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Sample records for gastrointestinal motor function

  1. [Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at Digestive Diseases Week (DDW), 2015. Researchers are still seeking biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome and have presented new data. One study confirmed that the use of low-dose antidepressants has an antinociceptive effect without altering the psychological features of patients with functional dyspepsia. A contribution that could have immediate application is the use of transcutaneous electroacupuncture, which has demonstrated effectiveness in controlling nausea in patients with gastroparesis. New data have come to light on the importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome, although the effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet seems to be losing momentum with time. Multiple data were presented on the long-term efficacy of rifaximin therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhoea. In addition, among other contributions, and more as a curiosity, a study evaluated the effect of histamine in the diet of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81...... mass index and smoking on the motility variables. The results were compared with data from 16 healthy individuals (eight women, eight men) of mean age 24 years (range 20-30 years). RESULTS: Advanced age did not influence gastric emptying or small intestinal transit rate. Older individuals had a slower.......0022). CONCLUSION: Normal ageing seems to reduce the propulsive capacity of the colon, whereas gastric and small intestinal motility is not affected....

  3. Gastrointestinal motor function in patients with portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Brinch, K; Hansen, Erik Feldager

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit rates in portal-hypertensive patients are scarce and contradictory, and so far, the motor function of the colon has not been assessed in these patients. In this study we evaluated the propulsive effect of all main segments...... of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with well-characterized portal hypertension. METHODS: Eight patients with a postsinusoidal hepatic pressure gradient of at least 13 mmHg and eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Gastric emptying, small-intestinal transit, and colonic transit...... the test meal between patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the colonic transit is often accelerated in patients with portal hypertension, whereas the motor function of the stomach and the small intestine is unaffected....

  4. Gastrointestinal motor function in patients with portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Brinch, K; Hansen, Erik Feldager

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit rates in portal-hypertensive patients are scarce and contradictory, and so far, the motor function of the colon has not been assessed in these patients. In this study we evaluated the propulsive effect of all main segments...... of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with well-characterized portal hypertension. METHODS: Eight patients with a postsinusoidal hepatic pressure gradient of at least 13 mmHg and eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Gastric emptying, small-intestinal transit, and colonic transit...... rates were evaluated in all subjects by means of a gamma camera technique. The technique was also used to measure the frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: No difference was observed in gastric mean emptying time or small-intestinal mean transit time of liquid and solid markers between patients...

  5. Gastrointestinal motor function in patients with portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Brinch, K; Hansen, Erik Feldager

    2000-01-01

    rates were evaluated in all subjects by means of a gamma camera technique. The technique was also used to measure the frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: No difference was observed in gastric mean emptying time or small-intestinal mean transit time of liquid and solid markers between patients...... and controls. After 24 h, however, the geometric center of the liquid marker had a more caudal localization in the colon of the patient group than in the controls (P = 0.04); that is, the patients had a faster colonic transit. No difference was found in the frequency of antral contractions 45 min after...... the test meal between patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the colonic transit is often accelerated in patients with portal hypertension, whereas the motor function of the stomach and the small intestine is unaffected....

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers of gastrointestinal motor function and fluid distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asseel; Khalaf; Caroline; L; Hoad; Robin; C; Spiller; Penny; A; Gowland; Gordon; W; Moran; Luca; Marciani

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) is a well established technique that has revolutionized diagnostic radiology. Until recently, the impact that MRI has had in the assessment of gastrointestinal motor function and bowel fluid distribution in health and in disease has been more limited, despite the novel insights that MRI can provide along the entire gastrointestinal tract. MRI biomarkers include intestinal motility indices, small bowel water content and whole gut transit time. The present review discusses new developments and applications of MRI in the upper gastrointestinal tract, the small bowel and the colon reported in the literature in the last 5 years.

  7. Ravages of Diabetes on Gastrointestinal Sensory-Motor Function: Implications for Pathophysiology and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Drewes, Anne Mohr; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Zhao, Jingbo

    2016-02-01

    Symptoms related to functional and sensory abnormalities are frequently encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. Most symptoms are associated with impaired gastric and intestinal function. In this review, we discuss basic concepts of sensory-motor dysfunction and how they relate to clinical findings and gastrointestinal abnormalities that are commonly seen in diabetes. In addition, we review techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of sensory-motor function. Such technological advances, while not readily available in the clinical setting, may facilitate stratification and individualization of therapy in diabetic patients in the future. Unraveling the structural, mechanical, and sensory remodeling in diabetes disease is based on a multidisciplinary approach that can bridge the knowledge from a variety of scientific disciplines. The final goal is to increase the understanding of the damage to GI structures and to sensory processing of symptoms, in order to assist clinicians with developing an optimal mechanics based treatment.

  8. Relationship of body weight with gastrointestinal motor and sensory function: studies in anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Sena; Menne, Dieter; Milos, Gabriella; Goetze, Oliver; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark; Steingoetter, Andreas

    2017-01-05

    Whether gastrointestinal motor and sensory function is primary cause or secondary effect of abnormal body weight is uncertain. Moreover, studies relating continuous postprandial sensations of satiation to measurable pathology are scarce. This work assessed postprandial gastrointestinal function and concurrent sensations of satiation across a wide range of body weight and after weight change. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity (OB) were investigated in reference to normal weight controls (HC). AN were additionally investigated longitudinally. Gastric emptying, antral contractions and oro-cecal transit after ingestion of a solid meal were investigated by MRI and 13 C-lactose-ureide breath test. The dependency of self-reported sensations of satiation on the varying degree of stomach filling during gastric emptying was compared between groups. 24 AN (BMI 14.4 (11.9-16.0) kg/m 2 ), 16 OB (34.9 (29.6-41.5) kg/m 2 ) and 20 HC (21.9 (18.9-24.9) kg/m 2 ) were studied. Gastric half-emptying time (t 50 ) was slower in AN than HC (p = 0.016) and OB (p = 0.007), and a negative association between t 50 and BMI was observed between BMI 12 and 25 kg/m 2 (p = 0.007). Antral contractions and oro-cecal transit were not different. For any given gastric content volume, self-reported postprandial fullness was greater in AN than in HC or OB (p < 0.001). After weight rehabilitation, t 50 in AN tended to become shorter (p = 0.09) and postprandial fullness was less marked (p < 0.01). A relationship between body weight and gastric emptying as well as self-reported feelings of satiation is present. AN have slower gastric emptying and heightened visceral perception compared to HC and OB. Longitudinal follow-up after weight rehabilitation in AN suggests these abnormalities are not a primary feature, but secondary to other factors that determine abnormal body weight. Registered July 20, 2009 at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00946816 ).

  9. Absence of correlation between hepatic function and characteristics of migrating motor complexes in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Mortensen, P

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclic changes in gallbladder filling and emptying during the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle have been demonstrated by scintigraphy. However, a possible cyclic change in the hepatic function and handling of the pharmacologic agents used for scintigraphy during the MMC cycle could...

  10. Redefining the functional roles of the gastrointestinal migrating motor complex and motilin in small bacterial overgrowth and hunger signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Tack, Jan

    2016-02-15

    During the fasting state the upper gastrointestinal tract exhibits a specific periodic migrating contraction pattern that is known as the migrating motor complex (MMC). Three different phases can be distinguished during the MMC. Phase III of the MMC is the most active of the three and can start either in the stomach or small intestine. Historically this pattern was designated to be the housekeeper of the gut since disturbances in the pattern were associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, its role in the involvement of hunger sensations was already hinted in the beginning of the 20th century by both Cannon (Cannon W, Washburn A. Am J Physiol 29: 441-454, 1912) and Carlson (Carlson A. The Control of Hunger in Health and Disease. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1916). The discovery of motilin in 1973 shed more light on the control mechanisms of the MMC. Motilin plasma levels fluctuate together with the phases of the MMC and induce phase III contractions with a gastric onset. Recent research suggests that these motilin-induced phase III contractions signal hunger in healthy subjects and that this system is disturbed in morbidly obese patients. This minireview describes the functions of the MMC in the gut and its regulatory role in controlling hunger sensations. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Orexins and gastrointestinal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, M C

    2010-03-01

    Orexin A (OXA) and orexin B (OXB) are recently discovered neuropeptides that appear to play a role in various distinct functions such as arousal and the sleep-wake cycle as well as on appetite and regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Orexins were first described as neuropeptides expressed by a specific population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, a region classically implicated in feeding behaviour. Orexin neurons project to numerous brain regions, where orexin receptors have been shown to be widely distributed: both OXA and OXB act through two subtypes of receptors (OX1R and OX2R) that belong to the G protein-coupled superfamily of receptors. Growing evidence indicates that orexins act in the central nervous system also to regulate gastrointestinal functions: animal studies have indeed demonstrated that centrally-injected orexins or endogenously released orexins in the brain stimulates gastric secretion and influence gastrointestinal motility. The subsequent identification of orexins and their receptors in the enteric nervous system (including the myenteric and the submucosal plexuses) as well as in mucosa and smooth muscles has suggested that these neuropeptides may also play a local action. In this view, emerging studies indicate that orexins also exert region-specific contractile or relaxant effects on isolated gut preparations. The aim of the proposed review is to summarize both centrally- and peripherally-mediated actions of orexins on gastrointestinal functions and to discuss the related physiological role on the basis of the most recent findings.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal sensory-motor dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Ejskjaer, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus and may involve any part of the GI tract. Abnormalities are frequently sub-clinical, and fortunately only rarely do severe and life-threatening problems occur. The pathogenesis of abnormal upper GI sensory-motor function in diabetes is incompletely understood and is most likely multi-factorial of origin. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy as well as acute suboptimal control of diabetes has been shown to impair GI motor and sensory function. Morphological and biomechanical remodeling of the GI wall develops during the duration of diabetes, and may contribute to motor and sensory dysfunction. In this review sensory and motility disorders of the upper GI tract in diabetes is discussed; and the morphological changes and biomechanical remodeling related to the sensory-motor dysfunction is also addressed. PMID:16718808

  13. Impact of malnutrition on gastrointestinal disorders and gross motor abilities in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Capano, Guglielmo; Miele, Erasmo; Romano, Alfonso; Scuccimarra, Goffredo; Del Giudice, Ennio; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Militerni, Roberto; Staiano, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often demonstrate abnormal feeding behaviours, leading to reduced food consumption and malnutrition. Moreover, most of them present with gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or chronic constipation (CC), and poor motor function rehabilitation. The aim of our study was to assess the possible relationship between malnutrition and gastrointestinal problems and to evaluate the role of nutrition on their gross motor abilities in a population of children with CP and mental retardation. Twenty-one consecutive children (10 boys; mean age: 5.8+/-4.7 years; range: 1-14 years) with CP and severe mental retardation. Nutritional assessment included the measurement of body mass index (BMI=W/H2), fat body mass (FBM) and fat free mass (FFM). Children with symptoms suggesting GERD underwent prolonged 24h intraesophageal pH monitoring and/or upper GI endoscopy with biopsies before and after a 6 months of pharmaceutical (omeprazole) and nutritional (20% increment of daily caloric intake) treatments. The motor function was evaluated by "The Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM) before and after the 6 months on nutritional rehabilitation. BMI for age was or=25 degrees percentile, five of nine (55.5%) patients had persistent GERD when they were taken off the medication. Malnutrition and gastrointestinal disorders are very common in children with cerebral palsy. Improved nutritional status, particularly fat free mass gain, appears to have an impact on motor function in children with CP.

  14. Phytotherapy in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Olaf; Bauer, Rudolf; Kubelka, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Phytotherapy is an important therapeutic option in functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID). It has a large tradition, with different approaches in different regions of the world, some of which have made their way into modern evidence-based medicine (EBM). Taking into account the number of herbs in use, and also the cumulated scientific evidence on them, FGID are possibly the most important indication in phytotherapy. This does not only apply for European phytotherapy, but also for other regions, such as Asia. Within European phytotherapy, herbs active in FGID are usually classified according to their main active constituents and their activities. Typically, the herbs used in FGID are grouped into amara, aromatica, amara aromatica combining both properties, herbs stimulating gastric secretion, herbs containing spasmolytic and carminative essential oils or spasmolytic alkaloids, mucilaginosa soothing the mucosa, and flavonoid containing drugs with anti-inflammatory properties. In phytotherapy, different plants are frequently combined to maximize effectiveness and specificity of action. Very potent combination products can be developed when the mechanisms of action of the combination partners are complementary. This approach can be demonstrated by the example of STW 5. For this herbal combination product, therapeutic efficacy in FGID has been clinically proven according to the highest standards of EBM. This example also underlines that modern rational phytotherapy is definitely part of modern EBM. Key Messages: FGID is one of the most important indications in phytotherapy and rationally combined herbal preparations are established evidence-based therapeutic options. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. TRP channel functions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Mingran; Liu, Yingzhe; Yu, Shaoyong

    2016-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are predominantly distributed in both somatic and visceral sensory nervous systems and play a crucial role in sensory transduction. As the largest visceral organ system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract frequently accommodates external inputs, which stimulate sensory nerves to initiate and coordinate sensory and motor functions in order to digest and absorb nutrients. Meanwhile, the sensory nerves in the GI tract are also able to detect potential tissue damage by responding to noxious irritants. This nocifensive function is mediated through specific ion channels and receptors expressed in a subpopulation of spinal and vagal afferent nerve called nociceptor. In the last 18 years, our understanding of TRP channel expression and function in GI sensory nervous system has been continuously improved. In this review, we focus on the expressions and functions of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in primary extrinsic afferent nerves innervated in the esophagus, stomach, intestine, and colon and briefly discuss their potential roles in relevant GI disorders.

  16. International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survey Corner News Medical and Treatment News Events Press Releases Commentary For Media ... IFFGD is your resource for reliable digestive health knowledge, support, and assistance about functional gastrointestinal (GI) and ...

  17. Review article: gastric emptying in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Although delayed gastric emptying has been described in several functional gastrointestinal disorders, and appears to be especially common in functional dyspepsia, the relationship of this finding to symptoms and basic pathophysiology is difficult to define. The delineation of the interactions between delayed gastric emptying, on the one hand, and symptom pathogenesis, on the other, has been hampered by several factors. These include the limitations of the methodology itself, the extent of overlap between the various functional disorders and the sensitivity of gastric emptying to factors external to the stomach, be they elsewhere within the gastrointestinal tract, in the central nervous system or in the environment. In many instances, delayed gastric emptying is an epiphenomenon, reflecting the overlap between inadequately defined functional syndromes, shared pathophysiology or the activation of physiological interactions between the various organs of the gut. In others, it may imply a truly diffuse motor disorder. The disappointments attendant on attempts to alleviate symptoms through approaches designed to accelerate gastric emptying should therefore not come as a surprise. Pending the definition of the true significance of delayed gastric emptying in all functional gastrointestinal disorders, caution should be exerted in the interpretation of this finding in a patient with functional symptoms.

  18. Effects of Kampo on functional gastrointestinal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Takakazu; Okumi, Hirokuni; Nishida, Shinji; Ito, Takashi; Morikiyo, Shinichi; Kimura, Yoko; Murakami, Masato

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the effectiveness of Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal medicine) in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, especially functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The results of four randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) suggested the usefulness of rikkunshito in relieving the subjective symptoms of patients with FD. Rikkunshito significantly improved not only gastric symptoms, such as epigastiric discomfort, but also extra-gastric sympto...

  19. Enteric glial cells and their role in gastrointestinal motor abnormalities: Introducing the neuro-gliopathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Vincenzo Villanacci; Simona Fisogni; Elisa Rossi; Paola Baronio; Carlo Clerici; Christoph A Maurer; Gieri Cathomas; Elisabetta Antonelli

    2007-01-01

    The role of enteric glial cells has somewhat changed from that of mere mechanical support elements, gluing together the various components of the enteric nervous system, to that of active participants in the complex interrelationships of the gut motor and inflammatory events. Due to their multiple functions, spanning from supporting elements in the myenteric plexuses to neurotransmitters, to neuronal homeostasis, to antigen presenting cells, this cell population has probably more intriguing abilities than previously thought. Recently,some evidence has been accumulating that shows how these cells may be involved in the pathophysiological aspects of some diseases. This review will deal with the properties of the enteric glial cells more strictly related to gastrointestinal motor function and the human pathological conditions in which these cells may play a role, suggesting the possibility of enteric neurogliopathies.

  20. Gastrointestinal motor mechanisms in hyperglycaemia induced delayed gastric emptying in type I diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Akkermans, L. M.; Jebbink, R. J.; van Isselt, H.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperglycaemia delays gastric emptying, both in healthy controls and in patients with diabetes mellitus. The effect of hyperglycaemia on antroduodenal motility in diabetes has not yet been studied. AIM: To investigate the gastrointestinal motor mechanisms involved in the hyperglycaemia

  1. Pain Management in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vigano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a common feature in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. An abnormally low visceral sensory threshold, as well as a number of central, spinal and peripheral pain-modulating abnormalities, have been proposed for this syndrome. Clinical aspects of pain associated with irritable esophagus, functional dyspepsia, biliary dysmotility, inflammatory bowel syndrome and proctalgia fugax are reviewed. Because of its unclear pathophysiology, pain expression is the main target for the successful assessment and management of symptomatic FGID. The sensory, cognitive and affective components of pain intensity expression need to be addressed in the context of a good physician-patient rapport. A multidisciplinary team approach is ideal for the smaller subset of patients with severe and disabling symptoms. Although pharmacotherapy may target specific functional disorders, the role of behavioural techniques and psychotherapy appears much more important for pain management in FGID. Functional performance and quality of life improvement, rather than pain intensity, are the main therapeutic goals in these patients.

  2. Upper functional gastrointestinal disorders in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.

  3. Effect of Jiangzhi tablet on gastrointestinal propulsive function in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Geng, Xiuli; Zhao, Jingsheng; Fan, Lili; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to study the effect of lipid-lowering tablets on gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion in mice. Mice were randomly divided into control group, Digestant Pill group, Jiangzhi tablet group, middle dose and small dose, the mice gastric emptying phenolsulfonphthalein, gastric residual rate of phenol red indicator to evaluate the gastric emptying rate, residual rate of detection in mouse stomach; small intestine propulsion and selection of carbon ink as the experimental index. Effects were observed to promote the function of normal mice gastric emptying and intestine. The gastric emptying and small intestinal motor function of normal mice were all promoted by each administration group, and the effect was most obvious in small dose group. The effect of reducing blood lipid on gastrointestinal motility of mice ware obviously enhanced.

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, C; Dublineau, I; Griffiths, N M; Joubert, C; Linard, C; Martin, J M; Mathe, D; Scanff, P; Valette, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1994-10-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation (<10 Gy) on several parameters of gastrointestinal function: (a) regulatory peptides; (b) pancreatic and biliary secretions and (c) electrolyte and lipid transport using both gamma alone (cobalt-60) and a mixture of gamma/neutron ({gamma}/N Silene reactor) in two animal models, the rat and the pig. Preliminary data in rats following gamma irradiation (2-8 Gy) show that plasma nurotensin gastrin releasing peptide and substance P are increased in a dose dependent manner most markedly between two and four days after exposure. Intestinal brush border marker enzyme activities (sucrose and leucine amino-peptidase) were also reduced. Such differences were more marked and persisted longer after {gamma}/N irradiation (2-4 Gy: +Pb: {gamma}/:N =0.2). Following the latter type of irradiation (4 Gy) plasma cholesterol increased as well as the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Analysis of cholesterol distribution in lipoprotein actions revealed a large increase in cholesterol carried b High Density Lipoprotein-1 (HDL1). In the pig following either type of irradiation the volumes of both pancreatic and biliary secretions were reduced. Irradiation of pigs with either {gamma} (6 Gy) alone or {gamma}/N (6 Gy: {gamma}/N I :1) resulted in a marked decrease in both brush border (sucrase: leucine aminopeptidase) and basolateral (sodium ump` aden late cyclase) enzyme activities. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulated adenylate cyclase was markedly attenuated and in addition specific VIP binding was modified as shown by a reduction in receptor affinity. The significance of the data will be discussed and the importance of a new therapeutic strategies or new biological markers of radiation-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  5. Visceral pain hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q

    2009-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a highly prevalent group of heterogeneous disorders whose diagnostic criteria are symptom based in the absence of a demonstrable structural or biochemical abnormality. Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort is a defining characteristic of these disorders and a proportion of patients may display heightened pain sensitivity to experimental visceral stimulation, termed visceral pain hypersensitivity (VPH). We examined the most recent literature in order to concisely review the evidence for some of the most important recent advances in the putative mechanisms concerned in the pathophysiology of VPH. VPH may occur due to anomalies at any level of the visceral nociceptive neuraxis. Important peripheral and central mechanisms of sensitization that have been postulated include a wide range of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors and trophic factors. Data from functional brain imaging studies have also provided evidence for aberrant central pain processing in cortical and subcortical regions. In addition, descending modulation of visceral nociceptive pathways by the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and psychological factors have all been implicated in the generation of VPH. Particular areas of controversy have included the development of efficacious treatment of VPH. Therapies have been slow to emerge, mainly due to concerns regarding safety. The burgeoning field of genome wide association studies may provide further evidence for the pleiotropic genetic basis of VPH development. Tangible progress will only be made in the treatment of VPH when we begin to individually characterize patients with FGIDs based on their clinical phenotype, genetics and visceral nociceptive physiology.

  6. Treatment of functional motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelauff, Jeannette M.; Dreissen, Yasmine E. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Stone, Jon

    OPINION STATEMENT: For the treatment of functional motor disorder, we recommend a three-stage approach. Firstly, patients must be assessed and given an unambiguous diagnosis, with an explanation that helps them understand that they have a genuine disorder, with the potential for reversibility. A key

  7. Gastrointestinal function in the parasitized host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Emphasis in this review is on (1) digestive-absorptive, secretory and smooth muscle functions altered by gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, (2) mechanisms by which parasites induce changes, and (3) the influence of parasite-induced alterations on the health of the host. Examples involving laboratory and domestic animals indicate that inflammation is an important factor in pathological alterations in epithelial and smooth muscle tissues throughout the alimentary canal. Observations on GI secretory activity reveal an influence of parasites on the host GI endocrine system. It is argued that assessments of the significance of parasite-induced changes on the host must be balanced with the adaptive potential and 'reserve capacity' of the GI system. In this regard host immunity should be considered a specific adaptation. Some tracer studies are mentioned marginally, such as the use of 14 C polyethylene glycol to estimate the direction of not fluid movement in the small intestine, and the use of 51 Cr to demonstrate the significantly faster intestinal transit in Trichinella spiralis infected animals

  8. [Functional and motor digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders presented in Digestive Diseases Week (DDW) in 2013. New data were reported on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and on how they can produce numerous disturbances such as inflammatory bowel disease. These disturbances are associated with somatic functional disease and particularly with fatigue. In addition, new data have emerged on the physiopathology of these disorders, with some studies reporting that environmental factors and events in early infancy can favor their development. Data were also presented on how bile acids can increase susceptibility to diarrhea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and on how the type of food intake can favor the development of symptoms. More data are available on the presence of underlying celiac disease in patients with IBS, which should prompt us to investigate this disease in our patients. Likewise, indiscriminate application of a gluten-free diet in patients with IBS has been shown not to produce a clear improvement. Regarding the physiopathology of functional dyspepsia (FD), results have been presented on how psychological factors can modify gastric accommodation and how this is in turn related to visceral hypersensitivity and gastric emptying. Regarding therapy, mirtazapine can improve symptoms and lead to weight gain in patients with severe FD and substantial weight loss. Results were presented on new drugs for IBS such as ibodutant and on old drugs with new applications such as mesalazine and ebastine. The antinociceptive effect of linaclotide is now better understood and a meta-analysis has shown its effectiveness in IBS with constipation as the main symptom. In patients with constipation, pelvic floor dysynergy can be diagnosed by a simple clinical interview and rectal touch. More data are available on the efficacy of prucalopride (which has been shown to accelerate

  9. The spectra of selected functional gastrointestinal disorders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) including functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC) was not studied in Sudan. Objectives: The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence of these disorders in Sudanese university students using ...

  10. Functional dyspepsia, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and transit in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitkara, Denesh K.; Delgado-Aros, Silvia; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Cremonini, Filippo; El-Youssef, Mounif; Freese, Deborah; Camilleri, Michael

    2003-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of abnormal gastric emptying and small bowel transit in children with functional dyspepsia at a tertiary care center, and the relationship between abnormal gastric and small bowel transit and symptoms in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Patients

  11. Functional brain imaging of gastrointestinal sensation in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lukas Van Oudenhove; Steven J Coen; Qasim Aziz

    2007-01-01

    It has since long been known, from everyday experience as well as from animal and human studies, that psychological processes-both affective and cognitiveexert an influence on gastrointestinal sensorimotor function. More specifically, a link between psychological factors and visceral hypersensitivity has been suggested,mainly based on research in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients. However, until recently, the exact nature of this putative relationship remained unclear,mainly due to a lack of non-invasive methods to study the (neurobiological) mechanisms underlying this relationship in non-sleeping humans. As functional brain imaging, introduced in visceral sensory neuroscience some 10 years ago, does provide a method for in vivo study of brain-gut interactions, insight into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral sensation in general and the influence of psychological factors more particularly,has rapidly grown. In this article, an overview of brain imaging evidence on gastrointestinal sensation will be given, with special emphasis on the brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between affective & cognitive processes and visceral sensation. First, the reciprocal neural pathways between the brain and the gut (braingut axis) will be briefly outlined, including brain imaging evidence in healthy volunteers. Second, functional brain imaging studies assessing the influence of psychological factors on brain processing of visceral sensation in healthy humans will be discussed in more detail.Finally, brain imaging work investigating differences in brain responses to visceral distension between healthy volunteers and functional gastrointestinal disorder patients will be highlighted.

  12. Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…

  13. Gastrointestinal motor inhibition by exogenous human, salmon, and eel calcitonin in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Asano, T; Haruta, K; Takeda, K

    1995-01-01

    Effects of synthetic eel (E-), salmon (S-), and human (H-) calcitonin (CT) on gastrointestinal motility were studied in conscious beagle dogs, which had been implanted with strain gauge force transducers. Intramuscular administration of E-, S-, or H-CT interrupted gastric migrating motor complexes, digestive pattern, and gastric emptying. The order of potency was E-CT = S-CT > H-CT. Motor inhibition induced by CT occurred independently of plasma immunoreactive motilin levels or hypocalcemia. In addition, E-CT and S-CT induced vomiting without a retrograde giant contraction (RGC) during the postprandial state. Apomorphine or CuSO4 initiated RGC prior to vomiting. RGC induced by apomorphine was inhibited by pretreatment with E-CT as well as hexamethonium, atropine, or surgical vagotomy. E-CT showed no inhibitory effect on nicotine stimulated contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum. These results suggest that peripherally administered CT inhibits canine gastrointestinal motility at the central nervous system level by lowering vagal activity.

  14. Prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Schoolchildren in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Játiva, Edgar; Velasco-Benítez, Carlos A; Koppen, Ilan J N; Játiva-Cabezas, Zahira; Saps, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children in Ecuador is unknown. We describe a survey study in 2 schools in Quito, Ecuador, using a Spanish translation of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII). A total of 417 children (51% boys) with a mean age of 12.0 years were included. FGIDs were present in 95 children (22.8%) and occurred in 25% of girls and in 20.7% of boys (P = 0.296). Functional defecation disorders were found in 12.0% of children, 9.4% had an abdominal pain-related FGID and 3.8% was diagnosed with a vomiting or aerophagia FGID.

  15. Curcumin Alleviates the Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders of Mice In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Wen-Hua; Sun, Wei; Sun, Yi; Guo, Zhi-Li; Yu, Xiao-Ling

    2017-12-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenol extracted from the turmeric rhizome, which has a wide range of biological activities, but until now the effects of curcumin on the gastrointestinal peristalsis have not been fully understood. In vivo study, we observed the effects of curcumin on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates of mice in normal state and in delayed state by atropine (ATR) or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (L-Arg). An in vitro study explored the direct effects of curcumin on the intestinal contractility, but were studied through measuring spontaneous contraction of isolated jejunum of mice. Our results showed that intragastric administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 10-20 days significantly improved gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates of mice delayed by ATR. Moreover, intragastric administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 15 days also significantly improved mice gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates delayed by L-Arg. There was no significant effect on normal gastrointestinal propulsion of mice after intragastric administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg/day) for 1-20 days. When normal isolated jejunum of mice were incubated with curcumin in vitro, the amplitude of the spontaneous contractile waves of jejunum was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, curcumin reduced the amplitude of the contractile waves of jejunum in both contracted and relaxed state induced by acetylcholine or ATR individually. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin has quite different effects on gastrointestinal peristalsis in vivo and in vitro. Moderate dose of curcumin by intragastric administration for more than 10 days can alleviate the functional gastrointestinal disorders of mice, but cannot affect normal gastrointestinal propulsion.

  16. Functions of myosin motors tailored for parasitism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christina; Graindorge, Arnault; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Myosin motors are one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes that exhibit divergent cellular functions. Their roles in protozoans, a diverse group of anciently diverged, single celled organisms with many prominent members known to be parasitic and to cause diseases in human and livestock......, are largely unknown. In the recent years many different approaches, among them whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional studies have increased our understanding on the distribution, protein architecture and function of unconventional myosin motors in protozoan parasites. In Apicomplexa......, myosins turn out to be highly specialized and to exhibit unique functions tailored to accommodate the lifestyle of these parasites....

  17. Role of brain orexin in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa

    2011-04-01

    Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized in neurons within the lateral hypothalamic area and regulate feeding behavior. The lateral hypothalamic area plays an important role in not only feeding but the central regulation of other functions including gut physiology. Accumulating evidence have shown that orexins acts in the brain to regulate a wide variety of body functions including gastrointestinal functions. The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant findings on brain orexins and a digestive system, and discuss the pathophysiological roles of the peptides with special reference to functional gastrointestinal disorders. Exogenously administered orexin or endogenously released orexin in the brain potently stimulates gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated conscious rats. The vagal cholinergic pathway is involved in the orexin-induced stimulation of acid secretion, suggesting that orexin-containing neurons in lateral hypothalamic area activates neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus in medulla oblongata, followed by increasing vagal outflow, thereby stimulating gastric acid secretion. In addition, brain orexin stimulates gastric motility, pancreatic secretion and induce gastroprotective action. On the other hand, brain orexin is involved in a number of physiological functions other than gut physiology, such as control of sleep/awake cycle and anti-depressive action in addition to increase in appetite. From these evidence, we would like to make a hypothesis that decreased orexin signaling in the brain may play a role in the pathophysiology in a part of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders who are frequently accompanied with appetite loss, sleep disturbance, depressive state and the inhibition of gut function. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanevik Kurt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

  19. The Incidence and gastrointestinal infectious risk of functional gastrointestinal disorders in a healthy US adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Chad K; Gormley, Robert; Tribble, David R; Cash, Brooks D; Riddle, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs) are recognized sequelae of infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Within the active duty military population, a group with known high IGE rates, the population-based incidence, risk factors, and attributable burden of care referable to FGD after IGE are poorly defined. Using electronic medical encounter data (1999-2007) on active duty US military, a matched, case-control study describing the epidemiology and risk determinants of FGD (irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation (FC), functional diarrhea (FD), dyspepsia (D)) was conducted. Incidence rates and duration of FGD-related medical care were estimated, and conditional logistic regression was utilized to evaluate FGD risk after IGE. A total of 31,866 cases of FGD identified were distributed as follows: FC 55% (n=17,538), D 21.2% (n=6,750), FD 2.1% (n=674), IBS 28.5% (n=9,091). Previous IGE episodes were distributed as follows: specific bacterial pathogen (n=65, 1.2%), bacterial, with no pathogen specified (n=2155, 38.9%), protozoal (n=38, 0.7%), viral (n=3431, 61.9%). A significant association between IGE and all FGD (odds ratio (OR) 2.64; Phigh risk for IGE. When considering effective countermeasures and mitigation strategies, attention directed toward prevention as well as the acute and chronic sequelae of these infections is needed.

  20. Illness Perception of Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-na Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the illness perception characteristics of Chinese patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID, and the mediating role between symptoms, psychopathology, and clinical outcomes.MethodsSix illness groups from four outpatient departments of a general hospital in China were recruited, including the FGID patient group. The modified and validated Chinese version of the illness perception questionnaire-revised was utilized, which contained three sections: symptom identity, illness representation, and causes. The 12-item short-form health survey was utilized to reflect the physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The Toronto alexithymia scale was used to measure the severity of alexithymia. Additional behavioral outcome about the frequency of doctor visits in the past 12 months was measured. Pathway analyses with multiple-group comparisons were conducted to test the mediating role of illness perception.ResultsOverall, 600 patients were recruited. The illness perceptions of FGID patients were characterized as with broad non-gastrointestinal symptoms (6.8 ± 4.2, a negative illness representation (more chronic course, worse consequences, lower personal and treatment control, lower illness coherence, and heavier emotional distress, and high numbers of psychological and culture-specific attributions. Fit indices of the three hypothesized path models (for physical and mental HRQoL and doctor-visit frequency, respectively supported the mediating role of illness perceptions. For example, the severity of alexithymia and non-gastrointestinal symptoms had significant negative effect on mental quality of life through both direct (standardized effect: −0.085 and −0.233 and indirect (standardized effect: −0.045 and −0.231 influence via subscales of consequences, emotional representation, and psychological and risk factor attributions. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed similar

  1. Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Eftekhari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs are a common problem in children. These disorders in children are classified into the following categories according to the ROME III classification: Functional Dyspepsia, Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, Abdominal Migraines, Childhood Functional abdominal pain (FAP, Childhood functional abdominal pain syndrome and functional constipation. FGIDs are diagnosed based on history and normal physical examination provided that there is no evidence of underlying disease such as anatomical abnormalities, infectious, inflammatory and malignancies. This group of poorly defined diseases represent a huge treatment challenge to the specialist, because, until now there is no therapy that has been effective in improving the symptoms. FGIDs also cause deep family problems as the disease interrupts their routine and positive response to treatment is rarely seen. On the other hand there is no objective document of the disease neither endoscopic, radiologic nor pathologic. Therapeutic strategies of FGIDs are: education and parent's assurance, detection and modifying physical and psychological stress, dietary intervention, pharmacological treatment, psychotherapy and other complementary medical treatments. Some foods may trigger the illness such as coffee, fatty foods and spicy foods, therefore they should be avoided. Lactose-free diet cannot improve symptoms of FGIDs, except in children with lactose intolerance. The beneficial effect of fiber supplement in children with FGIDs remains unknown but it has been useful in adults with IBS. Probiotics have potential efficacy in treating IBS but the efficacy in children with FGIDs remains uncertain and needs to be further studied. In patients with severe symptoms, pharmacological agents can be effective. These drugs include Antacids, Prokinetics, Anticholinergic, Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAS and Serotonergic agents (Agonists and anti agonists. Psychotherapy in FAP and IBS is

  2. Recovery of motor function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2012-04-01

    The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to adapt in response to changing anatomical (e.g., aging) or environmental modifications. This form of neuroplasticity is important at all stages of life but is critical in neurological disorders such as amblyopia and stroke. This review focuses upon our new understanding of possible mechanisms underlying functional deficits evidenced after adult-onset stroke. We review the functional interactions between different brain regions that may contribute to motor disability after stroke and, based on this information, possible interventional approaches to motor stroke disability. New information now points to the involvement of non-primary motor areas and their interaction with the primary motor cortex as areas of interest. The emergence of this new information is likely to impact new efforts to develop more effective neurorehabilitative interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that may be relevant to other neurological disorders such as amblyopia. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes after theraphy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy.

  4. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Jae Gol

    2001-01-01

    Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes after theraphy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy

  5. Abnormal gastric and small intestinal motor function in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Smout, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    It is now well recognized that the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying in both insulin-dependent as well as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is high. Recently performed studies have shown that motor disorders of several parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract contribute to this delay in

  6. Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of coffee on the gastrointestinal system have been suggested by patients and the lay press, while doctors tend to discourage its consumption in some diseases. METHODS: The literature on the effects of coffee and caffeine on the gastrointestinal system is reviewed with emphasis on

  7. Gastrointestinal-projecting neurones in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus exhibit direct and viscerotopically organized sensitivity to orexin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabauskas, Gintautas; Moises, Hylan C

    2003-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin)-containing projections from lateral hypothalamus (LH) are thought to play an important role in the regulation of feeding behaviour and energy balance. In rodent studies, central administration of orexin peptides increases food intake, and orexin neurones in the LH are activated by hypoglycaemia during fasting. In addition, administration of orexins into the fourth ventricle or the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) has been shown to stimulate gastric acid secretion and motility, respectively, via vagal efferent pathways. In this study, whole-cell recordings were obtained from DMV neurones in rat brainstem slices to investigate the cellular mechanism(s) by which orexins produce their gastrostimulatory effects. To determine whether responsiveness to orexins might be differentially expressed among distinct populations of preganglionic vagal motor neurones, recordings were made from neurones whose projections to the gastrointestinal tract had been identified by retrograde labelling following apposition of the fluorescent tracer DiI to the gastric fundus, corpus or antrum/pylorus, the duodenum or caecum. Additionally, the responses of neurones to orexins were compared with those produced by oxytocin, which acts within the DMV to stimulate gastric acid secretion, but inhibits gastric motor function. Bath application of orexin-A or orexin-B (30–300 nm) produced a slow depolarization, accompanied by increased firing in 47 of 102 DMV neurones tested, including 70 % (30/43) of those that projected to the gastric fundus or corpus. In contrast, few DMV neurones that supplied the antrum/pylorus (3/13), duodenum (4/18) or caecum (1/13) were responsive to these peptides. The depolarizing responses were concentration dependent and persisted during synaptic isolation of neurones with TTX or Cd2+, indicating they resulted from activation of postsynaptic orexin receptors. They were also associated with a small increase in membrane resistance, and in voltage

  8. Relationship between postprandial motor activity in the human small intestine and the gastrointestinal transit of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, N.W.; Al-Janabi, M.N.; Edwards, C.A.; Barber, D.C.

    1984-04-01

    Profiles for gastric emptying and colonic filling were determined in 20 normal volunteers by means of a gamma camera and dedicated minicomputer after ingestion of a radiolabeled solid meal. These were compared with intraluminal pressure activity, recorded simultaneously from three sites (each separated by 50 cm) in the small intestine by infusion manometry. Recordings were continued for at least 8 h or until all the radioactivity appeared in the colon. Colonic filling was approximately linear, occurring at an average rate of 16% of the meal residues per hour. There were significant inverse correlations (p less than 0.01) between the pressure activity in the proximal jejunum during the first 3 h after ingestion and the times taken for 50% and 80% of the meal residues to enter the colon, and direct correlations between total small intestinal pressure activity and the half-time for gastric emptying. Phase III of the interdigestive migrating motor complex appeared between 3 and 9 h after ingestion (when between 15% and 80% of the meal remained in the small intestine), but did not necessarily migrate to the next recording site until much later. The time of appearance of phase III in the proximal jejunum was directly correlated with the half-time for gastric emptying (p less than 0.05) and with the intraluminal pressure activity recorded at that site during the first 3 h after food ingestion (p less than 0.01). The time at which 80% of the meal residues had entered the colon was significantly shorter in 6 subjects, in whom a postprandial activity front appeared to migrate throughout the small bowel, compared with 13 subjects, in whom this did not occur (5.0 +/- 0.5 h vs. 7.0 +/- 0.4 h, p less than 0.01). These studies have shown that gastrointestinal transit of a solid meal is related to both fed and fasted intraluminal pressure activity in the small intestine.

  9. Structural equation modeling of motor impairment, gross motor function, and the functional outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study confirmed the construct of motor impairment and performed structural equation modeling (SEM) between motor impairment, gross motor function, and functional outcomes of regarding activities of daily living in children with CP. 98 children (59 boys, 39 girls) with CP participated in this cross-sectional study. Mean age was 11 y 5 mo (SD 1 y 9 mo). The Manual Muscle Test (MMT), the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) measurement, and the selective motor control (SMC) scale were used to assess motor impairments. Gross motor function and functional outcomes were measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Functional Skills domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) respectively. Measurement of motor impairment was consisted of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC. The construct of motor impairment was confirmed though an examination of a measurement model. The proposed SEM model showed good fit indices. Motor impairment effected gross motor function (β=-.0869). Gross motor function and motor impairment affected functional outcomes directly (β=0.890) and indirectly (β=-0.773) respectively. We confirmed that the construct of motor impairment consist of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC and it was identified through measurement model analysis. Functional outcomes are best predicted by gross motor function and motor impairments have indirect effects on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The value of the abdominal radiograph in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, Marloes E.J. [Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: mbongers@uva.amc.nl; Voskuijl, Wieger P. [Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Benninga, Marc A. [Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    Functional gastrointestinal disorder is a common problem in childhood. The symptoms vary from a relative mild gastrointestinal problem such as abdominal pain or infrequent defecation to severe problems with fecal impaction and fecal incontinence. The aim of this review is to describe and evaluate the value of the different existing methods to assess fecal loading on an abdominal radiograph with or without the use of radio-opaque markers in the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain, functional constipation and functional non-retentive fecal incontinence. In our opinion, the abdominal radiograph has limited value in the diagnostic work-up of children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  11. The value of the abdominal radiograph in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, Marloes E.J.; Voskuijl, Wieger P.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Benninga, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorder is a common problem in childhood. The symptoms vary from a relative mild gastrointestinal problem such as abdominal pain or infrequent defecation to severe problems with fecal impaction and fecal incontinence. The aim of this review is to describe and evaluate the value of the different existing methods to assess fecal loading on an abdominal radiograph with or without the use of radio-opaque markers in the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain, functional constipation and functional non-retentive fecal incontinence. In our opinion, the abdominal radiograph has limited value in the diagnostic work-up of children with functional gastrointestinal disorders

  12. Abdominal Pain-predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adolescent Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Ekong; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Meremikwu, Martin; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence, pattern, and predisposing factors of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) in adolescent Nigerians. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 states in the southern part of Nigeria in June 2014. Adolescents of age 10 to 18 years were recruited from 11 secondary schools using a stratified random sampling technique. A validated self-administered questionnaire on Rome III criteria for diagnosing AP-FGIDs and its determinants were filled by the participants in a classroom setting. A total of 874 participants filled the questionnaire. Of this, 818 (93.4%) filled it properly and were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the participants was 14.6 ± 2.0 years with 409 (50.0%) being boys. AP-FGIDs were present in 81 (9.9%) participants. Forty six (5.6%) of the study participants had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 21 (2.6%) functional abdominal pain, 15 (1.8%) abdominal migraine while 3 (0.4%) had functional dyspepsia. The difference in AP-FGIDs between adolescents residing in rural and urban areas was not statistically significant (P = 0.22). Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurred more frequently in those with AP-FGIDs. Nausea was the only symptom independently associated with AP-FGIDs (p = 0.015). Multiple regression analysis showed no significant association between stressful life events and AP-FGIDs. AP-FGIDs are a significant health problem in Nigerian adolescents. In addition to the intestinal symptoms, most of the affected children and others also had extraintestinal symptoms. None of the stressful life events evaluated was significantly associated with FGIDs.

  13. Sleep quality and functional gastrointestinal disorders. A psychological issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Mary, Florence; Bon, Cyriaque; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Airinei, Gheorghe; Benamouzig, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Sleep disorders are often associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This study aims to evaluate the association of sleep disorders with specific FGIDs and to assess the related importance of psychological disorders. We included 1009 consecutive patients with FGIDs (70.9% females). The patients completed a Rome III questionnaire and after a psychological evaluation on anxiety and depression they were classified according to their sleep disorders using a 7-point grading scale: Groups 1-3, drowsiness (severe, moderate, mild); Group 4, no change; Groups 5-7, insomnia (mild, moderate, severe). Multinomial logistic regression using sleep group as a dependent variable with no sleep change as reference and body mass index, FGIDs, anxiety and depression as independent variables were used for statistical analysis. Altogether 667 (66.1%) patients reported changes in sleep disorders, of whom 487 (48.3%) had decreased sleep and 180 (17.8%) had increased sleep while 342 (33.9%) reported no change. Depression was lower in patients with no change in sleep pattern and increased with the severity of their sleep disorder (P proctalgia fugax. Sleep disorders are associated with FGIDs, especially in the presence of depressive symptoms. © 2018 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. The influence of viscosity on the functioning of molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, Martin; Janssen, Leon P.B.M.; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    Light driven molecular motors based on sterically overcrowded alkenes achieve repetitive unidirectional rotation through a sequential series of photochemical and thermal steps. The influence of highly viscous environments on the functioning of unidirectional light driven molecular motors is

  15. Health-related quality of life in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our study was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and organic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with an age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched healthy sample across GI diagnostic groups and with one ...

  16. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  17. Visual-motor integration functioning in a South African middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visual-motor integration functioning has been identified as playing an integral role in different aspects of a child's development. Sensory-motor development is not only foundational to the physical maturation process, but is also imperative for progress with formal learning activities. Deficits in visual-motor integration have ...

  18. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn

    Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are

  19. Burden of illness in functional gastrointestinal disorder--the consequences for the individual and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glise, H; Wiklund, I; Hallerbäck, B

    1998-01-01

    To review the consequences of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGD), i.e. heartburn without esophagitis, dyspepsia and IBS for the individual and society. Current publications indicate that functional gastrointestinal disorders are more prevalent than organic gastrointestinal disorders in the population. Symptoms, not the organic finding per se, are most important to the individual. Functional disorders are furthermore linked to somatic symptoms, from other parts of the body, as well as to mental health. Together they constitute a large medical burden on society in terms of consultations, drug consumption and surgery. Social costs are further increased by problems at work and a considerable increase in absenteeism. Functional gastrointestinal disorders should be taken more seriously by the medical community and society, since the burden of illness seems much larger than earlier anticipated.

  20. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-14

    To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity.

  1. Cytoskeleton Molecular Motors: Structures and Their Functions in Neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingpin; Hu, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhiyi; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-01-01

    Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeleton motors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations. This review discusses the structures and working mechanisms of the cytoskeleton motors in neurons.

  2. Association Between Gross-Motor and Executive Function Depends on Age and Motor Task Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan E; Malling, Anne Sofie B; Andersen, Ken K

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity...... and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0.41), whereas no significant associations were found for young or middle-aged groups, suggesting...... that the link between gross-motor and executive function emerges with age and depends on motor complexity....

  3. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Altamimi, Eyad M.; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. Methods This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabi...

  4. Motor unit recruitment by size does not provide functional advantages for motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Farina, Dario

    2013-12-15

    It is commonly assumed that the orderly recruitment of motor units by size provides a functional advantage for the performance of movements compared with a random recruitment order. On the other hand, the excitability of a motor neuron depends on its size and this is intrinsically linked to its innervation number. A range of innervation numbers among motor neurons corresponds to a range of sizes and thus to a range of excitabilities ordered by size. Therefore, if the excitation drive is similar among motor neurons, the recruitment by size is inevitably due to the intrinsic properties of motor neurons and may not have arisen to meet functional demands. In this view, we tested the assumption that orderly recruitment is necessarily beneficial by determining if this type of recruitment produces optimal motor output. Using evolutionary algorithms and without any a priori assumptions, the parameters of neuromuscular models were optimized with respect to several criteria for motor performance. Interestingly, the optimized model parameters matched well known neuromuscular properties, but none of the optimization criteria determined a consistent recruitment order by size unless this was imposed by an association between motor neuron size and excitability. Further, when the association between size and excitability was imposed, the resultant model of recruitment did not improve the motor performance with respect to the absence of orderly recruitment. A consistent observation was that optimal solutions for a variety of criteria of motor performance always required a broad range of innervation numbers in the population of motor neurons, skewed towards the small values. These results indicate that orderly recruitment of motor units in itself does not provide substantial functional advantages for motor control. Rather, the reason for its near-universal presence in human movements is that motor functions are optimized by a broad range of innervation numbers.

