patients and their families′ which can lead to the improvement of QoL in these patients is strongly recommended.

  20. Adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil after curative resection of cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: phase III trial of the EORTC gastrointestinal tract cancer cooperative group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenbijl, J. H.; Jeekel, J.; Sahmoud, T.; van Pel, R.; Couvreur, M. L.; Veenhof, C. H.; Arnaud, J. P.; Gonzalez, D. G.; de Wit, L. T.; Hennipman, A.; Wils, J.

    1999-01-01

    The survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil versus observation alone after surgery was investigated in patients with pancreatic head and periampullary cancers. A previous study of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in these cancers by the Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer

  1. Histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), captured in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasruddin, Nurrul Shaqinah; Azmai, Mohammad Noor Amal; Ismail, Ahmad; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to record the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), captured in Peninsular Malaysia. The gastrointestinal tract was segmented into the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. Then, the oesophagus was divided into five (first to fifth), the stomach into two (cardiac and pyloric), and the intestine into four segments (anterior, intermediate, posterior, and rectum) for histological examinations. The stomach had significantly taller villi and thicker inner circular muscles compared to the intestine and oesophagus. The lamina propria was thickest in stomach, significantly when compared with oesophagus, but not with the intestine. However, the intestine showed significantly thicker outer longitudinal muscle while gastric glands were observed only in the stomach. The histological features were closely associated with the functions of the different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of A. b. bicolor are consistent with the feeding habit of a carnivorous fish.

  2. Actions of crude hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia sp on gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Setim Freitas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The plants that compound the Pfaffia genus are used in folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. This study examined the effects of a crude hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia sp on the gastrointestinal tract. Female Wistar rats were pretreated orally (p.o. with the hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia (0.5, 1 and 2 g.kg-1 before the induction of ulcer with hypothermic restraint stress (HRS, ethanol (ET or indomethacin (IND. Control animals received water (C or ranitidine (60mg/kg p.o. The hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia (0.5, 1 and 2 mg.kg-1 protected rats against HRS and ET - induced ulcers, but was not able to protect the gastric mucosa against IND - induced ulcers. When injected into the duodenal lumen, the hydroalcoholic extract of Pfaffia inhibited basal and stimulated acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. These results indicate that this plant has a protective action against gastric lesions of the mucosa involving the reduction of gastric acid secretion.As plantas que compõem o gênero Pfaffia são utilizadas na medicina popular para tratar distúrbios gástricos. O presente estudo verificou os efeitos de um extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp sobre o trato gastrointestinal. Ratos Wistar fêmeas, foram pré-tratados por via oral (p.o. com o extrato hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp (0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 g/kg 1 hora antes da indução de úlceras com estresse por imobilização e frio, com etanol 70% ou indometacina. Animais controle receberam água (C ou ranitidina (R: 60mg/kg - p.o. O tratamento com o extrato protegeu a mucosa gástrica contra o aparecimento de úlceras induzidas por estresse e etanol, mas não foi capaz de proteger a mucosa contra úlceras induzidas por indometacina. Quando injetado pela via intraduodenal (na luz do duodeno - i.d., o extrato hidroalcoólico de Pfaffia sp inibiu tanto a secreção ácida gástrica basal quanto a estimulada com histamina e betanecol (drogas agonistas, em ratas com ligadura de piloro. Os

  3. [Diagnosis and surgical management in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomulescu, V; Stănciulea, O; Dima, S; Herlea, V; Stoica Mustafa, E; Dumitraşcu, T; Pechianu, C; Popescu, I

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors, known as carcinoid tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They secrete peptides and neuroamines that cause specific clinical syndromes. Assessment of specific or general tumors markers offers high sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis and they also have prognostic significance. Management strategies include curative surgery, whenever possible-that can be rarely achieved, palliative surgery, chemotherapy, radiologic therapy, such as radiofrequency ablation and chemoembolisations and somatostatin analogues therapy in order to control the symptoms. The aim of this paper is to review recent publications in this field and to give recommendations that take into account current advances in order to facilitate improvement in management and outcome.

  4. Extra-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Presenting as an Anterior Chest Wall Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyeon Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old man was referred for an anterior chest wall mass. Chest computed tomography (CT and positron emission tomography-CT suggested a malignant tumor. Surgical biopsy through a vertical subxiphoid incision revealed an extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST. En bloc resection of the tumor, including partial resection of the sternum, costal cartilage, pericardium, diaphragm, and peritoneum, was performed. Pathologic evaluation revealed a negative resection margin and confirmed the tumor as an EGIST. On postoperative day 17, the patient was discharged without any complications. At the 2-week follow-up, the patient was doing well and was asymptomatic.

  5. The pan-genome of Lactobacillus reuteri strains originating from the pig gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Udo; MacKenzie, Donald A; Zheng, Jinshui; Goesmann, Alexander; Roos, Stefan; Swarbreck, David; Walter, Jens; Crossman, Lisa C; Juge, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a gut symbiont of a wide variety of vertebrate species that has diversified into distinct phylogenetic clades which are to a large degree host-specific. Previous work demonstrated host specificity in mice and begun to determine the mechanisms by which gut colonisation and host restriction is achieved. However, how L. reuteri strains colonise the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of pigs is unknown. To gain insight into the ecology of L. reuteri in the pig gut, the genome sequence of the porcine small intestinal isolate L. reuteri ATCC 53608 was completed and consisted of a chromosome of 1.94 Mbp and two plasmids of 138.5 kbp and 9.09 kbp, respectively. Furthermore, we generated draft genomes of four additional L. reuteri strains isolated from pig faeces or lower GI tract, lp167-67, pg-3b, 20-2 and 3c6, and subjected all five genomes to a comparative genomic analysis together with the previously completed genome of strain I5007. A phylogenetic analysis based on whole genomes showed that porcine L. reuteri strains fall into two distinct clades, as previously suggested by multi-locus sequence analysis. These six pig L. reuteri genomes contained a core set of 1364 orthologous gene clusters, as determined by OrthoMCL analysis, that contributed to a pan-genome totalling 3373 gene clusters. Genome comparisons of the six pig L. reuteri strains with 14 L. reuteri strains from other host origins gave a total pan-genome of 5225 gene clusters that included a core genome of 851 gene clusters but revealed that there were no pig-specific genes per se. However, genes specific for and conserved among strains of the two pig phylogenetic lineages were detected, some of which encoded cell surface proteins that could contribute to the diversification of the two lineages and their observed host specificity. This study extends the phylogenetic analysis of L. reuteri strains at a genome-wide level, pointing to distinct evolutionary trajectories of porcine L. reuteri

  6. Spontaneous Rupture of Recurrent Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Mae Wang

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST among neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1 patients is approximately 3.9–25%, and this relationship is generally considered to be non-coincidental. We report a patient with NF-1 who underwent laparotomy 3 times due to recurrent intra-abdominal tumor rupture with internal bleeding in the space of 13 years. The pathologic diagnoses were schwannoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and GIST. Because of the similar histologic features of these tumors, we considered them to be of the same nature. Immunohistochemical staining can help in the differential diagnosis. We suggest that NF-1 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms receive further survey to rule out GISTs.

  7. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract

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    Burkhard eSchütz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFPChAT and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFPChAT cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFPChAT cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFPChAT cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1 was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFPChAT cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT. EGFPChAT cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5, and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1 and 2 (COX2. The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFPChAT cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFPChAT brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  8. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Burkhard; Jurastow, Innokentij; Bader, Sandra; Ringer, Cornelia; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Diener, Martin; Kummer, Wolfgang; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Weihe, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFP (ChAT) ) and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFP (ChAT) cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFP (ChAT) cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFP (ChAT) cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1) was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFP (ChAT) cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). EGFP (ChAT) cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18), transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1) and 2 (COX2). The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFP (ChAT) cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFP (ChAT) brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  9. Serum lipid profiles, total tract nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tolerance by dogs of α-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M A; Bauer, L L; Garleb, K A; Fahey, G C; de Godoy, M R C

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to quantify gastrointestinal tolerance, total tract nutrient digestibility, and serum lipid profiles of dogs as affected by α-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation and to validate the accuracy of fat analyses techniques using novel ACD-fat complexes. The ACD was hydrolyzed and free sugars and hydrolyzed monosaccharides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Known amount of fats were complexed with ACD, and fat content of complexes were determined using the ether extraction and acid-hydrolyzed fat methods. Nine mixed-breed hounds were used in a crossover design with 3 periods of 10 d each, including 6 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection. Dogs were fed twice daily a diet with poultry byproduct meal and brewer's rice as the main ingredients, and chromic oxide (0.2%) was included as a digestion marker. Dogs were supplemented with either 0, 3, or 6 g of ACD diluted in 15 mL of water twice per day for a total of 0, 6, and 12 g ACD per day. The ACD had a very low free sugar concentration and, once hydrolyzed, released only glucose, as expected. Average daily food intake, fecal output (DM basis), and fecal scores were not significantly different among treatments. Body weight and condition score and serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations remained unaltered throughout the duration of the experiment. Dry matter, OM, and fat digestibility coefficients were lower (P < 0.05) for both treatment groups compared to the control. The acid-hydrolyzed fat method was valid to measure fat that was bound to ACD. Intake of ACD lowered fat digestibility somewhat but not to the extent previously reported, without affecting serum lipid concentrations or outcomes related to tolerance. Therefore, ACD supplementation resulted in a small decrease in fat digestibility, but ACD supplementation might have potential in modifying serum lipid profiles.

  10. Design of a video capsule endoscopy system with low-power ASIC for monitoring gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Lu, Li

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been a state-of-the-art tool to examine disorders of the human gastrointestinal tract painlessly. However, system miniaturization, enhancement of the image-data transfer rate and power consumption reduction for the capsule are still key challenges. In this paper, a video capsule endoscopy system with a low-power controlling and processing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is designed and fabricated. In the design, these challenges are resolved by employing a microimage sensor, a novel radio frequency transmitter with an on-off keying modulation rate of 20 Mbps, and an ASIC structure that includes a clock management module, a power-efficient image compression module and a power management unit. An ASIC-based prototype capsule, which measures Φ11 mm × 25 mm, has been developed here. Test results show that the designed ASIC consumes much less power than most of the other WCE systems and that its total power consumption per frame is the least. The image compression module can realize high near-lossless compression rate (3.69) and high image quality (46.2 dB). The proposed system supports multi-spectral imaging, including white light imaging and autofluorescence imaging, at a maximum frame rate of 24 fps and with a resolution of 400 × 400. Tests and in vivo trials in pigs have proved the feasibility of the entire system, but further improvements in capsule control and compression performance inside the ASIC are needed in the future.

  11. Nutritional programming of gastrointestinal tract development. Is the pig a good model for man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloteau, Paul; Zabielski, Romuald; Hammon, Harald M; Metges, Cornelia C

    2010-06-01

    The consequences of early-life nutritional programming in man and other mammalian species have been studied chiefly at the metabolic level. Very few studies, if any, have been performed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) as the target organ, but extensive GIT studies are needed since the GIT plays a key role in nutrient supply and has an impact on functions of the entire organism. The possible deleterious effects of nutritional programming at the metabolic level were discovered following epidemiological studies in human subjects, and confirmed in animal models. Investigating the impact of programming on GIT structure and function would need appropriate animal models due to ethical restrictions in the use of human subjects. The aim of the present review is to discuss the use of pigs as an animal model as a compromise between ethically acceptable animal studies and the requirement of data which can be interpolated to the human situation. In nutritional programming studies, rodents are the most frequently used model for man, but GIT development and digestive function in rodents are considerably different from those in man. In that aspect, the pig GIT is much closer to the human than that of rodents. The swine species is closely comparable with man in many nutritional and digestive aspects, and thus provides ample opportunity to be used in investigations on the consequences of nutritional programming for the GIT. In particular, the 'sow-piglets' dyad could be a useful tool to simulate the 'human mother-infant' dyad in studies which examine short-, middle- and long-term effects and is suggested as the reference model.

  12. Functional Development of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Hormone- and Growth Factor-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ménard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the control of gastrointestinal (GI tract development. The first section addresses the differences in general mechanisms of GI development in humans versus rodents, highlighting that morphogenesis of specific digestive organs and the differentiation of digestive epithelia occur not only at different stages of ontogeny but also at different rates. The second section provides an overview of studies from the author's laboratory at the Université de Sherbrooke pertaining to the development of the human fetal small intestine and colon. While both segments share similar morphological and functional characteristics, they are nevertheless modulated by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Using the organ culture approach, the author and colleagues were able to establish that hormones and growth factors, such as glucocorticoids, epidermal growth factor, insulin and keratinocyte growth factor, not only exert differential effects within these two segments, they can also trigger opposite responses in comparison with animal models. In the third section, emphasis is placed on the functional development of human fetal stomach and its various epithelial cell types; in particular, the glandular chief cells responsible for the synthesis and secretion of gastric enzymes such as pepsinogen-5 and gastric lipase. Bearing in mind that limitations of available cell models have, until now, greatly impeded the comprehension of molecular mechanisms regulating human gastric epithelial cell functions, the last section focuses on new human gastric epithelial cell models recently developed in the author's laboratory. These models comprise a novel primary culture system of human fetal gastric epithelium including, for the first time, functional chief cells, and human gastric epithelium cell lines cloned from the parental NCI-N87 strain. These new cells lines could serve important applications in the study of pathogenic action and epithelial

  13. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Helicobacter pylori population characteristic in patients with diseases of gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhebrun, A B; Svarval', A V; Balabash, O A; Ferman, R S

    2013-01-01

    Study H. pylori strains circulating in St. Petersburg among patients with various gastrointestinal tract pathology as well as study of frequency of infection by H. pylori based on serological markers data among this group of patients. By using serological method 162 individuals with various chronic diseases of stomach and duodenum were examined. The presence in blood serum of IgG against H. pylori bacterial antigen and IgG against its toxin--CagA was studied. 129 patients were examined bacteriologically, biopsy samples of stomach mucous membrane were studied. PCR in real time format was used for study of H. pylori strains (49) and biopsy samples (36) of stomach mucous membrane. The analysis performed showed that on the territory of St. Petersburg H. pylori strains containing cagA gene predominate (81.63% of the isolated strains). Genotyping of strains by vacA showed that s1m1 genotype was more frequent (in 57.14% of cases). The fraction of CagA positive strains in patients in St. Petersburg is maximum for stomach cancer (90.8%), whereas for peptic ulcer disease and gastritis it is 64.7% and 72.2%, respectively. In patients with stomach and duodenum pathology the parameters of seropositivity for H. pylori were significantly higher than in individuals without clinical manifestations of H. pylori infection (86.72% against 65.09%; p < 0.05). The data obtained on increase of fraction of CagA positive strains among H. pylori circulating in St. Petersburg determine the importance of conducting eradication H. pylori.

