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Sample records for gastrin restores normoglycemia

  1. Beta Cell Mass Restoration in Alloxan-Diabetic Mice Treated with EGF and Gastrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Song

    Full Text Available One week of treatment with EGF and gastrin (EGF/G was shown to restore normoglycemia and to induce islet regeneration in mice treated with the diabetogenic agent alloxan. The mechanisms underlying this regeneration are not fully understood. We performed genetic lineage tracing experiments to evaluate the contribution of beta cell neogenesis in this model. One day after alloxan administration, mice received EGF/G treatment for one week. The treatment could not prevent the initial alloxan-induced beta cell mass destruction, however it did reverse glycemia to control levels within one day, suggesting improved peripheral glucose uptake. In vitro experiments with C2C12 cell line showed that EGF could stimulate glucose uptake with an efficacy comparable to that of insulin. Subsequently, EGF/G treatment stimulated a 3-fold increase in beta cell mass, which was partially driven by neogenesis and beta cell proliferation as assessed by beta cell lineage tracing and BrdU-labeling experiments, respectively. Acinar cell lineage tracing failed to show an important contribution of acinar cells to the newly formed beta cells. No appearance of transitional cells co-expressing insulin and glucagon, a hallmark for alpha-to-beta cell conversion, was found, suggesting that alpha cells did not significantly contribute to the regeneration. An important fraction of the beta cells significantly lost insulin positivity after alloxan administration, which was restored to normal after one week of EGF/G treatment. Alloxan-only mice showed more pronounced beta cell neogenesis and proliferation, even though beta cell mass remained significantly depleted, suggesting ongoing beta cell death in that group. After one week, macrophage infiltration was significantly reduced in EGF/G-treated group compared to the alloxan-only group. Our results suggest that EGF/G-induced beta cell regeneration in alloxan-diabetic mice is driven by beta cell neogenesis, proliferation and recovery of

  2. Gastrin blood test

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    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  3. Pitfalls in diagnostic gastrin measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Bardram, Linda; Hilsted, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Gastrin measurements are performed primarily for the diagnosis of gastrin-producing tumors, gastrinomas, which cause the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Gastrin circulates as several bioactive peptides, however, and the peptide pattern in gastrinoma patients often deviates from normal. Therefor...

  4. Gastrin receptor characterization: affinity cross-linking of the gastrin receptor on canine gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, M.; Park, J.; Yamada, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors applied affinity cross-linking methods to label the gastrin receptor on isolated canine gastric parietal cells in order to elucidate the nature of its chemical structure. 125 I-labeled Leu 15 -gastrin and 125 I-labeled gastrin/sub 2-17/ bound to intact parietal cells and their membranes with equal affinity, and half-maximal inhibition of binding was obtained at an incubation concentration of 3.2 x 10 -10 M unlabeled gastrin. 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/ was cross-linked to plasma membranes or intact parietal cells by incubation in disuccinimidyl suberate. The membrane pellets were solubilized with or without dithiothreitol and applied to electrophoresis on 7.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Autoradiograms revealed a band of labeling at M/sub r/ 76,000 and labeling of this band was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by addition of unlabeled gastrin to the incubation mixture. Dithiothreitol in concentrations as high as 100 mM did not later the electrophoretic mobility of the labeled band. After taking into account the molecular weight of 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/, the results suggest that the gastrin receptor on parietal cells is a single protein of M/sub r/ 74,000 without disulfide-linked subunits

  5. Connective tissue growth factor is activated by gastrin and involved in gastrin-induced migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Bakke, Ingunn; Kumar, J; Beisvag, Vidar; Sandvik, Arne K; Thommesen, Liv; Varro, Andrea; Nørsett, Kristin G

    2016-06-17

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported in gastric adenocarcinoma and in carcinoid tumors. The aim of this study was to explore a possible link between CTGF and gastrin in gastric epithelial cells and to study the role of CTGF in gastrin induced migration and invasion of AGS-GR cells. The effects of gastrin were studied using RT-qPCR, Western blot and assays for migration and invasion. We report an association between serum gastrin concentrations and CTGF abundancy in the gastric corpus mucosa of hypergastrinemic subjects and mice. We found a higher expression of CTGF in gastric mucosa tissue adjacent to tumor compared to normal control tissue. We showed that gastrin induced expression of CTGF in gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells via MEK, PKC and PKB/AKT pathways. CTGF inhibited gastrin induced migration and invasion of AGS-GR cells. We conclude that CTGF expression is stimulated by gastrin and involved in remodeling of the gastric epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Basic studies on gastrin-radioimmunoassay and the results of its clinical application. Comparative studies between the double antibody method using Wilson's anti-gastrin serum and a gastrin kit (CIS) method

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    Yabana, T; Uchiya, T; Kakumoto, Y; Waga, Y; Konta, M [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-03-01

    Fundamental and practical problems in carrying out the radioimmunoassay of gastrin were studied by comparing the double antibody method, using guinea pig anti-porcine gastrin serum (Wilson Lab.) with the gastrin kit method (G-K, CIS). The former method was found to have a measurable gastrin concentration range between 60 and 1,000 pg/ml, whereas the range of the latter method was between 25 and 800 pg/ml. The reproducibility of each method was satisfactory. The G-K method was affected more readily by co-existing proteins, whereas the interferences by other biologically active factors, e.g., CCK/PZ, caerulein, etc., were negligible. While there was a highly significant correlation between the values, values obtained by the G-K method were generally slightly lower than the values obtained by the double antibody method. Results of fractionation analysis employing gel filtration of blood and tissue immunoreactive gastrin caused the authors to observe that the value of big gastrin as determined with the G-K method was lower than that obtained by the double antibody method, and that the difference was especially remarkable for gastrin in blood.

  7. Effects of gastrin on calcium homeostasis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, P.; Gagnemo-Persson, R.; Orberg, J.; Chen, D.; Hakanson, R.

    1991-01-01

    As in the rat, gastrin and an extract of the acid-producing part of the stomach (proventriculus) were found to lower the blood Ca2+ concentration in the chicken. Furthermore, gastrin enhanced the uptake of 45Ca into the femur. It has been suggested previously that gastrin causes hypocalcemia in the rat by releasing gastrocalcin, a hypothetical hormone thought to reside in the acid-producing part of the stomach. The results of the present study in the chicken are in agreement with this concept. Not only exogenous, but also endogenous gastrin lowered blood calcium levels. Thus, the serum gastrin concentration was increased in response to ranitidine-evoked blockade of the gastric acid output; the rise in gastrin was associated with a transient drop in blood calcium. Also, food intake produced a rise in the serum gastrin concentration and a transient drop in blood calcium. However, injection of ranitidine or food intake in proventriclectomized (acid-producing part of the stomach extirpated) chickens failed to lower blood calcium, supporting the view that the gastrin-evoked hypocalcemia depends upon an agent in the gastric (proventriculus) mucosa. The authors suggest that endogenous and exogenous gastrin evoke hypocalcemia in the chicken by the same mechanism as that which has been postulated in the rat, i.e. by mobilization of the candidate hormone gastrocalcin from endocrine cells in the acid-producing gastric mucosa

  8. Development and clinical application of human gastrin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginabreda, M.G.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Bettarello, A.

    1988-08-01

    The determination of human gastrin levels in the blood is very important for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. This work describes the radioimmunoassay of gastrin developed according to Russell et al. and its clinical application measuring fasting levels of this hormone in normal subjects, gastrectomized, chagasics, patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), pernicious anemia (PA) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Synthetic human gastrin was used for radioiodination and as standard, while the specific antibody was raised in rabbits. Gastrin was radioiodinated by a modification of the chloramine T technique and purified by anion exchange chromatography in QAE-Sephadex A-25 to a specific activity around 200 uCi/ug. The assays were performed by incubation of 125 I-gastrin, standard gastrin (zero to 500 pmol/l) or unknown samples with the antiserum for 4 days at 4 0 C. The antibody bound and free 125 I-gastrin was separated by adsorption of the latter to the charcoal. The basal gastrin values of normal subjects ranged from 2 to 74 pmol/l, being these levels higher in the chagasics (from 6 to 261 pmol/l). Higher levels of gastrin were determined in patients with CRF (from 12 to 350 pmol/l), PA (from 160 to 680 pmol/l) and with ZES(1010 pmol/l), while very low levels were confirmed in gastrectomized (from 1 to 8 pmol/l). (author) [pt

  9. Removal of endogenous gastrin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Rehfeld, J F

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of gastrin was determined in arterial and venous serum from the head, lung, liver, kidney, and legs in six fasting patients with mild hepatic parenchymatous disease. Extraction of gastrin could not be demonstrated in any of the vascular beds examined. The results indicate that g...

  10. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes...... in serum regardless of the prandial state. The rats were conscious during microdialysis except when subjected to electrical vagal stimulation. Acid blockade (omeprazole treatment of freely fed rats for 4 days), or bilateral sectioning of the abdominal vagal trunks (fasted, 3 days post-op.), raised...... the gastrin concentration in blood as well as microdialysate. The high gastrin concentration following omeprazole treatment was not affected by vagotomy. Vagal excitation stimulated the G cells: electrical vagal stimulation and pylorus ligation (fasted rats) raised the gastrin concentration transiently...

  11. Gastrin release: Antrum microdialysis reveals a complex neural control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, P; Håkanson, R; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    in both serum and microdialysate. Food intake induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in serum gastrin, while gastrin in antral microdialysate increased 10- to 15-fold. In unilaterally vagotomized rats (fasted, 3 days post-op.), food evoked a prompt peak gastrin release followed by a gradual decline on the intact......We used microdialysis to monitor local gastrin release in response to food, acid blockade and acute vagal excitation. For the first time, gastrin release has been monitored continuously in intact conscious rats in a physiologically relevant experimental setting in a fashion that minimizes...... in serum regardless of the prandial state. The rats were conscious during microdialysis except when subjected to electrical vagal stimulation. Acid blockade (omeprazole treatment of freely fed rats for 4 days), or bilateral sectioning of the abdominal vagal trunks (fasted, 3 days post-op.), raised...

  12. Gastrin radioimmunoassay. Description and application of a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.; Jakab, B.; Schweibert, I.; Szolcsanyi, J.; Oroszi, G.; Szilvassy, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Development and application of a novel gastrin radioimmunoassay (RIA) are described. 125 I-labeling of non-sulphated human gastrin-17 (nshG-17) was performed by the iodogen method and the mono-iodinated hormone, as RIA tracer, was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum gastrin levels were measured in response to intravenous application of isoproterenol, a non-selective beta and phenylephrine, a selective alpha-1 receptor agonist using a newly developed method specific for the C-terminal part of the hormone in rats. Isoproterenol at clinically relevant doses elicited a significant increase in serum gastrin concentration in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas phenylephrine was without effect. (author)

  13. The mechanism of gastrin release in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1982-01-01

    a rise in serum gastrin from 29 +/- 5 pg/ml to a maximum of 203 +/- 62 pg/ml after 3 h in unoperated rats, whereas no rise was seen in vagotomized or antrectomized rats. The beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol strongly inhibited cysteamine-induced gastrin release, whereas atropine dependent......Duodenal ulcer can be induced in rats by a single dose of cysteamine. The ulcer formation is accompanied by acid hypersecretion and elevated serum gastrin levels. This study was performed to elucidate the mechanisms of gastrin release after an ulcerogenic dose of cysteamine. Cysteamine induced...

  14. Gastrin is not a physiological regulator of pancreatic exocrine secretion in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, E.; Beglinger, C.; Eysselein, V.; Groetzinger, U.; Gyr, K.