  5. Olfaction Is Related to Motor Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qu; Resnick, Susan M; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2017-08-01

    Among older adults, both olfaction and motor function predict future cognitive decline and dementia, suggesting potential shared causal pathways. However, it is not known whether olfactory and motor function are independently related in late life. We assessed cross-sectional associations of olfaction with motor and cognitive function, using concurrent data on olfactory function, mobility, balance, fine motor function, manual dexterity, and cognition in 163 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants aged 60 and older without common neurological diseases (n = 114 with available cognitive data). Using multiple linear regression, we adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking history, height, and weight for mobility and balance, and education for cognition. We used multiple linear regression to test whether olfaction-motor associations were independent of cognition and depressive symptoms. Olfactory scores were significantly associated with mobility (usual gait speed, rapid gait speed, 400-m walk time, and Health ABC Physical Performance Battery score), balance, fine motor function, and manual dexterity (all p function is associated with mobility, balance, fine motor function, and manual dexterity, and independent of cognitive function, with challenging upper and lower extremity motor function tasks. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if olfactory performance predicts future mobility and functional decline. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Functional connectivity between somatosensory and motor brain areas predicts individual differences in motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    Action observation can facilitate the acquisition of novel motor skills; however, there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in brain function or structure can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Subjects underwent an anatomical MRI scan and resting-state fMRI scans to assess preobservation gray matter volume and preobservation resting-state functional connectivity (FC), respectively. On the following day, subjects observed a video of a tutor adapting her reaches to a novel force field. After observation, subjects performed reaches in a force field as a behavioral assessment of gains in motor learning resulting from observation. We found that individual differences in resting-state FC, but not gray matter volume, predicted postobservation gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state FC between left primary somatosensory cortex and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex and left superior parietal lobule was positively correlated with behavioral measures of postobservation motor learning. Sensory-motor resting-state FC can thus predict the extent to which observation will promote subsequent motor learning. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that individual differences in preobservation brain function can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state functional connectivity within a sensory-motor network may be used as a biomarker for the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. This kind of information may be useful if observation is to be used as a way to boost neuroplasticity and sensory-motor recovery for patients undergoing rehabilitation for diseases that impair movement such as stroke. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Evaluation of Esophageal Motor Function With High-resolution Manometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For several decades esophageal manometry has been the test of choice to evaluate disorders of esophageal motor function. The recent introduction of high-resolution manometry for the study of esophageal motor function simplified performance of esophageal manometry, and revealed previously unidentified patterns of normal and abnormal esophageal motor function. Presentation of pressure data as color contour plots or esophageal pressure topography led to the development of new tools for analyzing and classifying esophageal motor patterns. The current standard and still developing approach to do this is the Chicago classification. While this methodical approach is improving our diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders, it currently does not address all motor abnormalities. We will explore the Chicago classification and disorders that it does not address. PMID:23875094

  8. The Association between Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Gastrointestinal Symptoms among Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Schreiber, Dana R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores = 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom…

  9. Motor Cortex Activity During Functional Motor Skills: An fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyori, Ryota; Bisconti, Silvia; Ulrich, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of brain activity during motor task performance have been limited to fine motor movements due to technological constraints presented by traditional neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers a promising method by which to overcome these constraints and investigate motor performance of functional motor tasks. The current study used fNIRS to quantify hemodynamic responses within the primary motor cortex in twelve healthy adults as they performed unimanual right, unimanual left, and bimanual reaching, and stepping in place. Results revealed that during both unimanual reaching tasks, the contralateral hemisphere showed significant activation in channels located approximately 3 cm medial to the C3 (for right-hand reach) and C4 (for left-hand reach) landmarks. Bimanual reaching and stepping showed activation in similar channels, which were located bilaterally across the primary motor cortex. The medial channels, surrounding Cz, showed significantly higher activations during stepping when compared to bimanual reaching. Our results extend the viability of fNIRS to study motor function and build a foundation for future investigation of motor development in infants during nascent functional behaviors and monitor how they may change with age or practice.

  10. Motor function domains in alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Melanie; Gordon, Kelly; Hall, Amanda; Jasien, Joan; Lardinois, Kara; Uchitel, Julie; Mclean, Melissa; Prange, Lyndsey; Wuchich, Jeffrey; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2017-08-01

    To characterize motor function profiles in alternating hemiplegia of childhood, and to investigate interrelationships between these domains and with age. We studied a cohort of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 9y 4mo, range 4mo-43y) who underwent standardized tests to assess gross motor, upper extremity motor control, motor speech, and dysphagia functions. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Revised Melbourne Assessment (MA2) scales manifested predominantly mild impairments; motor speech, moderate to severe; Modified Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale (M-DOSS), mild-to moderate deficits. GMFCS correlated with GMFM-88 scores (Pearson's correlation, p=0.002), MACS (p=0.038), and MA2 fluency (p=0.005) and accuracy (p=0.038) scores. GMFCS did not correlate with motor speech (p=0.399), MA2 dexterity (p=0.247), range of motion (p=0.063), or M-DOSS (p=0.856). Motor speech was more severely impaired than the GMFCS (p<0.013). There was no correlation between any of the assessment tools and age (p=0.210-0.798). Our data establish a detailed profile of motor function in alternating hemiplegia of childhood, argue against the presence of worse motor function in older patients, identify tools helpful in evaluating this population, and identify oropharyngeal function as the more severely affected domain, suggesting that brain areas controlling this function are more affected than others. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  11. [Esophageal motor function of gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Tian, Yuan; Ding, Yan

    2010-08-01

    To study the relationship between esophageal motor functional disorder [decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP)and ineffective motility (IEM)] and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Totally 89 patients with GERD were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent 24-hour pH monitoring with dual-channel probe and stationary esophageal manometry. In addition, 77 of these patients underwent upper endoscopy. IEM and LES, 10 mmHg were common disturbances in patients with GERD (54% and 48%, respectively). The number of the acid reflux events of distal esophagus and prevalence of moderate or severe erosive esophagitis (EE) were significantly higher in patients with low LESP and IEM than patients without low LESP ( Pesophagus was significantly correlated with the severity of esophagitis, distal esophagus amplitude, and LESP, while no such correlation was found between IEM and degree of esophageal acid exposure or esophagitis. The pathophysiology of GERD is probably multifactorial. Lower LESP or IEM is not a independent pathophysiological factor for GERD. However,one single factor is insufficient to explain all the pathogenic mechanism of GERD.

  12. The functionality of the gastrointestinal microbiome in non-human animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra

    2015-11-10

    Due to the significance of the microbiome on human health, much of the current data available regarding microbiome functionality is centered on human medicine. For agriculturally important taxa, the functionality of gastrointestinal bacteria has been studied with the primary goals of improving animal health and production performance. With respect to cattle, the digestive functions of bacteria in cattle are unarguably critical to digestion and positively impact production performance. Conversely, some research suggests that the gastrointestinal microbiome in chickens competes with the host for nutrients and produces toxins that can harm the host resulting in decreased growth efficiency. Concerning many other species including reptiles and cetaceans, some cataloging of fecal bacteria has been conducted, but the functionality within the host remains ambiguous. These taxa could provide interesting gastrointestinal insight into functionality and symbiosis considering the extreme feeding regimes (snakes), highly specialized diets (vampire bats), and living environments (polar bears), which warrants further exploration.

  13. Noninvasive Ph-telemetric Measurement of Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain experience with and validate the Heidelberg pH-telemetric methodology in order to determine if the pH-telemetric methodology would be a useful noninvasive measure of gastrointestinal transit time for future ground-based and in-flight drug evaluation studies. The Heidelberg pH metering system is a noninvasive, nonradioactive telemetric system that, following oral ingestion, continuously measures intraluminal pH of the stomach, duodenum, small bowel, ileocecal junction, and large bowel. Gastrointestinal motility profiles were obtained in normal volunteers using the lactulose breath-hydrogen and Heidelberg pH metering techniques. All profiles were obtained in the morning after an overnight fast. Heidelberg pH profiles were obtained in the fasting and fed states; lactulose breath-hydrogen profiles were obtained after a standard breakfast. Mouth-to-cecum transit time was measured as the interval from administration of lactulose (30 ml; 20 g) to a sustained increase in breath-hydrogen of 10 ppm or more. Gastric emptying time was measured as the interval from the administration of the Heidelberg capsule to a sustained increase in pH of three units or more.

  14. Motor network structure and function are associated with motor performance in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Gorges, Martin; Grön, Georg; Kassubek, Jan; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Süßmuth, Sigurd D; Wolf, Robert Christian; Orth, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In Huntington's disease, the relationship of brain structure, brain function and clinical measures remains incompletely understood. We asked how sensory-motor network brain structure and neural activity relate to each other and to motor performance. Thirty-four early stage HD and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor, and intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. Diffusivity patterns were assessed in the cortico-spinal tract and the thalamus-somatosensory cortex tract. For the motor network connectivity analyses the dominant M1 motor cortex region and for the basal ganglia-thalamic network the thalamus were used as seeds. Region to region structural and functional connectivity was examined between thalamus and somatosensory cortex. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was higher in HD than controls in the basal ganglia, and lower in the external and internal capsule, in the thalamus, and in subcortical white matter. Between-group axial and radial diffusivity differences were more prominent than differences in FA, and correlated with motor performance. Within the motor network, the insula was less connected in HD than in controls, with the degree of connection correlating with motor scores. The basal ganglia-thalamic network's connectivity differed in the insula and basal ganglia. Tract specific white matter diffusivity and functional connectivity were not correlated. In HD sensory-motor white matter organization and functional connectivity in a motor network were independently associated with motor performance. The lack of tract-specific association of structure and function suggests that functional adaptation to structural loss differs between participants.

  15. Complementary and alternative medicine used by persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders to alleviate symptom distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake-Nilsson, Kerstin; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Unge, Peter; Wengström, Yvonne

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the complementary and alternative medicine methods most commonly used to alleviate symptom distress in persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders. People with functional gastrointestinal disorders face many challenges in their everyday lives, and each individual has his/her own way of dealing with this illness. The experience of illness often leads persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders to complementary and alternative medicine as a viable healthcare choice. Quantitative and describing design. A study-specific complementary and alternative medicine questionnaire was used, including questions about complementary and alternative medicine methods used and the perceived effects of each method. Efficacy assessments for each method were preventive effect, partial symptom relief, total symptom relief or no effect. A total of 137 persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders answered the questionnaire, 62% (n = 85) women and 38% (n = 52) men. A total of 28 different complementary and alternative medicine methods were identified and grouped into four categories: nutritional, drug/biological, psychological activity and physical activity. All persons had tried at least one method, and most methods provided partial symptom relief. Persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders commonly use complementary and alternative medicine methods to alleviate symptoms. Nurses have a unique opportunity to expand their roles in this group of patients. Increased knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine practices would enable a more comprehensive patient assessment and a better plan for meaningful interventions that meet the needs of individual patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chuanming; Chan, John S. Y.; Ren, Lijie; Yan, Jin H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has ...

  17. Food and symptom generation in functional gastrointestinal disorders: physiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Ricard; Tack, Jan

    2013-05-01

    The response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingestion of food is a complex and closely controlled process, which allows optimization of propulsion, digestion, absorption of nutrients, and removal of indigestible remnants. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control the response of the GIT to food intake. During the cephalic phase, triggered by cortical food-related influences, the GIT prepares for receiving nutrients. The gastric phase is dominated by the mechanical effect of the meal volume. Accumulation of food in the stomach activates tension-sensitive mechanoreceptors, which in turn stimulate gastric accommodation and gastric acid secretion through the intrinsic and vago-vagal reflex pathways. After meal ingestion, the tightly controlled process of gastric emptying starts, with arrival of nutrients in the duodenum triggering negative feedback on emptying and stimulating secretion of digestive enzymes through the neural (mainly vago-vagal reflex, but also intrinsic) and endocrine (release of peptides from entero-endocrine cells) pathways. Several types of specialized receptors detect the presence of all main categories of nutrients. In addition, the gastrointestinal mucosa expresses receptors of the T1R and T2R families (taste receptors) and several members of the transient receptor potential channel family, all of which are putatively involved in the detection of specific tastants in the lumen. Activation of nutrient and taste sensors also activates the extrinsic and intrinsic neural, as well as entero-endocrine, pathways. During passage through the small bowel, nutrients are progressively extracted, and electrolyte-rich liquid intestinal content with non-digestible residue is delivered to the colon. The colon provides absorption of the water and electrolytes, storage of non-digestible remnants of food, aboral propulsion of contents, and finally evacuation through defecation.

  18. Exchange of rotor components in functioning bacterial flagellar motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Hajime; Inoue, Yuichi; Terasawa, Shun; Takahashi, Hiroto; Ishijima, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor driven by the electrochemical potential of a coupling ion. The interaction between a rotor and stator units is thought to generate torque. The overall structure of flagellar motor has been thought to be static, however, it was recently proved that stators are exchanged in a rotating motor. Understanding the dynamics of rotor components in functioning motor is important for the clarifying of working mechanism of bacterial flagellar motor. In this study, we focused on the dynamics and the turnover of rotor components in a functioning flagellar motor. Expression systems for GFP-FliN, FliM-GFP, and GFP-FliG were constructed, and each GFP-fusion was functionally incorporated into the flagellar motor. To investigate whether the rotor components are exchanged in a rotating motor, we performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. After photobleaching, in a tethered cell producing GFP-FliN or FliM-GFP, the recovery of fluorescence at the rotational center was observed. However, in a cell producing GFP-FliG, no recovery of fluorescence was observed. The transition phase of fluorescence intensity after full or partially photobleaching allowed the turnover of FliN subunits to be calculated as 0.0007 s -1 , meaning that FliN would be exchanged in tens of minutes. These novel findings indicate that a bacterial flagellar motor is not a static structure even in functioning state. This is the first report for the exchange of rotor components in a functioning bacterial flagellar motor.

  19. DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT FUNCTION IN INFANTS: THE PROBLEM AND THE ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the modern opinion on the problem of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract, which are peculiar to infants. The peculiarities of nutrition and intestinal microbiocenosis in healthy infants are discussed. Authors observe the ways of its correction and propose the principles of a choice of medications, having proven clinical effectiveness in children on early stages of postnatal development. The advantages of natural smectite dioctaedric (Smecta in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal system, acute and chronic diseases in children are presented.Key words: children of early age, gastrointestinal tract, function, nutrition, probiotics, smectite.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:48-54

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been performed on 20 right handed volunteers at 1.5 Tesla using echo planar imaging (EPI) protocol. Index finger tapping invoked localized activation in the primary motor area. Consistent and highly reproducible activation in the primary motor area was observed ...

  1. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification S...

  2. Impaired esophageal motor function in eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio Santander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immunoallergic inflammatory disease of the esophagus that represents a major cause of digestive morbidity among the pediatric and young adult populations. Despite the fact that key symptoms in adults include dysphagia and food impaction, many patients lack structural changes in the esophagus to account for their complaints, which suggests the presence of underlying motor disorders and esophageal distensibility impairment. In the last few years the esophageal motility of these patients has been studied using various approaches, most particularly high-resolution manometry, ambulatory manometry, and impedance planimetry. This review focuses on the most relevant findings and scientific evidence regarding esophageal motor disorders in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  3. Impaired esophageal motor function in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Cecilio; Chavarría-Herbozo, Carlos M; Becerro-González, Irene; Burgos-Santamaría, Diego

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immunoallergic inflammatory disease of the esophagus that represents a major cause of digestive morbidity among the pediatric and young adult populations. Despite the fact that key symptoms in adults include dysphagia and food impaction, many patients lack structural changes in the esophagus to account for their complaints, which suggests the presence of underlying motor disorders and esophageal distensibility impairment. In the last few years the esophageal motility of these patients has been studied using various approaches, most particularly high-resolution manometry, ambulatory manometry, and impedance planimetry. This review focuses on the most relevant findings and scientific evidence regarding esophageal motor disorders in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  4. Functional aging impairs the role of feedback in motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Cao, Chunmei; Yan, Jin H

    2013-10-01

    Optimal motor skill acquisition frequently requires augmented feedback or knowledge of results (KR). However, the effect of functional declines on the benefits of KR remains to be determined. The objective of this research was to examine how cognitive and motor deficits of older adults influence the use of KR for motor skill learning. A total of 57 older adults (mean 73.1 years; SD 4.2) received both cognitive and eye-hand coordination assessments, whereas 55 young controls (mean 25.8 years; SD 3.8) took only the eye-hand coordination test. All young and older participants learned a time-constrained arm movement through KR in three pre-KR and post-KR intervals. In the subsequent no-KR skill retests, absolute and variable time errors were not significantly reduced for the older learners who had KR during skill practice, especially for those with cognitive and motor dysfunctions. The finding suggests that KR results in no measureable improvement for older adults with cognitive and motor functional deficiencies. More importantly, for the older adults, longer post-KR intervals showed greater detrimental effects on feedback-based motor learning than shorter pauses after KR delivery. The findings support the hypothesis about the effects of cognitive and motor deficits on KR in motor skill learning of older adults. The dynamics of cognitive and motor aging, external feedback and internal control mechanisms collectively explain the deterioration in the sensory-motor learning of older adults. The theoretical implications and practical relevance of functional aging for motor skill learning are discussed. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Effects of mirror therapy through functional activites and motor standards in motor function of the upper limb after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Candice Simões Pimenta de; Fernandes, Sabrina Gabrielle Gomes; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Cacho, Roberta de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy through functional activities and motor standards in upper limb function of chronic stroke subjects. Six patients with paresis of the arm within at least six months after stroke were randomly to a group of functional activities (GAF - n=3) and group of motor standards (GPM - n=3). Both groups performed 15 sessions of mirror therapy for 30 minutes, but the first one (GAF) were instructed to do the bilateral and symmetrical movements bas...

  6. Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, A; Dziechciarz, P; Szajewska, H

    2011-06-01

    A lack of reliable treatments for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders prompts interest in new therapies. To evaluate systematically the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for treating abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, trial registries and proceedings of major meetings were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating LGG supplementation in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders based on the Rome II or Rome III criteria. Risk of bias was assessed for generation of the allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding and follow-up. Compared with placebo, LGG supplementation was associated with a significantly higher rate of treatment responders (defined as no pain or a decrease in pain intensity) in the overall population with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (three RCTs, n = 290; risk ratio, RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.59, number needed to treat, NNT 7, 95% CI 4-22) and in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subgroup (three RCTs, n = 167; RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.27-2.27, NNT 4, 95% CI 3-8). However, no difference was found in the rate of treatment responders between children with functional abdominal pain or functional dyspepsia who received placebo or LGG. The intensity of pain was significantly reduced in the overall study population and in the IBS subgroup. The frequency of pain was significantly reduced in the IBS subgroup only. The use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG moderately increases treatment success in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders, particularly among children with IBS. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Scintigraphic quantitation of gastrointestinal motor activity and transport: Oesophagus and stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacher, G.; Bergmann, H.

    1992-01-01

    For the recognition and characterisation of oesophageal motor disorders, manometry represents the most reliable tool but yields no information on bolus transport. The transport can be quantitated by radionuclide techniques. The patient is positioned supine beneath a gamma-camera and instructed to swallow a radiolabelled bolus in a single gulp. Using a marker over the cricoid and the activity in the stomach as landmarks, regions of interest are drawn representing the upper, middle and lower third of the oesophagus and the gastric fundus. Activity-time curves enable one to recognise the clearance patterns in these regions. In combination, manometric and radionuclide transit studies recognise a higher number of motor disorders than either procedure alone. Radionuclide methods also are the most reliable and sensitive to quantitate gastric emptying. Procedure, meal size and composition as well as patient position must be standardised and correction techniques applied. The emptying of solid and liquid meal constituents can be evaluated concomitantly. Solids start to empty only after a lag phase of varying extent. With semi-solid meals, which are emptied at the same rate as solid meals of identical composition in the postlag phase, the recording time can be considerably shorter. Besides gastric emptying, the amplitude, frequency and propagation velocity of antral contractions can be recorded using serial images of short frame time and specially devised analytic techniques. (orig.)

  8. Scintigraphic quantitation of gastrointestinal motor activity and transport: Oesophagus and stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacher, G.; Bergmann, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Psychiatrische Klinik Vienna Univ. (Austria). 1. Chirurgische Klinik Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria))

    1992-09-01

    For the recognition and characterisation of oesophageal motor disorders, manometry represents the most reliable tool but yields no information on bolus transport. The transport can be quantitated by radionuclide techniques. The patient is positioned supine beneath a gamma-camera and instructed to swallow a radiolabelled bolus in a single gulp. Using a marker over the cricoid and the activity in the stomach as landmarks, regions of interest are drawn representing the upper, middle and lower third of the oesophagus and the gastric fundus. Activity-time curves enable one to recognise the clearance patterns in these regions. In combination, manometric and radionuclide transit studies recognise a higher number of motor disorders than either procedure alone. Radionuclide methods also are the most reliable and sensitive to quantitate gastric emptying. Procedure, meal size and composition as well as patient position must be standardised and correction techniques applied. The emptying of solid and liquid meal constituents can be evaluated concomitantly. Solids start to empty only after a lag phase of varying extent. With semi-solid meals, which are emptied at the same rate as solid meals of identical composition in the postlag phase, the recording time can be considerably shorter. Besides gastric emptying, the amplitude, frequency and propagation velocity of antral contractions can be recorded using serial images of short frame time and specially devised analytic techniques. (orig.).

  9. Do motor neurons contain functional prejunctional cholinoceptors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierkamper, C.G.; Aizenman, E.; Millington, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on negative feedback by nicotinic cholinoceptors (nAChR) on motor nerve terminals. The authors attempt to prove the existence of the receptor, determine its pharmacologic characteristics, and demonstrate that it can alter ACh release. Acetylcholine release from the vascular perfused rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm prepareation is assessed by three methods; measurement of force of contraction; direct assay of released ACh by radioenzymatic assay; and intracellular recording from the endplate region of the myofiber

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal Function in Morbidly Obese Adolescents Before and 6 Months After Gastric Banding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singendonk, M.; Kritas, S.; Omari, T.; Feinle-Bisset, C.; Page, A. J.; Frisby, C. L.; Kentish, S. J.; Ferris, L.; McCall, L.; Kow, L.; Chisholm, J.; Khurana, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) placement on upper gastrointestinal tract function in obese adolescents are unknown. Therefore, our aim was to determine the short-term effects of LAGB on esophageal motility, gastroesophageal reflux, gastric emptying, appetite-regulatory

  11. Mindfulness-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Aucoin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent and standard treatments are often unsatisfactory. Mindfulness-based therapy has shown benefit in conditions including chronic pain, mood, and somatization disorders. Objectives. To assess the quality and effectiveness reported in existing literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of mindfulness-based therapy in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods. Pubmed, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Study inclusion criteria included randomized, controlled studies of adults using mindfulness-based therapy in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias. Effect sizes were calculated and pooled to achieve a summary effect for the intervention on symptom severity and quality of life. Results. Of 119 records, eight articles, describing seven studies, met inclusion criteria. In six studies, significant improvements were achieved or maintained at the end of intervention or follow-up time points. The studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Pooled effects were statistically significant for IBS severity (0.59, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.86 and quality of life (0.56, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.79. Conclusion. Studies suggest that mindfulness based interventions may provide benefit in functional gastrointestinal disorders; however, substantial improvements in methodological quality and reporting are needed.

  12. Yoga Therapy for Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korterink, Judith J.; Ockeloen, Lize E.; Hilbink, Mirrian; Benninga, Marc A.; Deckers-Kocken, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare effects of 10 weeks of yoga therapy (YT) and standard medical care (SMC) on abdominal pain and quality of life (QoL) in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). Sixty-nine patients, ages 8 to 18 years, with

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives: therapeutic value for inflammatory, functional gastrointestinal disorders and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mosinska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are bioactive lipids which modulate inflammation and immunity. They gained recognition in nutritional therapy and are recommended dietary supplements. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the usefulness of PUFAs in active therapy of various gastrointestinal (GI diseases.In this review we briefly cover the systematics of PUFAs and their metabolites, and elaborate on their possible use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs with focus on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and colorectal cancer (CRC. Each section describes the latest findings from in vitro and in vivo studies, with reports of clinical interventions when available.

  14. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanming; Chan, John S. Y.; Ren, Lijie; Yan, Jin H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised. PMID:26881095

  15. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanming; Chan, John S Y; Ren, Lijie; Yan, Jin H

    2016-01-01

    Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised.

  16. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised.

  17. Effects of blueberries on inflammation, motor performance and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor and cognitive function decrease with age, to include deficits in balance, coordination, gait, processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. These functional declines may be caused by long term increases in and susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation. Research ...

  18. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ρ. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... movement-related activation in PD that were consistent across studies. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) of functional neuroimaging studies probing motor function in patients with PD. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 283 patients with PD reported in 24 functional neuroimaging studies...

  20. Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iversen Synnøve

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH on such motor performance in children with HKD Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into two groups within a double blind cross-over design, and tested with a motor assessment instrument, during MPH and placebo conditions. Results The percentage of MFNU scores in the sample indicating 'severe motor problems' ranged from 44–84%, typically over 60%. Highly significant improvements in motor performance were observed with MPH compared to baseline ratings on all the 17 subtests of the MFNU 1–2 hr after administration of MPH. There were no significant placebo effects. The motor improvement was consistent with improvement of clinical symptoms. Conclusion The study confirmed our prior clinical observations showing that children with ADHD typically demonstrate marked improvements of motor functions after a single dose of 10 mg MPH. The most pronounced positive MPH response was seen in subtests measuring either neuromotor inhibition, or heightened muscular tone in the gross movement muscles involved in maintaining the alignment and balance of the body. Introduction of MPH generally led to improved balance and a generally more coordinated and controlled body movement.

  1. Transcriptomics of aged Drosophila motor neurons reveals a matrix metalloproteinase that impairs motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Mahoney, Rebekah E; Eaton, Benjamin A

    2018-04-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is responsible for transforming nervous system signals into motor behavior and locomotion. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an age-dependent decline in motor function occurs, analogous to the decline experienced in mice, humans, and other mammals. The molecular and cellular underpinnings of this decline are still poorly understood. By specifically profiling the transcriptome of Drosophila motor neurons across age using custom microarrays, we found that the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 (dMMP1) gene reproducibly increased in motor neurons in an age-dependent manner. Modulation of physiological aging also altered the rate of dMMP1 expression, validating dMMP1 expression as a bona fide aging biomarker for motor neurons. Temporally controlled overexpression of dMMP1 specifically in motor neurons was sufficient to induce deficits in climbing behavior and cause a decrease in neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular synapses. These deficits were reversible if the dMMP1 expression was shut off again immediately after the onset of motor dysfunction. Additionally, repression of dMMP1 enzymatic activity via overexpression of a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases delayed the onset of age-dependent motor dysfunction. MMPs are required for proper tissue architecture during development. Our results support the idea that matrix metalloproteinase 1 is acting as a downstream effector of antagonistic pleiotropy in motor neurons and is necessary for proper development, but deleterious when reactivated at an advanced age. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  3. Motor skills and functional characteristics of students of different somatotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kolokoltsev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available He purpose of the article is to study correlation of motor and functional characteristics of students of different somatotypes. Material : it was examined first year students (n=577, 17-18 years old. All students were trained in discipline “Physical education”. It was carried out somatotyping. It was considered motor skills and functional characteristics of students. Results : it was determined the reliable differences in values of parameters of motor tests and functional characteristics of students’ organism. It is determined that by the end of the first year of study the positive dynamics is registered: in sthenics (in two of seven motor tests; in asthenics (in four tests. It wasn’t found the reliable positive changes in group of hypersthenics. Students of sthenic and asthenic somatotypes have higher functional reserves of cardiorespiratory system, than girls of hypersthenics somatotype. Conclusions: constitutional features of motor skills and functional parameters of students of different somatotypes allow to concretize provisions of methodology of planning the individual differentiated training in discipline Physical education.

  4. Functional imaging in pre-motor Parkinson’s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaldi, D.; Picco, A.; Ferrara, M.; Nobili, F.; Famà, F.; Buschiazzo, A.; Morbelli, S.; De Carli, F.

    2014-01-01

    Several non motor symptoms (NMS) can precede the onset of the classical motor Parkinson’s disease (PD) syndrome. The existence of pre-motor and even pre-clinical PD stages has been proposed but the best target population to be screened to disclose PD patients in a pre-clinical, thus asymptomatic, stage is still matter of debate. The REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) often affects PD patients at different stages of the disease and could precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. However, RBD could also precede other synucleinopathies (namely, dementia with Lewy bodies and multisystem atrophy), and less frequently could be related to other neurological conditions or remain idiopathic. Moreover, not all PD patients exhibit RBD. Despite these caveats, RBD probably represents the best feature to disclose pre-motor PD patients given its high-risk of developing a full motor syndrome. Other clinical clues in the premotor stages of PD undergoing active investigation include hyposmia, depression, and autonomic dysfunction. Effective biomarkers are needed in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy in the pre-motor stage of PD, to monitor disease progression and to plan both pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention. Functional imaging, in particular radionuclide methodologies, has been often used to investigate dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic features as well as cortical functioning in patients with RBD in its idiopathic form (iRBD) and/or associated with PD. Recently, new tracers to image α-synuclein pathologies are under development. Functional imaging in pre-motor PD, and in particular in iRBD, could improve our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms and the neurodegenerative progress of PD

  5. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronemer, Sharif I; Mandel, Jordan A; Sacktor, Ned C; Marvel, Cherie L

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing). Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  6. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Marvel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART. As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing. Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  7. Saliva and gastrointestinal functions of mastication, taste and textural perception, swallowing and initial digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Sørensen, Christiane E; Proctor, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    pattern. This review paper provides insight into the mechanisms by which saliva acts in relation to taste, mastication, bolus formation, enzymatic digestion, and swallowing. Also the protective functions of saliva including maintenance of dental and mucosal integrity will be discussed as they indirectly......Saliva exerts multiple functions in relation to the initial digestive processes taking place in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Ingestion of food and beverages, in turn, is a strong stimulus for secretion of saliva with a differential composition depending on the neuronal stimulation...... influence the digestive process. The final part of this paper focuses on the implications of xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction on gastrointestinal functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  8. Evaluation of esophageal motor function in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyawali, C. P.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Conklin, J. L.; Fox, M.; Pandolfino, J. E.; Peters, J. H.; Roman, S.; Staiano, A.; Vaezi, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal motor function is highly coordinated between central and enteric nervous systems and the esophageal musculature, which consists of proximal skeletal and distal smooth muscle in three functional regions, the upper and lower esophageal sphincters, and the esophageal body. While upper

  9. Defensive and pathological functions of the gastrointestinal NK3 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Gareth J; Tuladhar, Bishwa R; Bueno, Lionel; Furness, John B

    2006-10-01

    In general, normal gut functions are unaffected by selective NK(3) receptor antagonists such as talnetant (SB-223412), osanetant (SR 142901) or SB-235375. However, NK(3) receptors may mediate certain defensive or pathological intestinal processes. The precise mechanisms, by which this role is achieved, are not fully understood. In summary, intense stimulation of the intrinsic primary afferent neurones (IPANs) of the enteric nervous system is thought to release tachykinins from these neurones, to induce slow excitation (slow EPSPs) of connecting IPANs. This is hypothesised to cause hypersensitivity and disrupt intestinal motility, at least partly explaining why NK(3) receptor antagonism can reduce the level of disruption caused by supramaximal distension pressures in vitro. Tachykinin release from IPANs may also increase C-fibre sensitivity, directly or indirectly. Thus, NK(3) receptor antagonists can inhibit nociception associated with intestinal distension, in normal animals or after pre-sensitisation by restraint stress. Importantly, such inhibition has been found with SB-235375, a peripherally restricted antagonist. SB-235375 can also reduce a visceromotor response to brief colorectal distension without affecting similar responses to skin pinch, providing additional evidence for intestinal-specific activity. NK(3) receptor biology is, therefore, revealing a novel pathway by which disruptions in intestinal motility and nociception can be induced.

  10. ATF3 expression improves motor function in the ALS mouse model by promoting motor neuron survival and retaining muscle innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijffers, Rhona; Zhang, Jiangwen; Matthews, Jonathan C; Chen, Adam; Tamrazian, Eric; Babaniyi, Olusegun; Selig, Martin; Hynynen, Meri; Woolf, Clifford J; Brown, Robert H

    2014-01-28

    ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of motor neurons and atrophy of distal axon terminals in muscle, resulting in loss of motor function. Motor end plates denervated by axonal retraction of dying motor neurons are partially reinnervated by remaining viable motor neurons; however, this axonal sprouting is insufficient to compensate for motor neuron loss. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neuronal survival and axonal growth. Here, we reveal that forced expression of ATF3 in motor neurons of transgenic SOD1(G93A) ALS mice delays neuromuscular junction denervation by inducing axonal sprouting and enhancing motor neuron viability. Maintenance of neuromuscular junction innervation during the course of the disease in ATF3/SOD1(G93A) mice is associated with a substantial delay in muscle atrophy and improved motor performance. Although disease onset and mortality are delayed, disease duration is not affected. This study shows that adaptive axonal growth-promoting mechanisms can substantially improve motor function in ALS and importantly, that augmenting viability of the motor neuron soma and maintaining functional neuromuscular junction connections are both essential elements in therapy for motor neuron disease in the SOD1(G93A) mice. Accordingly, effective protection of optimal motor neuron function requires restitution of multiple dysregulated cellular pathways.

  11. Ocular Motor Function in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Amir Hossein Ghazizadeh Hashemi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with bilateral weakness (BW have many difficulties in gaze stability that interfere with their normal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular motor functions in patients with BW to better understand the problem of gaze instability in these patients.   Materials and Methods: Patients were referred from the Otolaryngology Department for Vestibular Assessment to our clinic between November 2014 and March 2015. We assessed ocular motor function (gaze, saccade, and smooth pursuit in patients over the age of 18 years with BW, as verified by a caloric test.   Results: Seventy-eight patients completed all the tests. The mean age of patients was 51.9 (±15.9 years, and 47 (60% were female. Abnormal results were found in five (6.4%, 32 (41%, and seven (9% patients with respect to gaze, smooth pursuit, and saccade, respectively. There were positive but relatively weak relationships between age and ocular motor results.   Conclusion:  Patients with BW suffer from dizziness and unsteadiness. These patients have abnormal function in ocular motor (especially smooth pursuit tests. The ocular motor dysfunction is responsible for gaze instability in static positions such as standing.

  12. Perceptual-motor functioning in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, E; Boyle, P; Pueschel, S M

    1977-10-01

    Children with treated phenylketonuria (PKU) have been described as being at high risk for perceptual-motor dysfunction. In this study, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Bender Gestalt test were administered to 19 school age children with treated PKU and of average intelligence who have been off diet from five months to six years four months. Perceptual-motor performance was evaluated, and school functioning was rated by classroom teachers. Substantial impairment of perceptual-motor functioning as measured by the Bender Gestalt test and lower WISC performance IQs than verbal IQs were observed in children of average intelligence. Quality of dietary control was found to be associated with performance on the Bender Gestalt test. These findings suggest the possibility of a specific deficit that could seriously interfere with academic progress, but which is not signalled by obvious impairment of overall intellectual functioning.

  13. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  14. Functional MRI of motor speech area combined with motor stimulation during resting period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yeong Su; Park, Hark Hoon; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Sang Yong; Chon, Su Bin; Kang, Shin Hwa

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate functional MR imaging of the motor speech area with and without motor stimulation during the rest period. Nine healthy, right-handed volunteers(M:F=7:2, age:21-40years) were included in this study. Brain activity was mapped using a multislice, gradient echo single shot EPI on a 1.5T MR scanner. The paradigm consisted on a series of alternating rest and activation tasks, performed six times. Each volunteer in the first study(group A) was given examples of motor stimulation during the rest period, while each in the second study(group B) was not given examples of a rest period. Motor stimulation in group A was achieved by continuously flexing five fingers of the right hand. In both groups, maximum internal word generation was achieved during the activation period. Using fMRI analysis software(Stimulate 5.0) and a cross-correlation method(backgroud threshold, 200; correlation threshold, 0.3; ceiling, 1.0; floor, 0.3; minimal count, 3), functional images were analysed. After correlating the activated foci and a time-signal intensity curve, the activated brain cortex and number of pixels were analysed and compared between the two tasks. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. In all nine subjects in group A and B, activation was observed in and adjacent to the left Broca's area. The mean number of activated pixels was 31.6 in group A and 27.8 in group B, a difference which was not statistically significant(P>0.1). Activities in and adjacent to the right Broca's area were seen in seven of group A and four of group B. The mean number of activated pixels was 14.9 in group A and 18 in group B. Eight of nine volunteers in group A showed activity in the left primary motor area with negative correlation to the time-signal intensity curve. The mean number of activated pixels for this group was 17.5. In three volonteers, activation in the right primary motor area was also observed, the mean number of activated pixels in these cases was 10.0. During the rest

  15. Use of neurotransmitter regulators in functional gastrointestinal disorders based on symptom analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing Qing; Chen, Sheng Liang

    2017-04-01

    It has been a great challenge for gastroenterologists to cope with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in clinical practice due to the contemporary increase in stressful events. A growing body of evidence has shown that neuroregulators such as anti-anxiety agents and antidepressants function well on FGIDs, particularly in cases that are refractory to classical gastrointestinal (GI) medications. Among these central-acting agents, small individualized doses of tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are usually recommended as a complement to routine GI management. When these drugs are chosen to treat FGIDs, both their central effects and the modulation of peripheral neurotransmitters should be taken into consideration. In this article we recommend strategies for choosing drugs based on an analysis of psychosomatic GI symptoms. The variety and dosage of the neurotransmitter regulators are also discussed. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Gastrointestinal Functionality of Aquatic Animal (Oreochromis niloticus) Carcass in Water Allows Estimating Time of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahor, Waraporn; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Yoonram, Krueawan; Rodjaroen, Somrak

    2016-11-01

    Postmortem changes have been previously studied in some terrestrial animal models, but no prior information is available on aquatic species. Gastrointestinal functionality was investigated in terms of indices, protein concentration, digestive enzyme activity, and scavenging activity, in an aquatic animal model, Nile tilapia, to assess the postmortem changes. Dead fish were floated indoors, and samples were collected within 48 h after death. Stomasomatic index decreased with postmortem time and correlated positively with protein, pepsin-specific activity, and stomach scavenging activity. Also intestosomatic index decreased significantly and correlated positively with protein, specific activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase, lipase, and intestinal scavenging activity. In their postmortem changes, the digestive enzymes exhibited earlier lipid degradation than carbohydrate or protein. The intestine changed more rapidly than the stomach. The findings suggest that the postmortem changes of gastrointestinal functionality can serve as primary data for the estimation of time of death of an aquatic animal. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Evaluation of esophageal motor function in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C P; Bredenoord, A J; Conklin, J L; Fox, M; Pandolfino, J E; Peters, J H; Roman, S; Staiano, A; Vaezi, M F

    2013-02-01

    Esophageal motor function is highly coordinated between central and enteric nervous systems and the esophageal musculature, which consists of proximal skeletal and distal smooth muscle in three functional regions, the upper and lower esophageal sphincters, and the esophageal body. While upper endoscopy is useful in evaluating for structural disorders of the esophagus, barium esophagography, radionuclide transit studies, and esophageal intraluminal impedance evaluate esophageal transit and partially assess motor function. However, esophageal manometry is the test of choice for the evaluation of esophageal motor function. In recent years, high-resolution manometry (HRM) has streamlined the process of acquisition and display of esophageal pressure data, while uncovering hitherto unrecognized esophageal physiologic mechanisms and pathophysiologic patterns. New algorithms have been devised for analysis and reporting of esophageal pressure topography from HRM. The clinical value of HRM extends to the pediatric population, and complements preoperative evaluation prior to foregut surgery. Provocative maneuvers during HRM may add to the assessment of esophageal motor function. The addition of impedance to HRM provides bolus transit data, but impact on clinical management remains unclear. Emerging techniques such as 3-D HRM and impedance planimetry show promise in the assessment of esophageal sphincter function and esophageal biomechanics. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-11-01

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, Wrapped Gift task, and modified Gift-in-Bag task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1 year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery of Motor Function After Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nikhil; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to adapt in response to changing anatomical (e.g., aging) or environmental modifications. This form of neuroplasticity is important at all stages of life but is critical in neurological disorders such as amblyopia and stroke. This review focuses upon our new understanding of possible mechanisms underlying functional deficits evidenced after adult-onset stroke. We review the functional interactions between different brain regions that may contribu...

  20. Evaluation of the effect of nasogastric intubation on gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamanzari Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The optimal treatment strategy for patients with gastric cancer is gastrectomy. Typically, nasogastric intubation is used after this type of surgery to feed patients; however, there seems to be no unanimity of opinion on this topic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasogastric intubation on gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was conducted on gastric cancer patients, admitted to the general ward of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran in 2015. In total, 68 patients were selected through randomized convenience sampling and divided into two intervention and control groups of 34 individuals. Nasogastric tube insertion was applied for the intervention group after the surgery. Patients of the study groups were fasted for three days after the surgery, which was followed by the removal of nasogastric tubes and initiation of oral feeding. Gastrointestinal function of all the participants was evaluated six hours after transferring to the ward up to seven days after the surgery on a daily basis using nausea and vomiting assessment tools and researcher-made questionnaire of gastrointestinal function. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: In this study, the severity of nausea and vomiting, the first time of passing gas and severity of flatulence Intensity were less observed in the control group, compared to the intervention group. Moreover, postoperative food tolerance was higher in the patients of the control group, compared to the other study group (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, nasogastric intubation can delay normal gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy. Therefore, it is not recommended to use this method after gastrectomy.

  1. Mosapride combined with probiotics on gastrointestinal function and growth in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ai-Mei; Sun, Zhi-Qun; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mosapride combined with probiotics on gastrointestinal function and growth and development in premature infants. A total of 240 premature infants treated at Weifang People's Hospital between June 2012 and May 2015 who matched our criteria were randomly divided into three groups of 80 cases each. Group A received routine treatment, group B received routine treatment combined with live B. subtilis and E. faecium granules with multivitamins...

  2. Postinfectious Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Focus on Epidemiology and Research Agendas

    OpenAIRE

    Deising, Adam; Gutierrez, Ramiro L.; Porter, Chad K.; Riddle, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic research is fundamental and complementary to our understanding of disease and development of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. To put the current evidence into context and identify gaps and research priorities in the areas of disease attribution, burden of disease, clinical characterization, and management of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGDs), we took a multidisciplinary approach from the domains of infectious disease, gastroenterology,...

  3. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants: Long-Tern Consequences and Modern Approaches for Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses modern ideas about the genesis of the most common variants of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID in infants, and their ability to lead to long-term negative consequences for the health of the child. The article provides data on role of intestinal microbiota in development of FGID in infants and current approaches to prevention and correction using probiotics with proven effectiveness. 

  4. DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT FUNCTION IN INFANTS: THE PROBLEM AND THE ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED DATA

    OpenAIRE

    N.I. Ursova

    2009-01-01

    The review analyzes the modern opinion on the problem of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract, which are peculiar to infants. The peculiarities of nutrition and intestinal microbiocenosis in healthy infants are discussed. Authors observe the ways of its correction and propose the principles of a choice of medications, having proven clinical effectiveness in children on early stages of postnatal development. The advantages of natural smectite dioctaedric (Smecta) in prophylaxis and t...

  5. The association between emotional and behavioral problems and gastrointestinal symptoms among children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A; Schreiber, Dana R; Olino, Thomas M; Minshew, Nancy J

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores ≥ 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, and multiple internalizing and externalizing problems. The majority (61%) of children had at least one reported gastrointestinal symptom. Emotional and behavioral problems were also common but with a high degree of variability. Children with and without gastrointestinal problems did not differ in autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, or total internalizing or externalizing problem scores. However, participants with gastrointestinal problems had significantly higher levels of affective problems. This finding is consistent with a small body of research noting a relationship between gastrointestinal problems, irritability, and mood problems in autism spectrum disorder. More research to identify the mechanisms underlying this relationship in autism spectrum disorder is warranted. Future research should include a medical assessment of gastrointestinal concerns, longitudinal design, and participants with a range of autism spectrum disorder severity in order to clarify the directionality of this relationship and to identify factors that may impact heterogeneity in the behavioral manifestation of gastrointestinal concerns. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. The Gemin associates of survival motor neuron are required for motor function in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Rebecca; Cauchi, Ruben J

    2013-01-01

    Membership of the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex extends to nine factors, including the SMN protein, the product of the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease gene, Gemins 2-8 and Unrip. The best-characterised function of this macromolecular machine is the assembly of the Sm-class of uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particles and each SMN complex member has a key role during this process. So far, however, only little is known about the function of the individual Gemin components in vivo. Here, we make use of the Drosophila model organism to uncover loss-of-function phenotypes of Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5, which together with SMN form the minimalistic fly SMN complex. We show that ectopic overexpression of the dead helicase Gem3(ΔN) mutant or knockdown of Gemin3 result in similar motor phenotypes, when restricted to muscle, and in combination cause lethality, hence suggesting that Gem3(ΔN) overexpression mimics a loss-of-function. Based on the localisation pattern of Gem3(ΔN), we predict that the nucleus is the primary site of the antimorphic or dominant-negative mechanism of Gem3(ΔN)-mediated interference. Interestingly, phenotypes induced by human SMN overexpression in Drosophila exhibit similarities to those induced by overexpression of Gem3(ΔN). Through enhanced knockdown we also uncover a requirement of Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 for viability and motor behaviour, including locomotion as well as flight, in muscle. Notably, in the case of Gemin3 and Gemin5, such function also depends on adequate levels of the respective protein in neurons. Overall, these findings lead us to speculate that absence of any one member is sufficient to arrest the SMN-Gemins complex function in a nucleocentric pathway, which is critical for motor function in vivo.

  7. Awareness and use of Gross Motor Function Classification System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction The degree of disability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) can be evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), a valid tool which was designed for such purposes. However, there appears to be paucity of data on the awareness and use of the GMFCS particularly in the ...

  8. Decreased function of survival motor neuron protein impairs endocytic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Maria; Derdowski, Aaron; Kalloo, Geetika; Maginnis, Melissa S; O'Hern, Patrick; Bliska, Bryn; Sorkaç, Altar; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Cook, Steven J; Poulogiannis, George; Atwood, Walter J; Hall, David H; Hart, Anne C

    2016-07-26

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by depletion of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, with 1 in 40 Caucasians being heterozygous for a disease allele. SMN is critical for the assembly of numerous ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet it is still unclear how reduced SMN levels affect motor neuron function. Here, we examined the impact of SMN depletion in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that decreased function of the SMN ortholog SMN-1 perturbed endocytic pathways at motor neuron synapses and in other tissues. Diminished SMN-1 levels caused defects in C. elegans neuromuscular function, and smn-1 genetic interactions were consistent with an endocytic defect. Changes were observed in synaptic endocytic proteins when SMN-1 levels decreased. At the ultrastructural level, defects were observed in endosomal compartments, including significantly fewer docked synaptic vesicles. Finally, endocytosis-dependent infection by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was reduced in human cells with decreased SMN levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that SMN depletion causes defects in endosomal trafficking that impair synaptic function, even in the absence of motor neuron cell death.

  9. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Keiichiro

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals creased by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  10. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Keiichiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Nakai, Toshiharu [Inst. of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals creased by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  11. How Can a Ketogenic Diet Improve Motor Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A ketogenic diet (KD is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80–90%, low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production. KD is a therapy that has been used for almost a century to treat medically intractable epilepsy and has been increasingly explored in a number of neurological diseases. Motor function has also been shown to be improved by KD and/or medium-chain triglyceride diets in rodent models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal cord injury. These studies have proposed that KD may induce a modification in synaptic morphology and function, involving ionic channels, glutamatergic transmission, or synaptic vesicular cycling machinery. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of KD on motor function and the perspectives of its use to acquire the neuromuscular effects. The aim of this review is to explore the conditions through which KD might improve motor function. First, we will describe the main consequences of KD exposure in tissues involved in motor function. Second, we will report and discuss the relevance of KD in pre-clinical and clinical trials in the major diseases presenting motor dysfunction.

  12. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases: results from a multicenter survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, Arine M.; Blink, Marjolein; Tromp, Ellen; Benninga, Marc A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many pediatric patients use complementary and alternative medicine, especially when facing a chronic illness for which treatment options are limited. So far, research on the use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with functional gastrointestinal disease has been

  13. The Placebo Response in Pediatric Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, Daniël R.; Zeevenhooven, Judith; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S.; Douwes Dekker, Iuke; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.; Vlieger, Arine M.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and determinants of the placebo response in studies with pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for systematic reviews and randomized

  14. Effects of motor imagery combined with functional electrical stimulation on upper limb motor function of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-feng LIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of motor imagery (MI combined with the third generation functional electrical stimulation (FES on upper limb motor function in acute ischemic stroke patients with hemiplegia.  Methods Forty acute ischemic stroke patients, within 48 h of onset, were randomly divided into FES group (N = 20 and combination group (FES combined with motor imagery, N = 20. All patients received basic routine rehabilitation training, for example, good limb positioning, accepting braces, balance training and training in the activities of daily living (ADL. FES group received the third generation FES therapy and the combination group also received motor imagery for 2 weeks. All of the patients were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and active range of motion (AROM of wrist dorsiflexion before and after 2 weeks of treatment.  Results After 2 weeks of treatment, the 2 groups had significantly higher FMA score, ARAT score and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion than that in pre-treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Besides, the FMA score (t = - 2.528, P = 0.016, ARAT score (t = - 2.562, P = 0.014 and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion (t = - 2.469, P = 0.018 in the combination group were significantly higher than that in the FES group. There were interactions of treatment methods with observation time points (P < 0.05, for all.  Conclusions Motor imagery combined with the third generation FES can effectively promote the recovery of upper limb motor function and motion range of wrist dorsiflexion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.008

  15. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Eyad M; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H

    2014-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabic translation - was collected. Classes from academic years (grades) 6 - 8 were selected. SPSS Statistical Package Version 17 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test, and continuous data were analyzed using t -test. P abdominal pain-predominant FGID. Seventy-nine (68%) of them were females. Forty-seven (10.6%) had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-six (8%), 17 (3.8%), 11 (2.4%) and five (1.1%) had abdominal migraine, functional abdominal pain, functional abdominal pain syndrome and functional dyspepsia, respectively. Abdominal pain-predominant FGID has become a major health issue in Jordanian children. One of four children between the ages of 11 and 15 years exhibits at least one abdominal pain-predominant FGID. The most common form of abdominal pain-predominant FGID in our children was IBS. Females are affected more often than males. Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms are seen regularly with abdominal pain-predominant FGIDs.

