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Sample records for gastroenteritis viruses occurring

  1. Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the "stomach flu?" What you probably had was gastroenteritis - not a type of flu at all. Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the lining of the ... caused by a virus, bacteria or parasites. Viral gastroenteritis is the second most common illness in the ...

  2. Autophagy Negatively Regulates Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Longjun; Yu, Haidong; Gu, Weihong; Luo, Xiaolei; Li, Ren; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Yunfei; Yang, Lijun; Shen, Nan; Feng, Li; Wang, Yue

    2016-03-31

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient pathway that has been shown to be important in the innate immune defense against several viruses. However, little is known about the regulatory role of autophagy in transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) replication. In this study, we found that TGEV infection increased the number of autophagosome-like double- and single-membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm of host cells, a phenomenon that is known to be related to autophagy. In addition, virus replication was required for the increased amount of the autophagosome marker protein LC3-II. Autophagic flux occurred in TGEV-infected cells, suggesting that TGEV infection triggered a complete autophagic response. When autophagy was pharmacologically inhibited by wortmannin or LY294002, TGEV replication increased. The increase in virus yield via autophagy inhibition was further confirmed by the use of siRNA duplexes, through which three proteins required for autophagy were depleted. Furthermore, TGEV replication was inhibited when autophagy was activated by rapamycin. The antiviral response of autophagy was confirmed by using siRNA to reduce the expression of gene p300, which otherwise inhibits autophagy. Together, the results indicate that TGEV infection activates autophagy and that autophagy then inhibits further TGEV replication.

  3. Epidemiology of gastroenteritis viruses in Japan: Prevalence, seasonality, and outbreak.

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    Thongprachum, Aksara; Khamrin, Pattara; Maneekarn, Niwat; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Acute gastroenteritis has been recognized as one of the most common diseases in humans and continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. Several groups of viruses have been reported as the causative agents of acute gastroenteritis, including rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, human astrovirus, adenovirus, and an increasing number of others which have been reported more recently. The epidemiology, prevalence, seasonality, and outbreaks of these viruses have been reviewed in a number of studies conducted in Japan over three decades. Rotavirus and norovirus were the two most common viruses detected almost equally in children under 5 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Like many other countries, the main rotavirus strains circulating in pediatric patients in Japan are G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], and G9P[8]. Norovirus GII.4 was involved in most outbreaks in Japan and found to be associated with the emergence of new variants Sydney_2012. The classic human astrovirus, MLB, and VA clades astroviruses were also commonly found in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. The sapovirus and adenovirus have been identified as the minor viral causative agents for acute gastroenteritis in Japan. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multiple enteropathogenic viruses in a gastroenteritis outbreak in a military exercise of the Portuguese Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-João, António; Costa, Inês; Mesquita, João R; Oleastro, Mónica; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Nascimento, Maria S J

    2015-07-01

    Gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases in the military populations and can diminish operational effectiveness and impede force readiness. The present study investigates the cause and the source of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred during a military exercise of the Portuguese Army, in February 2013. A retrospective investigation was performed and stool samples, food items and water were screened for common foodborne bacteria and viruses, namely Norovirus GI, Norovirus GII, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Sapovirus. From the total of 160 soldiers that participated in the military exercise 20 developed gastroenteritis (attack rate of 12.5%). Symptoms were predominantly vomiting (n=17, 85%) and diarrhoea (n=9, 45%). The first cases occurred 24-48h after drinking water from the creek, the plausible origin of the outbreak. The epidemic peak was registered 2 days after and the last cases 6 days after, upon returning to base. No pathogenic bacteria were found in stools however virological analysis revealed the presence of multiple enteropathogenic viruses, namely Norovirus GI (GI.3), Norovirus GII (GII.4 New Orleans 2009), Astrovirus and Sapovirus, as single or co-infections. Food and water samples were not tested for the presence of viruses due to exhaustion of samples on bacteriological analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a viral gastroenteritis outbreak among military personnel in the Portuguese Army. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Monoclonal antibody against membrane protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuejiao; Ren, Yudong; Li, Yu; Zhu, Jiayi; Zhu, Weijuan; Ding, Fan; Li, Guangxing; Wang, Chunfeng; Gao, Ming; Gao, Yunhang; Cao, Liyan; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus that can cause piglet diarrhea with high mortality rates. TGEV membrane (M) protein not only plays a vital role in the process of virus assembly and budding, but also induces the production of interferon-α during infection. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) designated 7G7, against the TGEV M protein was generated by inoculating BALB/c mice with TGEV followed by hybridoma technique. Immunofluorescence assays indicated that MAb 7G7 was capable of detecting cell infection by TGEV. Virus-based ELISA demonstrated that MAb 7G7 can be used as a highly specific diagnostic reagent for TGEV.

  6. Heterologous Gene Expression from Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Replicon Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kristopher M.; Yount, Boyd; Baric, Ralph S.

    2002-01-01

    We have recently isolated a transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infectious construct designated TGEV 1000 (B. Yount, K. M. Curtis, and R. S. Baric, J. Virol. 74:10600–10611, 2000). Using this construct, a recombinant TGEV was constructed that replaced open reading frame (ORF) 3A with a heterologous gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP). Following transfection of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, a recombinant TGEV (TGEV-GFP2) was isolated that replicated efficiently and expresse...

  7. Temporal distribution of gastroenteritis viruses in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: seasonality of rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Nafissatou; Ngangas, Stephanie Moustapha Tomba; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste Ouindguèta; Tiendrebeogo, Aissatou Bénéwendé; Traore, Kuan Abdoulaye; Sanou, Idrissa; Traore, Alfred Sababénédjo; Barro, Nicolas

    2017-03-21

    Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among children and adults, and continues to cause a major problem of public health in Burkina Faso. The temporal pattern of rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A was studied by examining prevalence of gastroenteritis viruses in association with meteorological variables in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Stool samples from 263 children under 5 years of age and 170 older children patients, adolescent and adults with gastroenteritis were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Enteric viruses were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-) PCR. Temperature, humidity and monthly rainfall were recorded from the National Meteorological Direction. Categorical data were compared by Chi-square tests and the effect of weather variables and monthly prevalence were analyzed using Pearson Correlation Coefficient test. The prevalence of rotavirus infections was significantly higher in the dry season (Season S1) compared to the wet season (season S2) (p = 0.03) among the population of children under 5 years of age. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding other gastroenteritis viruses comparing the dry season and the wet season. Positive cases of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and sapovirus in children under 5 years of age were correlated with temperature (r = -0.68, p = 0.01; r = -0.74, p gastroenteritis. These results can provide valuable information necessary to alert health care providers when a period of infection in the community is likely to occur. The transmission of these viruses in Burkina Faso could depends on multiple factors including climatic variables.

  8. Metagenomic Analysis of Viruses in Feces from Unsolved Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicole E.; Wang, Jing; Hewitt, Joanne; Croucher, Dawn; Williamson, Deborah A.; Paine, Shevaun; Yen, Seiha; Greening, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of an outbreak of gastroenteritis in humans cannot always be determined, and ∼25% of outbreaks remain unsolved in New Zealand. It is hypothesized that novel viruses may account for a proportion of unsolved cases, and new unbiased high-throughput sequencing methods hold promise for their detection. Analysis of the fecal metagenome can reveal the presence of viruses, bacteria, and parasites which may have evaded routine diagnostic testing. Thirty-one fecal samples from 26 gastroenteritis outbreaks of unknown etiology occurring in New Zealand between 2011 and 2012 were selected for de novo metagenomic analysis. A total data set of 193 million sequence reads of 150 bp in length was produced on an Illumina MiSeq. The metagenomic data set was searched for virus and parasite sequences, with no evidence of novel pathogens found. Eight viruses and one parasite were detected, each already known to be associated with gastroenteritis, including adenovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and Dientamoeba fragilis. In addition, we also describe the first detection of human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3) in Australasia. Metagenomics may thus provide a useful audit tool when applied retrospectively to determine where routine diagnostic processes may have failed to detect a pathogen. PMID:25339401

  9. Diversity in the Enteric Viruses Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India

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    Chitambar, Shobha; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi; Chhabra, Preeti; Patil, Pooja; Verma, Harsha; Lahon, Anismrita; Arora, Ritu; Tatte, Vaishali; Ranshing, Sujata; Dhale, Ganesh; Kolhapure, Rajendra; Tikute, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Jagannath; Bhardwaj, Renu; Akarte, Sulbha; Pawar, Sashikant

    2012-01-01

    Faecal specimens collected from two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in southern Mumbai, India in March and October, 2006 were tested for seven different enteric viruses. Among the 218 specimens tested, 95 (43.6%) were positive, 73 (76.8%) for a single virus and 22 (23.2%) for multiple viruses. Single viral infections in both, March and October showed predominance of enterovirus (EV, 33.3% and 40%) and rotavirus A (RVA, 33.3% and 25%). The other viruses detected in these months were norovirus (NoV, 12.1% and 10%), rotavirus B (RVB, 12.1% and 10%), enteric adenovirus (AdV, 6.1% and 7.5%), Aichivirus (AiV, 3% and 7.5%) and human astrovirus (HAstV, 3% and 0%). Mixed viral infections were largely represented by two viruses (84.6% and 88.9%), a small proportion showed presence of three (7.7% and 11%) and four (7.7% and 0%) viruses in the two outbreaks. Genotyping of the viruses revealed predominance of RVA G2P[4], RVB G2 (Indian Bangladeshi lineage), NoV GII.4, AdV-40, HAstV-8 and AiV B types. VP1/2A junction region based genotyping showed presence of 11 different serotypes of EVs. Although no virus was detected in the tested water samples, examination of both water and sewage pipelines in gastroenteritis affected localities indicated leakages and possibility of contamination of drinking water with sewage water. Coexistence of multiple enteric viruses during the two outbreaks of gastroenteritis emphasizes the need to expand such investigations to other parts of India. PMID:22690171

  10. Analysis of Aichi virus and Saffold virus association with pediatric acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Li; Liu, Na; Yu, Jei-Mei; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Li, Shan; Stine, O Colin; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) and Saffold virus (SAFV) have been reported in children with acute gastroenteritis and respiratory disease worldwide; however, their causative role in acute gastroenteritis remains ambiguous. To assess the clinical association of AiV and SAFV with acute gastroenteritis in the pediatric population. A case-control study involving 461 paired stool samples from pediatric cases with diarrhea and healthy controls was conducted in China. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen AiV and SAFV. In the 461 paired samples, AiV and SAFV were more prevalent among asymptomatic children than children with acute gastroenteritis (0.87% vs. 0.43% and 2.8% vs. 1.5%, respectively), with no significant differences between groups (p=0.142 and p=0.478, respectively). Cox regression model analysis revealed no correlation between AiV (odds ratio, OR=2.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-6.54) or SAFV infection (OR=1.36; 95% CI, 0.86-2.15) and diarrhea. High viral loads were found in both AiV- and SAFV-positive groups, with no significant difference in viral load between the groups (p=0.507 and p=0.677, respectively). No other known enteric pathogens were found in the AiV-positive samples but common in SAFV-positive cases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 6 AiV subjects clustered with genotype B. All 7 SAFV-positive cases and 8 of 13 SAFV-positive controls were genotyped successfully; the genotypes identified included SAFV-1, SAFV-2 SAFV-3, and SAFV-6. Our study revealed no association of these viruses in acute gastroenteritis in children. These viruses may have the ability to replicate in humans; however, the infections are usually asymptomatic. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Gastroenteritis: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...

  12. Passive protection of piglets by recombinant baculovirus induced transmissible gastroenteritis virus specific antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuboly, T; Nagy, E; Derbyshire, J B

    1995-01-01

    Sera of pigs immunized with parts of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) protein expressed by recombinant baculoviruses were tested, together with a TGEV hyperimmune antiserum, for their abilities to protect three-day-old piglets against TGEV infection. The piglets were infected with virulent TGEV and the sera were given orally 3 h before infection, together with the virus, and every 6 h postinfection during the 30 h of the experiment. Virus shedding was monitored by TGEV...

  13. Morphogenesis and proliferative rule of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenhui; Dai, Xianjin; Ye, Cuifang; Li, Yuntian; Wang, Li; Hu, Yang

    2016-12-01

    To gain a better understanding of the replication, proliferation and infection characteristics of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), this study established a cell model of IECs infected with the Chongqing (CQ) strain of TGEV. The morphogenesis and proliferative rule of TGEV in porcine IECs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence assays and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Observations under the TEM indicated that the enveloped viral particles were roughly spherical, with diameters of between 80 and 120nm. The virions entered porcine IECs by membrane fusion and the mature viruses in the vacuoles were transported to the cell membrane before release. The results also showed that from 0 to 12h after TGEV infection of porcine IECs, the intracellular viral RNA content did not change significantly. Logarithmic growth occurred from 12 to 36h, after which it gradually decreased. Moreover, the extracellular RNA content began to rise at 24h after inoculation and then reduced gradually at approximately 48h. This study provided a theoretical foundation for further study on the infection characteristics of TGEV in target cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of Norwalk-like virus infections in cases of viral gastroenteritis among children in Osaka City, Japan.

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    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hideyuki; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2003-04-01

    Surveillance of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) infections in cases of pediatric gastroenteritis between April 1996 and March 2000 showed that NLVs were an important causative agent in viral gastroenteritis cases among children between November and January in those years. The predominant type of NLV was closely related to Lordsdale virus in genogroup 2. During the 1999-2000 season, Arg320-like strains, which may be genetic recombinants, suddenly appeared and spread.

  15. Prevalence of Norwalk-Like Virus Infections in Cases of Viral Gastroenteritis among Children in Osaka City, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hideyuki; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2003-01-01

    Surveillance of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) infections in cases of pediatric gastroenteritis between April 1996 and March 2000 showed that NLVs were an important causative agent in viral gastroenteritis cases among children between November and January in those years. The predominant type of NLV was closely related to Lordsdale virus in genogroup 2. During the 1999-2000 season, Arg320-like strains, which may be genetic recombinants, suddenly appeared and spread.

  16. [Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málaga, Germán; Gayoso, Oscar; Lazo, María de Los Angeles; Torres, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  17. Detection and characterisation of novel bocavirus (genus Bocaparvovirus and gastroenteritis viruses from asymptomatic pigs in Ireland

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    Lynda Gunn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Livestock animals have been the assumed source of several human epidemics in recent years, for example, influenza H1N1, rotavirus G8/G9, and MERS-CoV. Surveillance of novel viruses in animals is essential to evaluate the risk to human and animal health and to determine any economic impact, for example, failure to thrive. There is a paucity of data regarding detection and characterisation of gastroenteritis viruses, particularly novel viruses, in porcines in Ireland. Recently, a number of small novel porcine DNA viruses have emerged globally, for example, torque teno sus virus, porcine bocavirus, and parvoviruses 2 & 4, and little is known about the biology and potential pathogenicity of these viruses. Bocaparvovirus is a genetically distinct group of viruses which has been recently detected in humans and animals. Methods: In this study, the presence of gastroenteritis viruses (rotavirus A, porcine circovirus, adenovirus, and porcine bocavirus was investigated in a selection of archived faecal samples from asymptomatic piglets from a commercial farm in Ireland. A total of 104 specimens were pooled and screened using conventional molecular techniques (PCR and RT-PCR, a subset of specimens (n=44 were then examined individually. Viral diversity was then investigated using statistical and phylogenetic techniques. Results: Initial screening showed a high prevalence of PBoV in this farm, with the formation of three distinct groups in phylogenetic analysis. Other viruses were also investigated in this study with the first report of PCV, PAdV and lineage I G5 RVA in Ireland. Some specimens contained >1 virus, with statistical analysis indicating a strong correlation for mixed infections of PBoV and PAdV on this farm. Conclusion: Investigating the diversity of circulating enteric viruses on Irish porcine farms is important to improve the prophylactic tools available and to facilitate the early detection of changes in circulating viruses.

  18. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection induces apoptosis through FasL- and mitochondria-mediated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Xu, Xingang; Huang, Yong; Li, Zhaocai; Zhang, Kuan; Chen, Guangda; Yu, Gaoshui; Wang, Zhisheng; Li, Wei; Tong, Dewen

    2012-07-06

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) has been reported to induce apoptosis in swine testis (ST) cells. However, the mechanisms underlying TGEV-induced apoptosis are still unclear. In this study we observed that TGEV infection induced apoptosis in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TGEV infection up-regulated FasL, activated FasL-mediated apoptotic pathway, leading to activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid. In addition, TGEV infection down-regulated Bcl-2, up-regulated Bax expression, promoted translocation of Bax to mitochondria, activated mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which in turn caused the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9. Both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways activated downstream effector caspase-3, followed by the cleavage of PARP, resulting in cell apoptosis. Moreover, TGEV infection did not induce significant DNA fragmentation in ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl) pretreated PK-15 cells or cells infected with UV-inactivated TGEV. In turn, block of caspases activation also did not affect TGEV replication. Taken together, this study demonstrates that TGEV-induced apoptosis is dependent on viral replication in PK-15 cells and occurs through activation of FasL- and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Viruses Causing Gastroenteritis: The Known, The New and Those Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Munnink, Bas B; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-02-08

    The list of recently discovered gastrointestinal viruses is expanding rapidly. Whether these agents are actually involved in a disease such as diarrhea is the essential question, yet difficult to answer. In this review a summary of all viruses found in diarrhea is presented, together with the current knowledge about their connection to disease.

  20. Viruses Causing Gastroenteritis: The Known, The New and Those Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Munnink, Bas B.; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-01-01

    The list of recently discovered gastrointestinal viruses is expanding rapidly. Whether these agents are actually involved in a disease such as diarrhea is the essential question, yet difficult to answer. In this review a summary of all viruses found in diarrhea is presented, together with the

  1. Prevalence of antibodies against transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus among pigs in six regions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Ayako; Fukuda, Masaharu; Kuga, Kazufumi; Takagi, Michihiro; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    A total of 2,703 pig sera from 171 farms in six regions in Japan were screened for virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). Although none of the farms had clinical signs of transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) or vaccination against TGEV, VN antibody was detected in 14.4% of sera at 30 farms (17.5%) across all six regions. On testing of 263 VN antibody-positive sera from 27 farms with a commercial blocking ELISA to distinguish TGEV and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) antibodies, 78.3% were positive for PRCV antibody only, while 12.5% were positive for TGEV antibody only or both TGEV and PRCV antibodies. Seven of the eight TGEV antibody-positive farms were also positive for PRCV antibody. Five months after the antibody examination, a TGE outbreak occurred at one of these seven farms. These results suggest that most of the detected VN antibodies were to PRCV, and that TGEV infection might be present at some PRCV-positive farms in Japan.

  2. Lactogenic immunity to transmissible gastroenteritis virus induced by a subunit immunogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, P M; Frank, C J; Moore, D G; Sagona, M A; Johnson, C J

    1983-12-01

    A subunit prepared from transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus and used to immunize 24 gilts prior to farrowing induced production of specific antibody in the serum and milk. Challenge of pigs, two to seven days of age and suckling on the vaccinated gilts, with the Illinois strain of TGE virus resulted in morbidity of 28% and mortality of 4% as compared with 100 and 73%, respectively, for control piglets. Piglets nursing on a sow which had been immunized approximately 10 months previously were not protected, indicating that lactogenic immunity may be of short duration. Revaccination of this animal resulted in an anamnestic response.

  3. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  4. Antigenic relationships among porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Ming; Gao, Xiang; Oka, Tomoichiro; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Esseili, Malak A; Wang, Qiuhong; Saif, Linda J

    2015-03-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) are economically important swine enteropathogenic coronaviruses. These two viruses belong to two distinct species of the Alphacoronavirus genus within Coronaviridae and induce similar clinical signs and pathological lesions in newborn piglets, but they are presumed to be antigenically distinct. In the present study, two-way antigenic cross-reactivity examinations between the prototype PEDV CV777 strain, three distinct U.S. PEDV strains (the original highly virulent PC22A, S indel Iowa106, and S 197del PC177), and two representative U.S. TGEV strains (Miller and Purdue) were conducted by cell culture immunofluorescent (CCIF) and viral neutralization (VN) assays. None of the pig TGEV antisera neutralized PEDV and vice versa. One-way cross-reactions were observed by CCIF between TGEV Miller hyperimmune pig antisera and all PEDV strains. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies and Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant PEDV and TGEV nucleocapsid (N) proteins, and sequence analysis suggested at least one epitope on the N-terminal region of PEDV/TGEV N protein that contributed to this cross-reactivity. Biologically, PEDV strain CV777 induced greater cell fusion in Vero cells than did U.S. PEDV strains. Consistent with the reported genetic differences, the results of CCIF and VN assays also revealed higher antigenic variation between PEDV CV777 and U.S. strains. Evidence of antigenic cross-reactivity between porcine enteric coronaviruses, PEDV and TGEV, in CCIF assays supports the idea that these two species are evolutionarily related, but they are distinct species defined by VN assays. Identification of PEDV- or TGEV-specific antigenic regions allows the development of more specific immunoassays for each virus. Antigenic and biologic variations between the prototype and current PEDV strains could explain, at least partially, the recurrence of PEDV

  5. Brote de gastroenteritis por virus Norwalk en una residencia de ancianos de Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro Nievas Diego

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los brotes de gastroenteritis aguda de origen vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal-Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15-18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  6. Identification of anti-viral activity of the cardenolides, Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors, against porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Hsu, Hsing-Yu; Lee, Yue-Zhi; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2017-10-01

    A series of naturally occurring cardenolides that exhibit potent anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) activity in swine testicular (ST) cells has been identified. In an immunofluorescence assay, these cardenolides were found to diminish the expressions of TGEV nucleocapsid and spike protein, which was used as an indication for viral replication; block TGEV infection induced apoptosis and cytopathic effects; and impart the same trend of inhibitory activity against Na + /K + -ATPase as for anti-TGEV activity. The viral titer inhibition was found to take place in a dose-dependent manner. Knocking down expression of Na + /K + -ATPase, the cellular receptor of cardenolides, in ST cells was found to significantly impair the susceptibility of ST cells to TGEV infectivity. Thus, we have identified Na + /K + -ATPase as an anti-viral drug target and its antagonists, cardenolides, a novel class of anti- TGEV agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  8. Inhibition of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) replication in mini-pigs by shRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Huang, Fen; Hua, Xiuguo; Cui, Li; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Yan; Yan, Yijia; Chen, Piren; Ding, Dezhong; Mou, Jing; Chen, Qi; Lan, Daoliang; Yang, Zhibiao

    2010-04-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is the causative agent of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE), characterized by high mortality and severely retarded growth in piglets that dramatically affects the porcine industry. Previously, we have identified two shRNA-expressing plasmids pEGFP-U6/P1 and pEGFP-U6/P2 that target RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) gene of TGEV with more than 95% of virus inhibition in vitro. In this study, inhibition of the TGEV replication by pEGFP-U6/P1 and pEGFP-U6/P2 was tested in mini-pigs. SPF mini-pigs at 25 days old were injected with the shRNA-expressing plasmids and then infected with TGEV. The results from the analyses of clinical signs, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and RT-PCR show that the two shRNA-expressing plasmids could significantly decrease the quantity of TGEV in different organs and protect mini-pigs from TGEV infection. These findings illustrate the prospect for TGEV-specific shRNAs to be new anti-TGEV agents. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A large outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with a small round structured virus among schoolchildren and teachers in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, S.; Morishita, T.; Yamashita, T.; Sakae, K.; Nishio, O.; Miyake, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Isomura, S.

    1991-01-01

    In March 1989 a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred simultaneously among schoolchildren and teachers at nine elementary schools in Toyota City, Japan. Illness was observed in 3236 (41.5%) of 7801 schoolchildren and 117 (39.4%) of 297 teachers. The main clinical symptoms were diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain. Gastroenteritis was significantly associated with the consumption of school lunch served by one particular lunch preparation centre. One food handler at the cen...

  10. Management of hospital outbreaks of gastro-enteritis due to small roundstructured viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, P R; Beards, G; Brown, D; Caul, E O; Cheesbrough, J; Clarke, I; Curry, A; O'Brien, S; Quigley, K; Sellwood, J; Westmoreland, D

    2000-05-01

    Small round structured viruses (SRSVs, Norwalk-like viruses, NLVs) are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastro-enteritis in hospitals and also cause outbreaks in other settings such as schools, hotels, nursing homes and cruise ships. Hospital outbreaks often lead to ward closure and major disruption in hospital activity. Outbreaks usually affect both patients and staff, sometimes with attack rates in excess of 50%. For this reason, staff shortages can be severe, particularly if several wards are involved at the same time. SRSVs may be spread by several routes: faecal-oral; vomiting/aerosols; food and water. Viruses may be introduced into the ward environment by any of these routes and then propagated by person-to-person spread. In an outbreak setting, the diagnosis can usually be made rapidly and confidently on clinical and epidemiological grounds, particularly if vomiting is a prominent symptom. By the time an SRSV outbreak has been recognized at ward level, most susceptible individuals will have been exposed to the virus and infection control efforts must prioritize the prevention of spread of infection to other clinical areas bycontainment of infected/exposed individuals (especially the prevention of patient and staff movements to other areas), hand-hygiene and effective environmental decontamination. This report of the Public Health Laboratory Service Viral Gastro-enteritis Working Group reviews the epidemiology of outbreaks of infection due to SRSVs and makes recommendations for their management in the hospital setting. The basic principles which underpin these recommendations will also be applicable to the management of some community-based institutional outbreaks. Copyright 2000 The Hospital Infection Society.

  11. BROTE DE GASTROENTERITIS POR VIRUS NORWALK EN UNA RESIDENCIA DE ANCIANOS DE GRANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Almagro Nievas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal- Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15- 18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  12. Phage-display for identifying peptides that bind the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and possess diagnostic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spike (S) protein is a key structural protein of coronaviruses including, the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The S protein is a type I membrane glycoprotein located in the viral envelope and is responsible for mediating the binding of viral particles to specific cell recepto...

  13. [Gastroenteritis outbreak associated with water consumption, possibly caused by Norwalk or Norwalk-like virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chover Lara, J L; Pastor Vicente, S; Roig Sena, J; Roselló Pérez, M; Salvo Samanes, C; Castellanos Martínez, I

    1995-01-01

    It is described an acute gastroenteritis outbreak of probable hydric transmission in Ontinyent (Valencia). It was declared on the 31st of January, 1992 and affected 3541 people according to the declaration done by the sanitary services who attended the patients. The clinical situation was characterized by the presence of profuse and watery diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever or febricula. A preliminary study of the cases has been done, the information being treated with the classical method of descriptive epidemiology and a later study of the transversal observation type by means of a telephone inquiry. The results show that this outbreak affected approximately to a 30% of the population, and show the relation between consumption of water from the municipal water system and the outbreak, as well as the existence of a control population not affected for receiving a different water supply. Once rejected the bacterial origin for the results of the copro-cultivation done the analysis of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the outbreak, show a total agreement with the criteria described by Kaplan to characterize acute gastroenteritis outbreaks because of Norwalk-like virus.

  14. Generation of a Replication-Competent, Propagation-Deficient Virus Vector Based on the Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Ortego, Javier; Escors, David; Laude, Hubert; Enjuanes, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Replication-competent propagation-deficient virus vectors based on the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) genome that are deficient in the essential E gene have been developed by complementation within E+ packaging cell lines. Cell lines expressing the TGEV E protein were established using the noncytopathic Sindbis virus replicon pSINrep21. In addition, cell lines stably expressing the E gene under the CMV promoter have been developed. The Sindbis replicon vector and the ectopic...

  15. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1) Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahwan, Katarina; Hesse, Martina; Mork, Ann-Kathrin; Herrler, Georg; Winter, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins. PMID:23896748

  16. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1 Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins.

  17. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Infection Enhances SGLT1 and GLUT2 Expression to Increase Glucose Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Hu, Wei Wei; Xia, Lu; Xia, Mi; Yang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus that causes villus atrophy, followed by crypt hyperplasia, reduces the activities of intestinal digestive enzymes, and disrupts the absorption of intestinal nutrients. In vivo, TGEV primarily targets and infects intestinal epithelial cells, which play an important role in glucose absorption via the apical and basolateral transporters Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), respectively. In this study, we therefore sought to evaluate the effects of TGEV infection on glucose uptake and SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression. Our data demonstrate that infection with TGEV resulted in increased glucose uptake and augmented expression of EGFR, SGLT1 and GLUT2. Moreover, inhibition studies showed that EGFR modulated glucose uptake in control and TGEV infected cells. Finally, high glucose absorption was subsequently found to promote TGEV replication.

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that transmissible gastroenteritis virus activates the JAK-STAT1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Xie, Lilan; Yang, Jing; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2014-12-05

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets. In this study, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled to isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used to quantitatively identify differentially expressed cellular proteins after TGEV infection in PK-15 cells. In total, 162 differentially expressed cellular proteins were identified, including 60 upregulated proteins and 102 downregulated proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, the innate immune response, etc. Interestingly, many upregulated proteins were associated with interferon signaling, especially signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Immunoblotting and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that TGEV infection induces STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, as well as ISG expression. This study for the first time reveals that TGEV induces interferon signaling from the point of proteomic analysis.

  19. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2013-12-06

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: identification of M protein-binding peptide ligands with antiviral and diagnostic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hao; Zarlenga, Dante S; Sestak, Karol; Suo, Siqingaowa; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2013-09-01

    The membrane (M) protein is one of the major structural proteins of coronavirus particles. In this study, the M protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was used to biopan a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. Three phages expressing TGEV-M-binding peptides were identified and characterized in more depth. A phage-based immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) capable of differentiating TGEV from other coronaviruses was developed using one phage, phTGEV-M7, as antigen. When the phage-ELISA was compared to conventional antibody-based ELISA for detecting infections, phage-ELISA exhibited greater sensitivity. A chemically synthesized, TGEV-M7 peptide (pepTGEV-M7; HALTPIKYIPPG) was evaluated for antiviral activity. Plaque-reduction assays revealed that pepTGEV-M7 was able to prevent TGEV infection in vitro (p<0.01) following pretreatment of the virus with the peptide. Indirect immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR confirmed the inhibitory effects of the peptide. These results indicate that pepTGEV-M7 might be utilized for virus-specific diagnostics and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Widespread environmental contamination with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) detected in a prolonged hotel outbreak of gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesbrough, J S; Green, J; Gallimore, C I; Wright, P A; Brown, D W

    2000-08-01

    A protracted outbreak of Norwalk-like virus (NLV)-associated gastroenteritis occurred in a large hotel in North-West England between January and May 1996. We investigated the pattern of environmental contamination with NLV in the hotel during and after the outbreak. In the ninth week, 144 environmental swabs taken from around the hotel were tested for NLV by nested RT-PCR. The sites were categorized according to the likelihood of direct contamination with vomit/faeces. The highest proportion of positive samples were detected in directly contaminated carpets, but amplicons were detected in sites above 1.5 m which are unlikely to have been contaminated directly. The trend in positivity of different sites paralleled the diminishing likelihood of direct contamination. A second environmental investigation of the same sites 5 months after the outbreak had finished were all negative by RT-PCR. This study demonstrates for the first time the extent of environmental contamination that may occur during a large NLV outbreak.

  2. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection induces NF-κB activation through RLR-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; An, Kang; Xie, Lilan; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Ruoxi; Wang, Dang; Fang, Ying; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo; Fang, Liurong

    2017-07-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine enteric coronavirus which causes lethal severe watery diarrhea in piglets. The pathogenesis of TGEV is strongly associated with inflammation. In this study, we found that TGEV infection activates transcription factors NF-κB, IRF3 and AP-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in porcine kidney cells. Treatment with the NF-κB-specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 significantly decreased TGEV-induced proinflammatory cytokine production, but did not affect virus replication. Phosphorylation of NF-κB subunit p65 and proinflammatory cytokine production were greatly decreased after knockdown of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) or its adaptors MAVS and STING, while only slight reduction was observed in cells following silencing of Toll-like receptor adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF. Furthermore, TGEV infection significantly upregulated mRNA expression of RIG-I and MDA5. Taken together, our results indicate that the RLR signaling pathway is involved in TGEV-induced inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of a natural recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis virus between Purdue and Miller clusters in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Yunnuan; Zhu, Xiangdong; Shi, Hongyan; Chen, Jianfei; Shi, Da; Yuan, Jing; Cao, Liyan; Liu, Jianbo; Dong, Hui; Jing, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Jialin; Wang, Xiaobo; Feng, Li

    2017-08-23

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is an infective coronavirus (CoV) that causes diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality in piglets. For the first time, a natural recombination strain of a TGEV Anhui Hefei (AHHF) virus between the Purdue and the Miller clusters was isolated from the small intestine content of piglets in China. A phylogenetic tree based on a complete genome sequence placed the TGEV AHHF strain between the Purdue and the Miller clusters. The results of a computational analysis of recombination showed that the TGEV AHHF strain is a natural recombinant strain between these clusters. Two breakpoints located in the open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) and spike (S) genes were identified. The pathogenicity of the TGEV AHHF strain was evaluated in piglets, and the results show that TGEV AHHF is an enteric pathogenic strain. These results provide valuable information about the recombination and evolution of CoVs and will facilitate future investigations of the molecular pathogenesis of TGEV.

  4. Outbreak of small round structured virus gastroenteritis arose after kitchen assistant vomited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, W; Haswell, P; Fryers, P T; Green, J

    1997-06-27

    A wedding reception at a North Yorkshire hotel was followed by an explosive outbreak of gastroenteritis. The attack rate among the 111 guests was 50% and vomiting was a predominant feature. The results of laboratory and epidemiological investigations were consistent with a common source outbreak of small round structured virus (SRSV) infection genotype II. The source of the outbreak was traced to a kitchen assistant who suddenly became ill on the eve of the reception and vomited into a sink used for preparing vegetables. The sink was cleaned with a chlorine based disinfectant and used the next morning to prepare a potato salad, subsequently identified as the vehicle of infection in a cohort study of guests (odds ratio 3.21; CI 1.78-5.78, p = 0.0001). No other food was associated with illness. The outbreak provides further supporting evidence of the importance of vomiting in the transmission of SRSV infection, highlights the virulence of this group of viruses, and indicates their relative resistance to environmental disinfection and decontamination. It also highlights the need for the adequate training of catering staff and the implementation and enforcement of food hygiene regulations.

  5. Cooperation between transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) structural proteins in the in vitro induction of virus-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, I M; González, S; Bullido, M J; Corsín, M; Risco, C; Langeveld, J P; Enjuanes, L

    1996-12-01

    Following infection of haplotype defined NIH-miniswine with virulent transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV), isolated mesenteric lymph node CD4+ T-cells mounted a specific proliferative response against infectious or inactivated purified virus in secondary in vitro stimulation. A specific, dose-dependent response to the three major recombinant viral proteins: spike (S), membrane (M), and nucleoprotein (N), purified by affinity chromatography, was characterized. Induction of in vitro antibody synthesis was analyzed. The purified recombinant viral proteins induced the in vitro synthesis of neutralizing TGEV-specific antibodies when porcine TGEV-immune cells were stimulated with each of the combinations made with two of the major structural proteins: S + N, S + M, and to a minor extent with M + N, but not by the individual proteins. S-protein was dissociated from purified virus using NP-40 detergent and then micellar S-protein oligomers (S-rosettes) were formed by removing the detergent. These occurred preferentially by the association of more than 10 S-protein trimmers. These S-rosettes in collaboration with either N or M-proteins elicited TGEV-specific antibodies with titers up to 84 and 60%, respectively, of those induced by the whole virus. N-protein could be partially substituted by a 15-mer peptide that represents a T helper epitope previously identified in N-protein (Antón et al. (1995)). These results indicate that the induction of high levels of TGEV-specific antibodies requires stimulation by at least two viral proteins, and that optimum responses are induced by a combination of S-rosettes and the nucleoprotein.

  6. The epidermal growth factor receptor regulates cofilin activity and promotes transmissible gastroenteritis virus entry into intestinal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Weiwei; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Xing; Lin, Jian; Yang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus, causes severe diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets. The porcine intestinal epithelium is the target of TGEV infection, but the mechanisms that TGEV disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and invades the host epithelium remain largely unknown. We not only found that TGEV infection stimulates F-actin to gather at the cell membrane but the disruption of F-actin inhibits TGEV entry as well. Cofilin is involved in F-actin reorganization...

  7. Detection of Enteric Viruses in Fecal Specimens from Nonbacterial Foodborne Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Tokyo, Japan between 1966 and 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kohji; Nagano, Miyuki; Kimoto, Kana; Somura, Yoshiko; Akiba, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Yukinao; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2017-03-24

    We investigated the prevalence of 5 enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], sapovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus) in archived stool specimens collected from 70 foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Tokyo, Japan, which occurred from 1966 to 1983, and genetically characterized these viruses. NoV was detected in 48 (68.6%) outbreaks, while SaV, group C rotavirus (RVC), and astrovirus were detected in 1 (1.4%) outbreak each. Based on the partial capsid sequences, the detected NoVs were classified into the following genotypes: 9 in genogroup I (GI; GI.1-6, GI.8, GI.9, and GI.NA), 13 GII (GII.1-9, GII.13, GII.16, GII.17, and GII.22), and one in GIV. The oldest NoV outbreaks occurred in 1966. No predominant genotype was found. One strain, classified as GI. NA based on the N/S region sequence, was subsequently classified as GI.8 based on the complete VP1 sequence. Nine types of recombinant NoV sequences, including 7 unreported combinations, were identified. Further genetic characterization of NoV GII.17 and GII.4 demonstrated that the NoV GII.17 strains detected from 1970 to 1982 clustered independently from previously reported NoV GII.17 strains. Phylogenetic analysis, using the complete VP1 region and the P2 domain, demonstrated that NoV GII.4 strains collected between 1975 and 1980 clustered with archival strains collected in the USA in the mid-1970s. In contrast, a NoV GII.4 strain collected in 1983 formed an independent branch from reference strains collected in the mid-1970s to 2012.

  8. Immunogenicity of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) M gene delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Ying; Liu, Jiawen; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Yaqing; Zhang, Yudi; Chen, Jie; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Yan, Qigui; Ma, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) was selected as a transgenic vehicle for the development of live mucosal vaccines against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) based on the M gene. An approximate 1.0 kb DNA fragment, encoding for glycoprotein M, was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX-M was transformed by electroporation into attenuated S. typhimurium SL7207, and the expression and translation of the pVAX-M delivered by recombinant S. typhimurium SL7207 (pVAX-M) was detected both in vitro and in vivo. BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with SL7207 (pVAX-M) at different dosages to evaluate safety of the vaccines. The bacterium was safe to mice at a dosage of 2 × 10(9) CFU, almost eliminated from the spleen and liver at week 4 post-immunization and eventually cleared at week 6. Mice immunized with 1 × 10(9) CFU of SL7207 (pVAX-M) elicited specific anti-TGEV local mucosal and humoral responses including levels of IgA, IgG, IL-4, and IFN-γ as measured by indirect ELISA assay. Moreover, the control groups (pVAX group, PBS group) maintained at a normal level during week 4-8 post-immunization. The results indicated that attenuated S. typhimurium could be used as a delivery vector for oral immunization of TGEV M gene vaccine.

  9. Characterization and utility of monoclonal antibodies against spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, F; Ren, X

    2011-03-01

    This work aims to characterize the utility of four newly generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). Four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the N-terminal half of spike protein (S1 protein) of TGEV were identified. Affinity constant of these mAbs was analysed. These mAbs were capable of reacting with the TGEV S1 protein analysed by ELISA and Western blot. A competition assay between the different mAbs was performed to determine whether the different antibodies mapped in the same or a different antigenic region of the protein. Investigation on the neutralizing ability of these mAbs indicated that two of these mAbs completely neutralized TGEV at an appropriate concentration. These mAbs were able to detect the TGEV-infected cells in immunofluorescence assays and Western blot. Moreover, they differentiated TGEV S protein from other control proteins. The generated four mAbs are very specific, and the established immunofluorescence assays, Western blot and discrimination ELISA are useful approaches for detecting of TGEV. It is a novel report regarding the use of the S1 protein of TGEV to generate specific mAbs. Their utility and the established immunoassays contribute to the surveillance of TGE coronavirus. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of transmissible gastroenteritis virus HX strain isolated from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoliang; Li, Nannan; Tian, Zhige; Yin, Xin; Qu, Liandong; Qu, Juanjuan

    2015-03-21

    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is the major etiological agent of viral enteritis and severe diarrhea in suckling piglets. In China, TGEV has caused great economic losses, but its role in epidemic diarrhea is unclear. This study aims to reveal the etiological role of TGEV in piglet diarrhea via molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis. A TGEV-HX strain was isolated from China, and its complete genome was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that it was conserved in the 5' and 3'-non-translated regions, and there were no insertions or deletions in nonstructural genes, such as ORF1a, ORF1b, ORF3a, ORF3b, and ORF7, as well as in genes encoding structural proteins, such as the envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleoprotein (N) proteins. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that the TGEV-HX strain was more similar to the TGEV Purdue cluster than to the Miller cluster. The present study described the isolation and genetic characterization of a TGEV-HX strain. The detailed analysis of the genetic variation of TGEVs in China provides essential information for further understanding the evolution of TGEVs.

  11. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  12. [Nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinosci, A; Doit, C; Koehl, B; Belhacel, K; Mariani Kurkdjian, P; Melki, I; Renaud, A; Lemaitre, C; Ammar Khodja, N; Blachier, A; Bonacorsi, S; Faye, A; Lorrot, M

    2016-11-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children requiring hospitalization. It is a very resistant and contagious virus causing nosocomial gastroenteritis. In France, the vaccine against rotavirus has been available since 2006, but the vaccine is not recommended for infant vaccination. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (NRGE) and to assess its impact on children hospitalized in the General Pediatrics Department of Robert-Debré Hospital (Paris) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. We analyzed the demographic characteristics of children (age, term birth, underlying diseases) and the severity of the NRGE (oral or intravenous hydration), and assessed whether these children could benefit from vaccination against rotavirus. One hundred thirty-six children presented nosocomial rotavirus infection, with an incidence of 2.5 NRGE per 1000 days of hospitalization. The incidence of NRGE was stable between 2009 and 2013 despite the introduction of specific hygiene measures. The average age of the children was 7 months (range: 0.5-111 months). Most often NRGE occurred in children hospitalized for respiratory diseases (65% of cases) and requiring prolonged hospitalization (median: 18 days). One-third of children were born premature (25%). Hydration was oral in 80 patients (59%), by intravenous infusion in 18 patients (13%), and intraosseous in one patient. Half of the patients were aged less than 5 months and could benefit from the protection afforded by vaccination. NRGE are common. Rotavirus mass vaccination should have a positive impact on the incidence of NRGE by reducing the number of children hospitalized for gastroenteritis, therefore indirectly reducing the number of hospital cross-infections of hospitalized children who are too young to be vaccinated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) Infection Alters the Expression of Cellular MicroRNA Species That Affect Transcription of TGEV Gene 7

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiangjun; Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Xiang, Hailing; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a member of Coronaviridae family. TGEV infection has emerged as a major cause of severe gastroenteritis and leads to alterations of many cellular processes. Meanwhile, the pathogenic mechanism of TGEV is still unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small non-coding RNAs which are involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes such as viral infection and cell apoptosis. Accumulating data show that miRNAs are involved in the p...

  14. Prevalence of human cosavirus and saffold virus with an emergence of saffold virus genotype 6 in patients hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menage, Lucy; Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Khamrin, Pattara; Kumthip, Kattareeya; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2017-09-01

    Human cosavirus and saffold virus are both newly discovered members of the Picornaviridae family. It has been suggested that these viruses may be the causative agents of acute gastroenteritis. In this study, 1093 stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis between January 2014 and December 2016, were screened for cosavirus and saffold virus using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The viral genotypes were then established via nucleotide sequencing. Here, cosavirus was detected in 16 of 1093 stool samples (1.5%) and saffold virus was detected in 18 of 1093 stool samples (1.6%). The saffold virus genotypes 1 (16.7%), 2 (50%) and 6 (33.3%), and the cosavirus genetic groups A (87.5%), C (6.25%) and D (6.25%), were all identified across the three-year study period. Interestingly, saffold virus genotype 6 has now been detected for the first time in Thailand. The present study provides the prevalence of cosavirus and saffold virus with the emergence of saffold virus genotype 6 in Thailand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus causes infection after receptor-mediated endocytosis and acid-dependent fusion with an intracellular compartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Delmas, B; Besnardeau, L

    1998-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N is a species-specific receptor for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), which infects piglets, and for the 229E virus, which infects humans. It is not known whether these coronaviruses are endocytosed before fusion with a membrane of the target cell, causing a productive...

  16. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection induces cell apoptosis via activation of p53 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Ding, Li; Li, Zhaocai; Dai, Meiling; Zhao, Xiaomin; Li, Wei; Du, Qian; Xu, Xingang; Tong, Dewen

    2013-08-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection induced apoptosis in several cell lines in vitro. Our previous studies demonstrated that TGEV could activate FasL- and mitochondria-mediated pathways to induce apoptosis in PK-15 cells. In this study, we investigated the regulation of p53 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signalling pathways in the interaction of TGEV with host cells. We observed that TGEV infection decreased p300/CBP, downregulated MDM2 and promoted p53 phosphorylation at serines 15, 20 and 46, resulting in accumulation and activation of p53 in PK-15 cells. TGEV infection induced the transient activation of p38 MAPK in the early phase of inoculation and constant activation in the later phase of infection. However, UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote the activation of p53 and p38 MAPK in the later phase, whereas it only triggered the transient activation of p38 MAPK in the early phase. Blocking of p53 activation significantly inhibited the occurrence of apoptosis through suppressing the TGEV-induced FasL expression, Bcl-2 reduction, Bax and cytochrome c redistribution, while inhibition of p38 activity moderately blocked apoptosis induction and partly attenuated the accumulation and activation of p53. However, inhibition of p38 and p53 activity had no significant effects on viral gene transcription at 12 and 24 h post-infection. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TGEV infection promoted the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 signalling, and p53 signalling might play a dominant role in the regulation of cell apoptosis. These findings provide new insights into the function of p53 and p38 MAPK in the interaction of TGEV with host cells.

  17. The porcine microRNA transcriptome response to transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Ling; Liao, Shan; Xu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yuancheng

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV; Coronaviridae family) causes huge economic losses to the swine industry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a regulatory role in viral infection and may be involved in the mammalian immune response. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of host miRNA expression in TGEV-infected swine testis (ST) cells. Deep sequencing generated 3,704,353 and 2,763,665 reads from uninfected ST cells and infected ST cells, respectively. The reads were aligned to known Sus scrofa pre-miRNAs in miRBase 19, identifying 284 annotated miRNAs. Certain miRNAs were differentially regulated during TGEV infection. 59 unique miRNAs displayed significant differentially expression between the normal and TGEV-infected ST cell samples: 15 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 44 were significantly down-regulated. Stem-loop RT-PCR was carried out to determine the expression levels of specific miRNAs in the two samples, and the results were consistent with those of sequencing. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of host target genes demonstrated that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in regulatory networks, including cellular process, metabolic process, immune system process. This is the first report of the identification of ST cell miRNAs and the comprehensive analysis of the miRNA regulatory mechanism during TGEV infection, which revealed the miRNA molecular regulatory mechanisms for the viral infection, expression of viral genes and the expression of immune-related genes. The results presented here will aid research on the prevention and treatment of viral diseases.

  18. The porcine microRNA transcriptome response to transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV; Coronaviridae family causes huge economic losses to the swine industry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a regulatory role in viral infection and may be involved in the mammalian immune response. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of host miRNA expression in TGEV-infected swine testis (ST cells. Deep sequencing generated 3,704,353 and 2,763,665 reads from uninfected ST cells and infected ST cells, respectively. The reads were aligned to known Sus scrofa pre-miRNAs in miRBase 19, identifying 284 annotated miRNAs. Certain miRNAs were differentially regulated during TGEV infection. 59 unique miRNAs displayed significant differentially expression between the normal and TGEV-infected ST cell samples: 15 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 44 were significantly down-regulated. Stem-loop RT-PCR was carried out to determine the expression levels of specific miRNAs in the two samples, and the results were consistent with those of sequencing. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of host target genes demonstrated that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in regulatory networks, including cellular process, metabolic process, immune system process. This is the first report of the identification of ST cell miRNAs and the comprehensive analysis of the miRNA regulatory mechanism during TGEV infection, which revealed the miRNA molecular regulatory mechanisms for the viral infection, expression of viral genes and the expression of immune-related genes. The results presented here will aid research on the prevention and treatment of viral diseases.

  19. Immunogenicity of eGFP-Marked Recombinant Lactobacillus casei against Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV are the causative agents of highly fatal acute diarrhea in pigs, resulting in enormous losses in the pig industry worldwide. To develop an effective bivalent oral vaccine against TGEV and PEDV infection, the D antigenic site of the TGEV spike (S protein and the major antigen site (core neutralizing epitope—COE of the PEDV S protein were used as immunogens, and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene was used as a reporter to construct genetically engineered Lactobacillus casei rLpPGF-T7g10-eGFP-6D-COE. The expression of proteins of interest by the recombinant L. casei was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and a Western blot assay, and the immunogenicity of rLpPGF-T7g10-eGFP-6D-COE in orally immunized mice was evaluated. The results showed that levels of anti-PEDV and anti-TGEV serum immunoglobulin G (IgG and mucosal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA antibodies obtained from the mice immunized with rLpPGF-T7g10-eGFP-6D-COE, as well as the proliferation levels of lymphocytes, were significantly higher than those in mice orally administered phosphate-buffered saline (PBS or rLpPG-T7g10. Moreover, the serum IgG antibodies showed neutralizing effects against PEDV and TGEV. Our data suggest that the antibiotic resistance-free genetically engineered L. casei bivalent oral vaccine provides a safe and promising strategy for vaccine development against PEDV and TGEV.

  20. Immunogenicity of eGFP-Marked Recombinant Lactobacillus casei against Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meiling; Wang, Li; Ma, Sunting; Wang, Xiaona; Wang, Yusai; Xiao, Ya; Jiang, Yanping; Qiao, Xinyuan; Tang, Lijie; Xu, Yigang; Li, Yijing

    2017-09-25

    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are the causative agents of highly fatal acute diarrhea in pigs, resulting in enormous losses in the pig industry worldwide. To develop an effective bivalent oral vaccine against TGEV and PEDV infection, the D antigenic site of the TGEV spike (S) protein and the major antigen site (core neutralizing epitope-COE) of the PEDV S protein were used as immunogens, and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene was used as a reporter to construct genetically engineered Lactobacillus casei rLpPG F -T7g10-eGFP-6D-COE. The expression of proteins of interest by the recombinant L. casei was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and a Western blot assay, and the immunogenicity of rLpPG F -T7g10-eGFP-6D-COE in orally immunized mice was evaluated. The results showed that levels of anti-PEDV and anti-TGEV serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies obtained from the mice immunized with rLpPG F -T7g10-eGFP-6D-COE, as well as the proliferation levels of lymphocytes, were significantly higher than those in mice orally administered phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or rLpPG-T7g10. Moreover, the serum IgG antibodies showed neutralizing effects against PEDV and TGEV. Our data suggest that the antibiotic resistance-free genetically engineered L. casei bivalent oral vaccine provides a safe and promising strategy for vaccine development against PEDV and TGEV.

  1. Nuevos virus asociados con gastroenteritis New viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace un resumen de las características comunes y específicas de los diversos virus asociados con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con énfasis en la importancia que tienen en la génesis de este síndrome y en el hecho de que la mayoría de los casos, aunque sean severos, pueden ser manejados adecuadamente mediante el reemplazo de líquidos y electrolitos.

    A synopsis of the common and specific features of the various viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease is presented; emphasis Is made on their importance as etiologic agents of this syndrome and on the fact that most cases, even If they are severe, can be appropriately treated by fluid and electrolyte replacement.

  2. Assessment of Gastroenteric Viruses Frequency in a Children's Day Care Center in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: A Fifteen Year Study (1994–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mônica Simões Rocha; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Tinga, Anna Carolina De Castro; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Fialho, Alexandre Madi; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Costa, Filipe Aníbal Carvalho; de Oliveira, Solange Artimos; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2012-01-01

    This 15-year study aimed to determine the role of the main viruses responsible for acute infantile gastroenteritis cases in a day care center in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1994 to 2008, 539 fecal samples were obtained from 23 outbreaks as well as sporadic cases that occurred in this period. The detection of Rotavirus group A (RVA), norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) was investigated both by classical and molecular methods of viral detection. RVA was detected by enzymatic immune assay and/or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and genotyped by using semi-nested multiplex PCR. NoV and AstV were subsequently tested by real time PCR in all RVA-negative samples and genotyped throughout genome sequencing. Three protocols for molecular characterization of NoV nucleotide sequencing were performed with the partial nucleotide sequencing of genomic regions known as region B (polymerase gen), C and D (capsid gen).Viruses were identified in 47.7% (257/539) of the cases, and the detection rates of RVA, NoV and AstV in16.1% (87/539), 33.4% (151/452), and 6.3% (19/301), respectively. Most gastroenteritis cases were reported in autumn and winter, although NoV presented a broader monthly distribution. Viruses' detection rates were significantly higher among children aged less than 24 months old, although NoV cases were detected in all age groups. RVA genotypes as G1P[8], G9P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8] and G1+G3P[8] and RVA was no longer detected after 2005. NoV characterization revealed genotypes variability circulating in the period as GI.2, GI.3, GI.8 GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.4 variants 2001 and 2006b, GII.6, GII.7, GII.12 and GII.17. AstV genotypes 1, 2, 4 and 5 were also characterized. Those data demonstrate the impact of NoV infection in cases of infantile gastroenteritis, surpassing RVA infection responsible for high morbidity rate in children under five years old. PMID:22448271

  3. Epidemiology of human parechovirus, Aichi virus and salivirus in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cyril C Y; Lo, Kin-Land; Que, Tak-Lun; Lee, Rodney A; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P

    2014-10-18

    Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood. In addition, no report on the circulation of these viruses in Hong Kong is available. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of HPeV, AiV and SalV in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong. Fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis were subject to detection of HPeV, AiV and SalV by RT-PCR using consensus primers targeted to their 5'UTRs. Positive samples were subject to capsid and/or 3CD region analysis for genotype determination. The epidemiology of HPeV, AiV and SalV infections was analyzed. Among 1,708 fecal samples subjected to RT-PCR using primers targeted to 5'UTR of HPeV, AiV and SalV, viruses were detected in 55 samples, with 50 positive for HPeV only, 3 positive for AiV only, 1 positive for both HPeV and AiV, and 1 positive for both HPeV and SalV. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 gene of the 33 HPeV strains revealed the presence of genotypes of HPeV- 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, among which HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype circulating in our population. The peak activity of HPeV infection was in fall. Of the 3 children with AiV infection, the 3 AiV strains were found to belong to genotype A based on the phylogenetic analysis of their partial VP1 and 3CD regions. The genotype of a SalV strain detected in this study could not be determined. Co-detection of different pathogens was observed in 24 samples (43.6%) of 55 fecal samples positive for HPeV, AiV and SalV. HPeV, AiV and SalV were detected in fecal samples of hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong, with the former having the highest prevalence. HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype among HPeVs, while genotype A was the predominant genotype among AiVs in this study.

  4. Sequence analysis of the ORF 7 region of transmissible gastroenteritis viruses isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ho; Han, Jeong Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2008-02-01

    Three (KT2, 133, and DAE) transmissible gastroenteritis viruses (TGEVs) were isolated from pigs suspected of having TGE in Korea. One, KT2 (KT2-L), was passaged 128 times (KT2-H) in swine testicular cells. The open reading frame 7 (ORF 7) gene from each of the four TGEVs (KT2-L, KT2-H, 133, and DAE), which is located at the 3' end of the TGEV genome, was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified PCR products were cloned, sequenced, and compared with published sequences of non-Korean TGEV strains. Differences in replication and cytopathic effect (CPE) between the KT2-L and KT2-H strains in swine testicular cells were investigated. Korean TGEV field strains had 94.8-99.6% nucleotide and 92.1-98.7% amino acid sequence similarity with each other, and 87.8-100.0% nucleotide and 84.2-100.0% amino acid sequence similarity with non-Korean TGEV strains. Compared to the original KT2-L strain, the KT2-H strain differed by 2.2 and 3.9% in nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. Specifically, the KT2-H had six nucleotide and two amino acid deletions compared to the original KT2-L strain. In phylogenetic analysis of the ORF 7 gene, Korean TGEV strains were clustered into two groups. One group (KT2-L, KT2-H, 133) was related to TGEV strains isolated in Japan. Another Korean TGEV isolate (DAE) was related to a strain from China and one from the USA. The Korean TGEV isolates appear to have evolved from a separate lineage of TGEV strain. Differences in growth rate and CPE between the KT2-L and KT2-H strains were discovered in swine testicular cells (STCs). The KT2-H strain exhibited a higher replication rate than KT2-L and produced a CPE distinctly different from that of the KT2-L strain.

  5. A monoclonal antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis virus generated via immunization of a DNA plasmid bearing TGEV S1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Zhu, Jiayi; Zhu, Weijuan; Li, Xunliang; Tao, Ye; Lv, Xiaonan; Wang, Xue; Yin, Jiechao; He, Cheng; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a member of the coronaviruses. The viral spike (S) protein of TGEV mediates interaction between TGEV and its susceptible cells. Herein, DNA plasmid bearing TGEV S1 gene (the N terminal half of TGEV S gene) was used to immunize BALB/c mice followed by generation of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) using the hybridoma technique. The generated MAb (1H4) was identified by ELISA. Immunofluorescence assays showed that MAb 1H4 was able to detect infection of cells with TGEV. The MAb 1H4 distinguished TGEV from other control viruses. Additionally, although the type of MAb 1H4 was IgM, it could reduce cell infection by TGEV in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Completion Occurs through Error Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Corinne A; Lyktey, Nicholas A; Zhao, Zhongchao; Pierson, Elizabeth E; Zlotnick, Adam; Jarrold, Martin F

    2017-11-22

    Understanding capsid assembly is important because of its role in virus lifecycles and in applications to drug discovery and nanomaterial development. Many virus capsids are icosahedral, and assembly is thought to occur by the sequential addition of capsid protein subunits to a nucleus, with the final step completing the icosahedron. Almost nothing is known about the final (completion) step because the techniques usually used to study capsid assembly lack the resolution. In this work, charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) has been used to track the assembly of the T = 4 hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid in real time. The initial assembly reaction occurs rapidly, on the time scale expected from low resolution measurements. However, CDMS shows that many of the particles generated in this process are defective and overgrown, containing more than the 120 capsid protein dimers needed to form a perfect T = 4 icosahedron. The defective and overgrown capsids self-correct over time to the mass expected for a perfect T = 4 capsid. Thus, completion is a distinct phase in the assembly reaction. Capsid completion does not necessarily occur by inserting the last building block into an incomplete, but otherwise perfect icosahedron. The initial assembly reaction can be predominently imperfect, and completion involves the slow correction of the accumulated errors.