    1987-01-01

    The role of gastrin as a regulator of exocrine pancreatic secretion has not been proven adequately. In the present study the authors therefore compared the relative molar potencies of sulfated and unsulfated gastrin 17 with structurally related CCK peptides (synthetic CCK-8 and natural porcine CCK-33) in stimulating exocrine pancreatic secretion in conscious dogs. Dose response curves were constructed for pancreatic and gastric acid secretion. Plasma gastrin levels after exogenous gastrin 17-I and -II were compared with postprandial gastrin concentrations. The molar potency estimates calculated with synthetic CCK8 as standard for pancreatic protein secretion were natural porcine 50% pure CCK-33 1.60, gastrin 17-I 0.12, and gastrin 17-II 0.16. All four peptides induced a dose-dependent increase in pancreatic bicarbonate output. However, the blood concentrations needed to stimulate pancreatic secretion were above the postprandial gastrin levels. The data indicate that both gastrin 17 peptides are not physiological regulators of pancreatic enzyme secretion in dogs

  15. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  16. Intraoperative maintenance of normoglycemia with insulin and glucose preserves verbal learning after cardiac surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schricker

    Full Text Available The hyperglycemic response to surgery may be a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesize that strict maintenance of normoglycemia during cardiac surgery preserves postoperative cognitive function.As part of a larger randomized, single-blind, interventional efficacy study on the effects of hyperinsulinemic glucose control in cardiac surgery (NCT00524472, consenting patients were randomly assigned to receive combined administration of insulin and glucose, titrated to preserve normoglycemia (3.5-6.1 mmol L(-1; experimental group, or standard metabolic care (blood glucose 3.5-10 mmol L(-1; control group, during open heart surgery. The patients' cognitive function was assessed during three home visits, approximately two weeks before the operation, and two months and seven months after surgery. The following tests were performed: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (RAVLT for verbal learning and memory, Digit Span Task (working memory, Trail Making A & B (visuomotor tracking and attention, and the Word Pair Task (implicit memory. Questionnaires measuring specific traits known to affect cognitive performance, such as self-esteem, depression, chronic stress and social support, were also administered. The primary outcome was to assess the effect of hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp therapy versus standard therapy on specific cognitive parameters in patients receiving normoglycemic clamp, or standard metabolic care.Twenty-six patients completed the study with 14 patients in the normoglycemia and 12 patients in the control group. Multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA for the RAVLT showed a significant effect for the interaction of group by visit (F = 4.07, p = 0.035, and group by visit by recall (F = 2.21, p = 0.04. The differences occurred at the second and third visit. MANCOVA for the digit span task, trail making and word pair association test showed no significant effect.Preserving intraoperative normoglycemia by

  17. Intraoperative maintenance of normoglycemia with insulin and glucose preserves verbal learning after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schricker, Thomas; Sato, Hiroaki; Beaudry, Thomas; Codere, Takumi; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Pruessner, Jens C

    2014-01-01

    The hyperglycemic response to surgery may be a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesize that strict maintenance of normoglycemia during cardiac surgery preserves postoperative cognitive function. As part of a larger randomized, single-blind, interventional efficacy study on the effects of hyperinsulinemic glucose control in cardiac surgery (NCT00524472), consenting patients were randomly assigned to receive combined administration of insulin and glucose, titrated to preserve normoglycemia (3.5-6.1 mmol L(-1); experimental group), or standard metabolic care (blood glucose 3.5-10 mmol L(-1); control group), during open heart surgery. The patients' cognitive function was assessed during three home visits, approximately two weeks before the operation, and two months and seven months after surgery. The following tests were performed: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (RAVLT for verbal learning and memory), Digit Span Task (working memory), Trail Making A & B (visuomotor tracking and attention), and the Word Pair Task (implicit memory). Questionnaires measuring specific traits known to affect cognitive performance, such as self-esteem, depression, chronic stress and social support, were also administered. The primary outcome was to assess the effect of hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp therapy versus standard therapy on specific cognitive parameters in patients receiving normoglycemic clamp, or standard metabolic care. Twenty-six patients completed the study with 14 patients in the normoglycemia and 12 patients in the control group. Multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for the RAVLT showed a significant effect for the interaction of group by visit (F = 4.07, p = 0.035), and group by visit by recall (F = 2.21, p = 0.04). The differences occurred at the second and third visit. MANCOVA for the digit span task, trail making and word pair association test showed no significant effect. Preserving intraoperative normoglycemia by intravenous

  18. Radioimmunoassay of gastrin level in duodenal ulcer, atrophic gostritis and Addison-Biermer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasik, J.; Kozal, H.; Kosowicz, J.; Hansz, J.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of gastrin level in the blood was performed in 20 controls, 12 patients with duodenal ulcer, 13 patients with atrophic gastritis and 14 patients with Addison-Biermer's disease. Gastrin level in the serum of the patients with duodenal ulcer did not differ significantly from that of controls. In atrophic gastritis and particularly in Addison-Biermer's disease gastrin level was found to be several times higher. This is probably a result of chronic gastrin secretion stimulation which is normally inhibited by gastric juice. (author)

  19. Induction of gastrin expression in gastrointestinal cells by hypoxia or cobalt is independent of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Kovac, Suzana; Chang, Mike; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S; Patel, Oneel

    2012-07-01

    Gastrin and its precursors have been shown to promote mitogenesis and angiogenesis in gastrointestinal tumors. Hypoxia stimulates tumor growth, but its effect on gastrin gene regulation has not been examined in detail. Here we have investigated the effect of hypoxia on the transcription of the gastrin gene in human gastric cancer (AGS) cells. Gastrin mRNA was measured by real-time PCR, gastrin peptides were measured by RIA, and gastrin promoter activity was measured by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Exposure to a low oxygen concentration (1%) increased gastrin mRNA concentrations in wild-type AGS cells (AGS) and in AGS cells overexpressing the gastrin receptor (AGS-cholecystokinin receptor 2) by 2.1 ± 0.4- and 4.1 ± 0.3-fold (P factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) or knockdown of either the HIF-1α or HIF-1β subunit did not affect gastrin promoter inducibility under hypoxia indicated that the hypoxic activation of the gastrin gene is likely HIF independent. Mutational analysis of previously identified Sp1 regulatory elements in the gastrin promoter also failed to abrogate the induction of promoter activity by hypoxia. The observations that hypoxia up-regulates the gastrin gene in AGS cells by HIF-independent mechanisms, and that this effect is enhanced by the presence of gastrin receptors, provide potential targets for gastrointestinal cancer therapy.

  20. Induction of Gastrin Expression in Gastrointestinal Cells by Hypoxia or Cobalt Is Independent of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)

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    Xiao, Lin; Kovac, Suzana; Chang, Mike; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S.; Patel, Oneel

    2012-01-01

    Gastrin and its precursors have been shown to promote mitogenesis and angiogenesis in gastrointestinal tumors. Hypoxia stimulates tumor growth, but its effect on gastrin gene regulation has not been examined in detail. Here we have investigated the effect of hypoxia on the transcription of the gastrin gene in human gastric cancer (AGS) cells. Gastrin mRNA was measured by real-time PCR, gastrin peptides were measured by RIA, and gastrin promoter activity was measured by dual-luciferase reporte...

  1. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnavion, Rémy; Teinturier, Romain; Jaafar, Rami; Ripoche, Doriane; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Rehfeld, Jens F; Lepinasse, Florian; Hervieu, Valérie; Pattou, François; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Bertolino, Philippe; Zhang, Chang Xian

    2015-10-01

    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas. It was proposed that the cellular origin of pancreatic gastrinomas may come from either the pancreatic cells themselves or gastrin-expressing cells which have migrated from the duodenum. In the current study, we further characterized previously described transient pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells using cell lineage tracing in a pan-pancreatic progenitor and a pancreatic endocrine progenitor model. We provide evidence showing that pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells, found from embryonic day 12.5 until postnatal day 7, are derived from pancreatic Ptf1a(+) and neurogenin 3-expressing (Ngn3(+)) progenitors. Importantly, the majority of them coexpress glucagon, with 4% coexpressing insulin, indicating that they are a temporary subpopulation of both alpha and beta cells. Interestingly, Men1 disruption in both Ngn3 progenitors and beta and alpha cells resulted in the development of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors, suggesting that the latter developed from islet cells. Finally, we detected gastrin expression using three human cohorts with pancreatic endocrine tumors (pNETs) that have not been diagnosed as gastrinomas (in 9/34 pNETs from 6/14 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in 5/35 sporadic nonfunctioning pNETs, and in 2/20 sporadic insulinomas), consistent with observations made in mouse models. Our work provides insight into the histogenesis of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Characterization of gastrins and their receptor in solid human gastric adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter; Eiland, Signe; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gastrin and the gastrin/CCK-B receptor genes are co-expressed in several carcinomas. The primary translational product, progastrin, however, is processed to several peptides of which only those that are α-amidated at their C-terminus are receptor ligands. So far, characterization o...

  3. Somatostatin and serum gastrin in normal subjects and in patients with pernicious anaemia, chronic liver and renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roith, D; Vinik, A I; Epstein, S; Baron, P; Olkenitzky, M N; Pimstone, B L

    1975-09-13

    The effects of somatostatin (growth hormone release inhibiting hormone) on basal gastrin were studied in patients suffering from pernicious anaemia and chronic renal and liver disease, and during sequential arginine/insulin-stimulated gastrin release in normal subjects. When basal gastrin concentrations were normal (10-50 pg/ml) in controls and in patients who were in renal and liver failure, somatostatin had no effect on gastrin levels. Raised basal gastrin levels in pernicious anaemia and in 2 cases of chronic renal disease, were significantly inhibited by somatostatin with a half-life (T-half) of 3 to 4 minutes. Arginine infusion caused an insignificant rise in serum gastrin which was unaffected by somatostatin, whereas insulin hypoglycaemia significantly stimulated gastrin release, which was inhibited by somatostatin.

  4. Standardization of the radioimmunoassay technique for the determination of human gastrin and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peig Ginabredra, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    It was developed and standardized a system of radioimmunoassay for the determination of gastrin, employing synthetic human gastrin for radioiodination and preparation of standard as well as specific antibody raised rabbits. The hormone was labeled with 125 I by the Cloramine T techique and purified by anion exchange chromatography in QAE-Sephadex A-25, being determined its specific activity. The tracer thus obtained was submitted to analysis of purity by poliacrilamide gel eletrophoresis and precipitation of proteins by trichloroacetic acid. Its stability evaluated according to the time of storage, being its purity and adequation for the use in radioimmunoassay also compared to a tracer obtained from a commercial diagnosis kit. The assays were performed by incubation of radioiodinated gastrin, standard gastrin prepared in plasma free from this hormone (from zero to 500 pmol/l) or samples to be assayed with the antiserum for 4 days at 4 0 C. The separation between the free gastrin and the gastrin bound to the antibody was carried out by adsorption of the free hormone to the charcoal, whose ideal concentration was previously determined. Plasma free from gastrin was obtained from time-expired blood bank plasma submitted to extraction with charcoal. When performed the quality control, this radioimmunoassay was shown specific, accurate, precise and sensitive, allowing the performance of valid assays. Its validation was even confirmed by clear discrimination not only of the gastrin concentration in subjects with very low levels (gastrectomized) and extremely high levels (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) as well as gastrin concentrations in subjects with other diseases, such as Chagas disease, pernicious anemia and chronic renal failure. (author) [pt

  5. Tumour gastrin expression and serum gastrin concentrations in dogs with gastric carcinoma are poor diagnostic indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, T.; Kolbjørnsen, Ø.; Jörundsson, E.

    2014-01-01

    Hypergastrinaemia is observed commonly in human patients with gastric carcinoma and is associated with atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, both of which predispose to development of gastric tumours. Increased expression of gastrin is also described as a prognostic indicator...

  6. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against...... that obtained with the most avid conventional gastrin antibodies. The results may encourage similar approaches for other peptides using homologue-raised antibodies when supersensitivity is required....

  7. Cholecystokinin inhibits gastrin secretion independently of paracrine somatostatin secretion in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Hansen, L; Hilsted, L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholecystokinin inhibits the secretion of gastrin from antral G cells, an effect that is speculated to be mediated by D cells secreting somatostatin. The aim of the study was to test directly whether cholecystokinin inhibition of antral gastrin secretion is mediated by somatostatin....... METHODS: The effects of CCK on gastrin and somatostatin secretion were studied in isolated vascularly perfused preparations of pig antrum before and after immunoneutralization brought about by infusion of large amounts of a high affinity monoclonal antibody against somatostatin. RESULTS: CCK infusion...... at 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M decreased gastrin output to 70.5% +/- 7.6% (n = 8) and 76.3% +/- 3.6% (n = 7) of basal output, respectively. CCK at 10(-10) M had no effect (n = 6). Somatostatin secretion was dose-dependently increased by CCK infusion and increased to 268 +/- 38.2% (n = 7) of basal secretion...

  8. Incretin physiology beyond glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: cholecystokinin and gastrin peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F

    2011-01-01

    and neonatal islets express significant amounts of gastrin, and human as well as porcine islet cells express the gastrin/CCK-B receptor abundantly. Therefore, exogenous gastrin and CCK peptides stimulate insulin and glucagon secretion in man. Accordingly, endogenous hypergastrinaemia is accompanied by islet...... cell hyperplasia and increased insulin secretion. Conventionally, the effect of gastrointestinal hormones on insulin secretion (the incretin effect) has been defined and quantified in relation to oral versus intravenous glucose loadings. Under these unphysiological conditions, the release of gastrin...