  15. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  16. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Aldair JW

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania. The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance.

  17. Prospective evaluation of a clinical guideline recommending hospital length of stay in upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, J A; Maldonado, L; Weingarten, S R; Ellrodt, A G

    Upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage (UGIH) is a common and potentially life-threatening disorder. Resource utilization can vary without adverse effect on patient outcome. Clinical practice guidelines are a potential solution to reduce variation in practice while improving patient outcomes. To validate prospectively the safety, acceptability, and impact of a clinical practice guideline defining the medically appropriate length of stay (LOS) for patients hospitalized with UGIH. Prospective, controlled time-series study with an alternate-month design. Outcome surveyors and patients were blinded to study group allocation. GUIDELINE: A retrospectively validated scoring system using 4 independent variables: hemodynamics, time from bleeding, comorbidity, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) findings to predict risk of adverse events. The quantitative risk for the low-risk subset was 0.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0%-2.0%) for subsequent complications and 0% (95% CI, 0.0%-0.9%) for life-threatening complications from this retrospective evaluation. A 1000-bed, not-for-profit, university-affiliated teaching hospital. Consecutive adult patients hospitalized for acute UGIH. Concurrent feedback of guideline recommendation (same-day hospital discharge) to physicians caring for patients at low risk for complication. No risk information was provided during control months. Seventy percent (209/299) of UGIH patients achieved low-risk status according to the guideline and were therefore potentially suitable for early discharge from the hospital. Providing real-time quantitative risk information (intervention group only) was associated with an increase in guideline compliance from 30% to 70% (Preduction of 1.7 days per patient; P<.001). No differences in complications, patient health status, or patient satisfaction were found when measured 1 month after discharge. An independent variable predicting decreased hospital LOS for low-risk UGIH patients was early EGD

  18. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: retrospective analysis of the computer-tomographic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupescu, Ioana G; Grasu, Mugur; Boros, Mirela; Gheorghe, Cristian; Ionescu, Mihnea; Popescu, Irinel; Herlea, Vlad; Georgescu, Serban A

    2007-06-01

    To describe the computer-tomographic (CT) aspects of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in correlation to their histology. The medical records of all patients at our hospital with a histologic diagnosis of GIST between January 2002 and June 2006, and investigated before surgery by CT, were reviewed. Two radiologists with knowledge of the diagnosis reviewed the CT findings. Amongst 15 cases of GISTs, 9 cases involved the stomach and 4 cases the small intestine. Location of the primary tumor could not be determined for 2 of 15 tumors, because of the presence of extensive peritoneal metastases. Most primary tumors were predominantly extraluminal (13 cases) while two were clearly endoluminal. The mean diameter of the primary tumor was 8 cm. The tumor margin was well defined in 12 patients and irregular in 3 cases. Central fluid attenuation was present in 11 tumors, while central gas was seen in two cases. Metastases were seen in 2 cases at presentation and in another 2 patients during follow-up. Spread was exclusive to the liver or peritoneum. Visceral obstruction was absent even in extensive peritoneal metastatic disease. Ascites was an unusual finding. CT plays an important role not only in the detection and the localization but also in the evaluation of the extension and follow-up of theses tumors. Using only CT aspects, we can only suspect the diagnosis to GISTs. Often other soft-tissue tumors with gastrointestinal involvement can mimic GISTs. In all cases histological diagnosis is essential.

  19. Concentration of volatile sulphur-containing compounds along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed a high-sulphur or a low-sulphur diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Canibe, Nuria; Finster, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Volatile sulphur-containing compounds (VSC) are formed in large quantities in the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) of pigs and upon excretion from the animal; these compounds are released from the faeces causing emission of foul odour. However, very little is known about the rate and extent of t...

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal tumors using δ-ALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, E. G.; Vladimirov, B. G.; Angelov, I. G.; Avramov, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (δ-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The δ-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system (Olimpus Corp.). Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer (USB4000, OceanOptics Inc.). The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Mucosa autofluorescence lies at 450-600 nm region. The fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced at the 630-710 nm region. Deep minima in the tumor fluorescence signals are observed in the region 540-575 nm, related to hemoglobin re-absorption. Such high hemoglobin content is an indication of the tumors neovascularisation and it is clearly pronounced in all dysplastic and tumor sites investigated. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of δ-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites and gives high contrast when lesion borders are determined from clinicians during video observation in the process of diagnostic procedure. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination results of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Gastrointestinal Tract of Broiler Chickens after Propolis and Bee Pollen Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the safety aspects of antimicrobials (propolis and bee pollen use in poultry farms as growth promoters is higher susceptibility of gastrointestinal microorganisms to antibiotics used for human treatment. Enterococci belong to the normal microbiota of gastrointestinal tract of chickens and are widely distributed in nature, but they are not generally recognized as safe (GRAS. Poultry enterococci carrying antimicrobial resistance genes may not only transfer these genes to other, possibly pathogenic, bacteria in the chicken gut, but upon transfer to zoonotic bacteria they also may pose a human health hazard. Antibiotic resistance prevalence of E. faecalis isolates found in the crop was subsequently found in the ileum and caecum within each group of broiler chickens. No resistance of E. faecalis isolates was found against vancomycin and teicoplanin. Intermediate resistance to erythromycin in the most E. faecalis isolates from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens with propolis supplement in their diet was eliminated. Our results suggest the probability of synergism effect of propolis and also bee pollen with some tested antibiotics against E. faecalis isolates.

  2. Survival and synergistic growth of mixed cultures of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli combined with prebiotic oligosaccharides in a gastrointestinal tract simulator

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    Signe Adamberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics, especially in combination with non-digestible oligosaccharides, may balance the gut microflora while multistrain preparations may express an improved functionality over single strain cultures. In vitro gastrointestinal models enable to test survival and growth dynamics of mixed strain probiotics in a controlled, replicable manner. Methods: The robustness and compatibility of multistrain probiotics composed of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli combined with mixed prebiotics (galacto-, fructo- and xylo-oligosaccharides or galactooligosaccharides and soluble starch were studied using a dynamic gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS. The exposure to acid and bile of the upper gastrointestinal tract was followed by dilution with a continuous decrease of the dilution rate (de-celerostat to simulate the descending nutrient availability of the large intestine. The bacterial numbers and metabolic products were analyzed and the growth parameters determined. Results: The most acid- and bile-resistant strains were Lactobacillus plantarum F44 and L. paracasei F8. Bifidobacterium breve 46 had the highest specific growth rate and, although sensitive to bile exposure, recovered during the dilution phase in most experiments. B. breve 46, L. plantarum F44, and L. paracasei F8 were selected as the most promising strains for further studies. Conclusions: De-celerostat cultivation can be applied to study the mixed bacterial cultures under defined conditions of decreasing nutrient availability to select a compatible set of strains.

  3. Development of a technique for contrast radiographic examination of the gastrointestinal tract in ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Russo, Elisa; Finotti, Luca; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    To develop a technique for radiographic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in ball pythons (Python regius). 10 ball python cadavers (5 males and 5 females) and 18 healthy adult ball pythons (10 males and 8 females). Live snakes were allocated to 3 groups (A, B, and C). A dose (25 mL/kg) of barium sulfate suspension at 3 concentrations (25%, 35%, and 45% [wt/vol]) was administered through an esophageal probe to snakes in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Each evaluation ended when all the contrast medium had reached the large intestine. Transit times through the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine were recorded. Imaging quality was evaluated by 3 investigators who assigned a grading score on the basis of predetermined criteria. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate differences in quality among the study groups. The esophagus and stomach had a consistent distribution pattern of contrast medium, whereas 3 distribution patterns of contrast medium were identified in the small intestine, regardless of barium concentration. Significant differences in imaging quality were detected among the 3 groups. Radiographic procedures were tolerated well by all snakes. The 35% concentration of contrast medium yielded the best imaging quality. Use of contrast medium for evaluation of the cranial portion of the gastrointestinal tract could be a reliable technique for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases in ball pythons. However, results of this study may not translate to other snake species because of variables identified in this group of snakes.

  4. Examination of a Culturable Microbial Population from the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Wood-Eating Loricariid Catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

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    Harold J. Schreier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish play a critical role in nutrient cycling and organic matter flow in aquatic environments. However, little is known about the microbial diversity within the gastrointestinal tracts that may be essential in these degradation activities. Panaque nigrolineatus is a loricariid catfish found in the Neotropics that have a rare dietary strategy of consuming large amounts of woody material in its natural environment. As a consequence, the gastrointestinal (GI tract of P. nigrolineatus is continually exposed to high levels of cellulose and other recalcitrant wood compounds and is, therefore, an attractive, uncharacterized system to study microbial community diversity. Our previous 16S rRNA gene surveys demonstrated that the GI tract microbial community includes phylotypes having the capacity to degrade cellulose and fix molecular nitrogen. In the present study we verify the presence of a resident microbial community by fluorescence microscopy and focus on the cellulose-degrading members by culture-based and 13C-labeled cellulose DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP approaches. Analysis of GI tract communities generated from anaerobic microcrystalline cellulose enrichment cultures by 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed phylotypes sharing high sequence similarity to known cellulolytic bacteria including Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Bacteroides, Eubacterium and Aeromonas spp. Related bacteria were identified in the SIP community, which also included nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum spp. Our ability to enrich for specialized cellulose-degrading communities suggests that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a favorable environment for this activity and these communities may be involved in providing assimilable carbon under challenging dietary conditions.

  5. Multi-centric clinical study of the effect of intervention time on efficacy of gastroparesis external application prescription treatment of gastrointestinal tumor postsurgical gastroparesis

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    Qin Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Gastroparesis external application prescription can effectively treat gastrointestinal tumor postsurgical gastroparesis and may be more efficacious in progressive disease compared placebo. Patients with gastrointestinal tumor postsurgical gastroparesis should therefore undergo intervention at an earlier stage.

  6. The diagnostic importance of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and nestin in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kemal; Sayar, Ilyas; Gelincik, İbrahim; Bulut, Gülay; Ünal, Tuba Dilay Kökenek; Şenol, Serkan; Gökçe, Aysun; Isik, Arda

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and nestin immunomarkers, C-kit proto-oncogene (CD117), and the efficiency of the Ki-67 proliferation index for gastrointestinal stromal tumors were evaluated. Material/Methods This study was conducted by examining the microscope slides of 72 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors that were sent to the pathology laboratory between 2007 and 2012. Immunohistochemical staining for CD117, MMP-7, nestin, and marker of proliferation Ki-67 was performed. The correlations between the positive results for Ki-67, CD117, MMP-7, and nestin were evaluated relative to the tumor characteristics of size, localization, grade, cellular type, cellularity, cytology type, growth pattern, ulceration, necrosis, hemorrhage, invasion depth, and lymph node metastasis. Results The tumor was localized in the stomach in 42 of the patients, the intestines in 19, the colon in 7, and the rectum in 4. Comparisons among the groups showed that MMP-7 was correlated with the tumor grade (p<0.001), cellularity (p<0.009), cytologic atypia (p<0.001), ulceration (p=0.002), necrosis (p<0.001), and tumor size (p=0.001). Nestin was correlated with the tumor grade (p=0.013), and tumor size (p=0.024). Correlations among CD117, MMP-7, nestin, and Ki-67 were examined. Nestin and Ki-67 were both significantly correlated with CD117 and MMP-7 [(r=0.279, p=0.018), (r=0.322, p=0.006), (r=0.386, p=0.001), (r=0.386, p=0.002)], respectively. Conclusions MMP-7 and nestin may be beneficial as markers, given their sensitivity to gastrointestinal stromal tumors. PMID:24755685

  7. Place of surgical resection in the treatment strategy of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaujoux, Sébastien; Sauvanet, Alain; Belghiti, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are usually slow-growing neoplasms carrying an overall favorable prognosis. Surgery, from resection to transplantation, remains the only potential curative option for these patients, and should always be considered. Nevertheless, because of very few randomized controlled trials available, the optimal treatment for these patients remains controversial, especially regarding the place of surgery. We herein discuss the place of surgical resection in the treatment strategy in neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract.

  8. Small bowel Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors can physiologically alter gut motility before causing mechanical obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Manish S; Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis; Meyrick-Thomas, John

    2005-01-01

    Background Gastro Intestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are rare stromal neoplasms that represent the most common mesenchymal tumor of the G.I. tract, accounting for 5% of all sarcomas [1,2]. Originating from interstitial cells of Cajal, which are regulators of gut peristalsis, they are preferentially located in the stomach and the small intestine [3] and clinical presentation is variable, ranging from vague complaints to major G.I. bleeding. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for pa...