  7. The incidence and genetic variability of Small Round-Structured Viruses (SRSV) in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in 1996 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinje J; Altena SA; Lodder WJ; Koopmans MPG; LIO; MGB

    1997-01-01

    Small round-structured viruses (SRSV), ook wel Norwalk-achtige virussen genoemd, zijn belangrijke verwekkers van explosies van gastroenteritis. De detectie van deze groep genetisch uiterst variabele virussen is door de recente ontwikkeling van een generische RT-PCR test sterk vereenvoudigd. Om de

  8. Occurance and distribution of poty viruses infecting garlic in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.T.; Hameed, S.; Shah, H.

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to detect and determine the prevalence, incidence and distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Yellow Stripe Virus (LYSV). Serological testing DAS-ELISA technique was used to test the samples collected from the farmer fields. Based on the DAS-ELISA poty viruses OYDV and LYSV were detected from both provinces although the percentage incidence varied from location to location. Few areas of district Punjab were found free of LYSV but OYDV was prevalent in all locations irrespective of the varieties cultivated. Maximum disease incidence was detected in Swabi (KPK) where OYDV was 90percent and LYSV was 38 percent while in Punjab major disease incidence of OYDV (87.14 percent) and LYSV (91.44 percent) was found in Sialkot. (author)

  9. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Papain-Like Protease 1 Antagonizes Production of Interferon-βthrough Its Deubiquitinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoliang; Tian, Jin; Kang, Hongtao; Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Jiasen; Liu, Dafei; Jiang, Qian; Li, Zhijie; Qu, Juanjuan; Qu, Liandong

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs), such as human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), murine hepatitis virus (MHV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), encode papain-like (PL) proteases that inhibit Sendai virus- (SeV-) induced interferon (IFN- β ) production. Recently, the crystal structure of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) PL1 has been solved, which was similar to that of SARS-CoV PL2 pro , which may antagonize host innate immunity. However, very little is known about whether TGEV PL1 can antagonize host innate immune response. Here, we presented evidence that TGEV PL1 encoded by the replicase gene could suppress the IFN- β expression and inhibit the nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). The ability to antagonize IFN- β production was dependent on the intact catalytic activity of PL1. Furthermore, TGEV PL1 exerted deubiquitinase (DUB) activity which strongly inhibited the retinoic acid-induced gene I- (RIG-1-) and stimulator of interferon gene- (STING-) dependent IFN expression. Our data collectively suggest that TGEV PL1 can inhibit the IFN- β expression and interfere with RIG-1- and STING-mediated signaling through a viral DUB activity. Our study has yielded strong evidence for the TGEV PL1 mechanisms that counteract the host innate immunity.

  10. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Papain-Like Protease 1 Antagonizes Production of Interferon-β through Its Deubiquitinase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses (CoVs, such as human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV, murine hepatitis virus (MHV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV, encode papain-like (PL proteases that inhibit Sendai virus- (SeV- induced interferon (IFN-β production. Recently, the crystal structure of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV PL1 has been solved, which was similar to that of SARS-CoV PL2pro, which may antagonize host innate immunity. However, very little is known about whether TGEV PL1 can antagonize host innate immune response. Here, we presented evidence that TGEV PL1 encoded by the replicase gene could suppress the IFN-β expression and inhibit the nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3. The ability to antagonize IFN-β production was dependent on the intact catalytic activity of PL1. Furthermore, TGEV PL1 exerted deubiquitinase (DUB activity which strongly inhibited the retinoic acid-induced gene I- (RIG-1- and stimulator of interferon gene- (STING- dependent IFN expression. Our data collectively suggest that TGEV PL1 can inhibit the IFN-β expression and interfere with RIG-1- and STING-mediated signaling through a viral DUB activity. Our study has yielded strong evidence for the TGEV PL1 mechanisms that counteract the host innate immunity.

  11. A corn-based delivery system for animal vaccines: an oral transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccine boosts lactogenic immunity in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamphear, Barry J; Jilka, Joseph M; Kesl, Lyle; Welter, Mark; Howard, John A; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2004-06-23

    Recombinant plant expression systems offer a means to produce large quantities of selected antigens for subunit vaccines. Cereals are particularly well-suited expression vehicles since the expressed proteins can be stored at relatively high concentrations for extended periods of time without degradation and dry seed can be formulated into oral vaccines suitable for commercial applications. A subunit vaccine candidate directed against porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and expressed in corn seed has been developed for oral delivery to swine. Here, we show that this vaccine, when administered to previously sensitized gilts, can boost neutralizing antibody levels in the animals' serum, colostrum and milk. Thus, this vaccine candidate is effective at boosting lactogenic immunity and is appropriate to pursue through large-scale field trials preceding commercialization.

  12. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies to a transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-related coronavirus have been demonstrated in mink sera by indirect immunofluorescence, peroxidase-linked antibody assays and immunoblotting. This is the first serological evidence of a specific coronavirus infection in mink. The putative...... mink coronavirus (MCV) seems to be widespread in the Danish mink population with a prevalence approaching 100%. Analysis by immunoblotting has shown that MCV is closely related to TGEV by the spike (S), matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (N) polypeptides. Furthermore, antibodies to MCV also cross......-reacted with N and M polypeptides of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Thus MCV may occupy an intermediate position between the TGEV group of coronaviruses and PEDV. The possibility that MCV may be associated with syndromes of acute enteritis in preweaning mink is discussed....

  13. Inhibition of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection in porcine kidney cells using short hairpin RNAs targeting the membrane gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Dai, Xianjin; Song, Han; Yuan, Peng; Yang, Zhou; Dong, Wei; Song, Zhenhui

    2017-04-01

    The membrane (M) protein is the most abundant component of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) particle. To exploit the possibility of using RNA interference (RNAi) as a strategy against TGEV infection, three plasmids (pRNAT-1, pRNAT-2, and pRNAT-3) expressing short hairpin RNAs were designed to target three different coding regions of the M gene of TGEV. The plasmids were constructed and transiently transfected into a porcine kidney cells, PK-15, to determine whether these constructs inhibited TGEV production. The analysis of cytopathic effects demonstrated that pRNAT-2 and pRNAT-3 could protect PK-15 cells against pathological changes specifically and efficiently. Additionally, indirect immunofluorescence and 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID 50 ) assays showed that pRNAT-2 and pRNAT-3 inhibited the multiplication of the virus at the protein level effectively. Quantitative real-time PCR further confirmed that the amounts of viral RNAs in cell cultures pre-transfected with the three plasmids were reduced by 13, 68, and 70%, respectively. This is the first report showing that RNAi targeting of the M gene. Our results could promote studies of the specific function of viral genes associated with TGEV infection and might provide a theoretical basis for potential therapeutic applications.

  14. Epidemiological features and genetic characterization of virus strains in rotavirus associated gastroenteritis in children of Odisha in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Eileena; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, S K; Acharya, A S

    2017-09-01

    We have studied the clinical characteristics, severity and seasonality of rotavirus infection and prevalent genotypes in 652 non-rota vaccinated children in Odisha in eastern India. P genotypes were analysed for their association with host blood group antigens. P type of the virus is determined by the VP8* gene, and specific recognition of A - type of Histo - blood group antigen by P[14]VP8* has been reported. VP4, VP7 and VP6 genes of commonly identified G1P[8] strain were compared with genes of the same strain isolated from other parts of India, elsewhere and strains used for Rotarix and Rotateq vaccines. In 54.75% of children with gastroenteritis, rota virus was found. 9.65% of children had moderate, 78.07% severe, and 12.28% very severe disease as assessed using the Vesikari scoring system. The incidence of infection was highest during winter months. There was no association between any blood group and specific P genotypes. G1P[8] was the commonest cause of gastroenteritis, followed by G1P[11], G3P[8], G9P[8], G2P[4], G2P[6], G9P[4], G9P[11] and G1P[6]. Predominant G genotypes identified were G1 (72.9%), G9 (10.81%), G2 (8.10%) and G3 (8.10%). Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene, placed the G1P[8] strain in lineage 1 and of VP6 gene placed nine G1P[8] strains in subgroup II and one in subgroup I. The VP7 gene segment of two Odisha G1P[8] strains were found to cluster relatively close to the VP7 sequences of Rotarix vaccine. Antigenic differences were found with vaccine strains. Ten G1P[8] strains sequenced for the VP4 gene had 91-93% nucleotide and 92-96% amino acid identity with Rotateq vaccine P[8]). Rotarix vaccine VP4 had 89-91% nucleotide and 90-92% amino acid identity. Our findings indicate genetic variability of rotavirus strains circulating in the region and are significant, given the introduction of rota vaccination in the State. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Viral gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  16. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  17. A sensitive duplex nanoparticle-assisted PCR assay for identifying porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Liang, Lin; Luo, Yakun; Wang, Guihua; Wang, Chunren; Cui, Yudong; Ai, Xia; Cui, Shangjin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a novel duplex nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoPCR) assay was developed to detect porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). Two pairs of primers were designed based on the conserved region within the N gene of PEDV and TGEV. In a screening of 114 clinical samples from four provinces in China for PEDV and TGEV, 48.2 and 3.5 % of the samples, respectively, tested positive. Under optimized conditions, the duplex nanoPCR assay had a detection limit of 7.6 × 10 1 and 8.5 × 10 1 copies μL -1 for PEDV and TGEV, respectively. The sensitivity of the duplex nanoPCR assay was ten times higher than that of a conventional PCR assay. Moreover, no fragments were amplified when the duplex nanoPCR assay was used to test samples containing other porcine viruses. Our results indicate that the duplex nanoPCR assay described here is useful for the rapid detection of PEDV and TGEV and can be applied in clinical diagnosis.

  18. Retinoic acid facilitates inactivated transmissible gastroenteritis virus induction of CD8+ T-cell migration to the porcine gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Tu, Chongzhi; Qin, Tao; Zhu, Liqi; Yin, Yinyan; Yang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The digestive tract is the entry site for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). TGEV transmission can be prevented if local immunity is established with increased lymphocytes. The current parenteral mode of vaccination stimulates systemic immunity well, but it does not induce sufficient mucosal immunity. Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the induction of cells that imprint gut-homing molecules. We examined whether RA assist parenteral vaccination of pigs could improve mucosal immunity. We demonstrated that elevated numbers of gut-homing CD8+ T cells (which express α4β7 and CCR9 molecules) were presented in porcine inguinal lymph nodes and were recruited to the small intestine by RA. Intestinal mucosal immunity (IgA titre) and systemic immunity (serum IgG titre) were enhanced by RA. Therefore, we hypothesized that RA could induce DCs to form an immature mucosal phenotype and could recruit them to the small intestinal submucosa. Porcine T-cells expressed β7 integrin and CCR9 receptors and migrated to CCL25 by a mechanism that was dependent of activation by RA-pretreated DCs, rather than direct activation by RA. Together, our results provide powerful evidence that RA can assist whole inactivated TGEV (WI-TGEV) via subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization to generate intestinal immunity, and offer new vaccination strategies against TGEV. PMID:27080036

  19. Intragastric administration of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium harbouring transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) DNA vaccine induced specific antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Liu, Jiawen; Tang, Ying; Wen, Xintian

    2009-08-13

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium was selected as a transgenic vehicle for the development of live mucosal vaccines against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). A 2.2kb DNA fragment, encoding for N-terminal domain glycoprotein S of TGEV, was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX-S was transformed by electroporation into attenuated S. typhimurium SL7207, the expression and translation of the pVAX-S delivered by recombinant S. typhimurium SL7207 (pVAX-S) was detected in vitro and in vivo respectively. BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with SL7207 (pVAX-S) at different dosages, the bacterium was safe to mice at dosage of 2x10(9)CFU and eventually eliminated from the spleen and liver at week 4 post-immunization. Mice immunized with different dosages of SL7207 (pVAX-S) elicited specific anti-TGEV local mucosal and humoral responses as measured by indirect ELISA assay. Moreover, the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine was highly dependent on the dosage of the attenuated bacteria used for oral administration, 10(9)CFU dosage group showed higher antibody response than 10(8)CFU and 10(7)CFU dosages groups during week 4-8 post-immunization. The results indicated that attenuated S. typhimurium could be used as a delivery vector for oral immunization of TGEV DNA vaccine.

  20. Structure of Alphacoronavirus Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus nsp1 Has Implications for Coronavirus nsp1 Function and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Coronavirus nsp1 has been shown to induce suppression of host gene expression and to interfere with the host immune response. However, the mechanism is currently unknown. The only available structural information on coronavirus nsp1 is the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the N-terminal domain of nsp1 from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) from the betacoronavirus genus. Here we present the first nsp1 structure from an alphacoronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nsp1. It displays a six-stranded β-barrel fold with a long alpha helix on the rim of the barrel, a fold shared with SARS-CoV nsp113–128. Contrary to previous speculation, the TGEV nsp1 structure suggests that coronavirus nsp1s have a common origin, despite the lack of sequence homology. However, comparisons of surface electrostatics, shape, and amino acid conservation between the alpha- and betacoronaviruses lead us to speculate that the mechanism for nsp1-induced suppression of host gene expression might be different in these two genera. PMID:23269811

  1. Antigenic modules in the N-terminal S1 region of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus spike protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Juan; Ordoño, Desiderio; Santiago, César; Enjuanes, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The N-terminal S1 region of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) glycoprotein contains four antigenic sites (C, B, D and A, from the N- to the C-terminal end) and is engaged in host-cell receptor recognition. The most N-terminal portion of the S1 region, which comprises antigenic sites C and B, is needed for the enteric tropism of TGEV, whereas the major antigenic site A at the C-terminal moiety is required for both respiratory and enteric cell tropism, and is engaged in recognition of the aminopeptidase N (APN) receptor. This study determined the kinetics for binding of a soluble S1 protein to the APN protein. Moreover, the S1 region of the TGEV S protein was dissected, with the aim of identifying discrete modules displaying unique antigenic sites and receptor-binding functions. Following protease treatments and mammalian cell expression methods, four modules or domains (D1–D4) were defined at the S1 region. Papain treatment identified an N-terminal domain (D1) resistant to proteolysis, whereas receptor binding defined a soluble and functional APN receptor-binding domain (D3). This domain was recognized by neutralizing antibodies belonging to the antigenic site A and therefore could be used as an immunogen for the prevention of viral infection. The organization of the four modules in the S1 region of the TGEV S glycoprotein is discussed. PMID:21228126

  2. The epidermal growth factor receptor regulates cofilin activity and promotes transmissible gastroenteritis virus entry into intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiwei; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Xing; Lin, Jian; Yang, Qian

    2016-03-15

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus, causes severe diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets. The porcine intestinal epithelium is the target of TGEV infection, but the mechanisms that TGEV disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and invades the host epithelium remain largely unknown. We not only found that TGEV infection stimulates F-actin to gather at the cell membrane but the disruption of F-actin inhibits TGEV entry as well. Cofilin is involved in F-actin reorganization and TGEV entry. The TGEV spike protein is capable of binding with EGFR, activating the downstream phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), then causing the phosphorylation of cofilin and F-actin polymerization via Rac1/Cdc42 GTPases. Inhibition of EGFR and PI3K decreases the entry of TGEV. EGFR is also the upstream activator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that is involved in F-actin reorganization. Additionally, lipid rafts act as signal platforms for the EGFR-associated signaling cascade and correlate with the adhesion of TGEV. In conlusion, these results provide valuable data of the mechanisms which are responsible for the TGEV pathogenesis and may lead to the development of new methods about controlling TGEV.

  3. Effects of virulent and attenuated transmissible gastroenteritis virus on the ability of porcine dendritic cells to sample and present antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Gao, Qi; Qin, Tao; Yin, Yinyan; Lin, Jian; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-06-25

    Virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) results in an acute, severe pathology and high mortality in piglets, while attenuated TGEV only causes moderate clinical reactions. Dendritic cells (DCs), through uptake and presentation of antigens to T cells, initiate distinct immune responses to different infections. In this study, an attenuated TGEV (STC3) and a virulent TGEV (SHXB) were used to determine whether porcine DCs play an important role in pathogenetic differences between these two TGEVs. Our results showed that immature and mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) were susceptible to infection with SHXB and STC3. However, only SHXB inhibited Mo-DCs to activate T-cell proliferation by down-regulating the expression of cell-surface markers and the secretion of cytokines in vitro. In addition, after 48 h of SHXB infection, there was the impairment in the ability of porcine intestinal DCs to sample the antigen, to migrate from the villi to the lamina propria and to activate T-cell proliferation in vivo. In contrast, these abilities of intestinal DCs were enhanced in STC3-infected piglets. In conclusion, our results show that SHXB significantly impaired the functions of Mo-DCs and intestinal DCs in vitro and in vivo, while STC3 had the opposite effect. These differences may underlie the pathogenesis of virulent and attenuated TGEV in piglets, and could help us to develop a better strategy to prevent virulent TGEV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of N Gene of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus HYM-09 Isolated from Dog in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Chaolai; Yu, Xiaolong

    2012-12-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is the etiological agent of TGE, and dogs are potential carriers of TGEV. In this study, genomic RNA were extracted from TGEV designated HYM-09 isolated from dog naturally infected with TGEV. The nucleocapsid (N) gene of HYM-09 was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into pMD18-T vector. The N gene cDNA was sequenced and encompassed an open reading frame of 1,149 nucleotides, encoding a 382-amino acids protein. Sequence analyses of the N genes were performed, including homologous comparison, phylogenetic tree analysis and residue substitution analysis. The results showed that there existed some unique mutations in the HYM-09 isolate N gene, but HYM-09 N gene shared over 96 % homologous identities compared with 12 TGEV reference strains derived from other regions or countries respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the HYM-09 branched into the most strains group. This study shows that the nucleotide sequence analysis can form a base or further study on the mutation trend of non-porcine TGEV.

  5. Differential response of porcine immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells to virulent and inactivated transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Gao, Qi; Lin, Jian; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-12-01

    Exposure of piglets less than 2 weeks of age to virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) gives rise to mortality as high as 100%, and adult pigs recovering from its infection often become TGEV carriers. These facts suggest an evasion of the immune system by virulent TGEV. In this study, we showed that a virulent TGEV SHXB strain could infect porcine immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs), and down-regulate cell surface markers (SLA-II-DR, CD1a and CD80/86). Moreover, SHXB-infected immature Mo-DCs showed low expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ, and also lost the ability to stimulate T cell proliferation. Finally, SHXB inhibited the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in these cells. Instead, UV-inactivated SHXB (UV-SHXB) had the opposite effects in immature Mo-DCs. In conclusion, the virulent SHXB could severely impair immature Mo-DCs, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of virulent TGEV in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid detection of transmissible gastroenteritis virus in swine small intestine samples using real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Wang, Jianchang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Liu, Libing; Shi, Ruihan; Han, Qingan; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2018-03-14

    A rapid and specific real-time reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RT-RPA) was developed to detect the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in this study. The primers and exo probe were designed to be specific for a portion of spike (S) gene conserved in TGEV, but absent in the closely related porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). The amplification was performed at 40 °C for 20 min. The assay could only detect the TGEV, and there was no cross-reaction with other pathogens tested. Using the in vitro transcribed TGEV RNA as template, the limit of detection of the developed RT-RPA was 100 copies per reaction. The assay performance was evaluated by testing 76 clinical samples by RT-RPA and a real-time RT-PCR. Fourteen samples were TGEV RNA positive in RT-RPA (18.4%, 14/76), which were also positive in the real-time RT-PCR. The diagnostic agreement between the two assays was 100% (76/76). The R 2 value of RT-RPA and real-time RT-PCR was 0.959 by linear regression analysis. The developed RT-RPA assay provides a useful alternative tool for rapid, simple and reliable detection of TGEV in resource-limited diagnostic laboratories and on-site facilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Retinoic acid facilitates inactivated transmissible gastroenteritis virus induction of CD8(+) T-cell migration to the porcine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Tu, Chongzhi; Qin, Tao; Zhu, Liqi; Yin, Yinyan; Yang, Qian

    2016-04-15

    The digestive tract is the entry site for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). TGEV transmission can be prevented if local immunity is established with increased lymphocytes. The current parenteral mode of vaccination stimulates systemic immunity well, but it does not induce sufficient mucosal immunity. Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the induction of cells that imprint gut-homing molecules. We examined whether RA assist parenteral vaccination of pigs could improve mucosal immunity. We demonstrated that elevated numbers of gut-homing CD8(+) T cells (which express α4β7 and CCR9 molecules) were presented in porcine inguinal lymph nodes and were recruited to the small intestine by RA. Intestinal mucosal immunity (IgA titre) and systemic immunity (serum IgG titre) were enhanced by RA. Therefore, we hypothesized that RA could induce DCs to form an immature mucosal phenotype and could recruit them to the small intestinal submucosa. Porcine T-cells expressed β7 integrin and CCR9 receptors and migrated to CCL25 by a mechanism that was dependent of activation by RA-pretreated DCs, rather than direct activation by RA. Together, our results provide powerful evidence that RA can assist whole inactivated TGEV (WI-TGEV) via subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization to generate intestinal immunity, and offer new vaccination strategies against TGEV.

  8. Interferon-alpha-producing cells are localized in gut-associated lymphoid tissues in transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infected piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffault, S; Carrat, C; van Reeth, K; Pensaert, M; Charley, B

    2001-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection of piglets results in a very rapid and massive release of IFN-alpha in serum and secretions. The objective of this work was to characterize the IFN-alpha-producing cells (IPC) in tissues of TGEV-infected piglets. Caesarean-derived colostrum-deprived piglets were infected orally with the TGEV virulent Miller strain and IPC were characterized in situ by immunohistochemistry, using a rabbit anti-pig IFN-alpha antiserum. IPC were almost exclusively detected in intestinal tissues and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), as early as 6 h post inoculation (p.i.), with a peak at 12-18 h. They disappeared by 24 h. IPC were localized between enterocytes in the small intestine epithelial layer, in the lamina propria, around the Peyer's patches and, at highest frequency, in MLN. Very few IPC were present in the spleen and popliteal lymph nodes of infected piglets. Double immunohistochemical staining for IFN-alpha and leukocyte markers on MLN cryosections showed that IPC were mainly Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class II positive, and were not stained by an anti-macrophage (SWC3a) MAb. In addition, double staining with anti-TGEV and anti-IFN-alpha MAbs showed that viral antigens were present in MLN, close to IPC. These results show for the first time the presence of IPC in gut mucosa and gut-associated lymphoid tissues in response to an enteropathogenic virus. Moreover, this work shows that IFN-alpha released in serum is likely to originate almost exclusively from gut IPC triggered locally by viral antigens to produce IFN-alpha, since there were very few IPC in spleen or peripheral lymph nodes. MHC class II molecule expression by gut-associated IPC suggests that these cells may be the in vivo mucosal counterparts of the dendritic cells recently shown to produce IFN-alpha after in vitro viral induction.

  9. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  10. Virus Genotype Distribution and Virus Burden in Children and Adults Hospitalized for Norovirus Gastroenteritis, 2012-2014, Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Martin C W; Leung, Ting F; Chung, Tracy W S; Kwok, Angela K; Nelson, E Anthony S; Lee, Nelson; Chan, Paul K S

    2015-06-17

    We conducted a 2-year hospital-based study on norovirus gastroenteritis among children and adults between August 2012 and September 2014. A total of 1,146 norovirus cases were identified. Young children (aged ≤ 5 years) accounted for a majority (53.3%) of cases. Hospitalization incidence exhibited a U-shaped pattern with the highest rate in young children (1,475 per 100,000 person-years), followed by the elderly aged > 84 years (581 per 100,000 person-years). A subset (n = 395, 34.5%) of cases were selected for norovirus genotyping and noroviral load measurement. Non-GII.4 infections were more commonly observed in young children than in older adults (aged > 65 years) (20.5% versus 9.2%; p children, the median noroviral load of GII.4 and non-GII.4 cases was indistinguishably high (cycle threshold value, median [interquartile range]: 16.6 [15.2-19.3] versus 16.6 [14.9-21.6]; p = 0.45). Two age-specific non-GII.4 genotypes (GII.3 and GII.6) were identified among young children. These findings may have implications in norovirus vaccination strategy.

  11. Cellular RNA Helicase DDX1 Is Involved in Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus nsp14-Induced Interferon-Beta Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanrong; Wu, Wei; Xie, Lilan; Wang, Dang; Ke, Qiyun; Hou, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoli; Fang, Ying; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo; Fang, Liurong

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV) of porcine, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets and leads to severe economic losses in the swine industry. Unlike most CoVs that antagonize type I interferon (IFN) production, previous studies showed that TGEV infection induces IFN-I production both in vivo and in vitro . However, the underlying mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that TGEV infection significantly facilitated IFN-β production as well as activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells. Screening of TGEV-encoded proteins demonstrated that non-structural protein 14 (nsp14) was the most potent IFN-β inducer and induced IFN-β production mainly by activating NF-κB but not IRF3. Further analysis showed that nsp14 interacted with DDX1, a member of the DExD/H helicase family. Knockdown of DDX1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreased nsp14-induced IFN-β production and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TGEV-induced IFN-β production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression were decreased in cells transfected with DDX1-specific siRNA, indicating the vital role of DDX1 to TGEV-induced IFN-β responses. In summary, our data revealed a potential coactivator role of host RNA helicase DDX1 to the induction of IFN-β response initiated by TGEV and demonstrated that nsp14 is an important IFN inducer among the TGEV-encoded proteins.

  12. Cellular RNA Helicase DDX1 Is Involved in Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus nsp14-Induced Interferon-Beta Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, an enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV of porcine, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets and leads to severe economic losses in the swine industry. Unlike most CoVs that antagonize type I interferon (IFN production, previous studies showed that TGEV infection induces IFN-I production both in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism(s remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that TGEV infection significantly facilitated IFN-β production as well as activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB in porcine kidney (PK-15 cells. Screening of TGEV-encoded proteins demonstrated that non-structural protein 14 (nsp14 was the most potent IFN-β inducer and induced IFN-β production mainly by activating NF-κB but not IRF3. Further analysis showed that nsp14 interacted with DDX1, a member of the DExD/H helicase family. Knockdown of DDX1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA significantly decreased nsp14-induced IFN-β production and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TGEV-induced IFN-β production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression were decreased in cells transfected with DDX1-specific siRNA, indicating the vital role of DDX1 to TGEV-induced IFN-β responses. In summary, our data revealed a potential coactivator role of host RNA helicase DDX1 to the induction of IFN-β response initiated by TGEV and demonstrated that nsp14 is an important IFN inducer among the TGEV-encoded proteins.

  13. Construction of a bivalent DNA vaccine co-expressing S genes of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yudi; Zhang, Xiaohui; Liao, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaobo; Cao, Sanjie; Wen, Xintian; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Liu, Wumei

    2016-06-01

    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause severe diarrhea in newborn piglets and led to significant economic losses. The S proteins are the main structural proteins of PEDV and TGEV capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in vivo. In this study, a DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) co-expressing S proteins of TGEV and PEDV delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium was constructed and its immunogenicity in piglets was investigated. Twenty-day-old piglets were orally immunized with SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) at a dosage of 1.6 × 10(11) CFU per piglet and then booster immunized with 2.0 × 10(11) CFU after 2 weeks. Humoral immune responses, as reflected by virus neutralizing antibodies and specific IgG and sIgA, and cellular immune responses, as reflected by IFN-γ, IL-4, and lymphocyte proliferation, were evaluated. SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) simultaneously elicited immune responses against TGEV and PEDV after oral immunization. The immune levels started to increase at 2 weeks after immunization and increased to levels statistically significantly different than controls at 4 weeks post-immunization, peaking at 6 weeks and declined at 8 weeks. The humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses induced by SL7207 (pAXD-PS1-TS) were significantly higher than those of the PBS and SL7207 (pVAXD) (p TGEV and PEDV, indicating that SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) is a candidate oral vaccine for TGE and PED.

  14. Evaluation on the efficacy and immunogenicity of recombinant DNA plasmids expressing spike genes from porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fandan; Ren, Yudong; Suo, Siqingaowa; Sun, Xuejiao; Li, Xunliang; Li, Pengchong; Yang, Wei; Li, Guangxing; Li, Lu; Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Herrler, Georg; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PDEV) can cause severe diarrhea in pigs. Development of effective vaccines against TGEV and PEDV is one of important prevention measures. The spike (S) protein is the surface glycoprotein of TGEV and PEDV, which can induce specific neutralization antibodies and is a candidate antigen for vaccination attempts. In this study, the open reading frames of the TGEV S1 protein and in addition of the S or S1 proteins of PEDV were inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector, pIRES, resulting in recombinant plasmids, pIRES-(TGEV-S1-PEDV-S1) and pIRES-(TGEV-S1-PEDV-S). Subsequently, 6-8 weeks old Kunming mice were inoculated with both DNA plasmids. Lymphocyte proliferation assay, virus neutralization assay, IFN-γ assay and CTL activity assay were performed. TGEV/PEDV specific antibody responses as well as kinetic changes of T lymphocyte subgroups of the immunized mice were analyzed. The results showed that the recombinant DNA plasmids increased the proliferation of T lymphocytes and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subgroups. In addition, the DNA vaccines induced a high level of IFN-γ in the immunized mice. The specific CTL activity in the pIRES-(TGEV-S1-PEDV-S) group became significant at 42 days post-immunization. At 35 days post-immunization, the recombinant DNA plasmids bearing full-length S genes of TGEV and PEDV stimulated higher levels of specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice.

  15. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus infection induces dramatic changes in the tight junctions and microfilaments of polarized IPEC-J2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Gao, Junkai; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Qian

    2014-11-04

    Viral infection converts the normal constitution of a cell to optimise viral entry, replication, and virion production. These conversions contain alterations or disruptions of the tight and adherens junctions between cells as part of their pathogenesis, and reorganise cellular microfilaments that initiate, sustain and spread the viral infections and so on. Using porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and a model of normal intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), we researched the interaction between tight and adherens junctions and microfilaments of IPEC-J2 cells with these viruses. In our work, the results showed that IPEC-J2 cells were susceptible to TGEV and PEDV infection. And TGEV could impair the barrier integrity of IPEC-J2 cells at early stages of infection through down-regulating some proteins of tight and adherens junctions, while PEDV cloud cause a slight of damage in the integrity of epithelial barrier. In addition, they also could affect the microfilaments remodelling of IPEC-J2 cells, and the drug-interfered microfilaments could inhibit viral replication and release. Furthermore, PEDV+TGEV co-infection was more aggravating to damage of tight junctions and remodelling of microfilaments than their single infection. Finally, the PEDV and TGEV infection affected the MAPK pathway, and inhibition of MAPK pathway regulated the changes of tight junctions and microfilaments of cells. These studies provide a new insight from the perspective of the epithelial barrier and microfilaments into the pathogenesis of PEDV and TGEV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation on the efficacy and immunogenicity of recombinant DNA plasmids expressing spike genes from porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fandan Meng

    Full Text Available Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PDEV can cause severe diarrhea in pigs. Development of effective vaccines against TGEV and PEDV is one of important prevention measures. The spike (S protein is the surface glycoprotein of TGEV and PEDV, which can induce specific neutralization antibodies and is a candidate antigen for vaccination attempts. In this study, the open reading frames of the TGEV S1 protein and in addition of the S or S1 proteins of PEDV were inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector, pIRES, resulting in recombinant plasmids, pIRES-(TGEV-S1-PEDV-S1 and pIRES-(TGEV-S1-PEDV-S. Subsequently, 6-8 weeks old Kunming mice were inoculated with both DNA plasmids. Lymphocyte proliferation assay, virus neutralization assay, IFN-γ assay and CTL activity assay were performed. TGEV/PEDV specific antibody responses as well as kinetic changes of T lymphocyte subgroups of the immunized mice were analyzed. The results showed that the recombinant DNA plasmids increased the proliferation of T lymphocytes and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subgroups. In addition, the DNA vaccines induced a high level of IFN-γ in the immunized mice. The specific CTL activity in the pIRES-(TGEV-S1-PEDV-S group became significant at 42 days post-immunization. At 35 days post-immunization, the recombinant DNA plasmids bearing full-length S genes of TGEV and PEDV stimulated higher levels of specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice.

  17. The coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus causes infection after receptor-mediated endocytosis and acid-dependent fusion with an intracellular compartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Delmas, B; Besnardeau, L

    1998-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N is a species-specific receptor for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), which infects piglets, and for the 229E virus, which infects humans. It is not known whether these coronaviruses are endocytosed before fusion with a membrane of the target cell, causing a productive...... infection, or whether they fuse directly with the plasma membrane. We have studied the interaction between TGEV and a cell line (MDCK) stably expressing recombinant pig aminopeptidase N (pAPN). By electron microscopy and flow cytometry, TGEV was found to be associated with the plasma membrane after...... adsorption to the pAPN-MDCK cells. TGEV was also observed in endocytic pits and apical vesicles after 3 to 10 min of incubation at 38 degrees C. The number of pits and apical vesicles was increased by the TGEV incubation, indicating an increase in endocytosis. After 10 min of incubation, a distinct TGEV...

  18. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection alters the expression of cellular microRNA species that affect transcription of TGEV gene 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiangjun; Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Xiang, Hailing; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a member of Coronaviridae family. TGEV infection has emerged as a major cause of severe gastroenteritis and leads to alterations of many cellular processes. Meanwhile, the pathogenic mechanism of TGEV is still unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small non-coding RNAs which are involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes such as viral infection and cell apoptosis. Accumulating data show that miRNAs are involved in the process of coronavirus infection such as replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). However, the link between miRNAs and TGEV infection is unknown. In this study, we performed microRNA microarray assay and predicted targets of altered miRNAs. The results showed TGEV infection caused the change of miRNAs profile. Then we selected miR-4331 for further analysis and subsequently identified cell division cycle-associated protein 7 (CDCA7) as the target of miR-4331. Moreover, miR-4331 showed the ability to inhibit transcription of TGEV gene 7 (a non-structure gene) via directly targeting CDCA7. In conclusion, differentially expressed miR-4331 that is caused by TGEV infection can suppress transcription of TGEV gene 7 via targeting cellular CDCA7. Our key finding is that TGEV selectively manipulates the expression of some cellular miRNAs to regulate its subgenomic transcription.

  19. Detection of gastroenteritis viruses among pediatric patients in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, between 2006 and 2013 using multiplex reverse transcription PCR-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemoto, Naoki; Hisatsune, Yuri; Toukubo, Yasushi; Tanizawa, Yukie; Shimazu, Yukie; Takao, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Noda, Mamoru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2017-05-01

    Multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers were modified to detect 10 types of gastroenteritis viruses by adding two further assays to a previously developed assay. Then, these assays were applied to clinical samples, which were collected between January 2006 and December 2013. All 10 types of viruses were effectively detected in the multiplex RT-PCR-based assays. In addition, various viral parameters, such as the detection rates and age distributions of each viral type, were examined. The frequency and types of mixed infections were also investigated. Among the 186 virus-positive samples, genogroup II noroviruses were found to be the most common type of virus (32.7%), followed by group A rotaviruses (10.6%) and parechoviruses (10.3%). Mixed infections were observed in 37 samples, and many of them were detected in patients who were less than 2 years old. These observations showed that the multiplex RT-PCR-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers were able to effectively detect the viruses circulating among pediatric acute gastroenteritis patients and contributed to the highly specific and sensitive diagnosis of gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 89:791-800, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-based vectors with engineered murine tropism express the rotavirus VP7 protein and immunize mice against rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Juan Manuel; Ortego, Javier; Ceriani, Juan; Montava, Rebeca; Enjuanes, Luis; Buesa, Javier

    2011-02-05

    A coronavirus vector based on the genome of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) expressing the rotavirus VP7 protein was constructed to immunize and protect against rotavirus infections in a murine model. The tropism of this TGEV-derived vector was modified by replacing the spike S protein with the homologous protein from mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). The rotavirus gene encoding the VP7 protein was cloned into the coronavirus cDNA. BALB/c and STAT1-deficient mice were inoculated with the recombinant viral vector rTGEV(S-MHV)-VP7, which replicates in the intestine and spreads to other organs such as liver, spleen and lungs. TGEV-specific antibodies were detected in all the inoculated BALB/c mice, while rotavirus-specific antibodies were found only after immunization by the intraperitoneal route. Partial protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea was achieved in suckling BALB/c mice born to dams immunized with the recombinant virus expressing VP7 when they were orally challenged with the homotypic rotavirus strain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clozapine-associated cardiac dysfunction during a gastroenteritis outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Szema

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report that two young adult patients who were initiated with clozapine for severe psychosis during a hospital-wide gastroenteritis outbreak went into severe shock. Neither patient had troponin elevation. Each required left ventricular assist device support for myocarditis. Endomyocardial biopsy revealed lymphocytic myocarditis in one patient and eosinophilic myocarditis in the other. The former patient expired. Polymerase chain reaction testing was negative for Coxsackie virus. These two patients illustrate that myocarditis can occur at usual incipient doses and that there may be an epidemiologic risk associated with gastroenteritis. Although the white blood cell (WBC count is expected to decrease with clozapine, these patients had persistently elevated WBC counts. In conclusion, physicians should exercise caution when prescribing clozapine, especially for those with diarrhea.

  2. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus does not suppress IFN-β induction but is sensitive to IFN in IPEC-J2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Xing; Mou, Chunxiao; Yang, Qian

    2017-02-01

    Coronaviruses tend to efficiently evade innate immune sensing. Alpha-coronaviruses interfere with the type I interferon (IFN) response in various ways, ensuring the limited activation of IFN responses. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an Alphacoronavirus genera virus, is an important pathogen that mainly infects piglet, but little is known about the activation of the host immune response. We show that TGEV induces a delayed activation of the IFN response in intestinal epithelial cells. Briefly, IFN-β expression induced by TGEV infection is delayed with respect to that induced by poly(I:C) transfection. In addition, some of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were up-regulated in the early infection stage without obvious expression of IFN-β. Moreover, we show that activation of IFN responses induced by poly(I:C) could inhibit viral replication in the early infection stage, but failed in the late infection stage in IPEC-J2 cells. Finally, the activation of IFN responses induced by TGEV infection cannot inhibit viral replication. Taken together, this study provides a preliminary analysis of an interaction between TGEV and IFN-β responses of intestinal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Host range and symptomatology of Pepino mosaic virus strains occurring in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blystad, Dag Ragnar; Vlugt, van der René; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana; Carmen Córdoba, del María; Bese, Gábor; Hristova, Dimitrinka; Pospieszny, Henryk; Mehle, Nataša; Ravnikar, Maja; Tomassoli, Laura; Varveri, Christina; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) has caused great concern in the greenhouse tomato industry after it was found causing a new disease in tomato in 1999. The objective of this paper is to investigate alternative hosts and compare important biological characteristics of the three PepMV strains occurring

  4. Persistent Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Infection Enhances Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 Adhesion by Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Dai, Lei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus characterized by diarrhea and high morbidity rates, and the mortality rate is 100% in piglets less than 2 weeks old. Pigs infected with TGEV often suffer secondary infection by other pathogens, which aggravates the severity of diarrhea, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persistent TGEV infection stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can more easily adhere to generating cells. Intestinal epithelial cells are the primary targets of TGEV and ETEC infections. We found that TGEV can persistently infect porcine intestinal columnar epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and cause EMT, consistent with multiple changes in key cell characteristics. Infected cells display fibroblast-like shapes; exhibit increases in levels of mesenchymal markers with a corresponding loss of epithelial markers; have enhanced expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs; and demonstrate increases in migratory and invasive behaviors. Additional experiments showed that the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways via TGF-β is critical for the TGEV-mediated EMT process. Cellular uptake is also modified in cells that have undergone EMT. TGEV-infected cells have higher levels of integrin α5 and fibronectin and exhibit enhanced ETEC K88 adhesion. Reversal of EMT reduces ETEC K88 adhesion and inhibits the expression of integrin α5 and fibronectin. Overall, these results suggest that TGEV infection induces EMT in IPEC-J2 cells, increasing the adhesion of ETEC K88 in the intestine and facilitating dual infection. IMPORTANCE Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea and is often followed by secondary infection by other pathogens. In this study, we showed

  5. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus nsp7 protein localized in the cytoplasm down-regulates interleukin 8 expression in porcine intestinal epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Huang, J L; Liang, Y B; He, Y P; Tong, D W; Xu, X G

    2018-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is an important pathogen in swine that is responsible for substantial economic losses. Previous studies suggest that the TGEV non-structural protein 7 (nsp7) plays an important role in the viral assembly process. However, the subcellular localization and other functions of the TGEV nsp7 protein are still unclear. In this study we have examined the subcellular localization and other functions of TGEV nsp7 protein through analysis of its effects on cell growth, cell cycle progression, interleukin 8 (IL-8) expression, and NF-κB activation. Our results showed that the nsp7 protein is localized in the cytoplasm and has no effect on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) growth, cell cycle, and cyclin A expression. Further studies showed that TGEV nsp7 protein had no effect on GRP78 expression, could not induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activate NF-κB activity. Interestingly, the IECs expressing nsp7 protein secreted lower levels of IL-8 than control cells. This is the first report to demonstrate the subcellular localization and novel functions of TGEV nsp7 protein. These findings provide novel information about the function of the poorly characterized TGEV non-structural protein 7.

  6. ORF3a deletion in field strains of porcine-transmissible gastroenteritis virus in China: A hint of association with porcine respiratory coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Zhu, Y; Zhu, X; Chen, J; Shi, H; Shi, D; Dong, H; Feng, L

    2017-06-01

    Porcine-transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a pathogenic coronavirus responsible for high diarrhoea-associated morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. We analysed the TGEV ORF3 gene using nested polymerase chain reaction and identified an ORF3a deletion in three field strains of TGEV collected from piglets in China in 2015. Eight TGEV ORF3 sequences were obtained in this study. Phylogenetic tree analysis of ORF3 showed that the eight TGEV ORF3 genes all belonged to the Miller cluster. CH-LNCT and CH-MZL were closely correlated with Miller M6, while CH-SH was correlated with Miller M60. These results thus indicate that the existence of Miller, as well as the Purdue cluster, in Chinese field strains of TGEV. Furthermore, we found the first evidence for a large deletion in ORF3 resulting in the loss of ORF3a, previously reported in porcine respiratory coronavirus, in three field strains (CH-LNCT, CH-MZL, and CH-SH) of TGEV. The results of the present study thus provide important information regarding the underlying evolution mechanisms of coronaviruses. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. CpG DNA facilitate the inactivated transmissible gastroenteritis virus in enhancing the local and systemic immune response of pigs via oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Tu, Chongzhi; Mou, Chunxiao; Chen, Xiaojuan; Yang, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) replicates in the small intestine and induces enteritis and watery diarrhea. Establishment of local immunity in the intestine would thus prevent TGEV transmission. CpG DNA has been reported as a promising mucosal adjuvant in some animals. The effects of oral immunization of CpG DNA together with inactivated TGEV (ITGEV) were investigated in this study. Pigs (6 weeks old) were orally immunized with ITGEV plus CpG DNA. The TGEV-specific IgA level in the intestinal tract and the TGEV-specific IgG level in serum significantly increased following immunization with ITGEV plus CpG DNA (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, populations of IgA-secreting cells, CD3+ T lymphocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), in the intestine increased significantly after immunization with ITGEV plus CpG DNA (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of IL-6, IL-12 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in ligated intestine segments increased significantly after injection with ITGEV plus CpG DNA (P ≤ 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that oral immunization of ITGEV plus CpG DNA elicits a local immune response. Further studies are required to determine whether this immunity provides protection against TGEV in pigs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Experimental evidence that RNA recombination occurs in the Japanese encephalitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, C.-K.; Chen, W.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the lack of a proofreading function and error-repairing ability of genomic RNA, accumulated mutations are known to be a force driving viral evolution in the genus Flavivirus, including the Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus. Based on sequencing data, RNA recombination was recently postulated to be another factor associated with genomic variations in these viruses. We herein provide experimental evidence to demonstrate the occurrence of RNA recombination in the JE virus using two local pure clones (T1P1-S1 and CJN-S1) respectively derived from the local strains, T1P1 and CJN. Based on results from a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay on the C/preM junction comprising a fragment of 868 nucleotides (nt 10-877), the recombinant progeny virus was primarily formed in BHK-21 cells that had been co-infected with the two clones used in this study. Nine of 20 recombinant forms of the JE virus had a crossover in the nt 123-323 region. Sequencing data derived from these recombinants revealed that no nucleotide deletion or insertion occurred in this region favoring crossovers, indicating that precisely, not aberrantly, homologous recombination was involved. With site-directed mutagenesis, three stem-loop secondary structures were destabilized and re-stabilized in sequence, leading to changes in the frequency of recombination. This suggests that the conformation, not the free energy, of the secondary structure is important in modulating RNA recombination of the virus. It was concluded that because RNA recombination generates genetic diversity in the JE virus, this must be considered particularly in studies of viral evolution, epidemiology, and possible vaccine safety.

  9. RNA recombination in Hepatitis delta virus: Identification of a novel naturally occurring recombinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV is the only animal RNA virus that has an unbranched rod-like genome with ribozyme activity. It replicates in the nucleus by host RNA polymerase via a rolling circle mechanism. Similar to many RNA viruses encoding their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, homologous recombination of HDV occurs in mixed-genotype infections and in cultured cells cotransfected with two HDV sequences, as demonstrated by molecular analyses. Methods: Among 237 published complete genomic sequences, 34 sequences were reported from the small and isolated Miyako Island, Japan, and belonged to the Asia-specific genotypes, HDV-2 and HDV-4 (the majority of them belonged to the known Miyako Island-specific subgroup, HDV-4M. We investigated the presence of naturally occurring HDV recombinant in Miyako Island using phylogenetic and recombination analyses. Results: We identified a two-switch HDV-4/4M intersubtype recombinant with an unbranched rod-like RNA genome. Conclusion: Our data suggest that RNA recombination plays an important role in the rapid evolution of HDV, allowing the production of new HDV strains with correct genomic structures. Keywords: hepatitis delta virus, RNA recombination

  10. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning. It often occurs after eating at picnics, school cafeterias, large social gatherings, or restaurants. The germs may get into your food (called contamination) in many ways: Meat or poultry ...

  11. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part I: Overview, vaccines for enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines for prevention of acute diarrhea have been going on for more than 40 y with partial success. The myriad of pathogens, more than 20, that have been identified as a cause of acute diarrhea throughout the years pose a significant challenge for selecting and further developing the most relevant vaccine candidates. Based on pathogen distribution as identified in epidemiological studies performed mostly in low-resource countries, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, diarrheogenic E. coli and V. cholerae are predominant, and thus the main targets for vaccine development and implementation. Vaccination against norovirus is most relevant in middle/high-income countries and possibly in resource-deprived countries, pending a more precise characterization of disease impact. Only a few licensed vaccines are currently available, of which rotavirus vaccines have been the most outstanding in demonstrating a significant impact in a short time period. This is a comprehensive review, divided into 2 articles, of nearly 50 vaccine candidates against the most relevant viral and bacterial pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis. In order to facilitate reading, sections for each pathogen are organized as follows: i) a discussion of the main epidemiological and pathogenic features; and ii) a discussion of vaccines based on their stage of development, moving from current licensed vaccines to vaccines in advanced stage of development (in phase IIb or III trials) to vaccines in early stages of clinical development (in phase I/II) or preclinical development in animal models. In this first article we discuss rotavirus, norovirus and Vibrio cholerae. In the following article we will discuss Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic), and Campylobacter jejuni.

  12. miR-27b attenuates apoptosis induced by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV infection via targeting runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, belonging to the coronaviridae family, is the key cause of the fatal diarrhea of piglets and results in many pathological processes. microRNAs (miRNAs play a key role in the regulation of virus-induced apoptosis. During the process of apoptosis induced by TGEV infection in PK-15 cells, the miR-27b is notably down-regulated. Thus, we speculate that miR-27b is involved in regulating the process of apoptosis in PK-15 cells. In this study we demonstrated that the over-expression of miR-27b led to the inhibition of TGEV-induced apoptosis, reduction of Bax protein level, and decrease of caspase-3 and −9 activities. Conversely, silencing of miR-27b by miR-27b inhibitors enhanced apoptosis via up-regulating Bax expression and promoting the activities of caspase-3 and −9 in TGEV-infected cells. Subsequently, the runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1 is a candidate target of miR-27b predicted by bioinformatics search. We further identified that the miR-27b directly bound to the 3′ UTR of RUNX1 mRNA and suppressed RUNX1 expression, which indicates RUNX1 is the direct target gene of miR-27b. The over-expression of RUNX1 increased apoptosis and knockdown RUNX1blocked apoptosis of viral-infected cells via regulating Bax expression and the activities of caspase-3 and −9. Our data reveal that miR-27b may repress the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by targeting RUNX1, indicating that TGEV may induce apoptosis via down-regulating miR-27b and that miR-27b may act as a target for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Field validation of a commercial blocking ELISA to differentiate antibody to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus and to identify TGEV-infected swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Susy; Josephson, Gaylan; McEwen, Beverly; Maxie, Grant; Antochi, Mioara; Eernisse, Ken; Nayar, Gopi; Halbur, Pat; Erickson, Gene; Nilsson, Ernst

    2002-03-01

    A commercially available blocking ELISA was analyzed for its ability to identify antibodies to porcine coronaviruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus [TGEV] or porcine respiratory coronavirus [PRCV]), to differentiate antibodies to TGEV and PRCV, and to identify TGEV-infected herds. Nine sera from uninfected pigs, 34 sera from 16 pigs experimentally infected with TGEV, and sera from 10 pigs experimentally infected with PRCV were evaluated using both the TGEV/PRCV blocking ELISA and a virus neutralization (VN) assay. The ELISA was not consistently effective in identifying pigs experimentally infected with TGEV until 21 days postinfection. Sera from 100 commercial swine herds (1,783 sera; median 15 per herd) were similarly evaluated using both tests. Thirty of these commercial herds had a clinical history of TGEV infection and a positive TGEV fluorescent antibody test recorded at necropsy within the last 35 months, while 70 herds had no history of clinical TGEV infection. The blocking ELISA and the VN showed good agreement (kappa 0.84) for the detection of porcine coronavirus antibody (TGEV or PRCV). The sensitivity (0.933) of the ELISA to identify TGEV-infected herds was good when considered on a herd basis. The ELISA was also highly specific (0.943) for the detection of TGEV-infected herds when the test results were evaluated on a herd basis. When sera from specific age groups were compared, the ELISA identified a greater proportion (0.83) of pigs in herds with TGEV antibody when suckling piglets were used. In repeatability experiments, the ELISA gave consistent results when the same sera were evaluated on different days (kappa 0.889) and when sera were evaluated before and after heating (kappa 0.888). The blocking ELISA was determined to be useful for herd monitoring programs and could be used alone without parallel use of the VN assay for the assessment of large swine populations for the detection of TGEV-infected herds.

  14. Immune response of sows vaccinated with attenuated transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and recombinant TGEV spike protein vaccines and protection of their suckling pigs against virulent TGEV challenge exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Sestak, K; Hodgins, D C; Shoup, D I; Ward, L A; Jackwood, D J; Saif, L J

    1998-08-01

    To compare recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike protein, (SP) R2-2, with attenuated live virus (ALV) vaccine in sows during late pregnancy. 13 TGEV-seronegative sows and their pigs. At prepartum weeks (PPW) 6 and 4, sows of groups 1 and 2 received ALV via the oral/intranasal (O/IN) route. At PPW 2, group-1 sows received ALV IM and group-2 sows received SPR2-2 IM. Group-3 sows received SPR2-2 IM at PPW 4 and ALV O/IN at PPW 2. Sows of group 4 (negative controls) were inoculated O/IN with mock-infected ST cell fluids at PPW 6 and 4 and IM with Sf9 cell lysates at PPW2 (n = 2), or IM with Sf9 cell lysates at PPW4 and O/IN with mock-infected ST cell fluids at PPW2 (2). Serum, colostrum, and milk samples were tested for antibody to TGEV, and a lymphoproliferative (LP) assay was done on blood mononuclear cells. Suckling pigs were challenge exposed with virulent TGEV. Sows of groups 1 and 2 had higher IgG and significantly higher antibody titers in colostrum; their pigs had significantly higher serum antibody titer. At challenge exposure of their pigs, LP responses of group-2 sows were significantly higher than those of sows in the other 3 groups. Mean pig mortality ranged from 43 (group 2) to 92% (group 4). Significant negative correlations were observed among litter mortality and sow LP response, colostral titer, and pig serum titer at time of challenge exposure. In sows vaccinated twice with attenuated live TGEV, the recombinant SPR2-2 administered IM may be comparable to ALV administered IM as a booster. Vaccination failed to provide complete protection to suckling pigs after challenge exposure.

  15. Active and passive immune responses to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in swine inoculated with recombinant baculovirus-expressed TGEV spike glycoprotein vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, D I; Jackwood, D J; Saif, L J

    1997-03-01

    Baculovirus-expressed transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) glycoprotein vaccines were inoculated parenterally in swine to determine whether such vaccines could induce serum and whey virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies and protective lactogenic immunity for TGEV-challenge-exposed pigs. ANIMALS AND PROCEDURES: 3 recombinant baculoviruses that expressed full or partial length TGEV Miller strain S glycoproteins were inoculated SC in 17 conventionally raised 11-day-old TGEV-seronegative pigs to determine whether the recombinant S glycoproteins would elicit serum VN antibodies. Eleven TGEV-seronegative pregnant sows were inoculated SC or intramammarily with subunit vaccines (R2-2 or R3-5) or control proteins. Pigs born to 9 of the 11 sows were challenge exposed at 4 to 5 days of age with the virulent Miller strain, and passive immunity was assessed. Serum and whey antibody responses to TGEV were analyzed by VN and ELISA testing. Recombinant S glycoproteins (R2-2 or R3-5) containing the 4 major antigenic sites induced similar VN antibody titers to TGEV in serum and colostrum, but low (some sows) or no VN antibody titer was detected in milk. Subcutaneous inoculation of sows with R2-2 or R3-5 elicited IgG, but not IgA antibodies to TGEV in colostrum. Morbidity was 100%, and mortality ranged from 20 to 80% in TGEV challenge-exposed pigs nursing sows inoculated SC or intramammarily with TGEV S glycoprotein vaccines. Parenterally administered TGEV S glycoprotein vaccines elicit VN antibodies to TGEV in serum and colostrum that do not fully provide active or passive immunity in swine.

  16. miR-27b attenuates apoptosis induced by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection via targeting runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Song, Xiangjun; Bai, Xiaoyuan; Fei, Naijiao; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Zhimin; Du, Qian; Zhang, Hongling; Zhang, Liang; Tong, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), belonging to the coronaviridae family, is the key cause of the fatal diarrhea of piglets and results in many pathological processes. microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in the regulation of virus-induced apoptosis. During the process of apoptosis induced by TGEV infection in PK-15 cells, the miR-27b is notably down-regulated. Thus, we speculate that miR-27b is involved in regulating the process of apoptosis in PK-15 cells. In this study we demonstrated that the over-expression of miR-27b led to the inhibition of TGEV-induced apoptosis, reduction of Bax protein level, and decrease of caspase-3 and -9 activities. Conversely, silencing of miR-27b by miR-27b inhibitors enhanced apoptosis via up-regulating Bax expression and promoting the activities of caspase-3 and -9 in TGEV-infected cells. Subsequently, the runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) is a candidate target of miR-27b predicted by bioinformatics search. We further identified that the miR-27b directly bound to the 3' UTR of RUNX1 mRNA and suppressed RUNX1 expression, which indicates RUNX1 is the direct target gene of miR-27b. The over-expression of RUNX1 increased apoptosis and knockdown RUNX1blocked apoptosis of viral-infected cells via regulating Bax expression and the activities of caspase-3 and -9. Our data reveal that miR-27b may repress the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by targeting RUNX1, indicating that TGEV may induce apoptosis via down-regulating miR-27b and that miR-27b may act as a target for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Complete genomic sequences, a key residue in the spike protein and deletions in nonstructural protein 3b of US strains of the virulent and attenuated coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Hasoksuz, Mustafa; Spiro, David; Halpin, Rebecca; Wang, Shiliang; Stollar, Sarah; Janies, Daniel; Hadya, Nagesh; Tang, Yuxin; Ghedin, Elodie; Saif, Linda

    2007-02-20

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) isolates that have been adapted to passage in cell culture maintain their infectivity in vitro but may lose their pathogenicity in vivo. To better understand the genomic mechanisms for viral attenuation, we sequenced the complete genomes of two virulent TGEV strains and their attenuated counterparts: virulent TGEV Miller M6 and attenuated TGEV Miller M60 and virulent TGEV Purdue and attenuated TGEV Purdue P115, together with the ISU-1 strain of porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV-ISU-1), a naturally occurring TGEV deletion mutant with an altered respiratory tropism and reduced virulence. Pairwise comparison at both the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) levels between virulent and attenuated TGEV strains identified a common change in nt 1753 of the spike gene, resulting in a serine to alanine mutation at aa position 585 of the spike proteins of the attenuated TGEV strains. Alanine was also present in this protein in PRCV-ISU-1. Particularly noteworthy, the serine to alanine mutation resides in the region of the major antigenic site A/B (aa 506-706) that elicits neutralizing antibodies and within the domain mediating the cell surface receptor aminopeptidase N binding (aa 522-744). Comparison of the predicted polypeptide products of ORF3b showed significant deletions in the naturally attenuated PRCV-ISU-1 and TGEV Miller M60; these deletions occurred at a common break point, suggesting a related mechanism of recombination that may affect viral virulence or tropism. Sequence comparisons at both genomic and protein levels indicated that PRCV-ISU-1 had a closer relationship with TGEV Miller strains than Purdue strains. Phylogenetic analyses showed that virulence is an evolutionarily labile trait in TGEV and that TGEV strains as a group share a common ancestor with PRCV.