  9. Macrocyclic chelator-coupled gastrin-based radiopharmaceuticals for targeting of gastrin receptor-expressing tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, Stephan; Wang, Xuejuan; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Walter, Martin A.; Mueller-Brand, Jan [University Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean-Claude [University of Berne, Department of Pathology, Bern (Switzerland); Behe, Martin P. [Philipps-University of Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-coupled minigastrins are unsuitable for therapeutic application with the available {beta}-emitting radiometals due to low complex stability. Low tumour-to-kidney ratio of the known radiopharmaceuticals is further limiting their potency. We used macrocyclic chelators for coupling to increase complex stability, modified the peptide sequence to enhance radiolytic stability and studied tumour-to-kidney ratio and metabolic stability using {sup 111}In-labelled derivatives. Gastrin derivatives with decreasing numbers of glutamic acids were synthesised using {sup 111}In as surrogate for therapeutic radiometals for in vitro and in vivo studies. Gastrin receptor affinities of the {sup nat}In-metallated compounds were determined by receptor autoradiography using {sup 125}I-CCK as radioligand. Internalisation was evaluated in AR4-2J cells. Enzymatic stability was determined by incubating the {sup 111}In-labelled peptides in human serum. Biodistribution was performed in AR4-2J-bearing Lewis rats. IC{sub 50} values of the {sup nat}In-metallated gastrin derivatives vary between 1.2 and 4.8 nmol/L for all methionine-containing derivatives. Replacement of methionine by norleucine, isoleucine, methionine-sulfoxide and methionine-sulfone resulted in significant decrease of receptor affinity (IC{sub 50} between 9.9 and 1,195 nmol/L). All cholecystokinin receptor affinities were >100 nmol/L. All {sup 111}In-labelled radiopeptides showed receptor-specific internalisation. Serum mean-life times varied between 2.0 and 72.6 h, positively correlating with the number of Glu residues. All {sup 111}In-labelled macrocyclic chelator conjugates showed higher tumour-to-kidney ratios after 24 h (0.37-0.99) compared to {sup 111}In-DTPA-minigastrin 0(0.05). Tumour wash out between 4 and 24 h was low. Imaging studies confirmed receptor-specific blocking of the tumour uptake. Reducing the number of glutamates increased tumour-to-kidney ratio but resulted in

  10. Macrocyclic chelator-coupled gastrin-based radiopharmaceuticals for targeting of gastrin receptor-expressing tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, Stephan; Wang, Xuejuan; Maecke, Helmut R.; Walter, Martin A.; Mueller-Brand, Jan; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean-Claude; Behe, Martin P.

    2008-01-01

    Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-coupled minigastrins are unsuitable for therapeutic application with the available β-emitting radiometals due to low complex stability. Low tumour-to-kidney ratio of the known radiopharmaceuticals is further limiting their potency. We used macrocyclic chelators for coupling to increase complex stability, modified the peptide sequence to enhance radiolytic stability and studied tumour-to-kidney ratio and metabolic stability using 111 In-labelled derivatives. Gastrin derivatives with decreasing numbers of glutamic acids were synthesised using 111 In as surrogate for therapeutic radiometals for in vitro and in vivo studies. Gastrin receptor affinities of the nat In-metallated compounds were determined by receptor autoradiography using 125 I-CCK as radioligand. Internalisation was evaluated in AR4-2J cells. Enzymatic stability was determined by incubating the 111 In-labelled peptides in human serum. Biodistribution was performed in AR4-2J-bearing Lewis rats. IC 50 values of the nat In-metallated gastrin derivatives vary between 1.2 and 4.8 nmol/L for all methionine-containing derivatives. Replacement of methionine by norleucine, isoleucine, methionine-sulfoxide and methionine-sulfone resulted in significant decrease of receptor affinity (IC 50 between 9.9 and 1,195 nmol/L). All cholecystokinin receptor affinities were >100 nmol/L. All 111 In-labelled radiopeptides showed receptor-specific internalisation. Serum mean-life times varied between 2.0 and 72.6 h, positively correlating with the number of Glu residues. All 111 In-labelled macrocyclic chelator conjugates showed higher tumour-to-kidney ratios after 24 h (0.37-0.99) compared to 111 In-DTPA-minigastrin 0(0.05). Tumour wash out between 4 and 24 h was low. Imaging studies confirmed receptor-specific blocking of the tumour uptake. Reducing the number of glutamates increased tumour-to-kidney ratio but resulted in lower metabolic stability. The properties of the macrocyclic

  11. Treatment of Gastrin-Secreting Tumor With Sustained-Release Octreotide Acetate in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangho; Hosoya, Kenji; Takagi, Satoshi; Okumura, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    An 8 yr old, intact male Shiba Inu was presented with loose stool, polydipsia, hematuria, vomiting, and anorexia. On abdominal ultrasonography, numerous nodules were detected in the hepatic parenchyma distributed diffusely throughout all lobes. Excisional biopsy of one of the nodules was performed via exploratory laparotomy. A histopathological diagnosis of the lesion was carcinoid, and the tumor cells stained positive to chromogranin A and gastrin. The serum gastrin level of the dog was 45,613 pg/mL (reference range: 160-284). In addition to medical treatment with omeprazole(c) and famotidine(e), suppression of gastrin secretion was attempted with octreotide acetate. A test dose of octreotide acetate significantly decreased the serum gastrin level to approximately one third of the baseline in 2 hr and the effect lasted approximately for 6 hr. On day 21, treatment with sustained-release formulation of octreotide acetate(a) (5 mg intramuscular, q 4 wk) was initiated. The serum gastrin concentration gradually decreased over 32 days and then progressively increased in parallel with the progression of the hepatic nodules. The dog gradually developed recurrence of initial clinical signs, and was lost to follow-up on day 510.

  12. Effect of combined treatment with preoperative. gamma. -therapy on function of gastrin producing cells in patients with gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdov, B A; Vedzizheva, T B; Bassalyk, L S; Zagrebin, V M [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr)

    1982-04-01

    It is stated that preoperative irradiation with the dose of 20 Gy doesn't produce any considerable effect on function of the extragastric gastrin producing cells. Despite the decrease of reserve potentialities of gastrin producing cells in patients with stomach cancer the basal level of gastrin in the group of gastric cancer patients on the whole is higher than in practically healthy people. Radiotherapy results in the pronounced inhiibition of gastrin synthesis and secretion of gastrin producing cells.

  13. A Study on Fasting Serum Gastrin level in Normal Subjects and Various Gastric Diseases by Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Duck; Lee, Heon Sil; Park, Seung Uk; Park, Sung Hwi; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    The fasting serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 32 normal healthy subjects without recognized gastrointestinal symptoms and 93 patients with various gastric diseases, who were visited of admitted to National Medical Center from February to June, 1981. The following results were obtained; 1) The fasting mean serum gastrin level in normal subjects was 55.9+-26.3 pg/m1, and there was no difference between male and female. 2) The gastrin levels in gastric and duodenal ulcer were 85.0+-28.4 and 76.0+-43.0 pg/ml respectively, and it's values were elevated as compared with normal subjects. In gastric ulcer, the gastrin level was elevated than that of duodenal ulcer, but no significant difference in each other. 3) The gastrin level in stomach cancer was 89.5+-42.2 pg/ml, and it's values were markedly elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 4) The gastrin level in gastritis was 73.4+-37. 4 pg/ml, and it's values were elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 5) The gastrin level in post-gastrectomy state was 50.3+-16.3 pg/ml, and it's values were slightly decreased as compared with values in normal subjects.

  14. A Study on Fasting Serum Gastrin level in Normal Subjects and Various Gastric Diseases by Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Duck; Lee, Heon Sil; Park, Seung Uk; Park, Sung Hwi; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1981-01-01

    The fasting serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 32 normal healthy subjects without recognized gastrointestinal symptoms and 93 patients with various gastric diseases, who were visited of admitted to National Medical Center from February to June, 1981. The following results were obtained; 1) The fasting mean serum gastrin level in normal subjects was 55.9±26.3 pg/m1, and there was no difference between male and female. 2) The gastrin levels in gastric and duodenal ulcer were 85.0±28.4 and 76.0±43.0 pg/ml respectively, and it's values were elevated as compared with normal subjects. In gastric ulcer, the gastrin level was elevated than that of duodenal ulcer, but no significant difference in each other. 3) The gastrin level in stomach cancer was 89.5±42.2 pg/ml, and it's values were markedly elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 4) The gastrin level in gastritis was 73.4±37. 4 pg/ml, and it's values were elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 5) The gastrin level in post-gastrectomy state was 50.3±16.3 pg/ml, and it's values were slightly decreased as compared with values in normal subjects.

  15. A Study on Fasting Serum Gastrin level in Normal Subjects and Various Gastric Diseases by Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Duck; Lee, Heon Sil; Park, Seung Uk; Park, Sung Hwi; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    The fasting serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 32 normal healthy subjects without recognized gastrointestinal symptoms and 93 patients with various gastric diseases, who were visited of admitted to National Medical Center from February to June, 1981. The following results were obtained; 1) The fasting mean serum gastrin level in normal subjects was 55.9+-26.3 pg/m1, and there was no difference between male and female. 2) The gastrin levels in gastric and duodenal ulcer were 85.0+-28.4 and 76.0+-43.0 pg/ml respectively, and it's values were elevated as compared with normal subjects. In gastric ulcer, the gastrin level was elevated than that of duodenal ulcer, but no significant difference in each other. 3) The gastrin level in stomach cancer was 89.5+-42.2 pg/ml, and it's values were markedly elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 4) The gastrin level in gastritis was 73.4+-37. 4 pg/ml, and it's values were elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 5) The gastrin level in post-gastrectomy state was 50.3+-16.3 pg/ml, and it's values were slightly decreased as compared with values in normal subjects.

  16. Clinical relevance of radioimmunologic gastrin determination for peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesl, F.

    1980-01-01

    The clinical validity of the specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay was proved by the verification of the gastrin concentrations (given in the special literature) in the fasting serum of healthy control persons and of defined patient groups: duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, peptico-jejunal ulcer, chronically atrophic gastritis with and without pernicious anaemia, pyloric stenosis, gastric carcinoma and renal insufficiency. The result of the examinations carried out with a standardised beverage test was that the serum gastric release, which was basally and postprandially increased with respect to healthy control persons, is significantly increased by selective and proximal vagotomy in patients with chronically recurrent duodenal ulcer. Pyloroplasty has no significant influence on the serum gastrin reaction after selective proximal vagotomy. Contrary to that the reduced basal serum gastrin values of patients with Billroth II gastrectomy could not be stimulated by the beverage test. The basal and postprandial hypergastrinaemia existing after selective proximal vagotomy does not change significantly during the first postoperative year. In order to statistically compare such studies the authos suggests the 'integrated overall gastrin release'. Synchronous measurements of insulin and blood-sugar reactions do not give any indication that hypergastrinaemia, induced by selective proximal vagotomy, causes any change of the endocrine pancreatic function. Several own examples illustrate the higher diagnostic value of the secretin provocative and calcium infusion test in cases of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and that of the standardised beverage test in antral G-cell hyperplasia. In most cases the glucagon test is not required. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnavion, Rémy; Teinturier, Romain; Jaafar, Rami

    2015-01-01

    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas. It was proposed that the cellular origin of pancreatic gastrinomas may come from either the pancreatic cells themselves or gastrin-expressing cells which have ...

  18. The preparation of 125I - gastrin I and 125 - minigastrin for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewska-Szpocinska, E.; Markiewicz, A.

    2002-01-01

    Gastrin I G-17 and minigastrin G-13 were iodinated using direct methods with chloramin T and iodogen procedures and by indirect method with Bolton-Hunter reagent. 125 I - gastrin and 1 25 I - minigastrin were isolated from the iodination mixtures by gel filtration on Sephadex G-10 and Sephadex G-25 (PD-10 column) and by HPLC system (Lichrospher WP-300-RP-18 column). Radiochemical purity was shown by HPLC also. It was confirmed that iodogen procedure is the best for iodination of these peptides. 125 I - gastrin I obtained by this method with specific activity 80 μCi/nmol was homogeneous but iodination to higher specific activity (440μCi/nmol) caused appearance of two subfractions. 125 I - minigastrin with high and low specific activity were isolated by HPLC as the two forms (subfractions). It was shown that high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was the best method for isolation and purification of 125 I - gastrin I and 125 I - minigastrin. (author)

  19. Gastrin regulates ABCG2 to promote the migration, invasion and side populations in pancreatic cancer cells via activation of NF-κB signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan; Xin, Beibei; Wang, Hui; He, Xiaodan [School of Medicine, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti [Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Huanhu West Road, Tianjin 300060 (China); Shen, Xiaohong, E-mail: zebal2014@163.com [School of Medicine, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Gastrin is absent in most normal adult pancreatic tissues but is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Although Gastrin expression was reported to be associated with tumor proliferation in human pancreatic cancer, studies on the relationship between Gastrin and tumor metastasis in pancreatic cancer are rare. In this study, we performed an analysis to determine the effects of Gastrin on modulating the side populations, cell proportion and tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. We indicated that Gastrin and ABCG2 were widely expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines and overexpressed in cancer tissues. Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression, and this effect was mediated by NF-κB activation. Gastrin regulated the SP proportion of BxPC-3 cells via modulating ABCG2 expression. Through the regulation of the functions of NF-κB/ABCG2, Gastrin functionally promoted the migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cell. The present study indicated that Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression by activating NF-κB and thereby modulated the SP proportion, tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity in pancreatic cancer. Gastrin could serve as an effective therapeutic target for the metastasis of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Gastrin induces ABCG2 expression mediated by NF-κB activation. • Gastrin regulates NF-κB's function that binds to the ABCG2 promoter in BxPC-3 cells. • Gastrin promotes the SP proportion in BxPC-3 cells by modulating ABCG2 expression via activation of NF-κB molecule. • Gastrin induces an increase in migration and invasion potential in pancreatic cancer cell by regulating NF-κB/ABCG2 signaling.