  9. PCR Expression Analysis Of the Estrogeninducible Gene Bcei in Gastrointestinal and Other Human Tumors

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    Iris Wundrack

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was developed to test for tumor cell specific expression of the BCEI gene. This new marker gene, reported at first for human breast cancer, was found specifically active in various gastrointestinal carcinomas by previously applying immunohistochemistry and RNA (Northern blot analysis. Presently, by using reverse transcription -PCR analysis, a series of primary tumor tissues and established tumor cell lines were testcd for BCEI transcription. This approach was compared to immunostaining achieved by an antibody directed against the BCEI gene’s product. The result demonstrate the superior sensitivity of PCR by indicating the gene’ s expression in cases where immunohistochemical testing remained negative.

  10. Malignant tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract as seen in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and nasal cavity are more commonly affected than the oral cavity unlike in other populations. Nonepithelial tumors are extremely rare below the age of 20 years. Key words: Malignant tumors, Nigeria, upper aerodigestive tract. Date of Acceptance: 28‑May‑2014. Address for correspondence: Dr. Sabageh Donatus,.

  11. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

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    Sarvan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of fumonisins in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, B; Schwartz-Zimmermann, H E; Gruber-Dorninger, C; Dohnal, I; Aleschko, M; Schatzmayr, G; Moll, W D; Applegate, T J

    2017-12-01

    Fumonisins (FB) are among the most frequently detected mycotoxins in feedstuffs and finished feed, and recent data suggest that the functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in poultry species might be compromised at doses ranging from 10 to 20 mg/kg, close to field incidences and below the US and EU guidelines. Strategies are therefore necessary to reduce the exposure of poultry to FB. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of fumonisin esterase FumD (EC 3.1.1.87, commercial name FUMzyme®) to cleave the tricarballylic acid side chains of FB, leading to the formation of non-toxic hydrolyzed fumonisins in the GIT of broiler chickens. Broiler chickens were fed for 14 d (7 to 21 d of age) 3 different diets (6 birds/cage, 6 cages/diet), i) control feed (negative control group), ii) feed contaminated with 10 mg FB/kg (FB group), and iii) feed contaminated with 10 mg FB/kg and supplemented with 100 units of FUMzyme®/kg (FB+FUMzyme® group). To determine the degree of reduction of FB in the GIT, 2 characteristics were analyzed. First, the sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio in the serum and liver was determined as a biomarker of effect for exposure to FB. Second, the concentration of fumonisin B1 and its hydrolyzed forms was evaluated in the gizzard, the proximal and distal parts of the small intestine, and the excreta. Significantly reduced sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratios in the serum and liver of the FB+FUMzyme® group (serum: 0.15 ± 0.01; liver: 0.17 ± 0.01) compared to the FB group (serum: 0.20 ± 0.01; liver: 0.29 ± 0.03) proved that supplementation of broiler feed with FUMzyme® was effective in partially counteracting the toxic effect of dietary FB. Likewise, FB concentrations in digesta and excreta were significantly reduced in the FB+FUMzyme® group compared to the FB group (P Poultry Science Association.

  13. Invited review: Use of butyrate to promote gastrointestinal tract development in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Zabielski, R; Guilloteau, P

    2018-03-07

    Promotion of microbial butyrate production in the reticulorumen is a widely used method for enhancing forestomach development in calves. Additional acceleration of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, both the forestomach and lower parts of the GIT (e.g., abomasum, intestine, and also pancreas), can be obtained by dietary butyrate supplementation. For this purpose, different sources (e.g., butyrate salts or butyrins), forms (e.g., protected or unprotected), methods (e.g., in liquid feed or solid feed), and periods (e.g., before or after weaning) of butyrate administration can be used. The aim of this paper was to summarize the knowledge in the field of butyrate supplementation in feeds for newborn calves in practical situations, and to suggest directions of future studies. It has been repeatedly shown that supplementation of unprotected salts of butyrate (primarily sodium salt) in milk replacer (MR) stimulates the rumen, small intestine, and pancreas development in calves, with a supplementation level equating to 0.3% of dry matter being sufficient to exert the desired effect on both GIT development and growth performance. On the other hand, the effect of unprotected butyrins and protected forms of butyrate supplementation in MR has not been extensively investigated, and few studies have documented the effect of butyrate addition into whole milk (WM), with those available focusing mainly on the growth performance of animals. Protected butyrate supplementation at a low level (0.3% of protected product in DM) in solid feed was shown to have a potential to enhance GIT development and performance of calves fed MR during the preweaning period. Justification of this form of butyrate supplementation in solid feed when calves are fed WM or after weaning needs to be documented. After weaning, inclusion of unprotected butyrate salts in solid feed was shown to increase solid feed intake, but the effect on GIT development and function has not been determined in detail

  14. Impact of Cigarette Smoking on the Gastrointestinal Tract Inflammation: Opposing Effects in Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

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    Loni Berkowitz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for gastrointestinal disorders, such as peptic ulcer, Crohn’s disease (CD, and several cancers. The mechanisms proposed to explain the role of smoking in these disorders include mucosal damage, changes in gut irrigation, and impaired mucosal immune response. Paradoxically, cigarette smoking is a protective factor for the development and progression of ulcerative colitis (UC. UC and CD represent the two most important conditions of inflammatory bowel diseases, and share several clinical features. The opposite effects of smoking on these two conditions have been a topic of great interest in the last 30 years, and has not yet been clarified. In this review, we summarize the most important and well-understood effects of smoking in the gastrointestinal tract; and particularly, in intestinal inflammation, discussing available studies that have addressed the causes that would explain the opposite effects of smoking in CD and UC.

  15. [Difficulties in diagnosis and surgical treatment of the angiodysplasia of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonea, A; Andrei, S; Andronesi, D; Ionescu, M; Gheorghe, C; Herlea, V; Hortopan, Monica; Andrei, Adriana; Andronesi, Andreea; Popa, C; Popescu, I

    2008-01-01

    Angiodysplasia (AD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a rare cause of surgical GI bleeding. It frequently poses difficult problems in diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to find answers to these problems for a better management of the AD patients. From 1982 to 2006 a total of 75 patients suffering of AD of the GI tract were operated in our center. They represent about 3.6% of total patients operated for GI bleeding in the same period. The age of the patients was between 9 and 81 years old, with two peaks: one between 21 and 40 years old and the other between 51 and 70 years old. The localisation of the lesions was: righ colon +/- ileum 31 patients (41.33%), stomach 13 patients (17.33%), jejunum 6 patients (8%), descendent colon +/- sigmoid 5 patients (6.66%), rectum 4 patients (5.33%), pan-colonic 4 patients (5.33%), sigmoid colon 2 patients (2.66%), cecum + transverse colon 2 patients (2.66%), ileum 2 patients (2.66%), sigmoid colon + jejunum 1 patient (1.33%), cecum + sigmoid colon 1 patient (1.33%), cecum +/- sigmoid colon + jejunum 1 patient (1.33%), jejunum + ileum 1 patient (1.33%), pan-colonic + rectum 1 patient (1.33%). According to Moore classifications 29 patients were type 1 (38%) and 45 patients were type 2 (60%). In one patient AD was associated with Crohn disease (type 4 Fowler). The main symptom in AD was repetitive GI bleeding, of various amplitude, often obscure in origin, the patients having many hospital entries. The medical examination that give us the best help was selective angiography which was positive in 34 of 40 patients (85%). Upper and lower endoscopy were give to 50 surgical patients, being diagnostic in 32 (64%). Histopathologic examinations confirm the diagnosis of AD in all cases, without using injection techniques. All patients were operated for symptomatic AD. Other 11 patients non included in this study were find to have angiodysplastic lesions on operatory specimens for other diseases. The main indications

  16. Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B; Batal, A B

    2012-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on broiler performance, and physical and morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Experiment 1: A total of 180 one-d-old male chicks were placed in battery brooders in 3 × 6 replicate pens containing 10 chicks each. Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments; a maize-soyabean meal based diet supplemented with 0, 0·25, and 0·50% Torula yeast RNA (as a source of nucleotides) from 0 to 16 d of age. 3. Experiment 2: A total of 1344 one-d-old male chicks were placed in floor pens and reared on recycled wood shavings (two flocks) under a high stocking density (0·068 m(2)/bird). Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 0·25% Torula yeast RNA, 2% and 6% Nupro®) for the starter period (0 to 14 d of age) with 6 replicate pens containing 56 chicks each. All the birds were fed on the same common grower diet with no supplementation of nucleotides from 15 to 32 d of age. 4. Experiment 1: Supplementing the diets with up to 0·50% Torula yeast RNA did not affect broiler performance, or relative intestinal tract weight and length of broilers at any periods measured. 5. Experiment 2: From 0 to 14 d of age, broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 0·25% Torula yeast RNA and 2 and 6% Nupro® were significantly heavier and had improved feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios as compared with the birds fed on the control diet. Supplementing the starter diet only with 2% Nupro® supplementation significantly improved body weight (BW) gain as compared with the control diet over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age). Broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 2 and 6% Nupro® from 0 to 14 d of age had better feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age) as compared with the birds fed on the control diet, even though the birds were only fed on the diets

  17. CAR-T cell therapy in gastrointestinal tumors and hepatic carcinoma: From bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Zimu; Peng, Meiyu; Fu, Shuyu; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a genetically engineered receptor that combines a scFv domain, which specifically recognizes the tumor-specific antigen, with T cell activation domains. CAR-T cell therapies have demonstrated tremendous efficacy against hematologic malignancies in many clinical trials. Recent studies have extended these efforts to the treatment of solid tumors. However, the outcomes of CAR-T cell therapy for solid tumors are not as remarkable as the outcomes have been for hematologic malignancies. A series of hurdles has arisen with respect to CAR-T cell-based immunotherapy, which needs to be overcome to target solid tumors. The major challenge for CAR-T cell therapy in solid tumors is the selection of the appropriate specific antigen to demarcate the tumor from normal tissue. In this review, we discuss the application of CAR-T cells to gastrointestinal and hepatic carcinomas in preclinical and clinical research. Furthermore, we analyze the usefulness of several specific markers in the study of gastrointestinal tumors and hepatic carcinoma.

  18. Uptake of the glycosphingolipid sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in vivo and in isolated islets of Langerhans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredman Pam

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosphingolipid sulfatide has previously been found in several mammalian tissues, but information on the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide in different organs in vivo is limited. In pancreatic beta cells, sulfatide has been shown to be involved in insulin processing and secretion in vitro. In this study, we examined the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide and its distribution to the pancreatic beta cells. This might encourage future studies of the function(s of sulfatide in beta cell physiology in vivo. Radioactive sulfatide was given orally to mice whereafter the uptake of sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract and subsequent delivery to the pancreas was examined. Sulfatide uptake in pancreas was also studied in vivo by i.p. administration of radioactive sulfatide in mice, and in vitro in isolated rat islets. Isolated tissue/islets were analysed by scintillation counting, autoradiography and thin-layer chromatography-ELISA. Results Sulfatide was taken up in the gastrointestinal tract for degradation or further transport to other organs. A selective uptake of short chain and/or hydroxylated sulfatide fatty acid isoforms was observed in the small intestine. Exogenously administered sulfatide was found in pancreas after i.p, but not after oral administration. The in vitro studies in isolated rat islets support that sulfatide, independently of its fatty acid length, is endocytosed and metabolised by pancreatic islets. Conclusion Our study supports a selective uptake and/or preservation of sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration and with emphasises on pancreatic sulfatide uptake, i.p. administration results in sulfatide at relevant location.

  19. Exosomal microRNAs as potential circulating biomarkers in gastrointestinal tract cancers: a systematic review protocol

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    Elmira Gheytanchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastasis is the most frequent type of recurrence in gastrointestinal (GI cancers, and there is an emerging potential for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, especially in the cases of metastatic GI carcinomas. The expression profiles of circulating exosomal microRNAs are of particular interest as novel non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for improved detection of GI cancers in body fluids, especially in the serum of patients with recurrent cancers. The aim of this study is to systematically review primary studies and identify the miRNA profiles of serum exosomes of GI cancers. Methods and design This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidance. Relevant studies will be identified through a comprehensive search of the following main electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar, with no language restrictions (up to July 2017. Full copies of articles will be identified by a defined search strategy and will be considered for inclusion against pre-defined criteria. The quality assessment of the included studies will be performed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS. Data will be analyzed using Stata software V.12. Publication bias will be assessed by funnel plots, Beggs’ and Eggers’ tests. The levels of evidence for primary outcomes will be evaluated using the GRADE criteria. Discussion The analysis of circulating exosomal miRNA profiles provides attractive screening and non-invasive diagnostic tools for the majority of solid tumors including GI cancers. There is limited information regarding the relationship between serum exosomal miRNA profiles and the pathological condition of patients with different GI cancers. Since there is no specific biomarker for GI cancers, we aim to suggest a number of circulating exosomal miRNA candidates as potential multifaceted GI cancer biomarkers

  20. ROLE OF ENTEROSORPTION IN COMPREHENSIVE THERAPY FOR ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASES COMBINED DAMAGE TO WITH GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.B. Belan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of acute respiratory infections remains high in childhood. It is impossible to identify etiology most accurately in each particular case. However, according to multiple studies, viruses, their associations with each other and bacteria prevail as causative agents. In addition, it is quite often that a respiratory infection, especially in minor children, is combined with a condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Apart from symptomatic and antiviral therapies in these cases, as the authors of this article demonstrated, it is advisable to use enterosorbents. This tactics results in a decreased level of intoxication, lower intensity and duration of diarrheal syndrome, i.e. more speedy recovery.Key words: acute respiratory infections, condition of gastro tract, intoxication, diarrheal syndrome, treatment, enterosorbents, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:88-90

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Misawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA mutant (ΔtagO failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin.