  18. Acute gastroenteritis: from guidelines to real life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung M Chow

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chung M Chow1, Alexander KC Leung2, Kam L Hon11Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR China; 2Department of Pediatrics, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Acute gastroenteritis is a very common disease. It causes significant mortality in developing countries and significant economic burden to developed countries. Viruses are ­responsible for approximately 70% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis in children and rotavirus is one of the best studied of these viruses. Oral rehydration therapy is as effective as i­ntravenous therapy in treating mild to moderate dehydration in acute gastroenteritis and is strongly r­ecommended as the first line therapy. However, the oral rehydration solution is described as an underused simple solution. Vomiting is one of the main reasons to explain the underuse of oral rehydration therapy. Antiemetics are not routinely recommended in treating acute gastroenteritis, though they are still commonly prescribed. Ondansetron is one of the best studied antiemetics and its role in enhancing the compliance of oral rehydration therapy and decreasing the rate of hospitalization has been proved recently. The guidelines regarding the recommendation on antiemetics have been changed according to the evidence of these recent studies.Keywords: gastroenteritis, vomiting, antiemetic, ondansetron, rotavirus, oral rehydration therapy, intravenous therapy, guideline

  19. Construction of an oral vaccine for transmissible gastroenteritis virus based on the TGEV N gene expressed in an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaohui; Cao, Sanjie; Wen, Xintian; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Liang, Entao

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an oral vaccine for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) based on the TGEV N gene expressed in an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vector and aimed to evaluate the vaccine's immune response in piglets. Recombinant plasmid pVAX-N was transformed into competent cells of attenuated S. typhimurium SL7207 via electroporation. After it was identified via RT-PCR and double digestion, the screened recombinant bacteria presenting pVAX-N were named SL7207 (pVAX-N). To evaluate the safety and stability of the developed vaccine, different dosages (5 × 10(8), 1 × 10(9), and 2 × 10(9) CFU/mice) of SL7207 (pVAX-N) were inoculated to 6-week-old mice. Piglets below 20 days of age were dosed with 1 × 10(12) CFU. Humoral (neutralization titer and specific IgG), cellular (interleukin-4, γ-interferon, and peripheral lymphocyte proliferation), and mucosal (sIgA) immune responses were detected and evaluated. The three immunizing dosages were determined to be safe for mice and were completely eliminated 8 weeks after the first inoculation. Results of antibody and cytokine detection indicated that SL7207 (pVAX-N) could significantly induce antibody-IgG, antibody-IgA, interleukin-4, and γ-interferon, whose value was maximized on the 6th week. Results confirmed that the recombinant vaccine increased the proliferation of peripheral T lymphocyte. In conclusion, the oral vaccine was developed successfully, and the vaccine could significantly induce humoral, cellular, and mucosal immune responses in piglets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of IPEC-J2 Cells in Response to Coinfection by Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Dai, Lei; Zhu, Liqi; Hu, Weiwei; Yang, Qian

    2017-12-01

    Piglet diarrhea causes large economic losses to the swine industry. Epidemiological investigations show that piglet diarrhea is often caused by mixed infections, but the mechanisms by which multiple microorganisms cause disease are unclear. Because transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC K88) are important contributors to piglet diarrhea, coinfection experiments are conducted using porcine intestinal columnar epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) as a model system. In order to evaluate piglet diarrhea caused TGEV and ETEC K88, the authors examin the effects of coinfection in IPEC-J2 cells. In TGEV pre-infected IPEC-J2 cells, ETEC K88 adhesion is enhanced over uninfected cells. ETEC K88 is also found to inhibit the proliferation of TGEV. Additionally, cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) in coinfected cells are lower than cells infected by TGEV alone, and higher than cells infected by ETEC K88 alone. LCMS/MS coupled to isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) is used to profile expressed proteins in IPEC-J2 cells infected by TGEV alone, ETEC K88 alone, and by both agents together. 77, 89, and 136 differentially expressed proteins are identified in TGEV infected, ETEC K88 infected, and coinfected cells, respectively. Based on these data, the authors suspect that integrin α5 might enable TGEV to promote ETEC K88 adhesion. This study is the first to analyze piglet diarrhea caused by TGEV-ETEC K88 coinfection using high-throughput quantitative proteomics. The results advance the understanding of coinfection and its role in causing piglet diarrhea. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Evaluation of the baculovirus-expressed S glycoprotein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) as antigen in a competition ELISA to differentiate porcine respiratory coronavirus from TGEV antibodies in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, K; Zhou, Z; Shoup, D I; Saif, L J

    1999-05-01

    The spike (S) glycoprotein of the Miller strain of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was recently cloned and expressed in baculovirus. The recombinant S protein was used as the coating antigen in a competition (blocking) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in combination with monoclonal antibodies to the S protein epitope A (conserved on TGEV and porcine respiratory coronavirus [PRCV]) or epitope D (present on TGEV only) to differentiate PRCV- from TGEV-induced antibodies. One set (set A) of 125 serum samples were collected at different times after inoculation of caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (n = 52) and conventional young pigs (n = 73) with 1 of the 2 porcine coronaviruses or uninoculated negative controls (TGEV/PRCV/negative = 75/30/20). A second set (set B) of 63 serum samples originated from adult sows inoculated with PRCV and the recombinant TGEV S protein or with mock-protein control and then exposed to virulent TGEV after challenge of their litters. Sera from set A were used to assess the accuracy indicators (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy) of the fixed-cell blocking ELISA, which uses swine testicular cells infected with the M6 strain of TGEV as the antigen source (ELISA 1) and the newly developed ELISA based on the recombinant S protein as antigen (ELISA 2). The sera from set B (adults) were tested for comparison. The plaque reduction virus neutralization test was used as a confirmatory test for the presence of antibodies to TGEV/PRCV in the test sera. The accuracy indicators for both ELISAs suggest that differential diagnosis can be of practical use at least 3 weeks after inoculation by testing the dual (acute/convalescent) samples from each individual in conjunction with another confirmatory (virus neutralization) antibody assay to provide valid and complete differentiation information. Moreover, whereas ELISA 1 had 10-20% false positive results to epitope D for PRCV-infected pigs (set A samples), no false-positive results to

  2. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection induces cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases via p53-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Huang, Yong; Dai, Meiling; Zhao, Xiaomin; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Wang, Lili; Huo, Ruichao; Zhang, Wenlong; Xu, Xingang; Tong, Dewen

    2013-12-26

    p53 signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of cell cycle. Our previous studies have demonstrated that TGEV infection induces the activation of p53 signaling pathway. In this study we investigated the effects of TGEV infection on the cell cycle of host cells and the roles of p53 activation in this process. The results showed that TGEV infection induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases in both asynchronous and synchronized PK-15 and ST cells, while UV-inactivated TGEV lost the ability of induction of cell cycle arrest. TGEV infection promoted p21 accumulation, down-regulated cell cycle-regulatory proteins cyclins B1, cdc2, cdk2 and PCNA. Further studies showed that inhibition of p53 signaling could attenuate the TGEV-induced S- and G2/M-phase arrest by reversing the expression of p21 and corresponding cyclin/cdk. In addition, TGEV infection of the cells synchronized in various stages of cell cycle showed that viral genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA, and virus titer were higher in the cells released from S-phase- or G2/M phase-synchronized cells than that in the cells released from the G0/G1 phase-synchronized or asynchronous cells after 18h p.i. Taken together, our data suggested that TGEV infection induced S and G2/M phase arrest in host cells, which might provide a favorable condition for viral replication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Host range of symptomatology of Pepino mosaic virus strains occurring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; van der Vlugt, René; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana

    2015-01-01

    in Europe when tested under different environmental conditions. To this end we compared the infectivity and symptom Development of three, well characterized isolates belonging to three different PepMV strains, EU-tom, Ch2 and US1, by inoculating them on tomato, possible alternative host plants in the family......Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) has caused great concern in the greenhouse tomato industry after it was found causing a new disease in tomato in 1999. The objective of this paper is to investigate alternative hosts and compare important biological characteristics of the three PepMV strains occurring...... Solanaceae and selected test plants. The inoculation experiments were done in 10 countries from south to north in Europe. The importance of alternative hosts among the solanaceous crops and the usefulness of test plants in the biological characterization of PepMV isolates are discussed. Our data...

  4. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  5. Antibody-mediated neutralization of Ebola virus can occur by two distinct mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedlock, Devon J.; Bailey, Michael A.; Popernack, Paul M.; Cunningham, James M.; Burton, Dennis R.; Sullivan, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Human Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality and there is no vaccine or treatment. Antibodies in survivors occur early, are sustained, and can delay infection when transferred into nonhuman primates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from survivors exhibit potent neutralizing activity in vitro and are protective in rodents. To better understand targets and mechanisms of neutralization, we investigated a panel of mAbs shown previously to react with the envelope glycoprotein (GP). While one non-neutralizing mAb recognized a GP epitope in the nonessential mucin-like domain, the rest were specific for GP1, were neutralizing, and could be further distinguished by reactivity with secreted GP. We show that survivor antibodies, human KZ52 and monkey JP3K11, were specific for conformation-dependent epitopes comprising residues in GP1 and GP2 and that neutralization occurred by two distinct mechanisms; KZ52 inhibited cathepsin cleavage of GP whereas JP3K11 recognized the cleaved, fusion-active form of GP.

  6. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2016-01-01

    immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) if its activity is not counteracted by the viral Vif protein. Here we investigate the ability of 7 naturally occurring variants of feline APOBEC3, APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), to inhibit FIV replication. Interestingly, one feline A3Z3 variant is dominant, restrictive, and naturally resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ancestral change that generated this variant could have been caused by positive Darwinian selection, presumably due to an ancestral FIV infection. The experimental-phylogenetic investigation sheds light on the evolutionary history of the domestic cat, which was likely influenced by lentiviral infection. Copyright © 2015 Yoshikawa et al.

  7. Viruses Occur Incorporated in Biogenic High-Mg Calcite from Hypersaline Microbial Mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, Rutger; Gautret, Pascale; Bettarel, Yvan; Roques, Cécile; Marlière, Christian; Ramonda, Michel; Nguyen Thanh, Thuy; Tran Quang, Huy; Bouvier, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Using three different microscopy techniques (epifluorescence, electronic and atomic force microscopy), we showed that high-Mg calcite grains in calcifying microbial mats from the hypersaline lake “La Salada de Chiprana”, Spain, contain viruses with a diameter of 50–80 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis revealed that they contain nitrogen and phosphorus in a molar ratio of ~9, which is typical for viruses. Nucleic acid staining revealed that they contain DNA or RNA. As characteristic for hypersaline environments, the concentrations of free and attached viruses were high (>1010 viruses per g of mat). In addition, we showed that acid treatment (dissolution of calcite) resulted in release of viruses into suspension and estimated that there were ~15 × 109 viruses per g of calcite. We suggest that virus-mineral interactions are one of the possible ways for the formation of nano-sized structures often described as “nanobacteria” and that viruses may play a role in initiating calcification. PMID:26115121

  8. Microbial Translocation and Inflammation Occur in Hyperacute Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Compromise Host Control of Virus Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Ericsen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute "pre-peak" phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood. This, heretofore unappreciated, hyperacute-phase microbial translocation was accompanied by sustained reduction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-specific antibody titer, intestinal permeability, increased abundance of CD4+CCR5+ T cell targets of virus replication, and T cell activation. To test whether increasing gastrointestinal permeability to cause microbial translocation would amplify viremia, we treated two SIV-infected macaque 'elite controllers' with a short-course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-stimulating a transient increase in microbial translocation and a prolonged recrudescent viremia. Altogether, our data implicates translocating microbes as amplifiers of immunodeficiency virus replication that effectively undermine the host's capacity to contain infection.

  9. Epidemiology of Classic and Novel Human Astrovirus: Gastroenteritis and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diem-Lan Vu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since they were identified in 1975, human astroviruses have been considered one of the most important agents of viral acute gastroenteritis in children. However, highly divergent astroviruses infecting humans have been recently discovered and associated with extra-intestinal infections. The report of cases of fatal meningitis and encephalitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals, has broadened their disease spectrum. Although zoonotic transmission among animal and human astroviruses has not been clearly recognized, the genetic similarity between some human and animal viruses makes it likely to occur. This review provides an update on the epidemiology of both classic and novel human astroviruses, and a comprehensive view on confirmed or potential association between astrovirus and human disease.

  10. Increased Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding

    OpenAIRE

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David Gatsinzi; Moles, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epstein?Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case?control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers. The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples ...

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of a naturally occurring RNA virus mutant defective in the initiation of host recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Hongwu; Ding Shouwei

    2003-01-01

    The host recovery response is characterized by the disappearance of disease symptoms and activation of the RNA silencing virus resistance in the new growth following an initial symptomatic infection. However, it is not clear what triggers the initiation of recovery, which occurs naturally only in some virus-host interactions. Here we report the identification and characterization of a spontaneous mutant of Tobacco streak virus (TSV) that became defective in triggering recovery in tobacco plants. Infectious full-length cDNA clones corresponding to the tripartite RNA genome were constructed from both the wild-type and the nonrecovery mutant of TSV (TSVnr), the first sets of infectious cDNA clones from an Ilarvirus. Genetic and molecular analyses identified an A → G mutation in the TSVnr genome that was sufficient to confer nonrecovery when introduced into TSV. The mutation was located in the intergenic region of RNA 3 upstream of the mapped transcriptional start site of the coat protein mRNA. Intriguingly, induction of recovery by TSV was not accompanied by virus clearance and TSV consistently accumulated to significantly higher levels than TSVnr did even though TSVnr-infected plants displayed severe symptoms throughout the course of infection. Thus, our findings indicate that recovery of host can be initiated by minimal genetic changes in a viral genome and may occur in the absence of virus clearance. Mechanisms possibly involved in the initiation of host recovery are discussed

  12. Burden of gastroenteritis outbreaks: specific epidemiology in a cohort of institutions caring for dependent people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, P; Ambert-Balay, K; Mosnier, A; Aho-Glélé, S; Roth, C; Larocca, S; Simon, L; Talon, D; Rabaud, C; Pothier, P

    2015-09-01

    In institutions caring for dependent people, viral gastroenteritis occurs frequently and is highly contagious. In elderly persons, these episodes can lead to hospitalization and occasionally death. To study the impact of gastroenteritis outbreaks (GOs) in institutions caring for dependent people. This study was conducted on 18 sites consisting of 35 units from four different disciplines (geriatric medicine and rehabilitation, psychogeriatrics, geriatric nursing homes, and specialized care homes for adults with physical and mental disabilities). Spatio-temporal analysis of GOs was performed during six winter seasons, and clinical and viral data were analysed with regard to structural parameters (size of the sites and dining-room organization), virus epidemiology and chronology of the outbreaks and type of activities. A total of 98 outbreaks were recorded in the 35 units. The risk of GO was high even outside national epidemic periods. Viruses were searched for in 86 outbreaks and were identified in 96.5% (83/86) of these outbreaks: norovirus genotype GII.4 (59.0%, 49/83), other viruses (41.0%, 34/83). There were variations between surveillance periods in terms of GO frequencies and attack rates and types of viruses. Dining-room organization could be a factor in cross-infection at a site. Specific surveillance that takes into account the precise epidemiology needs to be developed in institutions caring for dependent people in order to improve infectious disease control and information for healthcare workers. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  14. An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infecton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Fm; Chindia, Ml; Kenyanya, T; Gathece, Lw; Rana, F

    2010-01-01

    Currently, published literature has increasingly projected the ranula as a lesion that may be closely associated with exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this report, we document 28 patients who presented with ranulae, among whom 19 were HIV infected. In some, this was the only lesion that was the sentinel sign of HIV infection. Most probably, this lesion could be considered as one of the clinical markers of this infection.

  15. In situ hybridization technique for the detection of swine enteric and respiratory coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinarumitr, T; Paul, P S; Kluge, J P; Halbur, P G

    1996-02-01

    The in situ hybridization (ISH) technique was developed to detect the swine coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), in cell culture and tissue sections from TGEV-or PRCV-infected pigs. The 35S-labeled RNA probes were generated from two plasmids pPSP.FP1 and pPSP.FP2 containing part of the S gene of TGEV. The procedure was first standardized in cell cultures. The radiolabeled pPSP.FP2 probe detected both TGEV and PRCV in virus-inoculated cell cultures, whereas pPSP.FP1 probe detected TGEV but not PRCV. The probe was then used to detect TGEV or PRCV in tissues of pigs experimentally infected with TGEV or PRCV or naturally infected with TGEV. Again, the probes detected TGEV in intestines of experimentally and naturally infected pigs and PRCV in the lungs of experimentally infected pigs. TGEV RNA was detected mainly within the enterocytes at the tips of villi and, less often, within some crypt epithelial cells. PRCV was shown to replicate mainly in the bronchiolar epithelial cells and in lesser amount in type II pneumocytes, type I pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, respectively. ISH has potential applications as a diagnostic test for the detection and differentiation of TGEV and PRCV in tissues and in studies to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis of enteric and respiratory coronavirus infections.

  16. Partial passive protection with two monoclonal antibodies and frequency of feeding of hyperimmune anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) serum for protection of three-day-old piglets from a TGEV challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, R D; Woods, R D

    2001-07-01

    Passive protection experiments were conducted to determine the frequency and amounts of hyperimmune antiserum needed to block a transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) challenge infection and to identify monoclonal antibodies that are partially protective against TGEV. Hyperimmune antiserum or monoclonal antibodies were added to milk at each feeding or at selected feedings when the amount of antiserum was reduced. Three-day-old piglets were challenged with virulent virus that had been preincubated with antiserum or monoclonal antibodies. The results indicated that supplementing antiserum every other day was not efficacious for protection. Supplementing even small quantities of hyperimmune antiserum (0.5 ml) at least once a day in most cases was sufficient for piglet survival but did not prevent morbidity. Increasing the amount (>2 ml) and providing antiserum 3 times/day completely blocked the TGEV challenge infection. Two monoclonal antibodies were discovered that also provided passive protection for baby pigs. One monoclonal antibody, 5G1, had a high neutralizing titer, and the other, 6C4, was more effective in neutralizing and binding to virulent TGEV than to attenuated TGEVs. Both of these monoclonal antibodies were partially effective as supplements in milk for passive protection. Furthermore, these monoclonal antibodies were useful for boosting the efficacy of TGEV-neutralizing colostrum, which by itself was ineffective. These results show that other antigenic sites, different from the 4-well characterized epitopes on the S glycoprotein of TGEV, also are important for passive protection.

  17. Origin-independent plasmid replication occurs in vaccinia virus cytoplasmic factories and requires all five known poxvirus replication factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Bernard

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replication of the vaccinia virus genome occurs in cytoplasmic factory areas and is dependent on the virus-encoded DNA polymerase and at least four additional viral proteins. DNA synthesis appears to start near the ends of the genome, but specific origin sequences have not been defined. Surprisingly, transfected circular DNA lacking specific viral sequences is also replicated in poxvirus-infected cells. Origin-independent plasmid replication depends on the viral DNA polymerase, but neither the number of additional viral proteins nor the site of replication has been determined. Results Using a novel real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, we detected a >400-fold increase in newly replicated plasmid in cells infected with vaccinia virus. Studies with conditional lethal mutants of vaccinia virus indicated that each of the five proteins known to be required for viral genome replication was also required for plasmid replication. The intracellular site of replication was determined using a plasmid containing 256 repeats of the Escherichia coli lac operator and staining with an E. coli lac repressor-maltose binding fusion protein followed by an antibody to the maltose binding protein. The lac operator plasmid was localized in cytoplasmic viral factories delineated by DNA staining and binding of antibody to the viral uracil DNA glycosylase, an essential replication protein. In addition, replication of the lac operator plasmid was visualized continuously in living cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the lac repressor fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein. Discrete cytoplasmic fluorescence was detected in cytoplasmic juxtanuclear sites at 6 h after infection and the area and intensity of fluorescence increased over the next several hours. Conclusion Replication of a circular plasmid lacking specific poxvirus DNA sequences mimics viral genome replication by occurring in cytoplasmic viral factories

  18. Hypertransaminasaemia in children with viral gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Oznur; Ugras, Meltem; Bicer, Suat; Col, Defne; Giray, Tuba; Erdag, Gulay Ciler; Yalvaç, Zerrin; Kaspar, Cigdem; Vitrinel, Ayca

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the rates of increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of patients with rotavirus, norovirus and enteric adenovirus gastroenteritis. Two hundred children with viral gastroenteritis were evaluated for hypertransaminasaemia retrospectively. The patients were between 0 - 17 years (mean ± SD: 5.10 ± 3.01) of age. ALT was elevated up to 67 IU/L in 7 (8.5%) patients in the rotavirus group (n=82), whereas it was elevated in 3 (4.0%) and 1 (2.3%) patients in the norovirus (n=74) and adenovirus (n=44) groups, respectively. AST was elevated up to 89 IU/L in 20 (24.4%) patients in the rotavirus group, whereas it was elevated in 6 (8.1%) and 1 (2.3%) patients in the norovirus and adenovirus groups, respectively. Both transaminases were elevated in 7.3%, 1.4%, and 2.3% of patients in the rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus groups, respectively. The increases in ALT and AST levels were found to be significantly higher in the rotavirus group (n=27) than in the norovirus (n=9), and adenovirus group (n=2) (pgastroenteritis and hypertransaminasaemia. When evaluating a patient with hypertransaminasaemia physicians should remember to consider acute gastroenteritis due to some viruses as a cause of elevated AST and ALT.

  19. Impact of a Hurricane Shelter Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreak on a Responding Medical Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Joshua B; Page, Rianne; Prather, Caren; Paavola, Fred; Garrett, Andrew L

    2015-08-01

    Introduction In late October of 2012, Hurricane Sandy struck the northeast United States and shelters were established throughout the impacted region. Numerous cases of infectious viral gastroenteritis occurred in several of these shelters. Such outbreaks are common and have been well described in the past. Early monitoring for, and recognition of, the outbreak allowed for implementation of aggressive infection control measures. However, these measures required intensive medical response team involvement. Little is known about how such outbreaks affect the medical teams responding to the incident. Hypothesis/Problem Describe the impact of an infectious viral gastroenteritis outbreak within a single shelter on a responding medical team. The number of individuals staying in the single shelter each night (as determined by shelter staff) and the number of patients treated for symptoms of viral gastroenteritis were recorded each day. On return from deployment, members of a single responding medical team were surveyed to determine how many team members became ill during, or immediately following, their deployment. The shelter population peaked on November 5, 2012 with 811 individuals sleeping in the shelter. The first patients presented to the shelter clinic with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis on November 4, 2012, and the last case was seen on November 21, 2012. A total of 64 patients were treated for nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea over the 17-day period. A post-deployment survey was sent to 66 deployed medical team members and 45 completed the survey. Twelve (26.7%) of the team members who responded to the survey experienced symptoms of probable viral gastroenteritis. Team members reported onset of symptoms during deployment as well as after returning home. Symptoms started on days 4-8, 8-14, on the trip home, and after returning home in four, four, two, and two team members, respectively. Medical teams providing shelter care during viral gastroenteritis outbreaks are

  20. Rotavirus gastroenteritis-associated urinary ammonium acid urate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Kato, Eiji; Ohta, Kazuhide; Ishikawa, Sayaka; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Masaki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although ammonium acid urate (AAU) calculi are extremely rare renal stone components, it was recently found that many urinary tract calculi that cause post-renal renal failure in rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis are AAU calculi. The mechanism of AAU calculi development in RV gastroenteritis has not been fully elucidated. We analyzed data from eight RV gastroenteritis patients who transiently had AAU crystals in their urinary sediment. In these patients, formation of AAU crystals occurred earlier than the formation of AAU calculi. No difference was observed in serum and urine uric acid levels between RV gastroenteritis patients with or without AAU crystals. Interestingly, fractional excretion of sodium was extremely low among patients with AAU crystals. These results suggest that the formation of AAU crystals might not be due to excretion of uric acid, but excretion of sodium. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Antibody Against Western Encephalitis Virus Occurring in the Serum of Garter Snakes (Colubridae: Thamnophis) in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M. G.; Agnew, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    A study was made of feeding and temperature as factors affecting the appearance of western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus-neutralizing serum (VNS) antibodies in the serum of garter snakes (Thamnophis spp). Eighty snakes were collected in the field, held in captivity under controlled conditions, and bled at frequent intervals. The sera were examined by standard procedures for the presence of WEE VNS-antibodies. It was found that snakes held between 10-28°C showed conversion and intermittent WEE VNS-antibody appearance, whereas snakes held at 6°C showed a decline in titre. The appearance of WEE VNS-antibody was related to environmental temperature, or a temperature-controlled factor, and not to feeding. PMID:4251413

  2. Increased Epstein–Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G.; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case–control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers. The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na+/K+) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either “possible SCM” (Na+/K+ ratio 0.6–1.0) or SCM (Na+/K+ ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation. EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and “possible SCM” compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and “possible SCM” (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13–6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated. SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland. PMID:27399077

  3. Increased Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case-control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers.The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either "possible SCM" (Na/K ratio 0.6-1.0) or SCM (Na/K ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation.EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and "possible SCM" compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and "possible SCM" (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13-6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated.SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland.

  4. Proton pump inhibitors and gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hassing (Robert); A. Verbon (Annelies); H. de Visser (Herman); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAn association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and bacterial gastroenteritis has been suggested as well as contradicted. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of PPIs and occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis in the prospective Rotterdam

  5. Burden of pediatrics hospitalizations associated with Rotavirus gastroenteritis in Lombardy (Northern Italy) before immunization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Bubba, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Chiaramonte, Iacopo; Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Fiore, Lucia; Binda, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus is recognized as the main cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old, representing a considerable public health problem with a great impact on social and public health costs in developed countries. This study aims to assess the frequency and the epidemiological aspect of the hospitalization associated with Rotavirus-gastroenteritis in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 2005 to 2011. The Lombardy Hospital Discharge Database was inquired from the official data of the Italian Ministry of Health and investigated for acute gastroenteritis (ICD9-CM code for bacteria, parasitic, viral and undetermined etiologic diarrhea) in primary and secondary diagnosis in children ≤ 5 years, between 2005 and 2011. Out of the 32 944 acute-gastroenteritis hospitalizations reported in Lombardy, the 50.8% was caused by Rotavirus infection; of these, the 65.5% were reported in primary diagnosis. The peak of Rotavirus-gastroenteritis hospitalization was observed in February-March in children gastroenteritis) showed epidemiological characteristics similar to the Rotavirus-gastroenteritis, suggesting that the virus infection could also be involved in at least some of these. Our data confirm that Rotavirus are the most important agents involving in acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations. The use of Hospital Discharge Database had proved to be a simple tool to estimate the burden and to describe the epidemiological characteristics of Rotavirus gastroenteritis and could be used as a surveillance activity before and after the introduction of mass vaccination at national and regional level in Italy.

  6. Molecular surveillance of non-polio enterovirus infections in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Western India: 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pooja R; Chitambar, Shobha D; Gopalkrishna, V

    2015-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rotavirus (RV) and Norovirus (NoV) are the leading cause of the disease. Despite the use of improved diagnostic methods a significant proportion of gastroenteritis cases remained undiagnosed. Though nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have been reported frequently in children with acute gastroenteritis, their etiologic role has not been established. To investigate the epidemiology of NPEVs in gastroenteritis cases which remained negative for leading causative agents, 955 RV and NoV negative stool specimens from children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis were included in the study. A case control study was conducted which includes stool specimens from 450 children with gastroenteritis and 162 asymptomatic control subjects to determine the association of NPEVs with the disease. NPEV detection and typing was carried out by RT-PCR and sequencing. Presence of RV, NoV, Adenovirus, and Astrovirus was confirmed by ELISA or PCR/RT-PCR. Overall 14% NPEV prevalence was noted. The percentage of children with NPEV infection differed significantly between gastroenteritis and non-gastroenteritis patients (13.7% vs. 4.9%). NPEV was more prevalent among patients with gastroenteritis of undetectable etiology as compared to those detected positive for other viruses (17.9% vs. 7%) (P gastroenteritis and highlights the clinical and epidemiological features of NPEV infections in patients with acute gastroenteritis from western India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Transmission of a 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus occurs before fever is detected, in the ferret model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L Roberts

    Full Text Available During the early phase of the 2009 influenza pandemic, attempts were made to contain the spread of the virus. Success of reactive control measures may be compromised if the proportion of transmission that occurs before overt clinical symptoms develop is high. In this study we investigated the timing of transmission of an early prototypic strain of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus in the ferret model. Ferrets are the only animal model in which this can be assessed because they display typical influenza-like clinical signs including fever and sneezing after infection. We assessed transmission from infected animals to sentinels that were placed either in direct contact or in adjacent cages, the latter reflecting the respiratory droplet (RD transmission route. We found that pre-symptomatic influenza transmission occurred via both contact and respiratory droplet exposure before the earliest clinical sign, fever, developed. Three of 3 animals exposed in direct contact between day 1 and 2 after infection of the donor animals became infected, and 2/3 of the animals exposed at this time period by the RD route acquired the infection, with the third animal becoming seropositive indicating either a low level infection or significant exposure. Moreover, this efficient transmission did not temporally correlate with respiratory symptoms, such as coughs and sneezes, but rather with the peak viral titre in the nose. Indeed respiratory droplet transmission did not occur late in infection, even though this was when sneezing and coughing were most apparent. None of the 3 animals exposed at this time by the RD route became infected and these animals remained seronegative at the end of the experiment. These data have important implications for pandemic planning strategies and suggest that successful containment is highly unlikely for a human-adapted influenza virus that transmits efficiently within a population.

  8. Phylogenetic characterisation of naturally occurring feline immunodeficiency virus in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, A; McMonagle, E L; Logan, N; Willett, B J; Biek, R; Hosie, M J

    2011-06-02

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a significant pathogen of domestic and non-domestic felids worldwide. In domestic cats, FIV is classified into five distinct subtypes (A-E) with subtypes A and B distributed most widely. However, little is known about the degree of intrasubtype viral diversity and this may prove critical in determining whether monovalent vaccines are likely to protect against FIV strains within a single subtype. Here, we characterise novel env sequences from 47 FIV strains recovered from infected cats in the United Kingdom and its environs. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all bar one sequence belonged to subtype A, the predominant subtype in Western Europe. A single sequence was identified as a likely subtype A/C recombinant, intriguing given that subtype C does not appear to exist in either the UK or North Western Europe and suggestive of a recombination event predating its introduction into the UK. Subtype A strains from the UK were not significantly differentiated from representative subtype A isolates found elsewhere suggesting multiple introductions of FIV into the country. Divergence among isolates was comparable to that observed for subtype A isolates worldwide, indicating that FIV in the UK covers the full spectrum of subtype A diversity seen globally. This study demonstrates that while subtype A is predominant in the UK, novel introductions may result in the emergence of novel subtypes or intersubtype recombinants, potentially circumventing vaccine strategies. However, the dominance of subtype A suggests that the development of a regional or subtype-specific protective vaccine for the UK could be achievable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical characteristics of seizures associated with viral gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hitoshi; Tajiri, Hitoshi; Kimura, Sadami; Etani, Yuri; Hosoi, Gaku; Maruyama, Tomoko; Noma, Haruyoshi; Kusumoto, Yoshio; Takano, Tomoko; Baba, Yoshiko; Nagai, Toshizaburo

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the clinical features of seizures during gastroenteritis in children by comparing the norovirus and rotavirus pathogen, and the impact of fever, if present, during the seizure episodes. Retrospective analysis was performed on 293 consecutive pediatric patients admitted with viral gastroenteritis to Osaka General Hospital between November 2007 and May 2009. Eighteen patients developed seizures, 12 of whom were positive for norovirus and six for rotavirus, as revealed by antigen detection. Of these 18 seizure patients, eight presented without fever (the aFS group) and 10 presented with febrile episodes (FS group). Seizure patients in the rotavirus group (83%) were more likely to be febrile than those in the norovirus group (58%). Compared with the aFS group, 90% of patients in the FS group presented seizures at an early stage of gastroenteritis. The frequency of clustered seizures in the FS group was considerably higher than that of febrile seizures in general and was also as high as that of "convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG)". All seizure patients, whether febrile or afebrile, presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS), complex partial seizures (CPS), or both. Diazepam (DZP) was less effective and carbamazepine (CBZ) was completely effective for the cessation of seizures in the FS group, similar to the drug response observed in CwG. The causative pathogen (norovirus or rotavirus) affected the frequency of febrile episodes during gastroenteritis, but fever had little effect on the clinical features of seizures. However, seizures occurred earlier during gastroenteritis in the FS group. On the whole, the clinical features of febrile seizures during viral gastroenteritis may closely resemble those of "convulsions with mild gastroenteritis" (CwG) than those of febrile seizures in general with respect to the frequency of clustered seizures and the antiepileptic drug responses and may have a pathogenic mechanism distinct from those of

  10. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia occurred prior to evident nephropathy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endo Morito

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal involvement in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection has been suggested to be due to a variety of immunological processes. However, the precise mechanism by which the kidneys are damaged in these patients is still unclear. Case presentation A 66 year old man presented with the sudden onset of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Concomitant with a worsening of hemolysis, his initially mild proteinuria and hemoglobinuria progressed. On admission, laboratory tests revealed that he was positive for hepatitis C virus in his blood, though his liver function tests were all normal. The patient displayed cryoglobulinemia and hypocomplementemia with cold activation, and exhibited a biological false positive of syphilic test. Renal biopsy specimens showed signs of immune complex type nephropathy with hemosiderin deposition in the tubular epithelial cells. Conclusions The renal histological findings in this case are consistent with the deposition of immune complexes and hemolytic products, which might have occurred as a result of the patient's underlying autoimmune imbalance, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

  11. Naturally occurring Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 infection in a Midwest United States mink (Mustela vison) ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hildebrandt, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) causes acute respiratory disease in humans and a variety of animal species. The virus tends to remain within the species of origin; nonetheless, naturally occurring cross-species transmission of FLUAV has been periodically documented. Multiple cross-species transmissions of FLUAV have been reported from companion animals and captive wild animals, neither of which is historically considered as natural hosts of FLUAV. In the fall of 2010, mink (Mustela vison) inhabiting a 15,000-head mink farm in the Midwest United States experienced persistent severe respiratory distress and nose and/or mouth bleeding. Mink losses averaged approximately 10 animals per day. Six dead mink at 6 months of age were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnostic investigation. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed that all 6 mink had hemorrhagic bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Hemolytic Escherichia coli was isolated from lungs, probably accounting for hemorrhagic pneumonia. All animals tested negative for Canine distemper virus and Aleutian mink disease virus. Interestingly, FLUAV of H1N2 subtype, which contained the matrix gene of swine lineage, was detected in the lungs. Serological follow-up on mink that remained in the ranch until pelting also confirmed that the ranch had been exposed to FLUAV of H1 subtype (δ clade). The case study suggests that FLUAV should be included in the differential diagnosis when mink experience epidemics of respiratory disease. Since the source of FLUAV appeared to be uncooked turkey meat, feeding animals fully cooked ration should be considered as a preventive measure.

  12. Plasma Epstein-Barr virus and Hepatitis B virus in non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Two lymphotropic, potentially oncogenic, latently occurring DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahua; Rao, Clementina Rama; Premalata, C S; Shafiulla, Mohammed; Lakshmaiah, K C; Jacob, Linu Abraham; Babu, Govind K; Viveka, B K; Appaji, L; Subramanyam, Jayshree R

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to study potential infective etiologies in lymphomas. Lymphocyte-transforming viruses can directly infect lymphocytes, disrupt normal cell functions, and promote cell division. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with several lymphomas, especially Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs). And recently, the lymphocyte-transforming role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been emphasized. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of two potentially oncogenic, widely prevalent latent DNA viruses, EBV and HBV, in non-HL (NHL). In this prospective study, we estimated plasma EBV and HBV DNA in NHL patients. Peripheral blood was obtained from newly diagnosed, treatment na ïve, histologically confirmed NHL patients. Plasma EBV DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting Epstein-Barr Nucleic acid 1 while the plasma HBV DNA was detected using nested PCR targeting HBX gene. In a small subset of patients, follow-up plasma samples post-anticancer chemotherapy were available and retested for viral DNA. Of the 110 NHL patients, ~79% were B-cell NHL and ~21% were T-cell NHL. Plasma EBV-DNA was detected in 10% NHLs with a higher EBV association in Burkitt lymphoma (33.3%) than other subtypes. Pretherapy HBV DNA was detected in 21% NHLs; most of them being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Moreover, 42% of DLBCL patients had HBV DNA in plasma. Since all patients were HBV surface antigen seronegative at diagnosis, baseline plasma HBV-DNAemia before chemotherapy was indicative of occult hepatitis B infection. Our findings indicate a significant association of HBV with newly diagnosed DLBCL.

  13. Hepatitis B virus DNA integration occurs early in the viral life cycle in an in vitro infection model via NTCP-dependent uptake of enveloped virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Thomas; Budzinska, Magdalena A; Vondran, Florian W R; Shackel, Nicholas A; Urban, Stephan

    2018-02-07

    Chronic infection by the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is the major contributor to liver disease worldwide. Though HBV replicates via a nuclear episomal DNA (cccDNA), integration of HBV DNA into the host cell genome is regularly observed in the liver of infected patients. While reported as a pro-oncogenic alteration, the mechanism(s) and timing of HBV DNA integration are not well-understood, chiefly due to the lack of in vitro infection models that have detectable integration events. Here, we have established an in vitro system in which integration can be reliably detected following HBV infection. We measured HBV DNA integration using inverse nested PCR in primary human hepatocytes, HepaRG-NTCP, HepG2-NTCP, and Huh7-NTCP cells after HBV infection. Integration was detected in all cell types at a rate of >1 per 10000 cells, with the most consistent detection in Huh7-NTCP cells. Integration rate remained stable between 3 and 9 days post-infection. HBV DNA integration was efficiently blocked by treatment with 200nM of the HBV entry inhibitor Myrcludex B, but not with 10μM Tenofovir, 100U Interferon alpha, or 1μM of the capsid assembly inhibitor GLS4. This suggests integration of HBV DNA occurs immediately after infection of hepatocytes and is likely independent of de novo HBV replication in this model. Site analysis revealed that HBV DNA integrations were distributed over the entire human genome. Further, integrated HBV DNA sequences were consistent with double-stranded linear HBV DNA being the major precursor. Thus, we have established an in vitro system to interrogate the mechanisms of HBV DNA integration. Importance Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a common blood-borne pathogen and, following a chronic infection, can cause liver cancer and liver cirrhosis. Integration of HBV DNA into the host genome occurs in all known members of the hepadnaviridae family, despite this form not being necessary for viral replication. HBV DNA integration has been reported to drive liver cancer

  14. microRNA-4331 Promotes Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV)-induced Mitochondrial Damage Via Targeting RB1, Upregulating Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL1RAP), and Activating p38 MAPK Pathway In Vitro*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Bai, Xiaoyuan; Guan, Lijuan; Li, Juejun; Song, Xiangjun; Ma, Xuelian; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhang, Zhichao; Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Tong, Dewen

    2018-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a member of the coronaviridae family, could cause fatal diarrhea of piglets and result in numerous economic losses. Previous studies demonstrated that TGEV infection could lead to mitochondrial damage and upregulate miR-4331 level. So miR-4331 may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To explore the potential role of miR-4331 in mitochondrial damage, we adopted a strategy consisting of quantitative proteomic analysis of porcine kidney (PK-15) cells in response to miR-4331 and TGEV infection. Eventually, 69 differentially expressed proteins were gained. The target of miR-4331 was identified. The effects of miR-4331 and its target RB1 on mitochondrial Ca2+ level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), p38 MAPK signaling pathway were investigated. The results showed that miR-4331 elevated mitochondrial Ca2+ level, reduced MMP, targets Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), upregulated IL1RAP, and induced activation of p38 MAPK pathway during TGEV infection. RB1 was identified as the direct targets of miR-4331 and downregulated IL1RAP, suppressed the activation of p38 MPAK, and attenuated TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage. In addition, IL1RAP played a positive role in activating p38 MAPK signaling and negative role in TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage. The data indicate that miR-4331 aggravates TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage by repressing expression of RB1, promoting IL1RAP, and activating p38 MAPK pathway. PMID:29217619

  15. microRNA-4331 Promotes Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV)-induced Mitochondrial Damage Via Targeting RB1, Upregulating Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL1RAP), and Activating p38 MAPK PathwayIn Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Bai, Xiaoyuan; Guan, Lijuan; Li, Juejun; Song, Xiangjun; Ma, Xuelian; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhang, Zhichao; Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Tong, Dewen

    2018-02-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a member of the coronaviridae family, could cause fatal diarrhea of piglets and result in numerous economic losses. Previous studies demonstrated that TGEV infection could lead to mitochondrial damage and upregulate miR-4331 level. So miR-4331 may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To explore the potential role of miR-4331 in mitochondrial damage, we adopted a strategy consisting of quantitative proteomic analysis of porcine kidney (PK-15) cells in response to miR-4331 and TGEV infection. Eventually, 69 differentially expressed proteins were gained. The target of miR-4331 was identified. The effects of miR-4331 and its target RB1 on mitochondrial Ca 2+ level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), p38 MAPK signaling pathway were investigated. The results showed that miR-4331 elevated mitochondrial Ca 2+ level, reduced MMP, targets Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), upregulated IL1RAP, and induced activation of p38 MAPK pathway during TGEV infection. RB1 was identified as the direct targets of miR-4331 and downregulated IL1RAP, suppressed the activation of p38 MPAK, and attenuated TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage. In addition, IL1RAP played a positive role in activating p38 MAPK signaling and negative role in TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage. The data indicate that miR-4331 aggravates TGEV-induced mitochondrial damage by repressing expression of RB1, promoting IL1RAP, and activating p38 MAPK pathway. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Up-regulation of MDP and tuftsin gene expression in Th1 and Th17 cells as an adjuvant for an oral Lactobacillus casei vaccine against anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinpeng; Yu, Meiling; Qiao, Xinyuan; Liu, Min; Tang, Lijie; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Li, Yijing

    2014-10-01

    The role of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and tuftsin in oral immune adjustment remains unclear, particularly in a Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) vaccine. To address this, we investigated the effects of different repetitive peptides expressed by L. casei, specifically the MDP and tuftsin fusion protein (MT) repeated 20 and 40 times (20MT and 40MT), in mice also expressing the D antigenic site of the spike (S) protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) on intestinal and systemic immune responses and confirmed the immunoregulation of these peptides. Treatment of mice with a different vaccine consisting of L. casei expressing MDP and tuftsin stimulated humoral and cellular immune responses. Both 20MT and 40MT induced an increase in IgG and IgA levels against TGEV, as determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Increased IgG and IgA resulted in the activation of TGEV-neutralising antibody activity in vitro. In addition, 20MT and 40MT stimulated the differentiation of innate immune cells, including T helper cell subclasses and regulatory T (Treg) cells, which induced robust T helper type 1 and T helper type 17 (Th17) responses and reduced Treg T cell immune responses in the 20MT and 40MT groups, respectively. Notably, treatment of mice with L. casei expressing 20MT and 40MT enhanced the anti-TGEV antibody immune responses of both the humoral and mucosal immune systems. These findings suggest that L. casei expressing MDP and tuftsin possesses substantial immunopotentiating properties, as it can induce humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses upon oral administration, and it may be useful in oral vaccines against TGEV challenge.

  17. Acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by a GII.6 norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ling-Fei; Qiao, Kun; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Ding, Ke-Ying; Su, Hua-Ling; Li, Cui-Zhen; Yan, Hong-Jing

    2015-05-07

    To report an acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by a genogroup 2 genotype 6 (GII.6) strain norovirus in Shanghai, China. Noroviruses are responsible for approximately half of all reported gastroenteritis outbreaks in many countries. Genogroup 2 genotype 4 strains are the most prevalent. Rare outbreaks caused by GII.6 strains have been reported. An acute gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in an elementary school in Shanghai in December of 2013. Field and molecular epidemiologic investigations were conducted. The outbreak was limited to one class in an elementary school located in southwest Shanghai. The age of the students ranged from 9 to 10 years. The first case emerged on December 10, 2013, and the last case emerged on December 14, 2013. The cases peaked on December 11, 2013, with 21 new cases. Of 45 students in the class, 32 were affected. The main symptom was gastroenteritis, and 15.6% (5/32) of the cases exhibited a fever. A field epidemiologic investigation showed the pathogen may have been transmitted to the elementary school from employees in a delicatessen via the first case student, who had eaten food from the delicatessen one day before the gastroenteritis episodes began. A molecular epidemiologic investigation identified the cause of the gastroenteritis as norovirus strain GII.6; the viral sequence of the student cases showed 100% homology with that of the shop employees. Genetic relatedness analyses showed that the new viral strain is closely related to previously reported GII.6 sequences, especially to a strain reported in Japan. This is the first report to show that norovirus strain GII.6 can cause a gastroenteritis outbreak. Thus, the prevalence of GII.6 noroviruses requires attention.

  18. Norovirus gastroenteritis general outbreak associated with raw shellfish consumption in South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germinario Cinzia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Noroviruses (NV, previously "Norwalk-like viruses" being a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks, the impact of NV infection is at present unknown and little information is available about strains circulating in Italy. In April 2002 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in the province of Bari (South-east Italy, involving several households. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed in order to assess risk factors associated with illness. All households where a case occurred were included in the study. Faecal specimens were collected from ill individuals. NV-specific RT-PCR was performed. Eleven samples of mussels were collected from fish-markets involved in the outbreak. A nested PCR was used for mussel samples. Results One hundred and three cases, detected by means of active surveillance, met the case definition. Raw shellfish eating was the principal risk factor for the disease, as indicated by the analytic issues (Risk Ratio: 1.50; IC 95%: 1.18 – 1.89; p Conclusion This is the first community outbreak caused by NVs related to sea-food consumption described in Italy. The study confirms that the present standards for human faecal contamination do not seem to be a reliable indicator of viral contaminants in mussels.

  19. Binding of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus to Brush Border Membrane Sialoglycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Zimmer, Gert; Schröder, Bernd; Breves, Gerhard; Herrler, Georg

    2003-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is a porcine pathogen causing enteric infections that are lethal for suckling piglets. The enterotropism of TGEV is connected with the sialic acid binding activity of the viral surface protein S. Here we show that, among porcine intestinal brush border membrane proteins, TGEV recognizes a mucin-type glycoprotein designated MGP in a sialic acid-dependent fashion. Virus binding assays with cryosections of the small intestine from a suckling pigle...

  20. Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Yung-Ning; Liang, Po-Huang; Chen, Chi-Min; Chen, Wei-Liang; Chang, Hwan-You; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2007-01-01

    We used swine testicle (ST) cells infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and an indirect immunofluorescent assay with antibodies against TGEV spike and nucleocapsid proteins to screen small-molecule compounds that inhibit TGEV replication. Analogues of initial hits were collected and subjected to a 3CL protease (3CLpro) inhibition assay with recombinant 3CLpro and a fluorogenic peptide substrate. A series of benzothiazolium compounds were found to have inhibitory activity ag...

  1. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Bottiger, B.

    2010-01-01

    At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France...

  2. Infection of porcine precision cut intestinal slices by transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus demonstrates the importance of the spike protein for enterotropism of different virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmling, Tanja; Beineke, Andreas; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel

    2017-06-01

    TGEV is a coronavirus that is still widely spread in pig farming. On molecular level this virus has been studied in detail. However, studying TGEV infection within the complexity of the porcine intestinal epithelium reveals difficulties due to limiting infection models. Here we established a new ex vivo model to analyze the enterotropism of TGEV in porcine intestinal tissue. Precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were produced and ATP level was measured to proof vitality of the slices. ATP measurements and HE staining revealed living tissue in culture for up to 24h. PCIS were infected with three different TGEV strains. TGEV PUR 46-MAD is a commonly used TGEV strain that is known to be attenuated. TGEV Miller was passaged in piglets several times to reveal high infection. Finally, TGEV GFP is a recombinant strain that obtained its main body from TGEV PUR 46-MAD, but its spike protein from TGEV PUR-C11 that showed high mortality in piglets in vivo. Our results were in complete consensus of these statements. TGEV Miller mildly and TGEV GFP extensively infected the cells in the jejunum based on the amount of positive stained epithelial cells. However, for TGEV PUR 46-MAD no nucleocapsid protein was detected in the epithelial cells of the tissue. This shows that differences in TGEV strains and their infectious potential are highly dependent on their S protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Etiology and Risk Factors of Acute Gastroenteritis in a Taipei Emergency Department: Clinical Features for Bacterial Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Chih; Ji, Dar-Der; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Ji-Rong; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong; Lin, Wen-Yun; Chen, Wei-Ting; Yen, Muh-Yong; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    The causative pathogen is rarely identified in the emergency department (ED), since the results of cultures are usually unavailable. As a result, antimicrobial treatment may be overused. The aim of our study was to investigate the pathogens, risk factors of acute gastroenteritis, and predictors of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the ED. We conducted a matched case-control study of 627 stool samples and 612 matched pairs. Viruses (41.3%) were the leading cause of gastroenteritis, with noroviruses (32.2%) being the most prevalent, followed by bacteria (26.8%) and Giardia lamblia (12.4%). Taking antacids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-6.53), household members/classmates with gastroenteritis (aOR 4.69; 95% CI, 2.76-7.96), attending a banquet (aOR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.64-3.20), dining out (aOR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.13-2.54), and eating raw oysters (aOR 3.10; 95% CI, 1.61-5.94) were highly associated with gastroenteritis. Elders (aOR 1.04; 05% CI, 1.02-1.05), those with CRP >10 mg/L (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15-3.62), or those who were positive for fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15-3.62) or fecal occult blood (aOR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.03-3.77) were more likely to be hospitalized in ED. In addition, presence of fecal leukocytes (time ratio [TR] 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.41), abdominal pain (TR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.41), and frequency of vomiting (TR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.98) were significantly associated with the duration of acute gastroenteritis. Presence of fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.08; 95% CI, 1.42-3.05), winter season (aOR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.74), frequency of diarrhea (aOR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.01-2.83), and eating shrimp or crab (aOR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05-2.23) were highly associated with bacterial gastroenteritis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the final model was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55-0.63). Acute bacterial gastroenteritis was highly associated with season, frequency of diarrhea, frequency of vomiting, and eating shrimp or crab.

  4. Rules of co-occurring mutations characterize the antigenic evolution of human influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haifen; Zhou, Xinrui; Zheng, Jie; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2016-12-05

    The human influenza viruses undergo rapid evolution (especially in hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein on the surface of the virus), which enables the virus population to constantly evade the human immune system. Therefore, the vaccine has to be updated every year to stay effective. There is a need to characterize the evolution of influenza viruses for better selection of vaccine candidates and the prediction of pandemic strains. Studies have shown that the influenza hemagglutinin evolution is driven by the simultaneous mutations at antigenic sites. Here, we analyze simultaneous or co-occurring mutations in the HA protein of human influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B viruses to predict potential mutations, characterizing the antigenic evolution. We obtain the rules of mutation co-occurrence using association rule mining after extracting HA1 sequences and detect co-mutation sites under strong selective pressure. Then we predict the potential drifts with specific mutations of the viruses based on the rules and compare the results with the "observed" mutations in different years. The sites under frequent mutations are in antigenic regions (epitopes) or receptor binding sites. Our study demonstrates the co-occurring site mutations obtained by rule mining can capture the evolution of influenza viruses, and confirms that cooperative interactions among sites of HA1 protein drive the influenza antigenic evolution.

  5. Variability of tropism and replicative capacity of two naturally occurring influenza A H9N2 viruses in cell cultures from different tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombari, Wafa; ElBehi, Imen; Amouna, Faten; Ghram, Abdeljelil

    2016-01-01

    Studies carried out on cell permissivity are of great interest to understand virus replication and pathogenicity. We described the results of a comparative analysis of replication efficiency of two naturally occurring influenza A H9N2 variants isolated from poultry and wild birds, differing by only two substitutions Q226L and T384N, in the receptor-binding site of haemagglutinin and the 380 loop region of NA proteins, respectively. Considering the overall growth of both viruses, lung cultures ensured the most efficient growth of TUN12L226N384 strain with titres up to 10(9) TCID50/ml whereas small intestine culture was highly susceptible to the TUN51Q226T384 virus reaching a titre of 10(6) TCID50/ml. The lowest replication was shown in liver cells. The addition of trypsin was essential for the replication of either virus in primary fibroblasts, but it had a marginal positive effect on virus replication in the four other culture types with maximum titres of 10(8) TCID50/ml. This means that in chicken, the proteolytic activation of the H9N2 viruses with the cleavage motif RSSR may be mediated by other endoproteases than trypsin. Further investigations should concentrate on the production of the appropriate set of viruses by a reverse genetics approach and the examination of cellular protease expression in chicken tissues. This would lead to a more complete understanding of the tropism of low-pathogenic Influenza A viruses.

  6. Acute Gastroenteritis on Cruise Ships - United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Amy L; Vaughan, George H; Banerjee, Shailendra N

    2016-01-15

    From 1990 to 2004, the reported rates of diarrheal disease (three or more loose stools or a greater than normal frequency in a 24-hour period) on cruise ships decreased 2.4%, from 29.2 cases per 100,000 travel days to 28.5 cases (1,2). Increased rates of acute gastroenteritis illness (diarrhea or vomiting that is associated with loose stools, bloody stools, abdominal cramps, headache, muscle aches, or fever) occurred in years that novel strains of norovirus, the most common etiologic agent in cruise ship outbreaks, emerged (3). To determine recent rates of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships, CDC analyzed combined data for the period 2008-2014 that were submitted by cruise ships sailing in U.S. jurisdiction (defined as passenger vessels carrying ≥13 passengers and within 15 days of arriving in the United States) (4). CDC also reviewed laboratory data to ascertain the causes of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and examined trends over time. During the study period, the rates of acute gastroenteritis per 100,000 travel days decreased among passengers from 27.2 cases in 2008 to 22.3 in 2014. Rates for crew members remained essentially unchanged (21.3 cases in 2008 and 21.6 in 2014). However, the rate of acute gastroenteritis was significantly higher in 2012 than in 2011 or 2013 for both passengers and crew members, likely related to the emergence of a novel strain of norovirus, GII.4 Sydney (5). During 2008-2014, a total of 133 cruise ship acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported, 95 (71%) of which had specimens available for testing. Among these, 92 (97%) were caused by norovirus, and among 80 norovirus specimens for which a genotype was identified, 59 (73.8%) were GII.4 strains. Cruise ship travelers experiencing diarrhea or vomiting should report to the ship medical center promptly so that symptoms can be assessed, proper treatment provided, and control measures implemented.

  7. Gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter concisus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, D L J; Pettersson, A M; Rijnsburger, M C; Herbrink, P; van den Berg, H P; Ang, C W

    2012-05-01

    We describe a case of gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter concisus. The pathogenic potential of C. concisus has yet to be elucidated. Recent studies indicate an association with enteric disease in immunocompromised patients and inflammatory bowel disease in children. Molecular identification methods may be necessary for identifying certain Campylobacter species because of phenotypic similarity. © 2012 SGM

  8. Proton pump inhibitors and gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassing, Robert-Jan; Verbon, Annelies; de Visser, Herman; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H

    2016-10-01

    An association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and bacterial gastroenteritis has been suggested as well as contradicted. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of PPIs and occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis in the prospective Rotterdam Study. The Rotterdam Study is a population-based cohort study among 14,926 subjects aged 45 years and older with up to 24 years of follow-up. Analyses were performed with a generalized estimating equations method in participants who handed-in a diagnostic stool sample. Furthermore, a nested case-control analysis was performed using the total cohort as a reference group. A bacterial microorganism was isolated in 125 samples, whereas 1174 samples were culture negative. In the generalized estimating equations analysis, we found that participants with a bacterial gastroenteritis were more likely than controls to be current users of PPIs (adjusted OR 1.94; 95 % CI 1.15-3.25). Different sensitivity analyses did not change this result. A considerably higher effect was observed (adjusted OR 6.14; 95 % CI 3.81-9.91), using the total cohort as a reference in a nested case-control analysis. Current PPI therapy is associated with an increased risk of bacterial gastroenteritis. However, by reducing the risk of selection and information bias in our study design, we demonstrated that the effect is lower than previously assumed.

  9. Gastroenteritis: A Grass Root Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dure-Samin, Akram; Mubina, Agboatwalla

    1992-01-01

    In Karachi, Pakistan, 4 resource personnel disseminated information about sanitation and breastfeeding in the prevention of gastroenteritis to 100 households. Compared to 100 that did not receive health information, the intervention group had less incidence of diarrhea and better use of oral rehydration salt. (SK)

  10. Gastroenteritis outbreaks on cruise ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Verykouki, Eleni; Zamfir, Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    When an increased number of acute gastroenteritis (AG) cases is detected among tourists staying at the same accommodation, outbreak management plans must be activated in a timely manner to prevent large outbreaks. Syndromic surveillance data collected between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013...

  11. A non-enteric adenovirus A12 gastroenteritis outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Rocha, Monica Simões; Rebelo, Maria Cristina; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Assis, Rosane Maria de; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-05-24

    A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), astrovirus (HAstV), bocavirus (HBoV), aichivirus (AiV), and adenovirus (HAdV). Five of nine stool samples (83%) from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively. The HAdV-A12 nucleotide sequences shared 100% nucleotide similarity. Viral load was assessed using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Stool samples that were positive for HAdV-A12 had high viral loads (mean 1.9 X 107 DNA copies/g stool). All four patients with HAdV-A12 were < 25 months of age and had symptoms of fever and diarrhoea. Evaluation of enteric virus outbreaks allows the characterisation of novel or unique diarrhoea-associated viruses in regions where RVA vaccination is routinely performed.

  12. Naturally Occurring Polymorphisms of the Mouse Gammaretrovirus Receptors CAT-1 and XPR1 Alter Virus Tropism and Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Kozak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gammaretroviruses of several different host range subgroups have been isolated from laboratory mice. The ecotropic viruses infect mouse cells and rely on the host CAT-1 receptor. The xenotropic/polytropic viruses, and the related human-derived XMRV, can infect cells of other mammalian species and use the XPR1 receptor for entry. The coevolution of these viruses and their receptors in infected mouse populations provides a good example of how genetic conflicts can drive diversifying selection. Genetic and epigenetic variations in the virus envelope glycoproteins can result in altered host range and pathogenicity, and changes in the virus binding sites of the receptors are responsible for host restrictions that reduce virus entry or block it altogether. These battleground regions are marked by mutational changes that have produced 2 functionally distinct variants of the CAT-1 receptor and 5 variants of the XPR1 receptor in mice, as well as a diverse set of infectious viruses, and several endogenous retroviruses coopted by the host to interfere with entry.

  13. Norovirus and Medically Attended Gastroenteritis in U.S. Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Daniel C.; Vinjé, Jan; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Staat, Mary Allen; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Hall, Caroline B.; Chappell, James; Bernstein, David I.; Curns, Aaron T.; Wikswo, Mary; Shirley, S. Hannah; Hall, Aron J.; Lopman, Benjamin; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cases of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis have declined since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, but the burden of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis in children remains to be assessed. METHODS We conducted active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus among children younger than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in hospitals, emergency departments, and outpatient clinical settings. The children resided in one of three U.S. counties during the years 2009 and 2010. Fecal specimens were tested for norovirus and rotavirus. We calculated population-based rates of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis and reviewed billing records to determine medical costs; these data were extrapolated to the U.S. population of children younger than 5 years of age. RESULTS Norovirus was detected in 21% of young children (278 of 1295) seeking medical attention for acute gastroenteritis in 2009 and 2010, with norovirus detected in 22% (165 of 742) in 2009 and 20% (113 of 553) in 2010 (P = 0.43). The virus was also detected in 4% of healthy controls (19 of 493) in 2009. Rotavirus was identified in 12% of children with acute gastroenteritis (152 of 1295) in 2009 and 2010. The respective rates of hospitalization, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits for the norovirus were 8.6, 146.7, and 367.7 per 10,000 children younger than 5 years of age in 2009 and 5.8, 134.3, and 260.1 per 10,000 in 2010, with an estimated cost per episode of $3,918, $435, and $151, respectively, in 2009. Nationally, we estimate that the average numbers of annual hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits due to norovirus infection in 2009 and 2010 among U.S. children in this age group exceeded 14,000, 281,000, and 627,000, respectively, with more than $273 million in treatment costs each year. CONCLUSIONS Since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, norovirus has become the leading cause of medically attended acute

  14. Development of rhabdomyolysis in a child after norovirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Tomohiro; Yonetani, Ryoko; Ito, Eisuke; Yoneta, Makiko; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Tokiko; Sugimoto, Tohru

    2016-11-04

    In children, the most significant cause of rhabdomyolysis or muscle breakdown is viral infection. However, there are no reports that norovirus, a gastroenteric virus that commonly infects children, specifically causes rhabdomyolysis. Here, we report the first pediatric case of norovirus-associated rhabdomyolysis. The patient, a 2-year-old boy with fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, was referred to our hospital with dysstasia and transaminitis. He was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis. Additionally, norovirus genogroup GII was detected from stool samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, and thereafter, the norovirus GII.4 variant was identified. However, the association between rhabdomyolysis and the isolated norovirus variant was not clarified. After treatment the patient recovered without renal failure or disseminated intravascular coagulation. Rhabdomyolysis is a disease for which there is a need for early detection and treatment. If abnormal posture or muscle weakness is observed during the course of gastroenteritis, blood and urinary tests should be performed to rule out rhabdomyolysis.