  20. Quality control of radioiodinated gastrin for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginabreda, M.G.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Bettarello, A.

    1988-07-01

    Radioiodinated human gastrin has been prepared at IPEN laboratory for radioimmunoassay use. This work developed the quality control of this tracer analyzing parameters of the labelling reaction, chromatographic purification and radioimmunoassay. The radioiodination yield obtained in five experiments was reproducible and similar when analyzed on 7% polyaraylamide gel eletrophoresis - PAGE - (mean + - SD of 51.70 + - 10.76%) and by1 25 I incorporation checked through thrichloroacetic acid precipitation - TCA - (57-36 + - 9.69%). Similary, after purification the labelled gastrin revaled high and reproducible purity degree when submitted to PAGE (96.57 + - 1.06%) and CA (94.82 + - 4.20%) analysis. The respective specific activities varied from 62 to 307 uCi/ug, being determined by the self-displacement method, which is based on the immunoactivity of the tracer. In this way, the antibody titers required to bind 50% of the tracer ranged from 1:32.000 to 1:180.000. Consequently, the respective doses producing 50% fall in the maximum response of the radioimmunoassays ranged from 155.0 to 24.0 pmol/1, but remained unchanged for each tracer even after three months of its preparations. The tracers presented very low non-specific binding values (1.78 + - 0.79%), stablespecific binding values (46.49 + - 5.65%) and a good between-assay precision, evaluated by an internal quality control sample (25.71 + - 4.30%) with coefficient of variation of 16.74%). The PAGE analysis of the unlabeled gastrin used in the first and last radioiodination revealed an unique and unaltered component, confirming the quality of the tracers. (author) [pt

  1. Clinical significance of changes of serum gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema or chronic urticaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xianghong; Jiang Xiaoling; Chen Wei; Wang Jinglin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum levels of gastrin in patients with chronic eczema or chronic urticaria. Methods: Serum gastrin levels were, 37 patients with chromic urticaria and 43 controls. Results: Serum gastrin levels in patients with chronic exzema (102.95 ± 27.33 ng/L) and patients with chronic urticaria (109.87 ± 33.64 ng/L) were both significantly higher than those in controls (61.72 ± 20.38 ng/L, both P<0.01). Difference between the levels in the two patients groups was not significant. Conclusion: The high gastrin levels in those patients might reflect the presence of helicobacter pylori infections; eradication of which might be helpful for treatment of these chronic dermatologic disorders. (authors)

  2. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulce...... groups. It is concluded that sympathetic nervous activity and serum gastrin concentrations are not influenced by sham feeding in contrast to the influence of insulin hypoglycemia....... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  3. Improvement of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in three children by using gastrin-releasing peptide,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Michelin Becker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability and potential therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in three children with autistic spectrum disorder. Methods: Case series study with the intravenous administration of gastrin-releasing peptide in the dose of 160 pmol/kg for four consecutive days. To evaluate the results, parental impressions the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale. Each child underwent a new peptide cycle after two weeks. The children were followed for four weeks after the end of the infusions. Results: The gastrin-releasing peptide was well tolerated and no child had adverse effects. Two children had improved social interaction, with a slight improvement in joint attention and the interaction initiatives. Two showed reduction of stereotypes and improvement in verbal language. One child lost his compulsion to bathe, an effect that lasted two weeks after each infusion cycle. Average reduction in CARS score was 2.8 points. CGI was "minimally better" in two children and "much better" in one. Conclusions: This study suggests that the gastrin-releasing peptide is safe and may be effective in improving key symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, but its results should be interpreted with caution. Controlled clinical trials-randomized, double-blinded, and with more children-are needed to better evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in autism.

  4. Clinical significance of determination of serum contents of gastrin in patients with cancer of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Huaikai; Liu Suxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum contents of gastrin in patients with various benign and malignant gastric diseases. Methods: Serum contents of gastrin were determined with RIA in 40 patients with chronic superficial gastritis, 42 patients with gastric ulcer, 39 patients with gastric carcinoma and 38 controls. Results: Serum contents of gastrin in patients with chronic superficial gastritis (96.99 ± 19.80ng/L), gastric ulcer (99.61 ± 26.39ng/L) and gastric cancer (128.58 ± 21.39ng/L) were all significantly higher than those in controls (81.96 ± 13.67ng/L) (P<0.01). The contents in patients with gastric cancer were the highest and were significantly higher than those in both of the other two groups of patients (both P<0.01). Conclusion: Gastric cancer could express gastrin as an autocrine product, which in turn enhance the tumor proliferation of gastric adenocarcinoma cells. (authors)

  5. Improvement of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in three children by using gastrin-releasing peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michele Michelin; Bosa, Cleonice; Oliveira-Freitas, Vera Lorentz; Goldim, José Roberto; Ohlweiler, Lygia; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, tolerability and potential therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in three children with autistic spectrum disorder. Case series study with the intravenous administration of gastrin-releasing peptide in the dose of 160pmol/kg for four consecutive days. To evaluate the results, parental impressions the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale. Each child underwent a new peptide cycle after two weeks. The children were followed for four weeks after the end of the infusions. The gastrin-releasing peptide was well tolerated and no child had adverse effects. Two children had improved social interaction, with a slight improvement in joint attention and the interaction initiatives. Two showed reduction of stereotypes and improvement in verbal language. One child lost his compulsion to bathe, an effect that lasted two weeks after each infusion cycle. Average reduction in CARS score was 2.8 points. CGI was "minimally better" in two children and "much better" in one. This study suggests that the gastrin-releasing peptide is safe and may be effective in improving key symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, but its results should be interpreted with caution. Controlled clinical trials-randomized, double-blinded, and with more children-are needed to better evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in autism. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastrin and Cholecystokinin of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, Have Distinct Effects on Gallbladder Motility and Gastric Acid Secretion in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaj; Bomgren, Peter; Holmgren, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    distinct members of the CCK/gastrin family were identified in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), termed CCK and gastrin. Frog gastrin is very similar to CCK in the region defining biological activity. To evaluate whether the two endogenous peptides have distinct properties, their effects were studied...... values are 3.1 and 17.2 nM, respectively. Furthermore, gastrin had a significantly higher efficacy than CCK-8s. Thus, in spite of their close structural resemblance, there are clear differences between the two endogenous peptides in their action on gallbladder and gastric mucosa. It is concluded...

  7. Official criteria for diagnostics of diabetes mellitus, normoglycemia and glycemic self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kaminskiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the questions of diagnostics of diabetes mellitus (DM and early violations of carbohydrate metabolism. Venous plasma was underlined to be the only commonly accepted standard for blood glucose determination for prediabetes and diabetes mellitus diagnosis. In the third world countries (including Ukraine peripheral (capillary plasma of blood can be used for self-control and diagnostics of prediabetes and DM as their fasting values correspond to those of venous plasma and do not require revaluation. While using portable glucometers for carbohydrate violations diagnostics postprandial glucose value and after meal should be estimated in conversion. Normoglycemia is glucose concentration in venous plasma from 3.9 mmol/l (ADA criteria to 6.0 mmol/l (WHO criteria.

  8. Glycine-extended gastrin enhances somatostatin release from cultured rabbit fundic D-cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/8n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian LP Beales

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of the peptide hormone gastrin in stimulating gastric acid secretion is well established. Mature amidated gastrin is processed from larger peptide precursor forms. Increasingly these processing intermediates, such as glycine-extended gastrin (G-Gly and progastrin, have been shown to have biological activities of their own, often separate and complementary to gastrin. Although G-Gly is synthesized and secreted by gastric antral G-cells, the physiological functions of this putative mediator are unclear. Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK stimulate the secretion of somatostatin from gastric D-cells as part of the feedback control of gastric acid. In this study the effect of G-Gly and gastrin on the release of somatostatin from rabbit fundic D-cells was examined. D-cells were obtained by collagenase-EDTA digestion and elutriation and cultured for 48 hours. With a 2 hour exposure to the peptides, gastrin but not G-Gly stimulated somatostatin release. Treatment of D-cells for 24 hours with gastrin or G-Gly individually, significantly enhanced subsequent basal as well as CCK- and GLP-1-stimulated somatostatin release. Twenty four hours exposure to gastrin combined with G-Gly synergistically enhanced basal and agonist-stimulated somatostatin release and cellular somatostatin content. Gastrin and G-Gly may be important in the longer term regulation of D-cell function.

  9. Involvement of JAK2 upstream of the PI 3-kinase in cell-cell adhesion regulation by gastrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrand, Audrey; Kowalski-Chauvel, Aline; Bertrand, Claudine; Pradayrol, Lucien; Fourmy, Daniel; Dufresne, Marlene; Seva, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell transformation and proliferation. Besides aberrant cell proliferation, loss of cell-cell adhesion during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important event which occurs during development of epithelial cancers. However, the role of JAK-dependent pathways in this process is not known. We analyzed the involvement of these pathways in the regulation of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion by gastrin, a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We identified JAK2/STAT3 as a new pathway in gastrin signaling. We demonstrated that JAK2 functions as an upstream mediator of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI 3)-kinase activity in gastrin signaling. Indeed, we observed a coprecipitation of both kinases and an inhibition of gastrin-induced PI 3-kinase activation when JAK2 activity is blocked. We also demonstrated that loss of cell-cell adhesion and the increase in cell motility induced by gastrin required the activation of JAK2 and the PI 3-kinase. Indeed, the modifications in localization of adherens junctions proteins and the migration, observed in gastrin-stimulated cells, were reversed by inhibition of both kinases. These results described the involvement of JAK2 in the modulation of cell-cell adhesion in epithelial cells. They support a possible role of JAK2 in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition which occurs during malignant development

  10. Development of an injectable formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical 68Ga-DOTA-Sar gastrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo P, M.

    2015-01-01

    The CCK2 receptor (cholecystokinin) is located in areas of the central and peripheral nervous system and is over expressed in several types of human cancer, as medullar thyroid, lung and ovarian carcinomas. One of the endogenous ligands for the CCK2 receptor is the gastrin, so that radiolabeled peptides analogues to gastrin as Sar gastrin (Gln-Gly-Pro-Trp-Leu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-NH 2 ) have been proposed as potential diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for obtaining tumors images with CCK2 receptors over expressed. The 68 Ga is an ideal candidate for the peptides radiolabelled and has favorable characteristics to be used for diagnostic purposes by imaging with Positron emission tomography (PET). This work aimed to verify the technical documentation of the production process of radiopharmaceutical 68 Ga-DOTA-Sar gastrin for its sanitary registration before the Comision Federal contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS) in Mexico. For optimization of the production process was assessed a factorial design of two variables with mixed levels (27 combinations), where the dependent variable was the radiochemical purity. The analytical method used for evaluating the content of Sar gastrin peptide in the injectable formulation was also validated by High-performance liquid chromatography. Subsequently the validation of the production process was carried out by manufacturing of lots in single-dose of the optimized injectable formulation of the radiopharmaceutical 68 Ga-DOTA-Sar gastrin and the stability study was conducted at different times to determine the useful life time. The following was established as the optimal pharmaceutical formulation: 185 MBq of 68 Ga, 50 μg de DOTA-Sar gastrin, 14 mg of sodium acetate and 0.5 m L of buffer acetates, 1.0 M, ph 4.22 in 2.5 m L of the vehicle. The analytical method used to determine the radiochemical purity of the formulation satisfied the requirements for the intended analytical application. The lots in

  11. Helicobacter pylori-Induced HB-EGF Upregulates Gastrin Expression via the EGF Receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and Erk2 in the MAPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluka Gunawardhana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is associated with hypergastrinemia, which has been linked to the development of gastric diseases. Although the molecular mechanism is not fully understood, H. pylori is known to modulate the Erk pathway for induction of gastrin expression. Herein we found that an epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor kinase inhibitor significantly blocked H. pylori-induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting involvement of EGF receptor ligands. Indeed, H. pylori induced mRNA expression of EGF family members such as amphiregulin, EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF, and transforming growth factor-α. Of these, specific siRNA targeting of HB-EGF significantly blocked H. pylori-induced gastrin expression. Moreover, H. pylori induced HB-EGF ectodomain shedding, which we found to be a critical process for H. pylori-induced gastrin expression. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for human mature HB-EGF in stimulating gastrin promoter activity during H. pylori infection. Further investigation using specific siRNAs targeting each isoform of Raf, Mek, and Erk elucidated that the mechanism underlying H. pylori-induced gastrin expression can be delineated as the sequential activation of HB-EGF, the EGF receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and the Erk2 molecules in the MAPK pathway. Surprisingly, whereas Erk2 acts as a potent activator of gastrin expression, siRNA knockdown of Erk1 induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting that Erk1 typically acts as a repressor of gastrin expression. Elucidation of the mechanism of gastrin modulation by HB-EGF-mediated EGF receptor transactivation should facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against H. pylori-related hypergastrinemia and consequently gastric disease development, including gastric cancers.