  2. Ecotoxicoparasitology of the gastrointestinal tracts of pinnipeds: the effect of parasites on the potential bioavailability of total mercury (THg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K; O'Hara, Todd M; Stricker, Craig A; Salman, Mo D; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances M D; Whiting, Alex; Ballweber, Lora R

    2018-08-01

    Acanthocephalans, cestodes, and some species of nematodes acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of their definitive host. These parasites are exposed to toxicants, such as mercury (Hg), through passive or active feeding mechanisms; therefore, the focus of this study was to determine if there is an effect of parasites on the dietary availability of total mercury (THg) within piscivorous pinniped hosts. THg concentrations ([THg]) in selected host tissues, parasites, and GI lumen contents from 22 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 15 ringed seals (Phoca hispida), and 4 spotted seals (Phoca largha) were determined. Among all pinnipeds, [THg] in acanthocephalans of the large intestine were significantly higher than concentrations in other samples (host lumen contents, other parasites and host intestinal wall), irrespective of location within the host GI tract. δ 15 N values of parasites depended both on parasite group and location within the GI tract. δ 15 N values were consistently higher in parasites inhabiting the large intestine, compared to elsewhere in the GI tract, for both sea lions and seals. δ 13 C values in parasites did not differ significantly from host GI tissues. Based on both [THg] and stable isotope values, parasites are likely affecting the Hg bioavailability within the GI lumen contents and host tissues, and toxicant-parasite interactions appear to depend on both parasitic taxon as well as their location within the host intestine. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. [Intestinal intussusception due to ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumor--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, S; Andrei, A; Tonea, A; Andronesi, D; Preda, C; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion due to intussusception produced by intestinal tumors is a very rare condition. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are also rare digestive neopasias, with an impredictable malignant behavior, which are usually growing outside the intestinal wall, being rarely the initiators of an intestinal intussusception. We present the case of a 59 years old female, admitted in our hospital to elucidate the etiology of her iron deficient anaemia, which developed an intestinal occlusion at the intestinal preparation for colonoscopy. The abdominal CT scan performed in emergency conditions highlighted occlusive intestinal tumor complicated with intestinal intussusception. We performed an emergency laparotomy that revealed intestinal occlusion due to ileo-ileal intussusception produced by an ileal tumor. The surgical intervention consisted in segmental ileal enterectomy including the tumor with latero-lateral entero-enteral anastomosis. The patient recovered without complications. The histopathological and immunohisto-chemical examinations established the diagnose of gastro-intestinal stromal tumor with high risk malignant behavior, therefore the patient was guided in the oncological department for specific treatment and oncological surveillance.

  4. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  5. Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Iacob, Razvan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrav Abreve, Mona

    2008-03-01

    Confocal LASER endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new endoscopic technique which allows subsurface in vivo microscopic analysis during ongoing endoscopy, using systemically or topically administered fluorescent agents. It allows targeted biopsies to be taken, potentially improving the diagnostic rate in certain gastrointestinal diseases. Worldwide experience with CLE for upper gastrointestinal malignant and premalignant lesions is still reduced. Potential clinical applications are presented, including diagnosis of NERD, Barrett's esophagus, atrophic gatritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, gastric adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps, gastric cancer.

  6. Promising novel therapeutic approaches in the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Zoltan; Thway, Khin; Fisher, Cyril; Bulusu, Ramesh; Constantinidou, Anastasia; Benson, Charlotte; van der Graaf, Winette Ta; Jones, Robin L

    2017-01-01

    Primary and secondary resistance to currently available licensed tyrosine kinase inhibitors poses a real clinical challenge in the management of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Within the frame of early phase clinical trials novel systemic treatments are currently being evaluated to target both the well explored and novel emerging downstream effectors of KIT and PDGFRA signaling. Alternative therapeutic approaches also include exploring novel inhibitors of the KIT/PDGFRA receptors, immune checkpoint and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. The final clinical trial outcome data for these agents are highly anticipated. Integration of new diagnostic techniques into routine clinical practice can potentially guide tailored delivery of agents in the treatment of a highly polyclonal, heterogeneous disease such as heavily pretreated advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Gastrointestinal Tract of “Ayam Kampung” Chicken Against Food Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Jannah, Siti; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Handayani, Dwi; Pujiyanto, Sri

    2018-05-01

    Food borne disease results from ingestion of water and wide variety of food contaminated with pathogenic organisms. The main causes of food borne diseases are bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from local chicken gastrointestinal tract with an emphasis on their probiotic properties. The colonies of bacteria that producing clear zone on MRSA plus 0.5% CaCO3, Gram-positive and catalase-negative were isolated as lactic acid bacteria. Some of the strains (10 isolates) were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and for acid pH and bile salt tolerance. The results showed that the all selected isolates producing antimicrobial compounds inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, both in the supernatant and supernatant plus 2M NaOH, and still growing in medium condition with pH 2.0 and 0.1% bile salt. It revealing the potential use of the lactic acid bacteria from chicken gastrointestinal tract for probiotics in food.

  8. The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body γ-radiation as acute doses.

  9. The microbiota of upper parts of gastrointestinal tract and its role in the development of obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of different habitats of the human body and definition of their role in the development of metabolic disorders are of great interest for investigators worldwide. The gut microbiota is an obligatory contributor to the synthesis, recirculation and metabolism of steroid hormones, lipids, and bile acids. Infectious agents and their biologically active compounds initiate the atherogenesis. Disorders of lipid metabolism are associated with a change in bacterial enterotypes. Microbiotal colonization of gastrointestinal tract starts at birth. Its composition in a newborn depends on a variety of environmental and nutritional factors, maternal health, the course of pregnancy and delivery. Infants born by cesarean section have a higher incidence of obesity, which is thought to be associated with a delay of bifidobacterial colonization of gastrointestinal tract.Reduction of bifidobacteria counts in the gut in infants below 12 months of age predisposes to obesity in later life. Children born to mothers with obesity have significant differences in the composition of the gut microflora, compared to children born to normal weight mothers. This review presents the data on the association between metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, and persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Further in-depth research in this area would increase the knowledge on the mechanisms of hormonal and metabolic disorders in childhood and may help to develop algorithms for effective treatment and preventive measures.

  10. Characterization of proteases from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis (Sasaki)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yulan; Wang, Yurong; Xiao, Lin; Lin, Xiukun

    2016-05-01

    A crude protease produced from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 is described, and its effectiveness as an additive in liquid detergent evaluated. We isolate the protease-producing Planomicrobium sp. L-2 from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis. At least three caseinolytic protease clear bands were observed in zymogram analysis. The crude alkaline protease was highly tolerant of a pH range from 7.0 to 9.0, and temperatures to 50°C after incubation for 1 h. Proteolytic enzymes were stable towards three surfactants (5% Tween 80, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.05% SDS) and an oxidizing agent (1% hydrogen peroxide), in addition to being highly stable and compatible with popular commercial laundry powered detergent brands available in China. Our study demonstrates the potential these proteases have for development into novel classes of detergent additive. This study also suggests that the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis may be a rich source of commercially valuable strains of enzyme.

  11. Electrophysiological and mechanical activity of the upper gastrointestinal tract after duodenoplasty or segmental resection of benign gastric outlet stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiper, C; Titkova, S M; Polivoda, M; Anurov, M; Arlt, G; Ottinger, A P; Schumpelick, V

    2000-03-01

    In an animal experimental study we examined the postoperative recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract after operative treatment of a benign gastric outlet obstruction. At 45 Days after induction, a duodenal stenosis was resected in six dogs, and resolved by Finney's duodenoplasty in another six dogs. Fourteen days after segmental resection, the gastric emptying was faster [half evacuation time (T1/2) for semisolid food = 44.4 +/- 16.8 min] than following duodenoplasty [T1/2 = 56.8 +/- 25.3). Here motor migrating complexes (MMCs) started in the antrum and could be traced down to the jejunum. After segmental resection we recognized MMC only distal to the anastomosis. The duration of the whole MMC cycle (69.0 +/- 18.6 min) as well as of the single phases was significantly shorter in the resection group than after duodenoplasty (108.0 +/- 15.1 min). At 28 days after operation the differences in the electromyographic findings were smaller (82.0 +/- 15.1 min vs. 111.4 +/- 11.2 min), but still significant. Obviously humoral transmitters and the extrinsic neural system lead to good propagation of the MMC across the anastomosis, even before the intramural pathways are reestablished. Concerning the fast recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract, duodenoplasty is superior to segmental duodenal resection.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tumor-Targeted Gene Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Niess, Hanno; Conrad, Claudius; Schwarz, Bettina; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Huss, Ralf; Nelson, Peter J.; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem (or stromal) cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic progenitor cells that can be obtained from bone marrow aspirates or adipose tissue, expanded and genetically modified in vitro, and then used for cancer therapeutic strategies in vivo. Here, we review available data regarding the application of MSC-based tumor-targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer, provide an overview of the general history of MSC-based gene therapy in cancer research, and discuss potential problems associa...

  13. Follow-up study and evaluation of benign stricture of upper gastrointestinal tract with interventional procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yingsheng; Li Minghua; Zhuang Qixin; Shang Kezhong; Chen Weixiong; Chen Niwei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To make follow-up study and evaluation of benign stricture of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) with interventional procedure. Methods: There were 85 cases of benign stricture of UGIT with interventional procedure. There were 35 cases with pneumatic dilation (group A), 25 cases with permanent (group B) placement, and 25 cases with temporary (group C) placement of expandable metallic stent, respectively. All cases were completed under fluoroscopy. 35 cases of group A had 67 times dilations (mean 1.9 times). Fifteen partial covered and 10 uncovered expandable metallic stents were permanently placed in the 25 cases of group B. 25 partial covered expandable metallic stents were temporarily placed in the 25 cases of group C, and the stents were drawn out via gastroscopy 3-7 days later. All stents placement and drawing were technically successful. The most strictured diameters of UGIT were 0.7-8.5 mm before dilations and 5.1-20.0 mm after dilations. Dysphagia scores of all cases were from grade 2 to 4 before dilations, and from grade 0 to 1 after dilations. Follow-up time of all cases was from 6 months to 36 months (mean 19.1 months). Results: Complications in group A included chest pain (n =10), reflux (n = 8), and bleeding (n = 3). Seven (20%) in 35 cases of group A had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months; 32 (91%) in 35 cases of group A had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months; 19(95%) in 20 cases of group A had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 36 months. Complications in group B included chest pain (n = 10), reflux (n = 15), bleeding (n = 3), and stent migration (n = 4). Five (20%) in 25 cases of group B had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months; 3(25%) in 12 cases of group B had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months; 3 (60%) in 5 cases of group B had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 36 months. Complications in group C included chest pain (n = 10), reflux (n = 3), and bleeding (n = 4). 3

  14. Current concepts in non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor soft tissue sarcomas: A primer for radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baheti, Akahay D. [Dept. of Radiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Tirumani, Harika [Dept. of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States); O' Neill, Alibhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms whose classification and management continues to evolve with better understanding of their biologic behavior. The 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) has revised their classification based on new immunohistochemical and cytogenetic data. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of the revised WHO classification of soft tissue tumors, discuss in detail the radiology and management of the two most common adult non-GIST STS, namely liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma, and review some of the emerging histology-driven targeted therapies in non-GIST STS, focusing on the role of the radiologist.

  15. Current concepts in non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor soft tissue sarcomas: A primer for radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baheti, Akahay D.; Tirumani, Harika; O'Neill, Alibhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.

    2017-01-01

    Non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms whose classification and management continues to evolve with better understanding of their biologic behavior. The 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) has revised their classification based on new immunohistochemical and cytogenetic data. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of the revised WHO classification of soft tissue tumors, discuss in detail the radiology and management of the two most common adult non-GIST STS, namely liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma, and review some of the emerging histology-driven targeted therapies in non-GIST STS, focusing on the role of the radiologist

  16. Intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio and the level of glucose and glycerol concentration differ between patients surgically treated for upper and lower perforations of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabroe, Jonas E; Axelsen, Anne R; Ellebæk, Mark B

    2017-01-01

    collected every 4th hour for up to 7 postoperative days. Samples were analysed for concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol. RESULTS: Microdialysis results showed that patients with upper gastrointestinal tract lesions had significantly higher levels of postoperative intraperitoneal glucose...... and glycerol concentrations, as well as lower lactate/pyruvate ratios and lactate/glucose ratios. In the group with perforation of the lower gastrointestinal tract, those patients with a complicated course showed lower levels of postoperative intraperitoneal glucose concentration and glycerol concentration...... and higher lactate/pyruvate ratios and lactate/glucose ratios than those patients with an uncomplicated course. CONCLUSION: Patients with upper and lower gastrointestinal tract lesions showed differences in postoperative biomarker levels. A difference was also seen between patients with complicated...