  16. Computed tomography assessment of intestinal gas volumes in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Williams, Sebastian R; Mc Laughlin, Patrick D; O'Connor, Owen J; Desmond, Alan N; Ní Laoíre, Aine; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn Mm; Maher, Michael M

    2012-10-01

    Many patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) rank sensations of bloating and distension among their most debilitating symptoms. Previous studies that have examined intestinal gas volume (IGV) in patients with FGIDs have employed a variety of invasive and imaging techniques. These studies are limited by small numbers and have shown conflicting results. The aim of our study was to estimate, using CT of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP), IGV in patients attending FGID clinic and to compare IGV in patients with and without FGID. All CTAP (n = 312) performed on patients (n = 207) attending a specialized FGID clinic over 10-year period were included in this study. Patients were classified into one of 3 groups according to the established clinical grading system, as organic gastrointestinal disorder (OGID, ie, patients with an organic non-functional disorder, n = 84), FGID (n = 36) or organic and functional gastrointestinal disorder (OFGID, ie, patients with an organic and a functional disorder, n = 87). Two independent readers blinded to the diagnostic group calculated IGV using threshold based 3D region growing with OsiriX. Median IGVs for the FGID, OGID, and OFGID groups were 197.6, 220.6 and 155.0 mL, respectively. Stepwise linear regression revealed age at study, gender, and calculated body mass index to predict the log IGV with an r(2) of 0.116, and P IGV in OGID (Spearman's = 0.253, P = 0.02) but this correlation was non-significant in the other groups. Although bloating is a classic symptom in FGID patients, IGV may not be increased compared with OGID and OFGID patients.

  17. Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sabbaghian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID are non-fatal, unknown etiology disorders with absence of a structural or biochemical explanation and accounting for up to 50% of gastroenterology referrals. Infant regurgitation, rumination and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Current researches suggest a role of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of FGID and qualitative and quantitative alterations in the normal gut flora in some functional disorder such as IBS, chronic constipation and formula-fed infants which suffering colic or regurgitation  have been described. Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms, when they are ingested, have positive effects on the host’s health. They influence intestinal physiology by different ways. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which promote the growth and/or activity of probiotic bacteria. Evidences for the therapeutic or preventive effect of particular probiotic strains with or without prebiotics in FGID are available in many of articles. Results are encouraging in symptomatic alleviation and improvement in quality of life in IBS, functional constipation, functional abdominal pain,   infantile colic, aerophagia and infantile regurgitation.   Conclusion: Different probiotic strains have different effects, so selection of strains with specific health benefits is important. In general according to review of articles, although some of specific probiotic strains can provide a health benefit in these disorders, it seems, more high-quality and long-duration placebo-con-trolled trials are required.   Keywords: Functional gastrointestinal disorders, Probiotic.  

  18. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eDi Lazzaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization.We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH and unaffected hemisphere (UH by measuring resting and active motor threshold and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI, to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. Active motor threshold differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p=0.004, not in females (p>0.200, and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p=0.033 and p=0.042. LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery.

  19. Effect of age on changes in motor units functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    With age, there is a change in functional connectivity of motor units in muscle. This leads to reduced muscle strength. This study has investigated the effect of age on the changes in the motor unit recruitment by measuring the mutual information between multiple channels of surface electromyogram (sEMG) of biceps brachii muscle. It is hypothesised that with ageing, there is a reduction in number of motor units, which can lead to an increase in the dependency of remaining motor units. This increase can be observed in the mutual information between the multiple channels of the muscle activity. Two channels of sEMG were recorded during the maximum level of isometric contraction. 28 healthy subjects (Young: age range 20-35years and Old: age range - 60-70years) participated in the experiments. The normalized mutual information (NMI), a measure of dependency factor, was computed for the sEMG recordings. Statistical analysis was performed to test the effect of age on NMI. The results show that the NMI among the older cohort was significantly higher when compared with the young adults.

  20. Functional significance of ipsilesional motor deficits after unilateral stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Caitilin; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether ipsilesional motor skills, which have been related to independent functioning, are present chronically after unilateral stroke and are more common in people with apraxia than in those without apraxia. Observational cohort comparing the performance of an able-bodied control group, stroke patients with left- or right-hemisphere damage matched for lesion volume, and left-hemisphere stroke patients with and without ideomotor limb apraxia. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Volunteer right-handed sample; stroke patients with left- or right-hemisphere damage about 4 years poststroke; a control group of demographically matched, able-bodied adults. Not applicable. Total time to perform the (1) Williams doors test and the (2) timed manual performance test (TMPT), which includes parts of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. Ipsilesional motor deficits were present after left- or right-hemisphere stroke when using both measures, but deficits were consistently more common in patients with limb apraxia only for the TMPT. These findings add to a growing literature that suggests that ipsilesional motor deficits may have a functional impact in unilateral stroke patients, especially in patients with ideomotor limb apraxia.

  1. Fast foods--are they a risk factor for functional gastrointestinal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shau, Jian-Ping; Chen, Po-Hon; Chan, Chan-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Wu, Tzee-Chung; James, Frank E; Pan, Wen-Han

    2016-01-01

    Fast-food consumption has greatly increased in Taiwan. Frequent fast food intake is associated with both allergy and obesity. The aim of this study was to describe fast food habit changes, and to assess the relationship between fast food intake and the risk of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) among Taiwanese adolescents. This analysis used data from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) of high school students conducted in 2011. A total of 2,042 adolescents (12-19 years) completed the questionnaire. The survey included the Rome III criteria for FGIDs, translated into Chinese for adolescents. Respondents with previously diagnosed chronic organic gastrointestinal diseases were excluded from the study. In total, 2,034 children were enrolled. 545 subjects (26.8%) had history of at least one FGID. 88.1% of the subjects reported fast foods consumption. A significantly higher prevalence of FGIDs was noted in adolescents with a history of fast foods consumption, compared with those reported not to have ingested fast foods in the past 30 days (27.6% vs 20.6%, p=0.024). An increased risk of FGIDs in children and adolescents was associated with fast food intake (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.78-1.83). FGIDs were common among Taiwanese adolescents. Fast-food consumption may contribute to a positive association with the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Lower fiber intake and more frozen desserts in the diet may be complicit in FGIDs. The findings have public health relevance in regard to the global increase in fast food consumption.

  2. Motor skills training promotes motor functional recovery and induces synaptogenesis in the motor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Rome III classification of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children with chronic abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocek, Anna; Wasowska-Królikowska, Krystyna; Toporowska-Kowalska, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The updated Rome III Classification of paediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) associated with abdominal pain comprises: functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), abdominal migraine, functional abdominal pain (FAP), functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS). To assess the value of the Rome criteria in identifying FGIDs in children with chronic abdominal pain. The study group consisted of 439 consecutive paediatric patients (192 boys and 247 girls) aged 4-18 years (mean age was 11.95 +/- 3.89 years) referred to the Paediatric Gastroenterology Department at Medical University of Lodz from January 2008 to June 2009 for evaluation of abdominal pain of at least 2 months' duration. After exclusion of organic disease children suspected of functional chronic abdominal pain were categorized with the use of Rome III criteria of FGIDs associated with abdominal pain (H2a-H2d1) and the Questionnaire on Paediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms (with the permission of doctor L. S. Walker). The patients with known nonabdominal organic disease, chronic illness or handicap were excluded. In 161 patients (36.58%) organic etiology was confirmed. Of the 278 children (63.42%) with functional chronic abdominal pain, 228 (82.02%) met the Rome III criteria for FGIDs associated with abdominal pain (FD, 15.5%; IBS, 21.6%; abdominal migraine, 5%; FAP 24.5%; FAPS, 15.9%). Fifty cases (17.98%) did not fulfill the criteria for subtypes of abdominal pain-related FGIDs--mainly due to different as defined by Rome III criteria (at least once per week) frequency of symptom presentation. (1) In the authors'investigations FGIDs was the most frequent cause of chronic abdominal pain in children. (2) The significant number of children with nonclassified FGIDs implies the need to modify the diagnostic criteria of Rome III classification concerning the prevalence of symptoms.

  4. The role of food in the functional gastrointestinal disorders: introduction to a manuscript series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chey, William D

    2013-05-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by the presence of chronic or recurrent symptoms that are felt to originate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which cannot be attributed to an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Food is associated with symptom onset or exacerbation in a significant proportion of FGID patients. Despite this, the role of food in the pathogenesis of the FGIDs has remained poorly understood. For this reason, diet has largely played an adjunctive rather than a primary role in the management of FGID patients. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the role of food in GI function and sensation and how food relates to GI symptoms in FGID patients. In a series of evidence-based manuscripts produced by the Rome Foundation Working Group on the role of food in FGIDs, comprehensive reviews of the physiological changes associated with nutrient intake, and the respective roles of carbohydrates, fiber, protein, and fats are provided. The series concludes with a manuscript that provides guidance on proper clinical trial design when considering the role of food in FGIDs.

  5. Early functional impairment of sensory-motor connectivity in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, George Z.; Blivis, Dvir; Liu, Wenfang; Drobac, Estelle; Crowder, Melissa E.; Kong, Lingling; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; O'Donovan, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY To define alterations of neuronal connectivity that occur during motor neuron degeneration, we characterized the function and structure of spinal circuitry in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model mice. SMA motor neurons show reduced proprioceptive reflexes that correlate with decreased number and function of synapses on motor neuron somata and proximal dendrites. These abnormalities occur at an early stage of disease in motor neurons innervating proximal hindlimb muscles and medial motor neurons innervating axial muscles, but only at end-stage disease in motor neurons innervating distal hindlimb muscles. Motor neuron loss follows afferent synapse loss with the same temporal and topographical pattern. Trichostatin A, which improves motor behavior and survival of SMA mice, partially restores spinal reflexes illustrating the reversibility of these synaptic defects. De-afferentation of motor neurons is an early event in SMA and may be a primary cause of motor dysfunction that is amenable to therapeutic intervention. PMID:21315257

  6. The relationship between motor function, cognition, independence and quality of life in myelomeningocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Carolina Lundberg; Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares de; Becker, Karine Kyomi; Teixeira, Rosani Aparecida Antunes; Voos, Mariana Callil; Hasue, Renata Hydee

    2017-08-01

    Motor function, cognition, functional independence and quality of life have been described in myelomeningocele patients, but no study has investigated their relationships. We aimed to investigate the relationships between motor function, cognition, functional independence, quality of life, age, and lesion level in myelomeningocele patients, and investigate the influence of hydrocephalus on these variables. We assessed 47 patients with the Gross Motor Function Measure (motor function), Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (cognition), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (functional independence) and the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de vie Enfant Imagé (quality of life). Spearman's correlation tests determined relationships between the variables. The Friedman ANOVAs determined the influence of hydrocephalus. Motor function was strongly related to mobility and lesion level, and moderately related to cognition, self-care and social function. Cognition and quality of life were moderately related to functional independence. Age correlated moderately with functional independence and quality of life. Hydrocephalus resulted in poorer motor/cognitive outcomes and lower functional independence.

  7. Investigation of functional gastrointestinal disorders and their related factors in rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying WANG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs in the rural population. Methods A questionnaire survey was carried out in six villages of Lankao county in Henan Province, using the Rome Ⅲ criteria, to assess the prevalence of FGIDs, and to analyze the FGID-related risk factors, using self-rating anxiety scale (SAS and self-rating depression scale (SDS to assess their risk factors. Results A total of 3032 residents (male 1531, female 1501 were investigated with mean age of 42.5±16.8 years. Among the residents surveyed, 282(9.30% were diagnosed with FGIDs. The prevalence of the complaints showed that functional heartburn (1.99%, functional dyspepsia (1.85%, non-specific functional gastrointestinal disorders (1.76% and irritable bowel syndrome (1.58% ranked the highest in above order. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of FGIDs between female (10.26% and male (8.36%, P>0.05. The prevalence rate of FGID increased with the increase of age, and reached the peak in the people with age over 60 years (18.58%, P<0.001. Statistical analysis indicated that smoking might be associated with FGIDs, accounting 12.76% in smoking people and 8.79% in non-smoking people (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that FGIDs might involve the following risk factors, including advanced age, irregular eating habit, with a preference of eating raw or cold foods, cold drinking, anxiety and depression (P < 0.05. Conclusions The prevalence rate of FGIDs in these areas is lower than that reported elsewhere. Age and unhealthy life style might be the risk factors of FGIDs. The psychologic disorders such as anxiety and depression were also associated with people suffering from FGIDs.

  8. Motor and somatosensory conversion disorder: a functional unawareness syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, David L; Barsky, Arthur J; Daffner, Kirk; Silbersweig, David A

    2012-01-01

    Although conversion disorder is closely connected to the origins of neurology and psychiatry, it remains poorly understood. In this article, the authors discuss neural and clinical parallels between lesional unawareness disorders and unilateral motor and somatosensory conversion disorder, emphasizing functional neuroimaging/disease correlates. Authors suggest that a functional-unawareness neurobiological framework, mediated by right hemisphere-lateralized, large-scale brain network dysfunction, may play a significant role in the neurobiology of conversion disorder. The perigenual anterior cingulate and the posterior parietal cortices are detailed as important in disease pathophysiology. Further investigations will refine the functional-unawareness concept, clarify the role of affective circuits, and delineate the process through which functional neurologic symptoms emerge.

  9. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Lotti, Fiorenza; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization. We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH) and unaffected hemisphere (UH) by measuring resting and active motor threshold (AMT) and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI), to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. AMT differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p = 0.004), not in females (p > 0.200), and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p = 0.033 and p = 0.042). LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery. PMID:26858590

  10. Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. Aim To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Methods Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6–8 weeks. Results Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35–0.61. P 80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Conclusions Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further. PMID:23574302

  11. Gastrointestinal function in chronic radiation enteritis -effects of loperamide-N-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, E.K.; Horowitz, M.; Russo, A.; Muecke, T.; Chatterton, B.E.; Robb, T.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of loperamide-N-oxide, a new peripheral opiate agonist precursor, on gastrointestinal function were evaluated in 18 patients with diarrhoea caused by radiation enteritis. Each patient was given loperamide-N-oxide and placebo for 14 days, separated by a washout period of 14 days. Gastrointestinal symptoms; absorption of bile acid, vitamin B12, lactose, and fat; gastric emptying; small intestinal and whole gut transit; and intestinal permeability were measured during placebo and loperamide-N-oxide phases. Data were compared with those obtained in 18 normal subjects. In the patient, in addition to an increased frequency of bowel actions there was reduced bile acid absorption, higher prevalence of lactose malabsorption associated with a reduced dietary intake of dairy products and faster small intestinal and whole gut transit when compared with the normal subjects. There was no significant difference in gastric emptying between the two groups. Treatment with loperamide-N-oxide was associated with a reduced frequency of bowel actions, slower small intestinal and total gut transit, more rapid gastric emptying improved absorption of bile acid and increased permeability to 51 Cr EDTA. These observations indicate that: (1) diarrhoea caused by chronic radiation enteritis is associated with more rapid intestinal transit and a high prevalence of bile acid and lactose malabsorption, and (2) loperamide-N-oxide slows small intestinal transit, increases bile acid absorption, and is effective in the treatment of diarrhoea associated with chronic radiation enteritis. (Author)

  12. Relationships Between Gross Motor Skills and Social Function in Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby M; Biasini, Fred

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.

  13. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  14. Relationship between muscle strength and motor function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene F. Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Measuring muscle strength and motor function is part of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD assessment. However, the relationship between these variables is controversial. Objective To investigate the relationship between muscle strength and motor function and between these variables and age. Method Muscle strength was measured by Medical Research Council (MRC scale and motor function, by Motor Function Measure (MFM, in 40 non-ambulatory patients. Spearman tests investigated the relationships between muscle strength, motor function and age. Results Total MRC and MFM scores were strongly related to each other (r = 0.94; p 0.05. Strong and moderate relationships between partial muscle strength and motor function scores were found. Higher correlation coefficients were found between total scores and Dimensions 2 (axial/ proximal control and 3 (distal control of MFM. Conclusion Muscle strength and motor function are strongly correlated and seem to decrease proportionally in DMD.

  15. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with functional gastrointestinal disorders — An open trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Bonnert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID, including irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are common in adolescents and are associated with substantially decreased quality of life. Cognitive behavior therapy for children and adolescents with FGID is one of few treatments that have shown effect, but treatment access is limited. In adults with irritable bowel syndrome, exposure-based internet-delivered CBT (ICBT leads to reduced symptoms and increased quality of life, but studies in children are lacking. This open pilot aimed to evaluate feasibility and the potential efficacy of an exposure-based ICBT-program for adolescents with pain-predominant FGID. Twenty-nine adolescents (age 13–17, with FGID were included. The ICBT-program lasted for 8 weeks with weekly online therapist support. The protocol for adolescents included exposure to abdominal symptoms, while the protocol for parents aimed at increasing parents' attention to adolescent healthy behaviors. Assessment points were baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale-IBS (GSRS-IBS. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d in an intent to treat analysis. GSRS-IBS improved significantly from baseline to post-treatment (mean difference 6.48; 95% CI [2.37–10.58] and to follow-up (mean difference 7.82; 95% CI [3.43–12.21], corresponding to moderate effect sizes (within-group Cohen's d = 0.50; 95% CI [0.16–0.84] and d = 0.63; 95% CI [0.24–1.02], respectively. Treatment adherence was high with 22 of 29 (76% adolescents completing the entire treatment period. High adherence indicates acceptability of format and content, while symptomatic improvement suggests potential efficacy for this ICBT intervention in adolescents with FGID.

  16. Novel disposable transnasal endoscopy for assessment of esophageal motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Baeg, Myong-Ki; Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Kyu Yong

    2014-01-01

    A novel disposable transnasal endoscopy (DTE) with a portable system has been developed to provide unsedated esophagoscopy by modifying capsule endoscopy. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of DTE to evaluate esophageal motor function. Patients with or suspected esophageal motility disorders and healthy volunteers were enrolled. Participants underwent esophageal high-resolution manometry and DTE in random order on different days. Motility was observed with DTE at 1, 8, and 16 cm above the gastroesophageal junction. Twenty healthy volunteers and 20 symptomatic subjects participated (8 achalasia, 5 scleroderma, 3 diffuse esophageal spasm, 1 hypertensive peristalsis, 1 peristaltic dysfunction, and 22 normal esophageal function). The normal findings on DTE were as follows. As the subject swallowed water, swallow-induced relaxation with elevation of the lower esophageal sphincter caused the endoscope to cross the Z-line into the gastric lumen. After the passage of water and air, complete closure of the lower esophageal sphincter occurred, with the return of the endoscope to its previous position. During the resting stage of the esophageal body, an air bubble could be seen in the center of the radially wrinkled and occluded lumen. The endoscopic diagnosis was in agreement with the clinical diagnosis in all but 2. Most of the participants reported acceptable discomfort during DTE and 62.5% of the subjects preferred DTE to manometry. DTE can accurately characterize normal esophageal motor function, allowing the diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders. DTE has potential widespread applications, especially in outpatient clinics.

  17. A retrospective study of the effects of pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix on gastrointestinal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, E.; Ahmad, A.; Horowitz, M.; Russo, A.; Muecke, T.; Chatterton, B.; Robb, T.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of disordered gastrointestinal function following therapeutic irradiation. Gastrointestinal function was evaluated in 30 randomly selected patients who had received pelvic irradiation for treatment of carcinoma of the cervix between 1 and 6 years previously. Each patient underwent evaluations of (a) gastrointestinal symptoms (b) absorption of bile acid, vitamin B12, lactose and fat (c) gastrointestinal transit: gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and whole gut transit and (d) intestinal permeability. Results were compared with those obtained in 18 normal volunteers. Stool frequency was above the control range in five patients and had increased (p < 0.001) since radiotherapy treatment. Bile acid (p<0.001) vitamin B12(p<0.01) and lactose (p<0.01) absorption were less in the patients when compared with the control subjects. Bile acid adsorption was below the control range in 14 of the 30 patients. Dietary calcium intake was lower (p<0.05) in those patients with lactose malabsorption. Gastric emptying (p<0.01) and small intestinal transit (p<0.01) were more rapid in the patients. Both small intestinal (r=-0.39, p<0.05) and whole gut (r=-0.45) transit were inversely related to stool frequency. Either bowel frequency, bile acid adsorption, vitamin B12 absorption was outside the control range in 19 of the 30 patients. Abnormal gastrointestinal function is essentially an inevitable long-term sequel of pelvic irradiation. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Aerial parts of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) as functional vegetables with gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenwen; Chen, Xuemin; Huo, Qing; Cui, Yajie; Yu, Zejun; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-06-20

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) has been utilized in the Andean region because of its edibleness and medicinal value. The aerial parts of maca (APM) were analyzed for protein, total sugar, vitamins, amino acids, and minerals and its characteristic active ingredients at five different growth stages. The results showed the high protein, total sugar, vitamin C, niacin, potassium, and calcium contents of APM. All 17 amino acids and the characteristic active ingredients, namely, macamide, glucosinolates, adenosine, and total saponins, were detected. We examined the effects of maca plant powders on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion and the levels of serum motilin and gastrin in atropine-treated mice. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) was investigated to identify the potential active material in APM. The results revealed that both maca plant powders and BITC can promote the gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy. Thus, APM feature potential as new functional vegetable sources.

  19. Gastrointestinal Traumatic Injuries: Gastrointestinal Perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Maria A; Pugh, Marcia A; McGhee, Melanie

    2018-03-01

    The abdomen is a big place even in a small person. Gastrointestinal trauma can result in injury to the stomach, small bowel, colon, or rectum. Traumatic causes include blunt or penetrating trauma, such as gunshot wounds, stabbings, motor vehicle collisions, and crush injuries. Nontraumatic causes include appendicitis, Crohn disease, cancer, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, blockage of the bowel, and chemotherapy. The mechanism of injury will affect both the nature and severity of any resulting injuries. Treatment must address the critical and emergent nature of these injuries as well as issues that affect all trauma situations, which include management of hemodynamic instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promotes corticospinal system functional and structural plasticity and motor function after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiguo; Amer, Alzahraa; Ryan, Daniel; Martin, John H

    2016-03-01

    An important strategy for promoting voluntary movements after motor system injury is to harness activity-dependent corticospinal tract (CST) plasticity. We combine forelimb motor cortex (M1) activation with co-activation of its cervical spinal targets in rats to promote CST sprouting and skilled limb movement after pyramidal tract lesion (PTX). We used a two-step experimental design in which we first established the optimal combined stimulation protocol in intact rats and then used the optimal protocol in injured animals to promote CST repair and motor recovery. M1 was activated epidurally using an electrical analog of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). The cervical spinal cord was co-activated by trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) that was targeted to the cervical enlargement, simulated from finite element method. In intact rats, forelimb motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were strongly facilitated during iTBS and for 10 min after cessation of stimulation. Cathodal, not anodal, tsDCS alone facilitated MEPs and also produced a facilitatory aftereffect that peaked at 10 min. Combined iTBS and cathodal tsDCS (c-tsDCS) produced further MEP enhancement during stimulation, but without further aftereffect enhancement. Correlations between forelimb M1 local field potentials and forelimb electromyogram (EMG) during locomotion increased after electrical iTBS alone and further increased with combined stimulation (iTBS+c-tsDCS). This optimized combined stimulation was then used to promote function after PTX because it enhanced functional connections between M1 and spinal circuits and greater M1 engagement in muscle contraction than either stimulation alone. Daily application of combined M1 iTBS on the intact side and c-tsDCS after PTX (10 days, 27 min/day) significantly restored skilled movements during horizontal ladder walking. Stimulation produced a 5.4-fold increase in spared ipsilateral CST terminations. Combined neuromodulation achieves optimal motor

  1. Organization of the human motor system as studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattay, Venkata S.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    Blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI), because of its superior resolution and unlimited repeatability, can be particularly useful in studying functional aspects of the human motor system, especially plasticity, and somatotopic and temporal organization. In this survey, while describing studies that have reliably used BOLD fMRI to examine these aspects of the motor system, we also discuss studies that investigate the neural substrates underlying motor skill acquisition, motor imagery, production of motor sequences; effect of rate and force of movement on brain activation and hemispheric control of motor function. In the clinical realm, in addition to the presurgical evaluation of neurosurgical patients, BOLD fMRI has been used to explore the mechanisms underlying motor abnormalities in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders and the mechanisms underlying reorganization or plasticity of the motor system following a cerebral insult

  2. Abnormal functional motor lateralization in healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, Mario; Fazio, Leonardo; De Salvia, Michela; Petito, Annamaria; Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Bellomo, Antonello; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2012-07-30

    Earlier neuroimaging studies of motor function in schizophrenia have demonstrated reduced functional lateralization in the motor network during motor tasks. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visually guided motor task in 18 clinically unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched controls to investigate if abnormal functional lateralization is related to genetic risk for this brain disorder. Whereas activity associated with motor task performance was mainly contralateral with only a marginal ipsilateral component in healthy participants, unaffected siblings had strong bilateral activity with significantly greater response in ipsilateral and contralateral premotor areas as well as in contralateral subcortical motor regions relative to controls. Reduced lateralization in siblings was also identified with a measure of laterality quotient. These findings suggest that abnormal functional lateralization of motor circuitry is related to genetic risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Catenin-dependent cadherin function drives divisional segregation of spinal motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Sanusi M; Millo, Hadas; Rajebhosale, Manisha; Price, Stephen R

    2012-01-11

    Motor neurons that control limb movements are organized as a neuronal nucleus in the developing ventral horn of the spinal cord called the lateral motor column. Neuronal migration segregates motor neurons into distinct lateral and medial divisions within the lateral motor column that project axons to dorsal or ventral limb targets, respectively. This migratory phase is followed by an aggregation phase whereby motor neurons within a division that project to the same muscle cluster together. These later phases of motor neuron organization depend on limb-regulated differential cadherin expression within motor neurons. Initially, all motor neurons display the same cadherin expression profile, which coincides with the migratory phase of motor neuron segregation. Here, we show that this early, pan-motor neuron cadherin function drives the divisional segregation of spinal motor neurons in the chicken embryo by controlling motor neuron migration. We manipulated pan-motor neuron cadherin function through dissociation of cadherin binding to their intracellular partners. We found that of the major intracellular transducers of cadherin signaling, γ-catenin and α-catenin predominate in the lateral motor column. In vivo manipulations that uncouple cadherin-catenin binding disrupt divisional segregation via deficits in motor neuron migration. Additionally, reduction of the expression of cadherin-7, a cadherin predominantly expressed in motor neurons only during their migration, also perturbs divisional segregation. Our results show that γ-catenin-dependent cadherin function is required for spinal motor neuron migration and divisional segregation and suggest a prolonged role for cadherin expression in all phases of motor neuron organization.

  4. Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

    2013-06-01

    The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6-8 weeks. Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35-0.61. P intolerances. Methane breath levels were not associated with constipation using several cut-off thresholds. Adequate symptom relief was achieved in >80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Immunophenotyping in post-giardiasis functional gastrointestinal disease and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanevik Kurt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Giardia outbreak was associated with development of post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGID and chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS. Markers of immune dysfunction have given conflicting results in CFS and FGID patient populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a wide selection of markers of immune dysfunction in these two co-occurring post-infectious syndromes. Methods 48 patients, reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study, were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS (n=19 and idiopathic chronic fatigue (n=5 and Rome II criteria for FGIDs (n=54. 22 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results In peripheral blood we found significantly higher CD8 T-cell levels in PI-FGID, and significantly lower NK-cell levels in PI-CFS patients. Severity of abdominal and fatigue symptoms correlated negatively with NK-cell levels. A tendency towards lower T-cell CD26 expression in FGID was seen. Conclusion Patients with PI-CFS and/or PI-FGID 5 years after Giardia lamblia infection showed alterations in NK-cell and CD8-cell populations suggesting a possible immunological abnormality in these conditions. We found no significant changes in other markers examined in this well-defined group of PI-CFS and PI-FGID elicited by a gastrointestinal infection. Controlling for co-morbid conditions is important in evaluation of CFS-biomarkers.

  6. Relationship between functional connectivity and motor function assessment in stroke patients with hemiplegia: a resting-state functional MRI study

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    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jingna; Sang, Linqiong; Li, Pengyue; Qiu, Mingguo [Third Military Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Liu, Hongliang; Yan, Rubing [Third Military Medical University, Department of Rehabilitation, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yang, Jun; Wang, Jian [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China)

    2016-05-15

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to examine the brain mechanisms of stroke patients with hemiplegia, but the relationship between functional connectivity (FC) and treatment-induced motor function recovery has not yet been fully investigated. This study aimed to identify the brain FC changes in stroke patients and study the relationship between FC and motor function assessment using the resting-state fMRI. Seventeen stroke patients with hemiplegia and fifteen healthy control subjects (HCSs) were recruited in this study. We compared the FC between the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) and the whole brain of the patients with the FC of the HCSs and studied the FC changes in the patients before and after conventional rehabilitation and motor imagery therapy. Additionally, correlations between the FC change and motor function of the patients were studied. Compared to the HCSs, the FC in the patient group was significantly increased between the ipsilesional M1 and the ipsilesional inferior parietal cortex, frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), and contralesional angular and decreased between the ipsilesional M1 and bilateral M1. After the treatment, the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and contralesional M1 increased while the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and ipsilesional SMA and paracentral lobule decreased. A statistically significant correlation was found between the FC change in the bilateral M1 and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) score change. Our results revealed an abnormal motor network after stroke and suggested that the FC could serve as a biomarker of motor function recovery in stroke patients with hemiplegia. (orig.)

  7. Relationship between functional connectivity and motor function assessment in stroke patients with hemiplegia: a resting-state functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jingna; Sang, Linqiong; Li, Pengyue; Qiu, Mingguo; Liu, Hongliang; Yan, Rubing; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to examine the brain mechanisms of stroke patients with hemiplegia, but the relationship between functional connectivity (FC) and treatment-induced motor function recovery has not yet been fully investigated. This study aimed to identify the brain FC changes in stroke patients and study the relationship between FC and motor function assessment using the resting-state fMRI. Seventeen stroke patients with hemiplegia and fifteen healthy control subjects (HCSs) were recruited in this study. We compared the FC between the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) and the whole brain of the patients with the FC of the HCSs and studied the FC changes in the patients before and after conventional rehabilitation and motor imagery therapy. Additionally, correlations between the FC change and motor function of the patients were studied. Compared to the HCSs, the FC in the patient group was significantly increased between the ipsilesional M1 and the ipsilesional inferior parietal cortex, frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), and contralesional angular and decreased between the ipsilesional M1 and bilateral M1. After the treatment, the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and contralesional M1 increased while the FC between the ipsilesional M1 and ipsilesional SMA and paracentral lobule decreased. A statistically significant correlation was found between the FC change in the bilateral M1 and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) score change. Our results revealed an abnormal motor network after stroke and suggested that the FC could serve as a biomarker of motor function recovery in stroke patients with hemiplegia. (orig.)

  8. Combinatorial Motor Training Results in Functional Reorganization of Remaining Motor Cortex after Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hannah L; Jones, Theresa A; Kozlowski, Dorothy A; Adkins, DeAnna L

    2016-04-15

    Cortical reorganization subsequent to post-stroke motor rehabilitative training (RT) has been extensively examined in animal models and humans. However, similar studies focused on the effects of motor training after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are lacking. We previously reported that after a moderate/severe TBI in adult male rats, functional improvements in forelimb use were accomplished only with a combination of skilled forelimb reach training and aerobic exercise, with or without nonimpaired forelimb constraint. Thus, the current study was designed to examine the relationship between functional motor cortical map reorganization after experimental TBI and the behavioral improvements resulting from this combinatorial rehabilitative regime. Adult male rats were trained to proficiency on a skilled reaching task, received a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the forelimb area of the caudal motor cortex (CMC). Three days post-CCI, animals began RT (n = 13) or no rehabilitative training (NoRT) control procedures (n = 13). The RT group participated in daily skilled reach training, voluntary aerobic exercise, and nonimpaired forelimb constraint. This RT regimen significantly improved impaired forelimb reaching success and normalized reaching strategies, consistent with previous findings. RT also enlarged the area of motor cortical wrist representation, derived by intracortical microstimulation, compared to NoRT. These findings indicate that sufficient RT can greatly improve motor function and improve the functional integrity of remaining motor cortex after a moderate/severe CCI. When compared with findings from stroke models, these findings also suggest that more intense RT may be needed to improve motor function and remodel the injured cortex after TBI.

  9. Functional features of gene expression profiles differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumours according to KIT mutations and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Dobosz, Anna Jerzak Vel; Jarosz, Dorota; Ruka, Wlodzimierz; Wyrwicz, Lucjan S; Polkowski, Marcin; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goryca, Krzysztof; Rubel, Tymon; Kokoszyñska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Piotr; Nowecki, Zbigniew I

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours of mesenchymal origin characterized by gain-of-function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Although mutations in either receptor are thought to drive an early oncogenic event through similar pathways, two previous studies reported the mutation-specific gene expression profiles. However, their further conclusions were rather discordant. To clarify the molecular characteristics of differentially expressed genes according to GIST receptor mutations, we combined microarray-based analysis with detailed functional annotations. Total RNA was isolated from 29 frozen gastric GISTs and processed for hybridization on GENECHIP ® HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix). KIT and PDGFRA were analyzed by sequencing, while related mRNA levels were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Fifteen and eleven tumours possessed mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, respectively; no mutation was found in three tumours. Gene expression analysis identified no discriminative profiles associated with clinical or pathological parameters, even though expression of hundreds of genes differentiated tumour receptor mutation and expression status. Functional features of genes differentially expressed between the two groups of GISTs suggested alterations in angiogenesis and G-protein-related and calcium signalling. Our study has identified novel molecular elements likely to be involved in receptor-dependent GIST development and allowed confirmation of previously published results. These elements may be potential therapeutic targets and novel markers of KIT mutation status

  10. Cognitive processing in putative functional gastrointestinal disorder: rumination yields orientation to social threat not pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maryanne; Chapman, Sarah C E

    2010-02-01

    Two possible roles of selective attention in the development and maintenance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined. First, hypervigilance to pain within FGID may exacerbate pain perception and pain-related distress. Second, hypervigilance to socially threatening stimuli could account for the disrupted social functioning reported by patients. Furthermore, stress-related variations in reported symptom severity and functioning impairments may reflect changes in cognitive bias with psychological state. Patterns of selective attention were probed within a sample of putative FGID participants (pFGID). The effect of rumination induction on performance on a modified exogenous cueing task was examined. Thirty-three women with pFGID and 27 matched controls responded to dot probes following pain, social threat and neutral word cues, both before and after rumination (passive self-focused thought), or distraction induction. Reaction times revealed that after rumination but not neutral distraction, pFGID participants showed enhanced attention to social threat words, but not to pain or neutral words. Between-group differences in mood, anxiety or depression could not account for these effects. These results implicate selective attention in social but not pain-related idiosyncrasies in FGID including IBS.

  11. Non-pharmacological management of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Basude, Dharamveer

    2016-11-01

    Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) comprises of 4 main conditions: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, abdominal migraine and functional abdominal pain. AP-FGIDs are diagnosed clinically based on the Rome IV criteria for FGIDs of childhood. There is limited evidence for pharmacological therapies. This review article discusses nonpharmacological management of AP-FGID based on the current literature including systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, cohort and case control studies. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview on the available evidence for the pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists involved in managing children with AP-FGID. Managing AP-FGIDs can be challenging. This should follow a stepwise approach with focused history, identification of "red flag" signs and symptoms, physical examination and investigations done following initial consultation. Family needs explaining that there is nothing seriously wrong with the child's abdomen. This explanation and reassurance can achieve symptom control in large number of cases. Non-pharmacological interventions are delivered through lifestyle and dietary changes and bio-psychosocial therapies. Dietary interventions vary depending on the type of AP-FGID. Bio-psychosocial therapies such as hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and yoga aim at stress reduction. There is increasing evidence for use of non-pharmacological interventions in children with APFGID.

  12. Task-relevant cognitive and motor functions are prioritized during prolonged speed-accuracy motor task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Satas, Andrius; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Cekanauskaite, Agne; Valanciene, Dovile; Majauskiene, Daiva; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of prolonged speed-accuracy motor task on the indicators of psychological, cognitive, psychomotor and motor function. Ten young men aged 21.1 ± 1.0 years performed a fast- and accurate-reaching movement task and a control task. Both tasks were performed for 2 h. Despite decreased motivation, and increased perception of effort as well as subjective feeling of fatigue, speed-accuracy motor task performance improved during the whole period of task execution. After the motor task, the increased working memory function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation at rest and during conflict detection, and the decreased efficiency of incorrect response inhibition and visuomotor tracking were observed. The speed-accuracy motor task increased the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials, while grip strength was not affected. These findings demonstrate that to sustain the performance of 2-h speed-accuracy task under conditions of self-reported fatigue, task-relevant functions are maintained or even improved, whereas less critical functions are impaired.

  13. Quality of life and health care consultation in 13 to 18 year olds with abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Benninga, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGD) are commonly seen in the paediatric age group. It has significant impact on daily activities of affected children. Main objective of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with AP-FGD.

  14. Epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents: a Sri Lankan perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are a worldwide pediatric problem with uncertain pathology. Main objectives of this thesis were to assess epidemiology, risk factors and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of AP-FGIDs. A systematic review and

  15. AN ASSOCIATION OF THE CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF NSAID GASTROPATHY WITH UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL MOTOR DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Abdulganiyeva

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion. The upper GI motor disorders found in the RA patients taking NSAIDs may play an important role in the development of clinical manifestations of NSAID gastropathy and, probably, a certain group of patients must undergo medical correction of the symptoms related to dysmotility.

  16. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (pgross motor function (pgross motor function (R2=0.84; pgross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  17. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange F. Nogueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001, the time of manipulation (p<0.001 and gross motor function (p<0.001 over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001 and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02 from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development.

  18. The role of fermentable carbohydrates and beverages in the symptomatology of functional gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moding, Magnus; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2017-11-01

    The pathophysiology behind functional gastrointestinal disease (FGID) has not been defined, but an intestinal accumulation of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) is thought to be involved. A restricted coffee intake is recommended. The aim was to investigate if symptoms of FGID were associated with intake of certain foods (including FODMAPs), as well as beverages (including coffee and tea). Data were used from participants, age range 45-75 years, who had answered the EpiHealth questionnaire about their background factors, health status and intake of food and beverages. After exclusion of organic bowel diseases, 16,840 participants remained. The impact of food and beverages on functional abdominal pain, functional bloating, functional constipation and functional diarrhea were examined by adjusted binary logistic regression. Wholemeal bread (Swedish cracker) (OR: 1.361; 95% CI: 1.001-1.851) and white bread (low fiber content) (OR: 1.527; 95% CI: 1.075-2.169) were associated with constipation, whereas soft wholemeal bread (high fiber content) was associated with diarrhea (OR: 1.601; 95% CI: 1.040-2.463). Cheese was associated with bloating (OR: 1.460; 95% CI: 1.004-2.123). A high tea intake was associated with abdominal pain (p for trend =.003), bloating (p for trend = .039) and diarrhea (p for trend <.001), whereas coffee intake was associated with a decreased risk of abdominal pain (p for trend = .002) and bloating (p for trend = .007). High soda intake associated with abdominal pain and bloating and juice with diarrhea. There are weak associations between intake of grain and dairy products and FGID symptoms. Tea is associated with increased risks, whereas coffee is associated with lower risks, of FGID symptoms.

  19. The Epidemiology of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Mexico: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio López-Colombo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The frequency of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs in the general population of Mexico is unknown. Methods. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs, associated depression, and health care utilization, a population-based sampling strategy was used to select 500 households in the State of Tlaxcala, in central Mexico. Household interviews were conducted by two trained physicians using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, a health-care and medication used questionnaire and the CES-D depression scale. Results. The most common FGIDs were IBS: 16.0% (95% CI: 12.9–19.5; functional bloating: 10.8% (8.2–13.9; unspecified functional bowel disorder: 10.6% (8.0–13.6; and functional constipation (FC: 7.4% (5.3–10.1. Uninvestigated heartburn was common: 19.6% (16.2–23.4. All FGIDs were equally prevalent among both genders, except for IBS (P=0.001, IBS-C (P<0.001, IBS-A/M (P=0.049, and FC (P=0.039 which were more frequent in women. Subjects with FGIDs reported higher frequencies of medical visits: 34.6 versus 16.8%; use of medications: 40.7 versus 21.6%; (both P<0.001; and reported depression: 26.7 versus 6.7%, (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this first population-based study of FGIDs in Mexico, heartburn, IBS, functional distension, and FC were common. Only IBS, IBS-C, IBS-A/M, and FC were more frequent in women. Finally, FGIDs in Mexico had an increased burden of health care utilization and depression.

  20. Functional modifications associated with gastrointestinal tract organogenesis during metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana S; Kamisaka, Yuko; Harboe, Torstein; Power, Deborah M; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2014-02-19

    Flatfish metamorphosis is a hormone regulated post-embryonic developmental event that transforms a symmetric larva into an asymmetric juvenile. In altricial-gastric teleost fish, differentiation of the stomach takes place after the onset of first feeding, and during metamorphosis dramatic molecular and morphological modifications of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract occur. Here we present the functional ontogeny of the developing GI-tract from an integrative perspective in the pleuronectiforme Atlantic halibut, and test the hypothesis that the multiple functions of the teleost stomach develop synchronously during metamorphosis. Onset of gastric function was determined with several approaches (anatomical, biochemical, molecular and in vivo observations). In vivo pH analysis in the GI-tract lumen combined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) of α and β subunits of the gastric proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) and pepsinogen A2 indicated that gastric proteolytic capacity is established during the climax of metamorphosis. Transcript abundance of ghrelin, a putative orexigenic signalling molecule produced in the developing stomach, correlated (p metamorphosis, and was thus independent of this event. Mechanical breakdown of food and transportation of chyme through the GI-tract was observed in vivo and resulted from phasic and propagating contractions established well before metamorphosis. The number of contractions in the midgut decreased at metamorphic climax synchronously with establishment of the stomach's proteolytic capacity and its increased peristaltic activity. Putative osmoregulatory competence of the GI-tract, inferred by abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase α transcripts, was already established at the onset of exogenous feeding and was unmodified by metamorphosis. The functional specialization of the GI-tract was not exclusive to metamorphosis, and its osmoregulatory capacity and reservoir function were established before first feeding. Nonetheless, acid production and the

  1. GLP-1 suppresses gastrointestinal motility and inhibits the migrating motor complex in healthy subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, P M; Näslund, E; Edholm, T

    2008-01-01

    hormones, and gut tissue expression of GLP-1 receptor was studied. In healthy subjects, GLP-1 0.7 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) reduced the migrating motor complexes (MMCs) from a median of 2 (range 2-3) to 0.5 (0-2), and motility index from 4.9 +/- 0.1 to 4.3 +/- 0.3 ln Sigma(mmHg*s min(-1)) in jejunum, while GLP-1...

  2. Portal vein blood flow is related to characteristics of the migrating motor complex of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Niels; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Troensegaard, P.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To measure variation in portal blood flow during the interdigestive state in relation to the migrating motor complex (MMC) in healthy volunteers. Design: Portal blood flow was measured by a duplex and colour Doppler technique with 5-min intervals during an entire MMC cycle. Total....... Conclusion: Blood flow in the portal vein varies with the characteristics of the MMC, a relationship which must be considered in future studies in health and disease....

  3. Functional Development of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Hormone- and Growth Factor-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ménard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the control of gastrointestinal (GI tract development. The first section addresses the differences in general mechanisms of GI development in humans versus rodents, highlighting that morphogenesis of specific digestive organs and the differentiation of digestive epithelia occur not only at different stages of ontogeny but also at different rates. The second section provides an overview of studies from the author's laboratory at the Université de Sherbrooke pertaining to the development of the human fetal small intestine and colon. While both segments share similar morphological and functional characteristics, they are nevertheless modulated by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Using the organ culture approach, the author and colleagues were able to establish that hormones and growth factors, such as glucocorticoids, epidermal growth factor, insulin and keratinocyte growth factor, not only exert differential effects within these two segments, they can also trigger opposite responses in comparison with animal models. In the third section, emphasis is placed on the functional development of human fetal stomach and its various epithelial cell types; in particular, the glandular chief cells responsible for the synthesis and secretion of gastric enzymes such as pepsinogen-5 and gastric lipase. Bearing in mind that limitations of available cell models have, until now, greatly impeded the comprehension of molecular mechanisms regulating human gastric epithelial cell functions, the last section focuses on new human gastric epithelial cell models recently developed in the author's laboratory. These models comprise a novel primary culture system of human fetal gastric epithelium including, for the first time, functional chief cells, and human gastric epithelium cell lines cloned from the parental NCI-N87 strain. These new cells lines could serve important applications in the study of pathogenic action and epithelial

  4. Effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong Wook; Shin, Jung Soon; Kim, Soohyeon; Jung, Soojin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We recruited 34 children (M:F=15:19, age: 3-12 years) with spastic CP who underwent hippotherapy for 45 minutes twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-one children with spastic CP were recruited for control group. The distribution of gross motor function classification system level and mean age were not significantly different between the two groups. Outcome measures, including the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66, GMFM-88 and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory: Functional Skills Scale (PEDI-FSS), were assessed before therapy and after the 8-weeks intervention as outcome measures. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups in mean baseline total scores of GMFM-66, GMFM-88 or PEDI-FSS. After the 8-weeks intervention, mean GMFM-66 and GMFM-88 scores were significantly improved in both groups. However, the hippotherapy group had significantly greater improvement in dimension E and GMFM-66 total score than the control group. The total PEDI-FSS score and the sub-scores of its 3 domains were significantly improved in the hippotherapy group, but not in the control group. The results of our study demonstrate the beneficial effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with CP compared to control group. The significant improvement in PEDI-FSS scores suggests that hippotherapy may be useful to maximize the functional performance of children with CP.

  5. Effect of bread gluten content on gastrointestinal function: a crossover MRI study on healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Marina; Gates, Fred K; Marciani, Luca; Shiwani, Henna; Major, Giles; Hoad, Caroline L; Chaddock, Gemma; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2016-01-14

    Gluten is a crucial functional component of bread, but the effect of increasing gluten content on gastrointestinal (GI) function remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the effect of increasing gluten content on GI function and symptoms in healthy participants using the unique capabilities of MRI. A total of twelve healthy participants completed this randomised, mechanistic, open-label, three-way crossover study. On days 1 and 2 they consumed either gluten-free bread (GFB), or normal gluten content bread (NGCB) or added gluten content bread (AGCB). The same bread was consumed on day 3, and MRI scans were performed every 60 min from fasting baseline up to 360 min after eating. The appearance of the gastric chime in the images was assessed using a visual heterogeneity score. Gastric volumes, the small bowel water content (SBWC), colonic volumes and colonic gas content and GI symptoms were measured. Fasting transverse colonic volume after the 2-d preload was significantly higher after GFB compared with NGCB and AGCB with a dose-dependent response (289 (SEM 96) v. 212 (SEM 74) v. 179 (SEM 87) ml, respectively; P=0·02). The intragastric chyme heterogeneity score was higher for the bread with increased gluten (AGCB 6 (interquartile range (IQR) 0·5) compared with GFB 3 (IQR 0·5); P=0·003). However, gastric half-emptying time was not different between breads nor were study day GI symptoms, postprandial SBWC, colonic volume and gas content. This MRI study showed novel mechanistic insights in the GI responses to different breads, which are poorly understood notwithstanding the importance of this staple food.

  6. Mosapride combined with probiotics on gastrointestinal function and growth in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-Mei; Sun, Zhi-Qun; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mosapride combined with probiotics on gastrointestinal function and growth and development in premature infants. A total of 240 premature infants treated at Weifang People's Hospital between June 2012 and May 2015 who matched our criteria were randomly divided into three groups of 80 cases each. Group A received routine treatment, group B received routine treatment combined with live B. subtilis and E. faecium granules with multivitamins (Medilac-Vita), and group C received routine treatment and Saccharomyces boulardii sachets (Bioflor). Mosapride was administered to patients in groups B and C to promote intestinal peristalsis. Gastrin and bilirubin levels, as well as jaundice fade time, were recorded. Growth and development condition (i.e., head circumference and weight), duration and incidence of feeding intolerance (FI), as well as other symptoms were also analyzed. By day 14, gastrin concentrations in groups B and C were significantly higher than those in group A (Pjaundice duration in group A was significantly longer (Pprobiotics can effectively reduce FI incidence in premature infants, shorten enteral feeding time, promote the absorption of required nutrients, and promote the development and recovery of early physiological weight loss in preterm infants.