  15. Risk Factors for Norovirus Gastroenteritis among Nicaraguan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joann F; Bowman, Natalie M; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Reyes, Yaoska; Belson, Connor; Michaels, Kenan C; Bucardo, Filemon

    2017-09-01

    Norovirus is a leading cause of pediatric gastroenteritis. Understanding norovirus epidemiology is essential for reducing disease burden. We conducted a case-control study to describe the distribution, clinical features, and risk factors of norovirus gastroenteritis among children gastroenteritis episodes. To analyze potential risk factors, we used Firth's penalized logistic regression to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There were 102 children with gastroenteritis, 18 cases of norovirus and 31 controls. Norovirus cases occurred later in the year, corresponding to a delay in the rainy season. Cases were more likely to have a household member with norovirus in their stool as compared with controls [crude OR: 13.3 (95% CI: 2.5, 136.2) and adjusted OR: 11.5 (95% CI: 1.6, 223.2)]. In addition, alcohol-based hand sanitizer use among household members was reported for 10 (32%) of controls and but never for cases. Further research is needed to understand household transmission of norovirus in low- and middle-income countries and the potential impact of hand sanitizer use.

  16. Human Noroviruses and Sporadic Gastroenteritis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-05

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Manish Patel, a medical officer with the Division of Viral Diseases at CDC, about an article in August 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on nororviruses. Dr. Patel reviewed 235 studies and identified 31 original studies about noroviruses. Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis.  Created: 8/5/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  17. Recombinant viruses obtained from co-infection in vitro with a live vaccinia-vectored influenza vaccine and a naturally occurring cowpox virus display different plaque phenotypes and loss of the transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Hilde; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Nilssen, Oivind; Traavik, Terje

    2004-12-09

    Some poxviruses are very attractive as transgenic vaccine vectors for humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Poxviridae family members circulate in different ecosystems and parts of the world, providing a pool of possible recombination partners for released or escaped genetically modified poxviruses. We performed in vitro double infections with a vaccinia virus strain Ankara (MVA) vectored influenza vaccine and a cowpox virus isolate from Norway, isolated hybrids, and further analyzed three hybrid viruses with different plaque phenotypes. One of the hybrids was genetically unstable, and during adaptation to new host cells its MVA derived influenza gene was deleted at a high frequency. This is significant in a risk assessment context, since the transgene would be the only logical tag for monitoring unwanted spread and non-target effects of a vaccine virus. Putative recombination events involving genetically modified and naturally occurring viruses should be included in health and environmental risk assessments.

  18. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with a secondary water supply system in a factory in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Guo, Hongxiong; Xu, Zhenghui; Zhou, Xiaotao; Zhang, Hailong; Zhang, Lijie; Miao, Jing; Pan, Yi

    2013-03-28

    Between September 17 and October 3, 2009, hundreds of workers employed in a manufacturing factory in Shenzhen, a city in south China developed a sudden onset of acute gastroenteritis. A retrospective cohort study is designed to identify the risk factors and control this outbreak. Information on demographic characteristics, working place, the history of contact with a person having diarrhea and/or vomiting, drink water preference and frequency, eating in the company cafeteria or outside the company, hand-washing habits and eating habits is included. Furthermore, in order to find the contamination source, we investigated the environment around the underground reservoir and collected water samples from the junction between municipal supply water system and underground reservoir to test potential bacteria and virus, examine the seepage tracks on the wall of the underground reservoir from the side of septic tank, and check the integrity and attitude of this lid. Relative risk was presented and Chi-square test was performed. All the analyses were performed with OpenEpi software version 2.3.1 online. The cohort study demonstrated that the workers who had direct drink water were 3.0 fold more likely to suffer from acute gastroenteritis than those who consumed commercial bottled water. The direct drinking water, water of the tank of buildings, and the underground reservoir were positive only for norovirus. Norovirus was also detected from stool and rectal swab samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis. The underground reservoir was found to be the primary contamination source. Further environmental investigation showed that the norovirus contaminated substance entered into the underground reservoir via access holes in lid covering this underground reservoir. This acute gastroenteritis outbreak was caused by the secondary supply system contaminated by norovirus in this factory. The outbreak of gastroenteritis cases caused by norovirus frequently occurred in China due

  19. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Yan, Yan; Ravi, Laxmi Iyer; Wong, Puisan; Huong, Tra Nguyen; Li, Chunwei; Tan, Boon Huan; Wang, De Yun; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function

  20. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Yan, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Ravi, Laxmi Iyer [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Wong, Puisan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Huong, Tra Nguyen [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Li, Chunwei [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Tan, Boon Huan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Wang, De Yun [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J., E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  1. Iris Yellow Spot Virus in the Netherlands: Occurence in Onion and Confirmation of Transmission by Thrips tabaci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.; Verhoeven, J.Th.J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    Since its first detection in the Netherlands in 1992, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) has been reported worldwide in Allium crops, in a few ornamentals and in a small number of weeds. After recent findings of IYSV in Alstroemeria and Eustoma in the Netherlands, a number of

  2. Intermolecular RNA Recombination Occurs at Different Frequencies in Alternate Forms of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA Replication Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in membrane-bound replication compartments. Brome mosaic virus (BMV replicates in vesicular invaginations of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. BMV has served as a productive model system to study processes like virus-host interactions, RNA replication and recombination. Here we present multiple lines of evidence showing that the structure of the viral RNA replication compartments plays a fundamental role and that recruitment of parental RNAs to a common replication compartment is a limiting step in intermolecular RNA recombination. We show that a previously defined requirement for an RNA recruitment element on both parental RNAs is not to function as a preferred crossover site, but in order for individual RNAs to be recruited into the replication compartments. Moreover, modulating the form of the replication compartments from spherular vesicles (spherules to more expansive membrane layers increased intermolecular RNA recombination frequency by 200- to 1000-fold. We propose that intermolecular RNA recombination requires parental RNAs to be recruited into replication compartments as monomers, and that recruitment of multiple RNAs into a contiguous space is much more common for layers than for spherules. These results could explain differences in recombination frequencies between viruses that replicate in association with smaller spherules versus larger double-membrane vesicles and convoluted membranes.

  3. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  4. In vitro and in vivo expression of foreign genes by transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus-derived minigenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, S.; Sola, I.; Teifke, J.P.; Reimann, I.; Izeta, A.; Balasch, M.; Plana Duran, J.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Enjuanes, L.

    2002-01-01

    A helper-dependent expression system based on transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been developed using a minigenome of 3·9 kb (M39). Expression of the reporter gene {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) (2–8 µg per 106 cells) and the porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV)

  5. Gastroenteritis in sentinel general practices, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Leeuwen, N.J. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    From 1996 to 1999, the incidence of gastroenteritis in general practices and the role of a broad range of pathogens in the Netherlands were studied. All patients with gastroenteritis who had visited a general practitioner were reported. All patients who had visited a general practitioner for

  6. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L J; de Boer, R F; Roelfsema, J H; Friesema, I H M; Kortbeek, L M; Wagenaar, J A; Bonten, M J M; Kusters, J G

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were

  7. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.; Boer, de R.F.; Roelfsema, J.H.; Friesema, I.H.M.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Kusters, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were

  8. Shewanella algae in acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. Previously reported cases of S. algae have mainly been associated with direct contact with seawater. Here we report the isolation of S. algae as the sole etiological agent from a patient suffering from acute gastroenteritis with bloody diarrhoea. The bacterium was identified by automated identification system and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Our report highlights the importance of looking for the relatively rare aetiological agents in clinical samples that does not yield common pathogens. It also underscores the usefulness of automated systems in identification of rare pathogens.

  9. High frequency RNA recombination in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus occurs preferentially between parental sequences with high similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vugt, Joke .J.F.A.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exist, a North American type and a European type. The co-existence of both types in some countries, such as Denmark, Slovakia and Canada, creates a risk of inter-type recombination. To evaluate this risk, cell cultures were co......, but no recombination was detected between the European and North American types. Calculation of the maximum theoretical risk of European-American recombination, based on the sensitivity of the RT-PCR system, revealed that RNA recombination between the European and North American types of PRRSV is at least 10000 times...

  10. Unexpectedly high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in very young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Megan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis has generally been reported in children 6-24 months of age. Young infants are thought to be partially protected by maternal antibodies acquired transplacentally or via breast milk. The purpose of our study was to assess the age distribution of children with confirmed community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to an urban referral hospital. Methods Children presenting to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for the presence of rotavirus antigen in the stool by ELISA (followed by genotyping if ELISA-positive since the 1994-95 epidemic season. Results Over the last 12 rotavirus seasons prior to the introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in 2006, stool specimens from 1646 patients tested positive for community-acquired rotavirus infection. Gender or age was not recorded in 6 and 5 cases, respectively. Overall, 58% of the cases occurred in boys. G1 was the predominant VP7 serotype, accounting for 72% of cases. The median (IQR age was 11 (5-21 months. A total of 790 (48% cases occurred in children outside the commonly quoted peak age range, with 27% in infants 24 months of age. A total of 220 (13% cases occurred during the first 3 months of life, and the highest number of episodes per month of age [97 (6%] was observed during the second month of life. Conclusions The incidence of community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis monitored over 12 seasons in the prevaccine era at a major university hospital was nearly constant for each month of age during the first year of life, revealing an unexpectedly high incidence of symptomatic rotavirus disease in infants

  11. Clinical characteristics and complications of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in east London: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampatsas, Konstantinos; Osborne, Leanne; Seah, May-Li; Tong, Cheuk Y W; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children and is associated with neurological complications such as seizures and encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the presentation and complications of rotavirus compared to non-rotavirus gastroenteritis in UK children. This was a retrospective, case-control, hospital-based study conducted at three sites in east London, UK. Cases were children aged 1 month to 16 years diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis between 1 June 2011 and 31 December 2013, in whom stool virology investigations confirmed presence of rotavirus by PCR. They were matched by age, gender and month of presentation to controls with rotavirus-negative gastroenteritis. Data were collected from 116 children (50 cases and 66 controls). Children with rotavirus gastroenteritis tended to present more frequently with metabolic acidosis (pH 7.30 vs 7.37, P = 0.011) and fever (74% versus 46%; P = 0.005) and were more likely to require hospitalisation compared to children with non-rotavirus gastroenteritis (93% versus 73%; P = 0.019). Neurological complications were the most common extra-intestinal manifestations, but did not differ significantly between children with rotavirus-positive gastroenteritis (RPG) and rotavirus-negative gastroenteritis (RNG) (24% versus 15%, respectively; P = 0.24). Encephalopathy occurred only in children with rotavirus infection (n = 3, 6%). Rotavirus causes longer and more severe disease compared to other viral pathogens. Seizures and milder neurological signs were surprisingly common and associated with multiple pathogens, but encephalopathy occurred only in children with rotavirus gastroenteritis. Rotavirus vaccination may reduce seizures and presentation to hospital, but vaccines against other pathogens causing gastroenteritis are required.

  12. Salivirus in Children and Its Association with Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis: A Paired Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie-Mei; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Liu, Na; Li, Li-Li; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salivirus was recently discovered in children with gastroenteritis and in sewage. Though a causative role for salivirus in childhood gastroenteritis was suggested in the previous study, the relationship between salivirus and acute gastroenteritis has not yet been clearly clarified. The sewage strain reported by Ng, although represented by incomplete genome sequencing data, was distinct from previously reported saliviruses, and had not previously been detected in humans. A case-control study examining 461 paired stool samples from children with diarrhea and healthy controls (1:1) was conducted in this study. Also, common diarrheal viruses were detected and complete genome of a salivirus was determined. Results showed that salivirus was detected in 16 (3.5%) and 13 (2.8%) of the case and control samples, respectively; no differences in detection rates (p=0.571) or mean values of viral loads (p=0.400) were observed between the groups. Multivariate Cox regression revealed no association between salivirus and gastroenteritis (p=0.774). The data also demonstrated that salivirus infection did not exacerbate clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis in children. Furthermore, complete genome sequence of a salivirus recovered from the feces of a child with diarrhea (i.e., SaliV-FHB) shared a 99% nucleotide identity with the sewage strain. In conclusion, a paired case-control study did not support a causative role for salivirus strains detected in this study with pediatric gastroenteritis. This study also demonstrated that all known saliviruses can be detected in the feces of children with or without gastroenteritis.

  13. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Sanae; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shintaku, Haruo; Ogura, Hisashi

    2014-08-01

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Sanae [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ayata, Minoru, E-mail: maverick@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kaoru [Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Division of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Makoto [Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Shintaku, Haruo [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ogura, Hisashi [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene.

  15. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Sanae; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shintaku, Haruo; Ogura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene

  16. Local epidemiological surveillance of Norovirus infections in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of the Norovirus (NoVs infections, from October 2007 to April 2008, in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis. Materials and methods. From October 2007 to April 2008 faecal specimens were obtained from 220 infants and children (130 males, 90 males of whom 58 under 1, 60 between 1 and 2, 28 between 2 and 3, 74 between 3 and 12 years old, admitted for gastroenteritis to the Department of Paediatrics at the Campo di Marte’s Hospital in Lucca, Italy. All the specimens were examined both for the presence of bacteria (Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp, Yersinia spp, Aeromonas spp and enteropathogenic E. coli and for the presence of rotaviruses (HRVs and adenoviruses (AdVs. Sixty-eight frozen stool samples negative for bacteria and viruses were examined for NoVs. HRVs and AdVs were detected by the immunochromatographic test RIDAQUICK Rotavirus/Adenovirus Combi test (R-Biopharm, Germany. NoVs detection was carried out by the enzyme immunoassay RIDASCREEN Norovirus 3rd Generation EIA (R-Biopharm, Germany. In the RIDASCREEN Norovirus test, specific monoclonal antibodies against antigens of several different genotypes are used in a sandwich type method. In a validation study of the RIDASCREEN Norovirus ELISA 3rd Generation at the Institute of Virology of the University of Dresden, the test correlation with the RT PCR showed the following performance, sensitivity (83.0%, specificity (100.0%, PPV (100.0%, NPV (83.0%. Results. HRVs were detected in 41.8% (89/220, AdVs in 4.1% (9/220 and Enteropathogenic bacteria were detected only in 7 (3.2% patient. NoVs were detected in 18 of 68 studied cases (26.5%. Eighty-three of the NoVs and 49% of the HRVs infections occurred in children up two years old. Conclusions. The present results point out the importance of NoVs infections in childhood hospitalization, mainly in the first two years of life.The study shows the need

  17. Naturally occurring mutations in large surface genes related to occult infection of hepatitis B virus genotype C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kim

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms related to occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, particularly those based on genotype C infection, have rarely been determined thus far in the ongoing efforts to determine infection mechanisms. Therefore, we aim to elucidate the mutation patterns in the surface open reading frame (S ORF underlying occult infections of HBV genotype C in the present study. Nested PCRs were applied to 624 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg negative Korean subjects. Cloning and sequencing of the S ORF gene was applied to 41 occult cases and 40 control chronic carriers. Forty-one (6.6% of the 624 Korean adults with HBsAg-negative serostatus were found to be positive for DNA according to nested PCR tests. Mutation frequencies in the three regions labeled here as preS1, preS2, and S were significantly higher in the occult subjects compared to the carriers in all cases. A total of two types of deletions, preS1 deletions in the start codon and preS2 deletions as well as nine types of point mutations were significantly implicated in the occult infection cases. Mutations within the "a" determinant region in HBsAg were found more frequently in the occult subjects than in the carriers. Mutations leading to premature termination of S ORF were found in 16 occult subjects (39.0% but only in one subject from among the carriers (2.5%. In conclusion, our data suggest that preS deletions, the premature termination of S ORF, and "a" determinant mutations are associated with occult infections of HBV genotype C among a HBsAg-negative population. The novel mutation patterns related to occult infection introduced in the present study can help to broaden our understanding of HBV occult infections.

  18. A large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by the human norovirus GII.17 strain at a university in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-Yong; Su, Jia; Lu, Qian-Chao; Li, Shi-Zheng; Zhao, Jia-Yong; Li, Meng-Lei; Li, Yi; Shen, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Bai-Fan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Mu, Yu-Jiao; Wu, Shu-Yu; Du, Yan-Hua; Liu, Li-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Jun; Klena, John David; Xu, Bian-Li

    2017-02-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and are the main etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. An increasing number of outbreaks and sporadic cases of norovirus have been reported in China in recent years. There was a large acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a university in Henan Province, China in the past five years. We want to identify the source, transmission routes of the outbreak by epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing in order to provide the effective control measures. The clinical cases were investigated, and analysed by descriptive epidemiological methods according to factors such as time, department, grade and so on. Samples were collected from clinical cases, healthy persons, the environment, water, and food at the university. These samples were tested for potential bacteria and viruses. The samples that tested positive for norovirus were selected for whole genome sequencing and the sequences were then analysed. From 4 March to 3 April 2015, a total of 753 acute diarrhoea cases were reported at the university; the attack rate was 3.29%. The epidemic curve showed two peaks, with the main peak occurring between 10 and 20 March, accounting for 85.26% of reported cases. The rates of norovirus detection in samples from confirmed cases, people without symptoms, and environmental samples were 32.72%, 17.39%, and 9.17%, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the norovirus belonged to the genotype GII.17. This is the largest and most severe outbreak caused by genotype GII.17 norovirus in recent years in China. The GII.17 viruses displayed high epidemic activity and have become a dominant strain in China since the winter of 2014, having replaced the previously dominant GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain.

  19. A polarized cell model for Chikungunya virus infection: entry and egress of virus occurs at the apical domain of polarized cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jin Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has resulted in several outbreaks in the past six decades. The clinical symptoms of Chikungunya infection include fever, skin rash, arthralgia, and an increasing incidence of encephalitis. The re-emergence of CHIKV with more severe pathogenesis highlights its potential threat on our human health. In this study, polarized HBMEC, polarized Vero C1008 and non-polarized Vero cells grown on cell culture inserts were infected with CHIKV apically or basolaterally. Plaque assays, viral binding assays and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated apical entry and release of CHIKV in polarized HBMEC and Vero C1008. Drug treatment studies were performed to elucidate both host cell and viral factors involved in the sorting and release of CHIKV at the apical domain of polarized cells. Disruption of host cell myosin II, microtubule and microfilament networks did not disrupt the polarized release of CHIKV. However, treatment with tunicamycin resulted in a bi-directional release of CHIKV, suggesting that N-glycans of CHIKV envelope glycoproteins could serve as apical sorting signals.

  20. Proteome Profile of Swine Testicular Cells Infected with Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruili; Zhang, Yanming; Liu, Haiquan; Ning, Pengbo

    2014-01-01

    The interactions occurring between a virus and a host cell during a viral infection are complex. The purpose of this paper was to analyze altered cellular protein levels in porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV)-infected swine testicular (ST) cells in order to determine potential virus-host interactions. A proteomic approach using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification was conducted on the TGEV-infected ST cells. The results showed that the 4-plex iTRAQ-based quantitative approach identified 4,112 proteins, 146 of which showed significant changes in expression 48 h after infection. At 64 h post infection, 219 of these proteins showed significant change, further indicating that a larger number of proteomic changes appear to occur during the later stages of infection. Gene ontology analysis of the altered proteins showed enrichment in multiple biological processes, including cell adhesion, response to stress, generation of precursor metabolites and energy, cell motility, protein complex assembly, growth, developmental maturation, immune system process, extracellular matrix organization, locomotion, cell-cell signaling, neurological system process, and cell junction organization. Changes in the expression levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), caspase-8, and heat shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90α) were also verified by western blot analysis. To our knowledge, this study is the first time the response profile of ST host cells following TGEV infection has been analyzed using iTRAQ technology, and our description of the late proteomic changes that are occurring after the time of vigorous viral production are novel. Therefore, this study provides a solid foundation for further investigation, and will likely help us to better understand the mechanisms of TGEV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:25333634

  1. Proteome profile of swine testicular cells infected with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Ma

    Full Text Available The interactions occurring between a virus and a host cell during a viral infection are complex. The purpose of this paper was to analyze altered cellular protein levels in porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV-infected swine testicular (ST cells in order to determine potential virus-host interactions. A proteomic approach using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification was conducted on the TGEV-infected ST cells. The results showed that the 4-plex iTRAQ-based quantitative approach identified 4,112 proteins, 146 of which showed significant changes in expression 48 h after infection. At 64 h post infection, 219 of these proteins showed significant change, further indicating that a larger number of proteomic changes appear to occur during the later stages of infection. Gene ontology analysis of the altered proteins showed enrichment in multiple biological processes, including cell adhesion, response to stress, generation of precursor metabolites and energy, cell motility, protein complex assembly, growth, developmental maturation, immune system process, extracellular matrix organization, locomotion, cell-cell signaling, neurological system process, and cell junction organization. Changes in the expression levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, caspase-8, and heat shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90α were also verified by western blot analysis. To our knowledge, this study is the first time the response profile of ST host cells following TGEV infection has been analyzed using iTRAQ technology, and our description of the late proteomic changes that are occurring after the time of vigorous viral production are novel. Therefore, this study provides a solid foundation for further investigation, and will likely help us to better understand the mechanisms of TGEV infection and pathogenesis.

  2. pol gene diversity of five human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes: evidence for naturally occurring mutations that contribute to drug resistance, limited recombination patterns, and common ancestry for subtypes B and D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, M.; van den Burg, R.; Zorgdrager, F.; Lukashov, V.; Goudsmit, J.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally occurring mutations in the polymerase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have important implications for therapy and the outcome of clinical studies. Using 42 virus isolates obtained from the UNAIDS sample collection, we analyzed the protease (99 amino acids [aa]) and the

  3. Salivirus type 1 and type 2 in patients with acute gastroenteritis, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Eckerle, Isabella; Müller, Andreas; Delwart, Eric L; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M

    2015-11-01

    Salivirus (SaV-A) is a novel member of the family Picornaviridae and has been associated with acute gastroenteritis. Recently, a second type of SaV-A, SaV-A2, was identified in a sewage sample from Bangkok, Thailand. No information is available on the prevalence of SaV-A in Western Europe. Stool samples from patients with symptoms of acute viral gastroenteritis were analyzed for SaV-A and the clinical course of SaV-A-positive individuals was evaluated. A total of 3019 fecal samples collected during 2012-2013 from 1941 hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis were screened for SaV-A by a newly designed real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction targeting a conserved sequence in the 5'-untranslated region. Positive results were verified by sequencing the viral capsid protein 1 gene also allowing typing of the virus. Medical records of SaV-A-infected patients were reviewed for clinical features and laboratory data. SaV-A was detected in five patients. Viral RNA concentrations ranged from 7.1×10(6) to 7.2×10(8)copies/g feces. The viruses from four patients were classified as SaV-A1 while SaV-A2 was present in one patient. After reviewing the medical records, SaV-A could not be considered as the sole possible cause of gastroenteritis symptoms given the presence of other plausible causes in all five patients. SaV-A infection can be detected in Germany, Western Europe, albeit at low levels. The detection of SaV-A2 in Europe suggests wider spread of SaV-A2. Presence of SaV-A, even at high concentrations, in a stool sample provides no conclusive evidence that SaV is the major cause of the patient's gastroenteritis symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Infectious Gastroenteritis and the Need for Strict Contact Precaution Procedures in Adults Presenting in the Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Florence; Andersen, Vibeke; Chen, Ming

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute infectious gastroenteritis requires contact precautions to prevent spreading. On acute admission the cause of diarrhoea is unknown, so the decision of whom to isolate has to be made on clinical information with a risk of inexpedient use of contact precautions. AIM: The aims...... of the study were to investigate how often gastroenteritis occurs, and thus the isolation indication has to be assessed, in Danish emergency departments, and how often patients have to remain on contact precaution according to the results of the faecal samples. METHODS: This Danish register based retrospective......: Among 66,885 acute admissions 4.3% patients had at least one feature of gastroenteritis: admission with a chief complaint of diarrhoea (1.6%); faecal sample microbiology examination (2.8%); discharged with a gastroenteritis diagnosis (1.7%). 19% of those who had a faecal sample tested were norovirus...

  5. An outbreak of food-borne gastroenteritis due to sapovirus among junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuku, Shuzo; Kumazaki, Makoto; Kitamura, Katsuhiko; Tochikubo, Osamu; Noguchi, Yuzo

    2008-11-01

    The human sapovirus (SaV) causes acute gastroenteritis mainly in infants and young children. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with SaV occurred among junior high school students in Yokohama, Japan, during and after a study trip. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid gene derived from the students exhibited 98% homology to a SaV genogroup IV strain, Hu/Angelholm/SW278/2004/SE, which was isolated from an adult with gastroenteritis in Solna, Sweden. An identical nucleotide sequence was detected from a food handler at the hotel restaurant, suggesting that the causative agent of the outbreak was transmitted from the food handler. This is the first description of a food-borne outbreak associated with the SaV genogroup IV strain in Japan.

  6. Prevalence and clinical profile of human bocavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Chengdu, West China, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Chen, Yuhang; Chen, Jiayi; Hu, Pengwei; Zheng, Tianli; Xu, Xin; Pei, Xiaofang

    2017-10-01

    Viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of mortality in childhood and leads to hospitalization in developing countries. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly described virus associated with gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the clinical and epidemiological profile of human bocavirus (HBoV) in pediatric population in Chengdu, China. Between January 2012 and December 2013, 346 fecal samples from children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis were tested for the presence of HBoV as well as other gastroenteritis viruses. Additionally, laboratory test results, clinical features and epidemiological characters were also collected to assess the correlation between HBoV and acute gastroenteritis in pediatric patients in Chengdu, China. Of the 346 tested fecal samples, 60 (17.34%) were positive for HBoV. The rate of co-detection of HBoV with other gastroenteritis viruses was 43.33% (26/60). HBoV was most detected in the summer/early fall months. Sequence analysis of the VP1/VP2 gene showed that both HBoV1 and HBoV2 circulated in Chengdu, China. No obvious difference was found between the clinical features of the HBoV1 mono-detected patients and HBoV2 mono-detected patients. Besides, in diarrheic children, positive correlation was found between detection of HBoV and diagnose of respiratory disease. Furthermore, blood cells were detected more frequently in fecal samples of patients with HBoV mono-detected. Though HBoV was detected frequently in Children with diarrhea in Chengdu, no statistical association was found between HBoV and disease severity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Khodadadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Aim: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of dehydrating and gastroenteritis among children worldwide. . The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj. Methods: This cross sectional – descriptive study was done on 184 stool samples of children younger than 7 years of age hospitalized at Imam Sajjad hospital of Yasuj in 2011 due to acute gastroenteritis. All samples were routinely analyzed for detection of rotavirus by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA test. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 184 samples analyzed, 52(28.26% were positive.The Results showed significant relationship between the seasonal distribution and virus detection (p=0/001. The highest incidence of rotavirus was seen in autumn with frequency of (48.08% and the lowest in spring (5.77%. Conclusions: According to high prevalence of rotavirus infection, continual surveillance is necessary to provide useful data for formulating effective vaccines and perform diarrhea prevention programs. Key words: Rotavirus, Gastroenteritis, Prevalence, Elisa

  8. Investigation of a food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis in a school canteen revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V not detected by standard PCR, Sollentuna, Sweden, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergens, Maria-Pia; Nederby Öhd, Joanna; Alm, Erik; Askling, Helena H; Helgesson, Sofia; Insulander, Mona; Lagerqvist, Nina; Svenungsson, Bo; Tihane, Malin; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Follin, Per

    2017-06-01

    A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested that the source of the outbreak was the salad buffet served on 20 April, although no specific food item could be identified. Subsequent electron microscopic examination of stool samples followed by whole genome sequencing revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V. The virus was not detected using standard PCR screening. This paper describes the epidemiological outbreak investigation and findings leading to the discovery. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  9. Investigation of a food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis in a school canteen revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V not detected by standard PCR, Sollentuna, Sweden, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergens, Maria-Pia; Nederby Öhd, Joanna; Alm, Erik; Askling, Helena H; Helgesson, Sofia; Insulander, Mona; Lagerqvist, Nina; Svenungsson, Bo; Tihane, Malin; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Follin, Per

    2017-01-01

    A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested that the source of the outbreak was the salad buffet served on 20 April, although no specific food item could be identified. Subsequent electron microscopic examination of stool samples followed by whole genome sequencing revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V. The virus was not detected using standard PCR screening. This paper describes the epidemiological outbreak investigation and findings leading to the discovery. PMID:28602163

  10. Astrovirus Gastroenteritis in Children in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chuan Lin

    2008-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study results provide further information about the prevalence and span of clinical spectra associated with astroviral infections in Taiwan. The current study showed that infection with astroviruses may be an important cause of gastroenteritis, as well as respiratory symptoms, in infants and children in Taipei.

  11. Characterisation of gastroenteritis associated adenoviruses in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To analyse adenovirus (Ad) numbers and types associated with paediatric gastro-enteritis in South Africa Setting. Gauteng, 1994-1996. Methods. A total of 234 paediatric diarrhoeal stool samples were screened for Ad using commercial enzyme-linked iInmunosorbent assays (EUSAs). Adenoviral isolates were ...

  12. Specific Detection of Naturally Occurring Hepatitis C Virus Mutants with Resistance to Telaprevir and Boceprevir (Protease Inhibitors) among Treatment-Naïve Infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Ruiz-Tovar, Karina; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra Yolanda; Rivera-Osorio, Pilar; Vazquez-Pichardo, Mauricio; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Ruíz-Pacheco, Juan Alberto; Cazares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The use of telaprevir and boceprevir, both protease inhibitors (PI), as part of the specifically targeted antiviral therapy for hepatitis C (STAT-C) has significantly improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates. However, different clinical studies have also identified several mutations associated with viral resistance to both PIs. In the absence of selective pressure, drug-resistant hepatitis C virus (HCV) mutants are generally present at low frequency, making mutation detection challenging. Here, we describe a mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR method for the specific detection of naturally occurring drug-resistant HCV mutants. MAMA PCR successfully identified the corresponding HCV variants, while conventional methods such as direct sequencing, endpoint limiting dilution (EPLD), and bacterial cloning were not sensitive enough to detect circulating drug-resistant mutants in clinical specimens. Ultradeep pyrosequencing was used to confirm the presence of the corresponding HCV mutants. In treatment-naïve patients, the frequency of all resistant variants was below 1%. Deep amplicon sequencing allowed a detailed analysis of the structure of the viral population among these patients, showing that the evolution of the NS3 is limited to a rather small sequence space. Monitoring of HCV drug resistance before and during treatment is likely to provide important information for management of patients undergoing anti-HCV therapy. PMID:22116161

  13. Evidence of Recombinant Citrus tristeza virus Isolate Occurring in Acid Lime cv. Pant Lemon Orchard in Uttarakhand Terai Region of Northern Himalaya in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaywant Kumar; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Biswas, Kajal Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The present study for the first time describes biological and molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) occurring in the Terai area of Uttarakhand State in Northern Himalaya region of India. Direct antigen coated-ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected the CTV infection in Acid lime cv. Pant lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) orchards of Pantnagar with an estimated disease incidence of 16.6-20.5 %. To know the biological and genetic properties, an isolate, CTV Pant 4 was characterized. Isolate Pant 4 could be graft transmitted to Kinnow, Nagpur and Darjeeling mandarins, Mosambi sweet orange, Kagzi lime, Sweet lime, Sour orange but not to Rough lemon. The sequence analyses of the 5'ORF1a (3038 nucleotides) of LPro domain and 3'end (2058 nt) covering ORF7-ORF10 regions of the CTV genome revealed that Pant 4 was closely related to the previously reported Indian CTV isolate, Kpg3 from Northeastern Himalaya region with 97 and 98 % sequence identity, respectively. Whereas, it differed from the previously reported CTV isolate B165 from Southern India with 79 and 92 % identity, respectively for 5'ORF1a and 3' end regions. Recombination and SplitsTree decomposition analyses indicated that CTV isolate Pant 4 was a recombinant isolate originating from Kpg3 as a major and B165 as a minor donor.

  14. Activation of type I and III interferon signalling pathways occurs in lung epithelial cells infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sutejo

    Full Text Available The host response to the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H5N2, H5N3 and H9N2 viruses were examined in A549, MDCK, and CEF cells using a systems-based approach. The H5N2 and H5N3 viruses replicated efficiently in A549 and MDCK cells, while the H9N2 virus replicated least efficiently in these cell types. However, all LPAI viruses exhibited similar and higher replication efficiencies in CEF cells. A comparison of the host responses of these viruses and the H1N1/WSN virus and low passage pH1N1 clinical isolates was performed in A549 cells. The H9N2 and H5N2 virus subtypes exhibited a robust induction of Type I and Type III interferon (IFN expression, sustained STAT1 activation from between 3 and 6 hpi, which correlated with large increases in IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression by 10 hpi. In contrast, cells infected with the pH1N1 or H1N1/WSN virus showed only small increases in Type III IFN signalling, low levels of ISG expression, and down-regulated expression of the IFN type I receptor. JNK activation and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic XAF1 protein was observed in A549 cells infected with all viruses except the H1N1/WSN virus, while MAPK p38 activation was only observed in cells infected with the pH1N1 and the H5 virus subtypes. No IFN expression and low ISG expression levels were generally observed in CEF cells infected with either AIV, while increased IFN and ISG expression was observed in response to the H1N1/WSN infection. These data suggest differences in the replication characteristics and antivirus signalling responses both among the different LPAI viruses, and between these viruses and the H1N1 viruses examined. These virus-specific differences in host cell signalling highlight the importance of examining the host response to avian influenza viruses that have not been extensively adapted to mammalian tissue culture.

  15. (+)-Catechin inhibition of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus in swine testicular cells is involved its antioxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wulong; He, Lei; Ning, Pengbo; Lin, Jihui; Li, Helin; Lin, Zhi; Kang, Kai; Zhang, Yanming

    2015-12-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE), especially in newborn piglets, which severely threatens the worldwide pig industry. In this study, (+)-catechin was evaluated for its antiviral effect against TGEV in vitro. Viability assays revealed that (+)-catechin treatment exerted a dose-dependent rescue effect in TGEV-infected ST cells, and this result was only obtained with the post-treatment application of (+)-catechin. The viral yields in (+)-catechin-treated cultures were reduced by almost three log10 units. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the TGEV genome revealed that TGEV RNA replication was restricted after (+)-catechin treatment. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection showed that (+)-catechin alleviated ROS conditions induced by TGEV infection. Our results showed that (+)-catechin exerts an inhibitory effect on TGEV proliferation in vitro and is involved its antioxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Year-round screening of noncommercial and commercial oysters for the presence of human pathogenic viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder-Verschoor, F.; Husman, A.M.R.; Berg, van den H.H.J.L.; Stein, A.; Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of virus-contaminated shellfish has caused numerous outbreaks of gastroenteritis and hepatitis worldwide. In The Netherlands, oysters are cultured and imported both for consumption and export; therefore, the presence of noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, and

  17. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Gastroenteritis in a Tertiary Children’s Hospital in Southern China: Characteristics and Dietary Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is a common cause for acute bacterial gastroenteritis in children in China. There have been no reports of the prevalence of lactose intolerance or food allergies in children with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to characterize nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis in a tertiary children’s hospital and evaluate clinical presentation, lactose intolerance, and food allergies in children with prolonged nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. Methods. A retrospective case-series analysis was carried out in a tertiary children’s hospital in Guangzhou, China. We included all infants and children who were diagnosed with nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016. Patients’ clinical features, feeding patterns, laboratory tests, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. Results. A total of 142 infants and children were diagnosed with nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. 52.1% of cases occurred in infants ≤ 12 months of age and the majority (89.4% in children younger than 3 years old. The most common symptoms were diarrhea (100%, fever (62%, and vomiting (18.3%. Salmonella Typhimurium was the predominant serotype, accounting for 82.4%. 91.5% of patients were treated with antibiotics. Forty-one (28.9% and 9 (6.3% children improved with a lactose-free diet and hypoallergenic formula, respectively, when diarrhea persisted for more than a week. Conclusions. Salmonella Typhimurium was the predominant serotype. Most patients with nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis were younger than 3 years old. Lactose intolerance occurred frequently in children with nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis and dietary modification should be considered when diarrhea is persistent and prolonged.

  18. Entry of a novel marine DNA virus, Singapore grouper iridovirus, into host cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis in a pH-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaowen; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Hao, Xian; Xu, Haijiao; Cai, Mingjun; Wang, Hongda; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-11-01

    Iridoviruses are nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses which cause great economic losses in the aquaculture industry but also show significant threat to global biodiversity. However, a lack of host cells has resulted in poor progress in clarifying iridovirus behavior. We investigated the crucial events during virus entry using a combination of single-virus tracking and biochemical assays, based on the established virus-cell infection model for Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). SGIV infection in host cells was strongly inhibited when cells were pretreated with drugs blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis, including sucrose and chlorpromazine. Inhibition of key regulators of macropinocytosis, including Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, Rac1 GTPase, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), protein kinase C (PKC), and myosin II, significantly reduced SGIV uptake. Cy5-labeled SGIV particles were observed to colocalize with clathrin and macropinosomes. In contrast, disruption of cellular cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin had no effect on virus infection, suggesting that SGIV entered grouper cells via the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway and macropinocytosis but not via caveola-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, inhibitors of endosome acidification such as chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 blocked virus infection, indicating that SGIV entered cells in a pH-dependent manner. In addition, SGIV particles were observed to be transported along both microtubules and actin filaments, and intracellular SGIV motility was remarkably impaired by depolymerization of microtubules or actin filaments. The results of this study for the first time demonstrate that not only the clathrin-dependent pathway but also macropinocytosis are involved in fish DNA enveloped virus entry, thus providing a convenient tactic for exploring the life cycle of DNA viruses. Virus entry into host cells is critically important for initiating infections and is usually recognized as an ideal target for the design of

  19. Molecular detection and characterization of sapovirus in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofang; Yamamoto, Dai; Saito, Mariko; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Ablola, Adrianne; Tandoc, Amado O; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Lupisan, Socorro P; Okamoto, Michiko; Furuse, Yuki; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-07-01

    Human sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. Recently, SaV detection has been increasing worldwide due to the emerging SaV genotype I.2. However, SaV infection has not been reported in the Philippines. To evaluate the prevalence and genetic diversity of SaV in hospitalized children aged less than 5 years with acute gastroenteritis. Stool samples were collected from children with acute gastroenteritis at three hospitals in the Philippines from June 2012 to August 2013. SaV was detected by reverse transcription real-time PCR, and the polymerase and capsid gene sequences were analyzed. Full genome sequencing and recombination analysis were performed on possible recombinant viruses. SaV was detected in 7.0% of the tested stool samples (29/417). In 10 SaV-positive cases, other viruses were also detected, including rotavirus (n=6), norovirus (n=2), and human astrovirus (n=2). Four known SaV genotypes (GI.1 [7], GI.2 [2], GII.1 [12], and GV [2]) and one novel recombinant (n=3) were identified by polymerase and capsid gene sequence analysis. Full genome sequencing revealed that the 5' nontranslated region (NTR) and nonstructural protein region of the novel recombinant were closely related to the GII.1 Bristol/98/UK variant, whereas the structural protein region and 3' NTR were closely related to the GII.4 Kumamoto6/Mar2003/JPN variant. SaV was regularly detected in hospitalized children due to acute gastroenteritis during the study period. A novel recombinant, SaV GII.1/GII.4, was identified in three cases at two different study sites. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute gastroenteritis outbreak associated to norovirus GI.9 in a Portuguese army base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-João, António; Mesquita, João R; de Sousa, Rita; Oleastro, Mónica; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Nascimento, Maria Sao José

    2017-05-01

    Gastroenteritis is considered a major illness within the military settings being caused by foodborne enteric pathogens that are particularly easily spread in the crowded conditions of military camps. Gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus usually affect a great number of soldiers due to the low infectious dose, copious viral shedding, and environmental stability. The present study describes the investigation of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in April 2015 in a Portuguese army base, focusing on the study of the epidemiological curve, symptoms experienced by the affected soldiers, and results of food, water, and stool microbiological analysis. From a total of 938 military personnel stationed on the base 46 soldiers developed acute gastroenteritis. Stool analysis of seven cases showed to be positive for norovirus GI.9 that was the probable cause of the outbreak. This report shows that genogroup I norovirus can also cause considerable morbidity in healthy young soldiers, affecting the operational effectiveness on the military forces. J. Med. Virol. 89:922-925, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2017-01-01

    The amount of animal manure used in modern agriculture is increasing due to the increase in global animal production. Pig slurry is known to contain zoonotic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., and viruses such as hepatitis E virus and group A rotavirus. Coliform...... sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six...... microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination...

  2. Acute Gastroenteritis and Recreational Water: Highest Burden ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECT I VES : To provide summary estimates of gastroenteritis risks and illness burden associated with recreational water exposure and determine whether children have higher risks and burden.METHODS: We combined individual participant data from 13 prospective cohorts at marine and freshwater beaches throughout the United States (n = 84 411). We measured incident outcomes within 10 days of exposure: diarrhea, gastrointestinal illness, missed daily activity (work, school, vacation), and medical visits. We estimated the relationship between outcomes and 2 exposures: body immersion swimming and Enterococcus spp. fecal indicator bacteria levels in the water. We also estimated the population-attributable risk associated with these exposures.RESULTS: Water exposure accounted for 21% of diarrhea episodes and 9% of missed daily activities but was unassociated with gastroenteritis leading to medical consultation. Children aged 0 to 4 and 5 to 10 years had the most water exposure, exhibited stronger associations between levels of water quality and illness, and accounted for the largest attributable illness burden.CONCLUSIONS: The higher gastroenteritis risk and associated burden in young children presents important new information to inform future recreational water quality guidelines designed to protect public health. Meta-analysis of 13 beach sites and nearly 90,000 subjects found that swimming at the beach increased diarrhea incidence and individuals who swam in water

  3. [The mode of differential diagnostic of and acute alcoholic gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V K; Makarov, P V

    2014-12-01

    The study was carried out to develop mode of differential diagnostic of salmonella and acute alcoholic gastroenteritis on the basis of phospholipid specter of blood serum. The indicators of phospholipid fractions of blood serum were analyzed in 50 healthy persons, 50 patients with acute alcoholic gastroenteritis and 50 patients with salmonella gastroenteritis were analyzed. The relative content of following fractions of whole phospholipids were analyzed--total lysophospholipids, sphyngomiyelin, phosphatidcholine, phosphatidyletanolamin. The phospholipid spectrum of blood serum can be applied in differential diagnostic of salmonella gastroenteritis and acute alcoholic gastroenteritis. The disorders of metabolism of lipids under given pathological conditions have a multidirectional character. The salmonella gastroenteritis is characterized by decreasing of relative content of total lysophospholipids and increasing of phosphatidcholine as compared with standard conditions. The acute alcoholic gastroenteritis is characterized by increasing of relative content of total lysophospholipids and phosphatidcholine and decreasing of level of phosphatidcholine. The content of total Iysophospholipids in blood serum is lower on 35% or 30.0 mg% permits diagnosing acute alcoholic gastroenteritis. The content of phosphaltidcholine in blood serum higher than 40% or 50 mg% permits diagnosing salmonella gastroenteritis.

  4. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, Jesper S.; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars E.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kjaer, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    The amount of animal manure used in modern agriculture is increasing due to the increase in global animal production. Pig slurry is known to contain zoonotic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., and viruses such as hepatitis E virus and group A rotavirus. Coliform bacteria, present in manure, have previously been shown to leach into tile drains. This poses a potential threat to aquatic environments and may also influence the quality of drinking water. As knowledge is especially scarce about the fate of viruses when applied to fields in natural settings, this project sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination. Furthermore, group A rotavirus was detected in monitoring wells at 3.5-m depth up to 2 months after pig slurry application. The detection of viral genomic material in drainage water and shallow groundwater signifies a potential hazard to human health that needs to be investigated further, as water reservoirs used for recreational use and drinking water are potentially contaminated with zoonotic pathogens.

  5. International variation in disease burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children with community- and nosocomially acquired infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühwirth, M; Heininger, U; Ehlken, B; Petersen, G; Laubereau, B; Moll-Schüler, I; Mutz, I; Forster, J

    2001-08-01

    The great impact of rotavirus disease on morbidity and medical health care costs in industrialized countries together with the withdrawal of the live oral rotavirus vaccine have made a reassessment of rotavirus gastroenteritis necessary. Such a reassessment should provide sufficient data for developing alternative disease prevention strategies and for allocating resources efficiently. To compare characteristics and management of community- and nosocomially acquired rotavirus disease in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. In a prospective, population-based, trinational (Austria, Germany, Switzerland), multicenter (9 cities, 10 hospitals and 30 pediatric practices) study, a total of 174 552 children months and 78 516 hospital days were evaluated. Participants were all children 4 years of age and younger, who either presented at one of the pediatric practices with community-acquired gastroenteritis, or who had acquired gastroenteritis nosocomially. From December, 1997, to May, 1998, prospective antigen testing was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and serotyping was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Disease severity was scored by the Vesikari severity scale. Rotavirus was detected in 29.5, 27 and 37.5% of children with community-acquired gastroenteritis and in 57, 69 and 49% of children with nosocomial gastroenteritis in Austria, Germany and Switzerland, respectively. Severity of community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis was more pronounced in Austria (median severity score, 11) than in Germany (median score, 9) or Switzerland (median score, 10). However, only 2% of Austrian and Swiss children compared with 12% of German children presented to their pediatricians more than four times. Nosocomially acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis was mildest in Austria but occurred within the shortest median duration of hospitalization (4 days vs. 5 and 7 in Germany and Switzerland, respectively). In a multivariant analysis age, family size, day care

  6. [Acute gastroenteritis by Cambylobacter spp: a retrospective study of a paediatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Teresa; Couto, Catarina; Romão, Patrícia; Melo, Isabel Saraiva de; Braga, Manuela; Diogo, José; Calhau, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Infection by Cambylobacter occurs worldwide and represents the main cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis within the European Union. Determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in stool cultures from patients with gastroenteritis and study their microbiological, epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic profiles, as well as associated complications. Review of clinical files of patients presenting to the paediatric emergency department of a general district hospital over a 30 month period with an acute gastroenteritis and a Campylobacter isolated in a stool specimen. Out of 216 stool cultures, 98 (45%) were positive. We identified Campylobacter in 49 (50%) cases; 30 (61%) were female. Median age was 23 months. Fourteen patients were under one year of age, 25 between one and five years old and 10 patients were over five years old. Watery diarrhea was identified in 5 (10%) patients, bloody diarrhea in 44 (90%) and mucosanguineous in 14 (29%), while 23 (47%) had fever, 14 (29%) complained of abdominal pain and 11 (22%) presented with vomiting. One patient was septic. Five patients were admitted as inpatients. Eight patients were treated with azithromycin. This is the largest published national series on gastroenteritis by Campylobacter in children and the first in the south region. Campylobacter was the main bacteria isolated. Infection was self-resolving in the majority of cases. Nevertheless, severe forms of this infection should be considered. Increased resistance to quinolones is worrisome. Judicious use of stool cultures allows etiological identification of bacterial gastroenteritis. The increase in Campylobacter cases reinforces the need for better control of hygiene measures in handling food products.

  7. [Recurrent epidemics of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GI.3 in a small hotel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Jani; Hemminki, Kaisa; Pirnes, Aija; Roivainen, Merja; Al-Hello, Haider; Maunula, Leena; Kauppinen, Ari; Miettinen, Likka; Smit, Pieter W; Huusko, Sari; Toikkanen, Salla; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cases of gastroenteritis occurred in a small hotel. The causative agent of disease could not be detected. The cause and the source of the disease were established through epidemiological investigations and laboratory diagnosis. The causative agent of the disease was norovirus GI.3. Norovirus GI was detected in the water from the well and on surfaces at the hotel. Both epidemiological investigations and laboratory diagnostics are needed in resolving epidemics. Continuous development of laboratory methods is important.

  8. Incidence of benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis after introduction of rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Han Kyul; Kim, Ho Sung; Kim, Byoung Young; Cheon, Kyeong Ryeol; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Sun Hee; Chung, Jae Keun; Woo, Young Jong

    2015-06-01

    Rotavirus was the most common virus in benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG), with an incidence of 40-50%. As rotavirus gastroenteritis has decreased since introduction of rotavirus vaccine, we investigated the incidence of CwG and rotavirus positivity after introduction of the vaccine. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 987 patients aged between 3months and 3years who were admitted to the Chonnam National University Hospital between March 2005 and February 2014 due to their first seizures and enrolled 102 patients with CwG. The incidences of CwG among seizure patients and stool rotavirus positivity in CwG patients were compared between two periods: period I (March 2005-February 2010) and period II (March 2010-February 2014). Other viruses in stools were also reviewed. The incidence of CwG were 8.47% (45 among 531 patients) in period I and 12.50% (57 among 456 patients) in period II (P=0.018). Stool rotavirus was checked in 85.29% (87 patients): 82.22% (37 patients) in period I and 87.72% (50 patients) in period II (P=0.166). The positivity of rotavirus was 40.54% (15 patients) in period I and 16.00% (8 patients) in period II (P=0.01). In the patients without rotavirus gastroenteritis, 30 patients were test for other viruses. Norovirus was the most common (56.67%, 17 patients) and was more frequent in period II than I (71.43% versus 22.22%, P=0.018). After introduction of rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus-associated CwG has decreased but the incidence of CwG has increased due to an increase of norovirus. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel adenovirus detected in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffering from self-limiting gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; García-Párraga, Daniel; Nieto-Pelegrín, Elvira; Melero, Mar; Álvaro, Teresa; Valls, Mónica; Crespo, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose Manuel

    2015-03-07

    Adenoviruses are common pathogens in vertebrates, including humans. In marine mammals, adenovirus has been associated with fatal hepatitis in sea lions. However, only in rare cases have adenoviruses been detected in cetaceans, where no clear correlation was found between presence of the virus and disease status. A novel adenovirus was identified in four captive bottlenose dolphins with self-limiting gastroenteritis. Viral detection and identification were achieved by: PCR-amplification from fecal samples; sequencing of partial adenovirus polymerase (pol) and hexon genes; producing the virus in HeLa cells, with PCR and immunofluorescence detection, and with sequencing of the amplified pol and hexon gene fragments. A causative role of this adenovirus for gastroenteritis was suggested by: 1) we failed to identify other potential etiological agents; 2) the exclusive detection of this novel adenovirus and of seropositivity for canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 in the four sick dolphins, but not in 10 healthy individuals of the same captive population; and 3) the virus disappeared from feces after clinical signs receded. The partial sequences of the amplified fragments of the pol and hexon genes were closest to those of adenoviruses identified in sea lions with fatal adenoviral hepatitis, and to a Genbank-deposited sequence obtained from a harbour porpoise. These data suggest that adenovirus can cause self-limiting gastroenteritis in dolphins. This adenoviral infection can be detected by serology and by PCR detection in fecal material. Lack of signs of hepatitis in sick dolphins may reflect restricted tissue tropism or virulence of this adenovirus compared to those of the adenovirus identified in sea lions. Gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis supports a common origin of adenoviruses that affect sea mammals. Our findings suggest the need for vigilance against adenoviruses in captive and wild dolphin populations.

  10. Naturally occurred frame-shift mutations in the tvb receptor gene are responsible for decreased susceptibility to subgroups B, D, and E avian leukosis virus infection in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    The group of highly related avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) in chickens were thought to have evolved from a common retroviral ancestor into six subgroups, A to E and J. These ALV subgroups use diverse cellular proteins encoded by four genetic loci in chickens as receptors to gain entry into host cells...

  11. Viral prevalence and laboratory investigations of gastroenteritis in institutions for dependent people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, P; Pothier, P; Roth, C; Larocca, S; Heck, B; Ambert-Balay, K

    2017-12-01

    Viruses are recognized as important agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks in institutions caring for dependent people. We aimed to define norovirus (NoV) and rotavirus (RV) immunochromatographic tests (ICT) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) used in gastroenteritis investigations. Fourteen sites were monitored from 2010 to 2015, with 360 laboratory investigations. Twenty-two outbreaks and 44 sporadic case patients were investigated with ICTs (114 NoVs and 80 RVs) and RT-PCRs (114 NoVs and 52 RVs). ICTs were useful during outbreaks (identification of NoVs and RVs in respectively 76.5% and 75.0% of episodes) despite the NoV sensitivity limit (55.1%) and the four RV false positive results observed for 10 samples. Given the NoV ICT performance and the observed variations of the NoV and RV prevalence (between 20.0% and 5.0%), ICTs are not appropriate to identify sporadic gastroenteritis case patients. Positive predictive values ICT during outbreaks, control of positive RV ICT in cases of suspected NoV and RV co-circulation, patients with long symptom duration, and NoV genogroup and genotype identifications (infection control and epidemiological surveillance). Inclusion of patients with specific clinical symptoms is recommended irrespective of the technique. On the basis of the ICT limits identified in this work, RT-PCR development seems essential to improve viral gastroenteritis investigations in institutions caring for dependent people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Epidemic and control strategy on nosocomial outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian

    2008-10-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in human beings and frequently cause the outbreaks of nosocomial infections. Based on the pathogenic characteristics of noroviruses, this article describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak in hospital and explores the measures to prevent and control the nosocomial outbreak.

  13. Human rotavirus group a serotypes causing gastroenteritis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotavirus remains a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide with an estimated 2000 deaths each day in developing countries. Due to HIV/AIDS scourge in Kenya, it is possible that rotavirus-related gastroenteritis has been aggravated in adults. The Global Alliance for Immunizations has ...

  14. Parasitic Gastroenteritis (PGE) Complex of Domestic Ruminants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitic gastro-enteritis (PGE) is a major health problem and thus the main constraint on the profitable production of domestic ruminants in Nigeria. An annual loss of 60 million Naira due to the disease in domestic ruminants has been estimated. Parasitic gastro-enteritis is a complex of diseases involving several nematode ...

  15. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  16. Campylobacter gastroenteritis associated with Sweet's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sumita; Rytina, Ed; Sterling, Jane; Karas, J A; Aliyu, S H

    2012-10-01

    Sweet's syndrome or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis has been associated with underlying infection, malignancy, inflammatory disease and certain medications. The infection agents associated with this include Streptococcus species, Yersinia species, Chlamydia species, Salmonella species and Helicobacter pylori. We report a case of Sweet's syndrome in a 73-year-old woman following a 2 week course of severe gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter species. Histological examination of skin lesions showed marked inflammatory infiltrate throughout the dermis, composed of neutrophils and histiocytes. The patient was successfully treated with topical and systemic steroids. To date, this is the first case of Sweet's syndrome to be reported linked to Campylobacter species to our knowledge.

  17. Svaer hyperkaliaemi ved gastroenteritis hos kolektomeret patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Bremholm; Winkel, Rasmus; Hansen, Erik Feldager

    2010-01-01

    Severe hyperkalemia is a life-threatening condition that causes primarily cardiac and muscular dysfunction with potentially fatal consequences. This case report describes a case of severe hyperkalemia (9,1 mmol/l) caused by acute prerenal failure due to dehydration. The severe dehydration was cau...... was caused by a combination of reduced fluid intake due to gastroenteritis and a hampered capacity for intestinal fluid absorption, due to previous colectomy. The patient developed classic signs of hyperkalemia with electrocardiogram changes and muscular dysfunction....

  18. Viral gastroenteritis in rotavirus negative hospitalized children Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Preeti; Samoilovich, Elena; Yermalovich, Marina; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Gheorghita, Stela; Cojocaru, Radu; Shugayev, Nazim; Sahakyan, Gayane; Lashkarashvili, Marina; Chubinidze, Marina; Zakhashvili, Khatuna; Videbaek, Dovile; Wasley, Annemarie; Vinjé, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Rotavirus causes nearly 40% of all hospitalizations for AGE among children Soviet Union. The etiologic role of other established gastroenteritis viruses in this age group is unknown. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus negative fecal specimens (N=495) collected between January and December 2009 from children in 6 NIS (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine) were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, enteric adenovirus and astrovirus by real-time RT-PCR. Genotyping was carried out by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Norovirus, enteric adenovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus were detected in 21.8%, 4.0%, 3.2%, and 1.4% of the rotavirus negative specimens, respectively. Mixed infections were identified in 4.1% of the specimens. Phylogenetic analysis showed co-circulation of several different genotypes with GII.4 Den Haag (2006b) norovirus, GI.2 sapovirus, adenovirus type 41, and astrovirus type 1 causing majority of the infections. Norovirus, enteric adenovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus account for a significant proportion (30.5%) of AGE in hospitalized children <5 years of age in 6 NIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. One-step Multiplex RT-PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Seed Transmissible Bacterium and Virus Occurring on Brassicaceae Crop Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusik Jeong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop specific and sensitive PCR-based procedures for simultaneous detection of economically important plant pathogenic bacteria and seed borne virus in commercial Brassicaceae crop seeds, Xanthomonns campestris pv. campestris (Xcc and Lettuce Mosaic Virus (LMV. Bacterial and virus diseases of Brassicaceae leaves are responsible for heavy losses. PCR with arbitral primers: selection of specific primers, performance of PCR with specific primers and determination of the threshold level for pathogens detection. To detect simultaneously the Xcc and LMV in commercial Brassicaceae crop seeds (lettuce, kohlrabi, radish, chinese cabbage and cabbage, two pairs of specific primer (LMV-F/R, Xcc-F/R were synthesized by using primer-blast program (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/tools/ primer-blast/. The multiplex PCR for the two pathogens in Brassicaceae crop seeds could detect specifically without interference among primers and/or cDNA of other plant pathogens. The pathogen detection limit was determined at 1 ng of RNA extracted from pathogens. In the total PCR results for pathogen detection using commercial kohlrabi (10 varieties, lettuce (50 varieties, radish (20 varieties, chinese cabbage (20 varieties and cabbage (20 varieties, LMV and Xcc were detected from 39 and 2 varieties, respectively. In the PCR result of lettuce, LMV and Xcc were simultaneously detected in 8 varieties.