  17. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsdóttir Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

  18. Endoscopic en bloc resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor with suction excavation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai; Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon-Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first successful endoscopic resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) using a novel perforation-free suction excavation technique. A 49-year-old woman presented for further management of a gastric subepithelial tumor on the lesser curvature of the lower body, originally detected via routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Abdominal computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound showed a 4-cm extraluminally protruding mass originating from the muscularis propria layer. The patient firmly refused surgical resection owing to potential cardiac problems, and informed consent was obtained for endoscopic removal. Careful dissection and suction of the tumor was repeated until successful extraction was achieved without serosal injury. We named this procedure the suction excavation technique. The tumor’s dimensions were 3.5 cm × 2.8 cm × 2.5 cm. The tumor was positive for C-KIT and CD34 by immunohistochemical staining. The mitotic count was 6/50 high-power fields. The patient was followed for 5 years without tumor recurrence. This case demonstrated the use of endoscopic resection of an exophytic GIST using the suction excavation technique as a potential therapy without surgical resection. PMID:27340363

  19. Distribution of CD4(pos) -, CD8(pos) - and regulatory T cells in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauschmann, Martin; Prietl, Barbara; Treiber, Gerlies; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Kump, Patrizia; Högenauer, Christoph; Pieber, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal immune system is involved in the development of several autoimmune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Alterations in T-cell populations, especially regulatory T cells (Tregs), are often evident in patients suffering from these diseases. To be able to detect changes in T-cell populations in diseased tissue, it is crucial to investigate T-cell populations in healthy individuals, and to characterize their variation among different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While limited data exist, quantitative data on biopsies systematically drawn from various regions of the GI tract are lacking, particularly in healthy young humans. In this report, we present the first systematic assessment of how T cells--including Tregs--are distributed in the gastrointestinal mucosa throughout the GI tract of healthy young humans by means of multi-parameter FACS analysis. Gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were performed on 16 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 32. Biopsies were drawn from seven GI regions, and were used to determine the frequencies of CD8(+)-, CD4(+)- and Tregs in the gastrointestinal mucosa by means of multi-parameter FACS analysis. Our data show that there is significant variation in the baseline T-cell landscape along the healthy human gastrointestinal tract, and that mucosal T-cell analyses from a single region should not be taken as representative of the entire gastrointestinal tract. We show that certain T-cell subsets in the gastrointestinal mucosa vary significantly among regions; most notably, that Tregs are enriched in the appendiceal orifice region and the ascending colon, and that CD8(pos) T cells are enriched in the gastric mucosa.

  20. Assimilation of water and dietary ions by the gastrointestinal tract during digestion in seawater-acclimated rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucking, Carol; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nadella, Sunita R; McGaw, Iain J; Wood, Chris M

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies focusing on the consequences of feeding for ion and water balance in freshwater fish have revealed the need for similar comparative studies in seawater fish. A detailed time course sampling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract contents following the ingestion of a single meal of a commercial diet revealed the assimilation of both water and dietary ions (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) along the GI tract of seawater-acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which had been fasted for 1 week. Consumption of the meal did not change the drinking rate. There was a large secretion of fluid into the anterior intestine and caecae (presumably bile and/or pancreatic secretions). As a result, net assimilation (63%) of the ingested water along the GI tract was lower than generally reported for fasted trout. Mg(2+) was neither secreted into nor absorbed from the GI tract on a net basis. Only K(+) (93% assimilated) and Ca(2+) (43% assimilated) were absorbed in amounts in excess of those provided by ingested seawater, suggesting that dietary sources of K(+) and Ca(2+) may be important to seawater teleosts. The oesophagus-stomach served as a major site of absorption for Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+), and the anterior intestine and caecae as a major site of net secretion for all of these ions, except Cl(-). Despite large absorptive fluxes of these ions, the ionic composition of the plasma was maintained during the digestion of the meal. The results of the present study were compared with previous work on freshwater-acclimated rainbow trout, highlighting some important differences, but also several similarities on the assimilation of water and ions along the gastrointestinal tract during digestion. This study highlights the complicated array of ion and water transport that occurs in the intestine during digestion while revealing the importance of dietary K(+) and Ca(2+) to seawater-acclimated rainbow trout. Additionally, this study reveals that digestion

  1. Advance in diagnosis of female genital tract tumor with laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Tseng, Quen; Lian, Shao-Hui

    1998-11-01

    In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of malignant tumors with laser fluorescence, in 1996, our group successfully created the computerized laser fluorescence spectrograph type II with more reliable images shown overshadowing the naked eye method before 74 cases of female genital tract diseases had been examined by the LFS II resulting in 10 positive cases which were also proven pathologically as malignant tumors, without nay false negative, 3 cases presented suspicious positive but all were proven pathologically as non-tumors lesions, the false positive rate was 4 percent. Our work showed that the method of LFS II can provide a more rapid and accurate diagnosis for the clinical malignant tumors.

  2. Clinical analysis of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changji; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Peng; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Dachun; Ren, Tong; Yang, Jiaxin; Shen, Keng; Lang, Jinghe; Xiang, Yang; Cui, Quancai

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) in the female genital tract. From April 2001 to May 2013, the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and prognosis of 11 patients with PNET in the female genital tract were analyzed retrospectively at our hospital. The location of PNET in the 11 patients presented here included vulva (2 patients), cervix (2 patients), uterus and its ligament (5 patients), and the ovaries (2 patients). Ages ranged from 18 to 59 years (median, 31 years).The main clinical manifestations of PNET in the female genital tract are irregular vaginal bleeding (6 patients), pelvic mass, uterine enlargement, and rapidly increasing vulvar mass (8 patients), and vulvar pain and lower abdominal pain (5 patients). The CA125 levels of 8 patients were elevated before the operations and reduced to normal when the diseases were controlled, while the levels increased as the tumor was progressive. Results for the most commonly used immunohistochemistry studies revealed CD99 in 11 of the 11 tumors, synaptophysin in 6 of the 7 positive tumors, and neuron-specific enolase in 6 of the 6 tumors. Ten patients underwent surgical resection. Nine of them underwent preoperative or/and postoperative combination chemotherapy. The follow-up of 10 patients were available and ranged from 1 to 145 months (median, 30.5 months), 3 of whom experiencing recurrence. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is very rare and can originate from any part of the female genital tract. The tumors had different manifestations but the same pathologic features. CA125 may be an important marker for prognosis and follow-up of PNET of the female internal genital tract.

  3. Behcet's syndrome involving the gastrointestinal tract - a diagnostic dilemma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, D.A.; Daneman, A.; Cleghorn, G.J.; Durie, P.R.; Hamilton, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Behcet's syndrome is very rare in children, especially those under 10 years of age. Clinical and radiological features are described in 4 children, including 2 under the age of 5 years, with the syndrome. As in other pediatric cases reported, the incomplete form of Behcet's syndrome was present in each case. All 4 patients had oral and genital mucosal effects, arthritis and gastrointestinal and dermatological manifestations. Ophthalmological symptoms occurred in only 1 patient. Radiologically, the 4 cases demonstrated the spectrum of gastrointestinal involvement, from minimal irregularity and thickening of the terminal ileum to gross irregularity and deformity of the terminal ileum and cecum. Because of the difficulty in differentiating Behcet's syndrome from other forms of inflammatory bowel disease it is suggested that in children with gastrointestinal involvement, 3 major criteria be present before the diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome is made. (orig.)

  4. Tumor Estromal Gastrintestinal de Localização Esofágica: Relato de Caso/ Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Location Esophageal: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ribeiro Matsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tumores estromais gastrintestinais (GIST são considerados as neoplasias mesenquimatosas mais comuns do trato gastrintestinal (TGI. São derivados das células intersticiais de Cajal, localizadas ao nível do plexo mioentérico e responsáveis pela motilidade gastrintestinal. Podem se originar em qualquer região do TGI, sendo apenas 5% provenientes do esôfago. Casuística: Foi relatado um caso de GIST de localização esofágica em um paciente que iniciou quadro de disfagia para alimentos sólidos e odinofagia, de caráter intermitente, acompanhado de náuseas e vômitos. Foram realizadas Seriografia contrastada de esôfago, Endoscopia Digestiva Alta, Tomografia Computadorizada de Abdome, o resultado histopatológico da biópsia da lesão foi inconclusivo e o diagnóstico foi confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que expressou CD117 (KIT pelas células neoplásicas. O serviço de oncologia de referência orientou a realização de cirurgia para ressecção tumoral, porém o paciente optou pela utilização do Mesilato de Imatinib (MI, tendo apresentado melhora progressiva do quadro clínico inicial. Discussão: O tratamento padrão para pacientes com GIST não metastático é a ressecção completa da lesão, pois oferece a maior chance de cura. Entretanto, o paciente optou somente pelo tratamento com o MI. Conclusão: Concluímos que o GIST deve ser considerado nas lesões exofíticas esofágicas e que o tratamento somente com o MI pode ser considerado, mesmo sabendo que o tratamento preconizado nestes casos é a ressecção cirúrgica, associada ao MI como terapia adjuvante, com melhora da sobrevida. Introduction: The gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST considered the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. It is derived from interstitial cells of Cajal, located at the myenteric plexus and responsible for gastrointestinal motility. It can originate anywhere in the GI tract, and only 5% come from

  5. Specific Radiological Findings of Traumatic Gastrointestinal Tract Injuries in Patients With Blunt Chest and Abdominal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabi, Nima; Harmouche, Elie; Xing, Minzhi; Shuaib, Waqas; Mittal, Pardeep K; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal hollow viscus injury after blunt chest and abdominal trauma is uncommon and complicates 0.6%-1.2% of all cases of trauma. Early recognition of such injuries significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Since physical examination is not accurate in detecting such injuries, contrast-enhanced computed tomography has been the mainstay for diagnosis in many emergency departments. This pictorial essay aims to review the incidence, mechanisms, and signs of gastrointestinal hollow viscus injuries in the setting of blunt chest and abdominal trauma. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tomographic findings of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a 14-case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelandre, Gustavo Lemos; Djahjah, Maria Celia; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Marchiori, Edson; Pereira, Bruno Vilhena; Valadao, Marcus; Linhares, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the tomographic findings of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with histopathologically and immunohistochemically confirmed gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors, who had already been submitted to computed tomography scans before the treatment, were evaluated in the period between January 1999 and December 2006. The following tomographic variables were analyzed: lesion topography, size/dimensions, homogeneity, contour, margins, morphology, pattern and intravenous contrast-enhancement intensity, growth pattern, invasion of adjacent organs, presence of ulceration, fistula, calcifications, mesenteric fat infiltration, lymphadenomegaly and presence of distant metastasis. Results: Tumors were found in the body (57.1%) or in the gastric fundus (42.9%), with sizes ranging between 6.0 cm and 23.0 cm (mean, 11.5 cm). Predominantly extra luminal growth was observed in 57.1% of cases and intra/extra luminal in 35.7%. Subtle contrast-enhancement was observed in 50%, moderate in 50%, and heterogeneous in 64.3% of cases. Additionally, central hypodensity was observed in 64.3%, invasion of adjacent organs in 42.9%, and hepatic metastasis in 7.2% of cases. Conclusion: In the present study, the majority of tumors were found in the gastric body, with an average size of 11.5 cm, presenting with central hypodensity, heterogeneous contrast-enhancement and predominantly extraluminal growth. (author)

  7. Trends of Incidence and Survival of Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors in the United States: A Seer Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki L. Tsikitis, Betsy C. Wertheim, Marlon A. Guerrero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in detection and survival of hollow viscus gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs across time and geographic regions of the U.S.METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database to investigate 19,669 individuals with newly diagnosed gastrointestinal NETs. Trends in incidence were tested using Poisson regression. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine survival.RESULTS: Incidence increased over time for NETs of all gastrointestinal sites (all P < 0.001, except appendix. Rates have risen faster for NETs of the small intestine and rectum than stomach and colon. Rectal NETs were detected at a faster pace among blacks than whites (P < 0.001 and slower in the East than other regions (P < 0.001. We observed that appendiceal and rectal NETs carry the best prognosis and survival of small intestinal and colon NETs has improved for both men and women. Colon NETs showed different temporal trends in survival according to geographic region (Pinteraction = 0.028. Improved prognosis was more consistent across the country for small intestinal NETs.CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of gastrointestinal NETs has increased, accompanied by inconsistently improved survival for different anatomic sites among certain groups defined by race and geographic region.

  8. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract: Cajal and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    (electrical slow waves of depolarization) of the smooth musculature and are involved in neurotransmission. By integration of ICC functions, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the neuromuscular control of gastrointestinal motility, opening novel therapeutic perspectives. In this article...

  9. Sonic hedgehog expression correlates with fundic gland differentiation in the adult gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, G. R.; Hardwick, J. C. H.; Nielsen, C.; Xu, C.; ten Kate, F. J.; Glickman, J.; van Deventer, S. J. H.; Roberts, D. J.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an important endodermal morphogenetic signal during the development of the vertebrate gut. It controls gastrointestinal patterning in general, and gastric gland formation in particular. We have previously shown that Shh regulates gastric gland proliferation in the

  10. A study on gastrointestinal tract characteristics of ram lambs at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p99272335

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... The digestive or gastrointestinal system constitutes a series of tubular organs and associated glands ... annual temperature and relative humidity in this region vary from 8.1 to 14.2 ..... Although specific activity of pancreatic amylase was observed ... Genetic variation in starch digestion in feedlot cattle and its.