  7. Personality traits predict treatment outcome with an antidepressant in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanum, L; Malt, U F

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between personality traits and response to treatment with the tetracyclic antidepressant mianserin or placebo in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGD) without psychopathology. Forty-eight patients completed the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, Neuroticism Extroversion Openness -Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), neuroticism + lie subscales, before they were consecutively allocated to a 7-week double-blind treatment study with mianserin or placebo. Treatment response to pain and target symptoms were recorded daily with the Visual Analogue Scale and Clinical Global Improvement Scale at every visit. A low level of neuroticism and little concealed aggressiveness predicted treatment outcome with the antidepressant drug mianserin in non-psychiatric patients with FGD. Inversely, moderate to high neuroticism and marked concealed aggressiveness predicted poor response to treatment. These findings were most prominent in women. Personality traits were better predictors of treatment outcome than serotonergic sensitivity assessed with the fenfluramine test. Assessment of the personality traits negativism, irritability, aggression, and neuroticism may predict response to drug treatment of FGD even when serotonergic sensitivity is controlled for. If confirmed in future studies, the findings point towards a more differential psychopharmacologic treatment of FGD.

  8. Anxiety Sensitivity and Metacognition in Iranian Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zargar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosomatic disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders in which psychological factors play an important role in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of medical conditions. The most important category of psychosomatic disorders is functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. The present study aimed to compare anxiety sensitivity (AS and metacognitions between patients with FGID and healthy individuals in Isfahan, Iran.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 50 patients (13 men and 37 women with FGID who were diagnosed by a gastroenterologist and had the study inclusion criteria and 50 matched healthy individuals (15 men and 35 women. The subjects were randomly selected. The data collection tools consisted of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index‎-Revised (ASI-R and Metacognitive Beliefs Questionnaire (MCQ-30. The data were analyzed in SPSS software.Results: The results showed that there were significant differences in all subscales of ASI-R and MCQ-30, except the fear of publicly observable symptoms subscale in the ASI-R and negative beliefs about the uncontrollability of thoughts and corresponding danger (UD subscale in MCQ-30 between patients with FGID and healthy individuals.Conclusion: The results showed that AS and metacognitive beliefs about worry play a crucial role in psychosomatic disorders such as FGID. Anxiety has appeared as the common component between FGID. Hence, the management of anxiety in FGID by clinicians in the treatment of these disorders is recommended.

  9. Functional gastrointestinal disorders among adolescents with poor sleep: a school-based study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-Qing; Yao, Min; Chen, Guang-Yu; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Yan-Ping; Li, Ding-Guo

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether functional gastrointestinal disorders are more common among adolescents with self-reported poor sleep. Junior middle school and senior high school students (n = 1,362) were recruited from schools in Shanghai. Students completed two questionnaires: the questionnaire for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adolescents and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The prevalence of poor sleep was 34.29% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 31.77-36.81] and there was no significant difference between genders (P = 0.991). The tendency towards poor sleep increased with age, with age group yielding a significant effect (P = 0.001). In junior middle school and senior high school students, the propensity towards poor sleep was 30.10% (95% CI = 27.08-33.12%) and 42.11% (95% CI = 37.67-46.55%), respectively. Among students with poor sleep, the prevalence of IBS was 19.70% (95% CI = 16.09-23.31). After adjusting for age, sex, night pain, and psychological factors, IBS was significantly more common in students with poor sleep (odds ratio = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.07-2.58). We conclude that IBS is prevalent in students with poor sleep. Poor sleep was independently associated with IBS among adolescents in Shanghai China.

  10. Serotonin transporter variant drives preventable gastrointestinal abnormalities in development and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Li, Zhishan; Stevanovic, Korey; Saurman, Virginia; Anderson, George M.; Snyder, Isaac; Blakely, Randy D.; Gershon, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by SLC6A4) have been identified in ASD. Expression of the most common SERT variant (Ala56) in mice increases 5-HT clearance and causes ASD-like behaviors. Here, we demonstrated that Ala56-expressing mice display GI defects that resemble those seen in mice lacking neuronal 5-HT. These defects included enteric nervous system hypoplasia, slow GI transit, diminished peristaltic reflex activity, and proliferation of crypt epithelial cells. An opposite phenotype was seen in SERT-deficient mice and in progeny of WT dams given the SERT antagonist fluoxetine. The reciprocal phenotypes that resulted from increased or decreased SERT activity support the idea that 5-HT signaling regulates enteric neuronal development and can, when disturbed, cause long-lasting abnormalities of GI function. Administration of a 5-HT4 agonist to Ala56 mice during development prevented Ala56-associated GI perturbations, suggesting that excessive SERT activity leads to inadequate 5-HT4–mediated neurogenesis. We propose that deficient 5-HT signaling during development may contribute to GI and behavioral features of ASD. The consequences of therapies targeting SERT during pregnancy warrant further evaluation. PMID:27111230

  11. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin Jim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD participated in the randomised, crossover design, where (i subjects ingested a high-fat meal alone (control, and (ii ingested a high-fat meal, preceded by 1 h of moderate exercise. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV was examined at baseline, post-exercise, and in the postprandial period. Gastric emptying was measured using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Measures of venous blood were obtained prior to and following exercise and at 2, 4 and 6 hours post-ingestion. PWV increased (6.5 ± 1.9 m/sec at 2 (8.9 ± 1.7 m/sec and 4 hrs (9.0 ± 1.6 m/sec post-ingestion in the control group (time × group interaction, P

  12. The structural model of pain, cognitive strategies, and negative emotions in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mazaheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs may use specific coping strategies. We intend to provide a mediating role of the relationship between pain (intensity and acceptance, cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and negative emotions in patients with FGIDs. Materials and Methods: Participants were 176 inpatients, all experiencing significant FGIDs symptomatology as confirmed by gastroenterologists. Patients completed data on cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, short form of depression, anxiety, stress scale, chronic pain acceptance questionnaire-revised, and pain intensity scale. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method. Results: The pain intensity had significantly direct effect on cognitive emotion regulation strategies and indirect effect on negative emotions. Besides, the mediating role of negative emotions in the relationship between the strategies and pain acceptance were supported, whereas indirect relationships between pain intensity and acceptance through cognitive strategies were not confirmed. Conclusion: The results of the study emphasize the role of pain intensity in the development of negative emotions through cognitive strategies and the role of the strategies in pain acceptance through negative emotions. In fact, cognitive strategies to be related to pain and emotions.

  13. Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their dietetic correction in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Yefanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 60–70 % of cases of visiting a doctor, the leading complaints from parents, who have children of the first months of life, are symptoms of discomfort from the infant’s gastrointestinal tract: regurgitation, intestinal colic, diarrhea, constipation, which in most cases are not associated with organic changes and arise in apparently healthy children, without causing significant changes in their health status. The most frequent manifestations of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract include regurgitation — passive reflux of a small amount of gastric contents into the pharynx, the oral cavity and outwards. The tendency to regurgitation, accor-ding to various authors, is observed in 20–85 % of apparently healthy infants, and in 47 % of them, it has a persistent nature. The aim of the study: to evaluate the clinical efficiency of antireflux mixture, in which non-digestible polysaccharides — locust bean gum are used as a thickening agent. Materials and methods. The study group consisted of 32 children aged 1 to 12 months with regurgitation. The intensity of regurgitation was assessed in points according to a specially developed and mo-dified scale (G. Vandenplas icnibali, 1993; Shadryn O., 2010. The main group included 20 children, who received antireflux mixture, as a thickening agent, locust bean gum was used; the comparison group — 12 infants, who received antireflux mixture, as a thickening agent, starch was used. Attention was also paid to the “therapeutic position” during feeding: the child’s semi-vertical position during feeding, keeping the child in a vertical position after feeding for at least 10 minutes. Results. The control of the efficiency of the resulting mixtures was monitored by a comparative analysis of the dynamics of complaints and objective data. After 10 days of “treatment” by nutrition and position, in the main group 5 children (25 % did not have regurgitations; in 13 children (65

  14. Correlations between motor and sensory functions in upper limb chronic hemiparetics after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Botossi Scalha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the somatosensory function of the affected upper limb of hemiparetic stroke patients and investigate the correlations between measurements of motor and sensory functions in tasks with and without visual deprivation. METHOD: We applied the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Nottingham Sensory Assessment (NSA, and several motor and sensory tests: Paper manipulation (PM, Motor Sequences (MS, Reaching and grasping (RG Tests Functional (TF, Tactile Discrimination (TD, Weight Discrimination (WD and Tactile Recognition of Objects (RO. RESULTS: We found moderate correlations between the FMA motor subscale and the tactile sensation score of the NSA. Additionally, the FMA sensitivity was correlated with the NSA total; and performance on the WD test items correlated with the NSA. CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between the sensory and motor functions of the upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients. Additionally, there was a greater reliance on visual information to compensate for lost sensory-motor skills.

  15. The influence of sacral nerve stimulation on gastrointestinal motor function in patients with fecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, M; Thomsen, F G; Sørensen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a well-established treatment for fecal incontinence of various etiologies. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether SNS affects gastric emptying, small intestinal transit or colonic transit times....

  16. Effects of the H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Studies on animals have shown that histamine may be involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tone. However, the role of histamine in the regulation of human gastric motor function is not clear. This study examined the effect of ranitidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. Material and methods. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...... computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. Results...

  17. Effects of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J.L.; Graff, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies on animals have shown that histamine may be involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tone. However, the role of histamine in the regulation of human gastric motor function is not clear. This study examined the effect of ranitidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...... computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. RESULTS...

  18. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, J

    2006-01-01

    of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean......BACKGROUND: Glyceryl trinitrate is a donor of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the effect of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric emptying and no data exist on the possible effect of glyceryl trinitrate on small intestinal transit. AIM......: To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion...

  19. Epidemiological study of overlapping of involved organs in functional gastrointestinal disorders in the Chinese naval servicemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-kai WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the overlapping of involved organs in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs occurring in the Chinese naval servicemen, and to provide a sound basis for its diagnosis and treatment. Methods From November 2006 to April 2007, a questionnaire survey was conducted in 8600 officers and soldiers of Chinese naval force in three regions using randomized, stratified, multistage sampling method. All respondents completed the Rome Ⅲ Modular Questionnaire. The collected data were double input by EpiData3.02 software and analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software. Results 7454 valid questionnaires were retrieved. The incidence of overlapping was 46.7% involving two to five sites. In two-site overlap of FGIDs, the incidence of overlap functional gastroduodenal disorder (FGD and functional bowel disorder (FBD was shown to be highest (51.2%, 339/662, followed by the overlap of functional esophageal disorder (FED and FBD (15.4%, 102/662. In three-site overlap of FGIDs, the overlapping rate of FED, FGD and FBD was the highest (44.4%, 151/340, followed by that of FGD, FBD and functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS (20.3%, 69/340. The commonest four-site overlap of FGIDs included FED, FGD, FBD and FAPS (57.7%, 94/163. The five-site overlap of FGIDs was the combination of FED, FGD, FBD, FAPS and functional anorectal disorder (FAD. The incidence of FGIDs in southern military region was 49.8% (987/1983, which was higher than that of northern (31.8%, 1064/3351 and eastern (23.8%, 533/2240 regions. The incidence of FGIDs of single organ was 44.9% in southern military region, which was lower than 59.0% in eastern and 58.4% in northern region. The incidence of the illness involving two to five sites were higher in southern military region as compared with that of eastern and northern regions. Conclusions The rate of overlapping of FGIDs at different sites is common in the Chinese naval servicemen. There is a difference in rate of overlapping

  20. Motor imagery learning modulates functional connectivity of multiple brain systems in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning.

  1. Motor Imagery Learning Modulates Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Systems in Resting State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning. PMID:24465577

  2. Motor functions and adaptive behaviour in children with childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tükel, Şermin; Björelius, Helena; Henningsson, Gunilla; McAllister, Anita; Eliasson, Ann Christin

    2015-01-01

    Undiagnosed motor and behavioural problems have been reported for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). This study aims to understand the extent of these problems by determining the profile of and relationships between speech/non-speech oral, manual and overall body motor functions and adaptive behaviours in CAS. Eighteen children (five girls and 13 boys) with CAS, 4 years 4 months to 10 years 6 months old, participated in this study. The assessments used were the Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children (VMPAC), Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) and Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System (ABAS-II). Median result of speech/non-speech oral motor function was between -1 and -2 SD of the mean VMPAC norms. For BOT-2 and ABAS-II, the median result was between the mean and -1 SD of test norms. However, on an individual level, many children had co-occurring difficulties (below -1 SD of the mean) in overall and manual motor functions and in adaptive behaviour, despite few correlations between sub-tests. In addition to the impaired speech motor output, children displayed heterogeneous motor problems suggesting the presence of a global motor deficit. The complex relationship between motor functions and behaviour may partly explain the undiagnosed developmental difficulties in CAS.

  3. Motor activity of the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract as determinants of enterohepatic circulation. A scintigraphic and manometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qvist, N.

    1995-01-01

    The aims of the study were to describe the dynamics of the enterohepatic circulation in relation to gallbladder and gastrointestinal motility in the interdigestive as well as the postprandial period. Furthermore, to investigate the level of circulating cholecystokinin, secretin, pancreatic polypeptide, motilin and bile acids in relation to gallbladder motility and MMC during the interdigestive period. All investigations were carried out on healthy male volunteers aged 18-40 years. The most suitable method for studying various characteristics of the enterohepatic circulation, and especially gallbladder motility in humans, is scintigraphy. It is non-invasive, and allows a continuing dynamic investigation of the partitioning of the radioactive marker between the various compartment. Two entirely different pharmacological substances may be use. HIDA (diethyl-acetanilide-iminodiacetic acid) which is semisynthetic and closely related to lidocaine forms a chelate with 99m Tc for intravenous administration only. The transport of 99m Tc-HIDA across the hepatocyte is a carrier-mediated organic anion pathway, similar to the hepatic handling of bilirubin. Homocholic-acid-taurine (HCAT) is a synthetic bile acid analogue, corresponding to the naturally occurring bile acid cholic acid-taurine. It is marked with 75 Se and is available for peroral use only. The 75 SeHCAT is adsorbed in the same manner as the naturally occurring conjugated trihydroxy bile acids, involving specific carrier systems for absorption and secretion, i.e. with a high first pass extraction and a secretory rate proportional to the blood concentration. (EG) 24 refs

  4. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: Implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Hong, Barry A; Alpers, David H

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder). One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness. Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions. Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in

  5. Functional gastrointestinal diseases and psychological maladjustment, personality traits and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Nishadi; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Perera, Madusanka S; Nishanthinie, Samudu; Warnakulasuriya, Tania; de Zoysa, Piyanjali Thamesha

    2018-02-27

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common worldwide problem and known to be associated with psychological problems. This study evaluated the association between abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs), psychological maladjustment and personality traits in adolescents. Adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 5 randomly selected schools in Ampara district of Sri Lanka. AP-FGIDs were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. Translated and validated Rome III questionnaire (Child report form), personality questionnaire (PAQ) and PedsQL (Pediatric Quality of Life) inventory were used in data collection. Written consent was obtained from a parent and assent was obtained from every child recruited. The questionnaire was distributed in an examination setting to ensure confidentiality and privacy. Research assistants were present during data collection to assist on any necessary clarifications. A total of 1697 subjects were recruited [males 779 (45.9%), mean age 15.1 years, SD 1.6 years]. AP-FGIDs were present in 202 (11.9%). Those with AP-FGIDs had significantly higher mean scores for all personality traits (hostility and aggression, negative self-esteem, emotional unresponsiveness, emotional instability and negative world view), except dependency. Affected children had lower scores for all 4 domains of HRQoL (physical, emotional, social and school functioning), compared to controls (p PAQ scores within that of psychological maladjustment (p PAQ negatively correlated with scores obtained for HRQoL (r = - 0.52, p PAQ and lower HRQoL scores (p < 0.05). Adolescents with AP-FGIDs have more psychological maladjustment and abnormal personality traits than healthy controls. Affected adolescents with higher psychological maladjustments have lower HRQoL. Greater psychological maladjustment and lower HRQoL are associated with healthcare seeking behaviour in adolescents with AP-FGIDs.

  6. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: Implications for treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol S North; Barry A Hong; David H Alpers

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. Bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder).One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness.Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions.Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in IBS

  7. Disentangling the relationship between children's motor ability, executive function and academic achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Schmidt

    Full Text Available Even though positive relations between children's motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized mediated linkage to academic achievement. At intervals of ten weeks, 236 children aged between 10 and 12 years were tested in terms of their motor ability (t1: cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, motor coordination, core executive functions (t2: updating, inhibition, shifting, and academic achievement (t3: mathematics, reading, spelling. Structural equation modelling revealed executive function to be a mediator in the relation between motor ability and academic achievement, represented by a significant indirect effect. In separate analyses, each of the three motor abilities were positively related to children's academic achievement. However, only in the case of children's motor coordination, the mediation by executive function accounted for a significance percentage of variance of academic achievement data. The results provide evidence in support of models that conceive executive function as a mechanism explaining the relationship that links children's physical activity-related outcomes to academic achievement and strengthen the advocacy for quality physical activity not merely focused on health-related physical fitness outcomes, but also on motor skill development and learning.

  8. Parallel Alterations of Functional Connectivity during Execution and Imagination after Motor Imagery Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rushao; Hui, Mingqi; Long, Zhiying; Zhao, Xiaojie; Yao, Li

    2012-01-01

    Background Neural substrates underlying motor learning have been widely investigated with neuroimaging technologies. Investigations have illustrated the critical regions of motor learning and further revealed parallel alterations of functional activation during imagination and execution after learning. However, little is known about the functional connectivity associated with motor learning, especially motor imagery learning, although benefits from functional connectivity analysis attract more attention to the related explorations. We explored whether motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) shared parallel alterations of functional connectivity after MI learning. Methodology/Principal Findings Graph theory analysis, which is widely used in functional connectivity exploration, was performed on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of MI and ME tasks before and after 14 days of consecutive MI learning. The control group had no learning. Two measures, connectivity degree and interregional connectivity, were calculated and further assessed at a statistical level. Two interesting results were obtained: (1) The connectivity degree of the right posterior parietal lobe decreased in both MI and ME tasks after MI learning in the experimental group; (2) The parallel alterations of interregional connectivity related to the right posterior parietal lobe occurred in the supplementary motor area for both tasks. Conclusions/Significance These computational results may provide the following insights: (1) The establishment of motor schema through MI learning may induce the significant decrease of connectivity degree in the posterior parietal lobe; (2) The decreased interregional connectivity between the supplementary motor area and the right posterior parietal lobe in post-test implicates the dissociation between motor learning and task performing. These findings and explanations further revealed the neural substrates underpinning MI learning and supported that

  9. A Strategy for Embedding Functional Motor and Early Numeracy Skill Instruction into Physical Education Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…

  10. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of

  11. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the

  12. Motor activity of the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract as determinants of enterohepatic circulation. A scintigraphic and manometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvist, N. [Odense University Hospital, Dept. of Surgical Gastroenterology and Clinical Physiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    The aims of the study were to describe the dynamics of the enterohepatic circulation in relation to gallbladder and gastrointestinal motility in the interdigestive as well as the postprandial period. Furthermore, to investigate the level of circulating cholecystokinin, secretin, pancreatic polypeptide, motilin and bile acids in relation to gallbladder motility and MMC during the interdigestive period. All investigations were carried out on healthy male volunteers aged 18-40 years. The most suitable method for studying various characteristics of the enterohepatic circulation, and especially gallbladder motility in humans, is scintigraphy. It is non-invasive, and allows a continuing dynamic investigation of the partitioning of the radioactive marker between the various compartment. Two entirely different pharmacological substances may be use. HIDA (diethyl-acetanilide-iminodiacetic acid) which is semisynthetic and closely related to lidocaine forms a chelate with {sup 99m}Tc for intravenous administration only. The transport of {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA across the hepatocyte is a carrier-mediated organic anion pathway, similar to the hepatic handling of bilirubin. Homocholic-acid-taurine (HCAT) is a synthetic bile acid analogue, corresponding to the naturally occurring bile acid cholic acid-taurine. It is marked with {sup 75}Se and is available for peroral use only. The {sup 75}SeHCAT is adsorbed in the same manner as the naturally occurring conjugated trihydroxy bile acids, involving specific carrier systems for absorption and secretion, i.e. with a high first pass extraction and a secretory rate proportional to the blood concentration. (EG) 24 refs.

  13. Neurotechnology for monitoring and restoring sensory, motor, and autonomic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pae C.; Knaack, Gretchen; Weber, Douglas J.

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and exponential advances in micro- and nanotechnologies over the last decade have enabled devices that communicate directly with the nervous system to measure and influence neural activity. Many of the earliest implementations focused on restoration of sensory and motor function, but as knowledge of physiology advances and technology continues to improve in accuracy, precision, and safety, new modes of engaging with the autonomic system herald an era of health restoration that may augment or replace many conventional pharmacotherapies. DARPA's Biological Technologies Office is continuing to advance neurotechnology by investing in neural interface technologies that are effective, reliable, and safe for long-term use in humans. DARPA's Hand Proprioception and Touch Interfaces (HAPTIX) program is creating a fully implantable system that interfaces with peripheral nerves in amputees to enable natural control and sensation for prosthetic limbs. Beyond standard electrode implementations, the Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) program is investing in innovative approaches to minimally or non-invasively interface with the peripheral nervous system using novel magnetic, optogenetic, and ultrasound-based technologies. These new mechanisms of interrogating and stimulating the peripheral nervous system are driving towards unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution, specificity and targeting, and noninvasiveness to enable chronic, human-use applications in closed-loop neuromodulation for the treatment of disease.

  14. Glucomannan for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Andrea; Dziechciarz, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania

    2013-05-28

    To assess the efficacy of glucomannan (GNN) as the sole treatment for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were recruited among children referred to the Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw. Included in the study were children aged 7-17 years with abdominal pain-related FGIDs classified according to the Rome III diagnostic criteria. The children were randomly assigned to receive GNN, a polysaccharide of 1,4-D-glucose and D-mannose, a soluble fiber from the Japanese Konjac plant, at a dosage of 2.52 g/d (1 sachet of 1.26 g 2 times a day), or a comparable placebo (maltodextrin) at the same dosage. The content of each sachet was dissolved in approximately 125 mL of fluid and was consumed twice daily for 4 wk. Of the 89 eligible children, 84 (94%) completed the study. "No pain" and "treatment success" (defined as no pain or a decrease ≥ 2/6 points on the FACES Pain Scale Revised) were similar in the GNN (n = 41) and placebo (n = 43) groups [no pain (12/41 vs 6/43, respectively; RR = 2.1, 95%CI: 0.87-5.07) as well as treatment success (23/41 vs 20/43; RR = 1.2, 95%CI: 0.79-1.83)]. No significant differences between the groups were observed in the secondary outcomes, such as abdominal cramps, abdominal bloating/gassiness, episodes of nausea or vomiting, or a changed in stool consistency. GNN demonstrated no significant influence on the number of children requiring rescue therapy, school absenteeism, or daily activities. In our setting, GNN, as dosed in this study, was no more effective than the placebo in achieving therapeutic success in the management of FGIDs in children.

  15. The effects of massage therapy on physical growth and gastrointestinal function in premature infants: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HyeJeong; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Oh, Jina; Lee, Myung-Nam; Kim, SungHee; Kang, Kyung-Ah

    2016-09-01

    To promote the growth and development of premature infants, effective and tender care is required in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The purpose of this study was to test the potential effects of massage therapy on increasing physical growth and promoting gastrointestinal function in premature infants. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups in the NICU of one general hospital located in South Korea. The experimental group (n = 10) were given massage therapy and the control group (n = 10) received routine care. Massage therapy was performed twice daily for 14 days, for 15 minutes per session. In the physical growth, height and chest circumference were significantly increased in the experimental group. In assessing gastrointestinal function, frequency of pre-feed gastric residual was significantly decreased and numbers of bowel movements were significantly increased in the experimental group. This study showed massage therapy has the potential effects on increasing physical growth and gastrointestinal function in premature infants. The massage in the NICU might be utilized as a part of developmental care, but more research needs to be done. NICU nurses need to be trained in massage therapy techniques to provide more effective clinical care for premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases: results from a multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieger, Arine M; Blink, Marjolein; Tromp, Ellen; Benninga, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Many pediatric patients use complementary and alternative medicine, especially when facing a chronic illness for which treatment options are limited. So far, research on the use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with functional gastrointestinal disease has been scarce. This study was designed to assess complementary and alternative medicine use in children with different gastrointestinal diseases, including functional disorders, to determine which factors predicted complementary and alternative medicine use and to assess the willingness of parents to participate in future studies on complementary and alternative medicine efficacy and safety. The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use was assessed by using a questionnaire for 749 children visiting pediatric gastroenterology clinics of 9 hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire consisted of 35 questions on the child's gastrointestinal disease, medication use, health status, past and future complementary and alternative medicine use, reasons for its use, and the necessity of complementary and alternative medicine research. In this study population, the frequency of complementary and alternative medicine use was 37.6%. A total of 60.3% of this group had used complementary and alternative medicine specifically for their gastrointestinal disease. This specific complementary and alternative medicine use was higher in patients with functional disorders than organic disorders (25.3% vs 17.2%). Adverse effects of allopathic medication, school absenteeism, age effect of conventional treatment were predictors of specific complementary and alternative medicine use. Almost all (93%) of the parents considered it important that pediatricians initiate complementary and alternative medicine research, and 51% of parents were willing to participate in future complementary and alternative medicine trials. Almost 40% of parents of pediatric gastroenterology patients are turning to

  17. Depressive mood and quality of life in functional gastrointestinal disorders: differences between functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Jin, Choon Jo; Kang, Seung-Gul; Yoon, Hiejin; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the differences in depressive mood and quality of life in patients with between functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and FD-IBS overlap as diagnosed based on Rome III criteria. The subjects completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria, the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) including Cognitive Depression Index (CDI) for depressive mood evaluation and the 36-item Short Form general health survey (SF-36) for quality of life assessment. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were performed to exclude organic disease. Of 279 subjects, 70 and 124 subjects were diagnosed as FD and IBS, respectively. FD-IBS overlap patients (n=42) and FD alone patients (n=28) showed higher BDI scores than normal subjects (n=127) (PIBS alone patients (n=82) did not show difference (P=.17). All the SF-36 subscores of the FD-IBS overlap patients were significantly lower than normal subjects (Pmood was significantly related to FD and FD-IBS overlap but not to IBS based on Rome III criteria. FD-IBS overlap patients have worse quality of life than FD-alone and IBS-alone patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  19. Toward a more personalized motor function rehabilitation in Myotonic dystrophy type 1: The role of neuroplasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Portaro

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is the most prevalent adult muscular dystrophy, often accompanied by impairments in attention, memory, visuospatial and executive functions. Given that DM1 is a multi-system disorder, it requires a multi-disciplinary approach, including effective rehabilitation programs, focusing on the central nervous system neuroplasticity, in order to develop patient-tailored rehabilitative procedures for motor function recovery. Herein, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS study aimed at investigating central motor conduction time, sensory-motor plasticity, and cortical excitability in 7 genetically defined DM1 patients. As compared to healthy individuals, DM1 patients showed a delayed central motor conduction time and an abnormal sensory-motor plasticity, with no alteration of cortical excitability. These findings may be useful to define patient-tailored motor rehabilitative programs.

  20. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2018-01-01

    Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).

  1. Changes in visual and sensory-motor resting-state functional connectivity support motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    Motor learning occurs not only through direct first-hand experience but also through observation (Mattar AA, Gribble PL. Neuron 46: 153-160, 2005). When observing the actions of others, we activate many of the same brain regions involved in performing those actions ourselves (Malfait N, Valyear KF, Culham JC, Anton JL, Brown LE, Gribble PL. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 1493-1503, 2010). Links between neural systems for vision and action have been reported in neurophysiological (Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuroreport 11: 2289-2292, 2000; Watkins KE, Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuropsychologia 41: 989-994, 2003), brain imaging (Buccino G, Binkofski F, Fink GR, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Seitz RJ, Zilles K, Rizzolatti G, Freund HJ. Eur J Neurosci 13: 400-404, 2001; Iacoboni M, Woods RP, Brass M, Bekkering H, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G. Science 286: 2526-2528, 1999), and eye tracking (Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. Nature 424: 769-771, 2003) studies. Here we used a force field learning paradigm coupled with resting-state fMRI to investigate the brain areas involved in motor learning by observing. We examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) after an observational learning task and found a network consisting of V5/MT, cerebellum, and primary motor and somatosensory cortices in which changes in FC were correlated with the amount of motor learning achieved through observation, as assessed behaviorally after resting-state fMRI scans. The observed FC changes in this network are not due to visual attention to motion or observation of movement errors but rather are specifically linked to motor learning. These results support the idea that brain networks linking action observation and motor control also facilitate motor learning. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Changes in visual and sensory-motor resting-state functional connectivity support motor learning by observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R.

    2015-01-01

    Motor learning occurs not only through direct first-hand experience but also through observation (Mattar AA, Gribble PL. Neuron 46: 153–160, 2005). When observing the actions of others, we activate many of the same brain regions involved in performing those actions ourselves (Malfait N, Valyear KF, Culham JC, Anton JL, Brown LE, Gribble PL. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 1493–1503, 2010). Links between neural systems for vision and action have been reported in neurophysiological (Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuroreport 11: 2289–2292, 2000; Watkins KE, Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuropsychologia 41: 989–994, 2003), brain imaging (Buccino G, Binkofski F, Fink GR, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Seitz RJ, Zilles K, Rizzolatti G, Freund HJ. Eur J Neurosci 13: 400–404, 2001; Iacoboni M, Woods RP, Brass M, Bekkering H, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G. Science 286: 2526–2528, 1999), and eye tracking (Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. Nature 424: 769–771, 2003) studies. Here we used a force field learning paradigm coupled with resting-state fMRI to investigate the brain areas involved in motor learning by observing. We examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) after an observational learning task and found a network consisting of V5/MT, cerebellum, and primary motor and somatosensory cortices in which changes in FC were correlated with the amount of motor learning achieved through observation, as assessed behaviorally after resting-state fMRI scans. The observed FC changes in this network are not due to visual attention to motion or observation of movement errors but rather are specifically linked to motor learning. These results support the idea that brain networks linking action observation and motor control also facilitate motor learning. PMID:25995349

  3. Executive functions as predictors of visual-motor integration in children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between visual-motor integration and executive functions, and in particular, the extent to which executive functions can predict visual-motor integration skills in children with intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 90 children (54 boys, 36 girls; M age = 11.3 yr., SD = 2.7, range 7-15) with intellectual disabilities of various etiologies. The measure of executive functions were 8 subscales of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) consisting of Inhibition, Shifting, Emotional Control, Initiating, Working memory, Planning, Organization of material, and Monitoring. Visual-motor integration was measured with the Acadia test of visual-motor integration (VMI). Regression analysis revealed that BRIEF subscales explained 38% of the variance in VMI scores. Of all the BRIEF subscales, only two were statistically significant predictors of visual-motor integration: Working memory and Monitoring. Possible implications of this finding are further elaborated.

  4. Functional compensation of motor function in pre-symptomatic Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöppel, Stefan; Draganski, Bogdan; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2009-01-01

    the compensatory mechanisms that underlie the phenomenon of retained motor function in the presence of degenerative change. Fifteen pre-symptomatic gene carriers and 12 matched controls performed button presses paced by a metronome at either 0.5 or 2 Hz with four fingers of the right hand whilst being scanned...... with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects pressed buttons either in the order of a previously learnt 10-item finger sequence, from left to right, or kept still. Error rates ranged from 2% to 7% in the pre-symptomatic gene carriers and from 0.5% to 4% in controls, depending on the condition...

  5. Functional near infrared spectroscopy of the sensory and motor brain regions with simultaneous kinematic and EMG monitoring during motor tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Stanley, Christopher J; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    There are several advantages that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) presents in the study of the neural control of human movement. It is relatively flexible with respect to participant positioning and allows for some head movements during tasks. Additionally, it is inexpensive, light weight, and portable, with very few contraindications to its use. This presents a unique opportunity to study functional brain activity during motor tasks in individuals who are typically developing, ...

  6. Evaluating rodent motor functions: Which tests to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Jahanshahi, Ali; Temel, Yasin; Hendrix, Sven

    2017-12-01

    Damage to the motor cortex induced by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in chronic motor deficits. For the development and improvement of therapies, animal models which possess symptoms comparable to the clinical population are used. However, the use of experimental animals raises valid ethical and methodological concerns. To decrease discomfort by experimental procedures and to increase the quality of results, non-invasive and sensitive rodent motor tests are needed. A broad variety of rodent motor tests are available to determine deficits after stroke or TBI. The current review describes and evaluates motor tests that fall into three categories: Tests to evaluate fine motor skills and grip strength, tests for gait and inter-limb coordination and neurological deficit scores. In this review, we share our thoughts on standardized data presentation to increase data comparability between studies. We also critically evaluate current methods and provide recommendations for choosing the best behavioral test for a new research line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Executive functioning, motor programming, and functional independence: accounting for variance, people, and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraybill, Matthew L; Suchy, Yana

    2011-02-01

    Assessing functional independence is an important part of making diagnostic decisions and treatment recommendations but is often complicated by the limitations of self-report and behavioral measures. Alternatively, it may be worthwhile to investigate neurocognitive correlates of incipient functional declines including using tests of executive functioning (EF) and motor programming (MP). The current study examined an electronic MP task and pitted it against other assessment instruments to evaluate its relative utility in assessing both EF and functional independence. Participants were 72 community-dwelling older adults. Results of this study showed that the MP task was correlated with other measures of EF, an efficient and reliable predictor of functionality, useful for identifying at-risk patients, and comparable to a longer battery in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Overexpression of survival motor neuron improves neuromuscular function and motor neuron survival in mutant SOD1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bradley J; Alfazema, Neza; Sheean, Rebecca K; Sleigh, James N; Davies, Kay E; Horne, Malcolm K; Talbot, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy results from diminished levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein in spinal motor neurons. Low levels of SMN also occur in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and genetic reduction of SMN levels exacerbates the phenotype of transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice. Here, we demonstrate that SMN protein is significantly reduced in the spinal cords of patients with sporadic ALS. To test the potential of SMN as a modifier of ALS, we overexpressed SMN in 2 different strains of SOD1(G93A) mice. Neuronal overexpression of SMN significantly preserved locomotor function, rescued motor neurons, and attenuated astrogliosis in spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) mice. Despite this, survival was not prolonged, most likely resulting from SMN mislocalization and depletion of gems in motor neurons of symptomatic mice. Our results reveal that SMN upregulation slows locomotor deficit onset and motor neuron loss in this mouse model of ALS. However, disruption of SMN nuclear complexes by high levels of mutant SOD1, even in the presence of SMN overexpression, might limit its survival promoting effects in this specific mouse model. Studies in emerging mouse models of ALS are therefore warranted to further explore the potential of SMN as a modifier of ALS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maturation of Sensori-Motor Functional Responses in the Preterm Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allievi, Alessandro G; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Kimpton, Jessica; Arulkumaran, Sophie; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth engenders an increased risk of conditions like cerebral palsy and therefore this time may be crucial for the brain's developing sensori-motor system. However, little is known about how cortical sensori-motor function matures at this time, whether development is influenced by experience, and about its role in spontaneous motor behavior. We aimed to systematically characterize spatial and temporal maturation of sensori-motor functional brain activity across this period using functional MRI and a custom-made robotic stimulation device. We studied 57 infants aged from 30 + 2 to 43 + 2 weeks postmenstrual age. Following both induced and spontaneous right wrist movements, we saw consistent positive blood oxygen level-dependent functional responses in the contralateral (left) primary somatosensory and motor cortices. In addition, we saw a maturational trend toward faster, higher amplitude, and more spatially dispersed functional responses; and increasing integration of the ipsilateral hemisphere and sensori-motor associative areas. We also found that interhemispheric functional connectivity was significantly related to ex-utero exposure, suggesting the influence of experience-dependent mechanisms. At term equivalent age, we saw a decrease in both response amplitude and interhemispheric functional connectivity, and an increase in spatial specificity, culminating in the establishment of a sensori-motor functional response similar to that seen in adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. BDNF genotype interacts with motor-function to influence rehabilitation responsiveness post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine T Shiner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Persistent motor impairment is common but highly heterogeneous post-stroke. Genetic polymorphisms, including those identified on the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and apolipoprotein E (APOE genes, may contribute to this variability by limiting the capacity for use-dependent neuroplasticity, and hence rehabilitation responsiveness.Objective. To determine whether BDNF and APOE genotypes influence motor improvement facilitated by post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation. Methods. BDNF Val66Met and APOE isoform genotypes were determined using leukocyte DNA for 55 community-dwelling patients 2-123 months post-stroke. All patients completed a dose-matched upper-limb rehabilitation program of either Wii-based Movement Therapy or Constraint-induced Movement Therapy. Upper-limb motor-function was assessed pre- and post-therapy using a suite of functional measures. Results. Motor-function improved for all patients post-therapy, with no difference between therapy groups. In the pooled data, there was no significant effect of BDNF or APOE genotype on motor-function at baseline, or following the intervention. However, a significant interaction between the level of residual motor-function and BDNF genotype was identified (p=0.029, whereby post-therapy improvement was significantly less for Met allele carriers with moderate and high, but not low motor-function. There was no significant association between APOE genotype and therapy outcomes. Conclusions. This study identified a novel interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, motor-function status and the magnitude of improvement with rehabilitation in chronic stroke. This polymorphism does not preclude, but may reduce, the magnitude of motor improvement with therapy, particularly for patients with higher but not lower residual motor-function. BDNF genotype should be considered in the design and interpretation of clinical trials.

  11. Infantile colic, regurgitation, and constipation: an early traumatic insult in the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrio, Flavia; Di Mauro, Antonio; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Cavallo, Luciano; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2015-06-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defined as a variable combination of chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. Infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common FGIDs that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences. We performed a retrospective study on patients referred for recurrent abdominal pain from January 2002 trough December 2009 to our Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Unit. The population studied was matched with healthy control without history of recurrent abdominal pain, enrolled among pediatricians practicing primary health care. History of infantile colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation was detected respectively in 26.41, 25.31, and 30.16% of children diagnosed with FGIDs compared to 11.34, 12.85, and 11.76% of healthy children. According to our data, children with a history of gastrointestinal infantile distress have a higher prevalence of FGIDs years later.

  12. Ocular Motor Score (OMS): a clinical tool to evaluating ocular motor functions in children. Intrarater and inter-rater agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Monica; Teär Fahnehjelm, Kristina; Rydberg, Agneta; Ygge, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Ocular motor score (OMS) is a new clinical test protocol for evaluating ocular motor functions in children and young adults. OMS is a set of 15 important and relevant non-invasive ocular motor function parameters derived from clinical practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate OMS according to intrarater and inter-rater agreement. Forty children aged 4-10 years, 23 girls median age 6.5 (range 4.3-9.3) and 17 boys median age 5.8 (range 4.1-9.8) were included. The ocular motor functions were assessed and scored according to the OMS protocol. The examinations were videotaped. To obtain the intrarater agreement, the first author examined and scored the children twice, first in the clinic and 2 weeks later by watching the videotape. To obtain the inter-rater agreement, three other raters independently scored the ocular motor function of the children by watching the videotapes. The overall observed intrarater agreement was 88%, and the observed inter-rater agreement between the three raters was 80%. For none of the subtests was there an observed intrarater agreement lower than 65%. Three of the subtests had an observed inter-rater agreement of 65% or below. Overall there was high observed intra- and inter-rater agreement for the OMS test protocol. Subtests such as saccades and smooth pursuit were more difficult for raters to score similarly according the clinical OMS test protocol. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv7 K+ channel in murine gastrointestinal smooth muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A; Moffatt, James D

    2009-01-01

    that K(v)7.x especially K(v)7.4 and K(v)7.5 are expressed in different regions of the murine gastrointestinal tract and blockers of K(v)7 channels augment inherent contractile activity. Drugs that selectively block K(v)7.4/7.5 might be promising therapeutics for the treatment of motility disorders...

  14. Melatonin as a modulator of the gastrointestinal function of the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrnka, Libor; Soták, Matúš; Pácha, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2005), s. 602-602 ISSN 1138-7548. [European Intestinal Transport Group Meeting /20./. 24.09.2005-27.09.2005, Oléron] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP305/03/D140 Keywords : melatonin * gastrointestinal tract * short-circuit current * melatonin receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  15. Peculiarities of Intestine Motor-Evacuation Function in Patients with Various Forms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Nagieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess motor and evacuation function of gastrointestinal tract in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS several methods can be used. Our aim was to study colonic motility in patients with different variants of IBS using dynamic scintigraphy. Materials and methods. 107 patients with IBS by Rome III criteria (2006 were enrolled. All patients were divided into 4 groups: I group — IBS with constipation (36/107, 33.6 %, II group — IBS with diarrhea (35/107, 32.7 %, III group — unspecified IBS (22/107, 20.7 %, IV group — mixed IBS (14/107, 13.0 %. Dynamic scintigraphy was done using scintillation gamma-room OFECT‑1 and EBM. Medium activity of radiopharmaceutical was taken at a rate of 10 MBq/kg body weight of the patient. Results. The results showed that in case of the IBS with constipation the passage of radiopharmaceutical decreased (increased radioactivity in the abdomen (> 60 % and asymmetry of the right and left parts of the bowel is 2 5 %, p 0.05. Conclusion. Using dynamic scintigraphy we found expressed slowing of the passage of radiopharmaceutical in IBS patients with constipation (p < 0.05, while in case of IBS with diarrhea the speed of radiopharmaceutical evacuation was increased (p < 0.05. In a case of other variants of IBS no statistically significant changes were detected.

  16. Motor function and incident dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueper, Jacqueline Kathleen; Speechley, Mark; Lingum, Navena Rebecca; Montero-Odasso, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    cognitive and mobility decline are interrelated processes, whereby mobility decline coincides or precedes the onset of cognitive decline. to assess whether there is an association between performance on motor function tests and incident dementia. electronic database, grey literature and hand searching identified studies testing for associations between baseline motor function and incident dementia in older adults. of 2,540 potentially relevant documents, 37 met the final inclusion criteria and were reviewed qualitatively. Three meta-analyses were conducted using data from 10 studies. Three main motor domains-upper limb motor function, parkinsonism and lower limb motor function-emerged as associated with increased risk of incident dementia. Studies including older adults without neurological overt disease found a higher risk of incident dementia associated with poorer performance on composite motor function scores, balance and gait velocity (meta-analysis pooled HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.65). Mixed results were found across different study samples for upper limb motor function, overall parkinsonism (meta-analysis pooled OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.31, 7.08), bradykinesia and rigidity. Studies restricted to older adults with Parkinson's Disease found weak or no association with incident dementia even for motor domains highly associated in less restrictive samples. Tremor was not associated with an increased risk of dementia in any population (meta-analysis pooled HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.31, 2.03). lower limb motor function was associated with increased risk of developing dementia, while tremor and hand grip strength were not. Our results support future research investigating the inclusion of quantitative motor assessment, specifically gait velocity tests, for clinical dementia risk evaluation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, pre...

  18. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  19. Muscle Hyperalgesia Correlates With Motor Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Diana E.; Marinus, Johan; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unclear if disturbed sensory processing plays a role in the development of the commonly observed motor impairments in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This study aims to investigate the relation between sensory and motor functioning in CRPS patients with and

  20. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    Background It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  1. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  2. Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and

  3. An Examination of the Relationship between Motor Coordination and Executive Functions in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Research suggests important links between motor coordination and executive functions. The current study examined whether motor coordination predicts working memory, inhibition, and switching performance, extending previous research by accounting for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and other confounding factors,…

  4. Impairment of complex upper limb motor function in de novo parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.M.; Daffertshofer, A.; Wolters, E.C.M.J.; Beek, P.J.; Berendse, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate complex upper limb motor function in newly diagnosed, untreated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Four different unimanual upper limb motor tasks were applied to 13 newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. In a

  5. Relationship between Motor Skill Competency and Executive Function in Children with Down's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, N.; Holfelder, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that children with Down's syndrome (DS), a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, demonstrate motor problems and cognitive deficits. The first aim of this study was to examine motor skills and executive functions (EFs) in school-age children with DS. The second aim was to investigate the relationship…

  6. Fine Motor Skills and Executive Function Both Contribute to Kindergarten Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n = 213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall…

  7. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, T.; Fujii, K.; Fukui, M.; Mizushima, A.; Matsumoto, S.; Hasuo, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Tobimatsu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  8. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fujii, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Mizushima, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Hasuo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Tobimatsu, S. [Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Inst., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  9. Early uneven ear input induces long-lasting differences in left-right motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Michelle W; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Vijayakumar, Sarath; McKeehan, Nicholas; Arezzo, Joseph C; Zukin, R Suzanne; Borkholder, David A; Jones, Sherri M; Frisina, Robert D; Hébert, Jean M

    2018-03-01

    How asymmetries in motor behavior become established normally or atypically in mammals remains unclear. An established model for motor asymmetry that is conserved across mammals can be obtained by experimentally inducing asymmetric striatal dopamine activity. However, the factors that can cause motor asymmetries in the absence of experimental manipulations to the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that mice with inner ear dysfunction display a robust left or right rotational preference, and this motor preference reflects an atypical asymmetry in cortico-striatal neurotransmission. By unilaterally targeting striatal activity with an antagonist of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a downstream integrator of striatal neurotransmitter signaling, we can reverse or exaggerate rotational preference in these mice. By surgically biasing vestibular failure to one ear, we can dictate the direction of motor preference, illustrating the influence of uneven vestibular failure in establishing the outward asymmetries in motor preference. The inner ear-induced striatal asymmetries identified here intersect with non-ear-induced asymmetries previously linked to lateralized motor behavior across species and suggest that aspects of left-right brain function in mammals can be ontogenetically influenced by inner ear input. Consistent with inner ear input contributing to motor asymmetry, we also show that, in humans with normal ear function, the motor-dominant hemisphere, measured as handedness, is ipsilateral to the ear with weaker vestibular input.

  10. Effect of sensory and motor connectivity on hand function in pediatric hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Disha; Barachant, Alexandre; Gordon, Andrew M; Ferre, Claudio; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Carmel, Jason B; Friel, Kathleen M

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that somatosensory system injury would more strongly affect movement than motor system injury in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (USCP). This hypothesis was based on how somatosensory and corticospinal circuits adapt to injury during development; whereas the motor system can maintain connections to the impaired hand from the uninjured hemisphere, this does not occur in the somatosensory system. As a corollary, cortical injury strongly impairs sensory function, so we hypothesized that cortical lesions would impair hand function more than subcortical lesions. Twenty-four children with unilateral cerebral palsy had physiological and anatomical measures of the motor and somatosensory systems and lesion classification. Motor physiology was performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation and somatosensory physiology with vibration-evoked electroencephalographic potentials. Tractography of the corticospinal tract and the medial lemniscus was performed with diffusion tensor imaging, and lesions were classified by magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomical and physiological results were correlated with measures of hand function using 2 independent statistical methods. Children with disruptions in the somatosensory connectivity and cortical lesions had the most severe upper extremity impairments, particularly somatosensory function. Motor system connectivity was significantly correlated with bimanual function, but not unimanual function or somatosensory function. Both sensory and motor connectivity impact hand function in children with USCP. Somatosensory connectivity could be an important target for recovery of hand function in children with USCP. Ann Neurol 2017;82:766-780. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  11. ALS-associated mutant FUS induces selective motor neuron degeneration through toxic gain of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aarti; Lyashchenko, Alexander K; Lu, Lei; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Elmaleh, Margot; Mendelsohn, Monica; Nemes, Adriana; Tapia, Juan Carlos; Mentis, George Z; Shneider, Neil A

    2016-02-04

    Mutations in FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including some of the most aggressive, juvenile-onset forms of the disease. FUS loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to explain how mutant FUS leads to motor neuron degeneration, but neither has been firmly established in the pathogenesis of ALS. Here we characterize a series of transgenic FUS mouse lines that manifest progressive, mutant-dependent motor neuron degeneration preceded by early, structural and functional abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction. A novel, conditional FUS knockout mutant reveals that postnatal elimination of FUS has no effect on motor neuron survival or function. Moreover, endogenous FUS does not contribute to the onset of the ALS phenotype induced by mutant FUS. These findings demonstrate that FUS-dependent motor degeneration is not due to loss of FUS function, but to the gain of toxic properties conferred by ALS mutations.

  12. Effect of coffee on motor and sensory function of proximal stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J. M.; Smout, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    Some people attribute dyspeptic symptoms to drinking coffee, suggesting that coffee affects one or more functions of the proximal gastrointestinal tract. In a randomized controlled, cross-over, single-blinded study, the effects of coffee on gastric relaxation, gastric wall compliance and sensations,

  13. Shaping Early Reorganization of Neural Networks Promotes Motor Function after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, L. J.; Rehme, A. K.; Michely, J.; Nettekoven, C.; Eickhoff, S. B.; Fink, G. R.; Grefkes, C.