  20. The epidemiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis and Campylobacter gastroenteritis in pediatric inpatients in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Fang; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Huang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chang, Lung; Kung, Yen-Hsin; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chi, Hsin

    2017-09-27

    Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are the two most common bacterial pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis in children. This study aims to elucidate the epidemiology of Campylobacter and NTS gastroenteritis and develop a scoring system to differentiate them. This retrospective study enrolled 886 children ≤18 years of age, hospitalized due to acute gastroenteritis with stool culture-proven Campylobacter or NTS infection from July 2012 to December 2015. Pearson's chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare clinical manifestations and laboratory data. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to evaluate the scoring system. Seasonality was found in NTS gastroenteritis from May to September, but no seasonality in Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella serogroup B were the most common pathogens. The median ages were 68.2 and 18.5 months and the incidence rates of bacteremia were 0.6% and 7.1% in the Campylobacter and NTS groups, respectively. Salmonella serogroup C2 infection had the highest risk of bacteremia (OR: 5.9, 95% CI: 2.8-12.7, p Campylobacter gastroenteritis, with sensitivity 75%, specificity 77%. The positive and negative predictive values were of 73.3% and 93.9% after validation. Campylobacter gastroenteritis is associated with older age and male sex, while NTS gastroenteritis is associated with moderate to severe dehydration and bacteremia. Salmonella serogroup C2 infection has the highest risk of bacteremia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Long-term patency of experimental magnetic compression gastroenteric anastomoses achieved with covered stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, C; Ginsberg, G G

    2001-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a prototype "YO-YO"-shaped covered stent for keeping experimental magnetic compression gastroenteric fistulas patent for 6 months. Magnets were introduced perorally with endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance and were mated across the gastric and jejunal walls of 5 dogs. After a mean of 5.5 days a 12-mm diameter YO-YO stent was placed perorally in the resulting fistula. The gastroenteric anastomosis (GEA) with stent was observed endoscopically and gastrographically at 1- to 2-month intervals. There was no morbidity and there were no significant weight changes. The GEA was widely patent at necropsy at 6 months (n = 4); partial membrane separation occurred at 5 months in the fifth dog. There was minor breakage of the stent prongs in 2 animals. Peroral creation of a stented magnetic compression GEA is safe and provides long-term patency. This technique may be potentially useful for managing gastric outlet obstruction caused by malignancy.

  2. Efficacy of a transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus with an altered ORF-3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R D

    2001-01-01

    Serial passage of virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus through cell culture reduced its virulence in 3-day-old piglets. Intramuscular inoculation of pregnant gilts with 2 doses of this modified-live virus elicited a level of lactogenic immunity that protected their nursing piglets against a lethal dose of challenge virus. Sequence analysis of a 637-bp fragment of the spike gene containing most of the aminopeptidase receptor and the 4 major antigenic sites from the original and the serially passed viruses were nearly identical. Gel analysis revealed that the fragment from the ORF-3 gene of virulent virus was smaller than the corresponding fragment from the serially passed virus. Sequence analysis of the fragment from the passed virus revealed that the sequence between nt 5310 and nt 5434 was replaced by a 636-bp fragment from the polymerase 1A gene. This replacement resulted in the loss of the CTAAACTT leader RNA-binding site and ATG start codon for the ORF-3A gene but it did not affect the ORF-3B gene.

  3. Brote de gastroenteritis en una residencia de ancianos de Albacete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayoral Cortes José María

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe el estudio de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda de inicio explosivo y probable origen hídrico, en una residencia de ancianos de Albacete, en el mes de noviembre de 1999 y que afectó a 104 residentes y a 35 trabajadores. El cuadro clínico se caracterizó por la presentación de vómitos y diarrea como síntomas dominantes. Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles. Se realiza un análisis descriptivo de datos y cruce de variables mediante tablas simples. El análisis multivariante se realiza mediante modelos de regresión logística para la fase explosiva y de transmisión de persona a persona. Resultados: La tasa de ataque fue del 45,8% para residentes y de 33,7% en trabajadores. Se encontró asociación entre la utilización del comedor principal de la residencia y el inicio explosivo del brote así como entre la presencia inicial de un caso en habitaciones compartidas y la transmisión de persona a persona. Se aisló virus Norwalk-like en heces de 4 enfermos. Conclusiones: El análisis de las características clínicas y epidemiológicas, así como los resultados de laboratorio confirman la implicación del virus Norwalk-like como agente causal en este brote.

  4. CARBOHYDRATE MALABSORPTION SYNDROME IN CHILDREN WITH VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric viruses (mainly rotaviruses are the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in infants. One  of the  pathophysiologic mechanisms in rotaviral gastroenteritis is the  reduction of the  surface  activity of enterocyte disaccharidases  and  osmotic  diarrhea. Aim: To determine the clinical significance of metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota in the formation of the osmotic component of viral diarrhea in children of various ages. Materials and methods: The study involved 139 children aged  from 1 month  to 14 years admitted to the hospital in the first 24 to 72 hours of moderate-degree  viral gastroenteritis.  Rotaviral infection was the most prevalent  (90%. Viral etiology was confirmed  by the  reaction  of indirect hemagglutination and multiplex real-time PCR (in feces. Total carbohydrate content in the feces was measured and fecal microflora was investigated by two methods: bacteriological and gas liquid chromatography with the determination of short-chain fatty acids. Results: The mean carbohydrate content in the feces of children below 1.5 years of age was higher than  that  in older children (p = 0.014. There was an inverse correlation between the concentration of rotaviral antigens  and carbohydrate   contents (r = -0,43, p < 0.05 and the production of acetic and propionic acids (R = -0,35, p < 0.01. The carbohydrate content in acute stage of the disease was linearly associated with time to normalization of the stool (r = +0,47, p < 0.01. Previous acute  respiratory or intestinal  infections within 2 months (odds ratio [OR], 14.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.86–51.53, previous  hospitalizations  (OR = 14.17; 95% CI 2.74–74.32 and  past  history of intestinal dysfunction (OR 5.68; 95% CI 1.67–19.76 were predictive of severe  carbohydrate malabsorption in children below 1.5 years of age. Conclusion: The lack of microbiota functional activity (assessed by production of short

  5. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Menon

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia.Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group.Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2% were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6% were norovirus GI, 150(8.1% norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4% were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4% were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8% were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6% GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0% with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3% ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428 were at a significantly lower risk (48/190 of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01.This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease.

  6. A molecular survey for selected viral enteropathogens revealed a limited role of Canine circovirus in the development of canine acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowgier, Giulia; Lorusso, Eleonora; Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lanave, Gianvito; Buonavoglia, Canio; Elia, Gabriella

    2017-05-01

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) is a canine virus, whose pathogenetic role is still uncertain. Based on recent data suggesting its role as entheropathogen, a case-control study was conducted between 2013 and 2016 to investigate the association of CanineCV with gastroenteritis in dogs, alone or in combination with other viral pathogens, including canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). A total of 219 dogs suffering from acute gastroenteritis disorders and 67 controls randomly recruited among healthy dogs or patients presenting without enteric signs were screened by a panel of real-time (RT-)PCR assays for CanineCV, CPV, CCoV and CDV. A high prevalence of viral infections was detected in dogs with gastroenteritis (77.16%), with CPV representing the most frequently detected enteropathogen, followed by CanineCV and CCoV. While CPV and CCoV infections displayed a strong association with occurrence of acute gastroenteritis (pgastroenteritis (p<0.00001). This study supports the role of CanineCV as a co-pathogen in the development of gastrointestinal disease, mainly acting in synergism with other enteric viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of Rotavirus-Norovirus Co-Infection and Determination of Norovirus Genogrouping among Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Nasab, Seyed Dawood; Sabahi, Farzaneh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Mirab Samiee, Siamak; Nadji, Seyed Alireza; Ravanshad, Mehrdad

    2016-11-01

    Enteric viruses, particularly human rotavirus and norovirus, have been shown to replace bacteria and parasites, as the most common pathogens responsible for acute diarrhea. However, there are still few epidemiological data on the simultaneous occurrence of these viruses in Iran. In this regard, the aim of this study was to assess the useful epidemiological data on the gastroenteritis associated with rotavirus-norovirus mixed infection and to examine the prevalence of norovirus genogrouping among children aged less than five years old in Iran. A total of 170 stool samples were collected from children under five years of age with the clinical signs and symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, from May 2013 to May 2014. For the detection of both rotavirus and norovirus, total RNA was extracted from all samples, followed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For both detected rotaviruses and noroviruses, genogrouping was performed. Of 170 samples, 49 (28.8%) and 15 (8.8%) samples were found to be positive for rotavirus and norovirus infections by RT-PCR. Interestingly, 6 (3.5%) patients were positive for both infections. Among the 15 norovirus-positive patients, 13 (86.6%) and 2 (13.3%) belonged to genogroups GII and GI. The norovirus genogroup GII and rotavirus lead to the serious infections in children with acute gastroenteritis. However, more well-designed studies are needed to further elucidate the role of other enteric viruses in acute gastroenteritis.

  8. Small round structured viruses (SRSVs) and transmission electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    immune-electron microscopy (IEM) from patients' feces. They reported this virus particle as the causative agent of winter vomiting outbreaks in Norwalk (Kapikian et al.,. 1972). This is the remarkable landmark study of non- bacterial gastroenteritis viruses, especially for small round structured viruses (SRSVs). After that, many.

  9. Cardiovascular disease after Escherichia coli O157:H7 gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizo-Abes, Patricia; Clark, William F.; Sontrop, Jessica M.; Young, Ann; Huang, Anjie; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Austin, Peter C.; Garg, Amit X.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis, which can be devastating in outbreak situations. We studied the risk of cardiovascular disease following such an outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario, in May 2000. Methods: In this community-based cohort study, we linked data from the Walkerton Health Study (2002–2008) to Ontario’s large healthcare databases. We included 4 groups of adults: 3 groups of Walkerton participants (153 with severe gastroenteritis, 414 with mild gastroenteritis, 331 with no gastroenteritis) and a group of 11 263 residents from the surrounding communities that were unaffected by the outbreak. The primary outcome was a composite of death or first major cardiovascular event (admission to hospital for acute myocardial infarction, stroke or congestive heart failure, or evidence of associated procedures). The secondary outcome was first major cardiovascular event censored for death. Adults were followed for an average of 7.4 years. Results: During the study period, 1174 adults (9.7%) died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Compared with residents of the surrounding communities, the risk of death or cardiovascular event was not elevated among Walkerton participants with severe or mild gastroenteritis (hazard ratio [HR] for severe gastroenteritis 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38–1.43, mild gastroenteritis HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42–0.98). Compared with Walkerton participants who had no gastroenteritis, risk of death or cardiovascular event was not elevated among participants with severe or mild gastroenteritis. Interpretation: There was no increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease in the decade following acute infection during a major E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. PMID:23166291

  10. A large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, 1972 revisited: evidence for common source exposure to a recombinant GII.Pg/GII.3 norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A; Parra, G I; Levenson, E A; Green, K Y

    2017-06-01

    Historical outbreaks can be an important source of information in the understanding of norovirus evolution and epidemiology. Here, we revisit an outbreak of undiagnosed gastroenteritis that occurred in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania in 1972. Nearly 5000 people fell ill over the course of 10 days. Symptoms included diarrhea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and fever, lasting for a median of 24 h. Using current techniques, including next-generation sequencing of full-length viral genomic amplicons, we identified an unusual norovirus recombinant (GII.Pg/GII.3) in nine of 15 available stool samples from the outbreak. This particular recombinant virus has not been reported in recent decades, although GII.3 and GII.Pg genotypes have been detected individually in current epidemic strains. The consensus nucleotide sequences were nearly identical among the four viral genomes analysed, although each strain had three to seven positions in the genome with heterogenous non-synonymous nucleotide subpopulations. Two of these resulting amino acid polymorphisms were conserved in frequency among all four cases, consistent with common source exposure and successful transmission of a mixed viral population. Continued investigation of variant nucleotide populations and recombination events among ancestral norovirus strains such as the Shippensburg virus may provide unique insight into the origin of contemporary strains.

  11. Burden of acute gastroenteritis caused by norovirus in China: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Lu; Zhen, Shan-Shan; Wang, Jin-Xia; Zhang, Can-Jing; Qiu, Chao; Wang, Song-Mei; Jiang, Xi; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2017-09-01

    To understand the epidemiology and disease burden of norovirus (NoVs) gastroenteritis in China, a systematic review was conducted. Studies on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by NoVs from mainland China, published before 2017 were searched. All retrieved articles were screened and reviewed by a standardized algorithm. NoVs detection rates as well as strain variations by ages, seasonal variations and geographic locations were analyzed using random-effects model. A total of 225 articles were included in the final analysis. Similar detection rates at 21.0% and 19.8% were obtained from the North and the South, respectively. NoVs infection occurred year round, with a peak between October and January in the North and between August and November in the South. High detection rates (∼29%) of NoVs were found in adults and the elderly and in children aged 6-35 months (∼22%). The predominant strains were GII.4 (70.4%), followed by GII.3 (13.5%). NoVs cause significant disease burden in China which warrants development of vaccines against NoVs, particularly for children and the elderly who are vulnerable to gastroenteritis diseases. To achieve a broad protection, continual monitoring NoV epidemics and strain variations for selection of proper vaccine strains is critical. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. All rights reserved.

  12. A Waterborne Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Norovirus GII.17 in a Hotel, Hebei, China, December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Dong, Xiao-Gen; Jing, Yan-Yan; Wei, Xiu-Xia; Wang, Zhao-E; Feng, Hui-Ru; Yu, Hong; Li, Jin-Song; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for an estimated 90 % of all epidemic nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Waterborne outbreaks of NoV are commonly reported. A novel GII.17 NoV strain emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China during the winter of 2014/2015. During this time, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a hotel in a ski park in Hebei Province, China. Epidemiological investigations indicated that one water well, which had only recently been in use, was the probable source. GII.17 NoV was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from samples taken from cases, from concentrated water samples from water well, and from the nearby sewage settling tank. Nucleotide sequences of NoV extracted from clinical and water specimens were genetically identical and had 99 % homology with Beijing/CHN/2015. All epidemiological data indicated that GII.17 NoV was responsible for this outbreak. This is the first reported laboratory-confirmed waterborne outbreak caused by GII.17 NoV genotype in China. Strengthening management of well drinking water and systematica monitoring of NoV is essential for preventing future outbreaks.

  13. Evolution of naturally occurring 5'non-coding region variants of Hepatitis C virus in human populations of the South American region

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    García-Aguirre Laura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. Previous and recent studies have suggested a diversification of type 1 HCV in the South American region. The degree of genetic variation among HCV strains circulating in Bolivia and Colombia is currently unknown. In order to get insight into these matters, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5' non-coding region (5'NCR sequences from strains isolated in Bolivia, Colombia and Uruguay, as well as available comparable sequences of HCV strains isolated in South America. Methods Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method under a matrix of genetic distances established under the Kimura-two parameter model. Signature pattern analysis, which identifies particular sites in nucleic acid alignments of variable sequences that are distinctly representative relative to a background set, was performed using the method of Korber & Myers, as implemented in the VESPA program. Prediction of RNA secondary structures was done by the method of Zuker & Turner, as implemented in the mfold program. Results Phylogenetic tree analysis of HCV strains isolated in the South American region revealed the presence of a distinct genetic lineage inside genotype 1. Signature pattern analysis revealed that the presence of this lineage is consistent with the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of HCV strains isolated in South America. Comparisons of these results with the ones found for Europe or North America revealed that this sequence signature is characteristic of the South American region. Conclusion Phylogentic analysis revealed the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of type 1 HCV strains isolated in South America. This signature is frequent enough in type 1 HCV populations circulating South America to be detected in a phylogenetic tree analysis as a distinct

  14. Acute gastroenteritis: evidence-based management of pediatric patients [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, KeriAnne; Pade, Kathryn H

    2018-02-01

    Although most cases of acute gastroenteritis require minimal medical intervention, severe dehydration and hypoglycemia may develop in cases of prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. The mainstay of treatment for mild-to-moderately dehydrated patients with acute gastroenteritis should be oral rehydration solution. Antiemetics allow for improved tolerance of oral rehydration solution, and, when used appropriately, can decrease the need for intravenous fluids and hospitalization. This issue reviews the common etiologies of acute gastroenteritis, discusses more-severe conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management of acute gastroenteritis in patients with mild-to-moderate dehydration, severe dehydration, and hypoglycemia. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  15. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bacteria, viruses. protozoa and fungi was positive in 425 (49.76%) cases. From this number the test on bacteria was positive in 248 (58.62%) cases, on viruses it was positive in 165 (39.0%), on protozoa in 9 (2.12%) cases and on fungi only one case. Rotavirus was the most frequent one in viral test, it was isolated in 142 (86.06%) cases, adenoviruses were found in 9 (5.45%) cases and noroviruses in only one case. The same feces sample that contained rotavirus and adenoviruses were isolated in five cases, whereas rotavirus with bacteria was isolated in the same feces sample in five cases. The biggest number of cases 62 (43.66%) were of the age 6-12 months, whereas the smallest number 10 (7.04%) cases were of the age 37-60 months. There were 76 (53.52%) of cases of male gender, from rural areas there were 81 (57.04%) cases and there were 58 (40.80%) cases during the summer period. Among the clinical symptoms the most prominent were diarrhea, vomiting, high temperature, whereas the different degree of dehydration were present in all cases (the most common one was moderate dehydration). The most frequent one was isonatremic dehydration in 91 (64.08%) cases, less frequent one was hypernatremic dehydration in 14 (9.85%) cases. The majority of cases (97.89%) had lower blood pH values, whereas 67 (47.17%) cases had pH values that varied from 7.16 -7.20 (curve peak), normal values were registered in only 3 (2.11%) cases. Urea values were increased in 45 (31.07%) cases (the maximum value

  16. Differential regulation of hepatitis B virus core protein expression and genome replication by a small upstream open reading frame and naturally occurring mutations in the precore region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Li; Qin, Yanli; Jia, Haodi; Ye, Lei; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Jiming; Wands, Jack R; Tong, Shuping; Li, Jisu

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcribes two subsets of 3.5-kb RNAs: precore RNA for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression, and pregenomic RNA for core and P protein translation as well as genome replication. HBeAg expression could be prevented by mutations in the precore region, while an upstream open reading frame (uORF) has been proposed as a negative regulator of core protein translation. We employed replication competent HBV DNA constructs and transient transfection experiments in Huh7 cells to verify the uORF effect and to explore the alternative function of precore RNA. Optimized Kozak sequence for the uORF or extra ATG codons as present in some HBV genotypes reduced core protein expression. G1896A nonsense mutation promoted more efficient core protein expression than mutated precore ATG, while a +1 frameshift mutation was ineffective. In conclusion, various HBeAg-negative precore mutations and mutations affecting uORF differentially regulate core protein expression and genome replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the convergent receptor utilization of a retargeted feline leukemia virus envelope with a naturally-occurring porcine endogenous retrovirus A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazari, Peter M; Argaw, Takele; Valdivieso, Leonardo; Zhang, Xia; Marcucci, Katherine T; Salomon, Daniel R; Wilson, Carolyn A; Roth, Monica J

    2012-06-05

    In vitro screening of randomized FeLV Envelope libraries identified the CP isolate, which enters cells through HuPAR-1, one of two human receptors utilized by porcine endogenous retrovirus-A (PERV-A), a distantly related gammaretrovirus. The CP and PERV-A Envs however, share little amino acid homology. Their receptor utilization was examined to define the common receptor usage of these disparate viral Envs. We demonstrate that the receptor usage of CP extends to HuPAR-2 but not to the porcine receptor PoPAR, the cognate receptor for PERV-A. Reciprocal interference between virus expressing CP and PERV-A Envs was observed on human cells. Amino acid residues localized to within the putative second extracellular loop (ECL-2) of PAR-1 and PAR-2 are found to be critical for CP envelope function. Through a panel of receptor chimeras and point mutations, this area was also found to be responsible for the differential usage of the PoPAR receptor between CP and PERV-A. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pancreatic hyperamylasemia during acute gastroenteritis: incidence and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignattari Elena

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many case reports of acute pancreatitis have been reported but, up to now, pancreatic abnormalities during acute gastroenteritis have not been studied prospectively. Objectives To evaluate the incidence and the clinical significance of hyperamylasemia in 507 consecutive adult patients with acute gastroenteritis. Methods The clinical significance of hyperamylasemia, related predisposing factors and severity of gastroenteritis were assessed. Results Hyperamylasemia was detected in 10.2 % of patients studied. Although amylasemia was found over four times the normal values in three cases, the clinical features of acute pancreatitis were recorded in only one case (0.1%. Hyperamylasemia was more likely (17% where a microorganism could be identified in the stools (p Salmonella spp. and in particular S. enteritidis, was the microorganism most frequently associated with hyperamylasemia [17/84 (20.2 % and 10/45 (22.2%, respectively], followed by Rotavirus, Clostridium difficile and Campylobacter spp. Patients with hyperamylasemia had more severe gastroenteritis with an increased incidence of fever (80 % vs 50.6 %, O.R. 3.0; P Conclusions Hyperamylasemia is relatively frequent, and is associated with severe gastroenteritis. However, acute pancreatitis in the setting of acute gastroenteritis, is a rare event.

  19. Clinical characteristics of rotavirus gastroenteritis with urinary crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasu, Akihiko; Ashida, Akira; Matsumura, Hideki; Nakakura, Hyogo; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is severe and often results in dehydration and pre-renal azotemia. In addition, some patients with acute obstructive uropathy due to ammonium acid urate stones, developing approximately 6-7 days after the onset of rotavirus gastroenteritis, have been reported, mainly in Japan. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for stone formation has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the clinical characteristics of these patients, and analyzed the pathophysiology underlying the formation of urinary stones. A total of 164 patients were enrolled. All had acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus infection and were treated at Osaka Medical College Hospital and affiliated hospitals between January 2009 and May 2011. All were younger than 15 years of age, and their laboratory data, including urinalysis, were available. Among the enrolled patients, 30 (20 boys and 10 girls aged 0.2-10 years; median, 1.5 years; interquartile range, 1-3 years) had crystals in their urine. Most of the patients were admitted approximately 2 days after onset of gastroenteritis and had hyperuricemia and aciduria. The crystals consisted mainly of uric acid, and rarely of ammonium acid urate. In order for ammonium acid urate stones to form in patients with acute obstructive uropathy associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis, prolonged continuous acidosis with hyperuricemia, might be necessary. Therefore, normalization of metabolic acidosis is important in order to prevent the onset of obstructive uropathy associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Clinical characteristics and genetic diversity of noroviruses in adults with acute gastroenteritis in Beijing, China in 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Geng; Jin, Miao; Li, Huiying; Li, Quanrui; Wang, Jing; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2014-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) infections that cause acute gastroenteritis are commonly observed during colder months. This study was conducted to investigate the clinical features and molecular epidemiology of NoVs in adult outpatients with acute gastroenteritis in Beijing, China from August 2008 to July 2009. Five hundred nineteen patients were enrolled, their stool specimens were collected, and 136 (26.2%) were positive for NoV. The elderly were found to be more susceptible to NoVs than other age groups. The greatest number of gastroenteritis cases associated with occurred in October. Six GI and eleven GII NoV genotypes were isolated; among these, the GII.4 genotype was most prevalent (70/140 and 50% were the 2006b variant). The elderly were more susceptible to the GII.4 genotype than to other genotypes. Greater numbers of neutrophils in the peripheral blood were observed in the NoV infected group than in uninfected control group. However, the levels of neutrophils and leukocytes in the non-GII.4 patients infected with NoV were higher than those of the GII.4-infected patients. The data highlight the role of NoV as a primary agent responsible for gastroenteritis in adults in Beijing, China. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Bartsch

    Full Text Available Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus.We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization and productivity losses.Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2-5.7 billion in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4-83.4 billion in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children <5 years cost society $39.8 billion, compared to $20.4 billion for all other age groups combined. Costs per norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84-99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons, high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs, while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days.The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large

  2. Gravimetric Viral Diagnostics: : QCM Based Biosensors for Early Detection of Viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afzal, Adeel; Mujahid, Adnan; Schirhagl, Romana; Bajwa, Sadia Z.; Latif, Usman; Feroz, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Gastroenteritis in Hajj pilgrimage

    KAUST Repository

    Padron Regalado, Eriko

    2014-05-01

    Hajj is the annual gathering of Islam practitioners in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. During the event, gastrointestinal infections are usually experienced and outbreaks have always been a concern; nevertheless, a deep and integrative study of the etiological agents has never been carried out. Here, I describe for the first time the epidemiology of pathogenic enteric viruses during Hajj 2011, 2012 and 2013. The focus of this study was the common enteric viruses Astrovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus and Adenovirus. An enzyme Immunoassay established their presence in 14.9%, 15.0% and 6.6% of the reported cases of acute diarrhea for 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. For the three years of study, Astrovirus accounted for the majority of the viral infections. To our knowledge, this is the first time an epidemiological study depicts Astrovirus as the main viral agent of gastroenteritis in a mass gathering event. Hajj is rich in strains of Astrovirus, Norovirus and Rotavirus. A first screening by RT-PCR resulted in ten different genotypes. Strains HAstV 2, HAstV 1 and HAstV 5 were identified for Astrovirus. GI.6, GII.3, GII.4 and GII.1 were described for Norovirus and G1P[8], G4P[8] and G3P[8] were found for Rotavirus. The majority of the Astrovirus isolates could not be genotyped suggesting the presence of a new variant(s). Cases like this encourage the use of metagenomics (and nextgeneration sequencing) as a state-of-the-art technology in clinical diagnosis. A sample containing Adenovirus particles is being used to standardize a process for detection directly from stool samples and results will be obtained in the near future. The overall findings of the present study support the concept of Hajj as a unique mass gathering event that potentiates the transmission of infectious diseases. The finding of Norovirus GII.4 Sydney, a variant originated from Australia, suggests that Hajj is a receptor of infectious diseases worldwide. This work is part of the Hajj project, a collaborative

  4. [Impact of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) on survival of schizophrenic patients with co-occurring substance use disorders followed for ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelfarb, Yuri; Becalel, Ety; Wolf, Aviva; Ben-Tzarfati, Mashit; Baruch, Yehuda

    2014-11-01

    Despite disproportionately high rates of HCV infection among patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring substance use disorders, to date, scientific evidence for their survival is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare long term survival among this population with and without persisting HCV. Charts of 212 subjects admitted during a period from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005 were assessed. Psychiatric diagnoses have been established according to international classification of diseases and health related problems--10th edition (ICD-10). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the cumulative survival rates. The association between HCV and mortality was estimated using the Cox proportional hazard regression models, with adjustments for potential confounders. The main outcome was all-cause mortality. Median observation time was 10.0 years. Period prevalence of HCV was 16.0%. Total all-cause, unadjusted mortality was 50.0% in populations with HCV versus 12.9% in populations without HCV (p disorders patients with HCV necessitates new approaches to secondary and tertiary prevention to reduce the burden of chronic liver disease and to improve survival for those who already have evidence of liver disease. The strong adverse effect of HCV on survival should encourage clinical trials including schizophrenic patients with dual disorders, to ascertain whether patients benefit from treatment choices. It is essential that adequate resources and strategies are targeted to the schizophrenic patients with dual disorders with HCV.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus associated central nervous system leiomyosarcoma occurring after renal transplantation: case report and review of the literature; Leiomyosarcome primitif du systeme nerveux central associe au virus d'Epstein-Barr (EBV) et survenu apres transplantation renale: a propos d'un cas et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri, A.; Noel, G.; Feuvret, L.; Jauffret, E.; Brun, B.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F. [Centre des Tumeurs, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Feuvret, L. [Centre de Protontherapie d' Orsay, 91 (France); Figuerella-Branger, D. [Hopital de la Timone, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 13 - Marseille (France); Goncalves, A. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2003-10-01

    Central nervous system leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare, however, they became more frequent among immuno-deficient patients, either in a patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or after organ transplantation. The data of the literature indicate that the infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causal role in the development of these tumours but its precise role in the onco-genesis remains unresolved. We report a new case of EBV associated leiomyosarcoma of the left cavernous sinus occurring after renal transplantation. The epidemiological, clinical, pathological and therapeutic characteristics of these tumours are discussed. (authors)

  6. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    further support for he view that immunity to Norwalk virus is not determined by serum antibody. YAnothe_ collaborative study demonstrated the localization ...study demonstrated the localization of rotavirus to the small intestine as indicated by analysis of fluid specimens obtained by string capsule; this was...vitro cultivation of this virus is inefficient. Studies reveal that mechanisms of clinical immunity to rotavirus are complex (I). It seems likely

  7. A Study Of Hospitalised Cases Of Acute Gastroenteritis Admitted In Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad During The Epidemic Of 1988.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemic of gastroenteritis occurred between July and November 1988 in Ahmedabad City. The epidemic originated from Saijpur Bocha locality of the city and thereafter several new foci also development. The city has a number of Government and Municipal Corporation run hospitals as well as private treatment centers where these cases were treated. The Corporation also took measures to control this epidemic. The present study analysis the cases of gastroenteritis (2008 and cholera (112 admitted to the Civil Hospital during this period. The cases occurred in all age groups and both sexes. However, when compared with hospital records of previous non- epidemic years, more cases were found in the adult population and the case fatality rate was low during this epidemic. The study details the various control measures taken by the Municipal Corporation.

  8. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagsma, J. A.; Geenen, P. L.; Ethelberg, S.

    2013-01-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the hea......By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data......, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach...

  9. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with asymptomatic food handlers in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yu Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In February 2015 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a distillery in Kinmen, Taiwan. At least 450 affected employees developed the symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting after attending a lunch banquet on 6 February. Epidemiological, laboratory and environmental investigations were conducted to identify the agent and source of this outbreak. Methods A case–control study was carried out among lunch attendees from the distillery. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, food and beverage consumption in the lunch banquet was assessed, as well as demographic and clinical data of the exposed people. An outbreak case was defined as a diner who developed at least three following symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, chills and/or weakness in the 72 h following the lunch. Controls were defined as lunch attendees who did not have any of the above symptoms. Rectal swabs or stool samples of the symptomatic exposed diners and food handlers as well as food and environmental samples were collected to test potential bacteria and viruses. Norovirus was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. An environmental assessment, including environmental inspection of the restaurant and a review of work practices of food workers, was undertaken. Results Of 363 respondents with complete data, 169 met the case definition and 111 met the control definition. Consumption of pork liver in cold appetizers (adjusted odd ratio (aOR 3.23; 95 % confidence interval (CI: 1.26–8.30 and lamb chops (aOR: 3.98, 95 % CI: 1.74–9.11 were each associated with increased risk of illness. No cases but two asymptomatic food handlers who prepared or cooked the implicated foods tested positive for norovirus genotype I.6. Food and environmental samples were negative for any bacteria. Environmental assessment indicated that hand washing facilities were not properly accessible to food handlers. Inappropriate

  10. Drivers of uncertainty in estimates of foodborne gastroenteritis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn; Ford, Laura; Kirk, Martyn D

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of the incidence of foodborne illness are increasingly used at national and international levels to quantify the burden of disease and advocate for improvements in food safety. The calculation of such estimates involves multiple datasets and several disease multipliers, applied to dozens of pathogens. Unsurprisingly, this process often produces wide interval estimates. Using a model of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, we calculate the contribution of both data and multipliers to the width of the interval. We then compare pathogen-specific estimates of the proportion of gastroenteritis that is foodborne from national-level studies conducted in Canada, Greece, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Overall, we estimate that 74% (range 63-92%) of the interval width for foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia is a result of uncertainty in the proportion of gastroenteritis that is due to contaminated food. Across national studies, we find considerable variability in point estimates and the width of interval estimates for the foodborne proportion for relatively common pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and norovirus. While some uncertainty in estimates of gastroenteritis incidence is inevitable, an understanding of the drivers of this uncertainty can help to focus further research. In particular, this work highlights the value of studies quantifying the routes of transmission for common pathogens.

  11. A Systematic Approach to Elucidate Causes of Gastroenteritis Outbreaks of Suspected Viral Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Svraka-Latifovic (Sanela)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of this thesis was to investigate the etiology of outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis that remained without diagnosis after testing for common viral pathogens causing gastroenteritis, e.g. noroviruses, rotaviruses, sapoviruses, adenoviruses, and astroviruses. No

  12. Detection of swine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus using loop-mediated isothermal amplification

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    Chen Qin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A conserved nucleic acid fragment of the nucleocapsid gene of Swine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus (TGEV was chosen as the target, six special primers were designed successfully. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP was developed to detect the TGEV by incubation at 60°C for 1 h and the product specificity was confirmed by HphI digestion. Standard curves with high accuracy for TGEV quantization was constructed by adding 1 × SYBR greenI in the LAMP reaction. The assay established in this study was found to detect only the TGEV and no cross-reaction with other viruses, demonstrating its high specificity. By using serial sample dilutions as templates, the detection limit of LAMP was about 10 pg RNA, 10 times more sensitive than that of PCR and could be comparable to the nest-PCR.

  13. Management strategies in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccarelli S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simona Ciccarelli,1 Ilaria Stolfi,1 Giuseppe Caramia2 1Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2Division of Neonatology and Pediatrics, Maternal and Child Hospital "G. Salesi", Ancona, Italy Abstract: Acute gastroenteritis, characterized by the onset of diarrhea with or without vomiting, continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in mostly resource-constrained nations. Although generally a mild and self-limiting disease, gastroenteritis is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and is associated with a substantial disease burden. Worldwide, up to 40% of children aged less than 5 years with diarrhea are hospitalized with rotavirus. Also, some microorganisms have been found predominantly in resource-constrained nations, including Shigella spp, Vibrio cholerae, and the protozoan infections. Prevention remains essential, and the rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated good safety and efficacy profiles in large clinical trials. Because dehydration is the major complication associated with gastroenteritis, appropriate fluid management (oral or intravenous is an effective and safe strategy for rehydration. Continuation of breastfeeding is strongly recommended. New treatments such as antiemetics (ondansetron, some antidiarrheal agents (racecadotril, and chemotherapeutic agents are often proposed, but not yet universally recommended. Probiotics, also known as “food supplement,” seem to improve intestinal microbial balance, reducing the duration and the severity of acute infectious diarrhea. The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines make a stronger recommendation for the use of probiotics for the management of acute gastroenteritis, particularly those with documented efficacy such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Saccharomyces boulardii. To date, the

  14. The effects of nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis on the length of hospital stay and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundeslioglu, Özlem O; Tekin, Recep; Cevik, Saliha; Palanci, Yılmaz; Yazıcıoglu, Atilla

    2016-02-28

    In this study, the goal was to evaluate the impact of nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis in pediatric patients by determining the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis, the resulting duration of hospital stay, and direct cost. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Turkey that evaluates the impact of pediatric nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis on duration of hospital stay and calculates the direct cost. Forty-nine patients who were diagnosed with nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis and hospitalized were included in the study. Nosocomial infection rates, organ systems affected by the nosocomial infections, and patients who had nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis were identified. A direct cost analysis of patients who were diagnosed with nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis was performed using copies of the invoices for the hospital bills. During the study period, there were 49 cases of nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis. The length of hospitalization was extended, on average, by more than 6.3 days in cases of nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis. The cost of hospitalization for patients with nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis was on average 1,554 ± 2,067 US dollars, compared to a cost of only 244 ± 103 US dollars for patients who did not have nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis. This difference in cost was statistically significant (p gastroenteritis is important because it significantly prolongs hospital stay and increases the social and economic burden of the hospitalization. Nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis can be reduced with prevention measures such as handwashing, isolation, and cohorting.

  15. Stresshyperglykaemi hos et barn med svaer akut gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jesper V.

    2002-01-01

    A case of a two years and ten months old girl with severe acute gastroenteritis, dehydration, and hyperglycaemia is described. Transient hyperglycaemia is a common clinical finding in children under stress. We discuss the distinction between hyperglycaemia as a prediabetic state and that as a phy......A case of a two years and ten months old girl with severe acute gastroenteritis, dehydration, and hyperglycaemia is described. Transient hyperglycaemia is a common clinical finding in children under stress. We discuss the distinction between hyperglycaemia as a prediabetic state...... and that as a physiological response to stress during acute illness. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Nov-18...

  16. Three infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by severe gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiki; Miura, Hiroki; Mori, Yuji; Sugata, Ken; Nakajima, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Yasuto; Morooka, Masashi; Tsuge, Ikuya; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Taniguchi, Koki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide in children. We report three infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by various severity of gastrointestinal bleeding. Two patients (cases 1 and 2) recovered completely without any specific treatments. One patient (case 3) died despite extensive treatments including a red blood cell transfusion and endoscopic hemostatic therapy. Rotavirus genotypes G1P[8] and G9P[8] were detected in cases 2 and 3, respectively. Rotavirus antigenemia levels were not high at the onset of melena, suggesting that systemic rotaviral infection does not play an important role in causing melena. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Molecular characterization of Sapovirus detected in a gastroenteritis outbreak at a wedding hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yasutaka; Ootsuka, Yuka; Kondo, Reiko; Oseto, Mitsuaki; Doi, Mitsunori; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Ueda, Tetsuroo; Kondo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Wakita, Takaji; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Oka, Tomoichiro

    2010-04-01

    Sapovirus (SaV) is an important pathogen of human acute gastroenteritis. A gastroenteritis outbreak occurred at a wedding hall in October 2007 in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One hundred nine people who had either attended wedding parties or had eaten a box lunch at a conference held at the same hall complained of gastroenteritis symptoms. Among these 109 people, stool specimens from 56 patients were available for pathogen screening, and 20 (35.7%) of these specimens were positive for SaV, of whom 18 showed symptoms. The numbers of cDNA copies of the specimens ranged from 2.36 x 10(6) to 3.03 x 10(10) for symptomatic patients, and 2.19 x 10(6) and 1.18 x 10(9) per gram of stool for two asymptomatic food handlers. The incubation periods of the 18 symptomatic patients ranged from 14.5 to 99.5 hr. Identical nucleotide sequence types of SaV; that is, a single synonymous nucleotide difference (transition) or microheterogeneity, was detected in stool specimens from the symptomatic patients and the asymptomatic food handlers, with the direct nucleotide sequence of approximately 2.3 kb 3' end of the genome. Based on the phylogenetic analysis with the complete capsid nucleotide sequence, these strains were clustered into genogroup IV. This outbreak was thought to be caused by a single source, and underscores the importance of proper hygiene in the environment and/or in food-handling practices to control SaV outbreaks. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Antiviral effects of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Weidong; Burwinkel, Michael; Wang, Zhenya; Palissa, Christiane; Esch, Bettina; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Wrede, Paul; Schmidt, Michael F G

    2013-04-01

    The enteropathogenic coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes severe disease in young piglets. We have studied the protective effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium), which is approved as a feed additive in the European Union, against TGEV infection. E. faecium was added to swine testicle (ST) cells before, concomitantly with, or after TGEV infection. Viability assays revealed that E. faecium led to a dose-dependent rescue of viability of TGEV-infected cells reaching nearly to complete protection. Virus yields of the E. faecium-treated cultures were reduced by up to three log10 units. Western blot analysis of purified TGEV revealed that the levels of all viral structural proteins were reduced after E. faecium treatment. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed attachment of TGEV particles to the surface of E. faecium which might be a means to trap virus and to prevent infection. Increased production of nitric oxide in the cells treated with E. faecium and elevated expression of interleukin 6 and 8 pointed to stimulated cellular defense as a mechanism to fight TGEV infection.

  19. Absence of E protein arrests transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus maturation in the secretory pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortego, Javier; Ceriani, Juan E.; Patino, Cristina; Plana, Juan; Enjuanes, Luis

    2007-01-01

    A recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (rTGEV) in which E gene was deleted (rTGEV-ΔE) has been engineered. This deletion mutant only grows in cells expressing E protein (E + cells) indicating that E was an essential gene for TGEV replication. Electron microscopy studies of rTGEV-ΔE infected BHK-pAPN-E - cells showed that only immature intracellular virions were assembled. These virions were non-infectious and not secreted to the extracellular medium in BHK-pAPN-E - cells. RNA and protein composition analysis by RNase-gold and immunoelectron microscopy showed that rTGEV-ΔE virions contained RNA and also all the structural TGEV proteins, except the deleted E protein. Nevertheless, full virion maturation was blocked. Studies of the rTGEV-ΔE subcellular localization by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy in infected E - cells showed that in the absence of E protein virus trafficking was arrested in the intermediate compartment. Therefore, the absence of E protein in TGEV resulted in two actions, a blockade of virus trafficking in the membranes of the secretory pathway, and prevention of full virus maturation

  20. A Study on the Epidemiology and Aetiology of Acute Gastroenteritis in Adult Patients Presenting at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Tirana, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentian P. Stroni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis remains a common cause of hospital emergency room visits in Albania. However, the aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalization in adults frequently remains unclear. Aims: Our objective was to study the epidemiology and causes of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in adult patients presenting to hospital. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from January 2010 to January 2012, among patients ≥15 years old with community-acquired gastroenteritis presenting to the emergency room of the University Hospital “Mother Theresa” in Tirana, Albania. Stool samples and rectal swabs were collected from the patients for microbiological testing. Results: The median age of the study patients was 33 (15-88 years and 577 (58% were females. The median age of males was 35 (15-87 years. The vast majority of cases occurred in urban area (849, 85%, p<0.01. Patients were admitted throughout the year with peak admissions for patients infected by bacterial pathogens in summer and those affected by viral pathogens in autumn. A total of 917 (91.7% patients underwent a laboratory examination. The overall isolation rate was 51%. Bacterial pathogens were found in 29%, viral pathogens in 19% and protozoal pathogens in 2.5% of patients. No aetiological agent or other cause of acute diarrhoea was found in 449 (49% patients. Twenty-nine (3.2% patients were hospitalized. Conclusion: Despite extensive laboratory investigations, enteropathogens were detected in only 51% of adult patients who presented to the hospital ER with acute gastroenteritis. Viral infections ranked as the second most common cause of gastroenteritis in adults.

  1. Clinical Features of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children at University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children world‑wide with the highest incidence in the developing countries. The persistence and effect of this condition require a study of the features and characteristics of the disease especially, within any (each) locality in order to offer ...

  2. Incidence of pneumonia and gastroenteritis among infants admitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study based on medical records of infants admitted to the Orotta Paediatric Teaching Hospital for the whole of 2006 in order to study the morbidity and mortality rates from pneumonia and gastroenteritis among infants in Eritrea using the integrated management of childhood illnesses guidelines. The main ...

  3. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt...

  4. Incidence of pneumonia and gastroenteritis among infants admitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and aggregated nature of the HMIS databases. The objective of this study was to document the incidence of infant morbidity and mortality from pneumonia and gastroenteritis among infants in a referral hospital setting in order to determine modifiable risk factors that could guide policy and management guidelines. Methods.

  5. The role of Epsilonproteobacteria in children with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; Cornelius, Angela J; Souayah, Hichem; Martiny, Delphine; Vlaes, Linda; Brandt, Stephanie M; On, Stephen L W

    2013-10-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method was used to examine 50 stool samples from children in Belgium with gastroenteritis for an extensive range of Epsilonproteobacteria species. During the 3-month study period, Campylobacter concisus was the most common species. Our observations suggest that C. concisus displays similar microbiologic and clinical features as Campylobacter jejuni.

  6. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Godoy

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.Introduction: The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of

  7. [THE ROLE OF BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES IN DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF SALMONELLA AND ACUTE ALCOHOL GASTROENTERITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V K; Makarov, P V

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of Salmonella infection and alcohol on biological membranes from the content of serum phospholipid fraction known to be a component ofenterocyte membranes. Any change of membrane phospholipid content leads to a change of their blood level. The study included 50 patients with acute alcohol gastroenteritis, 50 ones with salmonella gastroenteritis, and 50 healthy subjects. Both salmonellosis and alcohol caused differently directed changes in biological membranes. The mechanism of diarrhea in patients with salmonella and acute alcohol gastroenteritis is different. Diarrhea associated with alcohol gastroenteritis is due to enhanced viscosity of biomembranes that decreases in salmonella gastroenteritis. It suggests different approaches to the treatment of these conditions. The membrane destruction coefficient below 2 is an additional proof of alcoholic etiology of gastroenteritis whereas its value above 3 confirms the involvement of salmonellosis in pathogenesis of gastroenteritis.

  8. The impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Claudia M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children and causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the clinical aspects have been well described, little information is available regarding the emotional, social, and economic impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family of a sick child. The objectives of this study were to: 1 assess the family impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis through qualitative interviews with parents; 2 compare the clinical severity of rotavirus-positive and negative gastroenteritis; 3 test a questionnaire asking parents to rank the importance of various factors associated with a case of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Methods The study enrolled parents and children (2–36 months of age brought to one of the study sites (outpatient clinic or ER if the child experienced ≥ 3 watery or looser-than normal stools and/or forceful vomiting within any 24-hour period within the prior 3 days. The clinical severity of each child's illness was rated using a clinical scoring system and stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen. Parents of rotavirus-positive children were invited to participate in focus group or individual interviews and subsequently completed a questionnaire regarding the impact of their child's illness. Results Of 62 enrolled children, 43 stool samples were collected and 63% tested positive for rotavirus. Illness was more severe in children with rotavirus-positive compared to rotavirus-negative gastroenteritis (92% vs. 37.5% rated as moderate/severe. Seventeen parents of rotavirus-positive children participated in the interviews and completed the written questionnaire. Parents were frightened by the severity of vomiting and diarrhea associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis, and noted that family life was impacted in several ways including loss of sleep, missed work, and an inability to complete normal household tasks. They expressed frustration at the lack of a

  9. A Single Amino Acid Difference within the α-2 Domain of Two Naturally Occurring Equine MHC Class I Molecules Alters the Recognition of Gag and Rev Epitopes by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Specific CTL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H.; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Although CTL are critical for control of lentiviruses, including equine infectious anemia virus, relatively little is known regarding the MHC class I molecules that present important epitopes to equine infectious anemia virus-specific CTL. The equine class I molecule 7-6 is associated with the equine leukocyte Ag (ELA)-A1 haplotype and presents the Env-RW12 and Gag-GW12 CTL epitopes. Some ELA-A1 target cells present both epitopes, whereas others are not recognized by Gag-GW12-specific CTL, suggesting that the ELA-A1 haplotype comprises functionally distinct alleles. The Rev-QW11 CTL epitope is also ELA-A1-restricted, but the molecule that presents Rev-QW11 is unknown. To determine whether functionally distinct class I molecules present ELA-A1-restricted CTL epitopes, we sequenced and expressed MHC class I genes from three ELA-A1 horses. Two horses had the 7-6 allele, which when expressed, presented Env-RW12, Gag-GW12, and Rev-QW11 to CTL. The other horse had a distinct allele, designated 141, encoding a molecule that differed from 7-6 by a single amino acid within the α-2 domain. This substitution did not affect recognition of Env-RW12, but resulted in more efficient recognition of Rev-QW11. Significantly, CTL recognition of Gag-GW12 was abrogated, despite Gag-GW12 binding to 141. Molecular modeling suggested that conformational changes in the 141/Gag-GW12 complex led to a loss of TCR recognition. These results confirmed that the ELA-A1 haplotype is comprised of functionally distinct alleles, and demonstrated for the first time that naturally occurring MHC class I molecules that vary by only a single amino acid can result in significantly different patterns of epitope recognition by lentivirus-specific CTL. PMID:17082657

  10. Clinical and Epidemiologic Features of Severe Viral Gastroenteritis in Children: A 3-Year Surveillance, Multicentered Study in Taiwan With Partial Rotavirus Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chang, Wan-Chi; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Huang, Fu-Chen; Hsiung, Chao A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The global epidemiological landscape of childhood acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is changing after the introduction of 2 effective rotavirus vaccines in 2006. A comprehensive evaluation for viral etiology of childhood AGE in Taiwan, where rotavirus vaccination was provided by the private sector since 2006, is lacking. From 2009 to 2011, children younger than 5 years of age with AGE who were hospitalized at 3 sentinel hospitals were enrolled in this surveillance study. Stool specimens were tested for rotavirus, norovirus, enteric adenovirus, and astrovirus. The epidemiologic and clinical information was collected by questionnaire-based interviews and chart reviews. Viral agents were detected in 1055 (37.5%) of 2810 subjects, with rotavirus (21.2%) being the leading cause of disease, followed by norovirus (14.9%), enteric adenovirus (3.74%), astrovirus (2.10%), and a mixture of at least 2 of 4 above-mentioned viruses (4.06%). The majority (56%) of the viral AGE occurred in children 10 were independent factors respectively associated with an increased risk of norovirus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 9.034, P = 0.0003) and rotavirus (aOR, 3.284, P < 0.0001) infections. Rotavirus immunization and female gender were protective factors against rotavirus (aOR, 0.198, P < 0.0001) and astrovirus (aOR, 0.382, P = 0.0299) infections, respectively. Rotavirus and norovirus are the 2 most important viral agents of childhood AGE in Taiwan with partial rotavirus immunization. In addition, different enteric viruses are associated with distinct epidemiologic and clinical features. PMID:26287425

  11. Pathogenesis of Noroviruses, Emerging RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Karst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses in the family Caliciviridae are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. They are responsible for at least 95% of viral outbreaks and over 50% of all outbreaks worldwide. Transmission of these highly infectious plus-stranded RNA viruses occurs primarily through contaminated food or water, but also through person-to-person contact and exposure to fomites. Norovirus infections are typically acute and self-limited. However, disease can be much more severe and prolonged in infants, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur in semi-closed communities such as nursing homes, military settings, schools, hospitals, cruise ships, and disaster relief situations. Noroviruses are classified as Category B biodefense agents because they are highly contagious, extremely stable in the environment, resistant to common disinfectants, and associated with debilitating illness. The number of reported norovirus outbreaks has risen sharply since 2002 suggesting the emergence of more infectious strains. There has also been increased recognition that noroviruses are important causes of childhood hospitalization. Moreover, noroviruses have recently been associated with multiple clinical outcomes other than gastroenteritis. It is unclear whether these new observations are due to improved norovirus diagnostics or to the emergence of more virulent norovirus strains. Regardless, it is clear that human noroviruses cause considerable morbidity worldwide, have significant economic impact, and are clinically important emerging pathogens. Despite the impact of human norovirus-induced disease and the potential for emergence of highly virulent strains, the pathogenic features of infection are not well understood due to the lack of a cell culture system and previous lack of animal models. This review summarizes the current understanding of norovirus pathogenesis from the histological to the molecular level, including

  12. Action mechanisms of lithium chloride on cell infection by transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaofeng; Meng, Fandan; Yin, Jiechao; Li, Guangxing; Li, Xunliang; Wang, Chao; Herrler, Georg

    2011-05-06

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on cell infection by TGEV was investigated. Plaque assays and 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays showed that the cell infection by TGEV was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when LiCl was added to virus-infected cells; the cell infection was not affected when either cells or viruses were pretreated with the drug. The inhibition of TGEV infection in vitro by LiCl was observed at different virus doses and with different cell lines. The inhibitory effect of LiCl against TGEV infection and transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR targeting viral S and 3CL-protease genes. The time-of-addition effect of the drug on TGEV infection indicated that LiCl acted on the initial and late stage of TGEV infection. The production of virus was not detected at 36 h post-infection due to the drug treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry analyses based on staining of Annexin V and propidium iodide staining of nuclei indicated that early and late cell apoptosis induced by TGEV was inhibited efficiently. The ability of LiCl to inhibit apoptosis was investigated by IF analysis of caspase-3 expression. Our data indicate that LiCl inhibits TGEV infection by exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. The inhibitory effect of LiCl was also observed with porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus. Together with other reports concerning the inhibitory effect of lithium salts on IBV in cell culture, our results indicate that LiCl may be a potent agent against porcine and avian coronaviruses.

  13. Action mechanisms of lithium chloride on cell infection by transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ren

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on cell infection by TGEV was investigated. Plaque assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1-3,5-di-phenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT assays showed that the cell infection by TGEV was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when LiCl was added to virus-infected cells; the cell infection was not affected when either cells or viruses were pretreated with the drug. The inhibition of TGEV infection in vitro by LiCl was observed at different virus doses and with different cell lines. The inhibitory effect of LiCl against TGEV infection and transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR targeting viral S and 3CL-protease genes. The time-of-addition effect of the drug on TGEV infection indicated that LiCl acted on the initial and late stage of TGEV infection. The production of virus was not detected at 36 h post-infection due to the drug treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF and flow cytometry analyses based on staining of Annexin V and propidium iodide staining of nuclei indicated that early and late cell apoptosis induced by TGEV was inhibited efficiently. The ability of LiCl to inhibit apoptosis was investigated by IF analysis of caspase-3 expression. Our data indicate that LiCl inhibits TGEV infection by exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. The inhibitory effect of LiCl was also observed with porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus. Together with other reports concerning the inhibitory effect of lithium salts on IBV in cell culture, our results indicate that LiCl may be a potent agent against porcine and avian coronaviruses.

  14. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of children hospitalized with severe rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in Salvador, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya B. Carneiro

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology of severe rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in Brazil. Given the morbidity associated with this condition and the importance of having detailed knowledge about the impact of rotavirus infection on the epidemiology of acute diarrhea in children, especially those with the most severe diarrheal conditions, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all pediatric patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Salvador, Brazil, due to rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis during one year. It was observed that rotavirus was responsible for 15.6% of the hospitalizations caused by diarrhea and/or vomiting during the period of the study and that 87 of 218 (39.1% patients seen at the emergency room with rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis needed to be hospitalized, comprising the population of our study. Most patients presented signs of dehydration, and 41% of them had metabolic acidosis. Most patients (79% were between six months and four years of age and 72% of the cases occurred in June and July. Gastrointestinal symptoms were rarely present at the beginning of the clinical presentation, and they normally did not last for more than one week.

  15. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  16. Resistance of Enteric Viruses on Fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidjinou, Enagnon Kazali; Sane, Famara; Firquet, Swan; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Hober, Didier

    2017-06-15

    Human enteric viruses are associated with several clinical features, especially gastroenteritis. Large amounts of these viruses can be released in the environment and spread to people. Enteric viruses are nonenveloped viruses and have displayed good survival in the environment. They can be significantly resistant in food and water but also on fomites, and this is thought to play a role in transmission, leading to sporadic cases or outbreaks. The survival of enteric viruses on fomites relies on many factors including the virus itself, fomite properties, and extrinsic environmental factors such as temperature or relative humidity. Several reports in the literature have found an association with gastroenteritis cases or outbreaks and fomites naturally contaminated by enteric viruses. However, the study of virus survival following natural contamination is challenging, and most published studies are laboratory based, using experimental contamination. In addition, recent and detailed data on the resistance of each of the main enteric viruses on fomites are scarce. Many approaches, both physical and chemical, can be used to inactivate enteric viruses, the efficacy of which depends on the virus and the disinfection conditions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.

  18. Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on Hospitalizations and Deaths From Childhood Gastroenteritis in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enane, Leslie A; Gastañaduy, Paul A; Goldfarb, David M; Pernica, Jeffrey M; Mokomane, Margaret; Moorad, Banno; Masole, Lingani; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Steenhoff, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    A monovalent human rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced in Botswana in July 2012. We assessed the impact of RV1 vaccination on childhood gastroenteritis-related hospitalizations and deaths in 2013 and 2014. We obtained data from registers of 4 hospitals in Botswana on hospitalizations and deaths from gastroenteritis, regardless of cause, among children Gastroenteritis hospitalizations and deaths during the prevaccine period (January 2009-December 2012) were compared to the postvaccine period (January 2013-December 2014). Vaccine coverage was estimated from data collected through a concurrent vaccine effectiveness study at the same hospitals. By December 2014, coverage with ≥1 dose of RV1 was an estimated 90% among infants gastroenteritis-related hospitalizations in children gastroenteritis-related deaths in children gastroenteritis-related hospitalizations decreased by 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-29%) to 937, and gastroenteritis-related deaths decreased by 22% (95% CI, -9% to 44%) to 60. Declines were most prominent during the rotavirus season (May-October) and among infants gastroenteritis hospitalizations and 48% (95% CI, 11%-69%) in gastroenteritis deaths. Following introduction of RV1 into the national immunization program, significant declines in hospitalizations and deaths from gastroenteritis were observed among children in Botswana, suggestive of the beneficial public health impact of rotavirus vaccination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The sialic acid binding activity of the S protein facilitates infection by porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Bauer, Sandra; Winter, Christine; Enjuanes, Luis; Laude, Hubert; Herrler, Georg

    2011-09-12

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) has a sialic acid binding activity that is believed to be important for enteropathogenicity, but that has so far appeared to be dispensable for infection of cultured cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of sialic acid binding for the infection of cultured cells under unfavorable conditions, and comparison of TGEV strains and mutants, as well as the avian coronavirus IBV concerning their dependence on the sialic acid binding activity. The infectivity of different viruses was analyzed by a plaque assay after adsorption times of 5, 20, and 60 min. Prior to infection, cultured cells were either treated with neuraminidase to deplete sialic acids from the cell surface, or mock-treated. In a second approach, pre-treatment of the virus with porcine intestinal mucin was performed, followed by the plaque assay after a 5 min adsorption time. A student's t-test was used to verify the significance of the results. Desialylation of cells only had a minor effect on the infection by TGEV strain Purdue 46 when an adsorption period of 60 min was allowed for initiation of infection. However, when the adsorption time was reduced to 5 min the infectivity on desialylated cells decreased by more than 60%. A TGEV PUR46 mutant (HAD3) deficient in sialic acid binding showed a 77% lower titer than the parental virus after a 5 min adsorption time. After an adsorption time of 60 min the titer of HAD3 was 58% lower than that of TGEV PUR46. Another TGEV strain, TGEV Miller, and IBV Beaudette showed a reduction in infectivity after neuraminidase treatment of the cultured cells irrespective of the virion adsorption time. Our results suggest that the sialic acid binding activity facilitates the infection by TGEV under unfavorable environmental conditions. The dependence on the sialic acid binding activity for an efficient infection differs in the analyzed TGEV strains.

  20. The sialic acid binding activity of the S protein facilitates infection by porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus

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    Enjuanes Luis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV has a sialic acid binding activity that is believed to be important for enteropathogenicity, but that has so far appeared to be dispensable for infection of cultured cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of sialic acid binding for the infection of cultured cells under unfavorable conditions, and comparison of TGEV strains and mutants, as well as the avian coronavirus IBV concerning their dependence on the sialic acid binding activity. Methods The infectivity of different viruses was analyzed by a plaque assay after adsorption times of 5, 20, and 60 min. Prior to infection, cultured cells were either treated with neuraminidase to deplete sialic acids from the cell surface, or mock-treated. In a second approach, pre-treatment of the virus with porcine intestinal mucin was performed, followed by the plaque assay after a 5 min adsorption time. A student's t-test was used to verify the significance of the results. Results Desialylation of cells only had a minor effect on the infection by TGEV strain Purdue 46 when an adsorption period of 60 min was allowed for initiation of infection. However, when the adsorption time was reduced to 5 min the infectivity on desialylated cells decreased by more than 60%. A TGEV PUR46 mutant (HAD3 deficient in sialic acid binding showed a 77% lower titer than the parental virus after a 5 min adsorption time. After an adsorption time of 60 min the titer of HAD3 was 58% lower than that of TGEV PUR46. Another TGEV strain, TGEV Miller, and IBV Beaudette showed a reduction in infectivity after neuraminidase treatment of the cultured cells irrespective of the virion adsorption time. Conclusions Our results suggest that the sialic acid binding activity facilitates the infection by TGEV under unfavorable environmental conditions. The dependence on the sialic acid binding activity for an efficient infection differs in the analyzed TGEV strains.