  11. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: role of spiral CT in diagnosis and evaluation of treatment with STI571

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jiawang; Zhou Linjiang; Wei Jiangong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) after oral imatinib mesylate (STI571) treatment. Methods: CT scans of 58 cases of GISTs proven by histology and immunohistochemistry were retrospectively analyzed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT of 8 patients after STI571 treatment was also evaluated. Results: The tumors originated from the stomach (n=28), small intestine (n=12), duodenum (n=6), colon (n=5), rectum (n=4), mesentery (n=2), and esophagus (n=2). Small GISTs appeared as round or oval, endo- or exophytic masses with well-defined margins and homogeneous contrast enhancement. Large lesions were often irregular infiltrative exophytic masses with heterogeneous enhancement. Ulceration, fistulization and neovascularity can be seen within the larger tumors. CT scans of 5 patients with good treatment response showed rapid transition form a heterogeneously hyper-attenuating pattern to homogeneously hypo-attenuating pattern with resolution of the enhancing tumor nodules and decreased tumor neovascularity. In 3 poor responders, CT showed enlarging or new enhancing nodules within the treated hypo-attenuating tumor, new lesions or metastasis outside the primary tumor. Conclusion: CT can demonstrate changes resulting from treatment of GISTs. It is valuable for guiding and assessing treatment response to STI571. (authors)

  12. Transfer of uranium throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract of the rat: In vivo and in vitro approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Dudoignon, N.; Baudelin, C.; Aigueperse, J.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of uranium in environment either natural or due to civil and military use, may lead to contamination of the public throughout the entire life mainly by chronic ingestion. The mechanisms of uranium transfer from alimentary bolus to blood are still not well known. In particular, few information are available on the different absorption sites along the gastrointestinal tract, the different cellular pathways (para-or trans-cellular), and the transporters implicated in the uranium absorption. In addition, the specific role of Peyer's patches, the aggregated structure of Gut-Associated Lymphoid tissue, in the intestinal transfer of uranium has never been determined. In fact, the transport of uranium through these structures specialized in antigen uptake from intestinal lumen may lead to major dysfunctions in mucosal immunity. Thus, different approaches have to be developed to determine the role of the different gastrointestinal structures and to apprehend the biological consequences of daily passage of uranium through these structures. These experiments include in vivo measurement of uranium in blood after in situ deposit of uranium (233U) in the different segments of the alimentary tract (buccal cavity, stomach, small intestine, colon) and ex vivo experiments in Using chambers to compare uranium passage from luminal to serosal side through intestinal epithelium and Peyer's patches. In vitro studies are also necessary to determine the nature of the cells as well as the transporters implicated in the gastrointestinal passage of uranium. Autoradiography experiments were performed to determine if uranium absorption was only restricted to villi which contained absorptive cells or if uranium absorption was also due to crypt cells. In addition, the transporter implicated in the uranium passage id dependent of the physico-chemical form of uranium present at the different gastrointestinal sites. When complexed to phosphate, uranium is transported by the sodium

  13. Transfer of uranium throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract of the rat: In vivo and in vitro approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Dudoignon, N.; Baudelin, C.; Aigueperse, J.

    2004-07-01

    The presence of uranium in environment either natural or due to civil and military use, may lead to contamination of the public throughout the entire life mainly by chronic ingestion. The mechanisms of uranium transfer from alimentary bolus to blood are still not well known. In particular, few information are available on the different absorption sites along the gastrointestinal tract, the different cellular pathways (para-or trans-cellular), and the transporters implicated in the uranium absorption. In addition, the specific role of Peyer's patches, the aggregated structure of Gut-Associated Lymphoid tissue, in the intestinal transfer of uranium has never been determined. In fact, the transport of uranium through these structures specialized in antigen uptake from intestinal lumen may lead to major dysfunctions in mucosal immunity. Thus, different approaches have to be developed to determine the role of the different gastrointestinal structures and to apprehend the biological consequences of daily passage of uranium through these structures. These experiments include in vivo measurement of uranium in blood after in situ deposit of uranium (233U) in the different segments of the alimentary tract (buccal cavity, stomach, small intestine, colon) and ex vivo experiments in Using chambers to compare uranium passage from luminal to serosal side through intestinal epithelium and Peyer's patches. In vitro studies are also necessary to determine the nature of the cells as well as the transporters implicated in the gastrointestinal passage of uranium. Autoradiography experiments were performed to determine if uranium absorption was only restricted to villi which contained absorptive cells or if uranium absorption was also due to crypt cells. In addition, the transporter implicated in the uranium passage is dependent of the physico-chemical form of uranium present at the different gastrointestinal sites. When complexed to phosphate, uranium is transported by the

  14. Phytase in non-ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on phytase activities in the gastrointestinal tract and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersjant-Li, Yueming; Awati, Ajay; Schulze, Hagen; Partridge, Gary

    2015-03-30

    This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non-ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities are mainly in the stomach. Many factors can influence the efficiency of feed phytase in the gastrointestinal tract, and they can be divided into three main groups: (i) phytase related; (ii) dietary related and (iii) animal related. Phytase-related factors include type of phytase (e.g. 3- or 6-phytase; bacterial or fungal phytase origin), the pH optimum and the resistance of phytase to endogenous protease. Dietary-related factors are mainly associated with dietary phytate content, feed ingredient composition and feed processing, and total P, Ca and Na content. Animal-related factors include species, gender and age of animals. To eliminate the antinutritional effects of phytate (IP6), it needs to be hydrolyzed as quickly as possible by phytase in the upper part of the digestive tract. A phytase that works over a wide range of pH values and is active in the stomach and upper intestine (along with several other characteristics and in addition to being refractory to endogenous enzymes) would be ideal. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Cell kinetics of gastrointestinal tumors after different nutritional regimens. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, F.; Rossi-Fanelli, F.; Seminara, P.; Cascino, A.; Barone, C.; Scucchi, L.

    1991-01-01

    Forty-four cases of different untreated gastrointestinal tumors were studied with regard to cell kinetic activity. As a pilot experiment, the authors also determined the 3H-TdR Labeling Index (LI) in 28 patients in basal conditions and after 15 days of nutritional manipulation with prevalently lipid-based or glucose-based feeding to ascertain whether selective nutritional regimens could affect tumor proliferation. Preliminary results from this study indicate that a kinetic perturbation is induced in tumor cells by nutritional manipulation. Lipid-based feeding seems to produce effects similar to those of chemical or physical anticancer agents, thus suggesting a possible supporting role of nutritional manipulation in cancer treatment strategy

  16. Advanced glycation end-product expression is upregulated in the gastrointestinal tract of type 2 diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans; Zhao, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate changes in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Eight inherited type 2 diabetic rats Goto-Kakizak (GK) and ten age-matched normal rats were used in the study. From 18 wk...... and five micron sections were cut. The layer thickness was measured in Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained slides. AGE [N epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine and N epsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine] and RAGE were detected by immunohistochemistry staining and image analysis was done using Sigmascan Pro 4.0 image analysis...... strongest in the diabetes group. Significant difference for AGE was found in the epithelial cells of villi and crypt in duodenum (immuno-positive area/total measuring area %: 13.37 ± 3.51 vs 37.48 ± 8.43, P

  17. Distribution of obestatin and ghrelin in human tissues: immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and mammary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönberg, Malin; Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Magnusson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin and ghrelin are two peptides derived from the same prohormone. It is well established that ghrelin is produced by endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. However, the distribution of human obestatin immunoreactive cells is not thoroughly characterized. A polyclonal antibody...... that specifically recognizes human obestatin was produced. Using this antibody and a commercial antibody vs ghrelin, the distribution of obestatin and ghrelin immunoreactive cells was determined in a panel of human tissues using immunohistochemistry. The two peptides were detected in the mucosa...... of the gastrointestinal tract, from cardia to ileum, and in the pancreatic islets. Interestingly, epithelial cells in the ducts of mammary glands showed distinct immunoreactivity for both ghrelin and obestatin. By double immunofluorescence microscopy, it was shown that all detected cells were immunoreactive for both...

  18. Evaluation of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, and litter characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Nusairat, B; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    Two 49 d floor pen studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and litter characteristics. Experiment 1 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 genders (male or female) and 2 CC levels (0 or 50%). From 15 to 35 d, the addition of CC decreased feed intake (Pbroilers exhibited better live performance than females during the study as evidenced by greater feed intake (Plitter types (ground old litter or new wood shavings litter). The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake throughout the experiment without affecting final BW when only males were used and improved FCR after 25 d (Plitter improved FCR from 1 to 14 d (Plitter moisture (Plitter had only a marginal benefit on broiler live performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Detection of Clostridium botulinum type C cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, P.; Williamson, J.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    We established a method of directly detecting Clostridium botulinum type C cells, while minimizing spore detection, in the intestinal contents of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). This technique involved extraction of predominantly cellular DNA from tilapia intestinal tracts and used a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect presence of type C1 toxin gene. We consistently detected C. botulinum type C cells in tilapia gastrointestinal contents at a level of 7.5×104 cells per 0.25 g material or 1.9×103 cells. This technique is useful for determining prevalence of the potentially active organisms within a given population of fish and may be adapted to other types of C. botulinum and vertebrate populations as well.

  20. Severe gastrointestinal tract bleeding in a two-month-old infant due to congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ijland, M.M. [Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blaauw, I. de [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hoogeveen, Y. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boetes, C. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: C.Boetes@rad.umcn.nl; van Proosdij, M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    A 2-month-old boy was referred for assessment of severe upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and melena. On physical examination, a continuous murmur was heard over the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. A splenomegaly and dilated veins were also noted on the abdominal wall. Liver functions were normal. There was no history of trauma or jaundice. Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arteriography and angiography suggested the presence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein. Management consisted of successful embolization by coiling of the phrenic artery. To our knowledge this is the first documented case report of a congenital fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein.

  1. Severe gastrointestinal tract bleeding in a two-month-old infant due to congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, R.; Ijland, M.M.; Blaauw, I. de; Hoogeveen, Y.; Boetes, C.; van Proosdij, M.

    2006-01-01

    A 2-month-old boy was referred for assessment of severe upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and melena. On physical examination, a continuous murmur was heard over the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. A splenomegaly and dilated veins were also noted on the abdominal wall. Liver functions were normal. There was no history of trauma or jaundice. Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arteriography and angiography suggested the presence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein. Management consisted of successful embolization by coiling of the phrenic artery. To our knowledge this is the first documented case report of a congenital fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein

  2. Distribution pattern of anthropogenic marine debris along the gastrointestinal tract of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) as implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colferai, André S; Silva-Filho, Rodolfo Pinho; Martins, Aryse Moreira; Bugoni, Leandro

    2017-06-15

    Pollution from anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is currently the most widely distributed and lasting anthropic impact in the marine environment, affecting hundreds of species, including all sea turtles. In this study, the patterns of AMD distribution along the gastrointestinal tract (GT) and their relationship with obstructions and faecalomas in 62 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) that died during rehabilitation in southern Brazil were determined. The GT was split in seven sections, corresponding to the natural organs and intestinal areas morphologically and physiologically distinct. Mean mass (4.24g) and area (146.74cm 2 ) of AMD in the stomach were higher than in other sections. The anterior portion of the rectum had the highest number of obstructions, followed by the stomach. AMD was associated with the obstructions, with positive correlation between faecalomas and AMD masses. Organs and subdivisions showed marked differences in susceptibility to obstructions caused by AMD, which deserves attention in clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pro-resolution, protective and anti-nociceptive effects of a cannabis extract in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J L; Flannigan, K L; McKnight, W; Wang, L; Ferraz, J G P; Tuitt, D

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is widely used for treating a number of gastrointestinal ailments, but its use is associated with several adverse effects, particularly when the route of administration is via smoking. In the present study, we tested the effects (in rats) of a simple extract of medicinal cannabis (called "MFF") for its ability to promote resolution of colitis, to prevent gastric damage induced by naproxen, and to reduce gastric distention-induced visceral pain. Intracolonic, but not oral administration of MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of hapten-induced colitis, an effect not reduced by pretreatment with antagonists of CB1 or CB2 receptors. Significant improvement of symptoms (diarrhea, weight loss) and healing of ulcerated tissue was evident with MFF treatment at doses that did not produce detectable urinary levels of 9-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). MFF increased colonic hydrogen sulfide synthesis in healthy rats, but not in rats with colitis, and had no effect on colonic prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Orally, but not systemically administered MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of naproxen-induced gastric damage, and a CB1 antagonist reversed this effect. MFF prevented gastric distention-induced visceral pain via a CB2-dependent mechanism. These results demonstrate that a simple extract of medicinal cannabis can significantly enhance resolution of inflammation and injury, as well as prevent injury, in the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different cannabinoid receptors were involved in some of the effects. MFF may serve as the basis for a simple preparation of cannabis that would produce beneficial effects in the GI tract with reduced systemic toxicity.

  4. POTENCY OF LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BUFFALO AND HORSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ELEPHANT DUNG FOR FEED FIBER DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wahyudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is limiting factor for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in rumen. Isolation andselection bacteria from buffalo and horse gastrointestinal tract and elephant dung could be foundbacteria that have superiority to degrade lignin, xylan, and cellulose. Those animals were chosenbecause they were herbivores that consume low quality crude fiber as their main energy sources.Lignocellulose degrading bacteria were isolated by Hungate selective media, by using lignin (tannicacid, xylan, and cellulose as selective substrates. The morphological identification used an enrichmentmedia by measuring color, colony size, diffusion zone, clear zone, and biochemical identification usingproduction of ligninase, xylanase, and cellulase enzymes. The best lignocellulose degrading bacteriathen was determined by the morphological and biochemical character. This study showed thatlignocellulose degrading bacteria could be found in gastrointestinal tract of buffalo and horse, andelephant dung. Highest number colony was found in samples from buffalo's colon (376, followed byhorse's cecum (203, elephant’s dung (46, buffalo’s cecum (23, buffalo's rumen (9 and horse’s colon(7. The highest isolates activity of lignolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic were reached by buffalo’scecum (7.64, horse's cecum (6.27, and buffalo’s colon (2.48. Meanwhile the highest enzymesproductivities were: buffalo’s cecum (0.0400 µmol, horse’s cecum (1.3912 µmol and buffalo’s colon(0.1971 µmol. Based on morphologycal character and biochemical test, it could be concluded thatlignolytic from buffalo’s cecum, xylanolytic from horse’s cecum, and cellulolytic from buffalo’s colonwere the superior isolates and they were 99% analyzed as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarumspecies.