    2016-01-01

    Neural plasticity is a major factor driving cortical reorganization after stroke. We here tested whether repetitively enhancing motor cortex plasticity by means of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) prior to physiotherapy might promote recovery of function early after stroke. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to elucidate underlying neural mechanisms. Twenty-six hospitalized, first-ever stroke patients (time since stroke: 1–16 days) with hand motor deficits were enrolled in a sham-controlled design and pseudo-randomized into 2 groups. iTBS was administered prior to physiotherapy on 5 consecutive days either over ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1-stimulation group) or parieto-occipital vertex (control-stimulation group). Hand motor function, cortical excitability, and resting-state fMRI were assessed 1 day prior to the first stimulation and 1 day after the last stimulation. Recovery of grip strength was significantly stronger in the M1-stimulation compared to the control-stimulation group. Higher levels of motor network connectivity were associated with better motor outcome. Consistently, control-stimulated patients featured a decrease in intra- and interhemispheric connectivity of the motor network, which was absent in the M1-stimulation group. Hence, adding iTBS to prime physiotherapy in recovering stroke patients seems to interfere with motor network degradation, possibly reflecting alleviation of post-stroke diaschisis. PMID:26980614

  14. Effects of occupational therapy services on fine motor and functional performance in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case-Smith, J

    2000-01-01

    This study examined how performance components and variables in intervention influenced fine motor and functional outcomes in preschool children. In a sample of 44 preschool-aged children with fine motor delays who received occupational therapy services, eight fine motor and functional performance assessments were administered at the beginning and end of the academic year. Data on the format and intervention activities of each occupational therapy session were recorded for 8 months. The children received a mean of 23 sessions, in both individual and group format. Most of the sessions (81%) used fine motor activities; 29% addressed peer interaction, and 16% addressed play skills. Visual motor outcomes were influenced by the number of intervention sessions and percent of sessions with play goals. Fine motor outcomes were most influenced by the therapists' emphasis on play and peer interaction goals; functional outcomes were influenced by number of sessions and percent of sessions that specifically addressed self-care goals. The influence of play on therapy outcomes suggests that a focus on play in intervention activities can enhance fine motor and visual motor performance.

  15. Neuromodulators for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (Disorders of Gut-Brain Interaction): A Rome Foundation Working Team Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossman, Douglas A; Tack, Jan; Ford, Alexander C; Szigethy, Eva; Törnblom, Hans; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    Central neuromodulators (antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other central nervous system-targeted medications) are increasingly used for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), now recognized as disorders of gut-brain interaction. However, the available evidence and guidance for the use of central neuromodulators in these conditions is scanty and incomplete. In this Rome Foundation Working Team report, a multidisciplinary team summarized available research evidence and clinical experience to provide guidance and treatment recommendations. The working team summarized the literature on the pharmacology of central neuromodulators and their effects on gastrointestinal sensorimotor function and conducted an evidence-based review on their use for treating FGID syndromes. Because of the paucity of data for FGIDs, we included data for non-gastrointestinal painful disorders and specific symptoms of pain, nausea, and vomiting. This information was combined into a final document comprising a synthesis of available evidence and recommendations for clinical use guided by the research and clinical experience of the experts on the committee. The evidence-based review on neuromodulators in FGID, restricted by the limited available controlled trials, was integrated with open-label studies and case series, along with the experience of experts to create recommendations using a consensus (Delphi) approach. Due to the diversity of conditions and complexity of treatment options, specific recommendations were generated for different FGIDs. However, some general recommendations include: (1) low to modest dosages of tricyclic antidepressants provide the most convincing evidence of benefit for treating chronic gastrointestinal pain and painful FGIDs and serotonin noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors can also be recommended, though further studies are needed; (2) augmentation, that is, adding a second treatment (adding quetiapine, aripiprazole, buspirone α2δ ligand

  16. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  17. Motor sequence learning-induced neural efficiency in functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Helmet T; Huppert, Theodore J; Erickson, Kirk I; Wollam, Mariegold E; Sparto, Patrick J; Sejdić, Ervin; VanSwearingen, Jessie M

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown the functional neural circuitry differences before and after an explicitly learned motor sequence task, but have not assessed these changes during the process of motor skill learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was measured while participants (n=13) were asked to tap their fingers to visually presented sequences in blocks that were either the same sequence repeated (learning block) or random sequences (control block). Motor learning was associated with a decrease in brain activity during learning compared to control. Lower brain activation was noted in the posterior parietal association area and bilateral thalamus during the later periods of learning (not during the control). Compared to the control condition, we found the task-related motor learning was associated with decreased connectivity between the putamen and left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle cingulate brain regions. Motor learning was associated with changes in network activity, spatial extent, and connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional organization and restoration of the brain motor-execution network after stroke and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil eBajaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cortical areas of the human brain motor system interact coherently in the low frequency range (< 0.1 Hz, even in the absence of explicit tasks. Following stroke, cortical interactions are functionally disturbed. How these interactions are affected and how the functional organization is regained from rehabilitative treatments as people begin to recover motor behaviors has not been systematically studied. We recorded the intrinsic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals from 30 participants: 17 young healthy controls and 13 aged stroke survivors. Stroke participants underwent mental practice (MP or both mental practice and physical therapy (MP + PT within 14-51 days following stroke. We investigated the network activity of five core areas in the motor-execution network, consisting of the left primary motor area (LM1, the right primary motor area (RM1, the left pre-motor cortex (LPMC, the right pre-motor cortex (RPMC and the supplementary motor area (SMA. We discovered that (i the network activity dominated in the frequency range 0.06 Hz – 0.08 Hz for all the regions, and for both able-bodied and stroke participants (ii the causal information flow between the regions: LM1 and SMA, RPMC and SMA, RPMC and LM1, SMA and RM1, SMA and LPMC, was reduced significantly for stroke survivors (iii the flow did not increase significantly after MP alone and (iv the flow among the regions during MP+PT increased significantly. We also found that sensation and motor scores were significantly higher and correlated with directed functional connectivity measures when the stroke-survivors underwent MP+PT but not MP alone. The findings provide evidence that a combination of mental practice and physical therapy can be an effective means of treatment for stroke survivors to recover or regain the strength of motor behaviors, and that the spectra of causal information flow can be used as a reliable biomarker for evaluating rehabilitation in stroke

  19. Immediate improvement of motor function after epilepsy surgery in congenital hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, Tharick; Paglioli, Eliseu; Palmini, André; Menezes, Rafael; Staudt, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Hemispherectomy often leads to a loss of contralateral hand function. In some children with congenital hemiparesis, however, paretic hand function remains unchanged. An immediate improvement of hand function has never been reported. A 17-year-old boy with congenital hemiparesis and therapy-refractory seizures due to a large infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery underwent epilepsy surgery. Intraoperatively, electrical cortical stimulation of the affected hemisphere demonstrated preserved motor projections from the sensorimotor cortex to the (contralateral) paretic hand. A frontoparietal resection was performed, which included a complete disconnection of all motor projections originating in the sensorimotor cortex of the affected hemisphere. Surprisingly, the paretic hand showed a significant functional improvement immediately after the operation. This observation demonstrates that, in congenital hemiparesis, crossed motor projections from the affected hemisphere are not always beneficial, but can be dysfunctional, interfering with ipsilateral motor control over the paretic hand by the contralesional hemisphere. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Structurofunctional resting-state networks correlate with motor function in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Kalinosky

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that changes after a stroke in both intrinsic and network-based structurofunctional correlations at rest are correlated with motor function, underscoring the importance of residual structural connectivity in cortical networks.

  1. [POSTER] ChiroChroma: An Augmented Reality Game for the Assessment of Hand Motor Functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jockin, Pieter; Liu, Lu; Liu, Xin; Cidota, M.A.; Lukosch, S.G.

    2017-01-01

    For a better understanding of how different diseases (e.g. neurovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and musculoskeletal pain conditions) affect human motor function, a uniform, standardized and objective evaluation is a desirable goal expressed within the clinical community. We explore

  2. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  3. Motor functioning, exploration, visuospatial cognition and language development in preschool children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellendoorn, Annika|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357400143; Wijnroks, Lex|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/124623999; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Leseman, Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand typical and atypical developmental trajectories it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in one domain may be affecting performance in other domains. This study examined longitudinal relations between early fine motor functioning, visuospatial cognition,

  4. Generating linear regression model to predict motor functions by use of laser range finder during TUG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daiki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Hotta, Takayuki; Tashiro, Yuto; Morino, Saori; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Yorozu, Ayanori; Takahashi, Masaki; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which spatial and temporal parameters of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test are associated with motor function in elderly individuals. This study included 99 community-dwelling women aged 72.9 ± 6.3 years. Step length, step width, single support time, variability of the aforementioned parameters, gait velocity, cadence, reaction time from starting signal to first step, and minimum distance between the foot and a marker placed to 3 in front of the chair were measured using our analysis system. The 10-m walk test, five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test, and one-leg standing (OLS) test were used to assess motor function. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine which TUG test parameters were associated with each motor function test. Finally, we calculated a predictive model for each motor function test using each regression coefficient. In stepwise linear regression analysis, step length and cadence were significantly associated with the 10-m walk test, FTSTS and OLS test. Reaction time was associated with the FTSTS test, and step width was associated with the OLS test. Each predictive model showed a strong correlation with the 10-m walk test and OLS test (P motor function test. Moreover, the TUG test time regarded as the lower extremity function and mobility has strong predictive ability in each motor function test. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  6. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  7. The Placebo Response in Pediatric Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, Daniël R; Zeevenhooven, Judith; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S; Douwes Dekker, Iuke; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M; Vlieger, Arine M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the magnitude and determinants of the placebo response in studies with pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for systematic reviews and randomized placebo-controlled trials concerning children 4-18 years of age with an abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. The primary outcome was the pooled proportion of subjects assigned to placebo with improvement as defined by the authors. The effect of trial characteristics on the magnitude of the placebo response was investigated using univariate meta-regression analysis. Twenty-one trials were identified. The pooled proportion of subjects with improvement was 41% (95% CI, 34%-49%; 17 studies) and with no pain was 17% (95% CI, 8%-32%; 7 studies). The pooled standardized mean difference on the Faces Pain Scales compared with baseline was -0.73 (95% CI, -1.04 to -0.42; 8 studies). There was significant heterogeneity across studies with respect to both outcomes. Lower dosing frequency (P = .04), positive study (P = .03), longer duration of treatment (P pain. Response on Faces Pain Scales was greater in studies conducted in the Middle East (P = .002), in studies that did not report the randomization schedule (P = .02), and in studies with a higher percentage of females (P = .04). Approximately 41% of children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders improve on placebo. Several trial characteristics are correlated significantly with the proportion of patients with no pain on placebo and with the magnitude of the placebo response on Faces Pain Scales. These data could be valuable for the design of future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Hippotherapy on Motor Proficiency and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Corriveau, Hélène; Dugas, Claude

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of hippotherapy on physical capacities of children with cerebral palsy. Thirteen children (4-12 years old) with cerebral palsy classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I or II were included in this prospective quasi-experimental ABA design study. Participants received 10 weeks of hippotherapy (30 min per week). Gross motor function and proficiency were measured with the Bruininks-Oseretski Motor Proficiency short form [BOT2-SF]) and the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 [GMFM-88] (Dimension D and E) twice before the program (T1 and T1'), immediately after (T2), and 10 weeks following the end of the program (T3). Mean scores for dimensions D and E of the GMFM-88 Dimension scores (p = .005) and three out of the eight items of the BOT2-SF (fine motor precision (p = .013), balance (p = .025), and strength (p = .012) improved between baseline and immediately after intervention; mean scores immediately following and 10 weeks following intervention did not differ. Hippotherapy provided by a trained therapist who applies an intense and graded session for 10 weeks can improve body functions and performance of gross motor and fine motor activities in children with cerebral palsy.

  9. Functional magnetic resonance imaging mapping of the motor cortex in patients with cerebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.M.; Zerrin Yetkin, F.; Hammeke, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) to map cerebral functions in patients with frontal or parietal tumors. Methods. Charts and images of patients with cerebral tumors or vascular malformations who underwent FMRI with an echo-planar technique were reviewed. The FMRI maps of motor (11 patients), tactile sensory (12 patients) and language tasks (4 patients) were obtained. The location of the FMRI activation and the positive responses to intraoperative cortical stimulation were compared. The reliability of the paradigms for mapping the rolandic cortex was evaluated. Results. Rolandic cortex was activated by tactile tasks in hall 12 patients and by motor tasks in 10 of 11 patients. Language tasks elicited activation in each of the four patients. Activation was obtained within edematous brain and adjacent to tumors. FMRI in three cases with intraoperative electro-cortical mapping results showed activation for a language, tactile, or motor task within the same gyrus in which stimulation elicited a related motor, sensory, or language function. In patients with >2 cm between the margin of the tumor, as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging, and the activation, no decline in motor function occurred from surgical resection. Conclusions. FMRI of tactile, motor, and language tasks is feasible in patients with cerebral tumors. FMRI shows promise as a means of determining the risk of a postoperative motor deficit from surgical resection of frontal or parietal tumors. (authors)

  10. Axonal regeneration and neuronal function are preserved in motor neurons lacking ß-actin in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Cheever

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper localization of ß-actin mRNA and protein is essential for growth cone guidance and axon elongation in cultured neurons. In addition, decreased levels of ß-actin mRNA and protein have been identified in the growth cones of motor neurons cultured from a mouse model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA, suggesting that ß-actin loss-of-function at growth cones or pre-synaptic nerve terminals could contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. However, the role of ß-actin in motor neurons in vivo and its potential relevance to disease has yet to be examined. We therefore generated motor neuron specific ß-actin knock-out mice (Actb-MNsKO to investigate the function of ß-actin in motor neurons in vivo. Surprisingly, ß-actin was not required for motor neuron viability or neuromuscular junction maintenance. Skeletal muscle from Actb-MNsKO mice showed no histological indication of denervation and did not significantly differ from controls in several measurements of physiologic function. Finally, motor axon regeneration was unimpaired in Actb-MNsKO mice, suggesting that ß-actin is not required for motor neuron function or regeneration in vivo.

  11. In Vivo Neuromechanics: Decoding Causal Motor Neuron Behavior with Resulting Musculoskeletal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Massimo; Yavuz, Utku Ş; Farina, Dario

    2017-10-18

    Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. This currently represents the major challenge to the understanding of human movement. We address this challenge by proposing a paradigm for investigating spinal motor neuron contribution to skeletal joint mechanical function in the intact human in vivo. We employ multi-muscle spatial sampling and deconvolution of high-density fiber electrical activity to decode accurate α-motor neuron discharges across five lumbosacral segments in the human spinal cord. We use complete α-motor neuron discharge series to drive forward subject-specific models of the musculoskeletal system in open-loop with no corrective feedback. We perform validation tests where mechanical moments are estimated with no knowledge of reference data over unseen conditions. This enables accurate blinded estimation of ankle function purely from motor neuron information. Remarkably, this enables observing causal associations between spinal motor neuron activity and joint moment control. We provide a new class of neural data-driven musculoskeletal modeling formulations for bridging between movement neural and mechanical levels in vivo with implications for understanding motor physiology, pathology, and recovery.

  12. Exercise alters resting state functional connectivity of motor circuits in Parkinsonian rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G.; Heintz, Ryan; Peng, Yu-Hao; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined changes in functional connectivity after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of motor circuits of rats subjected to bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dorsal striatum. Our results showed substantial similarity between lesion-induced changes in rsFC in the rats and alterations in rsFC reported in Parkinson’s disease subjects, including disconnection of the dorsolateral striatum. Exercise in lesioned rats resulted in: (a) normalization of many of the lesion-induced alterations in rsFC, including reintegration of the dorsolateral striatum into the motor network; (b) emergence of the ventrolateral striatum as a new broadly connected network hub; (c) increased rsFC among the motor cortex, motor thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Our results showed for the first time that long-term exercise training partially reversed lesion-induced alterations in rsFC of the motor circuits, and in addition enhanced functional connectivity in specific motor pathways in the Parkinsonian rats, which could underlie recovery in motor functions observed in these rats. PMID:25219465

  13. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    . The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age......, with both gross motor function and mobility. Segmental trunk control measured using the SATCo could explain between 38% and 40% of variation in GMFM and between 32% and 37% of variation in PEDI. Interpretation This study suggests a strong association between segmental trunk postural control and gross motor...

  14. Roentgenological characteristics of motor-evacuatory stomach function after selective proximal vagotomy (SPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustamov, Eh.A.; Manafov, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    An x-ray picture of motor-evacuatory stomach function was studied in patients with pyloroduodenal ulcers after SPV with and without drainage (435 patients aged 16 to 80). Methods of investigation included polyprojectional radioscopy and panoramic and spot films at various time intervals after barium suspension intake. Stomach investigation was performed before operation as well as 2-3 weeks, 3-6 mos, 1-2 yrs, 3-5 yrs, and 7-10 yrs after it. Motor-evacuatory stomach function was studied over time. The least changes in motor-evacuatory fucntion were observed after SPV without drainage as a result of preserving pyloric contractility

  15. Improving Survival and Promoting Respiratory Motor Function After Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0378 TITLE: Improving Survival and Promoting Respiratory Motor Function After Cervical Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE CordCorInjury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Improvi g Survival and Promoting Respiratory Motor Function After Cervical Spinal Cord...care. However, despite these drastic interventions, the cervical injured patient is still susceptible to death due to respiratory complications

  16. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  17. Fine Motor Function Skills in Patients with Parkinson Disease with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdal, Philippe; Meyer, Antonia; Chaturvedi, Menorca; Nowak, Karolina; Roesch, Anne D; Fuhr, Peter; Gschwandtner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between impaired fine motor skills in Parkinson disease (PD) patients and their cognitive status, and to determine whether fine motor skills are more impaired in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) than in non-MCI patients. Twenty PD MCI and 31 PD non-MCI patients (mean age 66.7 years, range 50-84, 36 males/15 females), all right-handed, took part in a motor performance test battery. Steadiness, precision, dexterity, velocity of arm-hand movements, and velocity of wrist-finger movements were measured and compared across groups and analyzed for confounders (age, sex, education, severity of motor symptoms, and disease duration). Statistical analysis included t tests corrected for multiple testing, and a linear regression with stepwise elimination procedure was used to select significant predictors for fine motor function. PD MCI patients performed significantly worse in precision (p motor function skills were confounded by age. Fine motor skills in PD MCI patients are impaired compared to PD non-MCI patients. Investigating the relation between the fine motor performance and MCI in PD might be a relevant subject for future research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  19. Motor and Executive Function Profiles in Adult Residents ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) may be associated with tremor, motor and executive dysfunction (EF), clinically resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD research has identified tremor-dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) profiles. NTD PD presents with bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural sway, and is associated with EF impairment with lower quality of life (QoL). Presence and impact of tremor, motor, and executive dysfunction profiles on health-related QoL and life satisfaction were examined in air-Mn exposed residents of two Ohio, USA towns. Participants and Methods: From two Ohio towns exposed to air-Mn, 186 residents (76 males) aged 30-75 years were administered measures of EF (Animal Naming, ACT, Rey-O Copy, Stroop Color-Word, and Trails B), motor and tremor symptoms (UPDRS), QoL (BRFSS), life satisfaction (SWLS), and positive symptom distress (SCL-90-R). Air-Mn exposure in the two towns was modeled with 10 years of air-monitoring data. Cluster analyses detected the presence of symptom profiles by grouping together residents with similar scores on these measures. Results: Overall, mean air-Mn concentration for the two towns was 0.53 µg/m3 (SD=.92). Two-step cluster analyses identified TD and NTD symptom profiles. Residents in the NTD group lacked EF impairment; EF impairment represented a separate profile. An unimpaired group also emerged. The NTD and EF impairment groups were qualitatively similar, with relatively lo

  20. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  1. Motor relearning program and Bobath method improve motor function of the upper extremities in patients with stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjing Liu; Fengsheng Li; Guihua Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the natural evolution of cerebrovascular disease, unconscious use of affected extremity during drug treatment and daily life can improve the function of affected upper extremity partially, but it is very slow and alsc accompanied by the formation of abnormal mode. Therefore, functional training should be emphasized in recovering the motor function of extremity.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of combination of motor relearning program and Bobath method on motor function of upper extremity of patients with stroke.DESIGN: Comparison of therapeutic effects taking stroke patients as observation subjects.SETTING: Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Beijing Jingmei Group.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 120 stroke patients, including 60 males and 60 females, averaged (59±3) years, who hospitalized in the Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Beijing Jingmei Group between January 2005 and June 2006 were recruited. The involved patients met the following criteria: Stroke attack within 2 weeks;diagnosis criteria of cerebral hemorrhage or infarction made in the 4th National Cerebrovascular Disease Conference; confirmed by skull CT or MRI; Informed consents of therapeutic regimen were obtained. The patients were assigned into 2 groups according to their wills: rehabilitation group and control group, with 30 males and 30 females in each group. Patients in rehabilitation group averaged (59±2)years old, and those in the control group averaged (58±2)years old.METHODS: ① Patients in two groups received routine treatment in the Department of Neurology. When the vital signs of patients in the rehabilitation group were stable, individualized treatment was conducted by combined application of motor relearning program and Bobath method. Meanwhile, training of activity of daily living was performed according to the disease condition changes of patients at different phases, including the nursing and instruction of body posture, the maintenance of good extremity

  2. Functional near infrared spectroscopy of the sensory and motor brain regions with simultaneous kinematic and EMG monitoring during motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Stanley, Christopher J; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-12-05

    There are several advantages that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) presents in the study of the neural control of human movement. It is relatively flexible with respect to participant positioning and allows for some head movements during tasks. Additionally, it is inexpensive, light weight, and portable, with very few contraindications to its use. This presents a unique opportunity to study functional brain activity during motor tasks in individuals who are typically developing, as well as those with movement disorders, such as cerebral palsy. An additional consideration when studying movement disorders, however, is the quality of actual movements performed and the potential for additional, unintended movements. Therefore, concurrent monitoring of both blood flow changes in the brain and actual movements of the body during testing is required for appropriate interpretation of fNIRS results. Here, we show a protocol for the combination of fNIRS with muscle and kinematic monitoring during motor tasks. We explore gait, a unilateral multi-joint movement (cycling), and two unilateral single-joint movements (isolated ankle dorsiflexion, and isolated hand squeezing). The techniques presented can be useful in studying both typical and atypical motor control, and can be modified to investigate a broad range of tasks and scientific questions.

  3. Molecular studies on the function of tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Cheoul

    1993-01-01

    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studies the alteration of tumor suppressor gene in various Gastrointestinal cancer in Korea. Results showed that genetic alteration of Rb gene was in 83% of colorectal cancer. Our results suggest that genetic alteration of Rb gene is crucially involved in the tumorigenesis of colorectum in Korea. (Author)

  4. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iballa Burunat

    Full Text Available Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception.

  5. Time of day and eating behaviors are associated with the composition and function of the human gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Jennifer L; Musaad, Salma Ma; Holscher, Hannah D

    2017-11-01

    Background: Preclinical research has shown that the gastrointestinal microbiota exhibits circadian rhythms and that the timing of food consumption can affect the composition and function of gut microbes. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on these relations in humans. Objective: We aimed to determine whether human gastrointestinal microbes and bacterial metabolites were associated with time of day or behavioral factors, including eating frequency, percentage of energy consumed early in the day, and overnight-fast duration. Design: We analyzed 77 fecal samples collected from 28 healthy men and women. Fecal DNA was extracted and sequenced to determine the relative abundances of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to assess short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Eating frequency, percentage of energy consumed before 1400, and overnight-fast duration were determined from dietary records. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models or generalized linear mixed models, which controlled for fiber intake, sex, age, body mass index, and repeated sampling within each participant. Each OTU and metabolite were tested as the outcome in a separate model. Results: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations decreased throughout the day ( P = 0.006, 0.04, and 0.002, respectively). Thirty-five percent of bacterial OTUs were associated with time. In addition, relations were observed between gut microbes and eating behaviors, including eating frequency, early energy consumption, and overnight-fast duration. Conclusions: These results indicate that the human gastrointestinal microbiota composition and function vary throughout the day, which may be related to the circadian biology of the human body, the microbial community itself, or human eating behaviors. Behavioral factors, including timing of eating and overnight-fast duration, were also predictive of bacterial abundances. Longitudinal intervention studies are needed to

  6. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Global motion perception is associated with motor function in 2-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; Paudel, Nabin; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Ansell, Judith M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Harding, Jane E

    2017-09-29

    The dorsal visual processing stream that includes V1, motion sensitive area V5 and the posterior parietal lobe, supports visually guided motor function. Two recent studies have reported associations between global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing in V5, and motor function in pre-school and school aged children. This indicates a relationship between visual and motor development and also supports the use of global motion perception to assess overall dorsal stream function in studies of human neurodevelopment. We investigated whether associations between vision and motor function were present at 2 years of age, a substantially earlier stage of development. The Bayley III test of Infant and Toddler Development and measures of vision including visual acuity (Cardiff Acuity Cards), stereopsis (Lang stereotest) and global motion perception were attempted in 404 2-year-old children (±4 weeks). Global motion perception (quantified as a motion coherence threshold) was assessed by observing optokinetic nystagmus in response to random dot kinematograms of varying coherence. Linear regression revealed that global motion perception was modestly, but statistically significantly associated with Bayley III composite motor (r 2 =0.06, Pmotor scores (r 2 =0.06, pmotor and fine motor scores, but unaided visual acuity was not statistically significantly associated with any of the motor scores. These results demonstrate that global motion perception and binocular vision are associated with motor function at an early stage of development. Global motion perception can be used as a partial measure of dorsal stream function from early childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of functional physical activity on the maintenance of motor function in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Fajersztajn

    Full Text Available Abstract It is widely known that older adults, even frail individuals, can improve their physical function using appropriately targeted exercise. Nevertheless, older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD have been excluded from the majority of studies on exercise. The functional-task physical activity program is based on activities of daily living, and may be suited for elderly people with AD because it focuses on the maintenance and stimulation of preserved abilities. In addition, session costs are substantially reduced by adopting a group approach. Furthermore, the group approach may improve the social interaction of the demented patient. Objectives: To determine whether a functional-task physical activity program in groups can maintain motor function in elderly with AD. Methods: 10 elderly diagnosed with mild or moderate AD were assigned into one of two groups: subjects with and without intervention. The intervention consisted of a 12-week function-task physical activity program in groups. Measurements: activities of daily living (Katz and Lawton & Brody questionnaires, mobility (Timed Up and Go Test, Timed Up and Go manual Test and Timed Up and Go Cognitive Test, cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, behavioral disturbances (Neuropsychiatric Inventory I-brief and functional balance (Berg Balance Scale. Results: A statistically significant difference between the two groups was found regarding the functional balance mean change measured by Berg scale score (p=0.046. A significant improvement of 1.60 points (95%CI[0.22;2.98] was observed in the intervention group on this scale, while the non-intervention group showed -0.40 points (95%CI[-1.78;0.98], no change. Conclusions: It is possible to treat mild and moderate Alzheimer's patients using a group approach. The functional task physical activity program was efficient in functional balance improvement and also appeared to prevent mobility decline.

  9. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, Chul Su; Lim, Myung Kwan; Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions

  10. Forced, not voluntary, exercise improves motor function in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgel, Angela L; Vitek, Jerrold L; Alberts, Jay L

    2009-01-01

    Animal studies indicate forced exercise (FE) improves overall motor function in Parkinsonian rodents. Global improvements in motor function following voluntary exercise (VE) are not widely reported in human Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of VE and FE on PD symptoms, motor function, and bimanual dexterity. Ten patients with mild to moderate PD were randomly assigned to complete 8 weeks of FE or VE. With the assistance of a trainer, patients in the FE group pedaled at a rate 30% greater than their preferred voluntary rate, whereas patients in the VE group pedaled at their preferred rate. Aerobic intensity for both groups was identical, 60% to 80% of their individualized training heart rate. Aerobic fitness improved for both groups. Following FE, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores improved 35%, whereas patients completing VE did not exhibit any improvement. The control and coordination of grasping forces during the performance of a functional bimanual dexterity task improved significantly for patients in the FE group, whereas no changes in motor performance were observed following VE. Improvements in clinical measures of rigidity and bradykinesia and biomechanical measures of bimanual dexterity were maintained 4 weeks after FE cessation. Aerobic fitness can be improved in PD patients following both VE and FE interventions. However, only FE results in significant improvements in motor function and bimanual dexterity. Biomechanical data indicate that FE leads to a shift in motor control strategy, from feedback to a greater reliance on feedforward processes, which suggests FE may be altering central motor control processes.

  11. Relationship between communication skills and gross motor function in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-11-01

    To explore the communication skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at 24 months' corrected age with reference to typically developing children, and to determine the relationship between communication ability, gross motor function, and other comorbidities associated with CP. Prospective, cross-sectional, population-based cohort study. General community. Children with CP (N=124; mean age, 24mo; functional severity on Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]: I=47, II=14, III=22, IV=19, V=22). Not applicable. Parents reported communication skills on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Two independent physiotherapists classified motor type, distribution, and GMFCS. Data on comorbidities were obtained from parent interviews and medical records. Children with mild CP (GMFCS I/II) had mean CSBS-DP scores that were 0.5 to 0.6 SD below the mean for typically developing peers, while those with moderate-severe impairment (GMFCS III-V) were 1.4 to 2.6 SD below the mean. GMFCS was significantly associated with performance on the CSBS-DP (F=18.55, Pgross motor ability accounting for 38% of the variation in communication. Poorer communication was strongly associated with gross motor function and full-term birth. Preschool-aged children with CP, with more severe gross motor impairment, showed delayed communication, while children with mild motor impairment were less vulnerable. Term-born children had significantly poorer communication than those born prematurely. Because a portion of each gross motor functional severity level is at risk, this study reinforces the need for early monitoring of communication development for all children with CP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Inpatient Assessment and Management of Motor Functional Neurological Disorders: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Kathleen; Glass, Sean; Adams, Caitlin; Stephen, Christopher D; King, Franklin; Parlman, Kristin; Perez, David L; Kontos, Nicholas

    2018-01-08

    Motor functional neurologic disorders (FND)-previously termed "hysteria" and later "conversion disorder"-are exceedingly common and frequently encountered in the acute hospital setting. Despite their high prevalence, patients with motor FND can be challenging to diagnose accurately and manage effectively. To date, there is limited guidance on the inpatient approach to the neuropsychiatric evaluation of patients with functional (psychogenic) neurologic symptoms. The authors outline an inpatient multidisciplinary approach, involving neurology, psychiatry, and physical therapy, for the assessment and acute inpatient management of motor FND. A vignette of a patient with motor FND is presented followed by a discussion of general assessment principles. Thereafter, a detailed description of the neurologic and psychiatric assessments is outlined. Delivery of a "rule-in" diagnosis is emphasized and specific guidance for what can be accomplished postdiagnosis in the hospital is suggested. We encourage an interdisciplinary approach beginning at the early stages of the diagnostic assessment once an individual is suspected of having motor FND. Practical suggestions for the inpatient assessment of motor FND are presented. It is also important to individualize the diagnostic assessment. Future research should be conducted to test best practices for motor FND management in the acute inpatient hospital setting. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Barbara; Nicolai, Emanuele; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; La Sala, Carmine N; Aiello, Marco; Inglese, Marianna; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Rosa, Tiziana; Schiatti, Alfio; Mondelli, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo; Cuomo, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested. The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207516.

  14. Epidemiology of the functional gastrointestinal disorders diagnosed according to Rome II criteria: an Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P M; Talley, N J; Burke, C; Koloski, N A

    2006-01-01

    Population-based studies of the prevalence of all functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) using the Rome II criteria are lacking. It is also not certain whether subjects who meet the Rome II criteria for an FGID are different in terms of demographic and psychological characteristics from those subjects meeting exclusively the more restrictive Rome I criteria. To determine whether using the more restrictive Rome I criteria would result in a more biologically determined group of FGID than when the Rome II is applied. Subjects included individuals aged 18 years and older (n = 1,225) from the Penrith population who were initially surveyed with the Penrith District Health Survey in 1997. Subjects were sent a self-report questionnaire that contained items on gastrointestinal symptoms applying the Rome II criteria. Subjects were also assessed on psychological and personality factors and on physical and mental functioning. A total of 36.1% (n = 275) of respondents was diagnosed with an FGID according to Rome II criteria. The five most prevalent FGID were functional heartburn (10.4%), irritable bowel syndrome (8.9%), functional incontinence (7.6%), proctalgia fugax (6.5%) and functional chest pain (5.1%). Subjects meeting Rome II only criteria for FGID scored significantly higher on measures of psychological caseness and emotionality than Rome I only subjects, and these were independently associated with meeting Rome I only versus Rome II only criteria for FGID. The Rome II criteria FGID are common and do not appear to identify a vastly different group of FGID sufferers compared with the earlier Rome I criteria.

  15. Frequency response function of motors for switching noise energy with a new experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Yoon, Jong-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Switching energy in electrical vehicles can create serious noise from the motors. However, the characteristics of switching noise in vehicle motors are not clear due to the complexity of measuring them. This study proposes a new experimental method to investigate the switching noise energy of a vehicle motor based on frequency response functions. A function generator-amplifier system is used to gen- erate the switching energy instead of the complex battery-inverter system that has previously been used to examine the noise energy characteristics. Even though newly adapted experimental method is simple, the switching noise energy was explicitly investigated under various input signals. Thus, this simple new method can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of noise energy in a vehicle motor

  16. Frequency response function of motors for switching noise energy with a new experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunsu [Ensemble Center for Automotive Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jong-Yun [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Switching energy in electrical vehicles can create serious noise from the motors. However, the characteristics of switching noise in vehicle motors are not clear due to the complexity of measuring them. This study proposes a new experimental method to investigate the switching noise energy of a vehicle motor based on frequency response functions. A function generator-amplifier system is used to gen- erate the switching energy instead of the complex battery-inverter system that has previously been used to examine the noise energy characteristics. Even though newly adapted experimental method is simple, the switching noise energy was explicitly investigated under various input signals. Thus, this simple new method can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of noise energy in a vehicle motor.

  17. Functional Communication Profiles in Children with Cerebral Palsy in Relation to Gross Motor Function and Manual and Intellectual Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Park, Jieun; Choi, Yoon Seong; Goh, Yu Ra; Park, Eun Sook

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate communication function using classification systems and its association with other functional profiles, including gross motor function, manual ability, intellectual functioning, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study recruited 117 individuals with CP aged from 4 to 16 years. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Viking Speech Scale (VSS), Speech Language Profile Groups (SLPG), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and intellectual functioning were assessed in the children along with brain MRI categorization. Very strong relationships were noted among the VSS, CFCS, and SLPG, although these three communication systems provide complementary information, especially for children with mid-range communication impairment. These three communication classification systems were strongly related with the MACS, but moderately related with the GMFCS. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that manual ability and intellectual functioning were significantly related with VSS and CFCS function, whereas only intellectual functioning was significantly related with SLPG functioning in children with CP. Communication function in children with a periventricular white matter lesion (PVWL) varied widely. In the cases with a PVWL, poor functioning was more common on the SLPG, compared to the VSS and CFCS. Very strong relationships were noted among three communication classification systems that are closely related with intellectual ability. Compared to gross motor function, manual ability seemed more closely related with communication function in these children. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  18. On the functional relationship between language and motor processing in typewriting: an EEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Scaltritti, Michele; Pinet, Svetlana; Longcamp, Marieke; Alario, F-Xavier

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The functional relationship between language and motor processing was investigated to elucidate whether it is better described in terms of a discrete or a continuous account of information flow. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials during a typewriting task that combined a semantic priming paradigm with a manipulation of response side (response initiated with right vs. left hand), and focused on the lateralised potentials indexing motor-response activation...

  19. Using Brain Oscillations and Corticospinal Excitability to Understand and Predict Post-Stroke Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Thibaut

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What determines motor recovery in stroke is still unknown and finding markers that could predict and improve stroke recovery is a challenge. In this study, we aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms of motor function recovery after stroke using neurophysiological markers by means of cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation—TMS and brain oscillations (electroencephalography—EEG. In this cross-sectional study, 55 subjects with chronic stroke (62 ± 14 yo, 17 women, 32 ± 42 months post-stroke were recruited in two sites. We analyzed TMS measures (i.e., motor threshold—MT—of the affected and unaffected sides and EEG variables (i.e., power spectrum in different frequency bands and different brain regions of the affected and unaffected hemispheres and their correlation with motor impairment as measured by Fugl-Meyer. Multiple univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of good motor function. A significant interaction effect of MT in the affected hemisphere and power in beta bandwidth over the central region for both affected and unaffected hemispheres was found. We identified that motor function positively correlates with beta rhythm over the central region of the unaffected hemisphere, while it negatively correlates with beta rhythm in the affected hemisphere. Our results suggest that cortical activity in the affected and unaffected hemisphere measured by EEG provides new insights on the association between high-frequency rhythms and motor impairment, highlighting the role of an excess of beta in the affected central cortical region in poor motor function in stroke recovery.

  20. Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on promoting the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function. Methods: A total of 106 cases of patients received radical operation for gastric cancer in our hospital were selected as research subjects, and according to different ways of postoperative nutrition intervention, all patients were divided into observation group (n=50 and control group (n=56. Control group received conventional enteral nutrition intervention, observation group received postoperative early enteral immune nutrition support, and then differences in postoperative intestinal mucosa barrier function, gastrointestinal hormone levels, immune function levels and nutrition-related indicator values were compared between two groups. Results: After observation group received enteral immune nutrition intervention, serum DAO, PS and D-lactate levels as well as urine L/M ratio were lower than those of control group; serum GAS, CCK, MTL and SP values of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group, and GLU, VIP, GIP and SS values were lower than those of control group; CD4, IgG, NK cell, C3, C4, CH50 and S-IgA levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group; serum ALB, PRE, TRF and RBP levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer is conducive to the recovery of gastrointestinal function and the promotion of immune state, eventually promotes patients’ postoperative overall recovery and has active clinical significance.

  1. Antidepressants for the treatment of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Angela; Kamper, Adrian; Thaler, Kylie; Chapman, Andrea; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2011-07-06

    Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are among the most common medical problems in paediatric medicine. Frequently, physicians prescribe antidepressants as a second-line treatment for children and adolescents with FGIDs. To date, the evidence on the benefits and harms of antidepressants for the treatment of abdominal pain-related FGIDs has not been assessed systematically. The primary objectives were to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for the treatment of abdominal pain-related FGIDs in children and adolescents. We searched The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, IPA, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, Biosis Previews and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization with appropriate filters (from inception to January 31, 2011). For efficacy we included double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antidepressants for treatment of abdominal pain-related FGIDs in children and adolescents 18 years or younger. Open-label and uncontrolled experimental studies, as well as observational studies were eligible for the assessment of harms. The minimum study duration was 4 weeks. The minimum study size was 30 participants. Two authors independently assessed all abstracts and full text articles, and rated the risk of bias for included studies. Data were extracted independently by one author and checked for accuracy by another author. Data were analysed using RevMan 5. Two RCTs (123 participants), both using amitriptyline, met the pre-specified inclusion criteria. These studies provided mixed findings on the efficacy of amitriptyline for the treatment of abdominal pain-related FGIDs. The larger, publicly-funded study reported no statistically significant difference in efficacy between amitriptyline and placebo in 90 children and adolescents with FGIDs after 4 weeks of treatment. On intention-to-treat (ITT)- analysis, 59% of the children reported

  2. Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders based on Rome III criteria in a pediatric gastroenterology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talachian, Elham; Bidari, Ali; Zahmatkesh, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) entail several distinct conditions that collectively account for a sizeable proportion of patients complaining of abdominal pain. Physicians' awareness is fundamental to avoid unnecessary evaluations and to alleviate stress-related problems. This study aimed to assess the relative frequencies of FGIDs and related categories in a selected Iranian population. We conducted this cross-sectional study in a gastroenterology clinic of a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Iran. Children and adolescents between the age of 4 and 18 years referred to the clinic from October 2011 to February 2013 were enrolled if they were diagnosed with FGID according to the Rome III criteria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, pain location, duration and frequency, associated symptoms, and pertinent family history. We used descriptive analyses to show mean (±SD) and relative frequencies of categories of FGIDs. We diagnosed 183 (114 female) with FGIDs out of 1307 children and adolescents who were visited in the clinic. There was history of psychiatric disorders in 42 (22.9%) participants, and migraine headaches and gastrointestinal disorders were at least in one of the parents in 21 (11.5%) and 64 (34.9%) participants, respectively. We defined 84 (46%) patients under Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) category, 38 (21%) under Abdominal Migraine, 26 (14%) under Functional Abdominal Pain, 21 (11%) under Functional Dyspepsia, and 7 (4%) under Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome. Seven children (4%) had no defining feature for FGID categories and therefore labeled as unclassified. FGID was a prevalent diagnosis among children and adolescents with abdominal pain. IBS was the largest category. Only a minority were unclassifiable under the Rome III criteria, indicating improved differentiation characteristics of Rome III criteria compared to the Rome II version.

  3. Threshold values of ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in 60 children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle M; Svensson, Joachim; Thorning, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose - Threshold values defining 3 categories of passive range of motion are used in the Cerebral Palsy follow-Up Program to guide clinical decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the threshold values by testing the hypothesis that passive range of motion in ankle...... dorsiflexion is associated with gross motor function and that function differs between the groups of participants in each category. Patients and methods - We analyzed data from 60 ambulatory children (aged 5-9 years) with spastic cerebral palsy. Outcomes were passive range of motion in ankle dorsiflexion...... with flexed and extended knee and gross motor function (Gait Deviation Index, Gait Variable Score of the ankle, peak dorsiflexion during gait, 1-minute walk, Gross Motor Function Measure, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cerebral Palsy Module, and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument). Results...

  4. State of motor function of stomach in patients with cervix uteri carcinoma in combined radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidovtseva, M.I.; Shutilova, A.A.; Dynnik, M.S.; Lugovskaya, K.A.; Duma, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Data on studying stomach motor function in patients with carvix uteri carcinoma of 2 and 3 stages in combined radiotherapy are given. The patients were examined before radiotherapy and directly after it as well as in 1-2 years using the X-ray method for 50 patients and electrogastrography for 68 patients. Revealed changes in stomach motor function, being considered as a response to irradiation, were manifested more often in decreasing motility, evacuatory function and bioelectric stomach activity. These functional changes result in disturbance of general state of patients, appearance of symptomatology of stomach dysfunction and serve as indications for the prescription of correcting therapy, which includes diet and preparations strengthening stomach motor activity

  5. Motor circuit computer model based on studies of functional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Ramo, Karla Batista; Rodriguez Rojas, Rafael; Carballo Barreda, Maylen

    2012-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a complex network of subcortical nuclei involved in motor control, sensorimotor integration, and cognitive processes. Their functioning and interaction with other cerebral structures remains as a subject of debate. The aim of the present work was to simulate the basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuitry interaction in motor program selection, supported by functional connectivity pattern obtained by functional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Determination of connections weights between neural populations by functional magnetic resonance imaging, contributed to a more realistic formulation of the model; and consequently to obtain similar results to clinical and experimental data. The network allowed to describe the participation of the basal ganglia in motor program selection and the changes in Parkinson disease. The simulation allowed to demonstrate that dopamine depletion above to 40 % leads to a loss of action selection capability, and to reflect the system adaptation ability to compensate dysfunction in Parkinson disease, coincident with experimental and clinical studies

  6. Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illes, Zsolt; Mike, Andrea; Trauninger, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Methods: Concentric...... strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a dynamometer, and pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry in 7 adult patients. The six-minute walk test and the four-step stair-climb test were used for assessing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power, respectively. Results......: Anaerobic motor performance correlated with strength of both thigh muscles. Respiratory function did not correlate with either muscle strength or motor function performance. Conclusions: Respiratory and lower extremity proximal muscles could be differentially affected by the disease in individual patients...

  7. Effects of the Food Manufacturing Chain on the Viability and Functionality of Bifidobacterium animalis through Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnchai, Pattra; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Prasitpuriprecha, Chutinun; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

    2016-01-01

    The viability and functionality of probiotics may be influenced by industrial production processes resulting in a decrease in probiotic efficiency that benefit the health of humans. This study aimed to investigate the probiotic characteristics of Bifidobacterium strains isolated from fecal samples of healthy Thai infants. In the present work, three local strains (BF014, BF052, and BH053) belonging to Bifidobacterium animalis showed a great resistance against conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract. Among these, B. animalis BF052 possessed considerable probiotic properties, including high acid and bile tolerance, strong adhesion capability to Caco-2 cells, and inhibitory activity against pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae. This strain also exhibited a high survival rate compared to commercial strains during storage in a wide variety of products, including pasteurized milk, soy milk, drinking yogurt, and orange juice. The impact of food processing processes as well as the freeze-drying process, storage of freeze-dried powders, and incorporation of freeze-dried cells in food matrix on probiotic properties was also determined. The stability of the probiotic properties of the BF052 strain was not affected by food processing chain, especially its resistance in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its adherence ability to Caco-2 cells. It indicates that it satisfies the criteria as a potential probiotic and may be used as an effective probiotic starter in food applications.

  8. Non-invasive brain stimulation to promote motor and functional recovery following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Gunduz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic review of studies using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS as a research and clinical tool aimed at improving motor and functional recovery or spasticity in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI under the assumption that if the residual corticospinal circuits could be stimulated appropriately, the changes might be accompanied by functional recovery or an improvement in spasticity. This review summarizes the literature on the changes induced by NIBS in the motor and functional recovery and spasticity control of the upper and lower extremities following SCI.

  9. Aging-associated changes in motor axon voltage-gated Na+ channel function in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez Herrero, Susana

    2016-01-01

    the functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular aging on motor axon function with particular emphasis on Nav1.8. We compared tibial nerve conduction and excitability measures by threshold tracking in 12 months (mature) and 20 months (aged) wild-type (WT) mice...... expression was found by immunohistochemistry. The depolarizing excitability features were absent in Nav1.8 null mice, and they were counteracted in WT mice by a Nav1.8 blocker. Our data suggest that alteration in voltage-gated Na+ channel isoform expression contributes to changes in motor axon function...

  10. Laterality of cerebral hemispheres on CT scan and gross motor function in severely handicapped children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Takeya, Toshiki

    1997-06-01

    The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans` ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans` ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)

  11. Laterality of cerebral hemispheres on CT scan and gross motor function in severely handicapped children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke; Takeya, Toshiki.

    1997-01-01

    The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans' ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans' ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)

  12. Effect of Obesity on Motor Functional Outcome of Rehabilitating Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, David; Shafi, Shahid; Gwirtz, Patricia; Bennett, Monica; Reeves, Rustin; Callender, Librada; Dunklin, Cynthia; Cleveland, Samantha

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between obesity and functional motor outcome of patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury. This retrospective study at an urban acute inpatient rehabilitation center screened data from 761 subjects in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model System who were admitted from January 2010 to September 2013. Inclusion criteria consisted of age of 18 years or older and an abnormal Functional Independence Measure motor score. Body mass index was used to determine obesity in the study population. Patients with a body mass index of 30.0 kg/m or greater were considered obese. A total of 372 subjects met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Of these, 54 (13.2%) were obese. Both obese and nonobese patients showed similar improvement in Functional Independence Measure motor score (mean [SD], 30.4 [12.8] for the obese patients, P = 0.115, and 27.3 [13.1] for the nonobese patients). The mean (SD) Functional Independence Measure motor scores at discharge for the obese and nonobese patients were 63.0 (12.6) and 62.3 (10.1) (P = 0.6548), respectively. Obesity had no adverse impact on motor functional outcomes of the traumatic brain injury patients who underwent inpatient rehabilitation. Therefore, obesity should not be considered an obstacle in inpatient rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury, if patients are able to participate in necessary therapy.

  13. In Vivo Neuromechanics : Decoding Causal Motor Neuron Behavior with Resulting Musculoskeletal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, Massimo; Yavuz, Utku; Farina, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system.

  14. Functional Analysis Identified Habit Reversal Components for the Treatment of Motor Tics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Sterling, Heather E.; Perry, Erin J.; Burton, Britney; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This study included brief functional analyses and treatment for motor tics exhibited by two children with Tourette Syndrome. Brief functional analyses were conducted in an outpatient treatment center and results were used to develop individualized habit reversal procedures. Treatment data were collected in clinic for one child and in clinic and…

  15. The spectrum of motor function abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, D; Blondeau, K; Sifrim, D; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus has traditionally been regarded as the most severe end of the spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux disease and is of great clinical importance in view of the association with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Studies have documented high levels of esophageal acid exposure in Barrett's esophagus. Various pathogenetic mechanisms underlie this phenomenon. These include abnormalities in esophageal peristalsis, defective lower esophageal sphincter pressures, gastric dysmotility and bile reflux. Whilst these factors provide evidence for an acquired cause of Barrett's esophagus, an underlying genetic predisposition cannot be ruled out. Although the past decade has brought about many new discoveries in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus, it has also added further controversy to this complex disorder. A detailed analysis of the gastrointestinal motor abnormalities occurring in Barrett's esophagus follows, with a review of the currently available literature and an update on this condition that continues to be of interest to the gastroenterologist.