  1. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

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    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  2. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  3. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  4. Rotavirus is frequent among adults hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Westh, Lena; Kristensen, Lena Hagelskjær; Lindberg, Jens; Tarp, Britta; Larsen, Carsten Schade

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most common aetiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among young children. In adults, diagnostics focus mainly on bacterial causes, though recent studies suggest that rotavirus is a frequent agent. The aim of this study was to examine the proportion of rotavirus in adults hospitalised with AGE and to identify possible predictors. During a 24-month period from 1 May 2010 adults (> 15 years) with AGE admitted to one of four hospitals in the Central Denmark Region were examined for rotavirus with VIKIA Rota-Adeno rapid test in addition to routine culture for bacterial pathogens. A total of 265 adult patients were included. 9.4% tested positive for rotavirus. Enteropathogenic bacteria were found in 24.5% of the cases. In the majority of cases (62.3%), no pathogen was found. Overall, rotavirus was the second-most frequent pathogen, exceeded only by Campylobacter spp. Immunosuppression and a C-reactive protein (CRP) below 50 mg/l (0-8 mg/l) were associated with rotavirus. The seasonality of rotavirus differed markedly from that of bacterial gastroenteritis. Rotavirus is the second-most frequently identified pathogen in adults hospitalised with AGE. Close contact to children or travel activity does not predict rotavirus gastroenteritis, but immunosuppression and a CRP below 50 mg/l do. The seasonality of rotavirus differs from that of bacterial gastroenteritis, making rotavirus the most frequently identified cause of AGE in adults admitted to hospital in the colder months. The trial was funded by an unrestricted grant from Sanofi Pasteur MSD. not relevant.

  5. Temporal Changes in Pediatric Gastroenteritis after Rotavirus Vaccination in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Margaret K; Gagneur, Arnaud; Tapiéro, Bruce; Charest, Hugues; Gonzales, Milagros; Buckeridge, David L; Quach, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus and norovirus are among the leading causes of pediatric gastroenteritis. We examined the relative burden of pediatric gastroenteritis by etiology and compared the clinical severity of rotavirus and norovirus cases after the November 2011 implementation of publicly funded rotavirus vaccination program in Quebec. Prospective, active surveillance for acute gastroenteritis among children aged 8 weeks to less than 3 years of age was implemented at 3 hospitals. Participant demographics, clinical histories and stools were collected; stools were tested for rotavirus, norovirus and sapovirus. Risk and absolute differences of several clinical severity outcomes were compared by etiology with adjustment for patient age. From February 2012 to May 2014, 734 eligible active surveillance patients were recruited, and stools from 705 (96.0%) were tested and included in study analyses. Of these, 20.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.5-24.3%] were rotavirus positive and 25.5% (95% CI: 21.3-29.8%) were norovirus positive, representing a difference of 5.1% (95% CI: 0.1-10.1%). When stratified by year, rotavirus and norovirus prevalence were similar from June 2012 to May 2013, but rotavirus prevalence was 21.4% (95% CI: 14.3-28.5%) lower than norovirus from June 2013 to May 2014. On average, rotavirus patients were more likely to be febrile, dehydrated, hospitalized and report more diarrheal episodes at the height of illness in comparison with norovirus patients of the same age. Norovirus infections were more prevalent than rotavirus infections among pediatric gastroenteritis cases hospitalized or seeking emergency care. Rotavirus cases were, on average, more clinically severe than norovirus cases among participants of the same age.

  6. Characteristic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunchun; Yi, Wen; Yao, Yuzhou; Zhu, Ni; Qin, Pengfei

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide and may cause to gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, serotypes, virulence genes, molecular subtyping, and antibiotic resistance phenotype of Salmonella from gastroenteritis in Hubei, China. Of 500 patients stools samples collected from January 2015 to January 2016, 52 (10.40%) samples were contaminated by Salmonella. The results showed that most of the isolates were positive for eight virulence genes that appear on pathogenicity islands, prophages, plasmid, and fimbrial. A total of twelve serotypes were found. Antimicrobial susceptibility results indicated that most strains were resistant to ampicillin (57.69%), kanamycin (53.85%), and tetracycline (40.38%). There were 33 STs on MLST types, and were grouped into two clusters. Thus, our findings provided insights into the dissemination of antibiotic resistant strains, genetic diversity, and improved our knowledge of microbiological risk assessment in Salmonella from gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bac...

  8. Socio-demographic, Epidemiological and Environmental Determinants of Acute Gastroenteritis in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Prafulbhai Rupani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Socio-demographic factors (higher socio-economic status, epidemiological correlates (change in taste of water, another family member been affected with acute gastroenteritis and eating outside food and environmental determinants (waste disposal in a common dump and waste accumulation around house significantly determines the occurrence of cases of acute gastroenteritis. Keywords: case-control studies;diarrhea; epidemiologic determinants; gastroenteritis; social determinants of health. | PubMed

  9. A Case Control Study of Incident Rheumatological Conditions Following Acute Gastroenteritis During Military Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A case–control study of incident rheumatological conditions following acute gastroenteritis during military deployment Kathryn H DeYoung,1,2 Mark S...following acute gastroenteritis during military deployment. BMJ Open 2013;3:e003801. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013- 003801 ▸ Prepublication history for this...population may include individuals with reactive arthritis (ReA) from deployment-related infectious gastroenteritis . Design: This case–control

  10. Experimental infection of Hawai'i 'Amakihi (hemignathus virens) with West Nile virus and competence of a co-occurring vector, culex quinquefasciatus: potential impacts on endemic Hawaiian avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis A; Hofmeister, Erik K; Atkinson, Carter T; Porter, Robert E; Dusek, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne avian disease is a major limiting factor in the recovery and restoration of native Hawaiian forest birds. Annual epizootics of avian pox (Avipoxvirus) and avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) likely led to the extinction of some species and continue to impact populations of susceptible Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). The introduction of a novel pathogen, such as West Nile virus (WNV), could result in further population declines and extinctions. During September and October 2004, we infected Hawai'i' Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with a North American isolate of WNV by needle inoculation and mosquito bite to observe susceptibility, mortality, and illness in this endemic passerine, and to determine the vector competence of the co-occurring, introduced mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. All experimentally infected Hawai'i ;Amakihi became viremic, with a mean titer >10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml, and they experienced clinical signs ranging from anorexia and lethargy to ataxia. The fatality rate among needle-inoculated Hawai'i' Amakihi (n=16) was 31.3%, but mortality in free-ranging birds is likely to increase due to predation, starvation, thermal stress, and concomitant infections of avian malaria and pox. Surviving Hawai'i' Amakihi seem to clear WNV from the peripheral blood by 7-10 days postinfection (DPI), and neutralizing antibodies were detected from 9 to 46 DPI. In transmission trials, Hawaiian Cx. quinquefasciatus proved to be a competent vector and Hawai'i Amakihi an adequate amplification host of WNV, suggesting that epizootic WNV could readily become an additional limiting factor of some native Hawaiian bird populations.

  11. Experimental infection of Hawai'i 'Amakihi (hemignathus virens) with West Nile virus and competence of a co-occurring vector, culex quinquefasciatus: potential impacts on endemic Hawaiian avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Atkinson, C.T.; Porter, R.E.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne avian disease is a major limiting factor in the recovery and restoration of native Hawaiian forest birds. Annual epizootics of avian pox (Avipoxvirus) and avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) likely led to the extinction of some species and continue to impact populations of susceptible Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). The introduction of a novel pathogen, such as West Nile virus (WNV), could result in further population declines and extinctions. During September and October 2004, we infected Hawai'i' Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with a North American isolate of WNV by needle inoculation and mosquito bite to observe susceptibility, mortality, and illness in this endemic passerine, and to determine the vector competence of the co-occurring, introduced mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. All experimentally infected Hawai'i ;Amakihi became viremic, with a mean titer >10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml, and they experienced clinical signs ranging from anorexia and lethargy to ataxia. The fatality rate among needle-inoculated Hawai'i' Amakihi (n=16) was 31.3%, but mortality in free-ranging birds is likely to increase due to predation, starvation, thermal stress, and concomitant infections of avian malaria and pox. Surviving Hawai'i' Amakihi seem to clear WNV from the peripheral blood by 7-10 days postinfection (DPI), and neutralizing antibodies were detected from 9 to 46 DPI. In transmission trials, Hawaiian Cx. quinquefasciatus proved to be a competent vector and Hawai'i Amakihi an adequate amplification host of WNV, suggesting that epizootic WNV could readily become an additional limiting factor of some native Hawaiian bird populations.

  12. Prospective study of the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Danish children and their families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Iturriza, Miren; Faaborg-Andersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) at both hospital and general physician (GP) clinics in Denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (RV) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (GE) among children......This was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) at both hospital and general physician (GP) clinics in Denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (RV) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (GE) among children...

  13. Community-Acquired Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Compared with Adenovirus and Norovirus Gastroenteritis in Italian Children: A Pedianet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Donà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rotavirus (RV is the commonest pathogen in the hospital and primary care settings, followed by Adenovirus (AV and Norovirus (NV. Only few studies that assess the burden of RV gastroenteritis at the community level have been carried out. Objectives. To estimate incidence, disease characteristics, seasonal distribution, and working days lost by parents of RV, AV, and NV gastroenteritis leading to a family pediatrician (FP visit among children < 5 years. Methods. 12-month, observational, prospective, FP-based study has been carried out using Pedianet database. Results. RVGE incidence was 1.04 per 100 person-years with the highest incidence in the first 2 years of life. Incidences of AVGEs (1.74 and NVGEs (1.51 were slightly higher with similar characteristics regarding age distribution and symptoms. Risk of hospitalisation, access to emergency room (ER, and workdays lost from parents were not significantly different in RVGEs compared to the other viral infections. Conclusions. Features of RVGE in terms of hospitalisation length and indirect cost are lower than those reported in previous studies. Results of the present study reflect the large variability of data present in the literature. This observation underlines the utility of primary care networks for AGE surveillance and further studies on community-acquired gastroenteritis in children.

  14. Identification of a novel cosavirus species in faeces of children and its relationship with acute gastroenteritis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J-M; Ao, Y-Y; Li, L-L; Duan, Z-J

    2017-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of human cosavirus (HCosV) in China and to determine the association of a novel HCosV (Cosa-CHN) with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A case-control study with 461 paired stool samples from diarrhoea and healthy children was conducted. Real-time PCR and nested PCR were used to detect the HCosVs. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to obtain the ends of the Cosa-CHN. Known HCosVs were detected in two control samples, while Cosa-CHN was detected in eight (1.7%) and six (1.3%) of the case and control samples respectively. The complete genome of Cosa-CHN comprises 7213 bp. The P1 and P2 regions of the Cosa-CHN were closely related to those of HCosV B, while the P3 region was most similar to that of HCosV D, albeit with low amino acid identities (66 and 67% respectively). Phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein and partial VP3/VP1 regions indicated that Cosa-CHN could be classified as a novel species (tentatively named HCosV G) in cosavirus. There was no significant difference in detection rate (p 0.59) or mean virus load (p 0.43) of Cosa-CHN between the cases and controls. Statistical analysis revealed no association between Cosa-CHN and AGE (p 0.76), and the virus did not exacerbate clinical symptoms. A low prevalence of HCosV was detected, but a novel Cosavirus species was found in children with and without gastroenteritis in this study. The evidence did not support a causative role for the novel virus in paediatric AGE. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular epidemiology and clinical severity of Human Bocavirus (HBoV) 1-4 in children with acute gastroenteritis from Pune, Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Neha; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi

    2017-01-01

    Although acute gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide, ∼40% of the cases remain undiagnosed for any etiological agent. Human Bocavirus (HBoV) has been detected frequently in feces of diarrhoeic children suggesting its possible etiological involvement in the disease. HBoV has not been reported in association with acute gastroenteritis from India. Fecal samples (n = 418) collected from children (age ≤5 years) hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis, between January 2009 and December 2011, from three local hospitals were examined for presence of HBoV using PCR targeting the partial VP1/VP2 capsid region (∼575 bp) followed by phylogenetic analysis. HBoV was detected in 24/418 (5.7%) cases. Co-infection was observed in 5/24 (21%) cases. HBoV infections occurred in children ≤12 months of age. Peak HBoV activity was observed in monsoon and post monsoon season. All four HBoV genotypes were detected in the study region. Major clinical symptoms of HBoV mono infections included diarrhoea (100%), fever (90%), dehydration (74%), and vomiting (58%). Dehydration was observed in all of the HBoV2-4 cases and in 50% of the HBoV1 cases. Clinical severity varied with genotype (HBoV2 > HBoV1 > HBoV3 > HBoV4). HBoV2 cases recorded severe and very severe infections. The study illustrates prevalence and vast genetic diversity of HBoVs in acute gastroenteritis. It highlights the clinical features of HBoV1-4 infections and sheds light on clinical impact of HBoV genotypes in gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 89:17-23, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with astrovirus serotype 1 in a day care center, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMV Silva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Between June 4th and June 20th1996 rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus (HAstrV were investigated in fecal samples from 27 children under three years old with acute diarrhea, attending the Bertha Lutz day care center, in Rio de Janeiro. All fecal samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassays (EIA, and electron microscopy (EM. Nine of them (33% showed positive results for HAstrV by at least one of the employed methodologies. Eight were positive by RT-PCR and EIA, and six by EM. All positive samples were inoculated onto HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cultured cells for HAstrV isolation and seven were positive after three passages. The sequencing analysis of eight RT-PCR products (449 bp from gene that codifies VP2 protein, showed a total nucleotide identity among them and 98% with HAstrV-1 (strain Oxford type 1. This is the first report of a gastroenteritis outbreak associated with HAstrv-1 in a day care center in Rio de Janeiro and it reinforces the importance of this virus in association with infantile acute gastroenteritis.

  17. A phase trial of the oral Lactobacillus casei vaccine polarizes Th2 cell immunity against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinpeng; Hou, Xingyu; Tang, Lijie; Jiang, Yanping; Ma, Guangpeng; Li, Yijing

    2016-09-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is a member of the genus Coronavirus, family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. TGEV is an enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes highly fatal acute diarrhoea in newborn pigs. An oral Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) vaccine against anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus developed in our laboratory was used to study mucosal immune responses. In this L. casei vaccine, repetitive peptides expressed by L. casei (specifically the MDP and tuftsin fusion protein (MT)) were repeated 20 times and the D antigenic site of the TGEV spike (S) protein was repeated 6 times. Immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus is crucial for investigations of the effect of immunization, such as the first immunization time and dose. The first immunization is more important than the last immunization in the series. The recombinant Lactobacillus elicited specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Recombinant L. casei had a strong potentiating effect on the cellular immunity induced by the oral L. casei vaccine. However, during TGEV infection, the systemic and local immune responses switched from Th1 to Th2-based immune responses. The systemic humoral immune response was stronger than the cellular immune response after TGEV infection. We found that the recombinant Lactobacillus stimulated IL-17 expression in both the systemic and mucosal immune responses against TGEV infection. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus vaccine stimulated an anti-TGEV infection Th17 pathway. The histopathological examination showed tremendous potential for recombinant Lactobacillus to enable rapid and effective treatment for TGEV with an intestinal tropism in piglets. The TGEV immune protection was primarily dependent on mucosal immunity.

  18. Outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant after a wedding reception at a resort/activity centre, Finland, August 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, A; Rönnqvist, M; Lepistö, O; Roivainen, M; Maunula, L; Huusko, S; Toikkanen, S; Rimhanen-Finne, R

    2014-09-01

    In August 2012, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among 88 persons attending a wedding reception at a resort/activity centre in Ylöjärvi, Finland. Of 39 interviewed guests, 23 met the case definition. Two persons were hospitalized. Epidemiological, laboratory and environmental investigations were conducted to characterize the outbreak and to recommend control measures. Investigation confirmed the presence of a new strain of norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant in stool specimens obtained from two wedding guests and on several environmental surfaces in the centre. In the questionnaire study, none of the foods or beverages served during the reception were significantly associated with the illness. Additional cases of gastroenteritis that occurred at the centre before and after the wedding reception supported the hypothesis of environmental transmission of norovirus. After thorough cleansing and disinfection and 1 week's quarantine, no new cases with symptoms typical for norovirus infection were identified at the centre.

  19. Surveillance and risk factors of norovirus gastroenteritis among children in a southern city of China in the fall-winter seasons of 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying-Chun; Xia, Ming; Zhan, Hui-Chun; Liu, Yi; Li, Jian-Dong; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shou-Yi; Nie, Jun; Farkas, Tibor; Jiang, Xi

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis but knowledge on the disease burden and epidemiology in children in the developing countries remains limited. In this study, we performed a surveillance of NoV gastroenteritis in children of China to address some of the questions. Faecal specimens from children (fall-winter seasons in 2003-2006 were tested for rotaviruses (RVs) and NoVs. A questionnaire on clinical records and hygiene habits was collected from each patient. Among 957 stool specimens tested, 488 (51%) specimens were positive for RVs. NoVs were detected in 112 (24%) of the 469 RV negative specimens. The Genogroup II (GII), particularly GII-4, viruses were predominant. No significant difference of clinical symptoms, hospitalisation and patient care expenses were found between children infected with NoVs and RVs. Consumption of uncooked food is a risk for NoV infection. Contact with diarrhoea patients is a suspected risk factor. Cutting nails frequently is a protective factor against NoV infection. NoVs are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children which need special attention of patient care at the clinics in addition to RVs. The awareness of those risk factors may help future disease control and prevention.

  20. Gastroenteritis and the novel picornaviruses aichi virus, cosavirus, saffold virus, and salivirus in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Gyhrs, Mette Louise; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    During the last few years many new human picornaviruses have been discovered due to advances in metagenomics and other molecular biological approaches. The clinical significance and the occurrence are only sparsely described....

  1. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Packaging Signal Is Located at the 5′ End of the Genome and Promotes Viral RNA Incorporation into Virions in a Replication-Independent Process

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5′ end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. Th...

  2. Detection of rotavirus and other enteropathogens in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, María de Los Angeles; Tejero, Yahisel; Cordero, Yanislet; de Los Angeles León, María; Rodriguez, Misladys; Perez-Lastre, Jorge; Triana, Thelma; Guerra, Mabel; Ayllón, Lucía; Escalante, Gladys; Hadad, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to diagnose infections with rotavirus and other enteric pathogens in children under five years old with acute gastroenteritis and to identify the most common epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these pathogens. The study was conducted using 110 stool samples from the same number of children under five years old who were inpatients at three paediatric hospitals in Havana, Cuba, between October and December 2011. The samples were tested for rotavirus and other enteric pathogens using traditional and molecular microbiological methods. Pathogens were detected in 85 (77.3 %) of the children. Rotavirus was the most commonly found, appearing in 54.5 % of the children, followed by bacteria (29 %) and parasites (10.9 %). Other viral pathogens detected included adenovirus (6.4 %) and astrovirus (3.6 %). In rotavirus-positives cases, at least one other pathogen was detected, usually a bacterium (26.6 %). More than three episodes of watery diarrhea in 24 hours were observed in 78.3 % of the cases. Dehydration was found in 30 (50 %) rotavirus-positive children, of whom seven (11.6 %) were transferred to an intensive care unit due to complications of metabolic acidosis. Rotavirus was most commonly observed among children under 12 months old (65 %). The highest incidence of infection occurred in children who were under the care of a relative at home (78.3 %), had not been breastfed (65 %), or had been breastfed for less than six months (28.3 %). The genotype combinations most frequently found were G9P8 (28.3 %) and G1P8 (10 %). This study demonstrates the presence of rotavirus and other enteric pathogens as causes of gastroenteritis in hospitalized infants and young children in Cuba.

  3. Clinical Epidemiology and Treatment of Febrile and Afebrile Convulsions With Mild Gastroenteritis: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yousuke; Kubo, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Nakamura, Naoko; Yokota, Ichiro; Komiyama, Osamu; Kamimaki, Isamu; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Uchida, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Yamashita, Hironori; Tanaka, Shigeki; Iguchi, Kosei; Ichimi, Ryouji; Miyagawa, Shinichiro; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Koga, Hiroshi; Shukuya, Akinori; Saito, Akiko; Horibe, Keizo

    2017-02-01

    We investigated features and responses to treatment in patients with febrile and afebrile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis and characterized convulsions with rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis. We conducted a prospective, observational study to evaluate patients with febrile and afebrile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis who were hospitalized between November 2011 and March 2014 at 13 facilities in the National Hospital Organization. We classified the patients into two groups: presence or absence of fever. We investigated the background, clinical and laboratory characteristics, viral antigen in stool, and efficacy of anticonvulsant drugs. Of 126 patients enrolled in this study, 50 were febrile (Fc group) and 76 were afebrile (aFc group). A family history of febrile seizures was significantly more frequent in the Fc group than in the aFc group (28.0% vs 9.2%, P = 0.005). Clinical characteristics were similar between the rotavirus and norovirus groups, but fever was significantly more frequent in the rotavirus group (46.2% vs 8.3%, P gastroenteritis show characteristics of both febrile seizures and convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Carbamazepine is optimal for convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Clinical features of convulsions with rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis are similar, except for fever. Serum sodium levels may play a major role in the onset of convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 34146 - Draft Guideline for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Guideline for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings AGENCY... and comment on the Draft Guideline for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis...

  5. An epidemiological perspective on gastroenteritis in child day care centers : Assessment of impact and risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, R.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of gastroenteritis related to Dutch DCCs is substantial, particularly among the very young attendees. Attending a DCC roughly doubles a child’s probability of experiencing an episode of gastroenteritis that requires a visit to a general practitioner or hospital. A child might experience a

  6. Viruses of foodborne origin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd EC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewen CD Todd,1,2 Judy D Greig3 1Ewen Todd Consulting LLC, Okemos, MI, USA; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Division of Public Health Risk Sciences, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, ON, Canada Abstract: Enteric viruses are major contributors to foodborne disease, and include adenovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, hepatitis A and E viruses, and norovirus. From a foodborne transmission perspective, norovirus is the most important; however, hepatitis A is associated with more serious illness. Foodborne viruses are transmitted through contaminated food, but also in combination with person-to-person contact or through environmental contamination. These viruses survive well in the environment, are excreted in abundance in feces, and have a low infectious dose, all of which facilitate spread within a community. Many colonized individuals experience mild gastroenteritis lasting a few days or are asymptomatic, although viral excretion may continue over days or weeks. Severe illness tends to be restricted to the very young and elderly, especially in closed communities such as schools and homes for the aged. In the USA, norovirus is considered to be responsible for two thirds of all foodborne illnesses occurring in a wide range of institutional settings, including schools, colleges, child care centers, cruise ships, prisons, and soldiers on campaign. Norovirus outbreaks also occur at one-time events, such as banquets, wedding receptions, birthday parties, and potluck meals, and are most often introduced by infected food workers producing, preparing, or serving food, or through self-service buffets. Often the infections are introduced from the community into institutions where they can infect the majority of residents unless quickly controlled. In countries where economic assessments have been completed

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria that cause gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Romney M; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2015-06-01

    Gastroenteritis due to enteric pathogens is generally a self-limiting disease for which antimicrobial treatment is not required. However, treatment should be considered for cases of severe or prolonged diarrhea, extraintestinal isolation of bacteria, or diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts, the elderly, and infants. Various resistance trends and current issues concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of enteric pathogens are reviewed in this article, including Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and Clostridium difficile. Updated interpretive criteria from breakpoint-setting organizations are reviewed, along with explanations for recent changes in antimicrobial breakpoints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Induction of antibodies protecting against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) by recombinant adenovirus expressing TGEV spike protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J M; Sánchez, C; Suñé, C; Smerdou, C; Prevec, L; Graham, F; Enjuanes, L

    1995-11-10

    Ten recombinant adenoviruses expressing either fragments of 1135, 1587, or 3329 nt or the full-length spike gene of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) have been constructed. These recombinants produce S polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 68, 86, 135, and 200 kDa, respectively. Expression of the recombinant antigen driven by Ad5 promoters was inhibited by the insertion of an exogenous SV-40 promoter. Most of the recombinant antigens remain intracytoplasmic in infected cells. All the recombinant-directed expression products contain functional antigenic sites C and B (Gebauer et al., 1991, Virology 183, 225-238). The recombinant antigen of 135 kDa and that of 200 kDa, which represents the whole spike protein, also contain antigenic sites D and A, which have previously been shown to be the major inducers of TGEV-neutralizing antibodies. Interestingly, here we show that recombinant S protein fragments expressing only sites C and B also induced TGEV-neutralizing antibodies. The chimeric Ad5-TGEV recombinants elicited lactogenic immunity in hamsters, including the production of TGEV-neutralizing antibodies. The antisera induced in swine by the Ad5 recombinants expressing the amino-terminal 26% of the spike protein (containing sites C and B) or the full-length spike protein, when mixed with a lethal dose of virus prior to administration to susceptible piglets, delayed or completely prevented the induction of symptoms of disease, respectively.

  9. Prevalence of enteropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kokila Priya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE ranging from mild to severe forms is commonly encountered in puppies. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of common enteropathogens and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies reported with HGE. Materials and Methods: The canine HGE activity index, with little modification, was adopted to identify Grade III/ severely affected puppies below 6 months of age. Fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed to screen and compare the enteropathogens in puppies with hemorrhagic diarrhea and healthy control. Results: Canine parvovirus 2b was identified in 90.3% of the diarrheic and 10% of the non-diarrheic healthy puppies. Clostridium difficile was identified in all the diarrheic puppies and in 80% of the healthy puppies. Among the diarrheic puppies, 17.7% were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, 9.7% were positive for C. perfringens alpha toxin, 6.4% were positive for Escherichia coli shiga toxin, 6.4% were positive for E. coli enterotoxin (LT, and 3.2% were positive for canine distemper virus. Whereas, none of the healthy puppies were positive for these bacteria and toxins. Fecal antibiotic sensitivity test pattern revealed gentamicin to be sensitive in 95% of the cases, azithromycin in 50%, enrofloxacin in 25%, cefotaxime in 20%, and tetracycline in 5% of the cases. Conclusion: Parvoviral enteritis is predominant among puppies. Yet, bacteria and their toxins also play an important role in HGE. Gentamicin has higher sensitivity against the enteropathogens associated with the condition.

  10. An acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by GII.P16-GII.2 norovirus associated with airborne transmission via the air conditioning unit in a kindergarten in Lianyungang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Lu; Lu, Jing; Ying, Liang; Zhu, Xiao-Lu; Zhao, Lian-Hao; Zhou, Meng-Ying; Wang, Jia-Long; Chen, Guo-Cai; Xu, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Noroviruses are a common cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in institutions including schools and kindergartens around the world. An outbreak caused by GII.P16-GII.2 norovirus in a kindergarten in Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, China is reported here. An epidemiological investigation was conducted, and pathogen detection was performed. The descriptive analysis indicated that this outbreak in middle class 1 had a point source. Twenty cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred in this class within a period of 8.5h; the attack rate was 52.6% (20/38). Airborne transmission via the air conditioning unit in a confined restroom could have played a critical role in this outbreak. Sequence analysis of GII-positive samples confirmed that the norovirus GII.P16-GII.2 variant was the etiological agent of this outbreak. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA Microarray for Detection of Gastrointestinal Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Miguel A.; Soto-del Río, María de los Dolores; Gutiérrez, Rosa María; Chiu, Charles Y.; Greninger, Alexander L.; Contreras, Juan Francisco; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteritis is a clinical illness of humans and other animals that is characterized by vomiting and diarrhea and caused by a variety of pathogens, including viruses. An increasing number of viral species have been associated with gastroenteritis or have been found in stool samples as new molecular tools have been developed. In this work, a DNA microarray capable in theory of parallel detection of more than 100 viral species was developed and tested. Initial validation was done with 10 different virus species, and an additional 5 species were validated using clinical samples. Detection limits of 1 × 103 virus particles of Human adenovirus C (HAdV), Human astrovirus (HAstV), and group A Rotavirus (RV-A) were established. Furthermore, when exogenous RNA was added, the limit for RV-A detection decreased by one log. In a small group of clinical samples from children with gastroenteritis (n = 76), the microarray detected at least one viral species in 92% of the samples. Single infection was identified in 63 samples (83%), and coinfection with more than one virus was identified in 7 samples (9%). The most abundant virus species were RV-A (58%), followed by Anellovirus (15.8%), HAstV (6.6%), HAdV (5.3%), Norwalk virus (6.6%), Human enterovirus (HEV) (9.2%), Human parechovirus (1.3%), Sapporo virus (1.3%), and Human bocavirus (1.3%). To further test the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray, the results were verified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) detection of 5 gastrointestinal viruses. The RT-PCR assay detected a virus in 59 samples (78%). The microarray showed good performance for detection of RV-A, HAstV, and calicivirus, while the sensitivity for HAdV and HEV was low. Furthermore, some discrepancies in detection of mixed infections were observed and were addressed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the viruses involved. It was observed that differences in the amount of genetic material favored the detection of the most abundant

  12. LAS GASTROENTERITIS VÍRICAS: UN PROBLEMA DE SALUD PÚBLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las gastroenteritis agudas (GA constituyen un problema de salud importante, pudiendo estar causadas por bacterias, parásitos y virus enteropatógenos, entre los que se han reconocido hasta la actualidad rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus y calicivirus. La frecuencia de rotavirus como causa de casos esporádicos de GA oscila entre el 17,3% y el 37,4%. Aunque se ha sugerido que la exposición común no tiene mucha importancia para la difusión de este virus, resulta difícil relacionar casos aparentemente esporádicos, por lo que probablemente haya brotes que no llegan a detectarse. Los astrovirus causan GA con una frecuencia que oscila entre un 2 y un 26% y se han descrito brotes en escuelas y guarderías, pero también en población adulta y en ancianos. La frecuencia con que se identifican los adenovirus 40 y 41 como causa de GA esporádica en niños no inmunodeprimidos oscila entre 0,7% y 31,5%, aunque probablemente haya subdetección debido a que la sensibilidad de las técnicas convencionales es baja. Los calicivirus se separan filogenéticamente en dos géneros: Norovirus y Sapovirus. Los Norovirus se asocian frecuentemente con brotes de GA transmitidos por agua y alimentos . Se estima que el 40% de los casos de GA por Norovirus están vehiculados por alimentos. En Suecia y en algunas zonas de Estados Unidos es la primera causa de brotes de toxiinfecciones alimentarias. Recientemente se han descrito en Canadà y Japón brotes de transmisión persona a persona y también de transmisión alimentaria causados por Sapovirus, afectando tanto a población infantil como adulta.

  13. Effect of non-stationary climate on infectious gastroenteritis transmission in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke

    2014-06-03

    Local weather factors are widely considered to influence the transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. Few studies, however, have examined the non-stationary relationships between global climatic factors and transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. We analyzed monthly data for cases of infectious gastroenteritis in Fukuoka, Japan from 2000 to 2012 using cross-wavelet coherency analysis to assess the pattern of associations between indices for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Infectious gastroenteritis cases were non-stationary and significantly associated with the IOD and ENSO (Multivariate ENSO Index [MEI], Niño 1 + 2, Niño 3, Niño 4, and Niño 3.4) for a period of approximately 1 to 2 years. This association was non-stationary and appeared to have a major influence on the synchrony of infectious gastroenteritis transmission. Our results suggest that non-stationary patterns of association between global climate factors and incidence of infectious gastroenteritis should be considered when developing early warning systems for epidemics of infectious gastroenteritis.

  14. Effect of non-stationary climate on infectious gastroenteritis transmission in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Local weather factors are widely considered to influence the transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. Few studies, however, have examined the non-stationary relationships between global climatic factors and transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. We analyzed monthly data for cases of infectious gastroenteritis in Fukuoka, Japan from 2000 to 2012 using cross-wavelet coherency analysis to assess the pattern of associations between indices for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Infectious gastroenteritis cases were non-stationary and significantly associated with the IOD and ENSO (Multivariate ENSO Index [MEI], Niño 1 + 2, Niño 3, Niño 4, and Niño 3.4) for a period of approximately 1 to 2 years. This association was non-stationary and appeared to have a major influence on the synchrony of infectious gastroenteritis transmission. Our results suggest that non-stationary patterns of association between global climate factors and incidence of infectious gastroenteritis should be considered when developing early warning systems for epidemics of infectious gastroenteritis.

  15. Molecular and epidemiological features of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John A; Dimitriadis, Anna; Wright, Peter J

    2005-02-01

    Norovirus was identified in 30 of 59 gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring in the state of Victoria, Australia in 2001 by RT-PCR and/or electron microscopy (EM). Norovirus outbreaks occurred in hostels/nursing homes (27%), hospitals (13%), youth refuges (3%), social gatherings associated with food consumption (27%), school outings/camps (13%), and pre-school/child-minding centers (17%). Norovirus outbreaks tended to occur in the warmer months. Phylogenetic analysis identified six clusters, one within genogroup 1 (G1) and five within genogroup 2 (G2). Cluster 1, which incorporates the G2 Camberwell/Lordsdale strains, was the most common (39% of outbreaks). In 2 of 27 outbreaks, strains from two G2 clusters, 1 and 5, occurred. Norovirus G2 was more common in the young and very old than in those in intermediate years. Norovirus G2 detection rate was higher in females than in males for adults (>15 years) and the susceptibility of adult females to norovirus G2 infection relative to males increased with age. In one outbreak analyzed, some sequences had a single base substitution, but this did not result in an amino acid (aa) change. The two most common norovirus clusters (G2 clusters 1 and 4) occurred in the capital of Victoria, Melbourne, and regional Victoria, but the least common clusters (G2 clusters 2 and 3 and G1 cluster 8) only occurred in inner Melbourne. Norovirus was occasionally detected by EM but not by RT-PCR. The occurrence of norovirus outbreaks is modulated by a large group of factors, which will have to be considered in any epidemiological model.

  16. Group C rotavirus infection in patients with acute gastroenteritis in outbreaks in western India between 2006 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M S; Jare, V M; Gopalkrishna, V

    2017-01-01

    Faecal specimens collected from outbreak (n = 253) and sporadic (n = 147) cases of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in western India between 2006 and 2014 were tested for group C rotavirus (GCR) using partial VP6 gene-based RT-PCR. All specimens were tested previously for the presence of other viral and bacterial aetiological agents by conventional methods. The rate of GCR detection was 8·6% and 0·7% in outbreak and sporadic cases, respectively. GCR infections prevailed in outbreaks reported from rural areas (10·9%) compared to urban areas (1·6%). Clinical severity score of the patients with GCR infection (n = 23) indicated severe disease in the majority (70%) of cases. The age distribution analysis indicated 52·1% of GCR infections in children aged <10 years. The male:female ratio in GCR-positive patients was 2·3:1. Of the 23 GCR-positive cases, 17 (73·9%) had a sole GCR infection and six had mixed infections with other viral and/or bacterial agents. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences classified GCR strains of the study in to I2 genotype of the VP6 gene. This is the first study to show the occurrence of GCR in gastroenteritis outbreaks in India.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis at an Australian boarding school: consistency between epidemiology, flaA typing, and multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Cameron R M; Cameron, Scott; Mickan, Lance; Givney, Rod C

    2010-11-01

    In this study, an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis occurring at a boarding school was investigated using a retrospective cohort study and environmental health investigation. Thirty-five cases of gastroenteritis were recorded among 58 questionnaire respondents, with 14 of 18 persons submitting fecal samples having confirmed C. jejuni infections. Attendance at one evening meal was statistically associated with illness (ratio of proportions of 3.09; 95% confidence intervals: 1.21, 14.09; p = 0.02). There was no statistically significant association between any single food provided at the implicated evening meal and illness, suggesting that the potential cause of the outbreak was a cross-contamination event. Among the human isolates, two distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism-flaA subtypes were found. Results from subsequent multilocus sequence typing data were consistent with the flaA typing results. The study highlights the potential of cross-contamination as a cause of epidemic campylobacteriosis. The application of molecular techniques to aid epidemiological investigation of recognized C. jejuni outbreaks is illustrated.

  18. [Infectious gastroenteritis in relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. Therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliellas, C; Xiol, X; Barenys, M; Saavedra, J; Casanovas, T; Iborra, M; Sesé, E

    1996-06-01

    The incidence and clinical importance of infectious gastroenteritis was studied in 67 consecutive relapses of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A stool culture was done in every case before starting treatment. Stool culture was positive in 6 relapses (8.9%): Four were exacerbations of ulcerative colitis and two of Crohn's disease (8.8% in ulcerative colitis vs 9% in Crohn's disease; NS). The microorganisms isolated were Campylobacter jejuni in three cases, Salmonella enteritidis in two and Staphylococcus aureus in one case. There were not clinical differences between patients with positive and negative stool culture. Treated with antibiotics, stool cultures became negative in all of them but only in three the disease was controlled. The other three had to be treated with corticosteroids to achieve remission. We conclude that stool culture should be practised in all relapses of IBD and in case of positivity, antibiotic therapy should be started. With this approach the use of corticosteroids can be avoided in some patients.

  19. Surveillance of rotavirus gastro-enteritis in children in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ann; Ngwira, Bagrey; Witte, Desiree; Mwapasa, Mphatso; Dove, Winifred; Cunliffe, Nigel

    2013-02-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastro-enteritis in infants and young children worldwide. Previous studies of rotavirus gastro-enteritis in Malawi have documented a high disease burden with an extensive diversity of circulating rotavirus strains. In anticipation of the introduction of national rotavirus vaccination, a 2-year surveillance study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 of children in Blantyre seeking hospital care for acute gastro-enteritis. Rotavirus was detected in faecal specimens by ELISA. Rotavirus G and P types were determined by RT-PCR. Rotavirus, which circulated throughout the year, was detected in 220/720 (31%) children. Over 85% of patients with rotavirus gastro-enteritis were Blantyre. Together with previous observations, the findings contribute to a baseline of data against which the impact of future rotavirus vaccination in Malawi can be assessed.

  20. Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk of Hospitalization for Infectious Gastroenteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxi Chen

    Full Text Available To quantify the association between PPI use, type and dose and infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and older adults.Prospective study of 38,019 concession card holders followed up over 6 years in the Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study. Data from the baseline questionnaire were linked to prescription medication, hospitalization, notifiable disease, cancer registry and death datasets from 2006-2012. Associations between PPI use and gastroenteritis hospitalization were examined using Cox regressions with age as the underlying time variable.Among 38,019 participants, the median age was 69.7 years, and 57.3% were women. Compared to non-users, current PPI users were more likely to be older, and have a higher BMI. During follow-up there were 1,982 incident gastroenteritis hospitalizations (crude rate: 12.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI: 12.3-13.5. PPI use was significantly associated with infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization (aHR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5. Among current users, a dose-response relationship was observed between the average daily dose (DDD dispensed per day and infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization (Ptrend<0.001. We also observed higher rates of infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization and greater PPI use among participants with a history of chronic bowel problems (aHR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.9-2.5. There was no difference in risk by type of PPI. Recent use of H2 receptors was not associated with gastroenteritis hospitalization.PPI use is associated with an increased risk of infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization. Clinicians should be aware of this risk when considering PPI therapy.

  1. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  2. Development of one-step real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assays for the rapid and simultaneous detection of four viruses causing porcine diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Tsuneyuki; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Ashiba, Tomoko; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Porcine diarrhea caused by viruses is a major problem of the pig farming industry and can result in substantial losses of revenue. Thus, diagnosing the infectious agents is important to prevent and control diseases in pigs. We developed novel one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) assays that can detect four porcine diarrheal viruses simultaneously: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and porcine group A ...

  3. Enfermidade gastroentérica e respiratória em bezerros inoculados com amostras brasileiras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2 Gastroenteric and respiratory disease in calves inoculated with brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV - 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Celso Sperotto Brum

    2002-10-01

    BVDV-2 foram capazes de reproduzir a enfermidade aguda quando inoculadas em bezerros e que as conseqüências clínico-patológicas da infecção foram mais severas nos animais mais jovens.Two Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2 were inoculated in calves to evaluate their virulence and to study the pathogenesis of the infection. Previously to virus inoculation, the calves were immunossupressed with dexamethasone. Four 45 to 90-days-old calves (group A were inoculated with isolate SV-260 (n=2 or LV-96 (n=2, and four 6 to 8-months-old calves (group B were inoculated with isolate SV-260. Following virus inoculation, group A calves showed anorexia, depression, hyperthermia, signs of respiratory infection and profuse diarrhea, bloody in two cases. The respiratory and digestive signs progressed and the animals died or were euthanized in extremis between days 7 and 12 post-inoculation. Ulcers and erosions in the digestive tract (tongue, n=4; esophagus, n=1; rumen, n=1 and abomasum, n=3, edema of the lung (n=4 and abomasal mucosa (n=3; echimosis and suffusions in the spleen serosa (n=2, rumen, small intestine and ceccum (n=1, heart (n=1 and urinary bladder mucosa (n=1 and intestinal intussuseption (n=1 were the most prominent findings. Ulcerations and erosions accompanied by mononuclear cell infiltrates in the digestive tract mucosa and submucosa, and lymphoid depletion in lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches were frequently observed. Infectious virus was detected in several tissues and organs. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry mainly in epithelial cells of the digestive tract, in mononuclear cells of the perivascular and peribronchial spaces; in lymph node septae and capsule; and in lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells of the spleen and Peyer’s patches. Group B calves showed depression, hyperthermia, moderate signs of respiratory and digestive infection, small ulcerations in the tongue and recovered after a few days. These

  4. Gastroenteritis attributable to rotavirus in hospitalized Saudi Arabian children in the period 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed; Azhar, Esam; Kao, Moujahed; Al-Kaiedi, Noura; Alhani, Hatim; Al Olayan, Ibrahim; Pawinski, Robert; Gopala, Kusuma; Kandeil, Walid; Anis, Sameh; Van Doorn, Leen Jan; DeAntonio, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Rotavirus (RV) is a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in children across the world. As there is a lack of epidemiological data for RV gastroenteritis (RVGE) in Saudi Arabia, this hospital-based study was designed to estimate the disease burden of RVGE and assess the prevalent RV types in Saudi children younger than 5 years of age. Patients and methods Children hospitalized for acute GE were enrolled at four pediatric referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from February 2007 to March 2008 and used the World Health Organization’s generic protocol for RVGE surveillance. The Vesikari severity scale was used to assess the severity of RVGE. Stool samples were tested for RV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were further typed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and hybridization assay for determining the G and P types. Results A total of 1,007 children were enrolled; the final analysis included 970 children, of whom 395 were RV positive, 568 were RV negative, and seven had unknown RV status. The proportion of RVGE among GE hospitalizations was 40.7% (95% confidence interval: 37.6–43.9). The highest percentage of RVGE hospitalizations (83.1%) was seen in children younger than 2 years of age. The highest proportion of RV among GE hospitalizations was in June 2007 with 57.1%. The most common RV types detected were G1P[8] (49.3%), G1G9P[8] (13.2%), and G9P[8] (9.6%). Before hospitalization, severe GE episodes occurred in 88.1% RV-positive and 79.6% RV-negative children. Overall, 94% children had recovered by the time they were discharged. Two children (one RV positive and one RV negative) died due to GE complications. Conclusion RVGE is responsible for a high proportion of hospitalizations in Saudi children younger than 5 years of age. Routine RV vaccination has therefore been introduced into the national immunization program and may help reduce the morbidity, mortality, and disease burden

  5. Effect of the continuous intake of probiotic-fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on fever in a mass outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis and the faecal microflora in a health service facility for the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Satoru; Asahara, Takashi; Ohta, Toshihisa; Yamada, Toshihiko; Kondo, Shigemi; Bian, Lei; Wang, Chongxin; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Nomoto, Koji

    2011-08-01

    For conducting effective risk management in long-stay elderly people at a health service facility, we performed an open case-controlled study to evaluate the effect of the intake of probiotic-fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS-fermented milk) on norovirus gastroenteritis occurring in the winter season during the intake period. A total of seventy-seven elderly people (mean age 84 years) were enrolled in the study. During a 1-month period, there was no significant difference in the incidence of norovirus gastroenteritis between the LcS-fermented milk-administered (n 39) and the non-administered (n 38) groups; however, the mean duration of fever of >37°C after the onset of gastroenteritis was 1·5 (SD 1·7) d in the former and 2·9 (SD 2·3) d in the latter group, showing a significant shortening in the former group (P fermented milk could positively contribute to the alleviation of fever caused by norovirus gastroenteritis by correcting the imbalance of the intestinal microflora peculiar to the elderly, although such consumption could not protect them from the disease.

  6. An atypical rotavirus detected in a child with gastroenteritis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Pereira

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Particles morphologically identical to rotaviruses were found in the faeces of a nine week-old child with gastroenteritis. Analysis of the viral RNA genome by polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis revealed 10 bands (probably 11 segments some of wich differed in migration rate from those of the great majority of rotaviruses infecting man and other animal hosts. The virus was not detected by a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA and therefore probably lacked the crossreactive antigen(s shared by the majority rotaviruses. This was the only strain with such behaviour among 230 rotaviruses of human origin examined in this laboratory since 1979. The implications of the existence of non-crossreactive rotaviruses are discussed.Partículas morfologicamente idênticas a rotavirus foram encontradas nas fezes de uma criança de dois meses com gastroenterite. Análise do genoma viral por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida revelou 10 faixas (provavelmente 11 segmentos de RNA, algumas das quais diferem em velocidade de migração das observadas na grande maioria de rotavirus de hospedeiros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais. O vírus não foi revelado por um ensaio imuno-enzimático de alta sensibilidade, o que sugere a ausência do antígeno de grupo que da reações cruzadas entre a maioria dos rotavirus. O vírus descrito no presente trabalho foi o único com tal comportamento entre 230 amostras analisadas por nós desde 1979. A relevância de existência de rotavirus não relacionados antigenicamente a outros membros do grupo é discutida.

  7. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in an Austrian boarding school, September 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Gschiel, E; Mann, M; Huhulescu, S; Ruppitsch, W; Bohm, G; Pichler, J; Lederer, I; Hoger, G; Heuberger, S; Allerberger, F

    2007-03-01

    An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in September 2006 in a boarding school in eastern Austria. Of 113 cases, 101 were hospitalised. In order to identify the outbreak source, a retrospective cohort study on the group at risk was performed, including 222 pupils and 30 staff members. Food exposure in the canteen of the school was identified as the most relevant common link among the cases in the case series investigation. Although the preliminary microbiological investigation made Norovirus infections possible, an in-depth descriptive epidemiological investigation later pointed to food intoxication rather than a viral infection as the cause of the outbreak. The analytical epidemiological investigation implicated boiled rice and chicken wings served in the canteen as the most likely source of the outbreak. Staphylococcus aureus was identified as the causative agent. Further molecular characterisation revealed that the predominant S. aureus type in this outbreak was a new spa type, t2046. The same spa type was isolated from stool specimens of the majority of the cases investigated, from samples of the incriminated boiled rice, and also from a swab of a palmar skin lesion of one of the healthy kitchen workers, who is therefore the most likely source of contamination. This outbreak underlines again the importance of compliance with the basic guidelines for kitchen hygiene.

  8. Efficacy of rhesus rotavirus vaccine MMU-18006 against gastroenteritis due to serotype 1 rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukae, S; Nakata, S; Adachi, N; Kogawa, K; Chiba, S

    1994-08-01

    We conducted a clinical trial of rhesus rotavirus vaccine MMU-18006 (RRV, serotype 3) to assess the immunogenicity, transmissibility and booster effect of this vaccine in a welfare nursery in Sapporo, from September 1986 to October 1988. After the trial, in March 1989, an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to a wild strain of serotype 1 rotavirus (RV-1) occurred in the study population. Infants were divided into three groups based on vaccination history: five booster vaccinees, 18 one-dose vaccinees and 18 control infants who did not receive vaccine. There was a significant relationship between asymptomatic infection and higher levels of preoutbreak antibody titres against KU (serotype 1) but not RRV. Significant protection from rotavirus illness was observed both in the booster vaccine group and in the one-dose vaccine group but not in the control group. Rotavirus-specific serum IgA immune response was considered to be one of the indicators of recent rotavirus infection, and did not correlate with resistance to rotavirus illness. Our results revealed that protection from rotavirus illness was serotype-specific and that previous rotavirus infection, including vaccination, was important to induce the heterotypic immune response, and that ageing or booster inoculation of RRV might play a role in the protection against serotype 1 rotavirus infection. From our findings, a booster administration was thought to be important to induce effective heterotypic immunity and should be included in a future rotavirus vaccine trial to obtain sufficient protection against four major serotypes of rotavirus.

  9. Infection and cross-infection in a Paediatric Gastro-enteritis unit

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    Jean Bowen Jones

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A two month study to investigate the incidence o f nosocomial infection was conducted in a paediatric gastroenteritis ward o f a black academic hospital. Enteric pathogens were identified on admission in 61 (47,2% o f 129 patients; 56 bacterial and 25 viral. Six per cent o f patients had a combination o f bacterial and viral pathogens. Enteric pathogens most frequently identified on admission were Campylobacter jejuni in 22%, Rotavirus in 19,3%, EPEC in 10,8% and Shigella spp. in 6,9% patients. Twenty six (20% patients had more than 1 enteric pathogen. The nosocomial infection rate was recorded at 17,1%. EPEC occurred most commonly in 5,3% patients, Salmonella typhimurium in 4,6% and Shigella spp. in 2,3%. Nosocomial infections increased the mean length o f hospital stay from 7,2- 20,2 days. Contributory factors to the spread o f nosocomial infection were the unsatisfactory methods o f bathing patients and giving naso-gastric feeds.

  10. A New Zealand outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis linked to the consumption of imported raw Korean oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Greg; Garbutt, Claire; Hewitt, Joanne; Greening, Gail

    2007-10-26

    To investigate an outbreak of gastroenteritis that occurred following an international rugby test at Eden Park (Auckland, New Zealand) on 17 June 2006. 387 patrons were interviewed. Cases were defined as those from one of four hospitality areas who consumed food or beverage at Eden Park on the evening of 17 June 2006 and subsequently suffered from diarrhoea or vomiting; or, stomach cramps and nausea. A case-control study was conducted and food and beverage items associated with illness were identified. Clinical specimens were requested from patrons and food handlers, and leftover foods were analysed for pathogens. A food safety assessment was conducted at the implicated catering premises. A total of 115 cases were identified. Attack rates varied between the four hospitality areas from 8% to 47%. Predominant symptoms among cases included nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach cramps, fever, and chills. The consumption of several foods was associated with an increased risk of illness but the strongest was for raw oysters consumed in Hospitality Area 1 (Risk Ratio 11.9; 95%CI 3.9-36.1; prate 65%. Norovirus (genogroups I and II) was detected in samples provided by four of the cases and three unopened packets of implicated batches of imported Korean Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) linked to the outbreak. This outbreak resulted from consumption of raw imported Korean oysters contaminated by norovirus. Labelling recommending cooking prior to consumption failed to prevent the outbreak.

  11. Significant Depletion of CD4+ T Cells Occurs in the Oral Mucosa during Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection with the Infected CD4+ T Cell Reservoir Continuing to Persist in the Oral Mucosa during Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffy George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV infections are characterized by manifestation of numerous opportunistic infections and inflammatory conditions in the oral mucosa. The loss of CD4+ T cells that play a critical role in maintaining mucosal immunity likely contributes to this process. Here we show that CD4+ T cells constitute a minor population of T cells in the oral mucosa and display a predominantly central memory phenotype mirroring other mucosal sites such as the rectal mucosa. Chronic SIV infection was associated with a near total depletion of CD4+ T cells in the oral mucosa that appear to repopulate during antiretroviral therapy (ART. Repopulating CD4+ T cells harbored a large fraction of Th17 cells suggesting that ART potentially reconstitutes oral mucosal immunity. However, a minor fraction of repopulating CD4+ T cells harbored SIV DNA suggesting that the viral reservoir continues to persist in the oral mucosa during ART. Therapeutic approaches aimed at obtaining sustainable CD4+ T cell repopulation in combination with strategies that can eradicate the latent viral reservoir in the oral mucosa are essential for better oral health and long-term outcome in HIV infected patients.

  12. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagsma, J A; Geenen, P L; Ethelberg, S; Fetsch, A; Hansdotter, F; Jansen, A; Korsgaard, H; O'Brien, S J; Scavia, G; Spitznagel, H; Stefanoff, P; Tam, C C; Havelaar, A H

    2013-08-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the healthcare system in seven European Union member states in relation to pathogen characteristics that influence healthcare seeking. Data on healthcare usage were obtained by harmonized cross-sectional surveys. The degree of under-diagnosis and underreporting varied by pathogen and country. Overall, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach are adjusted for biases due to different surveillance systems and are therefore a better basis for international comparisons than reported data.

  13. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of childhood gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiki; Gotoh, Kensei; Takeuchi, Nao; Miura, Hiroki; Nishimura, Naoko; Ozaki, Takao; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2016-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases, such as rotavirus gastroenteritis (GE). Kinetics of these biomarkers were examined in paired serum samples collected from bacterial enteritis patients with Campylobacter (n = 2) and Salmonella (n = 4) and viral GE patients with rotavirus (n = 27), norovirus (n = 25), and adenovirus (n = 11). At the time of hospital admission, all viral GE patients demonstrated increased MMP-9 and decreased MMP-2 and TIMP-2 serum levels. In contrast to viral GE patients, serum MMP-9 levels were not elevated at the time of hospital admission but elevated at the time of discharge; serum MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels were decreased both at the time of admission and discharge in bacterial enteritis patients. Interestingly, the kinetics of serum MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2 levels were similar among the viral GE patients but distinct from bacterial enteritis patients. Thus, the involvement of MMPs and TIMPs in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal symptoms likely varies depending on the etiological agent. Further studies are required to verify whether the extent of the bacterial enteritis or age of the patients influences these serum biomarkers. J. Med. Virol. 88:1341-1346, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Campylobacter and Salmonella acute gastroenteritis: epidemiology and health care utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Farré, Maria Rosa; Osorio Sánchez, Dimelza; Arias Varela, Cesar; Simó Sanahuja, Maria; Recasens Recasens, Assumpta; Pérez Jové, Josefa

    2015-10-05

    In Catalonia the current surveillance systems do not allow to know the true incidence or the health care utilization of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. The aim of this study is to analyze these characteristics. Descriptive study of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections reported in 2002 and 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. We included cases isolated and reported by the laboratory to a regional Surveillance Unit. The estimated incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter AGE decreased by almost 50% and 20% respectively in 2012. Children between one and 4 years old were the most affected in both years. Significant differences in the clinical characteristics and disease duration were observed between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Visits to the Emergency Department and hospitalization rates were 63.7% and 15%, being more frequent among salmonellosis cases. The estimated incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections has decreased, however rates are still important, as well as it is the health care utilization in both diseases. Current surveillance systems need appropriateness improvements to reach a better control of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk of Hospitalization for Infectious Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Bette; Glass, Kathryn; Du, Wei; Banks, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the association between PPI use, type and dose and infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and older adults. Prospective study of 38,019 concession card holders followed up over 6 years in the Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study. Data from the baseline questionnaire were linked to prescription medication, hospitalization, notifiable disease, cancer registry and death datasets from 2006-2012. Associations between PPI use and gastroenteritis hospitalization were examined using Cox regressions with age as the underlying time variable. Among 38,019 participants, the median age was 69.7 years, and 57.3% were women. Compared to non-users, current PPI users were more likely to be older, and have a higher BMI. During follow-up there were 1,982 incident gastroenteritis hospitalizations (crude rate: 12.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI: 12.3-13.5). PPI use was significantly associated with infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization (aHR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5). Among current users, a dose-response relationship was observed between the average daily dose (DDD) dispensed per day and infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization (Ptrendgastroenteritis hospitalization and greater PPI use among participants with a history of chronic bowel problems (aHR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.9-2.5). There was no difference in risk by type of PPI. Recent use of H2 receptors was not associated with gastroenteritis hospitalization. PPI use is associated with an increased risk of infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization. Clinicians should be aware of this risk when considering PPI therapy.

  16. Sensitive detection of multiple hepatitis A virus genotypes with a single polony-based assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the major causes of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HAV is mostly transmitted via direct person-to-person contact, or by consumption of contaminated foods and water. Since only a few viral particles may cause disease, detection of low levels of HA...

  17. A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovač, K; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, I; Banjac, M

    2009-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are detected frequently in various types of environmental water samples, such as irrigation water, wastewater, recreational water, ground or subsurface water and even drinking water, constituting a primary source of gastroenteritis or hepatitis outbreaks. Only a few, but still...

  18. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    Era Tuladhar

    Abstract

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks

  19. Etiology and Rapid Diagnosis of Human Viral Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    immunity to rotavirus are complex (1). It seems likely that serum antibody to the virus is associated with protection from illness, and perhaps, local ...three) subgroups of the virus (1). Immune responses are heteroserotypic and heterosubgroup in nature, and various human and animal rotaviruses are...illness typically produces severe diarrhea that commonly lasts for five to eight days and is usually accompanied by fever and vomiting. Rotavirus , which

  20. Does dog or cat ownership lead to increased gastroenteritis in young children in South Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, J S; Cutt, H; Glonek, G

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dog and cat ownership and gastroenteritis in young children. A diary study of 965 children aged 4-6 years living in rural or semi-rural South Australia was undertaken. Data were collected on pet ownership, drinking water and other risk factors for gastroenteritis. Overall 89% of households had pets and dog ownership was more common than cat ownership. The multivariable models for gastroenteritis and pet ownership indicated that living in a household with a dog or cat was associated with a reduced risk of gastroenteritis (adj. OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.92; OR 0.70, % CI 0.51-0.97 respectively). This paper adds to the evidence that pets are not a major source of gastroenteritis in the home and lends support to the health benefits of pet ownership. However, this must be weighed against the potential negative consequences, such as dog bites, particularly for this age group.