  5. Mantle cell lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract presenting with multiple intussusceptions – case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Stephen M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is an aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that originates from small to medium sized lymphocytes located in the mantle zone of the lymph node. Extra nodal involvement is present in the majority of cases, with a peculiar tendency to invade the gastro-intestinal tract in the form of multiple lymphomatous polyposis. MCL can be accurately diagnosed with the use of the highly specific marker Cyclin D1. Few cases of mantle cell lymphoma presenting with intussuception have been reported. Here we present a rare case of multiple intussusceptions caused by mantle cell lymphoma and review the literature of this disease. Case presentation A 68-year-old male presented with pain, tenderness in the right lower abdomen, associated with nausea and non-bilious vomiting. CT scan of abdomen revealed ileo-colic intussusception. Laparoscopy confirmed multiple intussusceptions involving ileo-colic and ileo-ileal segments of gastrointestinal tract. A laparoscopically assisted right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. The histology and immuno-histochemistry of the excised small and large bowel revealed mantle cell lymphoma with multiple lymphomatous polyposis and positivity to Cyclin D1 marker. The patient was successfully treated with Rituximab-CHOP chemotherapy and remains in complete remission at one-year follow-up. Conclusion This is a rare case of intestinal lymphomatous polyposis due to mantle cell lymphoma presenting with multiple small bowel intussusceptions. Our case highlights laparoscopic-assisted bowel resection as a potential and feasible option in the multi-disciplinary treatment of mantle cell lymphoma.

  6. Effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, and characteristics of gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed low-phosphorus wheat-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Shivazad, M.; Moravej, H.; Aminzadeh, S.; Rezaian, M.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient retention, jejunal viscosity, and size and pH of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed a low-P wheat-based diet. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels

  7. Modification of the processes of resorption of alpha-emitting nuclides from gastrointestinal tract depending of the properties of the compounds administered and the physiological status of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalikin, G.A.; Moskalev, Yu.I.; Nisimov, P.G.; Romanova, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments on rats a study was made of resorption from the gastrointestinal tract of simple salts, complex compounds and ''biologically incorporated'' forms of transuranium nuclides, the influence of age, pregnancy and chemically active substances (for instance, trivalent iron and ethyl alcohol) on this process

  8. Histological Features of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Wild Indonesian Shortfin Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844, Captured in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrul Shaqinah Nasruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to record the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844, captured in Peninsular Malaysia. The gastrointestinal tract was segmented into the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. Then, the oesophagus was divided into five (first to fifth, the stomach into two (cardiac and pyloric, and the intestine into four segments (anterior, intermediate, posterior, and rectum for histological examinations. The stomach had significantly taller villi and thicker inner circular muscles compared to the intestine and oesophagus. The lamina propria was thickest in stomach, significantly when compared with oesophagus, but not with the intestine. However, the intestine showed significantly thicker outer longitudinal muscle while gastric glands were observed only in the stomach. The histological features were closely associated with the functions of the different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of A. b. bicolor are consistent with the feeding habit of a carnivorous fish.

  9. Dynamics of competitive population abundance of Lactobacillus plantarum ivi gene mutants in faecel samples after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Meijer, M.; Bongers, R.S.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of mutation of previously identified in vivo-induced (ivi) genes on the persistence and survival of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mice. Methods and Results:¿ Nine Lact. plantarum ivi gene replacement mutants were

  10. Sampling device for in vivo sampling of liquids from the gastrointestinal tract, process for the production thereof and mould or mask for use in the production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenkels, A.J.; Jenneboer, Antonius J.S.M.; Venema, Konraad; van den Berg, Albert; de Vos, Willem M.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to a sampling device suitable for in vivo sampling of liquid(s) from the gastro-intestinal tract, comprising a body, the body comprising a channel and an opening for entrance of the liquid(s) at one end of the channel, and a cover bonded to at least part of the body and

  11. Application of a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal tract model to study the availability of food mutagens, using heterocyclic aromatic amines as model compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Baan, R.; Verhagen, H.; Mohn, G.; Feron, V.; Havenaar, R.

    2000-01-01

    The TNO gastro-Intestinal tract Model (TIM) is a dynamic computer-controlled in vitro system that mimics the human physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine. In the current TIM physiological parameters such as pH, temperature, peristaltic movements, secretion of digestion enzymes,

  12. Investigation of the gastrointestinal tract by means of the first dimerous nonionic x-ray contrast medium (Iotrolan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troger, J.; Wenzel-Hora, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    The risks with an ionic, water solvent highly osmotic contrast medium (CM) have now led to a monomerous, nonionic CM being used, particularly in the field of gastrointestinal investigation in newborn babies and infants. Thus side effects could be reduced and the quality of the x-rays improved. However, since the monomerous nonionic CM is still hyperosmotic with respect to blood, there is a water shift into the intestinal lumen. This can upset hydration and impair the quality of radiographs. Iotrolan is the first CM isoosmotic to the blood to be used clinically. It has proved to be superior to a monomerous nonionic CM as far as radiographic quality (density and sharpness) is concerned. Fifty-one children, aged 2 days to 19 years, were give Iotrolan. Some of these patients were compared in a double-blind study with a group of children who had been given monomerous nonionic CM. If Iotrolan was given, the good quality of the radiographs remained constant throughout the gastrointestinal tract and details were clearly discernible, even in the rectum. In addition, Iotrolan in the aboral intestinal sections leads to double-contrast pictures and thereby further increases the identifiability of details. The monomerous nonionic CM, however, showed a loss in density and above all in sharpness during its passage. Since Iotrolan is isotonic to blood, its is superior to all other water-solvent CM as far as possible side effects and radiographic quality are concerned

  13. Radiographic anatomy and barium sulfate contrast transit time of the gastrointestinal tract of bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, Claire; Daniaux, Lise; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Weber, Ernest Scott; Zwingenberger, Allison; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The positive contrast gastrointestinal study is a common non-invasive diagnostic technique that does not require anesthesia and enables good visualization of the digestive tract. Radiographic anatomy and reference intervals for gastrointestinal contrast transit time in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were established using seven animals administered 15 ml/kg of a 35% w/v suspension of barium by esophageal gavage. Dorso-ventral and lateral radiographic views were performed at 0, 15, 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 h, and then every 12 h up to 96 h after barium administration. Gastric emptying was complete at a median time of 10 h (range 4-24 h). Median jejunum and small intestinal emptying times were 1 h (range 30 min-2 h) and 29 h (range 24-48 h), respectively. Median transit time for cecum was 10 h (range 8-12 h). Median time for contrast to reach the colon was 31 h (range 12-72 h) after administration. Results were compared to those obtained in other reptilian species. This technique appeared safe in fasted bearded dragons and would be clinically applicable in other lizard species.

  14. A malignant omental extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor on a young man: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaroof Babatunde

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are uncommon intra-abdominal tumors. These tumors tend to present with higher frequency in the stomach and small bowel. In fewer than 5% of cases, they originate primarily from the mesentery, omentum, or peritoneum. Furthermore, these extra-gastrointestinal tumors (EGIST tend to be more common in patients greater than 50 years of age. Rarely do EGIST tumors present in those younger than 40 years of age. Case presentation We report a case of a large EGIST in a 27-year-old male. An abdominal pelvic computerized tomography imaging demonstrated an intra-abdominal mass of 22 cm, without invasion of adjacent viscera or liver lesions. This mass was resected en bloc with its fused omentum and an adherent portion of sigmoid colon. Pathology results demonstrated a malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor with positive CD117 (c-kit staining, and negative margins of resection, and no continuity of tumor with the sigmoid colon. Due to the malignant and aggressive nature of this patient's tumor, he was started on STI-571 as adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion Stromal tumors of an extra-gastrointestinal origin are rare. Of the reported omental and mesenteric EGISTs in four published series, a total of 99 tumors were studied. Of the 99 patients in these series only 8 were under 40 years of age, none were younger than 30 years old; and only 5 were younger than 35 years old. Our patient's age is at the lower end of the age spectrum for the reported EGISTs. Young patients who present with an extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST, who have complete resection with negative margins, have a good prognosis. There is little data to support the role of STI-571 in adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy after curative resection. Given the lack of data, the use of STI-571 must be individualized.

  15. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma abutting the diaphragm and gastrointestinal tracts with the use of artificial ascites: safety and technical efficacy in 143 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Inyoung; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K.; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with the use of artificial ascites for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent to the diaphragm and gastrointestinal tract. One hundred forty-three patients with 181 HCCs who underwent US-guided percutaneous RFA with the use of artificial ascites were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 181 HCCs, 148 HCCs were defined as problematic nodules for two major reasons: poor sonic window or possible thermal injury. We artificially induced ascites before performing RFA by dripping 5% dextrose in a water solution. We assessed the technical success of introducing artificial ascites, technical feasibility of the use of artificial ascites and complications. The technical success rate, as well as the primary and secondary technique success rate, was assessed by regular follow-up CT examinations. RFA with artificial ascites was successfully achieved in 130 of 143 patients. The primary technique effectiveness was 85.3%. During follow-up (mean, 20.4 months), remote intrahepatic recurrence occurred in 49 patients and local tumor progression occurred in 15 patients. Three (2.1%) of the 143 patients experienced major complications (hemoperitoneum, lobar infarction and biloma) related to the RFA procedure. The use of artificial ascites is a simple and useful technique to minimize collateral thermal injury and to improve the sonic window. (orig.)

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tumor-Targeted Gene Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Niess, Hanno; Conrad, Claudius; Schwarz, Bettina; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Huss, Ralf; Nelson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem (or stromal) cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic progenitor cells that can be obtained from bone marrow aspirates or adipose tissue, expanded and genetically modified in vitro, and then used for cancer therapeutic strategies in vivo. Here, we review available data regarding the application of MSC-based tumor-targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer, provide an overview of the general history of MSC-based gene therapy in cancer research, and discuss potential problems associated with the utility of MSC-based therapy such as biosafety, immunoprivilege, transfection methods, and distribution in the host. PMID:22530882

  17. Multifocal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach in an 11-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin; Rubinas, Tara C.; Fordham, Lynn A.; Phillips, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    A previously healthy 11-year-old girl presented with an 8-month history of anemia and left upper quadrant abdominal pain. US examination demonstrated a 9-cm cystic mass with a fluid-fluid level in the left upper quadrant with unclear organ of origin. Abdominal MR imaging demonstrated a complex cystic mass, likely arising from the stomach. Additional T2 hyperintense submucosal lesions were identified in the gastric wall. Surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis of multifocal gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). MR imaging was helpful in suggesting a gastric origin of the primary mass and in demonstrating multifocal disease within the stomach. (orig.)

  18. Molecular studies on the function of tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Cheoul

    1993-01-01

    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studies the alteration of tumor suppressor gene in various Gastrointestinal cancer in Korea. Results showed that genetic alteration of Rb gene was in 83% of colorectal cancer. Our results suggest that genetic alteration of Rb gene is crucially involved in the tumorigenesis of colorectum in Korea. (Author)

  19. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.; Lobera, A.; Legrand, E.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways of upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha 1 -antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state [fr

  20. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M; Lobera, A; Legrand, E [Fondation Bergorie, Bordeaux (France)

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways on upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state.

  1. Enterococcus genus identification isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens after bees products application using MALDI TOF MS Biotyper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to examine the effect of bee product on the Enterococci colonization of chickens. Bee products were administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts in addition to the control group. First experimental group was with propolis in feed mixture with the addition of 200 mg propolis per 1 kg of compound and second group was with pollen with the addition of 250 mg pollen per 1 kg of compound. In this experiment, quantitative counts of Enterococci in ceca of 49-day-old chicken (Ross 308 using classical and MALDI TOF MS Biotyper method were investigated. Counts of Enterococci on Slanetz-Bartley agar were monitored. Enterococcus cells, isolated from gastrointestinal tract, were detected using MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. Counts of CFU of Enterococci were compared in experimental and control treatments, respectively. The lowest count was detected in the control experimental group. The highest count was detected in the first experimental group where was 200 mg of propolis added to 1 kg of feed mixture. Using MALDI TOF MS Biotyper, we identified the species range of the genera Enterococcus in the intestinal tract of broiler. Detected species from the genus Enterococcus were:      E. avium, E. casseliflavus, E cecorum, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. gallinarum, E. hirae and E. malodoratus. In the experimental groups (caecal samples were most frequent species of E. avium E. faecium and E. gallinarum.

  2. Lactobacillus genus identification isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens after bee products application using FISH and RTQ PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to examine the effect of bee products on the lactobacilli colonization of chickens. Bee products were administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts in addition to the control group. First experimental group was with propolis in feed mixture with the addition of 400 mg propolis per 1 kg of compound and second group was with pollen in feed mixture with the addition of 450 mg pollen per 1 kg of compound. In this experiment, quantitative counts of lactobacilli in ceca of 49-day-old chicken (Ross 308 using classical and FISH method were investigated. Counts of lactobacilli on MRS agar were monitored. To check the reliability of traditional methods of cultivation samples were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Lactobacillus cells, isolated from gastrointestinal tract, were detected after hybridization of fluorescently labeled probe with bacterial cells. Counts of CFU of lactobacilli were compared in experimental and control treatments, respectively. The lowest count was detected in the control experimental group. The highest count was detected in the third experimental group where was 450 mg of pollen added to 1 kg of feed mixture. Using Real-time PCR method, we identified the species range of the genera Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract of broiler. Detected species from the genus Lactobacillus were L. crispatus, L. salivarius and L. acidophilus.