  16. Alteration of protein folding and degradation in motor neuron diseases : Implications and protective functions of small heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carra, Serena; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Boncoraglio, Alessandra; Minoia, Melania; Giorgetti, Elisa; Kampinga, Harm H.; Poletti, Angelo

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are neurodegenerative disorders that specifically affect the survival and function of upper and/or lower motor neurons. Since motor neurons are responsible for the control of voluntary muscular movement, MNDs are characterized by muscle spasticity, weakness and atrophy.

  17. Structural and functional evaluation of cortical motor areas in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosottini, Mirco; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Piazza, Selina; Diciotti, Stefano; Cecchi, Paolo; Fabbri, Serena; Carlesi, Cecilia; Mascalchi, Mario; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2012-03-01

    The structural and functional data gathered with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques about the brain cortical motor damage in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are controversial. In fact some structural MRI studies showed foci of gray matter (GM) atrophy in the precentral gyrus, even in the early stage, while others did not. Most functional MRI (fMRI) studies in ALS reported hyperactivation of extra-primary motor cortices, while contradictory results were obtained on the activation of the primary motor cortex. We aimed to investigate the cortical motor circuitries in ALS patients by a combined structural and functional approach. Twenty patients with definite ALS and 16 healthy subjects underwent a structural examination with acquisition of a 3D T1-weighted sequence and fMRI examination during a maximal force handgrip task executed with the right-hand, the left-hand and with both hands simultaneously. The T1-weighted images were analyzed with Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) that showed several clusters of reduced cortical GM in ALS patients compared to controls including the pre and postcentral gyri, the superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri, the supplementary motor area, the superior and inferior parietal cortices and the temporal lobe, bilaterally but more extensive on the right side. In ALS patients a significant hypoactivation of the primary sensory motor cortex and frontal dorsal premotor areas as compared to controls was observed. The hypoactivated areas matched with foci of cortical atrophy demonstrated by VBM. The fMRI analysis also showed an enhanced activation in the ventral premotor frontal areas and in the parietal cortex pertaining to the fronto-parietal motor circuit which paralleled with disease progression rate and matched with cortical regions of atrophy. The hyperactivation of the fronto-parietal circuit was asymmetric and prevalent in the left hemisphere. VBM and fMRI identified structural and functional markers of an extended

  18. Alcohol hangover: type and time-extension of motor function impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadayian, Analía G; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2013-06-15

    Alcohol hangover is defined as the unpleasant next-day state following an evening of excessive alcohol consumption. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. During hangover cognitive functions and subjective capacities are affected along with inefficiency, reduced productivity, absenteeism, driving impairments, poor academic achievement and reductions in motor coordination. The aim of this work was to study the type and length of motor and exploratory functions from the beginning to the end of the alcohol hangover. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8 g/kg BW) (hangover group). Motor performance, walking deficiency, motor strength, locomotion and exploratory activity were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2 h up to 20 h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Motor performance was 80% decreased at the onset of hangover (pwalking deficiencies from the beginning to 16 h after hangover onset (popen field test and the exploratory activity on T-maze and hole board tests were reduced during 16 h after hangover onset (ptime-extension between 16 to 20 h for hangover motor and exploratory impairments. As a whole, this study shows the long lasting effects of alcohol hangover. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional MRI (fMRI) on lesions in and around the motor and the eloquent cortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamura, Shogo; Tamaki, Norihiko; Kitamura, Junji

    1999-01-01

    From the view point of neurosurgeons, to aim the preoperative localized diagnosis on the motor and the eloquent cortices and postoperative preservation of neurological functions, fMRI was carried for patients with lesions in and around the motor and the eloquent cortices. Even in cases of mechanical oppression or brain edema, the motor and the eloquent cortices are localized on cerebral gyri. In perioperative period, identification and preserving the motor and the eloquent cortices are important for keeping brain function. Twenty six preoperative cases and 3 normal healthy subjects were observed. Exercise enhanced fMRI was performed on 3 normal healthy subjects, fMRI with motor stimulation in 24 cases and fMRI with speech stimulation in 4 cases. The signal intensity increased in all cases responsing to both stimulations. But the signal intensity in 8 cases decreased in some regions by motor stimulation and 1 case by speech stimulation. The decrease of signal intensity in this study seems to be a clinically important finding and it will be required to examine the significance in future. (K.H.)

  20. Research progress of motor function assessments and their clinical applications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, clinically featured as progressive skeletal muscle atrophy with gradual loss of muscle strength and activity abilities, is the most common genetic muscular disease in children throughout the world. The core and continuous characteristic of DMD is motor dysfunction. Motor function assessments of DMD are now focusing on muscle strength, walking ability, range of motion and ability of activities, still without unified standards. Confirming the comprehensive, scientific, reasonable and accurate evaluation tools for DMD assessment is the premise of research in motor developmental rules of DMD, which will help to better understand the motor progress of DMD and to supply evidences for choosing treatment methods, confirming timing of intervention, assessing effect of treatments and designing rehabilitation plans. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.002

  1. Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on six standardized assessments in a sample of middle-SES kindergarteners. 3- and 4-year-olds’ (N=213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten; EF was measured at fall of kindergarten; and Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Academic Achievement were administered at fall and spring. Correlations indicated that EF and fine motor skills appeared distinct. Further, controlling for background variables, higher levels of both EF and fine motor skills, specifically design copy, predicted higher achievement on multiple subtests at kindergarten entry, as well as improvement from fall to spring. Implications for research on school readiness are discussed. PMID:22537276

  2. Viral and cellular SOS-regulated motor proteins: dsDNA translocation mechanisms with divergent functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Annie; Phipps, Kara; Weitao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage attacks on bacterial cells have been known to activate the SOS response, a transcriptional response affecting chromosome replication, DNA recombination and repair, cell division and prophage induction. All these functions require double-stranded (ds) DNA translocation by ASCE hexameric motors. This review seeks to delineate the structural and functional characteristics of the SOS response and the SOS-regulated DNA translocases FtsK and RuvB with the phi29 bacteriophage packaging motor gp16 ATPase as a prototype to study bacterial motors. While gp16 ATPase, cellular FtsK and RuvB are similarly comprised of hexameric rings encircling dsDNA and functioning as ATP-driven DNA translocases, they utilize different mechanisms to accomplish separate functions, suggesting a convergent evolution of these motors. The gp16 ATPase and FtsK use a novel revolution mechanism, generating a power stroke between subunits through an entropy-DNA affinity switch and pushing dsDNA inward without rotation of DNA and the motor, whereas RuvB seems to employ a rotation mechanism that remains to be further characterized. While FtsK and RuvB perform essential tasks during the SOS response, their roles may be far more significant as SOS response is involved in antibiotic-inducible bacterial vesiculation and biofilm formation as well as the perspective of the bacteria-cancer evolutionary interaction.

  3. Motor function deficits in schizophrenia: an fMRI and VBM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Namita; Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Center, Delhi (India); Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N. [RML Hospital, PGIMER, New Delhi (India)

    2014-05-15

    To investigate whether the motor functional alterations in schizophrenia (SZ) are also associated with structural changes in the related brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 right-handed SZ patients and 14 right-handed healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during right index finger-tapping task in the same session. fMRI results showed reduced functional activation in the motor areas (contralateral precentral and postcentral gyrus) and ipsilateral cerebellum in SZ subjects as compared to healthy controls (n = 14). VBM analysis also revealed reduced grey matter in motor areas and white matter reduction in cerebellum of SZ subjects as compared to controls. The present study provides an evidence for a possible association between structural alterations in the motor cortex and disturbed functional activation in the motor areas in persons affected with SZ during a simple finger-tapping task. (orig.)

  4. Motor function deficits in schizophrenia: an fMRI and VBM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Namita; Khushu, Subash; Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the motor functional alterations in schizophrenia (SZ) are also associated with structural changes in the related brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 right-handed SZ patients and 14 right-handed healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during right index finger-tapping task in the same session. fMRI results showed reduced functional activation in the motor areas (contralateral precentral and postcentral gyrus) and ipsilateral cerebellum in SZ subjects as compared to healthy controls (n = 14). VBM analysis also revealed reduced grey matter in motor areas and white matter reduction in cerebellum of SZ subjects as compared to controls. The present study provides an evidence for a possible association between structural alterations in the motor cortex and disturbed functional activation in the motor areas in persons affected with SZ during a simple finger-tapping task. (orig.)

  5. Dietary restriction alters fine motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2005-08-07

    A number of standard behavioral tasks in animal research utilize food rewards for positive reinforcement. In order to enhance the motivation to participate in these tasks, animals are usually placed on a restricted diet. While dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury, life span and aging processes, it might also represent a stressor. Since stress can influence a broad range of behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess whether DR may have similar effects on skilled movement. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained and tested in a skilled reaching task both prior to and during a mild food restriction regimen that maintained their body weights at 90-95% of baseline weight for eight days. The observations revealed that DR decreased reaching success and increased the number of attempts to grasp a single food pellet. The animals appeared to be more frantic when attempting to reach for food pellets, and the time taken to reach for 20 pellets decreased following the onset of DR. A second experiment investigating behaviors that do not require food rewards, including a ladder rung walking task and an open field test, confirmed that rats on DR display deficits in skilled movements and are hyperactive. These findings suggest that results obtained in motor tasks using food rewards need to be interpreted with caution. The findings are discussed with respect to stress associated with DR.

  6. Parental report of abdominal pain and abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders from a community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, Miguel; Adams, Papa; Bonilla, Silvana; Chogle, Ashish; Nichols-Vinueza, Diana

    2012-12-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in children. Abdominal pain (AP) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) symptom in children. The severity of AP drives medical consultations and quality of life in adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-eight percent of 8- to 15-year-old schoolchildren report AP weekly with 24% of those children reporting persistence of AP >8 weeks. Despite the high prevalence of AP, only 2% of school children seek medical attention for AP. Lack of parental knowledge on their child's symptoms may constitute one of the factors affecting the low ratio of consultation in children reporting AP. The aim was to assess parental reports of AP symptoms in a population of healthy community children. Data of 5 studies with identical methodology to assess GI symptoms in children with celiac disease (CD), cow's milk allergy (CMA), pyloric stenosis (PS), Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), and stem cell transplant (SC) and their healthy siblings were reviewed: a phone questionnaire on GI symptoms and Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rome III version questionnaire (QPGS-RIII). Inclusion criteria were healthy children 4 to 18 years of age with a sibling previously diagnosed with CD, CMA, PS, HSP, or SC. Data on 246 healthy children, mean age (9.8 years, range 3-24, 112 girls) were obtained. Parents reported presence of AP in the last 8 weeks before the telephone contact in 20 (8.1%) children (age range 4-18 years, 11 girls). There was no significant difference in AP prevalence between boys and girls (P = 0.64). Six children (2.4%) met QPGS-RIII diagnostic criteria for FGIDs: 3 functional abdominal pain (FAP) and 3 IBS. AP was common in community children. FAP was the most common FGID among healthy community children. The prevalence of AP by parental report is lower than the previously published prevalence of AP reported by children. Lack of awareness of children's symptoms may play a role in the low ratio of

  7. Mucosal immunity in HIV infection: what can be done to restore gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael D; Asmuth, David M

    2014-06-01

    This review describes the impact of HIV infection on gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the mechanisms for persistent gut-associated lymphoid tissue dysfunction despite effective antiretroviral therapy, and potential strategies to restore gut-associated lymphoid tissue function and promote immune reconstitution. Recent studies indicate that unresolved microbial translocation and intestinal dysbiosis may continue to promote enteropathy as well as HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated conditions in many HIV patients who otherwise maintain therapeutic control of systemic viral replication. Several novel therapeutic approaches to reduce intestinal inflammation and mitigate microbial translocation may hold promise for restoring gastrointestinal health and thereby increasing the efficacy of immune reconstitution in HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy.

  8. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%{Delta}CBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %{Delta}CBF were up 24.1{+-}4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3{+-}3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %{Delta}CBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  9. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with 99m Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%ΔCBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %ΔCBF were up 24.1±4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3±3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %ΔCBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  10. An experimental evaluation of a new designed apparatus (NDA) for the rapid measurement of impaired motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, M; Sedighi Moghadam, B; Torkmandi, H

    2015-08-15

    Assessment of the ability of rat to balance by rotarod apparatus (ROTA) is frequently used as a measure of impaired motor system function. Most of these methods have some disadvantages, such as failing to sense motor coordination rather than endurance and as the sensitivity of the method is low, more animals are needed to obtain statistically significant results. We have designed and tested a new designed apparatus (NDA) to measure motor system function in rats. Our system consists of a glass box containing 4 beams which placed with 1cm distance between them, two electrical motors for rotating the beams, and a camera to record the movements of the rats. The RPM of the beams is adjustable digitally between 0 and 50 rounds per minute. We evaluated experimentally the capability of the NDA for the rapid measurement of impaired motor function in rats. Also we demonstrated that the sensitivity of the NDA increases by faster rotation speeds and may be more sensitive than ROTA for evaluating of impaired motor system function. Compared to a previous version of this task, our NDA provides a more efficient method to test rodents for studies of motor system function after impaired motor nervous system. In summary, our NDA will allow high efficient monitoring of rat motor system function and may be more sensitive than ROTA for evaluating of impaired motor system function in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of response to a low-FODMAP diet in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and lactose or fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Olesen, S S; Materna, A; Drewes, A M

    2017-04-01

    Diets low in fermentable sugars (low-FODMAP diets) are increasingly adopted by patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), but outcome predictors are unclear. To identify factors predictive of an efficacious response to a low-FODMAP diet in FGID patients with fructose or lactose intolerance thereby gaining insights into underlying mechanisms. Fructose and lactose breath tests were performed in FGID patients to determine intolerance (positive symptom score) and malabsorption (increased hydrogen or methane concentrations). Patients with fructose or lactose intolerance consumed a low-FODMAP diet and global adequate symptom relief was assessed after 6-8 weeks and correlated with pre-diet clinical symptoms and breath test results. A total of 81% of 584 patients completing the low-FODMAP diet achieved adequate relief, without significant differences between FGID subgroups or types of intolerance. Univariate analysis yielded predictive factors in fructose intolerance (chronic diarrhoea and pruritus, peak methane concentrations and fullness during breath tests) and lactose intolerance (peak hydrogen and methane concentrations and flatulence during breath tests). Using multivariate analysis, symptom relief was independently and positively predicted in fructose intolerance by chronic diarrhoea [odds ratio (95% confidence intervals): 2.62 (1.31-5.27), P = 0.007] and peak breath methane concentrations [1.53 (1.02-2.29), P = 0.042], and negatively predicted by chronic nausea [0.33 (0.16-0.67), P = 0.002]. No independent predictive factors emerged for lactose intolerance. Adequate global symptom relief was achieved with a low-FODMAP diet in a large majority of functional gastrointestinal disorders patients with fructose or lactose intolerance. Independent predictors of a satisfactory dietary outcome were only seen in fructose intolerant patients, and were indicative of changes in intestinal host or microbiome metabolism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID): A feasibility open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, B F; Fogliati, V J; Fogliati, R; Gandy, M; McDonald, S; Talley, N; Holtmann, G; Titov, N; Jones, M

    2018-05-01

    Many people with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) face significant barriers in accessing psychological treatments that are known to reduce symptoms and their psychological sequelae. This study examined the feasibility and initial outcomes of a transdiagnostic and internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) intervention, the Chronic Conditions Course, for adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). A single-group feasibility open trial design was employed and administered to twenty seven participants. The course ran for 8 weeks and was provided with weekly contact from a Clinical Psychologist. Seventy percent of participants completed the course within the 8 weeks and 81.5% provided data at post-treatment. High levels of satisfaction were observed and relatively little clinician time (M = 42.70 min per participant; SD = 46.25 min) was required. Evidence of clinical improvements in FGID symptoms (ds ≥ 0.46; avg. improvement ≥21%), anxiety symptoms (ds ≥ 0.99; avg. improvement ≥42%), and depression symptoms (ds ≥ 0.75; avg. improvement ≥35%) were observed, which either maintained or continued to improve to 3-month follow-up. Evidence of improvement was also observed in pain catastrophising and mental-health related quality of life, but not physical-health related quality of life. These findings highlight the potential value of transdiagnostic internet-delivered programs for adults with FGIDs and support for the conduct of larger-scale controlled studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Potentiation of motor sub-networks for motor control but not working memory: Interaction of dACC and SMA revealed by resting-state directed functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Asemi, Avisa; Burgess, Ashley; Chowdury, Asadur; Bressler, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task. We applied directed functional connectivity analysis to these two task paradigms, and also to the rest condition of each paradigm, in which rest blocks were interspersed with task blocks. We report here that the previously known asymmetric interaction between dACC and SMA, with dACC→SMA dominating, was significantly larger in the motor coordination task than the memory task. Moreover the asymmetry between dACC and SMA was reversed during the rest condition of the motor coordination task, but not of the working memory task. In sum, the dACC→SMA influence was significantly greater in the motor task than the memory task condition, and the SMA→dACC influence was significantly greater in the motor rest than the memory rest condition. We interpret these results as suggesting that the potentiation of motor sub-networks during the motor rest condition supports the motor control of SMA by dACC during the active motor task condition. PMID:28278267

  14. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  15. Safety aspects of postanesthesia care unit discharge without motor function assessment after spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Laursen, Mogens Berg

    2017-01-01

    Background: Postanesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge without observation of lower limb motor function after spinal anesthesia has been suggested to signifcantly reduce PACU stay and enhance resource optimization and early rehabilitation but without enough data to allow clinical recommendations...... or knee arthroplasty was noninferior to motor function assessment in achieving length of stay 4 days or less or 30-day readmissions. Because a nonsignifcant tendency toward increased adverse events during the frst 24h in the ward was discovered, further safety data are needed in patients without...

  16. Effect of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Kevin D.; Pfister, James A.; Lima, Flavia G.; Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ► Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ► These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ► There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

  17. Effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Chang, Hyun Jung; Yi, Sook-Hee; Lee, Ji Young; Shin, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether hippotherapy has a clinically significant effect on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient therapy center. Ninety-two children with CP, aged 4-10 years, presenting variable function (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-IV). Hippotherapy (30 minutes twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks). Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88, GMFM-66, and Pediatric Balance Scale. Pre- and post-treatment measures were completed by 91 children (45 in the intervention group and 46 in the control group). Differences in improvement on all three measures significantly differed between groups after the 8-week study period. Dimensions of GMFM-88 improved significantly after hippotherapy varied by GMFCS level: dimension E in level I, dimensions D and E in level II, dimensions C and D in level III, and dimensions B and C in level IV. Hippotherapy positively affects gross motor function and balance in children with CP of various functional levels.

  18. Where did the motor function of the cerebellum come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Marinella; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Until the end of 18th century, the role of the cerebellum remained obscure. The turning point occurred when Luigi Galvani showed that muscle contraction is due to electricity and Alessandro Volta produced the battery, an apparatus based on the pairing of silver and zinc plates separated by brine soaked paper disks, capable to generate electricity. Luigi Rolando, at beginning of 19th century, was impressed by these two observations. He thought that, since the brain generates the movement, it must contain a device generating electricity. As a battery, it should be formed by overlapping disks and the cerebellum for Rolando seemed to be the right structure for such a characteristic laminar organization. He argued that, if the cerebellum is the battery that produces electricity for muscle activity, its removal would produce paralysis. Consequently, Rolando removed the cerebellum in a young goat and observed that the animal, before dying, could no longer stand up. He concluded that the cerebellum is a motor structure as it generates the electricity which produces the movement. The conclusions of Rolando were criticized by Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens who observed that animals undergoing cerebellectomy were still able to move, even if with problems of balance. Flourens concluded that the role of the cerebellum "is to put in order or to coordinate movements wanted by certain parts of the nervous system, excited by others". It was necessary to wait up to 1891 when Luigi Luciani, observing a dog survived the cerebellectomy, described a triad of symptoms (asthenia, atony and astasis), unquestionably of cerebellar origin.

  19. Scintigraphic assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2014-01-01

    intestinal and colonic transit. This article reviews current imaging techniques, methods for data processing and principles for evaluating results when scintigraphy is used to assess gastrointestinal motility. Furthermore, clinical indications for performing scintigraphy are reviewed.......Gastrointestinal transit reflects overall gastrointestinal motor activity and is regulated by a complex interplay between neural and hormonal stimuli. Thus, transit measurements provide a measure of the combined effects of gastrointestinal muscular activity and feedback from the gut and brain....... Dysmotility in the different major segments of the gastrointestinal tract may give rise to similar symptoms; hence, localizing transit abnormalities to a specific segment is a valuable element of diagnostic evaluation. Scintigraphy is an effective noninvasive tool to assess gastric emptying as well as small...

  20. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health â

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    ... attention and concentration, learning, memory and language that can result in mild to profound ... adulthood and affect health related quality of life (HRQOL) and wellbeing in ... investigate the correlation between cognitive function; attention/-.

  1. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19-49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation ( p =0.001, and p =0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task ( p =0.12). Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test.

  2. Primary motor cortex functionally contributes to language comprehension: An online rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Nikola; Feurra, Matteo; Shpektor, Anna; Myachykov, Andriy; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-02-01

    Among various questions pertinent to grounding human cognitive functions in a neurobiological substrate, the association between language and motor brain structures is a particularly debated one in neuroscience and psychology. While many studies support a broadly distributed model of language and semantics grounded, among other things, in the general modality-specific systems, theories disagree as to whether motor and sensory cortex activity observed during language processing is functional or epiphenomenal. Here, we assessed the role of motor areas in linguistic processing by investigating the responses of 28 healthy volunteers to different word types in semantic and lexical decision tasks, following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex. We found that early rTMS (delivered within 200ms of word onset) produces a left-lateralised and meaning-specific change in reaction speed, slowing down behavioural responses to action-related words, and facilitating abstract words - an effect present only during semantic, but not lexical, decision. We interpret these data in light of action-perception theory of language, bolstering the claim that motor cortical areas play a functional role in language comprehension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is Rest Really Rest? Resting State Functional Connectivity during Rest and Motor Task Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm. Using seed-voxel analysis to define the DMN, the executive control network (ECN), and sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks, the resting-state analysis of the residual time courses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in the motor network and reduced connectivity between the insula and the ECN compared to the standard resting-state datasets. Overall, performance of simple self-directed motor tasks does little to change the resting-state functional connectivity across the brain, especially in non-motor areas. This would suggest that previously acquired fMRI studies incorporating simple block-design motor tasks could be mined retrospectively for assessment of the resting-state connectivity.

  4. Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Frank

    Full Text Available Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N = 52 practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only.

  5. Evidence Against Routine Testing of Patients With Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders for Celiac Disease: A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Rok Seon; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Lahr, Brian D; Kyle, Robert A; Camilleri, Michael J; Locke, G Richard; Talley, Nicholas J; Murray, Joseph A

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease has been linked to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in outpatient clinics. Guidelines recommend that all patients with IBS-like symptoms undergo serologic testing for celiac disease, but there is controversy over whether celiac disease is more prevalent in populations with IBS-like symptoms. We aimed to determine whether positive results from serologic tests for celiac disease are associated with IBS and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in a large U.S. white population. Validated, self-report bowel disease questionnaires (BDQs) were sent to randomly selected cohorts of Olmsted County, Minnesota residents. In separate protocols, serum samples were collected from more than 47,000 Olmsted County residents without a prior diagnosis of celiac disease; we performed serologic tests for celiac disease on stored serum samples from residents who completed the BDQ. Logistic regression was used to test for the association between serologic markers of celiac disease (positive vs negative) and individual FGIDs. A total of 3202 subjects completed the BDQ and had serum available for testing. IBS was identified in 13.6% of these subjects (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.4%-14.8%), and any gastrointestinal symptom occurred in 55.2% (95% CI, 53.5%-56.9%). The prevalence of celiac disease on the basis of serologic markers was 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.4%). IBS was less prevalent in patients with celiac disease (3%) than patients without celiac disease (14%), although the difference was not statistically significant (odds ratio, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.03-1.5). Abdominal pain, constipation, weight loss, and dyspepsia were the most frequent symptom groups in subjects who were seropositive for celiac disease, but none of the gastrointestinal symptoms or disorders were significantly associated with celiac disease serology. Symptoms indicative of FGIDs and seropositive celiac disease are relatively common in a U.S. white community. Testing for celiac

  6. Parental questionnaire as a screening instrument for motor function at age five

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    , Pearson’s χ2-test, logistic regression analyses and sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the correlation between the questionnaire and the M-ABC test. Results: The best screening tool was six questions in combination: sensitivity 39.8%, specificity 87.1%. Asking if a health professional ever......Introduction: No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. Methods: This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test...

  7. On the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaday, Charles; Ethier, Christian; Van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2013-01-01

    of the movements evoked by activation of each point on its own. This operational principle may simplify the synthesis of motor commands. We will discuss two possible mechanisms that may explain linear summation of outputs. We have observed that the final posture of the arm when pointing to a given spatial location......Recent studies on the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex (MCx), taken together, strongly support the notion that the MCx controls the muscle synergies subserving movements in an integrated manner. For example, during pointing the shoulder, elbow and wrist muscles...... appear to be controlled as a coupled functional system, rather than singly and separately. The recurrent pattern of intrinsic synaptic connections between motor cortical points is likely part of the explanation for this operational principle. So too is the reduplicated, non-contiguous and intermingled...

  8. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age  = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  9. Repeated sessions of noninvasive brain DC stimulation is associated with motor function improvement in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Paulo S; Nunes, Alice; Rigonatti, Sergio P; Nitsche, Michael A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that a simple technique of noninvasive brain stimulation - transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - is associated with a significant motor function improvement in stroke patients. We tested the motor performance improvement in stroke patients following 4 weekly sessions of sham, anodal- and cathodal tDCS (experiment 1) and the effects of 5 consecutive daily sessions of cathodal tDCS (experiment 2). A blinded rater evaluated motor function using the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. There was a significant main effect of stimulation condition (p=0.009) in experiment 1. Furthermore there was a significant motor function improvement after either cathodal tDCS of the unaffected hemisphere (p=0.016) or anodal tDCS of the affected hemisphere (p=0.046) when compared to sham tDCS. There was no cumulative effect associated with weekly sessions of tDCS, however consecutive daily sessions of tDCS (experiment 2) were associated with a significant effect on time (pmotor function improvement in stroke patients; and support that consecutive daily sessions of tDCS might increase its behavioral effects. Because the technique of tDCS is simple, safe and non-expensive; our findings support further research on the use of this technique for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke.

  10. Correlation between movement of the feet and motor function of children with chronic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táubuta Gomes Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Chronic non-progressive encephalopathy (CNPE is one of the most common causes of physical deformities in childhood. It is characterized by non-progressive neuropathological abnormalities of the developing brain, which results in neuromotor impairments and changes in posture and movement. Objective: To evaluate foot deformities in children with CNPE, by measuring the joint amplitude and correlating these measures with the scores of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88, using all its five dimensions. Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study with a sample of 17 children. The data collection instruments used were manual goniometer and the Gross Motor Function Measure test (GMFM-88. Data were analyzed using the program SPSS version 18, and the Pearson correlation test as a measure of association. Results: Children with chronic encephalopathy and a reduced amplitude motion have lower capacity in motor function. Statistically significant correlation was found for the right dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.023, left dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.019, right inversion (p = 0.040, left inversion (p = 0.034 and left eversion (p = 0.018. There was no statistically significant correlation for the right eversion (p > 0.05. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders associated with CNPE and foot deformities interfere negatively in motor function, compromising the functional performance of these children.

  11. Motor ability and adaptive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yi Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Previous studies have reported that children with ADHD exhibit deficits of adaptive function and insufficient motor ability. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adaptive function and motor ability in children with ADHD compared with a group of normal children. The study group included 25 children with ADHD (19 boys and 6 girls, aged from 4.6 years to 8.6 years (mean±standard deviation, 6.5±1.2. A group of 24 children without ADHD (normal children were selected to match the children with ADHD on age and gender. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children, which includes three subtests, was used to assess the motor ability of the children of both groups. The Chinese version of Adaptive Behavior Scales, which consists of 12 life domains, was used to assess adaptive function of the children with ADHD. Compared with the normal children, children with ADHD exhibited poorer motor ability on all the three subtests of motor assessment. In the ADHD group, nine (36% children had significant motor impairments and seven (28% were borderline cases. A total of 10 (40% children with ADHD had definite adaptive problems in one or more adaptive domains. With statistically controlling of IQ for the ADHD group, those children with impaired motor ability had significantly poorer behaviors in the adaptive domain of home living (p=0.035. Moreover, children with ADHD who had severely impaired manual dexterity performed worse than the control group in the adaptive domains of home living (r=−0.47, p=0.018, socialization (r=−0.49, p=0.013, and self-direction (r=−0.41, p=0.040. In addition, children with poorer ball skills had worse home living behavior (r=−0.56, p=0.003. Children who had more impaired balance exhibited poorer performance in social behavior (r=−0.41, p=0.040. This study found significant correlation between motor ability and

  12. IGF-1 delivery to CNS attenuates motor neuron cell death but does not improve motor function in type III SMA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Kai; Chen, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Wei-Cheng; Ting, Chen-Hung; Dodge, James C; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Cheng, Seng H; Passini, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of administering a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding human IGF-1 (AAV2/1-hIGF-1) into the deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) of a type III SMA mouse model was evaluated. High levels of IGF-1 transcripts and protein were detected in the spinal cord at 2 months post-injection demonstrating that axonal connections between the cerebellum and spinal cord were able to act as conduits for the viral vector and protein to the spinal cord. Mice treated with AAV2/1-hIGF-1 and analyzed 8 months later showed changes in endogenous Bax and Bcl-xl levels in spinal cord motor neurons that were consistent with IGF-1-mediated anti-apoptotic effects on motor neurons. However, although AAV2/1-hIGF-1 treatment reduced the extent of motor neuron cell death, the majority of rescued motor neurons were non-functional, as they lacked axons that innervated the muscles. Furthermore, treated SMA mice exhibited abnormal muscle fibers, aberrant neuromuscular junction structure, and impaired performance on motor function tests. These data indicate that although CNS-directed expression of IGF-1 could reduce motor neuron cell death, this did not translate to improvements in motor function in an adult mouse model of type III SMA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abbreviations used: BOLD, Blood oxygenation level dependent; CBF, cerebral blood flow; fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging; EPI, eco-planar imaging; FOV, field of view; MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging; MRS, magnetic resonance spectroscopy;. PET, position emission tomography; rCBF, regional cerebral ...

  14. Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function and Incident Mobility Disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, R. E.; Boudreau, R. M.; Caserotti, P.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivesTo assess the relationship between sensorimotor nerve function and incident mobility disability over 10years. DesignProspective cohort study with longitudinal analysis. SettingTwo U.S. clinical sites. ParticipantsPopulation-based sample of community-dwelling older adults with no mobility...

  15. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health â

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    and health – Related quality of life in children with Down syndrome. Saly Said Abd El-Hady ... knowledge. It is a general term involving multiple classes of mental capacities. ..... organizations that can inappropriately influence this work. .... skills, cognitive development and balance functions of children with Down · syndrome.

  16. Neonatal loss of motor function in human spina bifida aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, Deborah A; van Weerden, Tiemen W; Vles, Johan S H; Timmer, Albertus; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Staal-Schreinemachers, A L; Hoving, Eelco W.; Sollie, Krystyne M; Kranen-Mastenbroek, Vivianne J M; Sauer, Pieter J J; Brouwer, Oebele F

    OBJECTIVE: In neonates with spina bifida aperta (SBA), leg movements innervated by spinal segments located caudal to the meningomyelocele are transiently present. This study in neonates with SBA aimed to determine whether the presence of leg movements indicates functional integrity of neuronal

  17. Self-regulation of primary motor cortex activity with motor imagery induces functional connectivity modulation: A real-time fMRI neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makary, Meena M; Seulgi, Eun; Kyungmo Park

    2017-07-01

    Recent developments in data acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have led to rapid preprocessing and analysis of brain activity in a quasireal-time basis, what so called real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NFB). This information is fed back to subjects allowing them to gain a voluntary control over their own region-specific brain activity. Forty-one healthy participants were randomized into an experimental (NFB) group, who received a feedback directly proportional to their brain activity from the primary motor cortex (M1), and a control (CTRL) group who received a sham feedback. The M1 ROI was functionally localized during motor execution and imagery tasks. A resting-state functional run was performed before and after the neurofeedback training to investigate the default mode network (DMN) modulation after training. The NFB group revealed increased DMN functional connectivity after training to the cortical and subcortical sensory/motor areas (M1/S1 and caudate nucleus, respectively), which may be associated with sensorimotor processing of learning in the resting state. These results show that motor imagery training through rtfMRI-NFB could modulate the DMN functional connectivity to motor-related areas, suggesting that this modulation potentially subserved the establishment of motor learning in the NFB group.

  18. The effects of rapeseed meal and legume seeds as substitutes for soybean meal on productivity and gastrointestinal function in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Zwoliński, Cezary; Żary-Sikorska, Ewa; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of soybean meal (SBM) substitution by a mixture of rapeseed meal (RSM), white lupine seeds (WLS) and pea seeds (PS) on productivity, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and gastrointestinal function in Hyplus rabbits. The Control diet (SBM 15 ) contained 15% SBM, whereas Diet SBM 7.5 contained 7.5% SBM, 5% RSM, 4% WLS and 3% PS. In Diet SBM 0, SBM was completely replaced by RSM, WLS and PS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively). A production trial was performed on 90 Hyplus rabbits aged from 35 to 84 d (45 each sex; 953 ± 4.6 g). A digestion and balance trial was conducted on 30 rabbits. Additionally, several parameters of the gastrointestinal tracts from eight animals from each group were analysed, where special attention was paid to the enzymatic activity of microbiota and the short-chain fatty acids concentration in caecum and colon. The experimental diets did not cause significant differences regarding performance parameters evaluated in vivo and post-mortem, and in the nutrient and energy digestibility or nitrogen retention. The observed changes in the enzymatic activity of large gut microbiota, including the selective increase in secretion of glycoside hydrolases by bacterial cells, seem to be responsible for the unchanged growth performance of rabbits fed diets where SBM was substituted by a mixture of RSM, WLS and PS. The obtained results indicate that in rabbit diets SBM may be, partially or completely, successfully replaced by a feed mixture of RSM, WLS and PS.

  19. Influence of acidified drinking water on growth performance and gastrointestinal function of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, H; Shi, H Q; Ma, G Y; Fan, Y; Li, W X; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ji, C; Ma, Q G

    2018-06-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotic feed additives as growth promoters compelled the researchers for exploring the future utility of other alternatives. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of acidified drinking water on growth performance, gastrointestinal pH, digestive enzymes, intestinal histomorphology, and cecum microbial counting of the broiler chicken. A total of 540 one-day-old male broilers (Arbor Acre) were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 6 replicates of 18 chicks per replicate. Broilers received diets and water as follows: NC (negative control, basal diet, normal water), PC (positive control, basal diet + 8 ppm colistin sulfate + 8 ppm enduracidin, normal water), A1 (basal diet, continuous supply of acidified water during whole experiment period), A2 (basal diet, intermittent acidification of water during 0 to 14 d, 22 to 28 d, and 36 to 42 d), and A3 [basal diet, intermittent acidification of water (24 h/d from 0 to 14 d and from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm on d 15 to 42)]. During the entire period, the acidified groups (A1, A2, and A3) and PC group showed improve on weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio compared to NC group (P < 0.05). The pH in crop, proventriculus and ileum at 43 d declined by 0.04, 1.03, 1.23; 0.55, 0.69, 0.70; and 0.63, 0.74, 1.21 in A1, A2, and A3 group, respectively. There was a significant decline of lipase activity in the PC and acidified groups compared to NC group. The A2 group had higher villus height in jejunum than NC group. The PC and acidified groups reduced (P < 0.05) the total aerobic bacteria count of cecum when contrasted to NC group. Therefore, we conclude that acidified drinking water can improve growth performance, compensate for gastric acidity, and control pathogenic bacteria in broilers and may be considered as a potential alternative to improve production parameters. Discontinuous supply of acidified water had the same or even better influence on broilers compared to

  20. Structural and functional brain signatures of C9orf72 in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Federica; Ferraro, Pilar M; Riva, Nilo; Spinelli, Edoardo Gioele; Domi, Teuta; Carrera, Paola; Copetti, Massimiliano; Falzone, Yuri; Ferrari, Maurizio; Lunetta, Christian; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Quattrini, Angelo; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in hexanucleotide repeat expansion in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) motor neuron disease (MND) relative to disease severity-matched sporadic MND cases. We enrolled 19 C9orf72 and 67 disease severity-matched sporadic MND patients, and 22 controls. Sporadic cases were grouped in patients with: no cognitive/behavioral deficits (sporadic-motor); same patterns of cognitive/behavioral impairment as C9orf72 cases (sporadic-cognitive); shorter disease duration versus other sporadic groups (sporadic-early). C9orf72 patients showed cerebellar and thalamic atrophy versus all sporadic cases. All MND patients showed motor, frontal, and temporoparietal cortical thinning and motor and extramotor white matter damage versus controls, independent of genotype and presence of cognitive impairment. Compared with sporadic-early, C9orf72 patients revealed an occipital cortical thinning. C9orf72 patients had enhanced visual network functional connectivity versus sporadic-motor and sporadic-early cases. Structural cerebellar and thalamic damage and posterior cortical alterations are the brain magnetic resonance imaging signatures of C9orf72 MND. Frontotemporal cortical and widespread white matter involvement are likely to be an effect of the disease evolution rather than a C9orf72 marker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The threshold of cortical electrical stimulation for mapping sensory and motor functional areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guojun, Zhang; Duanyu, Ni; Fu, Paul; Lixin, Cai; Tao, Yu; Wei, Du; Liang, Qiao; Zhiwei, Ren

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the threshold of cortical electrical stimulation (CES) for functional brain mapping during surgery for the treatment of rolandic epilepsy. A total of 21 patients with rolandic epilepsy who underwent surgical treatment at the Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery between October 2006 and March 2008 were included in this study. Their clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The thresholds of CES for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production along with other threshold-related factors were investigated. The thresholds (mean ± standard deviation) for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production were 3.48 ± 0.87, 3.86 ± 1.31, and 4.84 ± 1.38 mA, respectively. The threshold for after discharge production was significantly higher than those of both the motor and sensory response (both pstimulation frequency of 50 Hz and a pulse width of 0.2 ms, the threshold of sensory and motor responses were similar, and the threshold of after discharge production was higher than that of sensory and motor response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of Lactobacillus reuteri for prevention and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders in infants, children and adolescents (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Orel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs with their extremely high prevalence and important influence on patients’ quality of life and health costs represent a major problem. Their etiopathogenesis is multifactorial and disturbances in a composition of intestinal microbiota as well as specific potentially pathogenic microorganisms seem to have crucial role in it. Probiotics with their broad spectrum of actions, including strengthening of colonisatiton resistance against pathogens, enhancement of barrier function, regulation of intestinal immune response, alleviation of inflammation, and both direct and indirect influence on gut motility or sensitivity, represent one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for these disorders. Numerous clinical studies revealed their efficacy in different FGIDs. However, the pathogenesis of different types of disorders is not similar, and neither are mechanisms of action of different probiotic strains. Several Lactobacillus reuteri strains exhibit various characteristics such as secretion of antimicrobial reuterin, production of short-chain fatty acids, down-regulation of inflammatory immune response, and direct influence on enteric nervous system among the others, which render them good candidates for prevention and treatment of various FGIDs. This paper reviews clinical studies on the effectiveness of Lactobacillus reuteri in the therapy of FGIDs in infants, children and adolescents. Results of multiple studies support its use for prevention and treatment of infant colic and improvement of delayed gastric emptying and regurgitation. In addition, individual studies suggest potential usefulness of specific Lactobacillus reuteri strains for the alleviation of constipation and functional abdominal pain.

  3. Enantiopure Functional Molecular Motors Obtained by a Switchable Chiral-Resolution Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Thomas; Gan, Jefri; Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Pizzolato, Stefano F.; Chang, Mu-Chieh; Feringa, Ben L.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular switches, rotors, and motors play an important role in the development of nano-machines and devices, as well as responsive and adaptive functional materials. For unidirectional rotors based on chiral overcrowded alkenes, their stereochemical homogeneity is of crucial importance. Herein, a

  4. Hands On, Minds On: How Executive Function, Motor, and Spatial Skills Foster School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that three foundational cognitive skills--executive function, motor skills, and spatial skills--form the basis for children to make a strong academic, behavioral, and social transition to formal school. Given inequitable early learning environments or "opportunity gaps" in the United States, these…

  5. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  6. Effects of motor programming on the power spectral density function of finger and wrist movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Galen, G P; Van Doorn, R R; Schomaker, L R

    Power spectral density analysis was applied to the frequency content of the acceleration signal of pen movements in line drawing. The relative power in frequency bands between 1 and 32 Hz was measured as a function of motoric and anatomic task demands. Results showed a decrease of power at the lower

  7. Postural Care for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Severely Impaired Motor Function: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah; Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Background: Poor postural care can have severe and life-threatening complications. This scoping review aims to map and summarize existing evidence regarding postural care for people with intellectual disabilities and severely impaired motor function. Method: Studies were identified via electronic database searches (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and…

  8. Schizotypal Personality Traits and Atypical Lateralization in Motor and Language Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Atypical cerebral lateralization in motor and language functions in regard to schizotypal personality traits in healthy populations, as well as among schizophrenic patients, has attracted attention because these traits may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the relationship between handedness and schizotypal personality has been…

  9. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  10. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, D J; Scott, R N

    1986-10-01

    In the developed countries gastrointestinal tuberculosis is no longer common in clinical practice. In this setting the importance of the condition lies in the vagaries of its presentation and the fact that it is eminently treatable, usually by a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. The clinical features and complications of gastrointestinal tuberculosis are highlighted by the seven cases which we report. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition is discussed and attention is drawn to the importance of case notification. Clinicians should bear in mind the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tuberculosis when dealing with any patient with non-specific abdominal symptoms.

  11. Environmental exposure to manganese and motor function of children in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bonilla, D; Schilmann, A; Montes, S; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Rodríguez-Dozal, S; Solís-Vivanco, R; Ríos, C; Riojas-Rodríguez, H

    2011-10-01

    Occupational manganese (Mn) exposure has been associated with motor deficits in adult workers, but data on the potential effects of environmental exposure to Mn on the developing motor function for a children population is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between exposure to Mn and motor function of school aged children. We conducted a cross-sectional study selecting 195 children (100 exposed and 95 unexposed) between 7 and 11 years old. The following tests were used to evaluate the motor function: Grooved pegboard, finger tapping, and Santa Ana test. Mn exposure was assessed by blood (MnB) and hair concentrations (MnH). We constructed linear regression models to evaluate the association between exposure to Mn and the different test scores adjusting for age, sex, maternal education, hemoglobin and blood lead. The median concentration of MnH and MnB was significantly higher in exposed (12.6 μg/g and 9.5 μg/L) compared to unexposed children (0.6 μg/g and 8.0 μg/L). The exposed children on average performed the grooved pegboard test faster, but made more errors, although these results did not reach statistical significance with neither one of the Mn exposure biomarkers. MnB showed an inverse association on the execution of the finger tapping test (average in 5 trials β -0.4, p=0.02), but no association was observed with MnH. A subtle negative association of Mn exposure on motor speed and coordination was shown. In adults, the main effect of environmental Mn exposure has been associated with motor skills, but these results suggest that such alterations are not the main effect on children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Peripheral facial palsy: Speech, communication and oral motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movérare, T; Lohmander, A; Hultcrantz, M; Sjögreen, L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acquired unilateral peripheral facial palsy on speech, communication and oral functions and to study the relationship between the degree of facial palsy and articulation, saliva control, eating ability and lip force. In this descriptive study, 27 patients (15 men and 12 women, mean age 48years) with unilateral peripheral facial palsy were included if they were graded under 70 on the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System. The assessment was carried out in connection with customary visits to the ENT Clinic and comprised lip force, articulation and intelligibility, together with perceived ability to communicate and ability to eat and control saliva conducted through self-response questionnaires. The patients with unilateral facial palsy had significantly lower lip force, poorer articulation and ability to eat and control saliva compared with reference data in healthy populations. The degree of facial palsy correlated significantly with lip force but not with articulation, intelligibility, perceived communication ability or reported ability to eat and control saliva. Acquired peripheral facial palsy may affect communication and the ability to eat and control saliva. Physicians should be aware that there is no direct correlation between the degree of facial palsy and the possible effect on communication, eating ability and saliva control. Physicians are therefore recommended to ask specific questions relating to problems with these functions during customary medical visits and offer possible intervention by a speech-language pathologist or a physiotherapist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Functional childhood gastrointestinal disorders. III. Constipation and solitary encopresis; diagnostic work-up and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, R; Büller, H A; Heymans, H S; Taminiau, J A; Boeckxstaens, G E; Benninga, M A

    2003-06-28

    A detailed medical history in combination with a thorough physical examination, including rectal examination, form the cornerstone in the diagnostic work-up for children with functional defecation disorders. Additional investigations are often not informative and have only minor diagnostic or therapeutic implications. Medical therapy in children with functional constipation and solitary encopresis is primarily based on clinical experience. In both patient groups, the role of education, the use of diary cards and toilet training is important. In some patients behaviour interventions are important. Oral laxatives are the basis of treatment of children with functional constipation, whereas they are contra-indicated in children with solitary encopresis. In both groups, biofeedback training appears to be of little additional benefit. Long-term follow-up of children with functional defecation disorders shows that complaints continue far beyond puberty in many children.

  14. Association of nutritional status and functional capacity in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruz, Elizabeth; Camacho-Limas, Christian Patricio

    To determine the nutritional status and its association with functional capacity in patients with digestive tract cancer. We retrospectively studied all adult patients hospitalized who were diagnosed as having a cancer of the digestive tract. Nutritional status and functional capacity were assessed. Descriptive statistic and odds ratio were used to determine the association in SPSS 14.0. 57 patients were included, 96% had weight loss. Using subjective global assessment (SGA) as a method of screening, 82.5% of the patients were found malnutrition and by biochemical and immunological test 82% and 65% respectively. Functional capacity was assessed by Karnofsky index, finding that 75.5% of the patients have some activity limitation. Results show an association between malnutrition by SGA and limitation in functional capacity (c2 = 1.56; p = 0.212; OR: 2.46; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.581-10.465). In addition, we observe an association between the total lymphocyte count and limitation in functional capacity (χ2 = 6.94; p = 0.008; OR: 5.23; 95% CI: 1.441-19.025). Malnutrition in patients with digestive tract cancer was associated with limitation in functional capacity. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  15. Language and motor function thresholds during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Vera, Alonso; Aungaroon, Gewalin; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Arthur, Todd M; Crone, Nathan E; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2017-10-01

    To examine current thresholds and their determinants for language and motor mapping with extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation (ECS). ECS electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine functional thresholds. Predictors of functional thresholds were found with multivariable analyses. In 122 patients (age 11.9±5.4years), average minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were 7.4 (± 3.0), 7.8 (± 3.0), and 7.4 (± 3.1) mA respectively. Average minimum, face, upper and lower extremity motor thresholds were 5.4 (± 2.8), 6.1 (± 2.8), 4.9 (± 2.3), and 5.3 (± 3.3) mA respectively. Functional and after-discharge (AD)/seizure thresholds were significantly related. Minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were higher than AD thresholds at all ages. Minimum motor threshold was higher than minimum AD threshold up to 8.0years of age, face motor threshold was higher than frontal AD threshold up to 11.8years age, and lower subsequently. UE motor thresholds remained below frontal AD thresholds throughout the age range. Functional thresholds are frequently above AD thresholds in younger children. These findings raise concerns about safety and neurophysiologic validity of ECS mapping. Functional and AD/seizure thresholds relationships suggest individual differences in cortical excitability which cannot be explained by clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL MOTOR DISABILITY IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadugodapitiya .S .I

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the most common conditions in childhood causing severe physical disability. Spastic paresis is the most common form of CP. According to the topographic classification, CP is divided into spastic hemiplegia, diplegia and quadriplegia. Distribution of functional motor disability is varied in each type of CP. Aims: To describe functional motor disability in children with cerebral palsy using standard scales. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 93 children with cerebral palsy (CP. Functional motor disability of each type of spastic CP was assessed using standard scales. Results: The dominant sub-type of cerebral palsy in the present study was spastic diplegia. Most affected muscle with spasticity was gastrocnemius-soleus group of muscles. Active range of motion of foot eversion and dorsiflexion were the most affected movements in all the types of CP. In the overall sample, only 35% were able to walk independently. Majority of subjects with quadriplegia were in levels III and IV of Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale representing severe disability. There was a significant relationship observed between the muscle tone and range of motion of their corresponding joints as well as between the muscle tone of gastrocnemius-soleus group of muscles and the ankle components of Observational Gait Analysis. Conclusions: Results of the present study confirms the clinical impression of disability levels in each type of CP and showed that the assessment of functional motor disability in children with different types of spastic CP is useful in planning and evaluation of treatment options.