  1. Rotavirus vaccine and health-care utilization for rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tsu City, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Hajime; Suga, Shigeru; Nagao, Mizuho; Ichimi, Ryoji; Fujisawa, Takao; Umemoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Ito, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Shigeki; Ido, Masaru; Taniguchi, Koki; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotavirus vaccines were introduced in Japan in November 2011. We evaluated the subsequent reduction of the health-care burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Methods We conducted active surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years old before and after the vaccine introduction. We surveyed hospitalization rates for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, from 2007 to 2015 and surveyed the number of outpatient visits at a Tsu City clinic from 2010 to 2015. Stool samples were obtained for rotavirus testing and genotype investigation. We assessed rotavirus vaccine coverage for infants living in Tsu City. Results In the pre-vaccine years (2007–2011), hospitalization rates for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old were 5.5, 4.3, 3.1 and 3.9 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. In the post-vaccine years (2011–2015), the rates were 3.0, 3.5, 0.8 and 0.6 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. The hospitalization rate decreased significantly in the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 seasons compared to the average of the seasons before vaccine introduction (P gastroenteritis greatly decreased. PMID:28246579

  2. Healthcare Costs of Rotavirus and Other Types of Gastroenteritis in Children in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Minkyung; Salamanca, Beatriz Valcarcel; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Flem, Elmira

    2016-04-01

    Norway has initiated a publicly funded rotavirus immunization program for all age-eligible children in 2014. We aimed to estimate the healthcare costs of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years old. We identified all gastroenteritis cases in children younger than 5 years old treated during 2009-2013 through the national claims database for primary care and the national hospital registry. We estimated direct medical costs of rotavirus-associated primary care consultations and hospital encounters (inpatient admission, outpatient visit and ambulatory care). We performed a range of one-way sensitivity analyses to explore uncertainty in the cost estimates. Before vaccine introduction, the mean healthcare cost of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years old was €4,440,337 per year. Among rotavirus-associated costs, 92% were hospital costs and the remaining 8% were primary care costs. The mean annual cost of rotavirus-associated hospital encounters was €4,083,691, of which 95% were costs of inpatient hospital admissions. The average healthcare cost of medically attended gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years old was approximately €8 million per year, of which rotavirus-related costs represented 56%. Healthcare costs of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Norway are substantial. The cost-effectiveness of ongoing rotavirus immunization program should be reassessed.

  3. Transient and sustained effects of child-care attendance on hospital admission for gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enserink, Remko; Simonsen, Jacob; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Ethelberg, Steen; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Mølbak, Kåre

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that children experience a transient increase in mild episodes of gastroenteritis when they start attending out-of-home child care. We assessed the transient and sustained effects of cumulative day-care attendance, age at first enrolment and type of child care facility attended on hospitalization rates for gastroenteritis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of being hospitalized for gastroenteritis in two large cohorts of preschool (gastroenteritis compared with children never attending registered day-care. Such increased risk was highest shortly after starting day-care attendance and then gradually declined. After 12 months of attendance, attending either day-care centres or day-care homes was associated with a lower risk for hospitalization. Such decreased risk was confined to children starting day-care attendance before the age of one year and extended throughout, but not beyond, their preschool years. Attending day-care centres is associated with a higher risk for gastroenteritis hospitalization until completing 1 year of attendance. However, if children start attending day-care before the age of 1 year, they experience a lower risk of being hospitalized during their preschool years. This apparent protective effect does not last into the elementary school years. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Efficacy and safety of fosphenytoin for benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Mika; Toda, Soichiro; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Igarashi, Ayuko; Nakahara, Eri; Yamashita, Shintaro; Niijima, Shinichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Okumura, Akihisa

    2015-10-01

    To clarify the efficacy and safety of fosphenytoin for seizures in children with benign convulsions and mild gastroenteritis. Using the mailing list of the Annual Zao Conference on Pediatric Neurology, we recruited patients who met the following criteria: (1) clinical diagnosis of benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis and (2) treatment with intravenous fosphenytoin. Benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis were defined as a condition of (a) seizures associated with gastroenteritis without electrolyte imbalance, hypoglycemia, or dehydration in patients (b) between 6 months and 3 years of age with (c) no preexisting neurological disorders, (d) no impaired consciousness, and (e) a body temperature less than 38.0 °C before and after the seizures. The efficacy of fosphenytoin was categorized as effective when cessation of seizures was achieved. Data from 16 child patients were obtained (median age, 20 months). Seizures were completely controlled after the initial dose of fosphenytoin in 14 of 16 patients. The median loading dose of fosphenytoin was 22.5 mg/kg. In 10 patients, fosphenytoin was administered after other antiepileptic drugs such as diazepam and midazolam were used. Adverse effects of fosphenytoin, excessive sedation, or intravenous fluid incompatibility were not observed in any patients. Fosphenytoin is effective and well tolerated among children with benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stent placement of gastroenteric anastomoses formed by magnetic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, C; Clark, T W; Ginsberg, G; Habecker, P

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the use of stents for prolonging the patency of gastroenteric anastomoses (GEA) induced by magnet compression. Rare earth magnets were inserted perorally and serially in 15 dogs so as to mate across the gastric and jejunal walls. After magnet excretion, the resulting GEA was identified endoscopically, dilated (n = 1), and stented with bare (n = 2) or partially covered (n = 6) flared 10-mm or 12-mm Z stents. The GEA was followed at 2-4-week intervals for patency; malfunctioning shunts were irrigated, or dilated with angioplasty balloons. Gross and histologic examination of the anastomotic tissues was performed in 14 animals. Magnet pairs were excreted in 5-7 days. Of the 19 magnet placements in 15 animals, stent placement was not possible because of early GEA closure (n = 6), failure to locate (n = 2), pancreatic abscess (n = 1), and magnet perforation with peritonitis (n = 1). Estimated duration of GEA patency was 19 days after balloon dilation, 40-64 days with bare Z stents, and 58-147 days (mean, 90 days) with partially covered Z stents. Shunt function was commonly hindered by bezoars. Stent narrowing or occlusion was caused by tissue overgrowth through bare stents (n = 2), between covered stent struts and through partially detached membrane (n = 2). Serious morbidity (n = 2) was due to malpositioned magnets across the pancreas in one animal and gastric perforation in the other. One dog was euthanized because of unsuspected kidney infection. Partially covered stents significantly extend the anatomic patency rate of magnetic GEA to 7 weeks or more. Functional patency is frequently impaired by bezoars. Ongoing improvements in covered stent design should provide longer-term GEA patency.

  6. Detection of Acute Gastroenteritis Agents By Molecular Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak Göktaş

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastroenteritis is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups all over the world. Multiplex PCR tests give sensitive and specific results in the investigation of bacterial, viral, parasitic agents. In this study, it was aimed to determine the agents of the stool specimens of patients with acute diarrhea by multiplex PCR. Materials and Methods: Stool sample taken from 471 patients sent to Istanbul Gelişim Laboratories between January 1, 2015 and September 30, 2016 was included in the study. All stool samples were processed according to manufacturer’s instructions with GastroFinder SMART 18 FAST multiplex PCR test (Pathofinder, Holland. 18 different gastrointestinal pathogens were diagnosed in one study. Results: Of the 471 patients stool sample included in the study. The agent was negative in 241 (51.2%, while the agent was isolated in 230 (48.8%. 190 (82% had a single pathogen, 40 had two or more pathogens. Of the 190 samples detected with single agent, 149 (31.6% were bacterial, 26 (5.5% were parasitic and 15 (3.1% were viral agents. Of the 149 bacterial agents, 108 (23% was detected as Salmonella spp, 14 (6% as EHEC, 8 (3.5% as Clostridium difficile toxin A / B, 8 (3.5% as Campylobacter spp., 7 (3% Aeromonas spp., 2 (0.8% Yersinia enterocolitica, 2 (0.8% Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Of 26 parasitic agents, 18 (7.8% was detected as Giardia lamblia, 6 (2.6% as Dientamoeba fragilis and 2 (0.8% as Cryptosporidium spp. Conclusion: Identification of enteric pathogens by multiplex PCR will avoids the use of unnecessary antibiotic treatments

  7. Analysis by rotavirus gene 6 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of rotavirus-positive gastroenteritis cases observed during the vaccination phase of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, David O; Vesikari, Timo; Dennehy, Penelope; Dallas, Michael D; Goveia, Michelle G; Itzler, Robbin F; Ciarlet, Max

    2014-01-01

    During the vaccination phase of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST), the period between the administration of dose 1 through 13 days after the administration of dose 3, there were more wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases among vaccine recipients compared with placebo recipients using the protocol-specified microbiological plaque assay in the clinical-efficacy cohort, a subset of subjects where vaccine efficacy against RVGE of any severity was assessed. In this study, a rotavirus genome segment 6-based reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay was applied post hoc to clarify the accuracy of type categorization of all these RVGE cases in vaccine recipients during the vaccination phase of REST. The assay characterized 147 (90%) of 163 re-assayed RVGE cases or rotavirus-associated health care contacts as type-determinable: either wild-type or vaccine-type rotavirus strains. In the clinical-efficacy cohort (N = 5673), 19 (18.8%) of 101 samples from RVGE cases contained wild-type rotavirus, 70 (69.3%) vaccine virus, and 12 (11.9%) were indeterminable. In the large-scale cohort (N = 68,038), 10 (34.5%) of 29 samples from RVGE-related health care contacts contained wild-type rotavirus strains, 15 (51.7%) vaccine-type rotavirus strains, and 4 (13.8%) were indeterminable. Of the 33 samples from RVGE cases in placebo recipients, all were confirmed to contain wild-type rotaviruses. Altogether, this post-hoc re-evaluation showed that the majority (75%) of type-determinable RVGE cases or health care contacts that occurred during the vaccination phase of REST in vaccine recipients were associated with vaccine-type rotavirus strains rather than wild-type rotavirus strains. PMID:25424931

  8. Using external magnet guidance and endoscopically placed magnets to create suture-free gastro-enteral anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Christopher; Yellen, Benjamin; Evans, John; DeMaria, Eric; Pryor, Aurora

    2010-05-01

    To facilitate endolumenal and natural orifice procedures, this study evaluated a novel technique using external and endoscopically placed magnets to create suture-free gastroenteral anastomoses. Seven anesthetized adult swine underwent endoscopic placement of magnets into the small bowel and stomach. Using external magnets, the endoscopically placed internal magnets were brought into opposition under endoscopic view. After 1-2 weeks, the pigs were killed and analyzed. At laparotomy and under sterile conditions, peritoneal cultures were obtained. The anastomoses were evaluated endoscopically and tested using an air insufflation test. Finally, the anastomoses were resected and evaluated microscopically. The average operative time for endoscopic placement of the magnets was 34.3 +/- 14.8 min. Successful placement and creation of anastomoses occurred in six of the pigs. One pig did not form an anastomosis because the magnets were too large to pass through the pylorus at the time of attempted magnet placement. Six swine experienced uncomplicated postoperative courses. One pig's postoperative course involved constipation for several days, requiring additional fluids and fiber supplementation. The findings at endoscopy showed that the magnets were adhered to the anastomosis, which were easily freed, or within the stomach. The air insufflation test results were negative for all the pigs. At laparotomy, there was no evidence of infection, abscess, or leak, but two peritoneal culture results were positive with scant growth of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus, presumably contaminants. Microscopically, the anastomoses illustrated granulation and fibrous connective tissue without evidence of infection or leak. Endoscopically placed magnets with external magnet guidance is a feasible and novel approach to creating patent gastroenteral anastomoses without abdominal incisions or sutures.

  9. Molecular characteristics of noroviruses genogroup I and genogroup II detected in patients with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Heejin; Oh, Seah; Seung, Hyunjung; Jo, Sukju

    2015-03-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis, including foodborne outbreak, in Korea. The prevalence of human noroviruses was studied in diarrheal stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis by conventional duplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Diarrheal stool samples were collected from 1,685 patients from the local hospitals in Seoul. The prevalence of the noroviruses was 22.8% (222/972 patients) in 2012 and 11.2% (80/713 patients) in 2013, with a total of 17.9% (302/1,685 patients). Genotyping was performed on 302 norovirus-positive stool samples to reveal 5.6% prevalence of genogroup I (GI) (17/302) and 94.4% prevalence of genogroup II (GII) (285/302). The patients with norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis mostly showed prevalence of GII norovirus, especially GII.4 (64.6%; 195/302).

  10. Comparison of Vesikari and Clark scales regarding the definition of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Asli; Kurugol, Zafer; Cetin, Hulya; Karakaşlilar, Sabahat; Koturoğlu, Guldane

    2015-05-01

    Two clinical severity scales, the Vesikari scale and the Clark scale, are commonly used to assess the efficacy of rotavirus vaccines. The results obtained using the two severity scales differ significantly and hamper comparisons. The aim of this study was to compare the Clark and Vesikari scales and to determine whether modified classifications would provide a better correlation between the two scales. The severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis was assessed for each child using both the Vesikari and Clark scales. To make a statistical comparison between the two scales, the classifications were modified. In total, 200 children with rotavirus gastroenteritis were evaluated. Of these, 57% were classified as severe by the Vesikari scale, and only 1.5% by the Clark scale (p gastroenteritis. Even the attempts at reclassifying the scales did not achieve a good correlation.

  11. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  12. Hematemesis as Initial Presentation in a 10-Week-Old Infant with Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. There is currently a dearth of information on this topic in the pediatric literature, as very few cases have been reported. In this report, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 10-week-old patient with initial presenting symptom of hematemesis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature and is unique in its initial presentation.

  13. Molecular characterization of group A rotaviruses detected in children with gastroenteritis in Ireland in 2006-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, O

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARYCommunity and hospital-acquired cases of human rotavirus are responsible for millions of gastroenteritis cases in children worldwide, chiefly in developing countries, and vaccines are now available. During surveillance activity for human rotavirus infections in Ireland, between 2006 and 2009, a total of 420 rotavirus strains were collected and analysed. Upon either PCR genotyping and sequence analysis, a variety of VP7 (G1-G4 and G9) and VP4 (P[4], P[6], P[8] and P[9]) genotypes were detected. Strains G1P[8] were found to be predominant throughout the period 2006-2008, with slight fluctuations seen in the very limited samples available in 2008-2009. Upon either PCR genotyping and sequence analysis of selected strains, the G1, G3 and G9 viruses were found to contain E1 (Wa-like) NSP4 and I1 VP6 genotypes, while the analysed G2 strains possessed E2 NSP4 and I2 VP6 genotypes, a genetic make-up which is highly conserved in the major human rotavirus genogroups Wa- and Kun-like, respectively. Upon sequence analysis of the most common VP4 genotype, P[8], at least two distinct lineages were identified, both unrelated to P[8] Irish rotaviruses circulating in previous years, and more closely related to recent European humans rotaviruses. Moreover, sequence analysis of the VP7 of G1 rotaviruses revealed the onset of a G1 variant, previously unseen in the Irish population.

  14. High incidence of Campylobacter concisus in gastroenteritis in North Jutland, Denmark: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H L; Ejlertsen, T; Engberg, J; Nielsen, H

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of non-thermophilic Campylobacter species was assessed in an unselected population-based study in a mixed urban and rural community in North Jutland, Denmark. In a 2-year study period, 11,314 faecal samples from 8302 patients with gastroenteritis were cultured with supplement of the filter method. We recovered a high incidence of Campylobacter concisus (annual incidence 35/100,000 inhabitants), almost as high as the common Campylobacter jejuni/coli. In contrast, there was a very low incidence of other non-thermophilic Campylobacter species, such as Campylobacter upsaliensis. Campylobacter concisus was, unlike C. jejuni/coli, found more frequently among small children (<1 year) and the elderly (≥ 65 years). Around 10% of the patients with C. consisus had co-infections dominated by Clostridium difficile and Salmonella enterica, whereas co-infections occurred in about 5% of C. jejuni/coli patients. We observed a seasonal variation in C. jejuni/coli with a peak incidence in late summer months and autumn, whereas there was an almost constant monthly prevalence of C. concisus. Among patients participating in a questionnaire sub-study, there was a higher degree of close contacts with animals, especially dogs, as well as a higher travel exposure among C. jejuni/coli patients compared with C. concisus patients. We did not culture any C. concisus in stool samples from a small cohort of healthy individuals. Future studies have to focus on the clinical follow-up and the long-term risk of inflammatory bowel diseases in C. concisus-positive patients. We conclude that there is a high incidence of C. concisus in Denmark. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  15. An outbreak of foodborne norovirus gastroenteritis linked to a restaurant in Melbourne, Australia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun P. Coutts

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In May 2014 an outbreak of norovirus occurred among patrons of a restaurant in Melbourne, Australia. Investigations were conducted to identify the infectious agent, mode of transmission and source of illness, and to implement controls to prevent further transmission. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that food served at the restaurant between 9 and 15 May 2014 was the vehicle for infection. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic, illness and food exposure data from study participants. To ascertain whether any food handlers had experienced gastroenteritis symptoms and were a possible source of infection, investigators contacted and interviewed staff who had worked at the restaurant between 9 and 16 May 2014. Results: Forty-six cases (including 16 laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus and 49 controls were interviewed and enrolled in the study. Results of the analysis revealed a statistically significant association with illness and consumption of grain salad (OR: 21.6, 95% CI: 1.8–252.7, p = 0.015 and beetroot dip (OR: 22.4, 95% CI: 1.9–267.0, p = 0.014. An interviewed staff member who reported an onset of acute gastrointestinal illness on 12 May 2014 had prepared salads on the day of onset and the previous two days. Discussion: The outbreak was likely caused by person-to-food-to-person transmission. The outbreak emphasizes the importance of the exclusion of symptomatic food handlers and strict hand hygiene practices in the food service industry to prevent contamination of ready-to-eat foods and the kitchen environment.

  16. Impact of emergency department probiotic treatment of pediatric gastroenteritis: study protocol for the PROGUT (Probiotic Regimen for Outpatient Gastroenteritis Utility of Treatment) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Stephen B; Williamson-Urquhart, Sarah; Schuh, Suzanne; Sherman, Philip M; Farion, Ken J; Gouin, Serge; Willan, Andrew R; Goeree, Ron; Johnson, David W; Black, Karen; Schnadower, David; Gorelick, Marc H

    2014-05-14

    The burden of acute gastroenteritis on children and their families continues to be enormous. Probiotics, defined as viable microbial preparations that have a beneficial effect on the health of the host, represent a rapidly expanding field. Although clinical trials in children with gastroenteritis have been performed, most have significant flaws, and guidelines do not consistently endorse their use. PROGUT is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, five-center, Canadian, emergency department trial. Children aged 3 months to 48 months who present between November 2013 and June 2017 with gastroenteritis symptoms will be assessed for eligibility. A total of 886 children will be randomized (1:1 allocation via an internet based, third party, randomization service) to receive 5 days of a combination probiotic agent (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. helveticus) or placebo. All participants, caregivers, and outcome assessors will be blinded to group assignment. The study includes three key outcomes: 1) clinical - the development of moderate to severe disease following an emergency department (ED) evaluation that employs a validated clinical score (Modified Vesikari Scale); 2) safety - side effect; and 3) mechanism - fecal secretory immunoglobulin A levels. Definitive data are lacking to guide the clinical use of probiotics in children with acute gastroenteritis. Hence, probiotics are rarely prescribed by North American physicians. However, the following current trends obligate an urgent assessment: 1) probiotics are sold as food supplements, and manufacturers can encourage their use while their relevance has yet to be established; 2) North American and European government agencies remain concerned about their value and safety; 3) some institutions are now recommending the routine use of probiotics; and 4) parents of affected children are often providing probiotics. With probiotic consumption increasing in the absence of solid evidence, there is a need to conduct

  17. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  18. IT'S IN THE CHIPS: DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROARRAY GENECHIP APPROACH TO DETE T AND TYPE WATERBORNE VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human caliciviruses, specifically members of the genus Norovirus, have been documented as a culprit for drinking water-related outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the United States. In addition, these viruses are believed to be one of the major causes of waterborne disease. D...

  19. Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro inhibition of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus replication in swine testicular cells by short hairpin RNAs targeting the ORF 7 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Zhang, Yan-ming; Dong, Ling-juan; Cheng, Min; Wang, Jing; Tang, Qing-hai; Wang, Gang

    2012-08-28

    Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine, characterized by severe vomiting, diarrhea, and high mortality. Currently, the vaccines for it are only partially effective and no specific drug is available for treatment of TGE virus (TGEV) infection. RNA interference has been confirmed as a new approach for controlling viral infections. In this study, the inhibitory effect of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the ORF 7 gene of TGEV on virus replication was examined. Four theoretically effective sequences of TGEV ORF 7 gene were designed and selected for construction of shRNA expression plasmids. In the reporter assays, three of four shRNA expression plasmids were able to inhibit significantly the expression of ORF 7 gene and replication of TGEV, as shown by real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of viral ORF 7 and N genes and detection of virus titers (TCID50/ml). Stable swine testicular (ST) cells expressing the shRNAs were established. Observation of the cytopathic effect and apoptosis, as well as a cell proliferation assay demonstrated that the three shRNAs were capable of protecting ST cells against TGEV destruction, with high specificity and efficiency. Our results indicated that plasmid-transcribed shRNAs targeting the ORF 7 gene in the TGEV genome effectively inhibited expression of the viral target gene and viral replication in vitro. These findings provide evidence that the shRNAs have potential therapeutic application for treatment of TGE.

  1. In vitro inhibition of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus replication in swine testicular cells by short hairpin RNAs targeting the ORF 7 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE is a highly contagious viral disease of swine, characterized by severe vomiting, diarrhea, and high mortality. Currently, the vaccines for it are only partially effective and no specific drug is available for treatment of TGE virus (TGEV infection. RNA interference has been confirmed as a new approach for controlling viral infections. In this study, the inhibitory effect of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs targeting the ORF 7 gene of TGEV on virus replication was examined. Results Four theoretically effective sequences of TGEV ORF 7 gene were designed and selected for construction of shRNA expression plasmids. In the reporter assays, three of four shRNA expression plasmids were able to inhibit significantly the expression of ORF 7 gene and replication of TGEV, as shown by real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of viral ORF 7 and N genes and detection of virus titers (TCID50/ml. Stable swine testicular (ST cells expressing the shRNAs were established. Observation of the cytopathic effect and apoptosis, as well as a cell proliferation assay demonstrated that the three shRNAs were capable of protecting ST cells against TGEV destruction, with high specificity and efficiency. Conclusions Our results indicated that plasmid-transcribed shRNAs targeting the ORF 7 gene in the TGEV genome effectively inhibited expression of the viral target gene and viral replication in vitro. These findings provide evidence that the shRNAs have potential therapeutic application for treatment of TGE.

  2. Entry and release of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus are restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J. W.; Bekker, C. P.; Voorhout, W. F.; Strous, G. J.; van der Ende, A.; Rottier, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) infects the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract of pigs, resulting in a high mortality rate in piglets. This study shows the interaction of TGEV with a porcine epithelial cell line. To determine the site of viral entry, LLC-PK1 cells were

  3. A community-based gastroenteritis outbreak after Typhoon Haiyan, Leyte, Philippines, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Justin Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Three weeks after Typhoon Haiyan, an increasing number of acute gastroenteritis cases were reported in Kananga, Leyte, an area where evacuated residents had returned home two days after the disaster. An outbreak investigation was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the increase of gastroenteritis. Methods: A case was defined as any person in Kananga who developed acute diarrhoea (≥ 3 times/24 hours and any of the following symptoms: fever, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain from 11 November 2013 to 10 December 2013. Active case finding was conducted by reviewing medical records, and a case-control study was conducted. Rectal swabs and water samples were tested for bacteriological examination. Results: One hundred and five cases were identified. Multivariate analysis revealed that consumption of untreated drinking-water was associated with illness (adjusted odds ratio: 18.2. Both rectal swabs and municipal water samples tested positive for Aeromonas hydrophila. On inspection of the municipal water system, breaks in the distribution pipes were found with some submerged in river water. Conclusion: This acute gastroenteritis outbreak was most likely caused by Aeromonas hydrophila and transmitted through a contaminated water source. This study highlights that areas less damaged by a disaster that do not require ongoing evacuation centres can still have acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. All affected areas should be monitored during a disaster response, not just those with evacuation centres. Boiling or chlorinating of water should also be recommended for all areas affected by disaster.

  4. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B; Carr, Anthony P; Gaunt, M Casey

    2016-09-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea.

  5. General practitioner practices in requesting laboratory tests for patients with gastroenteritis in the Netherlands, 2001- 2002.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandhof, W.E. van den; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to estimate the (selective) proportion of patients consulting their GP for an episode of gastroenteritis for whom laboratory tests were requested. In addition adherence of GPs to the guidelines for diagnostic test regime was ascertained. METHODS: Data were

  6. Investigation of acute gastroenteritis in general practice — relevance of newer laboratory methods

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Over a nine-month period, all patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis, with diarrhoea as an essential component, who presented to a group practice in southern England were investigated using conventional laboratory methods, and also newer techniques of electron microscopy and search for species of Campylobacter. Rotavirus and Campylobacter were the two most commonly encountered pathogens.

  7. Acute Gastroenteritis and Recreational Water: Highest Burden Among Young US Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECT I VES : To provide summary estimates of gastroenteritis risks and illness burden associated with recreational water exposure and determine whether children have higher risks and burden.METHODS: We combined individual participant data from 13 prospective cohorts at marine a...

  8. The successful medical management of severe duodenal strictures secondary to eosinophilic gastroenteritis in an infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. L.; Sithasanan, N.; Foley, P.; Davidson, G. P.

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology that has only been relatively recently reported. Its clinical manifestations range from a mild disease to more severe forms resembling Crohn's disease. Enteric strictures are a rare but recognized complication of this

  9. An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Escherichia coli 0142 H6 in a neonatal department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, L. J.; Hennekam, R. C.; von Dijk, W. C.; Roord, J. J.; Fleer, A.

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Escherichia coli 0142 H6 in a neonatal ward is described. The epidemic affected 16 of 24 infants (infection-rate 66 per cent), of whom one died due to necrotizing enterocolitis. Administration of antibiotics was of limited value in treatment or in eradicating E.

  10. Retinoic acid decreases the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mediated gastroenteritis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ritam; Howlader, Debaki Ranjan; Mukherjee, Priyadarshini; Rai, Sulabh; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Koley, Hemanta

    2016-07-01

    Gastroenteritis is a global burden; it's the major cause of morbidity and mortality both in adults and children of developing countries. Salmonella is one of the leading causes of bacteria-mediated gastroenteritis and due to its increasing multidrug antibiotic resistance; Salmonella-mediated gastroenteritis is difficult to control. Retinoic acid, the biologically active agent of vitamin A has an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental colitis. In this study we have shown All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment down regulates Salmonella-mediated colitis in a murine model. Macroscopic signs of inflammation such as decrease in body weight and cecum weight, shorter length of proximal colon and pathological score of colitis were observed less in ATRA treated mice than in a vehicle control group. ATRA treatment not only reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-17 production but also increased IL-10 response in the supernatant of intestinal tissue. Results also suggested that ATRA treatment enhances the number of FoxP3-expressing T regulatory cells in MLN and also decreases bacterial load in systemic organs. We concluded that ATRA treatment indeed reduces Salmonella Typhimurium-mediated gastroenteritis in mice, suggesting it could be an important part of an alternative therapeutic approach to combat the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical information on admission is insufficient to determine the appropriate isolation regimen for acute gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Florence; Abed, Osama Karim; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The number of admissions for acute gastroenteritis (GE) is increasing. The majority of patients pass through a single high-flow emergency department (ED) area which increases the risk of spreading GE. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and aetiology of GE for acutely...

  12. Additional value of typing Noroviruses in gastroenteritis outbreaks in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, A. G.; Bovée, L. P. M. J.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; Bos, A. J.; Bruisten, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    In Amsterdam, 17 of the 55 gastroenteritis (GI) outbreaks reported from January 2002 to May 2003 were confirmed to be caused by noroviruses (NV). In this study, we describe the molecular epidemiology of a group of nine outbreaks associated with a catering firm and two outbreaks, 5 months apart, in

  13. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to

  14. Investigations of two oral rehydration solutions in treatment of piglets with acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukavić Tamara D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic disorder in acute gastroenteritis is the disrupted transport of water and electrolytes, to a different degree. The objective of these investigations was to evaluate the efficacy of two oral rehydration solutions (ORS in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in suckling piglets. Fifty piglets, 20 with acute gastroenteritis and 30 healthy controls aged 10 days were chosen at random upon the incidence of diarrhea, for one of two ORS treatments (ORS-1 and ORS-2. The piglets with diarrhea were administered a probiotic per os on the first day and an antibiotic parenterally, until the diarrhea disappeared. All the piglets were followed clinically from days 1-6 of the investigations. Faeces samples were taken for bacteriological culture on the first day. Clinical signs of hydration were better, as well as the difference in body mass of piglets with diarrhea under the ORS-2 treatment which was significantly higher (p=0.036 in comparison with the difference in piglets under the ORS-1 treatment. All piglets with diarrhea had normally formed faeces on the sixth day. Escherichia coli was isolated from faeces of 48 piglets. Piglets with acute gastroenteritis, treated with ORS with a higher osmolarity and which contained instead of citrate, bicarbonates in higher concentrations, with less potassium, more sodium and more chlorine had a better state of hydration, with a significantly bigger difference in body mass, and the results of their control group were not significantly different against those of piglets treated with ORS of a different composition.

  15. Intestinal perforation in a two-year-old child with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, A; Husby, S; Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A two-year-old boy underwent a laparatomy for an intestinal perforation due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He had marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and a small duodenal biopsy showed heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. After 1 1/2 year on a restricted diet, a control duodenal biopsy...

  16. Human bocavirus in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Russia from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymentsev, Alexander; Tikunov, Artem; Zhirakovskaia, Elena; Kurilschikov, Alexander; Babkin, Igor; Klemesheva, Vera; Netesov, Sergei; Tikunova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) can cause respiratory diseases and is detectable in the stool samples of patients with gastroenteritis. To assess the prevalence of HBoV in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Novosibirsk, Russia, as well as its genetic diversity and the potential role in the etiology of gastroenteritis in this region, a total of 5502 stool samples from children hospitalized with gastroenteritis from 2010 to 2012, n=5250, and healthy children, n=252, were assayed for the presence of HBoV DNA by semi-nested PCR. The HBoV DNA was found in 1.2% of stool samples from children, with gastroenteritis varying from 0.5% in 2012 to 1.7% in 2011. The prevalence of HBoV in healthy children was 0.3%. HBoV strains were detected throughout the year with an increase in the fall-winter season. In 87% of cases, HBoV was detected in children before 1 year of age. All known HBoV genetic variants have been detected in Novosibirsk, although with different prevalences: HBoV2>HBoV1>HBoV4>HBoV3. At the beginning of 2011, HBoV2 replaced HBoV1 as the most prevalent variant. The median age of children with detected HBoV1 was 8.3months, and that with HBoV2 was 8.0 months. All HBoV-positive samples were assayed for the presence of the rotaviruses A and C, norovirus GII, astrovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus F, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Shigella spp., and EIEC. HBoV1 and HBoV2 as single agents were found in 45.8% and 60% samples, respectively, although this difference was not statistically significant. In the case of co-infections, HBoV was most frequently recorded with rotavirus A and norovirus GII. This study demonstrated that the detection rate of HBoV in stool samples from children with gastroenteritis was low, although both HBoV1 and HBoV2 could be found as the sole agents in children with gastroenteritis in Novosibirsk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis in New Zealand: The laboratory database is a valuable tool for assessing the impact of rotavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew J; Foley, David; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2017-08-16

    To assess the impact of the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in New Zealand at a regional and national level, underlining the utility of a passively collected laboratory dataset. Retrospective laboratory data for rotavirus testing from Wellington and Hutt Hospitals from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016, matched with hospital admissions data of children under 5years of age with gastroenteritis primary and secondary coded admissions. The second part of the study examined the national dataset of primary coded hospital gastroenteritis admissions from the same period. Rotavirus testing was performed in 1054 (64.1%) of the 1645 gastroenteritis admissions to Wellington and Hutt Hospitals. Four hundred and nine of these tests (38.8%) were positive. Children who were not given a primary code of gastroenteritis accounted for 5.7% of rotavirus admissions. The estimated annual rotavirus hospitalisation rate in the Hutt and Wellington regions for children under 5years during the pre-vaccination period was 427.1 per 100,000. In the post-vaccination period (2015-2016), there was a 94.6% reduction in confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalisations with only 8 confirmed cases. The total number of gastroenteritis admissions declined by 51.4%. On a national scale, there was a decline of 34.4% in the average annual number of gastroenteritis admissions and the number of coded rotavirus admissions was 87.1% lower than the pre-vaccination average. The non-restrictive continuous approach to rotavirus testing has provided a detailed description of the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalisations in the Wellington and Hutt regions. Rotavirus vaccination introduced on the crest of a peak in rotavirus cases has lead to a marked reduction in the number of admissions with gastroenteritis in New Zealand in the two years following vaccine introduction. The national figures likely underestimate the impact of the vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high mortality, Nicaragua, 2005 Brote de gastroenteritis por rotavirus con alta mortalidad, Nicaragua, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Amador

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated a nationwide outbreak of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Nicaragua in children under 5 years old, leading to many consultations, hospitalizations, and deaths. We questioned whether a vaccine might have prevented these illnesses and deaths, sought to identify risk factors for death, and developed a clinical profile of children hospitalized with diarrhea. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study to determine whether children who died had access to routine immunizations, a proxy predicting access to a rotavirus vaccine. We identified risk factors for death among children who died in the outbreak compared with surviving age-matched controls with diarrhea. We collected stools, clinical data, and immunization data on children hospitalized for diarrhea to test for rotavirus, develop the profile, and forecast future access to a rotavirus vaccine. RESULTS: The outbreak from February to April 2005 caused 47 470 consultations and 52 deaths. Approximately 80% of cases and controls and 60% of children hospitalized with diarrhea had access to routine immunizations and would likely have had access to a rotavirus vaccine. With a vaccine efficacy of 85%, up to 51% of severe rotavirus cases and up to 68% of deaths could have been prevented if a rotavirus vaccine were available as part of routine child-hood immunizations. Study of 35 case-control pairs indicated that severe illnesses, malnutrition, and care by traditional healers were risk factors for death. Rotavirus was found in 42% of samples from hospitalized children and was associated with severe disease and dehydration. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of the seasonal outbreaks of rotavirus disease could be diminished with a rotavirus vaccine, improvements in oral rehydration programs, and training of traditional healers in the proper management of children with acute diarrhea.OBJETIVOS: Se investigó un brote nacional de gastroenteritis grave por rotavirus en niños menores de 5 a

  19. Prevalence of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis: Estimates from a national administrative database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T.; Martin, Christopher F.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is becoming increasingly more common, but the prevalence of other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis in the U.S.. Methods We used the IMS Health LifeLink™, PharMetrics Plus™Claims Database, data representative of a U.S. national commercially-insured population containing medical and pharmaceutical claims for >75million individuals. We restricted our sample to patients age 0–64 with continuous enrollment between 7/1/2009–6/30/2011. We identified cases of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis as defined by ≥1 instance of the ICD-9 codes 535.70, 558.41, and 558.42, respectively. We calculated the prevalence of the codes in the database and then standardized the estimates to the U.S. population by age and sex. Results The standardized estimated prevalences of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis were 6.3/100,000, 8.4/100,000, and 3.3/100,000, respectively. The prevalence of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was highest among children age gastritis was more prevalent among older age groups. We observed no age differences for eosinophilic colitis. Among affected patients there was a high proportion of co-existing allergic conditions, 38.5% for eosinophilic gastritis, 45.6% for gastroenteritis, and 41.8% for colitis. Concomitant allergic disease was most commonly identified in pediatric patients. Conclusions The prevalence of non-EoE EGIDs remains rare in the U.S., with less than 50,000 total patients affected. There appears to be a female predominance, as well as a high co-occurrence of atopic comorbidities. PMID:25988554

  20. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharani Loganathan

    Full Text Available While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking.We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur and rural (Kuala Terengganu setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained.Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38% were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; p<0.001. The mean direct and indirect costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis consisted 20% of monthly household income in Kuala Lumpur, as compared with only 5% in Kuala Terengganu. Direct medical costs paid out-of-pocket caused 141 (33% households in Kuala Lumpur to experience catastrophic expenditure and 11 (3% households to incur poverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5% experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%. The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03 than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24.While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination would reduce both disease burden and health

  1. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.

  2. FilmArray™ GI panel performance for the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis or hemorragic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralla, Antonio; Lunghi, Giovanna; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Girello, Alessia; Premoli, Marta; Bava, Erika; Arghittu, Milena; Colombo, Maria Rosaria; Cognetto, Alessandra; Bono, Patrizia; Campanini, Giulia; Marone, Piero; Baldanti, Fausto

    2017-05-12

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. The rapid and specific identification of infectious agents is crucial for correct patient management. However, diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis is usually performed with diagnostic panels that include only a few pathogens. In the present bicentric study, the diagnostic value of FilmArray™ GI panels was assessed in unformed stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis and in a series of samples collected from pediatric patients with heamorragic diarrhea. The clinical performance of the FilmArray™ gastrointestinal (GI) panel was assessed in 168 stool samples collected from patients with either acute gastroenteritis or hemorragic diarrhea. Samples showing discordant results between FilmArray and routine methods were further analyzed with an additional assay. Overall, the FilmArray™ GI panel detected at least one potential pathogen in 92/168 (54.8%) specimens. In 66/92 (71.8%) samples, only one pathogen was detected, while in 26/92 (28.2%) multiple pathogens were detected. The most frequent pathogens were rotavirus 13.9% (22/168), Campylobacter 10.7% (18/168), Clostridium difficile 9.5% (16/168), and norovirus 8.9% (15/168). Clostridium difficile was identified only in patients with acute gastroenteritis (p Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., EPEC and E. coli producing Shiga-like toxin were more frequently detected in patients with hemorragic diarrhea (p < 0.05). The overall percent agreement calculated in samples was 73.8% and 65.5%, while 34.5% were discordant. After additional confirmatory analyses, the proportion of discordant samples decreased to 7.7%. Rotavirus and astrovirus were the most frequently unconfirmed pathogens. In conclusion, the FilmArray™ GI panel has proved to be a valuable new diagnostic tool for improving the diagnostic efficiency of GI pathogens.

  3. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  4. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan Guo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis was caused mainly by bread products contaminated with norovirus GII. A food handler with an asymptomatic norovirus GII infection was the possible source of infection.

  5. Rota virus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M. I.; Khan, K. M. A.; Zia, N.; Kazi, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and clinical features of Rota virus diarrhea in children presenting in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: A cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from January to June 2007. Methodology: A total of three hundred children of either gender aged 1 month to 5 years, who presented with diarrhea of < 7 days as a primary illness were enrolled. Children with bloody diarrhea or nosocomial gastroenteritis acquired during hospitalization for other disease were not included. Detection of Rota virus in stool was done by enzyme linked immunoassay. Results: Out of 300 children, 188 (63%) tested positive and 112 (37%) tested negative for Rota virus. Positive Rota virus cases in 7 - 12 months of age was (n = 34, 18.08%). Overall, 151 (80.3%) children with Rota virus were less than 3 years old. 182 (60.7%) had fever, 118 (39.3%) had vomiting and 156 (82.9%) children had both fever and vomiting. Conclusion: This study shows that Rota virus is a common organism causing diarrhea in children less than 3 years of age. There is a need to incorporate Rota virus vaccine in the national EPI program to decrease the disease burden as highlighted in this study. (author)

  6. Empirical examination of the indicator ‘pediatric gastroenteritis hospitalization rate’ based on administrative hospital data in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness of the importance of strengthening investments in child health and monitoring the quality of services in the pediatric field is increasing. The Pediatric Quality Indicators developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), use hospital administrative data to identify admissions that could be avoided through high-quality outpatient care. Building on this approach, the purpose of this study is to perform an empirical examination of the ‘pediatric gastroenteritis admission rate’ indicator in Italy, under the assumption that lower admission rates are associated with better management at the primary care level and with overall better quality of care for children. Methods Following the AHRQ process for evaluating quality indicators, we examined age exclusion/inclusion criteria, selection of diagnostic codes, hospitalization type, and methodological issues for the ‘pediatric gastroenteritis admission rate’. The regional variability of hospitalizations was analyzed for Italian children aged 0–17 years discharged between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011. We considered hospitalizations for the following diagnoses: non-bacterial gastroenteritis, bacterial gastroenteritis and dehydration (along with a secondary diagnosis of gastroenteritis). The data source was the hospital discharge records database. All rates were stratified by age. Results In the study period, there were 61,130 pediatric hospitalizations for non-bacterial gastroenteritis, 5,940 for bacterial gastroenteritis, and 38,820 for dehydration. In gastroenteritis was 24 times higher than in adolescents, then it dropped to 14.5 in 1- to 4-year-olds and to 3.2 in 5- to 9-year-olds. At the national level, the percentage of admissions for bacterial gastroenteritis was small compared with non-bacterial, while including admissions for dehydration revealed a significant variability in diagnostic coding among regions that affected the regional performance of the

  7. ESTUDIO CLÍNICO-EPIDEMIOLÓGICO DE LOS BROTES DE GASTROENTERITIS VÍRICAS EN CATALUÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    2009-01-01

    74 de 180 en los brotes de gastroenteritis de etiología conocida, el segundo agente causal es norovirus (33,3%; 60 de 180. El mayor conocimiento de las características y de las ventajas de los métodos moleculares en el diagnóstico de dichos brotes se ha traducido en un descenso en número de brotes de gastroenteritis de cualquier etiología y en especial a las causadas por norovirus.

  8. Magnitude, distribution, and estimated level of underreporting of acute gastroenteritis in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie M; Lewis-Fuller, Eva; Williams, Hank; Miller, Zahra; Scarlett, Henroy P; Cooper, Collin; Gordon-Johnson, Kelly-Ann; Vickers, Ivan; Shaw, Karen; Wellington, Iyanna; Thame, Jennifer; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean. The epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is important to Jamaica, particularly in the areas of health, tourism, and because of the potential impact on the local workforce and the economy. Data collected by the National Surveillance Unit on the prevalence of AGE transmitted by food are not accurate. To determine the true magnitude, risk factors, and the extent of underreporting of AGE in Jamaica, we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based retrospective survey during the periods of 21 February-7 March and 14-27 June 2009, corresponding to high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the total 1,920 persons selected randomly by a multistage cluster-sampling process, 1,264 responded (response rate 65.8%). Trained interviewers administered a standardized, validated questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. The overall prevalence of self-reported AGE was 4.0% (95% CI 2.9-5.1) at a rate of 0.5 episodes/per person-year. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE (14.6%) was found among the 1-4 year(s) age-group and the lowest (2.1%) among the 25-44 years age-group. Of the 18 cases (36%) who sought medical care, 11% were hospitalized, 33% were treated with antibiotics, and 66.7% received oral rehydration fluids. Only 2 cases who sought medical care reportedly submitted stool specimens. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 3.1 days, which resulted in a mean loss of 4 productive days, with over half of the cases requiring someone to care for them. The burden of syndromic AGE for 2009 was extrapolated to be 122,711 cases, showing an underreporting factor of 58.9. For every laboratory-confirmed AGE case, it was estimated that 383 more cases were occurring in the population. This research confirms that the prevalence of AGE is underreported in Jamaica and not being adequately detected by the current surveillance system. The components of the integrated surveillance system for AGE in Jamaica, particularly the laboratory

  9. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a rural population, spread person to person contact Brote de gastroenteritis aguda en una población rural por transmisión de persona a persona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Garrido Almagro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in the population, occurred in June and July 2002.Design: A descriptive, case-control study.Location: Rural population of 1.323 inhabitants, living in Granada.Population and sample: It affected about 200 persons. 32 cases and 32 controls were selected.Intervention: An epidemiological survey was run, taking into account variables of time and person (age, sex, drinking water intake and clinical pattern of the disease antecedent. We investigated the different independents variables. A contingency tables, hypothesis X2 test, calculation of the unprocessed and subsequently adjusted Odds Ratio (IC 95% were carried out using logic regression.Results: No significant differences were found in the sex variable and consumption of water. The epidemic curve no showed a rapid onset. In the adjusted Odds Ratio calculation the clinical pattern of disease antecedent showed causal relationship values (adjusted Odds Ratio=5,32; IC-95% 1,23-22,93; p=0,025. The inspection of the water network no showed deficient. Patient stool samples no were sent for analysis.Conclusions: This study has not detected disease-causing agent, however, it’s spread through person-to-person contact.Objetivo: Describir un cuadro de gastroenteritis aguda de base poblacional ocurrido a durante los meses de junio y mediados de julio del año 2002.Diseño: Estudio descriptivo y de casos-control.Emplazamiento: Población rural de 1.323 habitantes (1-1-2001 de la provincia de Granada.Población y muestra: De unos 200 enfermos se recogieron 34 casos y los mismos controles.Intervenciones: Mediante encuesta epidemiológica se investiga la relación entre la enfermedad y distintas variables independientes: características personales (edad, sexo, consumo agua y antecedentes de enfermedad y tiempo. Se realizó tablas de contingencia y test de hipótesis χ2 y el cálculo de OR cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresi

  10. Increased risk of zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter gastroenteritis in patients with haematological malignancies: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradel, Kim O; Nørgaard, Mette; Dethlefsen, Claus; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Kristensen, Brian; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-08-01

    We hypothesised that haematological malignancies increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis. The population-based study comprised all first-time Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis cases in two Danish counties (1991-2003), with age- and gender-matched controls from the background population. We linked the study cohort to registries to obtain data on malignancies, chemotherapy (yes/no), and main comorbidities diagnosed before Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Based on this design, we determined incidence rate ratios (IRR) in conditional logistic regression analyses, and we used weighted mean regression curves to evaluate fluctuations in risk 0-5 years after the malignancy diagnosis. Sixty-eight of 13,324 cases (0.5%) and 29 of 26,648 controls (0.1%) had haematological malignancy before their Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Comorbidity-adjusted IRR for Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis in patients with haematological malignancy as compared to patients without malignancy were 4.46 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.88-6.90] for all individuals, 8.33 (95% CI, 4.31-16.1) for Salmonella, and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.15-4.08) for Campylobacter. Stratification on chemotherapy treatment did not change these estimates. In time-related analyses, IRR were 7-8 in the first 2 years after the haematological malignancy diagnosis and 4-5 in the following 3 years. Patients with haematological malignancy had increased long-term risk of enquiring Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis.

  11. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The ... Ebola virus infection are made using the following diagnostic methods: antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ...

  12. Possible Hematological Changes Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis among Kindergarten Children in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Laham, N A; Elyazji, M S; Al-Haddad, R J; Ridwan, F N

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteritis is considered one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children especially in developing countries. It is a major childhood problem in Gaza and one of the most common etiologic agents of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This study was conducted to investigate possible changes in blood parameters that are associated with gastroenteritis infection among kindergarten children in Gaza. A cross-sectional case-control study was performed including kindergarten children suffering from gastroenteritis and matched healthy control group. Types of etiological agents were identified using standard microbiological and serological procedures. Blood samples were collected for estimation of complete blood count and for determination of serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation. Independent sample t-test was used for comparisons and performed using SPSS software version 17(Chicago Illinois USA). The prevalence of enteric pathogens among cases (88.5% [85/96]) was significantly higher than in asymptomatic controls (11.1% [6/54]). The most common enteric pathogens isolated were Entamoeba histolytica (28% [42/91]) and Giardia lamblia (26.7% [40/91]). Blood tests revealed that 21.8% (21/96) of cases and 14.8% (8/54) of controls had IDA, which were not significantly different. Meanwhile, a significant difference was found between the TIBC and hemoglobin in cases compared to controls. This study indicates that gastroenteritis infection could be considered as a common health problem in kindergarten children in Gaza, and it is possibly associated with changes in hemoglobin concentration and TIBC.

  13. Human Parechovirus Infection in Children Hospitalized with Acute Gastroenteritis in Sri Lanka▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Takanashi, Sayaka; Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Trinh, Quang Duy; Abeysekera, Chandra; Abeygunawardene, Asiri; Khamrin, Pattara; Okitsu, Shoko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Of 362 fecal specimens collected from infants and children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Sri Lanka from September 2005 to August 2006, 30 (8.3%) were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV). Six different HPeV genotypes, including HPeV1, -3, -4, -5, -10, and -11, were identified, of these, HPeV11 was reported for the first time. PMID:21048003

  14. Association of serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A antibody seropositivity and protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheuvart, Brigitte; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Steele, A Duncan; Cunliffe, Nigel; Madhi, Shabir A; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Vinals, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials of the human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix? (RV1) have demonstrated significant reductions in severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children worldwide. However, no correlate of vaccine efficacy (VE) has yet been established. This paper presents 2 analyses which aimed to investigate whether serum anti-RV IgA measured by ELISA 1 or 2 mo post-vaccination can serve as a correlate of efficacy against RVGE: (1) In a large Phase III efficacy trial (Rota-037), the Prentice criteria f...

  15. Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events. PMID:27462899

  16. Estimating healthcare costs of acute gastroenteritis and human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMUTZ, C.; M?USEZAHL, D.; BLESS, P. J.; HATZ, C.; SCHWENKGLENKS, M.; URBINELLO, D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Rising numbers of campylobacteriosis case notifications in Switzerland resulted in an increased attention to acute gastroenteritis (AG) in general. Patients with a laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infection perceive their disease as severe and around 15% of these patients are hospitalized. This study aimed at estimating healthcare costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis in Switzerland. We used official health statistics, data from different studies and expert opinion for estimating i...

  17. Influence of humidity on rotavirus prevalence among Nigerian infants and young children with gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, M O; Erinle, E A

    1982-01-01

    Rotaviruses were detected by counterimmunoelectro-osmophoresis in the feces of 16 (13.8%) of 116 infants and young children with gastroenteritis during a 5-month period (September 1979 through January 1980) in Ife, Nigeria. The rate of rotavirus detection varied inversely with relative humidity and was highest in December (38.5% positive) when the humidity was lower. There was not such a distinct relationship with temperature or vapor pressure; and although the rate of rotavirus detection was...

  18. Use of a prohibition order after a large outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus among function attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratnam, Praveena; Furlong, Catriona; Hope, Kirsty; Gupta, Leena; Shadbolt, Craig; Shields, John; McCarthy, Rodney; Boyd, Rowena; Huhtinen, Essi; Norton, Sophie; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2012-04-01

    In May 2011, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred among guests attending two functions (Function A and B) at a local function centre in Sydney, Australia. The Sydney South West Public Health Unit and the New South Wales (NSW) Food Authority sought to determine the cause of the outbreak and implement control measures. A retrospective cohort study was planned. A complete guest list was unavailable, so guests who could be contacted were asked to provide details of other guests. Attendee demographics, symptom profile and food histories were obtained using a standard response questionnaire. Stool samples were requested from symptomatic guests. The NSW Food Authority conducted a site inspection. Of those interviewed, 73% of Function A guests and 62% of Function B guests were ill, with mean incubation times of 27 and 23 hours respectively. Diarrhoea was the most common symptom. Three stool samples and four environmental swabs were positive for norovirus. One food handler reported feeling ill before and during the functions. A prohibition order was used to stop food handlers implicated in the outbreak from preparing food. This outbreak strongly suggests transmission of norovirus, possibly caused by an infected food handler. Regulatory measures such as prohibition orders can be effective in enforcing infection control standards and minimising ongoing public health risk.

  19. An outbreak of group C rotavirus gastroenteritis among adults living in Valentim Gentil, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, D F; Kisielius, J J; Ueda, M; Gabbay, Y B; Carmona, R C; St Timenetsky, M do C; Mascarenhas, J D; Takimoto, S; Tanaka, H

    1998-06-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis affecting adults and children occurred in the small city of Valentim Gentil, São Paulo, Brazil, in 1993. Nineteen faecal samples (from 10 cases and 9 contracts) were examined by direct electron microscopy (DEM), immune electron microscopy (IEM), polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for group A and C rotaviruses. DEM detected rotavirus in 6 of the 10 cases and in none of the contacts. All of the samples were negative for group A rotavirus by ELISA. Analysis by PAGE showed an electrophoretic profile suggestive of group C rotavirus in two cases. Group C rotavirus was identified by IEM in 4 of the cases and in 1 of the contacts. All of the samples were submitted to ELISA for group C rotavirus. This resulted in a total of 10 positives-7 for diarrhoeal cases and 3 for contacts. This outbreak was strongly associated with group C rotavirus. The importance of combining different diagnostic methods is emphasised.

  20. ENTERIC ADENOVIRUS INFECTION IN INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jam-Afzon S. Modarres

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are one of the most important etiological agents of serious gastroenteritis among infants and young children. Fecal specimens from patients with an acute gastroenteritis were evaluated for the presence of adenovirus (Ad40, 41 from April 2002 to February 2004. During the study, 1052 samples were collected from children under the age of 5 years in six educational and therapeutic pediatric centers. The specimens were tested for adenovirus (Ad40, 41 by EIA technique in the Virology Department of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Adenoviruses (Ad40, 41 were detected from 27(2.6% samples, but were not detected in 150 samples of healthy control group. In this study the highest rate of adenovirus was found in children aged 6 to 12 months (40.7%, but the male to female ratio inpatients was approximately equal. Adenovirus (Ad40, 41 infections peaked in the winter as 48.1% was detected from December to March. There were a statistically significant difference between age and infection (P < 0.001, also between season with adenovirus (Ad40, 41 infection (P = 0.005. Breast-feeding had a protective action against adenovirus (Ad40, 41 infection. This study revealed that enteric adenovirus (Ad40, 41 is an etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis among children in Tehran.

  1. The role of rotavirus associated with pediatric gastroenteritis in a general hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anochie, Philip Ifesinachi; Onyeneke, Edwina Chinwe; Asowata, Emmanuel Osaretin; Afocha, Ebelechukwu; Onyeozirila, Anthony Chidiebere; Ogu, Angelina Chinyere; Onyeneke, Bestman Chukwuemeka

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial, viral and parasitic agents have been implicated and confirmed as causative agents of gastroenteritis in children with ages below 5 years old. The major role of rotavirus as causative agent is not widely recognized within the public health community, particularly in developing countries. This study examined the role of rotavirus as a causative agent of childhood gastroenteritis in infants and young children below 5 years of age in a General Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Parents and caregivers of children admitted to the hospital were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Viral RNA was extracted from the stool samples collected and analyzed using RT-PCR for genotyping and agarose gel electrophoresis for identification of rotavirus electrophoretypes. Out of the 71 samples analyzed, 16 (22.5%) were positive for rotavirus. A total of 12 (75%) males and 4 (25%) females were positive for rotavirus gastroenteritis with most cases (7, 43.8%) distributed to the 13-24 months age group, followed closely by the 1-6 months age group, with 6 cases, 37.5%. Rotavirus G2 genotype was the most prevalent strain in the hospital (10 patients, 62.5%) followed by G1 (6 patients, 37.5%). These were the only rotavirus genotypes detected in the hospital.

  2. Drinking Rainwater: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Study of Water Treatment Filters and Gastroenteritis Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Shelly; Sinclair, Martha; Forbes, Andrew; Cunliffe, David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether drinking untreated rainwater, a practice that is on the rise in developed countries because of water shortages, contributes to community gastroenteritis incidence. Methods. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial in Adelaide, Australia. Sham or active water treatment units were installed, and participants recorded incidences of illness in a health diary for 12 months. The primary outcome was highly credible gastroenteritis (HCG; characterized by a specified number of loose stools or vomiting alone or in combination with abdominal pain or nausea in a 24-hour period), and we used generalized estimating equations to account for correlations between numbers of HCG events for individuals in the same family. Results. Participants reported 769 episodes during the study (0.77 episodes/person/year), with an HCG incidence rate ratio (active vs sham) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82, 1.33). Blinding of the participants was effective (index = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.58, 0.72). Conclusions. Our results suggest that consumption of untreated rainwater does not contribute appreciably to community gastroenteritis. However, our findings may not be generalizable to susceptible and immunocompromised persons because these groups were specifically excluded from the study. PMID:20724681

  3. Association between mixed rotavirus vaccination types of infants and rotavirus acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anaam; Immergluck, Lilly; Parker, Trisha Chan; Jain, Shabnam; Leong, Traci; Anderson, Evan J; Jerris, Robert C

    2015-10-13

    Rotavirus remains the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years worldwide. In the US, Rotarix (RV1) and RotaTeq (RV5), have been associated with reductions in and severity of rotavirus disease. Studies have evaluated the impact of RV1 or RV5 but little is known about the impact of incomplete or mixed vaccination upon vaccine effectiveness. Case control study to examine association of combined RV1 and RV5 and rotavirus acute gastroenteritis, factoring severity of diarrheal disease. Children born after March 1, 2009 with acute gastroenteritis from three pediatric hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia were approached for enrollment. Survey was administered, stool specimen was collected, and vaccination records were obtained. 891 of 1127 children with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Stool specimens were collected from 708 for rotavirus testing; 215 stool samples tested positively for rotavirus. Children >12 months of age were more likely to have rotavirus. Children categorized with Vesikari score of >11 were almost twice as likely to be rotavirus positive. Prior rotavirus vaccination decreased the mean Vesikari score, pgastroenteritis. Incomplete rotavirus vaccination either with a single vaccine or mixed vaccination types also provided some protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating the Burden of Medically Attended Norovirus Gastroenteritis: Modeling Linked Primary Care and Hospitalization Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Cattaert, Tom; Harris, John; Lopman, Ben; Tam, Clarence C; Ferreira, Germano

    2017-11-15

    Norovirus is the leading cause of community-acquired and nosocomial acute gastroenteritis. Routine testing for norovirus is seldom undertaken, and diagnosis is mainly based on presenting symptoms. This makes understanding the burden of medically attended norovirus-attributable gastroenteritis (MA-NGE) and targeting care and prevention strategies challenging. We used linked population-based healthcare datasets (Clinical Practice Research Datalink General Practice OnLine Database linked with Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care) to model the incidence of MA-NGE associated with primary care consultations or hospitalizations according to age groups in England in the period July 2007-June 2013. Mean annual incidence rates of MA-NGE were 4.9/1000 person-years and 0.7/1000 person-years for episodes involving primary care or hospitalizations, respectively. Incidence rates were highest in children aged gastroenteritis hospitalization rates were second highest in adults aged >65 years (1.7/1000 person-years). In this particular study, the burden of MA-NGE estimated from healthcare datasets was higher than previously estimated in small cohort studies in England. Routinely collected primary care and hospitalization datasets are useful resources to estimate and monitor the burden of MA-NGE in a population over time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. Evaluation of benign afebrile convulsions in 16 children with rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Alaaddin; Sert, Sadiye; Yilmaz, Fatma Hilal

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings of the patients hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis-related afebrile seizure, retrospectively. The study population consisted of 16 patients (9 girls and 7 boys) with a mean age of 13.81 ± 5.98 months (age range 6-26). The male/female ratio was 0.77. None of the patients had any psychomotor developmental retardation. Neurological examinations of all the patients were normal. There were 7 patients with generalized tonic (43.75%), 8 generalized tonic-clonic (50%), and 1 focal seizure (6.25%). The duration of the seizures varied at a range of 2-7 min (mean 3.68 ± 1.35 min). The period between the onset of the clinical findings of the rotavirus infection and the occurrence of the seizures was ranged from 12 to 48 h (mean 31.5 ± 12.2 h). The prognosis of the rotavirus gastroenteritis-related afebrile convulsions was generally benign. Rotavirus infection should be taken into consideration in infants with gastroenteritis and afebrile convulsions.