  3. First Insights into the Diverse Human Archaeome: Specific Detection of Archaea in the Gastrointestinal Tract, Lung, and Nose and on Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Koskinen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human-associated archaea remain understudied in the field of microbiome research, although in particular methanogenic archaea were found to be regular commensals of the human gut, where they represent keystone species in metabolic processes. Knowledge on the abundance and diversity of human-associated archaea is extremely limited, and little is known about their function(s, their overall role in human health, or their association with parts of the human body other than the gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Currently, methodological issues impede the full assessment of the human archaeome, as bacteria-targeting protocols are unsuitable for characterization of the full spectrum of Archaea. The goal of this study was to establish conservative protocols based on specifically archaea-targeting, PCR-based methods to retrieve first insights into the archaeomes of the human gastrointestinal tract, lung, nose, and skin. Detection of Archaea was highly dependent on primer selection and the sequence processing pipeline used. Our results enabled us to retrieve a novel picture of the human archaeome, as we found for the first time Methanobacterium and Woesearchaeota (DPANN superphylum to be associated with the human gastrointestinal tract and the human lung, respectively. Similar to bacteria, human-associated archaeal communities were found to group biogeographically, forming (i the thaumarchaeal skin landscape, (ii the (methanoeuryarchaeal gastrointestinal tract, (iii a mixed skin-gastrointestinal tract landscape for the nose, and (iv a woesearchaeal lung landscape. On the basis of the protocols we used, we were able to detect unexpectedly high diversity of archaea associated with different body parts.

  4. Anterograde Tracing Method using DiI to Label Vagal Innervation of the Embryonic and Early Postnatal Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michelle C.; Fox, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The mouse is an extremely valuable model for studying vagal development in relation to strain differences, genetic variation, gene manipulations, or pharmacological manipulations. Therefore, a method using 1, 1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was developed for labeling vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in embryonic and postnatal mice. DiI labeling was adapted and optimized for this purpose by varying several facets of the method. For example, insertion and crushing of DiI crystals into the nerve led to faster DiI diffusion along vagal axons and diffusion over longer distances as compared with piercing the nerve with a micropipette tip coated with dried DiI oil. Moreover, inclusion of EDTA in the fixative reduced leakage of DiI out of nerve fibers that occurred with long incubations. Also, mounting labeled tissue in PBS was superior to glycerol with n-propyl gallate, which resulted in reduced clarity of DiI labeling that may have been due to DiI leaking out of fibers. Optical sectioning of flattened wholemounts permitted examination of individual tissue layers of the GI tract wall. This procedure aided identification of nerve ending types because in most instances each type innervates a different tissue layer. Between embryonic day 12.5 and postnatal day 8, growth of axons into the GI tract, formation and patterning of fiber bundles in the myenteric plexus and early formation of putative afferent and efferent nerve terminals were observed. Thus, the DiI tracing method developed here has opened up a window for investigation during an important phase of vagal development. PMID:17418900

  5. Osmoregulation, ionoregulation and acid-base regulation by the gastrointestinal tract after feeding in the elasmobranch (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Kajimura, Makiko; Bucking, Carol; Walsh, Patrick J

    2007-04-01

    In order to study the physiological consequences of voluntary feeding in the gastrointestinal tract of a ureotelic marine elasmobranch, dogfish (fasted for 96 h) were sampled at various times up to 360 h after consuming a 5-6% ration of teleost fish (hake) under natural feeding conditions. Digestion and absorption were completed between 120 and 360 h post-feeding. The tissue masses of different segments of the gastrointestinal tract increased and decreased markedly as the chyme moved through, mainly because of fluid engorgement rather than hyperplasia. In fasted dogfish, the cardiac and pyloric stomachs contained only small volumes of highly acidic fluid (pH 1.77+/-1.12, 2.05+/-0.08) similar in composition to seawater. Feeding resulted in gastric pHs of 3.20+/-0.31 and 3.95+/-0.40 at 6 h, followed by slow declines through 60 h. An alkaline tide in the blood also occurred at 6 h. In the face of large changing masses of highly acidic chyme in the stomachs, the pH (6.50+/-0.10), ionic composition and volume of chyme in the intestine (spiral valve) were precisely regulated from 6 to 60 h post-feeding at very different values from those in the stomachs, and intestinal HCO3(-) remained low (5.12+/-0.83 mmol l(-1)). The colon was usually empty and its pH constant at 7.20+/-0.16 at all times. Despite the ingestion of strongly hypo-osmotic teleost tissue, the osmolality of the chyme remained in equilibrium with that of the blood plasma in all segments at all times after feeding. Much of the osmotic equilibration was because of the secretion of urea into the chyme, particularly in the intestine. After feeding, gastric fluid concentrations of Na(+) and Mg(2+) declined, K(+) and Ca(2+) increased, whereas Cl(-) exhibited little change, indicating that additional drinking of seawater was minimal. Na(+), K(+), water and especially Cl(-) were absorbed in the intestine, whereas Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were largely excluded. Our results illustrate the complex integration of digestive and

  6. Plutonium and neptunium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, Ghislaine; Duserre, Claude; Rateau, Gerard; Verry, Monique; Fritsch, Paul; Metivier, Henri

    1992-06-01

    Nineteen baboons aged 1 to 310 days were given oral doses of 238 Pu citrate or 239 Np nitrate. Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of Pu and Np were higher than those observed in adults. The values of Pu GI absorption were 0.22% at 1 d, 0.17% at 17 d then about 0.10% until 177 d of age. From 195 d onwards, GI absorption was about 0.02% vs adult values (0.008%). GI absorption of neptunium decreased rapidly with age from 1.71% at 4 d to 0.14% at 6 d and remained at this value until 26 d. From 77 d onwards Np GI absorption was decreased to adult value (0.042%). Gastrointestinal retention associated with GI absorption was small, below 0.4% for Pu and 0.2% for Np. Np and Pu was mainly retained in the small intestine. Pu was retained in the ileum wall till 66 d, and afterwards in the duodenum wall. Histological study of Pu retention showed that it was confined to the macrophages under the ileum villi epithelial cells. Np did not seem to have a well-defined retention compartment. Retention occurred first in the ileum wall up to 6 d, afterwards it was divided between the ileum and duodenum walls up to 77 d and finally, between the duodenum and jejunum walls from 132 days of age onwards. The study shows a difference between Np and Pu GI absorption in neonatal baboons. Np GI absorption decreased to adult value in less than 3 months whereas Pu GI absorption decreased to adult value within 195 days. Our Pu results demonstrated that, the tenfold increase of actinides gastrointestinal transfer proposed by ICRP up to 12 months of age in newborn humans seems acceptable. (authors) [fr

  7. Strategy and clinical significance of interventional management before surgical therapy for massive hemorrhage of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tingyang; Yu Wenqiang; Mao Yingmin; Yuan Jianhua; CChen Fanghong; Luo Zuyan; Ding Xiaonan; Zhou Bing; Ding Zhongxiang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of interventional management before surgical therapy for massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and to compare the clinical efficacy and re-bleeding rate between hypophysin infusion group and embolization group. Methods: During the period of June 1998-Apr. 2009, 31 patients with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage in our institution underwent preoperative interventional managements before they received surgical treatment. According to DSA manifestations, the patients underwent transarterial hypophysin infusion or transcatheter embolization as interventional management. The clinical efficacy of interventional procedures and its influence on the surgery were evaluated, and the hemostasis rate and re-bleeding rate were compared the two kind of intervention managements. The numeration data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test, and the SPSS 11.0 was used as statistical software. Results: The interventional managements were successfully performed in all the 31 patients, with a total hemostasis rate of 83.9% (26/31) and a total re-bleeding rate 30.7% (8/26). The hemostasis rate and re-bleeding rate of hypophysin infusion group and embolization group were 69.2% (9/ 13), 94.4% (17/18) and 44.4% (4/9), 23.7% (4/17), respectively. All the 31 patients received surgery after interventional therapy, of which selective operation was carried out in 20. Neither surgery-related or intervention-related serious complications nor death occurred. Conclusion: Preoperative interventional managements can provide patients with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage with valuable chance of a successful surgery, enable the physician to take a selective operation to replace an emergency one,as a result, the surgical risk will be greatly reduced. Therefore, it is worth popularizing the preoperative interventional managements in clinical practice. (authors)

  8. UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL BLEEDING IN THE YOUNG - GASTRIC GIST TUMOR OR PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Atolagbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available GIST tumors is very unusual in the young and middle aged and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis in young patients who present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Appropriate imaging such as a Computed tomographic scan (CT scan may identify this tumor which may easily be misdiagnosed as a bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease in the young. We present a case of a healthy 38 year old man with no alcohol use who presented with epigastric pain and melena and subsequent torrential bleeding uncontrolled during endoscopy necessitating an emergency exploratory laparotomy by the general surgery team. The bleeding intraluminal component of the tumor with gross splenic and pancreatic involvement was identified and surgical management consisted of a wedge resection of the greater curvature of the stomach incorporating the tumor and the spleen with successful dissection of the tumor off the tail of the pancreas. Histology was positive for C-KIT and DOG-1 markers. Postoperative course was uneventful and he is presently on Imatinib Mesylate.

  9. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Motility Disorders in Women, Gastroparesis, and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Jasmine K; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the sex differences in upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility for both healthy and common dysmotility conditions. It focuses on gastroesophageal reflux disease and other esophageal motor disorders for the esophagus and on gastroparesis and accelerated gastric emptying for the stomach. It also describes differences in upper GI motility signs and symptoms during each female hormonal stage (ie, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, perimenopause, menopause) for both healthy participants and those suffering from one of the aforementioned upper GI dysmotility conditions. More research still needs to be conducted to better understand sex differences in upper GI motility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. KIT-negative Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Child: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Se Woong; Lee, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Hyeon; Choi, Du young; Choi, Geum Ha [Wonkwang University School of Medicine and Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    We report here on the imaging findings of the case of KIT-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach of a 12-year-old girl. Radiologic studies revealed the presence of a huge exophytic growing mass that originated from the gastric wall and this mass consisted of solid and cystic components on USG, CT and MR. The cystic regions were mainly located at the periphery of the mass and they were revealed to be myxoid degeneration and hemorrhage on histopathologic examination. The tumor consisted of epithelioid and typical spindle cells and they showed negative immunoreactivity for KIT. Although KIT-negative GISTs are rare, they can be considered in the differential diagnosis when a large heterogeneous extraluminal mass that contains solid portions and various degrees of peripheral cystic regions is observed

  11. The interplay between NSAIDs and Candida albicans on the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadăş, George C; Taulescu, Marian A; Ciobanu, Lidia; Fiţ, Nicodim I; Flore, Chirilă; Răpuntean, Sorin; Bouari, Cosmina M; Catoi, Cornel

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that Candida albicans colonization is associated with several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders and is also responsible for the delay in ulcer healing. No data are reported about the effects of C. albicans on the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced necroinflammatory lesions. On the other hand, beneficial effects of NSAIDs regarding the colonization potential with C. albicans have been reported. Our aim was to investigate whether the association between NSAIDs and C. albicans could potentially induce necroinflammatory lesions in the guinea pigs gastric and enteral mucosa. Three interventional groups of 11 guinea pigs each were investigated after 5 days of receiving indomethacin, C. albicans or the association of both. C. albicans and necroinflammatory lesions were graded based on histological examinations. Statistical analysis used Mann-Whitney nonparametric test. NSAIDs did not significantly decrease C. albicans colonization grades on gastrointestinal mucosa. Administration of indomethacin subsequent to C. albicans determined significantly more severe necroinflammatory lesions compared to group that only received C. albicans. The association of NSAIDs and C. albicans did not cause significantly more severe degenerative or inflammatory lesions compared to the administration of only NSAIDs in this experimental model. Associations between NSAIDs and C. albicans caused significantly more severe necroinflammatory injuries than the lesions produced by C. albicans, without enhancing the mucosal injury or inflammation caused by NSAIDs.

  12. β-Glucan as an encapsulating agent: Effect on probiotic survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asima; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Masoodi, F A

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of probiotics Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum were encapsulated in β-glucan matrix using emulsion technique. Further the encapsulated cells were studied for their tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its storage stability. The average encapsulation efficiency of β-glucan-probiotic beads was found to be 74.01%. The surface morphology of β-glucan containing bacteria was studied using SEM. The noteworthy absorptions in the FT-IR spectra between 1300-900 cm(-1) and 2918-2925 cm(-1) corresponds to the presence of bacteria into the glucan matrix. Also, the thermal stability of β-glucan was evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The efficiency of β-glucan in protecting the surviability of probiotic cells under simulated gastrointestinal conditions was studied. Results revealed significant (p<0.05) improvement to tolerance when the encapsulated cells were subjected to stresses like low pH, heat treatment, simulated intestinal conditions and storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Gharib, O.A.; El-Sheikh, M.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  14. New and Unexpected Biological Functions for the Src-Homology 2 Domain-Containing Phosphatase SHP-2 in the Gastrointestinal TractSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Coulombe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SHP-2 is a tyrosine phosphatase expressed in most embryonic and adult tissues. SHP-2 regulates many cellular functions including growth, differentiation, migration, and survival. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that SHP-2 is required for rat sarcoma viral oncogene/extracellular signal-regulated kinases mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation by most tyrosine kinase recep