  17. Enhancing motor network activity using real-time functional MRI neurofeedback of left premotor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Ferreira Marins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is a technique of potential therapeutic relevance that allows individuals to be aware of their own neurophysiological responses and to voluntarily modulate the activity of specific brain regions, such as the premotor cortex (PMC, important for motor recovery after brain injury. We investigated (i whether healthy human volunteers are able to up-regulate the activity of the left PMC during a right hand finger tapping motor imagery (MI task while receiving continuous fMRI-neurofeedback, and (ii whether successful modulation of brain activity influenced non-targeted motor control regions. During the MI task, participants of the neurofeedback group (NFB received ongoing visual feedback representing the level of fMRI responses within their left PMC. Control (CTL group participants were shown similar visual stimuli, but these were non-contingent on brain activity. Both groups showed equivalent levels of behavioral ratings on arousal and motor imagery, before and during the fMRI protocol. In the NFB, but not in CLT group, brain activation during the last run compared to the first run revealed increased activation in the left PMC. In addition, the NFB group showed increased activation in motor control regions extending beyond the left PMC target area, including the supplementary motor area, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Moreover, in the last run, the NFB group showed stronger activation in the left PMC/inferior frontal gyrus when compared to the CTL group. Our results indicate that modulation of PMC and associated motor control areas can be achieved during a single neurofeedback-fMRI session. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of MI-based neurofeedback training, with direct implications for rehabilitation strategies in severe brain disorders, such as stroke.

  18. Gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sigmoidoscopy Alternative Names Lower GI bleeding; GI bleeding; Upper GI bleeding; Hematochezia Images GI bleeding - series Fecal occult blood test References Kovacs TO, Jensen DM. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman- ...

  19. Abdominal pain localization is associated with non-diarrheic Rome III functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, M; Fysekidis, M; Devroede, G; Raynaud, J-J; Bejou, B; Benamouzig, R

    2013-08-01

    Abdominal pain is common in patients with functional bowel disorders (FBDs). The aim of this study was to characterize the predominant sites of abdominal pain associated with FBD subtypes, as defined by the Rome III criteria. A total of 584 consecutive patients attending FBD consultations in a tertiary center participated in the study. Stool form, abdominal pain location (nine abdominal segments), and pain intensity (10-point Likert scale) during the previous week were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to characterize the association of abdominal pain sites with specific FBD subtypes. FBDs were associated with predominant pain sites. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation was associated with pain in the left flank and patients were less likely to report pain in the right hypochondrium. Patients with functional constipation reported pain in the right hypochondrium and were less likely to report pain in the left flank and left iliac site. IBS with alternating constipation and diarrhea was associated with pain in the right flank, and unsubtyped IBS with pain in the hypogastrium Patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome reported the lower right flank as predominant pain site. Patients with unspecified FBDs were least likely to report pain in the hypogastrium. Patients with functional diarrhea, IBS with diarrhea, or functional bloating did not report specific pain sites. The results from this study provide the basis for developing new criteria allowing for the identification of homogeneous groups of patients with non-diarrheic FBDs based on characteristic sites of pain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Transfer function modeling of parallel connected two three-phase induction motor implementation using LabView platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunabalan, R.; Sanjeevikumar, P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the transfer function modeling and stability analysis of two induction motors of same ratings and parameters connected in parallel. The induction motors are controlled by a single inverter and the entire drive system is modeled using transfer function in LabView. Further...

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Combustion Instability in Solid Rocket Motor : Implementation of Pressure Coupled Response Function

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saha; D. Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Combustion instability in solid propellant rocket motor is numerically simulated by implementing propellant response function with quasi steady homogeneous one dimensional formulation. The convolution integral of propellant response with pressure history is implemented through a user defined function in commercial computational fluid dynamics software. The methodology is validated against literature reported motor test and other simulation results. Computed amplitude of pressure fluctuations ...

  2. Iron insufficiency compromises motor neurons and their mitochondrial function in Irp2-null mice

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Suh Young; Crooks, Daniel R.; Wilson-Ollivierre, Hayden; Ghosh, Manik C.; Sougrat, Rachid; Lee, Jaekwon; Cooperman, Sharon; Mitchell, James B.; Beaumont, Carole; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic ablation of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2), which post-transcriptionally regulates iron metabolism genes, causes a gait disorder in mice that progresses to hind-limb paralysis. Here we have demonstrated that misregulation of iron metabolism from loss of Irp2 causes lower motor neuronal degeneration with significant spinal cord axonopathy. Mitochondria in the lumbar spinal cord showed significantly decreased Complex I and II activities, and abnormal morphology. Lower motor neurons appeared to be the most adversely affected neurons, and we show that functional iron starvation due to misregulation of iron import and storage proteins, including transferrin receptor 1 and ferritin, may have a causal role in disease. We demonstrated that two therapeutic approaches were beneficial for motor neuron survival. First, we activated a homologous protein, IRP1, by oral Tempol treatment and found that axons were partially spared from degeneration. Secondly, we genetically decreased expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, to diminish functional iron starvation. These data suggest that functional iron deficiency may constitute a previously unrecognized molecular basis for degeneration of motor neurons in mice.

  3. Association between vestibular function and motor performance in hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-12-01

    The clinical balance performance of normal-hearing (NH) children was compared with the balance performance of hearing-impaired (HI) children with and without vestibular dysfunction to identify an association between vestibular function and motor performance. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-six children (mean age, 7 yr 5 mo; range, 3 yr 8 mo-12 yr 11 mo) divided into three groups: NH children with normal vestibular responses, HI children with normal vestibular responses, and HI children with abnormal vestibular function. A vestibular test protocol (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing) in combination with three clinical balance tests (balance beam walking, one-leg hopping, one-leg stance). Clinical balance performance. HI children with abnormal vestibular test results obtained the lowest quotients of motor performance, which were significantly lower compared with the NH group (p beam walking and one-leg stance; p = 0.003 for one-leg hopping). The balance performance of the HI group with normal vestibular responses was better in comparison with the vestibular impaired group but still significantly lower compared with the NH group (p = 0.020 for balance beam walking; p = 0.001 for one-leg stance; not significant for one-leg hopping). These results indicate an association between vestibular function and motor performance in HI children, with a more distinct motor deterioration if a vestibular impairment is superimposed to the auditory dysfunction.

  4. Iron insufficiency compromises motor neurons and their mitochondrial function in Irp2-null mice

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Suh Young

    2011-10-07

    Genetic ablation of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2), which post-transcriptionally regulates iron metabolism genes, causes a gait disorder in mice that progresses to hind-limb paralysis. Here we have demonstrated that misregulation of iron metabolism from loss of Irp2 causes lower motor neuronal degeneration with significant spinal cord axonopathy. Mitochondria in the lumbar spinal cord showed significantly decreased Complex I and II activities, and abnormal morphology. Lower motor neurons appeared to be the most adversely affected neurons, and we show that functional iron starvation due to misregulation of iron import and storage proteins, including transferrin receptor 1 and ferritin, may have a causal role in disease. We demonstrated that two therapeutic approaches were beneficial for motor neuron survival. First, we activated a homologous protein, IRP1, by oral Tempol treatment and found that axons were partially spared from degeneration. Secondly, we genetically decreased expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, to diminish functional iron starvation. These data suggest that functional iron deficiency may constitute a previously unrecognized molecular basis for degeneration of motor neurons in mice.

  5. Histological and functional benefit following transplantation of motor neuron progenitors to the injured rat spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn L Rossi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron loss is characteristic of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI and contributes to functional deficit.In order to investigate the amenability of the injured adult spinal cord to motor neuron differentiation, we transplanted spinal cord injured animals with a high purity population of human motor neuron progenitors (hMNP derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. In vitro, hMNPs displayed characteristic motor neuron-specific markers, a typical electrophysiological profile, functionally innervated human or rodent muscle, and secreted physiologically active growth factors that caused neurite branching and neuronal survival. hMNP transplantation into cervical SCI sites in adult rats resulted in suppression of intracellular signaling pathways associated with SCI pathogenesis, which correlated with greater endogenous neuronal survival and neurite branching. These neurotrophic effects were accompanied by significantly enhanced performance on all parameters of the balance beam task, as compared to controls. Interestingly, hMNP transplantation resulted in survival, differentiation, and site-specific integration of hMNPs distal to the SCI site within ventral horns, but hMNPs near the SCI site reverted to a neuronal progenitor state, suggesting an environmental deficiency for neuronal maturation associated with SCI.These findings underscore the barriers imposed on neuronal differentiation of transplanted cells by the gliogenic nature of the injured spinal cord, and the physiological relevance of transplant-derived neurotrophic support to functional recovery.

  6. Iron insufficiency compromises motor neurons and their mitochondrial function in Irp2-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Young Jeong

    Full Text Available Genetic ablation of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2, which post-transcriptionally regulates iron metabolism genes, causes a gait disorder in mice that progresses to hind-limb paralysis. Here we have demonstrated that misregulation of iron metabolism from loss of Irp2 causes lower motor neuronal degeneration with significant spinal cord axonopathy. Mitochondria in the lumbar spinal cord showed significantly decreased Complex I and II activities, and abnormal morphology. Lower motor neurons appeared to be the most adversely affected neurons, and we show that functional iron starvation due to misregulation of iron import and storage proteins, including transferrin receptor 1 and ferritin, may have a causal role in disease. We demonstrated that two therapeutic approaches were beneficial for motor neuron survival. First, we activated a homologous protein, IRP1, by oral Tempol treatment and found that axons were partially spared from degeneration. Secondly, we genetically decreased expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, to diminish functional iron starvation. These data suggest that functional iron deficiency may constitute a previously unrecognized molecular basis for degeneration of motor neurons in mice.

  7. In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riichiro eHira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between distinct motor cortical areas are essential for coordinated motor behaviors. In rodents, the motor cortical forelimb areas are divided into at least two distinct areas: the rostral forelimb area (RFA and the caudal forelimb area (CFA. The RFA is thought to be an equivalent of the premotor cortex in primates, whereas the CFA is believed to be an equivalent of the primary motor cortex. Although reciprocal connections between the RFA and the CFA have been anatomically identified in rats, it is unknown whether there are functional connections between these areas that can induce postsynaptic spikes. In this study, we used an in vivo Channelrhodopsin-2 photostimulation method to trace the functional connections between the mouse RFA and CFA. Simultaneous electrical recordings were utilized to detect spiking activities induced by synaptic inputs originating from photostimulated areas. This method, in combination with anatomical tracing, demonstrated that the RFA receives strong functional projections from layer 2/3 and/or layer 5a, but not from layer 5b, of the CFA. Further, the CFA receives strong projections from layer 5b neurons of the RFA. The onset latency of electrical responses evoked in remote areas upon photostimulation of the other areas was approximately 10 ms, which is consistent with the synaptic connectivity between these areas. Our results suggest that neuronal activities in the RFA and the CFA during movements are formed through asymmetric reciprocal connections.

  8. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities.

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation--may be useful as a preoperative screen of motor tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Gloria M; Dias, Brennan R; Brown, Judy L; Henry, Christina M; Brooks, David A; Buggie, Ed W

    2013-08-01

    Transcranial motor stimulation with noninvasive cortical surface stimulation, using a high-intensity magnetic field referred to as transcranial magnetic stimulation generally, is considered a nonpainful technique. In contrast, transcranial electric stimulation of the motor tracts typically cannot be done in unanesthesized patients. Intraoperative monitoring of motor tract function with transcranial electric stimulation is considered a standard practice in many institutions for patients during surgical procedures in which there is potential risk of motor tract impairment so that the risk of paraplegia or paraparesis can be reduced. Because transcranial electric stimulation cannot be typically done in the outpatient setting, transcranial magnetic stimulation may be able to provide a well-tolerated method for evaluation of the corticospinal motor tracts before surgery. One hundred fifty-five patients aged 5 to 20 years were evaluated preoperatively with single-stimulation nonrepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for preoperative assessment. The presence of responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation reliably predicted the presence of responses to transcranial electric stimulation intraoperatively. No complications occurred during the testing, and findings were correlated to the clinical history and used in the setup of the surgical monitoring.

  10. Resting-state Functional Connectivity is an Age-dependent Predictor of Motor Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    This magnetoencephalography study investigates how ageing modulates the relationship between pre-learning resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and subsequent learning. Neuromagnetic resting-state activity was recorded 5 min before motor sequence learning in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) participants. We used a seed-based beta-band power envelope correlation approach to estimate rsFC maps, with the seed located in the right primary sensorimotor cortex. In each age group, the relation between individual rsFC and learning performance was investigated using Pearson's correlation analyses. Our results show that rsFC is predictive of subsequent motor sequence learning but involves different cross-network interactions in the two age groups. In young adults, decreased coupling between the sensorimotor network and the cortico-striato-cerebellar network is associated with better motor learning, whereas a similar relation is found in old adults between the sensorimotor, the dorsal-attentional and the DMNs. Additionally, age-related correlational differences were found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, known to subtend attentional and controlled processes. These findings suggest that motor skill learning depends-in an age-dependent manner-on subtle interactions between resting-state networks subtending motor activity on the one hand, and controlled and attentional processes on the other hand. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Directionality analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging during motor task using Granger causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, A R; Muthalib, M; Perrey, S; Galka, A; Granert, O; Wolff, S; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Heute, U; Muthuraman, M

    2012-01-01

    Directionality analysis of signals originating from different parts of brain during motor tasks has gained a lot of interest. Since brain activity can be recorded over time, methods of time series analysis can be applied to medical time series as well. Granger Causality is a method to find a causal relationship between time series. Such causality can be referred to as a directional connection and is not necessarily bidirectional. The aim of this study is to differentiate between different motor tasks on the basis of activation maps and also to understand the nature of connections present between different parts of the brain. In this paper, three different motor tasks (finger tapping, simple finger sequencing, and complex finger sequencing) are analyzed. Time series for each task were extracted from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, which have a very good spatial resolution and can look into the sub-cortical regions of the brain. Activation maps based on fMRI images show that, in case of complex finger sequencing, most parts of the brain are active, unlike finger tapping during which only limited regions show activity. Directionality analysis on time series extracted from contralateral motor cortex (CMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and cerebellum (CER) show bidirectional connections between these parts of the brain. In case of simple finger sequencing and complex finger sequencing, the strongest connections originate from SMA and CMC, while connections originating from CER in either direction are the weakest ones in magnitude during all paradigms.

  12. The Functional Organization and Cortical Connections of Motor Cortex in Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dylan F.; Padberg, Jeffrey; Zahner, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Despite extraordinary diversity in the rodent order, studies of motor cortex have been limited to only 2 species, rats and mice. Here, we examine the topographic organization of motor cortex in the Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and cortical connections of motor cortex in the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi). We distinguish a primary motor area, M1, based on intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), myeloarchitecture, and patterns of connectivity. A sensorimotor area between M1 and the primary somatosensory area, S1, was also distinguished based on connections, functional organization, and myeloarchitecture. We term this field 3a based on similarities with area 3a in nonrodent mammals. Movements are evoked with ICMS in both M1 and 3a in a roughly somatotopic pattern. Connections of 3a and M1 are distinct and suggest the presence of a third far rostral field, termed “F,” possibly involved in motor processing based on its connections. We hypothesize that 3a is homologous to the dysgranular zone (DZ) in S1 of rats and mice. Our results demonstrate that squirrels have both similar and unique features of M1 organization compared with those described in rats and mice, and that changes in 3a/DZ borders appear to have occurred in both lineages. PMID:22021916

  13. Clinical presentation of acute gastroenteritis in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saps, Miguel; Mintjens, Stijn; Pusatcioglu, Cenk K.; Cohen, Daniel M.; Sternberg, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) and abnormal coping are common in children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). Thus, it would be expected that children with VH would report more pain if their gut is acutely inflamed. Aims- Compare clinical symptoms and somatization of children with and

  14. Altered Gastrointestinal Function in the Neuroligin-3 Mouse Model of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Faure, C. Di Lorenzo and N. Thapar, Humana Press, pp 23-35. 17. OBERMAYR, F., STAMP, L.A., ANDERSON, C.R. and YOUNG, H.M. (2013) Genetic fate...in the proportion of GABA neurons as a result of other genetic mutations influencing synaptic function during enteric development (Li et al., 2012

  15. The functional implications of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and social problem-solving states in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Charles; Gluhm, Shea; Goldstein, Jody; Cronan, Terry A; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric dysfunction. In HD, the inability to solve problems successfully affects not only disease coping, but also interpersonal relationships, judgment, and independent living. The aim of the present study was to examine social problem-solving (SPS) in well-characterized HD and at-risk (AR) individuals and to examine its unique and conjoint effects with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states on functional ratings. Sixty-three participants, 31 HD and 32 gene-positive AR, were included in the study. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Long (SPSI-R:L), a 52-item, reliable, standardized measure of SPS. Items are aggregated under five scales (Positive, Negative, and Rational Problem-Solving; Impulsivity/Carelessness and Avoidance Styles). Participants also completed the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale functional, behavioral, and cognitive assessments, as well as additional neuropsychological examinations and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R). A structural equation model was used to examine the effects of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and SPS states on functionality. The multifactor structural model fit well descriptively. Cognitive and motor states uniquely and significantly predicted function in HD; however, neither psychiatric nor SPS states did. SPS was, however, significantly related to motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states, suggesting that it may bridge the correlative gap between psychiatric and cognitive states in HD. SPS may be worth assessing in conjunction with the standard gamut of clinical assessments in HD. Suggestions for future research and implications for patients, families, caregivers, and clinicians are discussed.

  16. Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases in children and adolescents: prevalence, symptomatology, and association with emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Mettananda, Sachith; Liyanarachchi, Chathurangi; Nanayakkara, Navoda; Mendis, Niranjala; Perera, Nimnadi; Rajindrajith, Shaman

    2011-12-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGD) are common among children, but little is known regarding their prevalence in developing countries. We assessed the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant FGD, in addition to the predisposing factors and symptomatology, in Sri Lankan children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a randomly selected group of 10- to 16-year-olds in 8 randomly selected schools in 4 provinces in Sri Lanka. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was completed by children independently in an examination setting. FGD were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. A total of 2180 questionnaires were distributed and 2163 (99.2%) were included in the analysis (1189 [55%] boys, mean age 13.4 years, standard deviation 1.8 years). Of them, 270 (12.5%) had at least 1 abdominal pain-predominant FGD. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was seen in 107 (4.9%), functional dyspepsia in 54 (2.5%), functional abdominal pain in 96 (4.4%), and abdominal migraine (AM) in 21 (1.0%) (2 had AM and functional dyspepsia, 6 had AM and IBS). Extraintestinal symptoms were more common among affected children (P Abdominal pain-predominant FGD were higher in girls and those exposed to stressful events (P Abdominal pain-predominant FGD affects 12.5% of children ages 10 to 16 years and constitutes a significant health problem in Sri Lanka. IBS is the most common FGD subtype present. Abdominal pain-predominant FGD are higher in girls and those exposed to emotional stress. Prevalence of FGD decreased with age. Extraintestinal symptoms are more frequent in affected children.

  17. Quality of life and health care consultation in 13 to 18 year olds with abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Benninga, Marc A

    2014-08-21

    Abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGD) are commonly seen in the paediatric age group. It has significant impact on daily activities of affected children. Main objective of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with AP-FGD. This was a cross sectional survey conducted in children aged 13-18 years, in four randomly selected schools in Western province of Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a previously validated, self-administered questionnaire. It had questions on symptoms, HRQoL and health care consultation. AP-FGD were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. A total of 1850 questionnaires were included in the analysis [males 1000 (54.1%), mean age 14.4 years and SD 1.3 years]. Of them, 305 (16.5%) had AP-FGD [irritable bowel syndrome = 91(4.9%), functional dyspepsia = 11 (0.6%), abdominal migraine = 37 (1.9%) and functional abdominal pain = 180 (9.7%)]. Lower HRQoL scores for physical (83.6 vs. 91.4 in controls), social (85.0 vs. 92.7), emotional (73.6 vs. 82.7) and school (75.0 vs. 82.5) functioning domains, and lower overall scores (79.6 vs. 88.0) were seen in children with AP-FGD (p abdominal pain (r = -0.24, p abdominal bloating and vomiting (p < 0.05). Children with AP-FGD have lower quality of life in all 4 domains. Those with severe symptoms have lower HRQoL. Approximately 28% of children with AP-FGD seek healthcare for their symptoms.

  18. Tracking the Re-organization of Motor Functions After Disconnective Surgery: A Longitudinal fMRI and DTI Study

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    Cristina Rosazza

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mechanisms of motor plasticity are critical to maintain motor functions after cerebral damage. This study explores the mechanisms of motor reorganization occurring before and after surgery in four patients with drug-refractory epilepsy candidate to disconnective surgery.Methods: We studied four patients with early damage, who underwent tailored hemispheric surgery in adulthood, removing the cortical motor areas and disconnecting the corticospinal tract (CST from the affected hemisphere. Motor functions were assessed clinically, with functional MRI (fMRI tasks of arm and leg movement and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI before and after surgery with assessments of up to 3 years. Quantifications of fMRI motor activations and DTI fractional anisotropy (FA color maps were performed to assess the lateralization of motor network. We hypothesized that lateralization of motor circuits assessed preoperatively with fMRI and DTI was useful to evaluate the motor outcome in these patients.Results: In two cases preoperative DTI-tractography did not reconstruct the CST, and FA-maps were strongly asymmetric. In the other two cases, the affected CST appeared reduced compared to the contralateral one, with modest asymmetry in the FA-maps. fMRI showed different degrees of lateralization of the motor network and the SMA of the intact hemisphere was mostly engaged in all cases. After surgery, patients with a strongly lateralized motor network showed a stable performance. By contrast, a patient with a more bilateral pattern showed worsening of the upper limb function. For all cases, fMRI activations shifted to the intact hemisphere. Structural alterations of motor circuits, observed with FA values, continued beyond 1 year after surgery.Conclusion: In our case series fMRI and DTI could track the longitudinal reorganization of motor functions. In these four patients the more the paretic limbs recruited the intact hemisphere in primary motor and associative

  19. Tracking the Re-organization of Motor Functions After Disconnective Surgery: A Longitudinal fMRI and DTI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosazza, Cristina; Deleo, Francesco; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Antelmi, Luigi; Tringali, Giovanni; Didato, Giuseppe; Bruzzone, Maria G; Villani, Flavio; Ghielmetti, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Mechanisms of motor plasticity are critical to maintain motor functions after cerebral damage. This study explores the mechanisms of motor reorganization occurring before and after surgery in four patients with drug-refractory epilepsy candidate to disconnective surgery. Methods: We studied four patients with early damage, who underwent tailored hemispheric surgery in adulthood, removing the cortical motor areas and disconnecting the corticospinal tract (CST) from the affected hemisphere. Motor functions were assessed clinically, with functional MRI (fMRI) tasks of arm and leg movement and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) before and after surgery with assessments of up to 3 years. Quantifications of fMRI motor activations and DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) color maps were performed to assess the lateralization of motor network. We hypothesized that lateralization of motor circuits assessed preoperatively with fMRI and DTI was useful to evaluate the motor outcome in these patients. Results: In two cases preoperative DTI-tractography did not reconstruct the CST, and FA-maps were strongly asymmetric. In the other two cases, the affected CST appeared reduced compared to the contralateral one, with modest asymmetry in the FA-maps. fMRI showed different degrees of lateralization of the motor network and the SMA of the intact hemisphere was mostly engaged in all cases. After surgery, patients with a strongly lateralized motor network showed a stable performance. By contrast, a patient with a more bilateral pattern showed worsening of the upper limb function. For all cases, fMRI activations shifted to the intact hemisphere. Structural alterations of motor circuits, observed with FA values, continued beyond 1 year after surgery. Conclusion: In our case series fMRI and DTI could track the longitudinal reorganization of motor functions. In these four patients the more the paretic limbs recruited the intact hemisphere in primary motor and associative areas, the

  20. Studies of gastrointestinal function with the use of gamma-emitting isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzoli, F.; Fromm, H.; Wahner, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of calcium can be measured conveniently with the use of /sup 47/Ca, but the degree or efficiency of calcium absorption cannot be used as a reliable measure of intestinal function or as an indicator of an intestinal absorptive abnormality. Calcium absorption is influenced not only by intestinal mucosal function but also by other factors, including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium levels, drugs (antibiotics, corticosteroids), age (growth, lactation, pregnancy), intestinal and systemic acid-base changes, and dietary intake of calcium itself and of other substances such as amino acids, magnesium, oxalate, ethanol, and phytates. Because these factors have to be taken into consideration, tests of calcium absorption can be used only for complex metabolic studies in research, and not for routine diagnostic purposes. Therefore, only a brief description of the principles of the radioisotope tests of calcium absorption is given

  1. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

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    Murer Kurt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the

  2. Pyridostigmine Bromide, the Enteric Nervous System, and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    coming year. Major Task 3: Effects of reversing gliosis with PEA on gut function and neuroinflammation. Milestone(s) Achieved: Evaluation of a...neurochemical coding. We did not observe differences in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression that would suggest reactive gliosis in day...to start experiments from major task 3 that will test the beneficial effects of the anti-inflammatory drug palmitoylethanolamide ( PEA

  3. Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms.

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    Gibson, Peter R; Shepherd, Susan J

    2012-05-01

    Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient's functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols)--poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas--improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms.

  4. Technology-aided assessment of sensori-motor function in early infancy

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    Alessandro G Allievi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for new techniques capable of providing accurate information about sensori-motor function during the first 2 years of childhood. Here we review current clinical methods and challenges for assessing motor function in early infancy, and discuss the potential benefits of applying technology-assisted methods. We also describe how the use of these tools with neuroimaging, and in particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, can shed new light on the intra-cerebral processes underlying neurodevelopmental impairment. This knowledge is of particular relevance in the early infant brain which has an increased capacity for compensatory neural plasticity. Such tools could bring a wealth of knowledge about the underlying pathophysiological processes of diseases such as cerebral palsy; act as biomarkers to monitor the effects of possible therapeutic interventions; and provide clinicians with much needed early diagnostic information.

  5. Functional BOLD MRI: comparison of different field strengths in a motor task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, T.; Born, C.; Britsch, S.; Reiser, M.; Schoenberg, S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the benefit of an increased field strength for functional magnetic resonance imaging in a motor task. Six right-handed volunteers were scanned at 1.5 T and 3.0 T using a motor task. Each experiment consisted of two runs with four activation blocks, each with right- and left-hand tapping. Analysis was done using BrainVoyagerQX registered . Differences between both field strengths concerning signal to noise (SNR), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD contrast to noise (CNR) were tested using a paired t test. Delineation of activations and artifacts were graded by two independent readers. Results were further validated by means of a phantom study. The sensorimotor and premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, subcortical and cerebellar structures were activated at each field strength. Additional activations of the right premotor cortex and right superior temporal gyrus were found at 3.0 T. Signal-to-noise, percentage of BOLD signal change, BOLD CNR and functional sensitivity improved at 3.0 T by a factor of up to 2.4. Functional imaging at 3.0 T results in detection of additional activated areas, increased SNR, BOLD signal change, functional sensitivity and BOLD CNR. (orig.)

  6. Parental questionnaire as a screening instrument for motor function at age five.

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    Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-12-01

    No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test, Pearson's χ(2)-test, logistic regression analyses and sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the correlation between the questionnaire and the M-ABC test. The best screening tool was six questions in combination: sensitivity 39.8%, specificity 87.1%. Asking if a health professional ever expressed concern about the childs motor development had a sensitivity of 17.0% and a specificity of 93.9%. A parental questionnaire used as a screening instrument to identify children with motor problems has a reasonable specificity, but a low sensitivity. The six questions can be used to identify children who do not have motor function difficulties with a relatively high certainty, and it can fairly well identify children with motor function problems. This study was primarily supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Additional support was obtained from The Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the Lundbeck Foundation, Ludvig & Daara Elsass Foundation, the Augustinus Foundation, and Aase & Ejnar Danielsens Foundation. The Danish National Research Foundation has established the Danish Epidemiology Science Centre that initiated and created the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort is furthermore a result of a major grant from this Foundation. Additional support for the Danish National Birth Cohort is obtained from the Pharmacy Foundation, the Egmont

  7. The prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder in an army unit and its relationship with functional gastrointestinal disorders

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    Qian WANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in the army officers and soldiers (AOSs, and identify its relationship with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs. Methods PTSD and FGIDs were diagnosed based on the PTSD checklist-civilian (PCL-C and Rome Ⅲ Modular Questionnaire respectively, the overlaps of PTSD and FGIDs and their correlation were diagnosed. The correlation of PTSD with traumatic and stressful events was investigated using Trauma History and Stressful Event Screening Questionnaire. The coexistence and relationship of PTSD and FGIDs were analyzed. Results Of 927 AOSs, 33 were diagnosed with PTSD. The prevalence of PTSD was 3.56%. FGIDs were identified in 435 subjects and the incidence of FGIDs was 46.93%. Among 33 AOSs with PTSD, 28 were diagnosed as having FGIDs and the prevalence of FGIDs was 84.85%, which was significantly higher than that of non-PTSD group (45.53%, P<0.05. Moreover, the FGIDs group had a higher prevalence of PTSD, compared with the non-FGID group (6.43% vs. 1.02%, P<0.05. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS, 33.33%, unspecified functional bowel disorder (24.24%, functional bloating (18.18% and functional anorectal pain (18.18% were the four most frequent FGIDs in PTSD AOSs. Multiple regression analysis showed PTSD was the risk factor for CVS (OR=9.118, functional anorectal pain (OR=3.373, functional bloating (OR=4.772, irritable bowel syndrome (OR=3.438, rumination syndrome (OR=16.033, functional vomiting (OR=10.329, functional dysphagia (OR=9.891(P<0.05. CVS (OR=4.063, the number of traumatic (OR=1.159 and stress events (OR=1.401 were the risk factors for PTSD in AOSs (P<0.05. Conclusions PTSD and FGID interact as risk factor each other. The prevalence of PTSD differs significantly in different FGIDs. CVS is the most frequent FGID in PTSD AOSs and risk factor for PTSD, which deserves more concerns. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2018.02.14

  8. Non-motor and motor features in LRRK2 transgenic mice.

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    Zoë Bichler

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important features of Parkinson's disease (PD. LRRK2 mutations are common causes of familial and sporadic PD. Non-motor features have not been yet comprehensively evaluated in LRRK2 transgenic mouse models.Using a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the R1441G mutation of the human LRRK2 gene, we have investigated the longitudinal correlation between motor and non-motor symptoms and determined if specific non-motor phenotypes precede motor symptoms.We investigated the onset of motor and non-motor phenotypes on the LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice and their littermate controls from 4 to 21 month-old using a battery of behavioral tests. The transgenic mutant mice displayed mild hypokinesia in the open field from 16 months old, with gastrointestinal dysfunctions beginning at 6 months old. Non-motor features such as depression and anxiety-like behaviors, sensorial functions (pain sensitivity and olfaction, and learning and memory abilities in the passive avoidance test were similar in the transgenic animals compared to littermate controls.LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice displayed gastrointestinal dysfunction at an early stage but did not have abnormalities in fine behaviors, olfaction, pain sensitivity, mood disorders and learning and memory compared to non-transgenic littermate controls. The observations on olfaction and gastrointestinal dysfunction in this model validate findings in human carriers. These mice did recapitulate mild Parkinsonian motor features at late stages but compensatory mechanisms modulating the progression of PD in these models should be further evaluated.

  9. Association between fine motor skills and binocular visual function in children with reading difficulties.

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    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Alramis, Fatimah; Christian, Lisa W

    2017-12-01

    Performance of fine motor skills (FMS) assessed by a clinical test battery has been associated with reading achievement in school-age children. However, the nature of this association remains to be established. The aim of this study was to assess FMS in children with reading difficulties using two experimental tasks, and to determine if performance is associated with reduced binocular function. We hypothesized that in comparison to an age- and sex-matched control group, children identified with reading difficulties will perform worse only on a motor task that has been shown to rely on binocular input. To test this hypothesis, motor performance was assessed using two tasks: bead-threading and peg-board in 19 children who were reading below expected grade and age-level. Binocular vision assessment included tests for stereoacuity, fusional vergence, amplitude of accommodation, and accommodative facility. In comparison to the control group, children with reading difficulties performed significantly worse on the bead-threading task. In contrast, performance on the peg-board task was similar in both groups. Accommodative facility was the only measure of binocular function significantly associated with motor performance. Findings from our exploratory study suggest that normal binocular vision may provide an important sensory input for the optimal development of FMS and reading. Given the small sample size tested in the current study, further investigation to assess the contribution of binocular vision to the development and performance of FMS and reading is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional imaging of the cerebellum and basal ganglia during predictive motor timing in early Parkinson's disease.

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    Husárová, Ivica; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Mareček, Radek; Mikl, Michal; Gescheidt, Tomáš; Krupa, Petr; Bareš, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia and the cerebellum have both emerged as important structures involved in the processing of temporal information. We examined the roles of the cerebellum and striatum in predictive motor timing during a target interception task in healthy individuals (HC group; n = 21) and in patients with early Parkinson's disease (early stage PD group; n = 20) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Despite having similar hit ratios, the PD failed more often than the HC to postpone their actions until the right moment and to adapt their behavior from one trial to the next. We found more activation in the right cerebellar lobule VI in HC than in early stage PD during successful trials. Successful trial-by-trial adjustments were associated with higher activity in the right putamen and lobule VI of the cerebellum in HC. We conclude that both the cerebellum and striatum are involved in predictive motor timing tasks. The cerebellar activity is associated exclusively with the postponement of action until the right moment, whereas both the cerebellum and striatum are needed for successful adaptation of motor actions from one trial to the next. We found a general ''hypoactivation'' of basal ganglia and cerebellum in early stage PD relative to HC, indicating that even in early stages of the PD there could be functional perturbations in the motor system beyond striatum. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  11. Yield of coeliac screening in abdominal pain-associated functional gastrointestinal system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansu, Aydan; Kuloğlu, Zarife; Demir, Arzu; Yaman, Aytaç

    2015-11-01

    Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) in childhood is common and in the majority functional. While CAP is one of the complaints of coeliac disease (CD), whether CAP as a sole complaint is indicative of CD is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CAP and CD. The study was conducted on 1047 children (61.1% female, mean age 9.6 ± 4.1 years) with CAP. Patients were evaluated according to the Rome III criteria. Patients with alarm symptoms and conditions known to be associated with CD were excluded. Patients were screened for CD using a rapid tissue transglutaminase (tTG) test; positive cases were tested by tTG ELISA, and duodenal biopsies were obtained if tTG was above the normal limit. Functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (FAP) were diagnosed in 384 (36.7%), 274 (26.2%) and 389 (37.2%) patients, respectively. In 13 patients, the tTG rapid test was positive; 10 were also positive for tTG by ELISA and histopathological evaluations diagnosed CD in all 10 patients. The overall prevalence of CD was 0.95% (2.2%, 0.5% and 0.5% in patients with IBS, FD and FAP, respectively). The prevalence of CD in patients with IBS was higher than expected but with borderline statistical significance (P = 0.053). CD is found as common in children with FD and FAP as in the general population. CD was more commonly diagnosed in IBS patients with borderline statistical significance. We suggest that particular attention be paid to children with IBS. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Gastrointestinal tract and the elderly: functional foods, gut microflora and healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, K; Doré, J

    2002-09-01

    Advances in science and medicine as well as improved living standards have led to a steady increase in life expectancy. Yet ageing is associated with increased susceptibility to degenerative or infectious diseases, which may be exacerbated by a poor nutritional status. The intestinal microflora will mediate crucial events towards the protection or degradation of health. It is hence essential and timely that strategies of preventive nutrition aimed at maintaining or improving the quality of life of the ageing population be developed. "CROWNALIFE" is a newly funded EuropeanUnion project, so called because of its emphasis on the preservation of the period of independence of the elderly, recognised as the "crown of life". The project aims at assessing age-related alterations and exploring strategies to restore and maintain a balanced healthy intestinal environment. Current knowledge on the composition and function of the human intestinal microflora is still improving with the use of better methodologies and yet their evolution with ageing has not been investigated in detail. There have been a few reports that putatively protective lactic acid bacteria, in general, and bifidobacteria, in particular, seem less represented in the elderly faecal flora. We have also observed an increase in species diversity of the dominant faecal microflora with ageing. This certainly warrants confirmation and is being addressed by the investigation of age-related changes in the structure and function of the intestinal flora of the elderly in countries across Europe. Ensuing results will constitute a baseline for functional-food based strategies aimed at providing health benefits for the elderly.

  13. Sex differences in anthropometric characteristics, motor and cognitive functioning in preschool children at the time of school enrolment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Gustav; Katić, Ratko

    2009-12-01

    The study included a sample of 333 preschool children (162 male and 171 female) at the time of school enrolment. Study subjects were recruited from the population of children in kindergartens in the cities of Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Backa Palanka (Province of Voivodina, Serbia). Eight anthropometric variables, seven motor variables and one cognitive variable were analyzed to identify quantitative and qualitative sex differences in anthropometric characteristics, motor and cognitive functioning. Study results showed statistically significant sex differences in anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities in favor of male children, whereas no such difference was recorded in cognitive functioning. Sex differences found in morphological and motor spaces contributed to structuring proper general factors according to space and sex. Somewhat stronger structures were observed in male children. The cognitive aspect of functioning yielded better correlation with motor functioning in female than in male children. Motor functioning correlated better with morphological growth and development in male children, whereas cognitive functioning was relatively independent. These results are not fully in accordance with the current concept of general conditions in preschool children, nor they fully confirm the theory of integral development of children, hence they should be re-examined in future studies. Although these study results cannot be applied to sports practice in general, since we believe that it is too early for preschool children to take up sports and sport competitions, they are relevant for pointing to the need of developing general motor ability and motor behavior in preschool children.

  14. Functional role of the Ca2+-activated Cl− channel DOG1/TMEM16A in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Erik; Akcakaya, Pinar; Berglund, David; Karlsson, Fredrik; Vukojević, Vladana; Lee, Linkiat; Bogdanović, Darko; Lui, Weng-Onn; Larsson, Catharina; Zedenius, Jan; Fröbom, Robin; Bränström, Robert

    2014-01-01

    DOG1, a Ca 2+ -activated Cl − channel (CaCC), was identified in 2004 to be robustly expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). It was rapidly included as a tumor marker in routine diagnostics, but the functional role remained unknown. CaCCs are important regulators of normal physiological functions, but also implicated in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, metastasis, cell migration, apoptosis, proliferation and viability in several malignancies. We therefore investigated whether DOG1 plays a role in the three latter in GIST by utilizing in vitro cell model systems. Confocal microscopy identified different subcellular localizations of DOG1 in imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant cells. Electrophysiological studies confirmed that DOG1-specific pharmacological agents possess potent activating and inhibiting properties. Proliferation assays showed small effects up to 72 h, and flow cytometric analysis of adherent cells with 7-AAD/Annexin V detected no pharmacological effects on viable GIST cells. However, inhibition of DOG1 conveyed pro-apoptotic effects among early apoptotic imatinib-resistant cells. In conclusion, DOG1 generates Cl − currents in GIST that can be regulated pharmacologically, with small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. Inhibition of DOG1 might act pro-apoptotic on some early apoptotic GIST cell populations. Further studies are warranted to fully illuminate the function of DOG1 and its potential as therapeutic target. - Highlights: • Subcellular DOG1 localization varies between GIST cells. • DOG1 in GIST is voltage- and Ca 2+ -activated. • Known TMEM16A modulators, like A01 and Eact, modulate DOG1. • DOG1 has small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. • DOG1 impact early apoptotic GIST cells to undergo late apoptosis

  15. Longitudinal development of gross motor function among Dutch children and young adults with cerebral palsy: an investigation of motor growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Gorter, Jan Willem; Hanna, Steven E; Dallmeijer, Annet J; van Eck, Mirjam; Roebroeck, Marij E; Vos, Rimke C; Ketelaar, Marjolijn

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe patterns for gross motor development by level of severity in a Dutch population of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This longitudinal study included 423 individuals (260 males, 163 females) with CP. The mean age at baseline was 9 years 6 months (SD 6y 2mo, range 1-22y). The level of severity of CP among participants, according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), was 50% level I, 13% level II, 14% level III, 13% level IV, and 10% level V. Participants had been assessed up to four times with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) at 1- or 2-year intervals between 2002 and 2009. Data were analysed using non-linear mixed effects modelling. For each GMFCS level, patterns were created by contrasting a stable limit model (SLM) with a peak and decline model (PDM), followed by estimating limits and rates of gross motor development. The SLM showed a better fit for all GMFCS levels than the PDM. Within the SLM, significant differences between GMFCS levels were found for both the limits (higher values for lower GMFCS levels) and the rates (higher values for GMFCS levels I-II vs level IV and for GMFCS levels I-IV vs level V) of gross motor development. The results validate the existence of five distinct patterns for gross motor development by level of severity of CP. ©The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Antidepressants and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, B.; Tielemans, M.M.; Aaldering, B.R.; Eikendal, T.; Jaspers Focks, J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently reported adverse effects of antidepressants, but antidepressants are also a treatment modality in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to assess the association between antidepressant use and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general

  17. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children With Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalouni, Maria; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Bonnert, Marianne; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Högström, Jens; Serlachius, Eva; Olén, Ola

    2017-08-10

    Pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (P-FGIDs; eg, irritable bowel syndrome) are highly prevalent in children and associated with low quality of life, anxiety, and school absence. Treatment options are scarce, and there is a need for effective and accessible treatments. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (Internet-CBT) based on exposure exercises is effective for adult and adolescent irritable bowel syndrome, but it has not been evaluated for younger children. The objective of this study was to assess acceptability, feasibility, and potential clinical efficacy of Internet-CBT for children with P-FGIDs. This was a feasibility study with a within-group design. We included 31 children aged 8-12 years and diagnosed with P-FGID, according to the ROME III criteria. Mean duration of abdominal symptoms at baseline was 3.8 years (standard deviation [SD] 2.6). The treatment was therapist-guided and consisted of 10 weekly modules of exposure-based Internet-CBT. The children were instructed to provoke abdominal symptoms in a graded manner and to engage in previously avoided activities. The parents were taught to decrease their attention to their children's pain behaviors and to reinforce and support their work with the exposures. Assessments included treatment satisfaction, subjective treatment effect, gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life, pain intensity, anxiety, depression, and school absence. Data were collected at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Means, standard errors (SEs), and Cohen d effect sizes were estimated based on multi-level linear mixed models. Most children 25/31 (81%) completed 9 or 10 of the 10 treatment modules. Almost all children, 28/31 (90%), reported that the treatment had helped them to deal more effectively with their symptoms, and 27/31 (87%) children declared that their symptoms had improved during the treatment. Assessments from the parents were in accordance with the children's reports. No child or

  18. Hemispheric surgery for refractory epilepsy in children and adolescents: outcome regarding seizures, motor skills and adaptive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ana Paula; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Centeno, Ricardo; Costa, Livia Vianez; Ladeia-Frota, Carol; Junior, Henrique Carrete; Gomez, Nicolas Garofalo; Marinho, Murilo; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to report the seizure outcome, motor skills and adaptive motor functions in a series of children and adolescents who underwent hemispheric surgery, analysing the risk-benefits of surgery. The clinical course, seizure and motor function outcomes of 15 patients who underwent hemispheric surgery were reviewed. The mean age at surgery was 9.5, with 1-9 years follow-up. The underlying pathologies were Rasmussen encephalitis, vascular disorders, and hemimegalencephaly. All the patients presented with severe epilepsy and different degrees of hemiparesis, although motor functionality was preserved in 80% of the patients. At last follow-up, 67% were seizure free, and 20% rarely experienced seizures. Antiepileptic drugs were reduced in 60%, and complete withdrawal from such drugs was successful in 20% of the patients. The motor outcome following the surgery varied between the patients. Despite the motor deficit after surgery, the post-operative motor function showed unchanged for gross motor function in most (60%), while 27% improved. Similar results were obtained for the ability to handle objects in daily life activities. Sixty percent of the children were capable of handling objects, with somewhat reduced coordination and/or motor speed. Pre-surgical motor function continues to play a role in the pre-surgical evaluation process in order to provide a baseline for outcome. Hemispheric surgery, once regarded as a radical intervention and last treatment resource, may become routinely indicated for refractory hemispheric epilepsy in children and adolescents, with oftentime favourable motor outcomes. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear organization in the spinal cord depends on motor neuron lamination orchestrated by catenin and afadin function

    OpenAIRE

    Dewitz, C.; Pimpinella, S.; Hackel, P.; Akalin, A.; Jessell, T.M.; Zampieri, N.

    2018-01-01

    Motor neurons in the spinal cord are found grouped in nuclear structures termed pools, whose position is precisely orchestrated during development. Despite the emerging role of pool organization in the assembly of spinal circuits, little is known about the morphogenetic programs underlying the patterning of motor neuron subtypes. We applied three-dimensional analysis of motor neuron position to reveal the roles and contributions of cell adhesive function by inactivating N-cadherin, catenin, a...

  20. [Functional childhood gastrointestinal disorders. II. Constipation and solitary encopresis: physiology and pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, R; Büller, H A; Heymans, H S; Taminiau, J A; Boeckxstaens, G E; Benninga, M A

    2003-06-28

    The childhood prevalences of constipation and encopresis are 0.3-8% and 1-3% respectively. Following a recent stricter definition and classification, constipation and solitary encopresis are now recognised to be two separate entities. Constipation is characterised by infrequent defecation, often in combination with involuntary loss of faeces. Solitary encopresis most often occurs once a day after school hours. When there is no defecation, the frequency of encopresis increases, the abdominal pain becomes more severe and the appetite becomes less, until a large quantity of faeces is produced (often once per week). The physiology of the defecation and continence mechanism is complex and has only been unravelled in part. The multiple physiological mechanisms involved have a complementary and compensatory effect on each other. This makes it difficult to determine the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these functional disorders.

  1. Associations between Medication Use and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional GI syndromes are known to be very prevalent but this may be associated with unrecognized medications use. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of PPI, antidepressant, and narcotic use in the general population, and evaluate the association between each medication and functional GI syndromes adjusting for potential confounders. Methods In 2008 and 2009, newly revised versions of a validated bowel disease questionnaire were mailed to a community based cohort (total mailed=8006) of Olmsted County, MN residents; 3831 returned the questionnaire (response rate=48.0%). Medication usage, specifically PPIs, narcotics, and antidepressants in the last year, was elicited via three separate questions on the questionnaire. The association between each medication and GI symptom complexes was assessed using multiple variable logistic regression models. Results A total of 3515 of the respondents (92%) had complete data (mean age: 61±15; 54% female). The overall proportion reporting PPI use was 20% (95% CI: 19, 22), narcotic use 12% (95% CI: 11, 13), and antidepressant use 15% (95% CI: 14, 16). PPI use was significantly associated with IBS status (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.7) as well as with GERD (OR=3.5, 95% CI 2.7, 4.4) and dyspepsia (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.5, 2.7). The association of PPI use with IBS was not explained by coexistent GERD or dyspepsia. Antidepressant use was significantly associated only with bloating (OR=1.6, 1.1, 2.2). Conclusions Some medications that may alter intestinal transit or bowel flora are commonly utilized by the general population, and PPI use appears to be linked to IBS. PMID:23360217

  2. Sleep problems and functional disability in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders: An examination of the potential mediating effects of physical and emotional symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurman Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as a common problem for children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions, but little is known about the prevalence, type, and impact of sleep problems in pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs. The objectives of the current study were two-fold: 1 to describe the pattern of sleep disturbances reported in a large sample of children and adolescents with FGIDs; and, 2 to explore the impact of sleep by examining the inter-relationships between sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional problems, and functional disability in this population. Methods Over a 3-year period, 283 children aged 8–17 years who were diagnosed with an FGID and a primary caretaker independently completed questionnaires regarding sleep, emotional functioning, physical symptoms, and functional disability during an initial evaluation for chronic abdominal pain at a pediatric tertiary care center. A verbal review of systems also was collected at that time. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the pattern of sleep disturbances reported, while structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test theorized meditational relationships between sleep and functional disability through physical and emotional symptoms. Results Clinically significant elevations in sleep problems were found in 45% of the sample, with difficulties related to sleep onset and maintenance being most common. No difference was seen by specific FGID or by sex, although adolescents were more likely to have sleep onset issues than younger children. Sleep problems were positively associated with functional disability and physical symptoms fully mediated this relationship. Emotional symptoms, while associated with sleep problems, evidenced no direct link to functional disability. Conclusions Sleep problems are common in pediatric FGIDs and are associated with functional disability through their impact on physical

  3. Intrasurgical mapping of complex motor function in the superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, J; Gabarrós, A; Deus, J; Juncadella, M; Acebes, J J; Torres, A; Pujol, J

    2011-04-14

    A lesion to the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) has been associated with long-lasting deficits in complex motor functions. The aim of this study was to analyze the functional role of the SFG by means of electrical cortical stimulation. Direct intraoperative electrical stimulation was used in a group of 21 subjects with lesions within or close to the SFG while they performed three motor tasks that require high skills or bimanual synergy. The results were compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ninety-four of the 98 (94.9%) labels identified were located on the convexity surface of the SFG and only four (4.1%) labels were located on the middle surface of the SFG. Areas of blockage of the three tasks were identified in six of the 12 (50%) hemispheres with lesions that had infiltrated the SFG, compared to all 10 of the 10 hemispheres (100%) with lesions that spared the SFG. The difference between these two proportions was statistically significant (P=0.015). fMRI activation was mainly located on the medial aspect of the SFG. We show that the convexity surface of the SFG has an important role in bilateral control of complex movements and in bimanual coordination. The infiltration of the posterior part of the SFG by a lesion disturbs some of the complex hand motor functions, which may be assumed by the contralesional homologous area. Finally, the current study emphasizes the discrepancies between fMRI and intraoperative electrical stimulation maps in complex hand motor function. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxu Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top–down and bottom–up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  5. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Zhang, Zuting; Lv, Zeping; Jing, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR) scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top-down and bottom-up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  6. Functional Compensation of Motor Function in Pre-Symptomatic Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppel, Stefan; Draganski, Bogdan; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Weiller, Cornelius; Frackowiak, Richard S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Involuntary choreiform movements are a clinical hallmark of Huntington's disease. Studies in clinically affected patients suggest a shift of motor activations to parietal cortices in response to progressive neurodegeneration. Here, we studied pre-symptomatic gene carriers to examine the compensatory mechanisms that underlie the phenomenon of…

  7. Does Parent Report Gross Motor Function Level of Cerebral Palsy Children Impact on the Quality of Life in these Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmdarfard, Marzieh; Amini, Malek; Badv, Reza Shervin; Ghaffarzade Namazi, Narges; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent report gross motor function level of cerebral palsy (CP) children on the parent report quality of life of CP children. Sampling of this cross-sectional study was done in occupational therapy clinics and CP children's schools in 2016 in Zanjan, Iran. Samples size was 60 CP children aged 6-12 yr and for sampling method, a non-probability convenience was used. For assessing the quality of life of CP children the cerebral palsy quality of life (CP QOL) questionnaire and for assessing the level of gross motor function of CP children the Gross Motor Function Classification System Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCSFRQ) were used. The average age of children (22 males and 30 females) was 8.92 yr old (minimum 6 yr and maximum 12 yr). The relationship between the level of gross motor function and participation and physical health was direct and significant (r=0.65). The relationship between functioning, access to services and family health with the level of gross motor function was direct but was not significant ( P >0.05) and the relationship between pain and impact of disability and emotional well-being with the level of gross motor function was significant ( P quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. It means that the level of gross motor function cannot be used as a predictor of quality of life for children with cerebral palsy alone.