  12. Helicobacter pylori-Induced HB-EGF Upregulates Gastrin Expression via the EGF Receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and Erk2 in the MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardhana, Niluka; Jang, Sungil; Choi, Yun Hui; Hong, Youngmin A; Jeon, Yeong-Eui; Kim, Aeryun; Su, Hanfu; Kim, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Merrell, D Scott; Kim, Jinmoon; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with hypergastrinemia, which has been linked to the development of gastric diseases. Although the molecular mechanism is not fully understood, H. pylori is known to modulate the Erk pathway for induction of gastrin expression. Herein we found that an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase inhibitor significantly blocked H. pylori -induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting involvement of EGF receptor ligands. Indeed, H. pylori induced mRNA expression of EGF family members such as amphiregulin, EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and transforming growth factor-α. Of these, specific siRNA targeting of HB-EGF significantly blocked H. pylori -induced gastrin expression. Moreover, H. pylori induced HB-EGF ectodomain shedding, which we found to be a critical process for H. pylori -induced gastrin expression. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for human mature HB-EGF in stimulating gastrin promoter activity during H. pylori infection. Further investigation using specific siRNAs targeting each isoform of Raf, Mek, and Erk elucidated that the mechanism underlying H. pylori -induced gastrin expression can be delineated as the sequential activation of HB-EGF, the EGF receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and the Erk2 molecules in the MAPK pathway. Surprisingly, whereas Erk2 acts as a potent activator of gastrin expression, siRNA knockdown of Erk1 induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting that Erk1 typically acts as a repressor of gastrin expression. Elucidation of the mechanism of gastrin modulation by HB-EGF-mediated EGF receptor transactivation should facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against H. pylori -related hypergastrinemia and consequently gastric disease development, including gastric cancers.

  13. Study on the relationship between peripheral blood red blood cells imuno-function status and serum gastrin level in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Fan Rong; Luo Honglai; Wang Ying; Tao Liangliang; Wang Zhenkai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between changes of peripheral blood red blood cells immuno-function status and serum gastrin level in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: RBC immuno-function status was studied with immune methods and serum gastrin level was measured with RIA in 51 patients with peptic ulcer and compared with 35 healthy control group. Results: RBC-C3bRR percentage was significantly lower in patients with peptic ulcer than that in controls (P<0.01), while serum gastrin level was significantly higher (P<0.01). RBC-C3bRR was significantly nagatively correlated to serum gastrin (r=-0.3828, P<0.01). RBC-ICRRR percentage was prominently higher than that in healthy controls (P<0.01), and RBC-ICRRR was positively correlated to serum gastrin level (r=0.4185, P<0.01). Conclusion: There were disturbance of RBC immune-regulation with suppressed immune function and higher gastrin levels in patients with peptic ulcer. (authors)

  14. An evaluation of chromogranin A versus gastrin and progastrin in gastrinoma diagnosis and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Bardram, Linda; Hilsted, Linda

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The value of chromogranin A (CgA) versus gastrin and progastrin in diagnosis and control of gastrinoma patients is not settled because the peptides circulate as variable mixtures. We have addressed this complexity using defined sequence-specific assays. PATIENTS & METHODS: Six assays were......-amidated gastrins have high diagnostic value except for singular patients in whom only progastrin was elevated. By contrast, CgA measurements are not valid in diagnosis or control of gastrinomas....

  15. Preclinical Evaluation of 68Ga-DOTA-Minigastrin for the Detection of Cholecystokinin-2/Gastrin Receptor–Positive Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Maarten; Joosten, Lieke; Laverman, Peter; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Béhé, Martin; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C.

    2011-01-01

    In comparison to somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, gastrin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA-minigastrin (MG0) showed added value in diagnosing neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether the 68Ga-labeled gastrin analogue DOTA-MG0 is suited for positron emission tomography (PET), which could improve image quality. Targeting of cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2)/gastrin receptor–positive tumor cells with DOTA-MG0 labeled with either 111In or 68Ga in vitro was investigated using the AR42J rat tumor cell line. Biodistribution was examined in BALB/c nude mice with a subcutaneous AR42J tumor. In vivo PET imaging was performed using a preclinical PET–computed tomographic scanner. DOTA-MG0 showed high receptor affinity in vitro. Biodistribution studies revealed high tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0: 4.4 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 1 hour postinjection. Coadministration of an excess unlabeled peptide blocked the tumor uptake (0.7 ± 0.1 %ID/g), indicating CCK2/gastrin receptor–mediated uptake (p = .0005). The biodistribution of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 was similar to that of 111In-DOTA-MG0. Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumors were clearly visualized by small-animal PET imaging with 5 MBq 68Ga-DOTA-MG0. 111In- and 68Ga-labeled DOTA-MG0 specifically accumulate in CCK2/gastrin receptor–positive AR42J tumors with similar biodistribution apart from the kidneys. AR42J tumors were clearly visualized by microPET. Therefore, 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 is a promising tracer for PET imaging of CCK2/gastrin receptor–positive tumors in humans. PMID:21439259

  16. Preclinical Evaluation of 68Ga-DOTA-Minigastrin for the Detection of Cholecystokinin-2/Gastrin Receptor-Positive Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Brom

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, gastrin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA-minigastrin (MG0 showed added value in diagnosing neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether the 68Ga-labeled gastrin analogue DOTA-MG0 is suited for positron emission tomography (PET, which could improve image quality. Targeting of cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive tumor cells with DOTA-MG0 labeled with either 111In or 68Ga in vitro was investigated using the AR42J rat tumor cell line. Biodistribution was examined in BALB/c nude mice with a subcutaneous AR42J tumor. In vivo PET imaging was performed using a preclinical PET-computed tomographic scanner. DOTA-MG0 showed high receptor affinity in vitro. Biodistribution studies revealed high tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0: 4.4 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 1 hour postinjection. Coadministration of an excess unlabeled peptide blocked the tumor uptake (0.7 ± 0.1 %ID/g, indicating CCK2/gastrin receptor-mediated uptake (p = .0005. The biodistribution of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 was similar to that of 111In-DOTA-MG0. Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumors were clearly visualized by small-animal PET imaging with 5 MBq 68Ga-DOTA-MG0. 111In- and 68Ga-labeled DOTA-MG0 specifically accumulate in CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive AR42J tumors with similar biodistribution apart from the kidneys. AR42J tumors were clearly visualized by microPET. Therefore, 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 is a promising tracer for PET imaging of CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive tumors in humans.

  17. Diagnostic value of determination of serum pepsinogen and gastrin levels in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhansen; Li Jingrong; Feng Jiandong; Wang Yuqiong; Fu Xiufeng; Zhang Lanfeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum pepsinogen and gastrin levels in patients with gastric/duodenal ulcer. Methods: Serum pepsinogen I (PG I), pepsinogen II (PGII), gastrin levels and PG I/PG II ratio were determined with RIA in 100 controls, 61 patients with duodenal ulcer, 46 patients with gastric ulcer, 66 patients with gastric cancer and 101 patients with chronic gastritis. Results: In patients with peptic ulcer (gastric/duodenal), the serum levels of PG I, PG II and PG I/PG II ratio were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.001); the serum gastrin levels were also significantly higher than those in controls and patients with chronic gastritis (P<0.001), but lower than those in patients with gastric cancer (P<0.001). Among patients with peptic ulcer, the serum PG I level and PG I/PG II ratio were significantly higher in patients with duodenal ulcer than those in patients with gastric ulcer (P<0.001). Conclusion: Excessive high serum levels of PG I, PG II, gastrin and PG I/PG II ratio were some of the high risk factors for peptic ulcer. Those were useful serum markers for diagnosis and follow-up of the disease. (authors)

  18. Study of the levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury for providing better treatment regimen. Methods: In this experiment, 8 or 10 domestic dogs were placed on each of four sites away from explosion center about 0, 100, 200, 300 meters respectively. The dogs were standing uncontrolled or lying right side down under anesthesia. Serum cortisol and gastrin levels were detected with RIA both before and after explosion. Results: The levels of serum cortisol and gastrin began to fall about 24 hours after explosion. The serum levels of cortisol were still decreased significantly after 9 days and 17 days. Conclusion: The levels of the serum cortisol declined when the animals were injured by vibration. Detection of serum cortisol levels might lead to definitive diagnosis and supplemental treatment with cortical hormones for vibration-induced injury. (authors)

  19. Clinical significance of changes of levels of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and gastrin in patients with chronic eczema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Haifeng; Bi Mingye; Shi Hejian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema. Methods: Serum levels of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin were determined with RIA in 30 patients with chronic eczema and 30 controls. Results: The levels of serum IL-2 were significantly lower in the eczema patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Both serum IL-10 and Gastrin levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema would be of help in monitoring the disease process and outcome prediction. (authors)

  20. Basic and clinical study on determination of gastrin in the blood by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonahara, Yoshio; Kato, Masayuki; Kashima, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasushi; Takahara, Yoshiko

    1975-01-01

    The usefulness of a radioimmunoassay kit in the determination of gastrin in the blood was examined with the following results. (1) The kit is best used within two weeks during which time its specific radioactivity remains high. Correction of the pH of the buffer solution must be conducted without fail. (2) If the temperature and time of the incubation are strictly controlled, it is possible to obtain almost the same results for each condition of time and temperature. (3) As for reproducibility, scattering was observed to some extent at high concentrations, but little at low concentrations. The recovery rate was as good as 100.6% on the average, indicating the usefulness of this method in clinical tests. (4) In 30 normal subjects, the blood levels of gastrin ranged from 52 to 123 (average 86.8 23.3) pg/ml. In gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers, it was normal or slightly higher. Further, duodenal ulcers showed higher blood levels than did gastric ulcers, and chronic gastritis showed values slightly higher than normal. It was also interesting that blood levels of gastrin were unusually high in megaloblastic anemias. (author)

  1. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binds to developing gastrin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Z H; Blom, J; Larsson, L I

    1998-03-01

    We have previously reported that antropyloric gastrin (G) and somatostatin (D) cells derive from precursor (G/D) cells that coexpress both hormones. We have now analyzed this endocrine cell pedigree for binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), which previously has been reported to represent a useful marker for cell differentiation. Subpopulations of G/D, D, and G cells were all found to express UEA-I binding. Labelling with bromodeoxyuridine showed that UEA-I positive G cells possessed a higher labelling index than UEA-I negative G cells. These data suggest that the UEA-I positive G cells represent maturing cells still involved in DNA synthesis and cell division. Electron microscopically, specific UEA-I binding sites were localized to the secretory granules and the apical cell membrane of G cells. We conclude that UEA-I represents a differentiation marker for G cells. Moreover, the presence of UEA-I binding sites in these cells may be relevant for Helicobacter pylori-mediated disturbances of gastric acid secretion and gastrin hypersecretion.