  6. Approaches to immunization of infants and young children against gastroenteritis due to rotaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikian, A Z; Wyatt, R G; Greenberg, H B; Kalica, A R; Kim, H W; Brandt, C D; Rodriguez, W J; Parrott, R H; Chanock, R M

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in developed countries rotaviruses are the single most important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis that requires hospitalization of infants and young children. Although deaths from gastroenteritis are, in general, infrequent in the developed countries, an effective rotavirus vaccine would clearly be of benefit to reduce the heavy toll of morbidity from gastroenteritis due to rotavirus. In the developing countries the impact of diarrheal diseases is staggering. It was recently estimated that in Asia, Africa, and Latin-America during a one-year period there would be 3.5 billion cases of diarrhea and 5-10 million deaths associated with diarrhea; in addition, diarrhea was ranked first in freqency in the categories of disease and mortality. In the developing countries rotaviruses are known to cause diarrhea, but their relative role in this high mortality rate is not yet known. epidemiologic data indicate that development of an effective rotavirus vaccine would reduce morbidity, and they suggest that a vaccine would also reduce a portion of the mortality from diarrheal disease. The prospects and approaches for the development of an effective rotavirus vaccine are presented. The recent successful propagation of rotavirus type 2 in cell culture represents an important step in this regard. In addition, the antigenic relation between human and animal strains offers another possible approach. The need for a live attenuated vaccine is indicated by the prime role played by local intestinal immunity in resistance to rotavirus disease.

  7. [Gastroenteritis due to Plesiomonas shigelloides--rare cases in the Western world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, U; Sloot, N; Eikenberg, M; Borsdorf, H; Höffler, U; Riemann, J F

    2001-02-15

    Plesiomonas shigelloides is a common pathogen in tropical regions, whereas it is rarely isolated in temperate climates. It is most often found in surface water and fish. During the last 10 years it was found to cause gastroenteritis 6 times in Ludwigshafen. Not all of these patients reported a trip to foreign countries. A 54-year-old male patient was hospitalized after a trip to Malaysia with strong greenish watery diarrhea and chills. On physical examination we saw a dehydrated patient in severely reduced general condition. The stool frequency was 30/d. The laboratory examinations only showed elevated parameters of inflammation. Plesiomonas shigelloides was cultivated in the stool cultures. With appropriate substitution of fluid and electrolytes, and antidiarrheal therapy the patient resumed a normal diet without any complications. Three days later his bowel movements were normal and his general condition was greatly improved. We withheld antibiotic therapy because of the noncomplicated course of illness. In Germany infections with Plesiomonas shigelloides are rare, an increase is observed because of increasing tourism to tropical regions. The course of infection is sometimes asymptomatic, but usually patients develop an acute gastroenteritis. Especially immunocompromised patients can show serious courses of infection. Plesiomonas shigelloides should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis after journeys to tropical regions. Some of our patients, however, denied traveling to tropical regions. They also denied consuming seafood, which indicates a risk of infection in Germany. Still an infection with Plesiomonas shigelloides seems to be rare in northern European countries.

  8. Simultaneous detection of enteropathogenic viruses in buffalos faeces using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pagnini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A multiplex reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR assay that detects Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Group A Rotaviruses in infected cell-culture fluids and clinical faecal samples is described. One hundred twenty faecal samples from buffalo calves with acute gastroenteritis were tested. The mRT-PCR was validated against simplex RT-PCR with published primers for Pestivirus, Coronavirus and Rotavirus. The multiplex RT-PCR was equally sensitive and specific in detecting viral infections compared with simplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR readily identified viruses by discriminating the size of their amplified gene products. This mRT-PCR may be a sensitive and rapid assay for surveillance of buffalo enteric viruses in field specimens. This novel multiplex RT-PCR is an attractive technique for the rapid, specific, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis.

  9. Waterborne human pathogenic viruses of public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Atheesha; Lin, Johnson

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the impending impact of waterborne pathogens on human health has become a growing concern. Drinking water and recreational exposure to polluted water have shown to be linked to viral infections, since viruses are shed in extremely high numbers in the faeces and vomit of infected individuals and are routinely introduced into the water environment. All of the identified pathogenic viruses that pose a significant public health threat in the water environment are transmitted via the faecal-oral route. This group, are collectively known as enteric viruses, and their possible health effects include gastroenteritis, paralysis, meningitis, hepatitis, respiratory illness and diarrhoea. This review addresses both past and recent investigations into viral contamination of surface waters, with emphasis on six types of potential waterborne human pathogenic viruses. In addition, the viral associated illnesses are outlined with reference to their pathogenesis and routes of transmission.

  10. Angiodysplasia Occurring in Jejunal Diverticulosis

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The first case of angiodysplasia occurring in acquired jejunal diverticulosis is reported. The patient presented with occult gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic anemia, and was created successfully by resection of a 25 cm long segment of jejunum. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms for both angiodysplasia and jejunal diverticulosis are discussed.

  11. Chromosomal rearrangements occurred repeatedly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, molecular and/or chromosomal data indicate that Paroedura is a monophyletic genus, in which chromosome rearrangements occurred repeatedly and independently during the specific diversification. Moreover both P. bastardi and P. gracilis in current definitions are paraphyletic assemblages of several ...

  12. Healthcare utilization and lost productivity due to infectious gastroenteritis, results from a national cross-sectional survey Australia 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Ford, L; Hall, G; Dobbins, T; Kirk, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the healthcare usage and loss of productivity due to gastroenteritis in Australia using the National Gastroenteritis Survey II. In 2008-2009, 7578 participants across Australia were surveyed about infectious gastroenteritis by telephone interview. A gastroenteritis case was defined as a person experiencing ⩾ 3 loose stools and/or ⩾ 2 vomits in a 24-h period, excluding cases with a non-infectious cause for their symptoms, such as pregnancy or consumption of alcohol. Lost productivity was considered any lost time from full- or part-time paid work due to having gastroenteritis or caring for someone with the illness. Interference with other daily activities was also examined along with predictors of healthcare-seeking practices using multivariable regression. Results were weighted to obtain nationally representative estimates using Stata v. 13·1. Of the 341 cases, 52 visited a doctor due to gastroenteritis, 126 reported taking at least one medication for their symptoms and 79 cases reported missing ⩾ 1 days' paid work due to gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis results in a total of 13·1 million (95% confidence interval 6·7-19·5) days of missed paid work each year in Australia. The indirect costs of gastroenteritis are significant, particularly from lost productivity.

  13. Viruses of botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Naturally occurring flavonoids against human norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-06-01

    Naturally occurring plant-derived flavonoids are reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral effects of four flavonoids (myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, and naringenin) on the infectivity of food borne norovirus surrogates after 2 h at 37 °C. The lab-culturable surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) at titers of ~7 log₁₀ PFU/ml (high titer) or ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml (low titer) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml, were mixed with equal volumes of myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, or naringenin at concentrations of 0.5 or 1 mM, and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C. Treatments of viruses were neutralized in cell culture medium containing 10 % heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, serially diluted, and plaque assayed. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 (low titer) was not found to be reduced by tangeretin or naringenin, but was reduced to undetectable levels by myricetin at both concentrations. Low titer FCV-F9 was also decreased by 1.40 log₁₀ PFU/ml with L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM. FCV-F9 at high titers was decreased by 3.17 and 0.72 log₁₀ PFU/ml with myricetin and L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml with myricetin at 0.25 mM, respectively. However, MNV-1 showed no significant inactivation by the four tested treatments. The antiviral effects of the tested flavonoids are dependent on the virus type, titer, and dose. Further research will focus on understanding the antiviral mechanism of myricetin and L-epicatechin.

  15. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay Targeting Eight Parasites Customized to the Korean Population: Potential Use for Detection in Diarrheal Stool Samples from Gastroenteritis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jeong Won

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic diseases occur worldwide and can cause diarrhea or gastroenteritis; however, their diagnosis is quite difficult, especially in low-endemism countries. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of eight intestinal parasites and prospectively evaluated it for patients with gastroenteritis. The assay targeted Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Gymnophalloides seoi. Performance characteristics were evaluated based on recovery after DNA extraction, analytical sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, cross-reactivity, and interference characteristics. Clinical performance was validated against microscopy on 123 diarrheal samples. The assay demonstrated strong correlations between DNA concentrations and Ct values (R2, 0.9924-0.9998, and had a high PCR efficiency (83.3%-109.5%. Polymerase chain reactions detected as few as 10-30 copies of genomic DNA, and coefficient of variance was 0-7%. There was no cross-reactivity to the other 54 microorganisms tested. Interference occurred only in presence of high concentrations of erythrocytes or leukocytes. This assay had a higher correct identification rate (100.0% vs. 90.2% and lower incorrect ID rate (0.0% vs. 9.8% when compared to microscopy. Overall, this assay showed a higher sensitivity (100.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] of 80.5-100.0 than microscopy (29.4%; 95% CI 10.31-55.96, and the specificity levels were comparable for both methods (100.0%; 95% CI 96.58-100.0. This newly developed multiplex real-time PCR assay offers a potential use for detecting intestinal parasitic pathogens customized to the Korean population.

  16. Inactivation of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) by Chlorine and Iodine in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5102 Contract No. DAMDI7-86-C-6053 University of...treatment practices utilizing chemical disinfection, primarily chlorination, are generally believed to * be effective in producing microbiologically safe...Dreesman, B. Hafkin and J.L. Melnick (1982) Viruses in a community water supply associated with an outbreak of gastroenteritis and infectious hepatitis

  17. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-02

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  18. Risk of acute gastroenteritis associated with human bocavirus infection in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Ri; Liu, Liying; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Runan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Dong, Huijin; Jia, Liping; Zhao, Linqing

    2017-01-01

    Human bocaviruses (HBoVs), which were first identified in 2005 and are composed of genotypes 1-4, have been increasingly detected worldwide in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. To investigate if HBoV infection is a risk factor of acute gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years old, we searched PubMed, Embase (via Ovid), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and the Cochrane Library for studies assessing the prevalence of HBoVs in individuals from Oct 25, 2005 to Oct 31, 2016. We included studies using PCR-based diagnostics for HBoVs from stool specimens of patients with or without acute gastroenteritis that carried out research for over 1 year on pediatric patients aged younger than 5 years old. The primary outcome was the HBoV prevalence among all cases with acute gastroenteritis. Pooled estimates of the HBoV prevalence were then generated by fitting linear mixed effect meta-regression models. Of the 36 studies included, the pooled HBoV prevalence in 20,591 patients with acute gastroenteritis was 6.90% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 5.80-8.10%). In the ten studies with a control group, HBoVs were detected in 12.40% of the 3,620 cases with acute gastroenteritis and in 12.22% of the 2,030 control children (odds ratio (OR): 1.44; 95% CI: 0.95-2.19, p = 0.09 between case and control groups). HBoV1 and HBoV2 were detected in 3.49% and 8.59% of acute gastroenteritis cases, respectively, and in 2.22% and 5.09% of control children, respectively (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.61-3.25; p = 0.43 and OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.21-2.32; p = 0.002, respectively). Current evidence suggests that the overall HBoV prevalence in children younger than 5 years old is not significantly different between groups with or without acute gastroenteritis. However, when HBoV1 was excluded, the HBoV2 prevalence was significantly different between these two groups, which may imply that HBoV2 is a risk factor of acute gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years old.

  19. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  20. Prevalence and molecular characterization of human rhinovirus in stool samples of individuals with and without acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoonta, Prapaporn; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Posuwan, Nawarat; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Payungporn, Sunchai; Poovorawan, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Human rhinovirus (RV) most often causes mild upper respiratory tract infection. Although RV is routinely isolated from the respiratory tract, few studies have examined RV in other types of clinical samples. The prevalence of RV was examined in 1,294 stool samples collected mostly from children with acute gastroenteritis residing in Bangkok and Khon Kaen province of Thailand between January 2010 and October 2014. In addition, 591 samples from hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) or herpangina patients who do not have gastroenteritis served as a comparison group. Samples were initially screened by semi-nested PCR for the RV 5'UTR through the VP2 capsid region. RV genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were performed on the VP4/VP2 regions. Among children with acute gastroenteritis, RV was found in 2.3% (30/1,294) of stool samples, which comprised 47% (14/30) RV-A, 17% (5/30) RV-B, and 37% (11/30) RV-C. In the comparison group, 0.8% (5/591) was RV-positive and RV-C (3/5) was the major species found. Interestingly, RV was recovered more often from children with acute gastroenteritis than from those with HFMD or herpangina. As many as 31 RV types were present in the gastroenteritis stools, which were different than the types found in those with HFMD or herpangina. J. Med. Virol. 89:801-808, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Acute Infectious Gastroenteritis Potentiates a Crohn's Disease Pathobiont to Fuel Ongoing Inflammation in the Post-Infectious Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Cherrie L; Xing, Lydia; McPhee, Joseph B; Law, Hong T; Coombes, Brian K

    2016-10-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of diverse etiology. Exposure to foodborne pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis produces a long-term risk of CD well into the post-infectious period but the mechanistic basis for this ongoing relationship to disease onset is unknown. We developed two novel models to study the comorbidity of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella Typhimurium or Citrobacter rodentium in mice colonized with adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), a bacterial pathobiont linked to CD. Here, we show that disease activity in the post-infectious period after gastroenteritis is driven by the tissue-associated expansion of the resident AIEC pathobiont, with an attendant increase in immunopathology, barrier defects, and delays in mucosal restitution following pathogen clearance. These features required AIEC resistance to host defense peptides and a fulminant inflammatory response to the enteric pathogen. Our results suggest that individuals colonized by AIEC at the time of acute infectious gastroenteritis may be at greater risk for CD onset. Importantly, our data identify AIEC as a tractable disease modifier, a finding that could be exploited in the development of therapeutic interventions following infectious gastroenteritis in at-risk individuals.

  2. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.

  3. Brote de gastroenteritis en turistas: limitaciones de información y respuesta Gastroenteritis outbreak in tourists: limitations of information and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Hernando

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se presentan los resultados de los distintos estudios realizados en la investigación de un brote de gastroenteritis y se exponen las dificultades y las limitaciones que condicionaron su estudio. Métodos: Se diseñaron varios estudios analíticos: un estudio de cohortes y un estudio de casos y controles con diferente tamaño muestral. Resultados: De los 189 participantes, el 43% respondió el cuestionario. Se identificaron 45 casos. Los factores que se asociaron significativamente con la enfermedad fueron: la cena del día 11 de diciembre en uno de los restaurantes del complejo, tanto en el estudio de cohortes como en el de casos y controles, y la excursión a una isla cercana en el de cohortes. Discusión: Se confirmó la existencia de un brote, aunque debido a la baja tasa de respuesta y las dificultades para entrevistar a los participantes del viaje, no fue posible identificar la vía de transmisión.Background: We present the results of different studies performed in the investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak and we describe the difficulties and limitations encountered during its study. Methods: Several analytical studies were designed: one cohort study and one case-control study with different samples sizes. Results: Of the 189 trip participants, 43% answered the questionnaire. Forty-five cases were identified. The factors significantly associated with the disease were: dinner in one of the restaurants of the resort on December 11 in all analytical studies and the excursion to a nearby island in the cohort study. Discussion: The outbreak was confirmed however due to the low response rate and the problems encountered to interview the participants in the trip, it was not possible to identify the route of transmission.

  4. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridiou, M.; Borkent-Raven, B.; Hulshof, J.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control

  5. Performance of a Mobile Phone App-Based Participatory Syndromic Surveillance System for Acute Febrile Illness and Acute Gastroenteritis in Rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel; Lamb, Molly; Lopez, Maria Renee; Colborn, Kathryn; Paniagua-Avila, Alejandra; Zacarias, Alma; Zambrano-Perilla, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Castro, Sergio Ricardo; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Asturias, Edwin Jose

    2017-11-09

    With their increasing availability in resource-limited settings, mobile phones may provide an important tool for participatory syndromic surveillance, in which users provide symptom data directly into a centralized database. We studied the performance of a mobile phone app-based participatory syndromic surveillance system for collecting syndromic data (acute febrile illness and acute gastroenteritis) to detect dengue virus and norovirus on a cohort of children living in a low-resource and rural area of Guatemala. Randomized households were provided with a mobile phone and asked to submit weekly reports using a symptom diary app (Vigilant-e). Participants reporting acute febrile illness or acute gastroenteritis answered additional questions using a decision-tree algorithm and were subsequently visited at home by a study nurse who performed a second interview and collected samples for dengue virus if confirmed acute febrile illness and norovirus if acute gastroenteritis. We analyzed risk factors associated with decreased self-reporting of syndromic data using the Vigilant-e app and evaluated strategies to improve self-reporting. We also assessed agreement between self-report and nurse-collected data obtained during home visits. From April 2015 to June 2016, 469 children in 207 households provided 471 person-years of observation. Mean weekly symptom reporting rate was 78% (range 58%-89%). Households with a poor (first 25 weeks of observation (n=57) had a greater number of children (mean 2.8, SD 1.5 vs mean 2.5, SD 1.3; risk ratio [RR] 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4), were less likely to have used mobile phones for text messaging at study enrollment (61%, 35/57 vs 76.7%, 115/150; RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), and were less likely to access care at the local public clinic (35%, 20/57 vs 67.3%, 101/150; RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6). Parents of female enrolled participants were more likely to have low response rate (57.1%, 84/147 vs 43.8%, 141/322; RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Several external

  6. [An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by poisonous Boletus mushroom in Sichuan, China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-jun; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Lun-guang; Zhang, Li-jie; Shi, Guo-qing; Wang, Qi-xing

    2012-12-01

    To identify the source of infection and risk factors and to provide control measures regarding an outbreak of gastroenteritis involving 30 villagers. Who attended the same wedding party held on March 5(th), 2012, a survey was carried out. Case was defined as having onset of vomiting, nausea, stomachache or diarrhea among the attendees of a wedding party. We randomly selected and interviewed 140 from 470 attendees on their symptoms and food exposures at the wedding. We compared food-specific attack rates (AR) for gastroenteritis in a retrospective cohort study. The leftover foods were tested for Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. The leftover Boletus mushrooms were examined and species determined by the Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Of the 140 attendees 61% (85) developed gastroenteritis. Case-attendees had vomiting (94%), nausea (89%), stomachache (53%), and diarrhea (51%). The AR among attendees who ate Boletus mushroom was 69% (81/118), compared to 18% (4/22) of those who did not (RR = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.2). When comparing the ARs between the attendees on consumption of other foods, data did not show statistically significant differences. Among the 7 species of Boletus identified from the leftover mushrooms, 3 (B. venenatus, B. sinicus and B. magnificus) were toxic. Store keepers bought dried or fresh mushrooms from local villagers who had picked up them from the mountains. Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus tests on those leftover food showed negative results. Poisonous Boletus mushroom contributed to this outbreak. We recommended that education should be targeted on mushroom-pickers regarding how to recognize the poisonous mushrooms. Regulations and laws should also be developed to facilitate the necessary process.

  7. Increased short- and long-term risk of inflammatory bowel disease after salmonella or campylobacter gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradel, Kim O; Nielsen, Hans L; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Ejlertsen, Tove; Kristensen, Brian; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-08-01

    Various commensal enteric and potentially pathogenic bacteria may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We compared the risk of IBD between a cohort of patients with documented Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis and an age- and gender-matched control group from the same population in Denmark. We identified 13,324 patients with Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis from laboratory registries in North Jutland and Aarhus counties, Denmark, from 1991 through 2003, and 26,648 unexposed controls from the same counties. Of these, 176 exposed patients with IBD before the infection, their 352 unexposed controls, and 80 unexposed individuals with IBD before the Salmonella/Campylobacter infection were excluded. The final study cohort of 13,148 exposed and 26,216 unexposed individuals were followed for up to 15 years (mean, 7.5 years). A first-time diagnosis of IBD was reported in 107 exposed (1.2%) and 73 unexposed individuals (0.5%). By age, gender, and comorbidity adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for IBD was 2.9 (2.2-3.9) for the whole period and 1.9 (1.4-2.6) if the first year after the Salmonella/Campylobacter infection was excluded. The increased risk in exposed subjects was observed throughout the 15-year observation period. The increased risk was similar for Salmonella (n = 6463) and Campylobacter (n = 6685) and for a first-time diagnosis of Crohn's disease (n = 47) and ulcerative colitis (n = 133). In our population-based cohort study with complete follow-up, an increased risk of IBD was demonstrated in individuals notified in laboratory registries with an episode of Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis.

  8. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talayero José MP

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Methods Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL, conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. Results 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, ≥ 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale. Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Conclusions Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  9. Associations of Adenovirus Genotypes in Korean Acute Gastroenteritis Patients with Respiratory Symptoms and Intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seok Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses (HAdVs cause a wide range of diseases, including respiratory infections and gastroenteritis, and have more than 65 genotypes. To investigate the current genotypes of circulating HAdV strains, we performed molecular genotyping of HAdVs in the stool from patients with acute gastroenteritis and tried to determine their associations with clinical symptoms. From June 2014 to May 2016, 3,901 fecal samples were tested for an AdV antigen, and 254 samples (6.5% yielded positive results. Genotyping using PCR and sequencing of the capsid hexon gene was performed for 236 AdV antigen-positive fecal specimens. HAdV-41, of species F, was the most prevalent genotype (60.6%, followed by HAdV-2 of species C (13.8%. Other genotypes, including HAdV-3, HAdV-1, HAdV-5, HAdV-6, HAdV-31, HAdV-40, HAdV-12, and HAdV-55, were also detected. Overall, 119 patients (50.4% showed concomitant respiratory symptoms, and 32 patients (13.6% were diagnosed with intussusception. HAdV-1 and HAdV-31 were significantly associated with intussusception (P<0.05. Our results demonstrate the recent changes in trends of circulating AdV genotypes associated with gastroenteritis in Korea, which should be of value for improving the diagnosis and developing new detection, treatment, and prevention strategies for broad application in clinical laboratories.

  10. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  11. Genetic Relatedness Among Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated Along the Animal Food Supply Chain and in Gastroenteritis Cases in Qatar Using Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Srikanth; Chang, YuChen; Scaria, Joy; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Peters, Kenlyn E; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Sultan, Ali; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli has been listed among the most important bacteria associated with foodborne illnesses around the world. We investigated the genetic relatedness among Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolated along the animal food supply chain and from humans diagnosed with gastroenteritis in Qatar. Samples were collected from different sources along the food supply chain and from patients admitted to the hospital with complaints of gastroenteritis. All samples were screened for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC using a combination of bacterial enrichment and molecular detection techniques. A proportional sampling approach was used to select positive samples from each source for further multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Seven housekeeping genes described for STEC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and analyzed by MLST. Isolates were characterized by allele composition, sequence type (ST) and assessed for epidemiologic relationship within and among different sources. Nei's genetic distance was calculated at the allele level between sample pools in each site downstream. E. coli O157:H7 occurred at a higher rate in slaughterhouse and retail samples than at the farm or in humans in our sampling. The ST171, an ST common to enterotoxigenic E. coli and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, was the most common ST (15%) in the food supply chain. None of the genetic distances among the different sources was statistically significant. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli pathogenic strains are present along the supply chain at different levels and with varying relatedness. Clinical isolates were the most diverse, as expected, considering the polyclonal diversity in the human microbiota. The high occurrence of these food adulterants among the farm products suggests that implementation of sanitary measures at that level might reduce the risk of human exposure.

  12. Interimrapportage van onderzoek naar gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpeilstations (NIVEL 1996-1997). Methoden en resultaten van de eerste vijf maanden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit MAS de; Kortbeek LM; Koopmans MPG; Leeuwen WJ van; Bartelds AIM; Asperen IA van; Borgdorff MW; CIE; LIS; LIO; NIVEL

    1997-01-01

    From January 1996 consultations of gastro-enteritis are being registered in sentinel practices in the Netherlands. In parallel, from May 1996, a case-control study is carried out among patients consulting a general practitioner with gastro-enteritis and age-matched controls consulting the same

  13. Interim report of a study on gastroenteritis in sentinel practices in the Netherlands (NIVEL) 1996-1999. Results of the first two years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit MAS; Koopmans MPG; Kortbeek LM; van Leeuwen WJ; Vinje J; van Duynhoven YTHP; CIE

    1999-01-01

    In 1996 is een onderzoek gestart naar gastro-enteritis in de huisartsenpraktijk in samenwerking met het Nederlands Instituut voor onderzoek van de Gezondheidszorg (NIVEL). Dit onderzoek heeft tot doel de incidentie van gastro-enteritis in de huisartsenpraktijk te schatten, de effecten van

  14. Interim report of a study on gastroenteritis in sentinel practices in the Netherlands (NIVEL) 1996-1999. Results of the first two years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit MAS de; Koopmans MPG; Kortbeek LM; Leeuwen WJ van; Vinje J; Duijnhoven YTPH van; CIE

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, a study was started on gastroenteritis in collaboration with the Netherlands Institute of Primary Health Care (NIVEL) among gastroentritis patients in care of a general practitioner. This study was aimed at estimating the incidence of gastroenteritis in general practices, evaluating the

  15. Detection of pathogenic viruses in sewage provided early warnings of hepatitis A virus and norovirus outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas; Norder, Heléne

    2014-11-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Does overtraining occur in triathletes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Margaritis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. Objective: Long distance triathlon training is characterized by considerably high volume training loads. This volume can provoke an overtraining state. The aim of the study was to determine whether overtraining occurs in well-trained male triathletes in relation with their volume training loads. 2. Experimental design: A questionnaire investigation was completed two days before the Nice long-distance triathlon (October 1995: 4-km swim, 120-km bike ride and 30-km run. 3. Participants: Ninety-three well-trained male triathletes who took part in the triathlon race. 4. Measures: A questionnaire to relate clinical symptoms, which are known to appear in case of overtraining, was collected. 5. Results: 39.8% of the questioned triathletes reported a decrease in triathlon performances within the last month preceding the race. Moreover, these triathletes exhibited significantly more overtraining-relied symptoms than the others (5.9±3.8 vs 3.4±2.6, P<0.05. Surprisingly, the occurrence of overtraining in triathletes appears not to depend on the volume training loads. 6. Conclusions: These results suggest that overtraining has to be considered in the case of triathletes. This preliminary study evidences the need for further investigation in order to monitor triathletes training respond and prevent overtraining.

  17. Earl occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter develops health-risk models for early and continuing effects of exposure to beta or gamma radiation that could be associated with light water nuclear power plant accidents. The main purpose of the chapter is to provide details on each health-risk model and on the data used. Early and continuing effects considered are prodromal symptoms and nonneoplastic diseases that usually occur soon after a brief radiation exposure. These effects are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) absorbed organ doses. For most of the effects considered, there is an absorbed organ dose threshold below which no effects are seen. Some information is provided on health effects observed in victims of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or their potential for receiving large doses, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. Exposure of the fetus is also considered. Additional data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study were used to obtain models for morbidity and mortality

  18. High incidence of hospitalisation due to infectious gastroenteritis in older people associated with poor self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Bette C; Glass, Kathryn; Kirk, Martyn D

    2015-12-30

    To estimate the incidence and risk factors for gastroenteritis-related hospitalisations in older adults. Longitudinal cohort study. The 45 and Up Study is a large-scale Australian prospective study of adults aged ≥ 45 years (mean 62.7 years) at recruitment in 2006-2009. Self-reported demographic, health and dietary information at recruitment from 265,440 participants were linked to infectious gastroenteritis hospitalisation data. We estimated the incidence of hospitalisation for infectious gastroenteritis, and calculated HRs using Cox regression, adjusting for sociodemographic, health and behavioural variables, with age as the underlying time variable. There were 6077 incident infectious gastroenteritis admissions over 1,111,000 person-years. Incidence increased exponentially with increasing age; from 2.4 per 1000 (95% CI 2.2 to 2.5) in individuals aged 45-54 years to 9.5 per 1000 (95% CI 9.2 to 9.8) in those aged 65+ years. After adjustment, hospitalisation due to infectious gastroenteritis was significantly more common in those reporting use of proton pump inhibitors (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.7), and those with poorer self-rated health (HR 4.2, 95% CI 3.6 to 4.9). Infectious gastroenteritis results in hospitalisation of approximately 1% of people ≥ 65 years old each year. Early recognition and supportive treatment of diarrhoea in older patients with poorer self-rated health may prevent subsequent hospitalisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Epidemiologic Association Between FUT2 Secretor Status and Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Daniel C; Currier, Rebecca L; Staat, Mary A; Sahni, Leila C; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Halasa, Natasha B; Englund, Janet A; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Boom, Julie A; Szilagyi, Peter G; Klein, Eileen J; Chappell, James; Harrison, Christopher J; Davidson, Barbara S; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Moffatt, Mary D; McNeal, Monica; Wikswo, Mary; Bowen, Michael D; Morrow, Ardythe L; Parashar, Umesh D

    2015-11-01

    A genetic polymorphism affecting FUT2 secretor status in approximately one-quarter of humans of European descent affects the expression of histo-blood group antigens on the mucosal epithelia of human respiratory, genitourinary, and digestive tracts. These histo-blood group antigens serve as host receptor sites necessary for attachment and infection of some pathogens, including norovirus. We investigated whether an association exists between FUT2 secretor status and laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infections in US children. Multicenter case-control observational study involving active surveillance at 6 US pediatric medical institutions in the inpatient and emergency department clinical settings. We enrolled 1564 children younger than 5 years with acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and/or vomiting) and 818 healthy controls frequency matched by age and month, from December 1, 2011, through March 31, 2013. Paired fecal-saliva specimens were tested for rotavirus and for secretor status. Comparisons were made between rotavirus test-positive cases and healthy controls stratified by ethnicity and vaccination status. Adjusted multivariable analyses assessed the preventive association of secretor status against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. One (0.5%) of 189 rotavirus test-positive cases was a nonsecretor, compared with 188 (23%) of 818 healthy control participants (P gastroenteritis. Severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was virtually absent among US children who had a genetic polymorphism that inactivates FUT2 expression on the intestinal epithelium. We observed a strong epidemiologic association among children with rotavirus gastroenteritis compared with healthy control participants. The exact cellular mechanism behind this epidemiologic association remains unclear, but evidence suggests that it may be rotavirus genotype specific. The lower prevalence of nonsecretors among Hispanic children may translate to an enhanced burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis among this group

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gia Thanh; Phan, Kevin; Teng, Ian; Pu, Jian; Watanabe, Toru

    2017-10-01

    While norovirus (NoV) is well known as a leading causal pathogen for acute gastroenteritis in developed countries,structured data on prevalence in developing countries are not available thus far. This review aims to estimate the prevalence of NoV in cases of gastroenteritis in developing countries based on recently published reports. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Web of Science for the period January 1, 1990 through March 31, 2016. We included studies performed in developing countries with a study period of at least 12 months and which provided information on polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed NoV prevalence in patients diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis. A metaanalysis was conducted on NoV prevalence, focused on viral genogroups GI and GII, in cases of acute gastroenteritis. Using evidence from 178 articles, the estimated NoV prevalence among 148,867 patients with acute gastroenteritis was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15-18%). The prevalence decreased from 18% (95% CI: 16-20%) for upper middle-income countries to 15% (13-18%) and 6% (3-10%) for lower middle- and low-income countries, respectively. There were no significant differences in NoV prevalence by age group (under 5 years, 5 years and over, and mixed ages) or severity of symptoms as defined by community, outpatient, or inpatient setting. The pooled prevalence of NoV GII (15%, 95% CI: 13-17%) was significantly higher than that of NoV GI (1%, 95% CI: 1-1%) in patients with acute gastroenteritis. From the evidence considered in this review, the estimated prevalence of NoV in patients with acute gastroenteritis in developing countries was 17%. This estimate can be used to evaluate the burden of NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis in developing countries, which is currently unclear due to poor diagnosis and surveillance systems, and the estimation may enhance the development of human NoV vaccines.

  1. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of cytomegalovirus viremia and gastroenteritis in patients with gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Divaya; Dyson, Gregory; Manasa, Richard; Deol, Abhinav; Ratanatharathorn, Voravit; Ayash, Lois; Abidi, Muneer; Lum, Lawrence G; Al-Kadhimi, Zaid; Uberti, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In addition, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract can complicate the post-transplantation course of these patients and it can be difficult to differentiate the 2 diagnoses given that they can present with similar symptoms. We retrospectively analyzed 252 patients who were diagnosed with GI GVHD to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CMV viremia and CMV gastroenteritis in these patients. The median age at the time of transplantation was 51 years, 35% were related donor transplantations, and 65% were unrelated donor transplantations. A total of 114 (45%) patients developed CMV viremia at a median of 34 days (range, 14 to 236 days) after transplantation. Only recipient CMV IgG serostatus was significantly associated with development of CMV viremia (P gastroenteritis; 2 patients had evidence of CMV gastroenteritis and GVHD on the first biopsy and 29 on the second biopsy. Median time to development of CMV gastroenteritis was 52 days (range, 19 to 236 days) after transplantation. Using death as a competing risk, the cumulative incidence of CMV gastroenteritis at 1 year was 16.4%. The incidence of CMV gastroenteritis in relation to the donor/recipient serostatus was as follows: D+/R+, 22%; D-/R+, 31%; D+/R-, 12%; and D-/R-, 0. Median follow-up time for the 252 patients was 35.4 (95% CI 23.8 to 44.8) months. The estimated overall survival rate at 1 and 2 years was .45 (95% confidence interval [CI], .39 to .52) and .39 (95% CI, .33 to .46), respectively. Of the examined variables, those related to the overall survival were maximal clinical GVHD grade (P gastroenteritis (P = .008). Development of CMV viremia was not associated with increased mortality. In conclusion, CMV gastroenteritis is common complication in patients with GI GVHD and can adversely affect the prognosis

  2. The viral nucleocapsid protein of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is cleaved by caspase-6 and -7 during TGEV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eléouët, J F; Slee, E A; Saurini, F; Castagné, N; Poncet, D; Garrido, C; Solary, E; Martin, S J

    2000-05-01

    The transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV), like many other viruses, exerts much of its cytopathic effect through the induction of apoptosis of its host cell. Apoptosis is coordinated by a family of cysteine proteases, called caspases, that are activated during apoptosis and participate in dismantling the cell by cleaving key structural and regulatory proteins. We have explored the caspase activation events that are initiated upon infection of the human rectal tumor cell line HRT18 with TGEV. We show that TGEV infection results in the activation of caspase-3, -6, -7, -8, and -9 and cleavage of the caspase substrates eIF4GI, gelsolin, and alpha-fodrin. Surprisingly, the TGEV nucleoprotein (N) underwent proteolysis in parallel with the activation of caspases within the host cell. Cleavage of the N protein was inhibited by cell-permeative caspase inhibitors, suggesting that this viral structural protein is a target for host cell caspases. We show that the TGEV nucleoprotein is a substrate for both caspase-6 and -7, and using site-directed mutagenesis, we have mapped the cleavage site to VVPD(359) downward arrow. These data demonstrate that viral proteins can be targeted for destruction by the host cell death machinery.

  3. Narrowing of the Diagnostic Gap of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children 0-6 Years of Age Using a Combination of Classical and Molecular Techniques, Delivers Challenges in Syndromic Approach Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Jevšnik, Monika; Petrovec, Miroslav; Pokorn, Marko; Grosek, Štefan; Fratnik Steyer, Adela; Šoba, Barbara; Uršič, Tina; Cerar Kišek, Tjaša; Kolenc, Marko; Trkov, Marija; Šparl, Petra; Duraisamy, Raja; Lipkin, Ian W; Terzić, Sara; Kolnik, Mojca; Mrvič, Tatjana; Kapoor, Amit; Strle, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-five percent to 50% of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases remain etiologically undiagnosed. Our main aim was to determine the most appropriate list of enteric pathogens to be included in the daily diagnostics scheme of AGE, ensuring the lowest possible diagnostic gap. Two hundred ninety seven children ≤6 years of age, admitted to hospital in Slovenia, October 2011 to October 2012, with AGE, and 88 ≤6 years old healthy children were included in the study. A broad spectrum of enteric pathogens was targeted with molecular methods, including 8 viruses, 6 bacteria and 2 parasites. At least one enteric pathogen was detected in 91.2% of cases with AGE and 27.3% of controls. Viruses were the most prevalent (82.5% and 15.9%), followed by bacteria (27.3% and 10.2%) and parasites (3.0% and 1.1%) in cases and controls, respectively. A high proportion (41.8%) of mixed infections was observed in the cases. For cases with undetermined etiology (8.8%), stool samples were analyzed with next generation sequencing, and a potential viral pathogen was detected in 17 additional samples (5.8%). Our study suggests that tests for rotaviruses, noroviruses genogroup II, adenoviruses 40/41, astroviruses, Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella sp. should be included in the initial diagnostic algorithm, which revealed the etiology in 83.5% of children tested. The use of molecular methods in diagnostics of gastroenteritis is preferable because of their high sensitivity, specificity, fast performance and the possibility of establishing the concentration of the target. The latter may be valuable for assessing the clinical significance of the detected enteric, particularly viral pathogens.

  4. Epidemiological trends for hospital admissions for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Belgium following the introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination and the subsequent switch from lyophilized to liquid formulation of Rotarix™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, M; Strens, D; Kleintjens, J; Biundo, E; Morel, T; Vyse, A

    2016-10-01

    This study describes epidemiological trends for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in Belgium in children aged ⩽5 years during the period June 2007 to May 2014 after the introduction of routine rotavirus (RV) vaccination. This period encompassed the switch from lyophilized to the liquid formulation of Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) in August 2011. Uptake of RV vaccine remained consistently high throughout the study period with Rotarix the brand most often used. RV was present in 9% (1139/12 511) of hospitalized cases with acute gastroenteritis included in the study. Epidemiological trends for hospital admissions for RVGE remained consistent throughout the study period, with no evidence of any change associated with the switch from lyophilized to liquid formulation of Rotarix. This suggests both formulations perform similarly, with the liquid formulation not inferior regarding ability to reduce hospital admissions for acute RVGE in children aged ⩽5 years. A strong seasonal effect was observed with most RVGE occurring in the winter months but with some variability in intensity, with highest incidence found in those aged 6-24 months. The main observation was the decreased number of hospital admissions for RVGE in Belgium that occurred during winter 2013/2014.

  5. Identification of a Gamma Interferon-Activated Inhibitor of Translation-Like RNA Motif at the 3′ End of the Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Modulating Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Jurado, Silvia; Nogales, Aitor; Zuñiga, Sonia; Almazán, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 32-nucleotide (nt) RNA motif located at the 3′ end of the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) genome was found to specifically interact with the host proteins glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS) and arginyl-tRNA synthetase (RRS). This RNA motif has high homology in sequence and secondary structure with the gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation (GAIT) element, which is located at the 3′ end of several mRNAs encoding proinflammatory proteins. The GAIT element is involved in the translation silencing of these mRNAs through its interaction with the GAIT complex (EPRS, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q, ribosomal protein L13a, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) to favor the resolution of inflammation. Interestingly, we showed that the viral RNA motif bound the GAIT complex and inhibited the in vitro translation of a chimeric mRNA containing this RNA motif. To our knowledge, this is the first GAIT-like motif described in a positive RNA virus. To test the functional role of the GAIT-like RNA motif during TGEV infection, a recombinant coronavirus harboring mutations in this motif was engineered and characterized. Mutations of the GAIT-like RNA motif did not affect virus growth in cell cultures. However, an exacerbated innate immune response, mediated by the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) pathway, was observed in cells infected with the mutant virus compared with the response observed in cells infected with the parental virus. Furthermore, the mutant virus was more sensitive to beta interferon than the parental virus. All together, these data strongly suggested that the viral GAIT-like RNA motif modulates the host innate immune response. PMID:25759500

  6. Prospective evaluation of indirect costs due to acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain: the ROTACOST study

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    Sánchez-Lastres Juan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of rotavirus in developed countries is mainly economic. This study aimed to assess the indirect costs induced by rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE in Spain. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009. It included 682 children up to 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE who attended primary care (n = 18 and emergency room/hospital settings (n = 10, covering the regions of Galicia and Asturias (North-west Spain. All non-medical expenses incurred throughout the episode were recorded in detail using personal interviews and telephone contact. Results Among the 682 enrolled children, 207 (30.4% were rotavirus positive and 170 (25% had received at least one dose of rotavirus vaccine. The mean (standard deviation indirect cost caused by an episode of AGE was estimated at 135.17 (182.70 Euros. Costs were 1.74-fold higher when AGE was caused by rotavirus compared with other etiologies: 192.7 (219.8 Euros vs. 111.6 (163.5 Euros (p Conclusions Rotavirus generates a significant indirect economic burden. Our data should be considered in the decision-making process of the eventual inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization schedule of well developed countries.

  7. Transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistulas due to ingestion of 28 magnets

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    Adrian Surd

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidental ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies has become more common due to increased availability of objects and toys with magnetic elements. The majority of them traverse the gastrointestinal system spontaneously without complication. However, ingestion of multiple magnets may require surgical resolution. Magnet ingestion usually does not cause serious complications, but in case of multiple magnet ingestion or ingestion of magnet and a metal object, it could cause intestinal obstruction, fistula formation or even perforation. Case report: We report case of a transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistula formation following ingestion of 28 small magnets in a 17 months old boy. No history of foreign body ingestion could be obtained from parents therefore the patient was treated conservatively in a pediatric clinic for vomiting, dehydration, upper respiratory tract infection and suspicion of upper digestive tract bleeding. After 48 h he was sent in our clinic for surgical evaluation. Intraoperatively double transmesocolic gastro-enteric fistula was found. After separation of de gastric and enteral walls, resection of gastric wall and intestinal segment containing the two perforations was performed, followed by gastric suture in two layers and entero-enteric anastomosis. A total of 28 magnets were removed from the stomach and small intestine. Conclusion: Single magnet ingestion is treated as non-magnetic foreign body. Multiple magnet ingestion should be closely monitored and surgical approach could be the best option to prevent or to cure its complications. Keywords: Ingestion, Magnetic foreign body, Multiple magnets, Intestinal fistula, Children

  8. The effect of a rapid rehydration guideline on Emergency Department management of gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Danielle; McGrath, Ian; Maude, Phil

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the use and effect of a rapid rehydration guideline for the management of gastroenteritis in children 6months to 4years of age in an Emergency Department (ED). The guideline aims to facilitate rehydration within 4h of arrival to the ED, using oral or nasogastric fluids. Primary outcome measures were ED Length of Stay (LOS) and hospital admission rates. Documentation of physiological recovery and consistency of re-hydration regimes used were examined as secondary outcomes. A quasi-experimental design using the medical records of 235 children pre and post intervention was used. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, medians, interquartile ranges) were used to summarize the data. The pre and post-test groups were compared using Chi Square and the Mann Whitney U Test. There was an increase in the ED LOS and in hospital admission rates post implementation of the rapid rehydration guideline in the ED. However, the time frame for initiation of rehydration therapy using oral or nasogastric routes improved post guideline implementation. The need for improvements in the ED management of dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis has been highlighted providing potential benefits to patient care and outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Group A rotavirus genotypes in hospital-acquired gastroenteritis in Italy, 2012-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, G; Delogu, R; Fiore, L; Monini, M; Ruggeri, F M

    2017-07-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young (aged rotavirus are presently known, most RVA infections in humans worldwide are related to five major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], and G9P[8]. To provide the hospitals of the Italian surveillance network with update information on RVA AGE. During RVA gastroenteritis surveillance in Italy in 2012-14, a total of 2341 RVA-positive faecal samples were collected from children hospitalized with AGE, and RVA strains were genotyped following standard EuroRotaNet protocols. Most strains analysed belonged to the five major human genotypes and 118 out of 2341 (5.0%) were reported to be hospital-acquired. Comparison of the distributions of the RVA genotypes circulating in the community or associated with nosocomial infections showed a different distribution of genotypes circulating inside the hospital wards, with respect to those observed in the community. G1P[8] and G9P[8] RVA strains were detected frequently, whereas G12P[8] caused a single large nosocomial outbreak. The information from this study will be useful to implement guidelines for preventing RVA AGE and optimizing the management of patients in hospital wards. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of rotavirus severe gastroenteritis by the combination of probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ochoa, Guadalupe; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian K; Icedo-Garcia, Ramona; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7. On the other hand, probiotics such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species in combination with prebiotics such as inulin, HMO, scGOS, lcFOS have been associated with improved generalized antiviral response and anti-rotavirus effect by the reduction of rotavirus infectivity and viral shedding, decreased expression of NSP4 and increased levels of specific anti-rotavirus IgAs. Moreover, these probiotics and prebiotics have been related to shorter duration and severity of rotavirus diarrhea, to the prevention of infection and reduced incidence of reinfections. In this review we will discuss in detail about the rotavirus pathogenesis and immunity, and how probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in combination with prebiotics have been associated with the prevention or modulation of rotavirus severe gastroenteritis.

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baky, R M; Sakhy, M; Gad, G F M

    2014-01-01

    To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6%) samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni) were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  12. Nationwide variation in the effects of temperature on infectious gastroenteritis incidence in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-08-01

    Although several studies have investigated the effects of temperature on the incidence of infectious gastrointestinal disease in a single city or region, few have investigated variations in this association using nationwide data. We obtained weekly data, gathered between 2000 and 2012, pertaining to infectious gastroenteritis cases and weather variability in all 47 Japanese prefectures. A two-stage analysis was used to assess the nonlinear and delayed relationship between temperature and morbidity. In the first stage, a Poisson regression allowing for overdispersion in a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of temperature on morbidity. In the second stage, a multivariate meta-analysis was applied to pool estimates at the national level. The pooled overall relative risk (RR) was highest in the 59.9th percentile of temperature (RR, 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.15). Meta-analysis results also indicated that the estimated pooled RR at lower temperatures (25th percentile) began immediately but did not persist, whereas an identical estimate at a higher temperature (75th percentile) was delayed but persisted for several weeks. Our results suggest that public health strategies aimed at controlling temperature-related infectious gastroenteritis may be more effective when tailored according to region-specific weather conditions.

  13. A large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis in a hotel in Singapore, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, P; Tay, J; Ang, L W; Tien, W S; Thu, M; Lee, P; Pang, Q Y; Tang, Y L; Lee, K Y; Maurer-Stroh, S; Gunalan, V; Cutter, J; Goh, K T

    2017-02-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis affected 453 attendees (attack rate 28·5%) of six separate events held at a hotel in Singapore. Active case detection, case-control studies, hygiene inspections and microbial analysis of food, environmental and stool samples were conducted to determine the aetiology of the outbreak and the modes of transmission. The only commonality was the food, crockery and cutlery provided and/or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen. Stool specimens from 34 cases and 15 food handlers were positive for norovirus genogroup II. The putative index case was one of eight norovirus-positive food handlers who had worked while they were symptomatic. Several food samples and remnants tested positive for Escherichia coli or high faecal coliforms, aerobic plate counts and/or total coliforms, indicating poor food hygiene. This large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis was caused by the consumption of contaminated food and/or contact with contaminated crockery or cutlery provided or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen.

  14. Diapers in war zones: ethnomedical factors in acute childhood gastroenteritis in Peshawar, Pakistan.

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    Saira H Zaidi

    Full Text Available This article considers ethnomedical knowledge and practices among parents related to contraction of acute gastroenteritis among children in Peshawar, Pakistan. Research methods included analysis of the Emergency Pediatric Services' admission register, a structured interview administered to 47 parents of patients seen in the Khyber Medical College Teaching Hospital, semi-structured interviews of 12 staff, and four home visits among families with children treated at the hospital. The use of native research assistants and participant observation contributed to the reliability of the findings, though the ethnographic, home-visit sample is small. Our research indicated that infection rates are exacerbated in homes through two culturally salient practices and one socioeconomic condition. Various misconceptions propagate the recurrence or perserverance of acute gastroenteritis including assumptions about teething leading to poor knowledge of disease etiology, rehydration solutions leading to increased severity of disease, and diaper usage leading to the spread of disease. In our Discussion, we suggest how hospital structures of authority and gender hierarchy may impact hospital interactions, the flow of information, and its respective importance to the patient's parents leading to possible propagation of disease. These ethnographic data offer a relatively brief but targeted course of action to improve the effectiveness of prevention and treatment efforts.

  15. Diapers in war zones: ethnomedical factors in acute childhood gastroenteritis in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Saira H; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    This article considers ethnomedical knowledge and practices among parents related to contraction of acute gastroenteritis among children in Peshawar, Pakistan. Research methods included analysis of the Emergency Pediatric Services' admission register, a structured interview administered to 47 parents of patients seen in the Khyber Medical College Teaching Hospital, semi-structured interviews of 12 staff, and four home visits among families with children treated at the hospital. The use of native research assistants and participant observation contributed to the reliability of the findings, though the ethnographic, home-visit sample is small. Our research indicated that infection rates are exacerbated in homes through two culturally salient practices and one socioeconomic condition. Various misconceptions propagate the recurrence or perserverance of acute gastroenteritis including assumptions about teething leading to poor knowledge of disease etiology, rehydration solutions leading to increased severity of disease, and diaper usage leading to the spread of disease. In our Discussion, we suggest how hospital structures of authority and gender hierarchy may impact hospital interactions, the flow of information, and its respective importance to the patient's parents leading to possible propagation of disease. These ethnographic data offer a relatively brief but targeted course of action to improve the effectiveness of prevention and treatment efforts.

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis

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    R M Abd El-Baky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . Materials and Methods: A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Results: Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6% samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  17. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  18. Rapid Intravenous Rehydration to Correct Dehydration and Resolve Vomiting in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

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    Anoush AZARFAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of rapid intravenous rehydration to resolve vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted in the pediatric emergency department in a tertiary care center in Tabriz, North-West of Iran. The study participants' were 150 children with acute gastroenteritis and vomiting who were moderately dehydrated, had not responded to oral rehydration therapy and without any electrolyte abnormalities. 20–30 cc/kg of a crystalloid solution was given intravenously over 2 hours and the control group was admitted in the emergency department (ED for a standard 24 hour hydration. Effectiveness of rapid intravenous rehydration in the resolution of vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis was evaluated. Results: In 63 children of the intervention group (out of 75 vomiting was resolved after rapid IV rehydration and they were discharged. Among them, 12 that did not tolerate oral fluids were admitted. In the control group, 62 patients' vomiting was resolved in the first 4 hours after admission, and there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding resolution of vomiting. Conclusions: Rapid intravenous rehydration in children with moderate dehydration and vomiting due to gastroenteritis is effective in reducing admission rates in the ED. ÖZET: Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, akut gastroenteritli çocuklarda, hızlı intravenöz rehidratasyon tedavisinin kusma üzerine etkisini değerlendirmektir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu randomize kontrollü çalışma İran'ın Kuzeybatısındaki Tebriz ilinde üçüncü basamak çocuk acil servisinde gerçekleştirildi. Çalışmaya orta derecede dehidrate, elektrolit anormalliği olmayan ve oral rehidrasyon tedavisine yanıt vermemiş akut gastroenteritli 150 çocuk katıldı. İki saat içinde intravenöz yolla 20–30 cc/kg kristaloid çözelti verildi ve kontrol grubu standart

  19. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus genome packaging signal is located at the 5' end of the genome and promotes viral RNA incorporation into virions in a replication-independent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-11-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. The integrity of the entire sequence domain was necessary because deletion of any of the five structural motifs defined within this region abrogated specific packaging of this viral RNA. One of these RNA motifs was the stem-loop SL5, a highly conserved motif in coronaviruses located at nucleotide positions 106 to 136. Partial deletion or point mutations within this motif also abrogated packaging. Using TGEV-derived defective minigenomes replicated in trans by a helper virus, we have shown that TGEV RNA packaging is a replication-independent process. Furthermore, the last 494 nt of the genomic 3' end were not essential for packaging, although this region increased packaging efficiency. TGEV RNA sequences identified as necessary for viral genome packaging were not sufficient to direct packaging of a heterologous sequence derived from the green fluorescent protein gene. These results indicated that TGEV genome packaging is a complex process involving many factors in addition to the identified RNA packaging signal. The identification of well-defined RNA motifs within the TGEV RNA genome that are essential for packaging will be useful for designing packaging-deficient biosafe coronavirus-derived vectors and providing new targets for antiviral therapies.

  20. [Clinical analysis on an outbreak of SRSV-gastroenteritis with 644 patients emerged in Shizuoka Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N; Sugieda, M; Miyamoto, H

    1999-04-01

    Small round structured viruses (SRSV) are the major cause of acute non-bacterial enterogastritis and have a characteristic of breaking out with mass victims as food poisoning. The outbreak usually occurs among school children from school lunches in Japan. A case in adults is relatively rare. The SRSV food poisoning with 644 adult victims carried through lunch box broke out, which may be the biggest number in adult cases in the world. This is the report describing its outlines, analytical result of clinical symptoms and fecal microbial examination. The average latent period was 37 hours, the time was mostly (47%) between 24-36 hours. The most emerged symptom was diarrhea and followed nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting and high fever. The older patients showed a higher rate of diarrhea and fewer one of nausea and fever. 15 patients complained of eye symptom. This number should not be neglected. It may be a characteristic of the disease. SRSV detection test with PT-PCR method of feces was done on 36 patients and 24 patients were positive. The most sensitive primer was Yuri/nested/22F/R. In Japan, lunch-service has become a industry advancing monopolization and wide areazation. SRSV make easily contamination to food, therefore if mass victim food-poisoning occurs, this should be considered initially.

  1. Efficacy of intravenous ondansetron to prevent vomiting episodes in acute gastroenteritis: a randomized, double blind, and controlled trial

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    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases of childhood. Its symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. In the emergency ward, intravenous rather than oral rehydration is usually preferred because of the high likelihood of emesis. Treatments to reduce emesis are of value in improving the rehydration procedure. Our study is a double-blind randomized trial and proposes the use of ondansetron as an anti-emetic drug to treat children with acute gastroenteritis. Seventy-four in-patients, aged 3 months to 15 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an ondansetron or placebo group. Inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis and the absence of other diseases or allergies to drugs. A single bolus (0.15 mg/kg of ondansetron was injected intravenously; normal 0.9% saline solution was used as a placebo. This treatment induced vomiting cessation in the ondansetron group significantly in comparison to the placebo group. The length of the hospital stay and the oral rehydration fluid volume were similar in the two groups and no adverse effects were noticed. Thus, safety, low cost, and overall bene­fit of ondansetron treatment suggests that this drug can be administered successfully to children with acute gastroenteritis.

  2. Genetic diversity of Campylobacter sp. isolates from retail chicken products and humans with gastroenteritis in Central Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Brooke R; Sachen, Kacey L; Wilder, Stacey R; Burg, Matthew A; Lacher, David W; Khalife, Walid T; Whittam, Thomas S; Young, Vincent B

    2005-08-01

    Multilocus sequencing was used to compare Campylobacter sp. strains isolated from retail chicken products and humans with gastroenteritis in central Michigan. Sequence comparisons demonstrated overlapping diversity between chicken and human isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates from clinical sources had a greater diversity of flagellin alleles and a higher rate of quinolone resistance than isolates from retail chicken products.

  3. General practitioner practices in requesting laboratory tests for patients with gastroenteritis in the Netherlands, 2001–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. van den Brandhof; A.I.M. Bartelds (Aad); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); I.T.H.P. van Duynhoven

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The objective of this study was to estimate the (selective) proportion of patients consulting their GP for an episode of gastroenteritis for whom laboratory tests were requested. In addition adherence of GPs to the guidelines for diagnostic test regime was ascertained.

  4. Three cases of acute gastroenteritis caused by high-level macrolideresistant Campylobacter: drug resistance mechanisms and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Yanyan; Wang, Jun; Gu, Yixing; Sun, Xinting; Xu, Jinghang; Zeng, Zheng

    2012-07-01

    We report 3 cases of acute gastroenteritis caused by high-level macrolide-resistant Campylobacter. The clinical characteristics of patients were studied, and the rplD, rplV, and 23S rRNA domain V genes were sequenced to detected resistance-related mutations.

  5. A comparison of gastroenteritis in a general practice-based study and a community-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Kortbeek, L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Jager, C.J. de; Wannet, W.J.B.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    We compared gastroenteritis cases that consulted a general practitioner (GP) with those who did not in a community-based study and also with those in a GP-based study. We aimed to identify factors associated with consultation, and with inclusion of cases by GPs, and secondly to study the effects on

  6. Guidelines on acute gastroenteritis in children: A critical appraisal of their quality and applicability in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van den Berg (José); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reasons for poor guideline adherence in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children in high-income countries are unclear, but may be due to inconsistency between guideline recommendations, lack of evidence, and lack of generalizability of the recommendations to general practice.

  7. Viral Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition ... important salts or minerals, known as electrolytes. Infants, young children, older adults, and people with weak immune systems have the ...

  8. Acute viral gastroenteritis in children hospitalized in Iksan, Korea during December 2010 - June 2011

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    Cheol Whoan So

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Viral etiology is common in cases of children with acute diarrhea, and antibiotic therapy is usually not required. Therefore, it is important to determine the distribution of common viruses among children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Methods: We included 186 children who suffered from acute diarrhea and were hospitalized at the Wonkwang University Hospital Pediatric ward from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 in this study. Stool samples were collected and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (multiplex RT-PCR was used to simultaneously determine the viral etiology such as rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, or adenovirus.&lt;br&gt; Results: Causative viruses were detected in 72 of the 186 cases (38.7%. The mean age of the viruspositive cases was 1 year and 9 months (range, 1 month to 11 years. Rotavirus was detected in 50/186 (26.9%; norovirus, in 18/186 (9.7%; and astrovirus, in 3/186 cases (1.6%. Adenovirus was not detected in any of the cases. Proportions of norovirus genogroups I and II were 21.1% and 78.9%, respectively. Four of the 51 rotavirus-positive cases (7.8% had received rotavirus vaccination at least once. The mean duration of diarrhea was 2.8 days (range, 1 to 10 days and vomiting occurred in 39 of the 72 cases (54.2%.&lt;br&gt; Conclusion: Viral etiology was confirmed in about one-third of the children with acute diarrhea, and the most common viral agent was rotavirus, followed by norovirus.

  9. Oral ondansetron administration in emergency departments to children with gastroenteritis: an economic analysis.

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    Stephen B Freedman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of antiemetics for children with vomiting is one of the most controversial decisions in the treatment of gastroenteritis in developed countries. Ondansetron, a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, has been found to be effective in improving the success of oral rehydration therapy. However, North American and European clinical practice guidelines continue to recommend against its use, stating that evidence of cost savings would be required to support ondansetron administration. Thus, an economic analysis of the emergency department administration of ondansetron was conducted. The primary objective was to conduct a cost analysis of the routine administration of ondansetron in both the United States and Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost analysis evaluated oral ondansetron administration to children presenting to emergency departments with vomiting and dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis from a societal and health care payer's perspective in both the US and Canada. A decision tree was developed that incorporated the frequency of vomiting, intravenous insertion, hospitalization, and emergency department revisits. Estimates of the monetary costs associated with ondansetron use, intravenous rehydration, and hospitalization were derived from administrative databases or emergency department use. The economic burden in children administered ondansetron plus oral rehydration therapy was compared to those not administered ondansetron employing deterministic and probabilistic simulations. We estimated the costs or savings to society and health care payers associated with the routine administration of ondansetron. Sensitivity analyses considered variations in costs, treatment effects, and exchange rates. In the US the administration of ondansetron to eligible children would prevent approximately 29,246 intravenous insertions and 7,220 hospitalizations annually. At the current average wholesale price, its routine administration

  10. Acid‐suppression medications and bacterial gastr