  8. Functional outcome of gastrointestinal tract and quality of life after esophageal reconstruction of esophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manochehr Aghajanzade; Feizollah Safarpour; M Reza Koohsari; Hadi Tozandehgani; Ghanaei, Farborz M; Bodaghi, Sadigheh M

    2009-01-01

    Information about functional outcome and quality of life after esophagectomy and esophageal reconstruction (ER) for the treatment of esophageal cancer, as evaluated by the patients themselves is limited. We aimed to study the post-surgical outcome of such patients to detect for the development of any complications that may arise from the surgery as well as to evaluate their quality of life following the surgery. From 1993 to 2003, 240 patients with stage 1, 2, or 3 esophageal carcinoma underwent esophagectomy at Razi Teaching Hospital located in the north of Iran. Of these, 192 patients filled out a questionnaire during a 2-year period (ranging from 12 to 48 months after surgical reconstruction). Among them, there were 134 men (69%) and 58 women (31%), and the mean age at the time of ER was 48 years (ranging from 22 to 75 years). Transhiatal esophagectomy, extended esophagectomy (three field operation), and Ivor-Lewis resection were done in 142 (73.95%), 30 (15.62%), and 20 patients (10.42%), respectively. Intestinal continuity after esophageal resection was established with stomach in 154 patients (80%), colon in 28 patients (14%), and small bowel in 10 patients (5.2%). Cervical anastomosis was established in 172 patients (89.6%), while intrathoracic anastomosis was performed in 20 patients (10.4%). After ER, 66 patients (34.4%) suffered from dysphagia to solids and 50 patients (26%) required at least one or three postoperative dilatations for alleviation of symptoms. Gastroesophageal reflux was seen in 32 patients (16.66%) and was more common in thoracic anastomosis patients than in cervical anastomosis patients. Heartburn was present in 33 cases (17%), 30 of whom required medication (37%). The number of meals per day was three to four in 116 patients (60%), more than four in 51 patients (29%), and less than three in 19 patients (9.82%). The number of bowel movement per day increased in 52 patients (27%), decreased in 60 cases (31%), and unchanged in 80 patients

  9. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  10. Validation of the fatigue scale for motor and cognitive functions in a danish multiple sclerosis cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oervik, M. S.; Sejbaek, T.; Penner, I. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Our objective was to validate the Danish translation of the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Materials and methods A Danish MS cohort (n = 84) was matched and compared to the original German validation cohort (n = 309) and a he......Background Our objective was to validate the Danish translation of the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Materials and methods A Danish MS cohort (n = 84) was matched and compared to the original German validation cohort (n = 309...... positive correlations between the two fatigue scales implied high convergent validity (total scores: r = 0.851, p gender). Correcting for depression did not result in any significant adjustments of the correlations...

  11. Self-reported lactose intolerance in clinic patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Chu, H; Cong, Y; Deng, Y; Long, Y; Zhu, Y; Pohl, D; Fried, M; Dai, N; Fox, M

    2015-08-01

    Many patients complain of abdominal symptoms with dairy products; however, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with self-reported lactose intolerance (SLI) have not been assessed in large studies. In particular, data are lacking from lactase deficient populations. This prospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, SLI in Chinese patients attending a gastroenterology clinic. Consecutive patients completed questionnaires to assess digestive health (Rome III), psychological state (HADS), life event stress (LES), food intake, and quality-of-life (SF-8). A representative sample completed genetic studies and hydrogen breath testing (HBT) at the clinically relevant dose of 20 g lactose. SLI was present in 411/910 (45%) clinic patients with functional abdominal symptoms. The genotype in all subjects was C/C-13910. A small number of novel SNPs in lactase promoter region were identified, including C/T-13908 which appeared to confer lactase persistence. Over half of the patients (54%) completed the 20 g lactose HBT with 58% (285/492) reporting typical symptoms. Positive and negative predictive values of SLI for abdominal symptoms during HBT were 60% and 44%, respectively. Psychological state and stress were not associated with SLI in clinic patients. SLI impacted on physical quality-of-life and was associated with reduced ingestion of dairy products, legumes, and dried fruit (p ≤ 0.05). In a lactase deficient population, approximately half of patients attending clinic with functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported intolerance to dairy products; however, SLI did not predict findings on 20 g lactose HBT. Independent of psychosocial factors, SLI impacted on quality-of-life and impacted on food choices with restrictions not limited to dairy products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Stress and sleep quality in doctors working on-call shifts are associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo-Kyung; Yoo, Seung Jin; Koo, Dae Lim; Park, Chae A; Ryu, Han Jun; Jung, Yong Jin; Jeong, Ji Bong; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Koh, Seong-Joon

    2017-05-14

    To investigate the role of sleep quality and psychosocial problems as predictors of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in doctors that work 24 hour-on-call shifts. In this cross-sectional observation study, using the Rome III Questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), we analyzed 170 doctors with 24 hour-on-call shifts. Among the participants that had experienced a 24 hour-on-call shift within the last 6 mo, 48 (28.2%) had FGIDs. Overall prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD) were 16.5% and 17.1%, respectively, with 5.3% exhibiting both. Sleep scores (PSQI) (8.79 ± 2.71 vs 7.30 ± 3.43, P = 0.008), the presence of serious psychosocial alarm (83.3% vs 56.6%, P = 0.004), and the proportion of doctors who experienced over two months of recent on-call work (81.2% vs 68.9%, P = 0.044) were significantly different between individuals with or without FGIDs. Multivariate analysis revealed that presenting serious psychosocial alarm was an independent risk factor for prevalence of FD (OR = 5.47, 95%CI: 1.06-28.15, P = 0.042) and poor sleep quality (PSQI ≥ 6) was a predictor of IBS (OR = 4.17, 95%CI: 1.92-19.02, P = 0.016). Physicians should recognize the role of sleep impairment and psychological stress in the development of FGIDs and a comprehensive approach should be considered to manage patients with FGIDs.

  13. Strain-resolved microbial community proteomics reveals simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic function during gastrointestinal tract colonization of a preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon eBrooks

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13-21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.

  14. Muscle-Derived GDNF: A Gene Therapeutic Approach for Preserving Motor Neuron Function in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    other disease monitoring strategies ( Beam walking , Electrical impedance myography (EIM) and MRI) were not performed. We considered that the multiple...core: Beam walking and data analysis performed by Svendsen lab staff • Reagents and supplies were not all purchased • Reduced experimental load...function has been shown in acute models of motor neuron injury and in transgenic mouse models of ALS using various delivery strategies by a number

  15. Assessment of the integrity and functional requirement of moderator pump-motor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, R.S.; Chawla, D.S.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1995-01-01

    The design of various active components in a nuclear power plant calls for a satisfactory analysis of these components for various loadings from the point of view of safety because a designated number of these components must always remain functional. Presented herein is the structural and seismic qualification of one the active components namely the moderator system pump-motor units for a typical PHWR. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs

  16. Assessing and inducing neuroplasticity with transcranial magnetic stimulation and robotics for motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Marcia K; Ro, Tony; Levin, Harvey S

    2006-12-01

    To describe 2 new ways of assessing and inducing neuroplasticity in the human brain--transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and robotics--and to investigate and promote the recovery of motor function after brain damage. We identified recent articles and books directly bearing on TMS and robotics. Articles using these tools for purposes other than rehabilitation were excluded. From these studies, we emphasize the methodologic and technical details of these tools as applicable for assessing and inducing plasticity. Because both tools have only recently been used for rehabilitation, the majority of the articles selected for this review have been published only within the last 10 years. We used the PubMed and Compendex databases to find relevant peer-reviewed studies for this review. The studies were required to be relevant to rehabilitation and to use TMS or robotics methodologies. Guidelines were applied via independent extraction by multiple observers. Despite the limited amount of research using these procedures for assessing and inducing neuroplasticity, there is growing evidence that both TMS and robotics can be very effective, inexpensive, and convenient ways for assessing and inducing rehabilitation. Although TMS has primarily been used as an assessment tool for motor function, an increasing number of studies are using TMS as a tool to directly induce plasticity and improve motor function. Similarly, robotic devices have been used for rehabilitation because of their suitability for delivery of highly repeatable training. New directions in robotics-assisted rehabilitation are taking advantage of novel measurements that can be acquired via the devices, enabling unique methods of assessment of motor recovery. As refinements in technology and advances in our knowledge continue, TMS and robotics should play an increasing role in assessing and promoting the recovery of function. Ongoing and future studies combining TMS and robotics within the same populations may

  17. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Motor Function: A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, Toshihiko; Hirata, Masayuki; Sugata, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Onishi, Mai; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Omura, Kayoko; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of genetic and environmental influences on cerebral motor function, we determined similarities and differences of movement-related cortical fields (MRCFs) in middle-aged and elderly monozygotic (MZ) twins. MRCFs were measured using a 160-channel magnetoencephalogram system when MZ twins were instructed to repeat lifting of the right index finger. We compared latency, amplitude, dipole location, and dipole intensity of movement-evoked field 1 (MEF1) between 16 MZ twin...

  18. Running exercise enhances motor functional recovery with inhibition of dendritic regression in the motor cortex after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Waseda, Yuya; Ishida, Kazuto

    2016-03-01

    Rehabilitative approaches benefit motor functional recovery after stroke and relate to neuronal plasticity. We investigated the effects of a treadmill running exercise on the motor functional recovery and neuronal plasticity after collagenase-induced striatal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with type IV collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH. Sham-operated animals were injected with saline instead of collagenase. The animals were randomly assigned to the sham control (SC), the sham exercise (SE), the ICH control (IC), or the ICH exercise (IE) group. The exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill at a speed of 9 m/min for 30 min/day between days 4 and 14 after surgery. Behavioral tests were performed using a motor deficit score, a beam-walking test and a cylinder test. At fifteen days after surgery, the animals were sacrificed, and their brains were removed. The motor function of the IE group significantly improved compared with the motor function of the IC group. No significant differences in cortical thickness were found between the groups. The IC group had fewer branches and shorter dendrite lengths compared with the sham groups. However, dendritic branches and lengths were not significantly different between the IE and the other groups. Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) expression levels increased in the IE compared with IC group, but no significant differences in other protein (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF; Nogo-A; Rho-A/Rho-associated protein kinase 2, ROCK2) expression levels were found between the groups. These results suggest that improved motor function after a treadmill running exercise after ICH may be related to the prevention of dendritic regression due to TrkB upregulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Beneficial effect of pramipexole for motor function and depression in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Osamu Kano1,2, Ken Ikeda2, Tetsuhito Kiyozuka2, Konosuke Iwamoto2, Hirono Ito2, Yuji Kawase2, Ryuta Sato2, Toshiki Fujioka2, Yo Araki2, Shigeji Baba2, Yasuo Iwasaki21Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We examined whether pramipexole (PPX can influence depressive scale in normal and mild depressive parkinsonian patients. In an open study of PPX as an add-on to L-dopa therapy or single administration, 36 nondemented outpatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD were entered first. All were in the stage II or III of Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y. PPX were started at 0.125 mg/day and daily doses were increased to 1.5 mg/day. At 3 months after PPX treatment, patients were re-evaluated. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III, H&Y stage, and freezing of gait questionnaire were compared in patients before and after PPX treatment. These scores were significantly improved after PPX administration. There were no correlations between HAM-D and those motor functions. We suggest that PPX treatment has antidepressant effects in depressive PD patients and also ameliorates HAM-D score in nondepressive PD patients in addition to motor function.Keywords: Parkinson disease, pramipexole, motor function, depression, antidepressant effect

  20. Motor and sensory function of the esophagus: revelations through ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2005-04-01

    Catheter based high frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS) imaging is a powerful tool to study esophageal sensory and motor function and dysfunction in vivo in humans. It has provided a number of important insights into the longitudinal muscle function of the esophagus. Based on the ultrasound images and intraluminal pressure recordings, it is clear that there is synchrony in the timing as well as the amplitude of contraction between the circular and the longitudinal muscle layers of the esophagus in normal subjects. On the other hand, in patients with spastic disorders of the esophagus, there is an asynchrony of contraction related to the timing and amplitude of contraction of the two muscle layers during peristalsis. Achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, and nutcracker esophagus (spastic motor disorders of the esophagus) are associated with hypertrophy of the circular as well as longitudinal muscle layers. A sustained contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the esophagus is temporally related to chest pain and heartburn and may very well be the cause of symptoms. Longitudinal muscle function of the esophagus can be studied in vivo in humans using dynamic ultrasound imaging. Longitudinal muscle dysfunction appears to be important in the motor and sensory disorders of the esophagus.

  1. Functional Brain Connectivity during Multiple Motor Imagery Tasks in Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkinoos Athanasiou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocal communication of the central and peripheral nervous systems is compromised during spinal cord injury due to neurotrauma of ascending and descending pathways. Changes in brain organization after spinal cord injury have been associated with differences in prognosis. Changes in functional connectivity may also serve as injury biomarkers. Most studies on functional connectivity have focused on chronic complete injury or resting-state condition. In our study, ten right-handed patients with incomplete spinal cord injury and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed multiple visual motor imagery tasks of upper extremities and walking under high-resolution electroencephalography recording. Directed transfer function was used to study connectivity at the cortical source space between sensorimotor nodes. Chronic disruption of reciprocal communication in incomplete injury could result in permanent significant decrease of connectivity in a subset of the sensorimotor network, regardless of positive or negative neurological outcome. Cingulate motor areas consistently contributed the larger outflow (right and received the higher inflow (left among all nodes, across all motor imagery categories, in both groups. Injured subjects had higher outflow from left cingulate than healthy subjects and higher inflow in right cingulate than healthy subjects. Alpha networks were less dense, showing less integration and more segregation than beta networks. Spinal cord injury patients showed signs of increased local processing as adaptive mechanism. This trial is registered with NCT02443558.

  2. The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Litlle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of physical disability affecting gross motor function (GMF in early childhood. Hippotherapy is a treatment approach aimed at improving GMF in children with CP. Several systematic reviews have been published showing an improvement in Dimension E of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM after hippotherapy. However, these reviews failed to evaluate the clinical effect of hippotherapy in improving GMF in children with CP. Objective: To critically appraise the evidence of hippotherapy to ascertain whether it is a clinically meaningful approach for children with CP. Methodology: Five computerised bibliographic databases were searched. Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were set. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. A revised JBI Data extraction tool was used to extract data from the selected articles. Revman© Review Manager Software was used to create forest plots for comparisons of results. Results: All studies used the GMFM as an outcome measure for gross motor function. The added benefit of hippotherapy is a minimum 1% and a maximum 7% increase on the GMFM scores. However, all 95% confidence intervals (CI around all the mean differences were insignificant. Conclusion: The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small. Larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of hippotherapy within this population.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on motor function: a magnetoencephalographic study of twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eAraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of genetic and environmental influences on cerebral motor function, we determined similarities of movement-related cortical fields (MRCFs in middle-aged and elderly monozygotic (MZ twins. MRCFs were measured using a 160-channel MEG system when MZ twins were instructed to repeat lifting of the right index finger. We compared latency, amplitude, dipole location, and dipole intensity of movement-evoked field 1 (MEF1 between 16 MZ twins and 16 pairs of genetically unrelated pairs. Differences in latency and dipole location between MZ twins were significantly less than those between unrelated age-matched pairs. However, amplitude and dipole intensity were not significantly different. These results suggest that the latency and dipole location of MEF1 are determined early in life by genetic and early common environmental factors, whereas amplitude and dipole intensity are influenced by long-term environmental factors. Improved understanding of genetic and environmental factors that influence cerebral motor function may contribute to evaluation and improvement for individual motor function.

  4. The effects of music-supported therapy on motor, cognitive, and psychosocial functions in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Dawson, Deirdre R; Wright, Rebecca; Honjo, Kie; Chen, Joyce L; Chen, J Jean; Black, Sandra E; Stuss, Donald T; Ross, Bernhard

    2018-05-24

    Neuroplasticity accompanying learning is a key mediator of stroke rehabilitation. Training in playing music in healthy populations and patients with movement disorders requires resources within motor, sensory, cognitive, and affective systems, and coordination among these systems. We investigated effects of music-supported therapy (MST) in chronic stroke on motor, cognitive, and psychosocial functions compared to conventional physical training (GRASP). Twenty-eight adults with unilateral arm and hand impairment were randomly assigned to MST (n = 14) and GRASP (n = 14) and received 30 h of training over a 10-week period. The assessment was conducted at four time points: before intervention, after 5 weeks, after 10 weeks, and 3 months after training completion. As for two of our three primary outcome measures concerning motor function, all patients slightly improved in Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment hand score, while the time to complete Action Research Arm Test became shorter in the MST group. The third primary outcome measure for well-being, Stroke Impact Scale, was improved for emotion and social communication earlier in MST and coincided with the improved executive function for task switching and music rhythm perception. The results confirmed previous findings and expanded the potential usage of MST for enhancing quality of life in community-dwelling chronic-stage survivors. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Age-Dependent Relationship between Socio-Adaptability and Motor Coordination in High Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Viviane; Huys, Raoul; Jas, Brunhilde; Kruck, Jeanne

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal perceptual-motor coordination is hypothesized here to be involved in social deficits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To test this hypothesis, high functioning children with ASD and typical controls, similar in age as well as verbal and perceptive performance, performed perceptual-motor coordination tasks and several social competence…

  6. Motor network plasticity and low-frequency oscillations abnormalities in patients with brain gliomas: a functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Niu

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity is often associated with the process of slow-growing tumor formation, which remodels neural organization and optimizes brain network function. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether motor function plasticity would display deficits in patients with slow-growing brain tumors located in or near motor areas, but who were without motor neurological deficits. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe motor networks in 15 patients with histopathologically confirmed brain gliomas and 15 age-matched healthy controls. All subjects performed a motor task to help identify individual motor activity in the bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC and supplementary motor area (SMA. Frequency-based analysis at three different frequencies was then used to investigate possible alterations in the power spectral density (PSD of low-frequency oscillations. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a nonparametric test was performed to determine the difference in power between the two groups. Significantly reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the left and right PMC was observed in patients compared with controls (P<0.05. We also found significantly decreased PSD in patients compared to that in controls, in all three frequency bands (low: 0.01-0.02 Hz; middle: 0.02-0.06 Hz; and high: 0.06-0.1 Hz, at three key motor regions. These findings suggest that in asymptomatic patients with brain tumors located in eloquent regions, inter-hemispheric connection may be more vulnerable. A comparison of the two approaches indicated that power spectral analysis is more sensitive than functional connectivity analysis for identifying the neurological abnormalities underlying motor function plasticity induced by slow-growing tumors.

  7. Effect of the laxative magnesium oxide on gastrointestinal functional recovery in fast-track colonic resection: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J; Christensen, H; Pachler, J H

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A double-blind randomised controlled study was conducted to compare the effect of magnesium oxide (1 g 12-hourly) with placebo given within an evidence-based multimodal rehabilitation programme on gastrointestinal recovery, pain, mobilisation and hospital stay after open colonic resection....... Method: Of sixty two potentially eligible patients, thirteen were excluded leaving 22 in the magnesium oxide group and 27 in the placebo group. The main outcome measure was time to normalization of bowel function. Secondary outcome measures included post operative nausea, vomiting, pain, fatigue...... were similar in the groups (p>0.3). The median postoperative hospital stay was three days in both groups (p>0.65). Conclusion: Magnesium oxide does not enhance the recovery of gastrointestinal function within the context of an evidence-based multimodal rehabilitation programme after open colonic...

  8. Factors predicting the instant effect of motor function after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin-Ling; Luo, Xiao-Guang; Lv, Hong; Wang, Jun; Ren, Yan; He, Zhi-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), the predictive effect of levodopa responsiveness on surgical outcomes was confirmed by some studies, however there were different conclusions about that through long- and short-term follow-ups. We aimed to investigate the factors which influence the predictive value of levodopa responsiveness, and discover more predictive factors of surgical outcomes. Twenty-three PD patients underwent bilateral STN-DBS and completed our follow-up. Clinical evaluations were performed 1 week before and 3 months after surgery. STN-DBS significantly improved motor function of PD patients after 3 months; preoperative levodopa responsiveness and disease subtype predicted the effect of DBS on motor function; gender, disease duration and duration of motor fluctuations modified the predictive effect of levodopa responsiveness on motor improvement; the duration of motor fluctuations and severity of preoperative motor symptoms modified the predictive effect of disease subtype on motor improvement. The intensity of levodopa responsiveness served as a predictor of motor improvement more accurately in female patients, patients with shorter disease duration or shorter motor fluctuations; PD patients with dominant axial symptoms benefit less from STN-DBS compared to those with limb-predominant symptoms, especially in their later disease stage.

  9. Gastrointestinal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepson, Mark A.; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products

  10. Corticospinal tract integrity and motor function following neonatal stroke: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Anne L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New MRI techniques enable visualisation of corticospinal tracts and cortical motor activity. The objective of this case study was to describe the magnetic resonance evidence of corticospinal pathway reorganisation following neonatal stroke. Case presentation An 11 year old boy with a neonatal right middle cerebral artery territory ischaemic stroke was studied. Functional MRI was undertaken with a whole hand squeezing task, comparing areas of cortical activation between hands. White matter tracts, seeded from the area of peak activation in the cortex, were visualised using a diffusion weighted imaging probabilistic tractography method. Standardised evaluations of unilateral and bilateral motor function were undertaken. Clinically, the child presented with a left hemiparesis. Functional MRI demonstrated that movement of the hemiparetic hand resulted in activation in the ipsi-lesional (right hemisphere only. Diffusion tractography revealed pathways in the right (lesioned hemisphere tracked perilesionally to the cortical area identified by functional MRI. Conclusion Our case demonstrates that neonatal stroke is associated with maintenance of organization of corticospinal pathways sufficient to maintain some degree of hand function in the affected hemisphere. Functional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging tractography may inform our understanding of recovery, organisation and reorganisation and have the potential to monitor responses to intervention following neonatal stroke.

  11. In vivo subsurface morphological and functional cellular and subcellular imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with confocal mini-microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Goetz; Beena Memadathil; Stefan Biesterfeld; Constantin Schneider; Sebastian Gregor; Peter R Galle; Markus F Neurath; Ralf Kiesslich

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a newly developed hand-held confocal probe for in vivo microscopic imaging of the complete gastrointestinal tract in rodents.METHODS: A novel rigid confocal probe (diameter 7 mm) was designed with optical features similar to the flexible endomicroscopy system for use in humans using a 488 nm single line laser for fluorophore excitation.Light emission was detected at 505 to 750 nm. The field of view was 475 μm × 475 μm. Optical slice thickness was 7 μm with a lateral resolution of 0.7 μm. Subsurface serial images at different depths (surface to 250 μm)were generated in real time at 1024 × 1024 pixels (0.8 frames/s) by placing the probe onto the tissue in gentle,stable contact. Tissue specimens were sampled for histopathological correlation.RESULTS: The esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine and meso, liver, pancreas and gall bladder were visualised in vivo at high resolution in n = 48 mice.Real time microscopic imaging with the confocal minimicroscopy probe was easy to achieve. The different staining protocols (fluorescein, acriflavine, FITC-labelled dextran and L. esculentum lectin) each highlighted specific aspects of the tissue, and in vivo imaging correlated excellently with conventional histology. In vivo blood flow monitoring added a functional quality to morphologic imaging.CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy is feasible in vivo allowing the visualisation of the complete GI tract at high resolution even of subsurface tissue structures.The new confocal probe design evaluated in this study is compatible with laparoscopy and significantly expands the field of possible applications to intra-abdominal organs. It allows immediate testing of new in vivo staining and application options and therefore permits rapid transfer from animal studies to clinical use in patients.

  12. SDHA loss of function mutations in a subset of young adult wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Italiano, Antoine; Chen, Chun-Liang; Sung, Yun-Shao; Singer, Samuel; DeMatteo, Ronald P; LaQuaglia, Michael P; Besmer, Peter; Socci, Nicholas; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2012-01-01

    A subset of KIT/PDGFRA wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors (WT GIST) have been associated with alteration of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex II function. A recent report identified four non-syndromic, KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST harboring compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SDHA encoding the main subunit of the SDH complex II. Next generation sequencing was applied on five pediatric and one young adult WT GIST, by whole exome capture and SOLiD 3-plus system sequencing. The putative mutations were first confirmed by Sanger sequencing and then screened on a larger panel of 11 pediatric and young adult WT GIST, including 5 in the context of Carney triad. A germline p.Arg31X nonsense SDHA mutation was identified in one of the six cases tested by SOLiD platform. An additional p.D38V missense mutation in SDHA exon 2 was identified by Sanger sequencing in the extended KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST patients cohort. Western blotting showed loss of SDHA expression in the two cases harboring SDHA mutations, while expression being retained in the other WT GIST tumors. Results were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry for both SDHA and SDHB, which showed a concurrent loss of expression of both proteins in SDHA-mutant lesions, while the remaining WT tumors showed only loss of SDHB expression. Germline and/or somatic aberrations of SDHA occur in a small subset of KIT/PDGFRA WT GISTs, outside the Carney’s triad and are associated with loss of both SDHA and SDHB protein expression. Mutations of the SDH complex II are more particularly associated with KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST occurring in young adults. Although pediatric GIST consistently display alterations of SDHB protein expression, further molecular studies are needed to identify the crucial genes involved in their tumorigenesis

  13. Radiation-induced functional damages in the regeneration system for the gastrointestinal epithelium cell and analysis of its nutritional modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Narita, Mayumi; Ogawa, Yuko; Shinohara, Kiyoko; Nakazawa, Yukiko; Yamada, Keiko [National Inst. of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    It has been known that the stem cells of villus-crypt zone are highly sensitive to radiation exposure. In this study, radiation-induced damages in gastrointestinal cell regeneration system were investigated from an aspect of nutritional factors to clarify the damages in digestive functions caused by X-ray exposure and recovery from them. The activities of digestive enzymes in the small intestine after in vivo X-ray exposure at 100 Gy were determined. The sucrose activity in the upper intestine was gradually reduced to about a half 3 days after the exposure. This change pattern of activity was also observed in other regions in the intestine. This tendency was similar to that of trehalase activity, but the changes in alkaline phosphatase and leucine amino-peptidase activities were less than the above two enzymes. Therefore, time course changes of sucrose and trehalase pattern in the villus-crypt zone were monitored after radiation exposure. Either of the two enzyme activities was low in the crypt and gradually increased from the basement of villus to its top. These activities were dose-dependently reduced by X-ray exposure. Especially it was marked for trehalose activity. Moreover, the amounts of short-chain fatty acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butylic acid in the cecum were determined. Significant increases in acetic acid and propionic acid contents were fount at 1 or 2 days after the X-ray exposure. These increases in fatty acids contents were more distinctive in the animals that received forced and free administration of food than those that received free administration alone. The presence of food components in the intestine might be effective for protecting the mucous membrane regeneration from radiation exposure. (M.N.)

  14. Conducting multinational, cross-cultural research in the functional gastrointestinal disorders: issues and recommendations. A Rome Foundation working team report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, A D; Gwee, K A; Hungin, A P; Corazziari, E; Fukudo, S; Gerson, C; Ghoshal, U C; Kang, J-Y; Levy, R L; Schmulson, M; Dumitrascu, D; Gerson, M-J; Chen, M; Myung, S-J; Quigley, E M M; Whorwell, P J; Zarzar, K; Whitehead, W E

    2014-11-01

    Cross-cultural, multinational research can advance the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Cross-cultural comparative research can make a significant contribution in areas such as epidemiology, genetics, psychosocial modulators, symptom reporting and interpretation, extra-intestinal co-morbidity, diagnosis and treatment, determinants of disease severity, health care utilisation, and health-related quality of life, all issues that can be affected by geographical region, culture, ethnicity and race. To identify methodological challenges for cross-cultural, multinational research, and suggest possible solutions. This report, which summarises the full report of a working team established by the Rome Foundation that is available on the Internet, reflects an effort by an international committee of FGID clinicians and researchers. It is based on comprehensive literature reviews and expert opinion. Cross-cultural, multinational research is important and feasible, but has barriers to successful implementation. This report contains recommendations for future research relating to study design, subject recruitment, availability of appropriate study instruments, translation and validation of study instruments, documenting confounders, statistical analyses and reporting of results. Advances in study design and methodology, as well as cross-cultural research competence, have not matched technological advancements. The development of multinational research networks and cross-cultural research collaboration is still in its early stages. This report is intended to be aspirational rather than prescriptive, so we present recommendations, not guidelines. We aim to raise awareness of these issues and to pose higher standards, but not to discourage investigators from doing what is feasible in any particular setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [The diet low in fermentable carbohydrates short chain and polyols improves symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamán, José Wálter; Felip, Ana; Guedea, Elena; Jansana, Marta; Videla, Sebastián; Saperas, Esteban

    2015-03-01

    Successful treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often remains elusive. Recent studies in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand have suggested the efficacy of a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the management of these patients. The aims of this study were to determine whether a diet low in FODMAPs improves symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) in Spain and to analyze the predictors of a good response. A prospective study was carried out in consecutive patients with FGID type IBS and functioanl abdominal bloating. At inclusion all patients underwent an assessment through a baseline demographic questionnaire of symptoms of anxiety and depression and quality of life. A hydrogen breath test with lactose and fructose was performed and a low FODMAPs diet was indicated for 2 months by expert dietitians. These tests were taken as a reference. A positive response was defined as an improvement of at least 5 points out of a possible 10 in the symptom questionnaire. We included 30 patients (24 women, 39 [12] years). The response to the low FODMAPs diet was positive in controlling overall symptoms and specific symptoms such as functioanl abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea and fatigue in more than 70% of patients (P.05). Adherence to the diet was good in 87% of patients and was a predictor of positive response in the univariate analysis. A diet low in FODMAPs is associated with symptom improvement in patients with IBS and functioanl abdominal bloating. Adherence to the diet was a determining factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. Dysfunction in endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk underlies SIGMAR1 loss of function mediated motor neuron degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Marissal, Nathalie; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Azzedine, Hamid; Chrast, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in Sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) have been previously identified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and disruption of Sigmar1 in mouse leads to locomotor deficits. However, cellular mechanisms underlying motor phenotypes in human and mouse with disturbed SIGMAR1 function have not been described so far. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in motor neuron biology. Characterization of Sigmar1(-/-) mice revealed that affected animals display locomotor deficits associated with muscle weakness, axonal degeneration and motor neuron loss. Using primary motor neuron cultures, we observed that pharmacological or genetic inactivation of SIGMAR1 led to motor neuron axonal degeneration followed by cell death. Disruption of SIGMAR1 function in motor neurons disturbed endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contacts, affected intracellular calcium signalling and was accompanied by activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and defects in mitochondrial dynamics and transport. These defects were not observed in cultured sensory neurons, highlighting the exacerbated sensitivity of motor neurons to SIGMAR1 function. Interestingly, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission was sufficient to induce mitochondria axonal transport defects as well as axonal degeneration similar to the changes observed after SIGMAR1 inactivation or loss. Intracellular calcium scavenging and endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition were able to restore mitochondrial function and consequently prevent motor neuron degeneration. These results uncover the cellular mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration mediated by loss of SIGMAR1 function and provide therapeutically relevant insight into motor neuronal diseases. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function and Longitudinal Changes in Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, R. E.; Boudreau, R. M.; Caserotti, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor peripheral nerve function is common in older adults and may be a risk factor for strength decline, although this has not been assessed longitudinally. Methods. We assessed whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function predicts strength longitudinally in 1,830 participants (age...... was assessed with 10-g and 1.4-g monofilaments and average vibration detection threshold at the toe. Lower-extremity neuropathy symptoms were self-reported. Results. Worse vibration detection threshold predicted 2.4% lower strength in men and worse motor amplitude and two symptoms predicted 2.5% and 8.1% lower...

  18. Effects of intensive physical therapy on the motor function of a child with spastic hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Serrano-Gómez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical therapy is a health profession whose object of study is the movement of the human body, therefore, it is responsible for cases involving motor development problems, as in the case presented here. Objective: To describe the short-term effect caused by intensive physical therapy treatment, performed with Therasuit, on motor function of a child with spastic right hemiparesis. Materials and methods: Descriptive qualitative research conducted based on the case study methodology with an observation period of two years. Results: The results include, besides the detection and diagnosis of the case, the analysis of information based on the application of the methodology and the observation of results in clinical trials to assess movement, design and implementation of a treatment plan using the Therasuit method. Conclusions: This case study makes possible to observe how the presence of a physical therapy program at a clinical practice institution allowed Therasuit method treatment to a four-year-old child diagnosed with right spastic hemiparesis sequelae, which improved gait and motor function.

  19. Assessing upper extremity motor function in practice of virtual activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J; Lichter, Matthew D; Krepkovich, Eileen T; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user's avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs.

  20. Decreased Modulation of EEG Oscillations in High-Functioning Autism During a Motor Control Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are thought to result in part from altered cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance; this pathophysiology may impact the generation of oscillations on EEG. We investigated premotor-parietal cortical physiology associated with praxis, which has strong theoretical and empirical associations with ASD symptomatology. 25 children with high-functioning ASD (HFA and 33 controls performed a praxis task involving the pantomiming of tool use, while EEG was recorded. We assessed task-related modulation of signal power in alpha and beta frequency bands. Compared with controls, subjects with HFA showed 27% less left central (motor/premotor beta (18-22 Hz event-related desynchronization (ERD (p = 0.030, as well as 24% less left parietal alpha (7-13 Hz ERD (p = 0.046. Within the HFA group, blunting of central ERD attenuation was associated with impairments in clinical measures of praxis imitation (r = -0.4; p = 0.04 and increased autism severity (r = 0.48; p = 0.016. The modulation of central beta activity is associated, among other things, with motor imagery, which may be necessary for imitation. Impaired imitation has been associated with core features of ASD. Altered modulation of oscillatory activity may be mechanistically involved in those aspects of motor network function that relate to the core symptoms of ASD.

  1. Housing conditions influence motor functions and exploratory behavior following focal damage of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornicka-Pawlak, Elzbieta; Jabłońska, Anna; Chyliński, Andrzej; Domańska-Janik, Krystyna

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated influence of housing conditions on motor functions recovery and exploratory behavior following ouabain focal brain lesion in the rat. During 30 days post-surgery period rats were housed individually in standard cages (IS) or in groups in enriched environment (EE) and behaviorally tested. The EE lesioned rats showed enhanced recovery from motor impairments in walking beam task, comparing with IS animals. Contrarily, in the open field IS rats (both lesioned and control) traveled a longer distance, showed less habituation and spent less time resting at the home base than the EE animals. Unlike the EE lesioned animals, the lesioned IS rats, presented a tendency to hyperactivity in postinjury period. Turning tendency was significantly affected by unilateral brain lesion only in the EE rats. We can conclude that housing conditions distinctly affected the rat's behavior in classical laboratory tests.

  2. Motor function recovery of people of mature years after stroke by means of physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khristova T.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of applying the complex technology of physical rehabilitation are described for patients with cerebral ischemic stroke during the phase of in-patient rehabilitation. The experiment involved 36 male patients aged 45-50 years. The rehabilitation program included treatment by changing position, complex of therapeutic gymnastics (based on sanogenetic approach to the problem of motor function recovery in accordance with the stages of postnatal ontogenesis, magnetic therapy, thermotherapy of large joints of the affected extremities. Findings show that the use of the mentioned methods of treatment leads to increase of the range of motion in the hip and shoulder joints: passive of 15-20%, and active of 10-30%, muscle strength of 10-30%, improvement of motor activity indices (scale of Bobaht and quality of life (scale of Barthel.

  3. Motor programme activating therapy influences adaptive brain functions in multiple sclerosis: clinical and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasova, Kamila; Prochazkova, Marie; Tintera, Jaroslav; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Zimova, Denisa; Stetkarova, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    There is still little scientific evidence for the efficacy of neurofacilitation approaches and their possible influence on brain plasticity and adaptability. In this study, the outcome of a new kind of neurofacilitation approach, motor programme activating therapy (MPAT), was evaluated on the basis of a set of clinical functions and with MRI. Eighteen patients were examined four times with standardized clinical tests and diffusion tensor imaging to monitor changes without therapy, immediately after therapy and 1 month after therapy. Moreover, the strength of effective connectivity was analysed before and after therapy. Patients underwent a 1-h session of MPAT twice a week for 2 months. The data were analysed by nonparametric tests of association and were subsequently statistically evaluated. The therapy led to significant improvement in clinical functions, significant increment of fractional anisotropy and significant decrement of mean diffusivity, and decrement of effective connectivity at supplementary motor areas was observed immediately after the therapy. Changes in clinical functions and diffusion tensor images persisted 1 month after completing the programme. No statistically significant changes in clinical functions and no differences in MRI-diffusion tensor images were observed without physiotherapy. Positive immediate and long-term effects of MPAT on clinical and brain functions, as well as brain microstructure, were confirmed.

  4. Aging with HIV-1 Infection: Motor Functions, Cognition, and Attention--A Comparison with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaughn, S; Müller-Oehring, E M; Markey, B; Brontë-Stewart, H M; Schulte, T

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in their various combinations have dramatically increased the life expectancies of HIV-infected persons. People diagnosed with HIV are living beyond the age of 50 but are experiencing the cumulative effects of HIV infection and aging on brain function. In HIV-infected aging individuals, the potential synergy between immunosenescence and HIV viral loads increases susceptibility to HIV-related brain injury and functional brain network degradation similar to that seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the aging population. Although there are clear diagnostic differences in the primary pathology of both diseases, i.e., death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra in PD and neuroinflammation in HIV, neurotoxicity to dopaminergic terminals in the basal ganglia (BG) has been implied in the pathogenesis of HIV and neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of PD. Similar to PD, HIV infection affects structures of the BG, which are part of interconnected circuits including mesocorticolimbic pathways linking brainstem nuclei to BG and cortices subserving attention, cognitive control, and motor functions. The present review discusses the combined effects of aging and neuroinflammation in HIV individuals on cognition and motor function in comparison with age-related neurodegenerative processes in PD. Despite the many challenges, some HIV patients manage to age successfully, most likely by redistribution of neural network resources to enhance function, as occurs in healthy elderly; such compensation could be curtailed by emerging PD.

  5. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Prosperini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations.

  6. A case of polymicrogyria in macaque monkey: impact on anatomy and function of the motor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouiller Eric M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymicrogyria is a malformation of the cerebral cortex often resulting in epilepsy or mental retardation. It remains unclear whether this pathology affects the structure and function of the corticospinal (CS system. The anatomy and histology of the brain of one macaque monkey exhibiting a spontaneous polymicrogyria (PMG monkey were examined and compared to the brain of normal monkeys. The CS tract was labelled by injecting a neuronal tracer (BDA unilaterally in a region where low intensity electrical microstimulation elicited contralateral hand movements (presumably the primary motor cortex in the PMG monkey. Results The examination of the brain showed a large number of microgyri at macro- and microscopic levels, covering mainly the frontoparietal regions. The layered cortical organization was locally disrupted and the number of SMI-32 stained pyramidal neurons in the cortical layer III of the presumed motor cortex was reduced. We compared the distribution of labelled CS axons in the PMG monkey at spinal cervical level C5. The cumulated length of CS axon arbors in the spinal grey matter was not significantly different in the PMG monkey. In the red nucleus, numerous neurons presented large vesicles. We also assessed its motor performances by comparing its capacity to execute a complex reach and grasp behavioral task. The PMG monkey exhibited an increase of reaction time without any modification of other motor parameters, an observation in line with a normal CS tract organisation. Conclusion In spite of substantial cortical malformations in the frontal and parietal lobes, the PMG monkey exhibits surprisingly normal structure and function of the corticospinal system.

  7. Assessment of motor function, sensory motor gating and recognition memory in a novel BACHD transgenic rat model for huntington disease.

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    Abada, Yah-Se K; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Schreiber, Rudy; Ellenbroek, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is frequently first diagnosed by the appearance of motor symptoms; the diagnosis is subsequently confirmed by the presence of expanded CAG repeats (> 35) in the HUNTINGTIN (HTT) gene. A BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full length mutated HTT with 97 CAG-CAA repeats has been established recently. Behavioral phenotyping of BACHD rats will help to determine the validity of this model and its potential use in preclinical drug discovery studies. The present study seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in BACHD rats. Wild type and transgenic rats were tested from 1 till 12 months of age. Motor tests were selected to measure spontaneous locomotor activity (open field) and gait coordination. Sensorimotor gating was assessed in acoustic startle response paradigms and recognition memory was evaluated in an object recognition test. Transgenic rats showed hyperactivity at 1 month and hypoactivity starting at 4 months of age. Motor coordination imbalance in a Rotarod test was present at 2 months and gait abnormalities were seen in a Catwalk test at 12 months. Subtle sensorimotor changes were observed, whereas object recognition was unimpaired in BACHD rats up to 12 months of age. The current BACHD rat model recapitulates certain symptoms from HD patients, especially the marked motor deficits. A subtle neuropsychological phenotype was found and further studies are needed to fully address the sensorimotor phenotype and the potential use of BACHD rats for drug discovery purposes.

  8. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers.

  9. Toxicology and senescence: Baseline variability and toluene effects on the motor function of aging brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapidly expanding population of older adults raises concern in EPA over aging-related vulnerability to environmental exposures. Deficits in motor function are frequent with advancing age. An increase in interindividual variability is also commonly accepted. Increased variabil...

  10. Concurrent Validity of Two Standardized Measures of Gross Motor Function in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby; Biasini, Fred

    2018-04-02

    This study provides information on how two standardized measures based on different theoretical frameworks can be used in collecting information on motor development and performance in 4- and 5-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of the study was to determine the concurrent validity of the Miller Function and Participation Scales (M-FUN) with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2) in young children with ASD. The gross motor sections of the PDMS-2 and the M-FUN were administered to 22 children with ASD between the ages of 48 and 71 months. Concurrent validity between overall motor scores and agreement in identification of motor delay were assessed. A very strong correlation (Pearson's r =.851) was found between the M-FUN scale scores and the PDMS-2 gross motor quotients (GMQs). Strong agreement in identification of children with average motor skills and delayed motor skills at 1.5 standard deviations below the mean was also found. This study supports the concurrent validity of the M-FUN with the PDMS-2 for young children with ASD. While both tests provide information regarding motor delay, the M-FUN may provide additional information regarding the neurological profile of the child.

  11. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli O

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omid Rasouli,1,2 Egil A Fors,3 Petter Chr Borchgrevink,4,5 Fredrik Öhberg,6 Ann-Katrin Stensdotter1 1Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Public Health and Nursing, General Practice Research Unit, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Pain and Palliation Research Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 5National Competence Centre for Complex Symptom Disorders, St. Olav’s University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Radiation Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Purpose: This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS compared to healthy controls (HC.Methods: A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC, age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted.Results: No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively. In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no

  12. Oil palm phenolics confer neuroprotective effects involving cognitive and motor functions in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Soon-Sen; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Tan, YewAi; Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Phenolics are important phytochemicals which have positive effects on chronic diseases, including neurodegenerative ailments. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a rich source of water-soluble phenolics. This study was carried out to discover the effects of administering oil palm phenolics (OPP) to mice, with the aim of identifying whether these compounds possess significant neuroprotective properties. Methods OPP was given to BALB/c mice on a normal diet as fluids for 6 weeks while the controls were given distilled water. These animals were tested in a water maze and on a rotarod weekly to assess the effects of OPP on cognitive and motor functions, respectively. Using Illumina microarrays, we further explored the brain gene expression changes caused by OPP in order to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments were then carried out to validate the microarray data. Results We found that mice given OPP showed better cognitive function and spatial learning when tested in a water maze, and their performance also improved when tested on a rotarod, possibly due to better motor function and balance. Microarray gene expression analysis showed that these compounds up-regulated genes involved in brain development and activity, such as those under the regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor. OPP also down-regulated genes involved in inflammation. Discussion These results suggest that the improvement of mouse cognitive and motor functions by OPP is caused by the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract. PMID:23433062

  13. Absence of alsin function leads to corticospinal motor neuron vulnerability via novel disease mechanisms.

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    Gautam, Mukesh; Jara, Javier H; Sekerkova, Gabriella; Yasvoina, Marina V; Martina, Marco; Özdinler, P Hande

    2016-03-15

    Mutations in the ALS2 gene result in early-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia and juvenile primary lateral sclerosis, suggesting prominent upper motor neuron involvement. However, the importance of alsin function for corticospinal motor neuron (CSMN) health and stability remains unknown. To date, four separate alsin knockout (Alsin(KO)) mouse models have been generated, and despite hopes of mimicking human pathology, none displayed profound motor function defects. This, however, does not rule out the possibility of neuronal defects within CSMN, which is not easy to detect in these mice. Detailed cellular analysis of CSMN has been hampered due to their limited numbers and the complex and heterogeneous structure of the cerebral cortex. In an effort to visualize CSMN in vivo and to investigate precise aspects of neuronal abnormalities in the absence of alsin function, we generated Alsin(KO)-UeGFP mice, by crossing Alsin(KO) and UCHL1-eGFP mice, a CSMN reporter line. We find that CSMN display vacuolated apical dendrites with increased autophagy, shrinkage of soma size and axonal pathology even in the pons region. Immunocytochemistry coupled with electron microscopy reveal that alsin is important for maintaining cellular cytoarchitecture and integrity of cellular organelles. In its absence, CSMN displays selective defects both in mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. UCHL1-eGFP mice help understand the underlying cellular factors that lead to CSMN vulnerability in diseases, and our findings reveal unique importance of alsin function for CSMN health and stability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Effect of dietary fiber and diet particle size on nutrient digestibility and gastrointestinal secretory function in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of diet composition (DC) and particle size (PS) on nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal hormones, total bile acids (TBA), total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in plasma were evaluated in finishing pigs (n=8/diet) fed finely (374±29 µm) or coarsely (631±35 µm) ground corn-soybean m...

  15. Probing the corticospinal link between the motor cortex and motoneurones: some neglected aspects of human motor cortical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E.; Taylor, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    of the discharge of motor units have revealed that the rapidly conducting corticospinal axons (stimulated at higher intensities) contribute to drive motoneurones in normal voluntary contractions. There are also major non-linearities generated at a spinal level in the relation between corticospinal output...... magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex have highlighted the capacity of the cortex to modify its apparent excitability in response to altered afferent inputs, training and various pathologies. Studies using cortical stimulation at 'very low' intensities which elicit only short-latency suppression...

  16. An inclined plane system with microcontroller to determine limb motor function of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wen; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2008-02-15

    This study describes a high-accuracy in