  2. The gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor on prostate cells--a novel target for bifunctional prostate cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzu, Alexander; Klose, Uwe; Sheikh, Sumbla; Echner, Hartmut; Kalbacher, Hubert; Deeg, Martin; Nägele, Thomas; Schwentner, Christian; Ernemann, Ulrike; Heckl, Stefan

    2014-02-14

    The means of identifying prostate carcinoma and its metastases are limited. The contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging clinical diagnostics are not taken up into the tumor cells, but only accumulate in the interstitial space of the highly vasculated tumor. We examined the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor as a possible target for prostate-specific detection using the C-terminal seven amino acid sequence of the gastrin peptide hormone. The correct sequence and a scrambled control sequence were coupled to the fluorescent dye rhodamine and the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium (Gd)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Expression analysis of the gastrin receptor mRNA was performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on PC3 prostate carcinoma cells, U373 glioma, U2OS osteosarcoma and Colo205 colon carcinoma cells. After having confirmed elevated expression of gastrin receptor in PC3 cells and very low expression of the receptor in Colo205 cells, these two cell lines were used to create tumor xenografts on nude mice for in vivo experiments. Confocal lasers scanning microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging showed a high specificity of the correct conjugate for the PC3 xenografts. Staining of the PC3 xenografts was much weaker with the scrambled conjugate while the Colo205 xenografts showed no marked staining with any of the conjugates. In vitro experiments comparing the correct and scrambled conjugates on PC3 cells by magnetic resonance relaxometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting confirmed markedly higher specificity of the correct conjugate. The investigations show that the gastrin receptor is a promising tumor cell surface target for future prostate-cancer-specific imaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Sundler, F; Rehfeld, J F

    1980-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry, gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity is found in sensory nerve cells in the ectoderm of the mouth region of hydra and in nerve cells in the endoderm of all body regions of the sea anemone tealia. These results are corroborated by radioimmunoassay: One hydra contains at lea...

  4. Serum gastrin and cholecystokinin are associated with subsequent development of gastric cancer in a prospective cohort of Finnish smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Gwen; Abnet, Christian C; Choo-Wosoba, Hyoyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastrin, which induces gastric acid secretion, and a structurally similar hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK)-a potent acid inhibitor, may each play a role in gastric cancer. However, few studies have investigated this hypothesis in humans. We therefore investigated whether serum gastrin...... or CCK concentrations at baseline were associated with the incidence of gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas (GNCA), oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinomas (EGJA) or gastric carcinoid tumours over 24 years of follow-up in a study nested within the all-male Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer...... suggest that high serum concentrations of gastrin may be associated independently with an increased risk of gastric cancer; the role of CCK in cancer risk is less clear....

  5. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor imaging in human breast carcinoma versus immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wiele, Christophe Van; Phonteyne, Philippe; Pauwels, Patrick; Goethals, Ingeborg; Van den Broecke, Rudi; Cocquyt, Veronique; Dierckx, Rudi Andre

    This study reports on the uptake of (99m)Tc-RP527 by human breast carcinoma and its relationship to gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRIP-R) expression as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methods: Nine patients referred because of a clinical diagnosis suggestive of breast carcinoma and 5

  6. Clinical significance of changes of plasma motilin and serum gastrin levels in children with bronchial asthma complicated with gastro-esophageal reflux (GER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xixiu; Li Lusheng; Chi Liuying; Zhao Xin; Mao Hongyu; Zhu Weiwei; Wang Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of blood levels of motilin gastrin and development of GER in children with bronchial asthma. Methods: Altogether 98 children with various forms of bronchial asthma were studied, in which 40 patients were complicated with symptomatic GER. Serum gastrin and plasma motilin levels were measured with RIA in all these 98 children and 30 controls. Barium swallow was performed in 76 children (including all the 40 with symptomatic GER) and anatomic GER was demonstrated in 31 patients (all with symptomatic GER except 4 in young infants who could not tell about symptom). No anatomic GER was shown in children without GER symptoms. Results: The blood levels of motilin and gastrin in all patients with symptomatic GER (barium swallow positive or not) were significantly lower than those in patients without GER symptoms and controls (P<0. 001). The hormone levels in asthmatic children without GER symptoms were still significantly lower than those in controls (P<0. 01). Conclusion: Plasma motilin and serum gastrin levels were markedly decreased in asthmatic children, especially in those with symptomatic and/or anatomic GER. Lowered motilin and gastrin levels might lead to development of GER and GER could further aggravate the attack of asthma. (authors)

  7. Comparative biodistribution of 12 {sup 111}In-labelled gastrin/CCK2 receptor-targeting peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverman, Peter; Joosten, Lieke; Eek, Annemarie; Roosenburg, Susan; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Peitl, Petra Kolenc [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Maina, Theodosia [National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Molecular Radiopharmacy, Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, Athens (Greece); Maecke, Helmut [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Aloj, Luigi [Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istituto Nazionale Tumouri, Naples (Italy); Guggenberg, Elisabeth von [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Queen Mary, University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology and Imaging, Institute of Cancer, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom); Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reubi, Jean-Claude [University of Berne, Institute of Pathology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor overexpression has been demonstrated in various tumours such as medullary thyroid carcinomas and small-cell lung cancers. Due to this high expression, CCK-2 receptors might be suitable targets for radionuclide imaging and/or radionuclide therapy. Several CCK-2 receptor-binding radiopeptides have been developed and some have been tested in patients. Here we aimed to compare the in vivo tumour targeting properties of 12 {sup 111}In-labelled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated gastrin/CCK2 receptor-binding peptides. Two CCK8-based peptides and ten gastrin-based peptide analogues were tested. All peptides were conjugated with DOTA and labelled with {sup 111}In. Biodistribution studies were performed in mice with subcutaneous CCK2/gastrin receptor-expressing tumours and with receptor-negative tumours contralaterally. Biodistribution was studied by counting dissected tissues at 1 and 4 h after injection. Both the CCK analogues displayed relatively low tumour uptake (approximately 2.5%ID/g) as compared to minigastrin analogues. Two linear minigastrin peptides (MG0 and sargastrin) displayed moderate tumour uptake at both 1 and 4 h after injection, but also very high kidney uptake (both higher than 48%ID/g). The linear MG11, lacking the penta-Glu sequence, showed lower tumour uptake and also low kidney uptake. Varying the N-terminal Glu residues in the minigastrin analogues led to improved tumour targeting properties, with PP-F11 displaying the optimal biodistribution. Besides the monomeric linear peptides, a cyclized peptide and a divalent peptide were tested. Based on these studies, optimal peptides for peptide receptor radionuclide targeting of CCK2/gastrin receptor-expressing tumours were the linear minigastrin analogue with six D-Glu residues (PP-F11), the divalent analogue MGD5 and the cyclic peptide cyclo-MG1. These peptides combined high tumour uptake with low kidney retention, and may

  8. Conformational studies of human [15-2-aminohexanoic acid]little gastrin in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles by 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammi, S.; Peggion, E.

    1990-01-01

    Human little gastrin is a 17 amino acid peptide that adopts a random conformation in water and an ordered structure in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles as well as in trifluoroethanol (TFE). The circular dichroism spectra in these two media have the same shape, indicative of a similar preferred conformation. The authors describe here the assignment of the proton NMR resonances and the conformational analysis of [Ahx 15 ] little gastrin in SDS micelles. Two-dimensional correlation techniques form the basis for the assignment. The conformational analysis utilizes NOE's, NH to C α H coupling constants, and the temperature coefficients of the amide chemical shifts. The NMR data indicate a helical structure in the N-terminal portion of the peptide. These results are compared with the conformation that the authors recently proposed for a minigastrin analogue (fragment 5-17 of [Ahx 15 ] little gastrin) in TFE

  9. [Serological tests of functional activity of the digestive system (gastrin, pepsinogen-I, trypsin), general IgE and serum cortisol levels in children with hepatitis A and B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagina, L S; Pavlov, Ch S; Fomin, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The mild form of hepatitis A and B with children is attended by a functional activity of pancreatic gland (tripsin), mucous coats of stomach and duodenum (gastrin) which permits to consider them as a factor of the risk of digestive organs combined pathology starting with the disease acuity. Differences in gastrin levels with children depending on hepatitis etiology were specified. Highest levels of gastrin were observed with persons suffering from hepatitis B.

  10. Transkriptionelle Regulation des Wachstumsfaktors Gastrin beim kleinzelligen- und nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinom

    OpenAIRE

    Zippert, Renate

    2000-01-01

    Die transkriptionelle Regulation der Expression von Gastrin in SCLC- und NSCLC-Zellen war bisher nicht untersucht worden. Die Klonierung der 5´-flankierenden Sequenzen des Gastringens und die Herstellung von Gastrinpromotor-Reportergenkonstrukten ermöglichte eine vergleichende funktionelle Untersuchung der Gastrinpromotor-Aktivität in der SCLC-Zellinie H69, der NSCLC-Zellinie 32M1 und der Mesotheliom-Zellinie MSTO-211H. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen konnten so eine zelltypspezifisc...

  11. Study on the changes of serum levels of polypeptide growth factors (EGF, TGF-α) and related hormones (gastrin, somatostatin) in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianfan; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible roles of EGF, TGF-α, gastrin and somatostatin in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer by measuring the changes of serum levels of those four parameters in the patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), gastrin (Gas) and somatostatin (SS) were measured with RIA in 30 patients with gastric ulcer, 32 patients with duodenal ulcer and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of gastrin and EGF were significantly higher in the patients with peptic ulcer than those in the controls (both P 0.05). However, serum TGF-α levels were significantly lower in the ulcer patients than those in the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of serum levels of gastrin, EGF and TGF-α were quite significant in the ulcer patients and determining of which might be of clinical meanings. Determination of somatostatin changes seemed to be of less importance. (authors)

  12. Serum gastrin level in pregnancy running a normal course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milev, N; Todorov, G; Pumpalov, A; Ignatov, A [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya

    1982-01-01

    The serum gastrin level (SGL) is studied in dynamics during each lunar month of pregnancy in order to accumulate data which may serve the purpose of a tentative standard for serum gastrin level in this peculiar physiologic condition. A group of 110 pregnant women with a normal development of pregnancy, as documented by the clinical and paraclinical examination, are covered by the study. Blood samples are taken before meal, and a radioimmunologic method is used for SGL assessment. The number of women analyzed and the mean age by lunar months are shown. The normal value established in nonpregnant women of the same age group is 28+-7 mg/ml, relative to which the average values during the first five i.m. do not show statistically significant differences. During the 6th l.m. SGL increases to 68.5 mg/ml, while after the 7th l.m. values are recorded exceeding 1aa mg/ml with a maximum observed in the 8th and 9th l.m. The mechanisms eventually involved in the occurrence of gastrinemia during the second half of pregnancy are discussed, e.g. 1/mechanical compression of the stomach by the progressively growing uterus, 2/decreased breakdown, inhibition and elimimation of the hormone by the kidneys, and 3/possible correlative dependence between changes in SGL and changes in the level of hormones playing a predominant role in the hormonal status after the fifth month of pregnancy.

  13. The value of determining the level of serum gastrin and time of gastric emptying in children with simple anorexia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dexi; Ma Lixia; Lu Junzheng; Liu Ningjia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the level of serum gastrin and gastric emptying time for the liquid and solid foods in children with simple anorexia, so that it will benefit etiological diagnosis and pertinence therapy of the disease. Methods: 34 children with anorexia were recruited. 22 patients had simple anorexia (11 boys, 11 girls, median age 4.9 years). The other 12 patients had gastritis and/or gastric ulcer at the same time (3 boys, 9 girls, median age 7.3 years). 10 normal children (4 boys, 6 girls, median age 5.6 years) were compared with the patients. Serum gastrin was determined by radioimmunoassay. Gastric emptying times of the liquid and solid foods that were labelled with 113m In-DTPA were measured by nuclear multifunction instrument and nuclear imaging equipment. The gastric emptying curve for the liquid food was drawn for 15 minutes after drinking the tracer. Then, abdominal scintigraphy was performed at 1.5 hours after eating solid food containing the trace. Results: (1) Gastrin level: The level of serum gastrin was 133.7 ± 27 pg/ml in the control group, 209.7 ± 81 pg/ml in the simple anorexia group and 187.4 ± 44 pg/ml in the gastritis and/or gastric ulcer group. There was significant difference between simple anorexia group and control group (P 0.05). (2) Gastric emptying time: 8 of 14 patients with simple anorexia had prolonged gastric emptying of liquid food (57%), 6 patients (43%) had duodenogastric reflux. 5 of 12 patients (42%) with simple anorexia had delayed gastric emptying of solid food. Conclusion: Results show that simple anorexia in children may be the prophase symptom of functional indigestion. Therefore, to determine the level of serum gastrin and time of gastric emptying in children with simple anorexia may benefit etiological diagnosis and pertinence therapy. This may help to prevent chronic gastritis or gastric ulcer

  14. Gastrin-releasing peptide is a transmitter mediating porcine gallbladder contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Birgit; Poulsen, S.S.; Schmidt, P.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) for porcine gallbladder motility. Immunohistochemistry visualized nerve fibers containing GRP-like immunoreactivity in muscularis. GRP concentration dependently stimulated contractions of muscularis strips (ED50, 2.9 nM). Neuromedin B was les......-like immunoreactivity. Thus two neural inputs were defined: a cholinergic rapid onset-rapid offset excitation and a delayed, slow onset-slow offset excitation caused by release and subsequent binding of GRP to GRP-preferring receptors....

  15. (99m)Tc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: Distinct impact of NEP/ACE-inhibition on stability and tumor uptake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Nock, Berthold A; Lymperis, Emmanouil; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion; Maina, Theodosia

    2016-06-01

    In situ inhibition of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) has been recently shown to impressively increase the bioavailability and tumor uptake of biodegradable gastrin radioligands. Furthermore, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been previously shown to cleave gastrin analogs in vitro. In the present study, we have assessed the effects induced by single or dual NEP/ACE-inhibition on the pharmacokinetic profile of three (99m)Tc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: [(99m)Tc]SG6 ([(99m)Tc-N4-Gln(1)]gastrin(1-17)), [(99m)Tc]DG2 ([(99m)Tc-N4-Gly(4),DGlu(5)]gastrin(4-17)) and [(99m)Tc]DG4 ([(99m)Tc-N4-DGlu(10)]gastrin(10-17)). Mouse blood samples were collected 5min after injection of each of [(99m)Tc]SG6/DG2/DG4 together with: a) vehicle, b) the NEP-inhibitor phosphoramidon (PA), c) the ACE-inhibitor lisinopril (Lis), or d) PA plus Lis and were analyzed by RP-HPLC for radiometabolite detection. Biodistribution was studied in SCID mice bearing A431-CCK2R(+/-) xenografts at 4h postinjection (pi). [(99m)Tc]SG6 or [(99m)Tc]DG4 was coinjected with either vehicle or the above described NEP/ACE-inhibitor regimens; for [(99m)Tc]DG2 control and PA animal groups were only included. Treatment of mice with PA induced significant stabilization of (99m)Tc-radiotracers in peripheral blood, while treatment with Lis or Lis+PA affected the stability of des(Glu)5 [(99m)Tc]DG4 only. In line with these findings, PA coinjection led to notable amplification of tumor uptake of radiopeptides compared to controls (PTc]DG4 profited by single Lis (2.06±0.39%ID/g vs 0.99±0.13%ID/g in controls) or combined Lis+PA coinjection (8.91±1.61%ID/g vs 4.89±1.33%ID/g in PA-group). Furthermore, kidney uptake remained favourably low and unaffected by PA and/or Lis coinjection only in the case of [(99m)Tc]DG4 (Tc-radioligands based on different-length gastrins. Truncated [(99m)Tc]DG4 exhibited overall the most attractive profile during combined NEP/ACE-inhibition in mouse models, providing new

  16. Total pepsin activity and gastrin in sera as markers of eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshkholgh, M.; Saberi-Firoozi, M.; Fattahi, M.; Siavoshi, F.; Khatibian, M.; Vahedi, H.; Mikaeli, J.; Ansari, R.; Alizadeh, B.; Malekzadeh, R.; Massarrat, S.

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of total pepsin activity by colorimetry, and gastrin by radioimmunoassay method was performed on the sera of 100 patients (80 with duodenal ulcer and 20 with non-ulcer dyspepsia) before and 4 weeks after the end of antibacterial treatment for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. While

  17. 99mTc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: Distinct impact of NEP/ACE-inhibition on stability and tumor uptake in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Nock, Berthold A.; Lymperis, Emmanouil; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de; Maina, Theodosia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In situ inhibition of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) has been recently shown to impressively increase the bioavailability and tumor uptake of biodegradable gastrin radioligands. Furthermore, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been previously shown to cleave gastrin analogs in vitro. In the present study, we have assessed the effects induced by single or dual NEP/ACE-inhibition on the pharmacokinetic profile of three 99m Tc-labeled gastrins of varying peptide chain length: [ 99m Tc]SG6 ([ 99m Tc-N 4 -Gln 1 ]gastrin(1–17)), [ 99m Tc]DG2 ([ 99m Tc-N 4 -Gly 4 ,DGlu 5 ]gastrin(4–17)) and [ 99m Tc]DG4 ([ 99m Tc-N 4 -DGlu 10 ]gastrin(10–17)). Methods: Mouse blood samples were collected 5 min after injection of each of [ 99m Tc]SG6/DG2/DG4 together with: a) vehicle, b) the NEP-inhibitor phosphoramidon (PA), c) the ACE-inhibitor lisinopril (Lis), or d) PA plus Lis and were analyzed by RP-HPLC for radiometabolite detection. Biodistribution was studied in SCID mice bearing A431-CCK2R(+/−) xenografts at 4 h postinjection (pi). [ 99m Tc]SG6 or [ 99m Tc]DG4 was coinjected with either vehicle or the above described NEP/ACE-inhibitor regimens; for [ 99m Tc]DG2 control and PA animal groups were only included. Results: Treatment of mice with PA induced significant stabilization of 99m Tc-radiotracers in peripheral blood, while treatment with Lis or Lis + PA affected the stability of des(Glu) 5 [ 99m Tc]DG4 only. In line with these findings, PA coinjection led to notable amplification of tumor uptake of radiopeptides compared to controls (P < 0.01). Only [ 99m Tc]DG4 profited by single Lis (2.06 ± 0.39%ID/g vs 0.99 ± 0.13%ID/g in controls) or combined Lis + PA coinjection (8.91 ± 1.61%ID/g vs 4.89 ± 1.33%ID/g in PA-group). Furthermore, kidney uptake remained favourably low and unaffected by PA and/or Lis coinjection only in the case of [ 99m Tc]DG4 (< 1.9%ID/g) resulting in the most optimal tumor-to-kidney ratios. Conclusions: In situ NEP

  18. Temporal changes in concentrations of lipids and apolipoprotein B among adults with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and normoglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1991 to 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Earl S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is characterized by profound lipid abnormalities. The objective of this study was to examine changes in concentrations of lipids and apolipoprotein B among participants stratified by glycemic status (diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and normoglycemia in the United States from 1988–1991 to 2005–2008. Methods We used data from 3202 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III (1988–1991 and 3949 participants aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2005–2008. Results Among participants of all four groups, unadjusted and adjusted mean concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B, but not triglycerides, decreased significantly. Among participants with prediabetes and normoglycemia, unadjusted and adjusted mean concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly. Adjusted mean log-transformed concentrations of triglycerides decreased in adults with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. During 2005–2008, unadjusted concentrations of apolipoprotein B ≥80 mg/dl were observed in 72.8% of participants with diagnosed diabetes, 87.9% of participants with undiagnosed diabetes, 86.6% of participants with prediabetes, and 77.2% of participants with normoglycemia. The unadjusted use of cholesterol-lowering medications rose rapidly, especially among participants with diabetes (from ~1% to ~49%, P Conclusion Lipid profiles of adults with diabetes improved during the approximately 16-year study period. Nevertheless, large percentages of adults continue to have elevated concentrations of apolipoprotein B.

  19. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    to consist of one main form, namely the 27-amino acid peptide originally extracted from porcine stomach, and small amounts of a C-terminal fragment identical with the C-terminal 10-amino acid peptide. Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity released from the isolated perfused porcine pancreas during...... electrical vagal stimulation was shown by gel filtration to consist of the same two forms. By use of immunocytochemical techniques employing an antiserum directed against its N terminus, GRP was localized to varicose nerve fibers in close association with the exocrine tissue of the porcine pancreas...... in particular. Some fibers were found penetrating into pancreatic islets also. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies as well as fibers were found within intrapancreatic ganglia. The potency of GRP in stimulating exocrine as well as endocrine secretion from the porcine pancreas, its presence in close contact...

  20. Incretin physiology beyond glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: cholecystokinin and gastrin peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F

    2011-01-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormone systems known to regulate gastric acid secretion, gallbladder emptying, and cell growth in the pancreas and stomach. They are, however, also involved in the development and secretory functions of pancreatic islet cells. For instance, foetal...

  1. Evaluation of Gastric pH and Serum Gastrin Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, M K; Olin, S; MacLane, S; Gould, E; Steiner, J M; Vaden, S; Price, J

    2017-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in cats. Advanced CKD is associated with hyporexia and vomiting, which typically are attributed to uremic toxins and gastric hyperacidity. However, gastric pH studies have not been performed in cats with CKD. To determine if cats with CKD have decreased gastric pH compared to age-matched, healthy cats. Based on previous work demonstrating an association of hypergastrinemia and CKD, we hypothesized that cats with CKD would have decreased gastric pH compared to healthy, age-matched control cats. 10 CKD cats; 9 healthy control cats. All cats with concurrent disease were excluded on the basis of history, physical examination, CBC, plasma biochemistry profile, urinalysis, urine culture, serum total thyroxine concentration, and serum symmetric dimethylarginine concentration (controls only) obtained within 24 hours of pH monitoring and assessment of serum gastrin concentrations. Serum for gastrin determination was collected, and 12-hour continuous gastric pH monitoring was performed in all cats. Serum gastrin concentration, mean pH, and percentage time that gastric pH was strongly acidic (pH pH parameters including mean ± SD gastric pH (CKD, 1.8 ± 0.5; healthy, 1.6 ± 0.3; P-value = 0.23). These findings suggest that cats with CKD may not have gastric hyperacidity compared to healthy cats and, therefore, may not need acid suppression. Thus, further studies to determine if there is a benefit to acid suppression in cats with CKD are warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Intraoperative tight glucose control using hyperinsulinemic normoglycemia increases delirium after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saager, Leif; Duncan, Andra E; Yared, Jean-Pierre; Hesler, Brian D; You, Jing; Deogaonkar, Anupa; Sessler, Daniel I; Kurz, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative delirium is common in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. Tight glucose control has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity. Therefore, the authors sought to determine the effect of tight intraoperative glucose control using a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp approach on postoperative delirium in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors enrolled 198 adult patients having cardiac surgery in this randomized, double-blind, single-center trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either tight intraoperative glucose control with a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp (target blood glucose, 80 to 110 mg/dl) or standard therapy (conventional insulin administration with blood glucose target, battery. The authors considered patients to have experienced postoperative delirium when Confusion Assessment Method testing was positive at any assessment. A positive Confusion Assessment Method was defined by the presence of features 1 (acute onset and fluctuating course) and 2 (inattention) and either 3 (disorganized thinking) or 4 (altered consciousness). Patients randomized to tight glucose control were more likely to be diagnosed as being delirious than those assigned to routine glucose control (26 of 93 vs. 15 of 105; relative risk, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.37; P = 0.03), after adjusting for preoperative usage of calcium channel blocker and American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status. Delirium severity, among patients with delirium, was comparable with each glucose management strategy. Intraoperative hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemia augments the risk of delirium after cardiac surgery, but not its severity.

  3. Phage display selection of fully human antibody fragments to inhibit growth-promoting effects of glycine-extended gastrin 17 on human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Shirin; Tohidkia, Mohammad Reza; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Mehdipour, Tayebeh; Fathi, Farzaneh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2018-06-09

    Glycine-extended gastrin 17 (G17-Gly), a dominant processing intermediate of gastrin gene, has been implicated in the development or maintenance of colorectal cancers (CRCs). Hence, neutralizing G17-Gly activity by antibody entities can provide a potential therapeutic strategy in the patients with CRCs. To this end, we isolated fully human antibody fragments from a phage antibody library through biopanning against different epitopes of G17-Gly in order to obtain the highest possible antibody diversity. ELISA screening and sequence analysis identified 2 scFvs and 4 V L antibody fragments. Kinetic analysis of the antibody fragments by SPR revealed K D values to be in the nanomolar range (87.9-334 nM). The selected anti-G17-Gly antibody fragments were analyzed for growth inhibition and apoptotic assays in a CRC cell line, HCT-116, which is well-characterized for expressing gastrin intermediate species but not amidated gastrin. The antibody fragments exhibited significant inhibition of HCT-116 cells proliferation ranging from 36.5 to 73% of controls. Further, Annexin V/PI staining indicated that apoptosis rates of scFv H8 and V L G8 treated cells were 45.8 and 63%, respectively. Based on these results, we for the first time, demonstrated the isolation of anti-G17-Gly human scFv and V L antibodies with potential therapeutic applications in G17-Gly-responsive tumors.

  4. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide and Glucose Metabolism Following Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharkar, Sayali A; Drury, Marie; Walia, Monika; Korc, Murray; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-08-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a pluripotent peptide that has been implicated in both gastrointestinal inflammatory states and classical chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) after pancreatitis, an exemplar inflammatory disease involving the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones as well as cytokines. While GRP is involved in secretion of many of them, it is not known whether GRP has a role in AGM. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between GRP and AGM following pancreatitis. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure GRP, blood glucose, insulin, amylin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, cholecystokinin, gastric-inhibitory peptide (GIP), gastrin, ghrelin, glicentin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and 2, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY (PYY), secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin-6. Modified Poisson regression analysis and linear regression analyses were conducted. Four statistical models were used to adjust for demographic, metabolic, and pancreatitis-related risk factors. A total of 83 individuals after an episode of pancreatitis were recruited. GRP was significantly associated with AGM, consistently in all four models (P -trend < 0.05), and fasting blood glucose contributed 17% to the variance of GRP. Further, GRP was significantly associated with glucagon (P < 0.003), MCP-1 (P < 0.025), and TNF-α (P < 0.025) - consistently in all four models. GRP was also significantly associated with PP and PYY in three models (P < 0.030 for both), and with GIP and glicentin in one model (P = 0.001 and 0.024, respectively). Associations between GRP and other pancreatic and gut hormones were not significant. GRP is significantly increased in patients with AGM after pancreatitis and is associated with increased levels of pro

  5. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Hypoglycemia-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Recovery in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkster, Berit E; Zammitt, Nicola N; Ritchie, Stuart J; Deary, Ian J; Morrison, Ian; Frier, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    To ascertain whether hypoglycemia in association with sleep deprivation causes greater cognitive dysfunction than hypoglycemia alone and protracts cognitive recovery after normoglycemia is restored. Fourteen adults with type 1 diabetes underwent a hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemic clamp on two separate occasions. Before one glucose clamp, the participants stayed awake overnight to induce sleep deprivation. Participants were randomized and counterbalanced to the experimental condition. Cognitive function tests were performed before and during hypoglycemia and for 90 min after restoration of normoglycemia. Cognitive impairment during hypoglycemia did not differ significantly between the sleep-deprived and non-sleep-deprived conditions. However, in the sleep-deprived state, digit symbol substitution scores and choice reaction times were significantly poorer during recovery (P sleep deprivation, such as tiredness, were removed. Hypoglycemia per se produced a significant decrement in cognitive function; coexisting sleep deprivation did not have an additive effect. However, after restoration of normoglycemia, preceding sleep deprivation was associated with persistence of hypoglycemic symptoms and greater and more prolonged cognitive dysfunction during the recovery period. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Restoration of euglycemia after duodenal bypass surgery is reliant on central and peripheral inputs in Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Bae, Eun Ju; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Oliver, Jason; Marathe, Chaitra; Chen, Michael; Hsu, Jer-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Tian, Hui; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Saberi, Maziyar

    2013-04-01

    Gastrointestinal bypass surgeries that result in rerouting and subsequent exclusion of nutrients from the duodenum appear to rapidly alleviate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia independent of weight loss. While the mechanism(s) responsible for normalization of glucose homeostasis remains to be fully elucidated, this rapid normalization coupled with the well-known effects of vagal inputs into glucose homeostasis suggests a neurohormonally mediated mechanism. Our results show that duodenal bypass surgery on obese, insulin-resistant Zucker fa/fa rats restored insulin sensitivity in both liver and peripheral tissues independent of body weight. Restoration of normoglycemia was attributable to an enhancement in key insulin-signaling molecules, including insulin receptor substrate-2, and substrate metabolism through a multifaceted mechanism involving activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and downregulation of key regulatory genes involved in both lipid and glucose metabolism. Importantly, while central nervous system-derived vagal nerves were not essential for restoration of insulin sensitivity, rapid normalization in hepatic gluconeogenic capacity and basal hepatic glucose production required intact vagal innervation. Lastly, duodenal bypass surgery selectively altered the tissue concentration of intestinally derived glucoregulatory hormone peptides in a segment-specific manner. The present data highlight and support the significance of vagal inputs and intestinal hormone peptides toward normalization of glucose and lipid homeostasis after duodenal bypass surgery.

  7. Netazepide, a gastrin receptor antagonist, normalises tumour biomarkers and causes regression of type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumours in a nonrandomised trial of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Moore

    Full Text Available Autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG causes hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinaemia, which can lead to enterochromaffin-like (ECL cell hyperplasia and gastric neuroendocrine tumours (type 1 gastric NETs. Most behave indolently, but some larger tumours metastasise. Antrectomy, which removes the source of the hypergastrinaemia, usually causes tumour regression. Non-clinical and healthy-subject studies have shown that netazepide (YF476 is a potent, highly selective and orally-active gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist. Also, it is effective in animal models of ECL-cell tumours induced by hypergastrinaemia.To assess the effect of netazepide on tumour biomarkers, number and size in patients with type I gastric NETs.We studied 8 patients with multiple tumours and raised circulating gastrin and chromogranin A (CgA concentrations in an open trial of oral netazepide for 12 weeks, with follow-up 12 weeks later. At 0, 6, 12 and 24 weeks, we carried out gastroscopy, counted and measured tumours, and took biopsies to assess abundances of several ECL-cell constituents. At 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 weeks, we measured circulating gastrin and CgA and assessed safety and tolerability.Netazepide was safe and well tolerated. Abundances of CgA (p<0.05, histidine decarboxylase (p<0.05 and matrix metalloproteinase-7(p<0.10 were reduced at 6 and 12 weeks, but were raised again at follow-up. Likewise, plasma CgA was reduced at 3 weeks (p<0.01, remained so until 12 weeks, but was raised again at follow-up. Tumours were fewer and the size of the largest one was smaller (p<0.05 at 12 weeks, and remained so at follow-up. Serum gastrin was unaffected.The reduction in abundances, plasma CgA, and tumour number and size by netazepide show that type 1 NETs are gastrin-dependent tumours. Failure of netazepide to increase serum gastrin further is consistent with achlorhydria. Netazepide is a potential new treatment for type 1 NETs. Longer, controlled trials are justified

  8. Clinical significance of measurement of serum IL-8, TNF-α and gastrin contents in helicobacter pylori associated digestive tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianfan; Ma Yunbao; Gao Leihua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of IL-8, TNF-α, Gastrin and disease process in HP infection associated chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer. Methods: Diagnosis was established in 35 HP positive chronic gastritis and 30 HP positive duodenal ulcer patients through gastroscopy, histopathology and 14 C-UBT test. RIA was adopted to measure the plasma contents of the three parameters in those 65 patients and 32 controls. Results: The serum IL-8, TNF-α and Gastrin (Gas) levels in patients with chronic gastritis were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01). Significant difference also existed between the contents in the two disease group (p<0.01). Conclusion: It proved that HP infection played an important role in the development of the two digestive tract diseases

  9. Development of an injectable formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-Sar gastrin; Desarrollo de una formulacion inyectable para la preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-Sargastrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo P, M.

    2015-07-01

    The CCK2 receptor (cholecystokinin) is located in areas of the central and peripheral nervous system and is over expressed in several types of human cancer, as medullar thyroid, lung and ovarian carcinomas. One of the endogenous ligands for the CCK2 receptor is the gastrin, so that radiolabeled peptides analogues to gastrin as Sar gastrin (Gln-Gly-Pro-Trp-Leu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-NH{sub 2}) have been proposed as potential diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for obtaining tumors images with CCK2 receptors over expressed. The {sup 68}Ga is an ideal candidate for the peptides radiolabelled and has favorable characteristics to be used for diagnostic purposes by imaging with Positron emission tomography (PET). This work aimed to verify the technical documentation of the production process of radiopharmaceutical {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-Sar gastrin for its sanitary registration before the Comision Federal contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS) in Mexico. For optimization of the production process was assessed a factorial design of two variables with mixed levels (27 combinations), where the dependent variable was the radiochemical purity. The analytical method used for evaluating the content of Sar gastrin peptide in the injectable formulation was also validated by High-performance liquid chromatography. Subsequently the validation of the production process was carried out by manufacturing of lots in single-dose of the optimized injectable formulation of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-Sar gastrin and the stability study was conducted at different times to determine the useful life time. The following was established as the optimal pharmaceutical formulation: 185 MBq of {sup 68}Ga, 50 μg de DOTA-Sar gastrin, 14 mg of sodium acetate and 0.5 m L of buffer acetates, 1.0 M, ph 4.22 in 2.5 m L of the vehicle. The analytical method used to determine the radiochemical purity of the formulation satisfied the requirements for the intended analytical

  10. Inhibition of gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion by medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides in healthy young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.I.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Katan, M.B.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Long-chain triglycerides inhibit gastric acid secretion, but the effect of medium-chain triglycerides in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of intraduodenally perfused saline, medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and cholecystokinin release.

  11. Clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, IL-6 and gastrin levels before and after treatment in patients with chronic eczema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Xudong; Ren Hong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, IL-6 and gastrin levels after treatment in patients with chronic eczema. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-6 and gastin were detected with RIA both before and after treatment in 38 patients with chronic eczema and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IL-2 levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P 0.05), however, the IL-2 levels were still significantly lower than those in controls (P>0.05). Conclusion: Serum IL-2, IL-6 and gastrin levels in the patients with chronic eczema were closely related to the severity of the diseases process and could be taken as indicator of treatment efficacy. (authors)

  12. Serum gastrin: interests and limitations of radio-immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougier, P.; Linhart, N.; Bok, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radio-immunoassay of serum gastrin may now be carried out in all laboratories of radio-immunology. Comparison of two commercial kits A: Schwartz-Mann and B: CEA-SORIN according to criteria of specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility within and between systems, shows that they both permit the detection of pathological hypergastrinemias (Zollinger Ellison and atropic gastritis). Both kits have an identical intrasystem coefficient of variation (10 p. cent and 7 p. cent fort A, 5 p. cent and 8 p. cent for B) on the other hand, the inter-system coefficient of variation is better for kit B (22.4 p. cent and 37 p. cent for kit A, and 11.5 p. cent and 14.2 p. cent for kit B). The normal values for each kit are quite different: 97 . 64 pg.ml -1 for A and 51 . 23 pg.ml -1 for B preventing one from comparing estimations carried out with two different kits [fr

  13. The effect of PGE2, gastrin and CCK-8 on postirradiation recovery of small intestine epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziekiewicz, M.; Chomiczewski, K.; Jablonska, H.

    1997-01-01

    The role of some natural factors in the postirradiation recovery of intestinal epithelium is a very interesting and inscrutable problem. In our experiment the comparative effect of PGE 2 , Gastrin and CCK-8 fragment of Cholecystokinin on this problem has been investigated. Male Swiss PZH mice 8 weeks old were irradiated to the whole body with a dose of 5.5 Gy and to abdomen with a dose of 12 Gy of gamma rays. The first experimental group received PGE 2 before 30 min. irradiation, the second received Gastrin after irradiation during 5 days, the third was injected with CCK-8 after irradiation during 5 days too. Unirradiated and only irradiated animals served as control groups. Survival of 30 mice in every group was registered during 30 days after irradiation. The another part of animals in every group were killed between 1 and 12 days after irradiation. Changes in the body weight were registered. Using computer image analysis system , some histological slides were examined, adding the statistical analysis of results. The preliminary results suggest that all those factors are able to stimulate the postirradiation regeneration of small intestinal epithelium (author)

  14. Binding of ferric ions is essential for the biological activity of glycine-extended gastrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, G.S.; Pannequin, J.; Hollande, F.; Shulkes, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Non-amidated gastrins, such as glycine-extended gastrin17 (Ggly), are now known to be biologically active. Ggly stimulates cell proliferation and migration, and was recently shown to bind two ferric ions with high affinity. The objective of the present work was to define the structure of Ggly for the first time, and to investigate the role of ferric ions in biological activity. Methods: The structure of Ggly, and the identity of the ammo acids that act as ferric ion ligands, were determined by NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The effect on the gastric epithelial cell line IMGE-5 of Ggly fragments, and of Ggy mutants with some or all of the five consecutive glutamate residues replaced by alanine, was measured in terms of cell proliferation, cell migration and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Results: Ggly adopts a well-defined loop stabilised by hydrophobic interactions between Leu5, Tyrl2, Trp 14 and Phe17. Studies with Ggly fragments indicated that ferric ions bind via the pentaglutamate sequence, which is necessary but not sufficient for full activity Selective replacement of some or all of the glutamates results in a reduction in ferric ion binding, and complete loss of biological activity. Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that ferric ion binding is necessary for biological activity

  15. Gastrin (G) cells and somatostatin (D) cells in patients with dyspeptic symptoms: Helicobacter pylori associated and non-associated gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Vosmaer, G. D. C.; Tytgat, G. N. J.; Xiao, S.-D.; ten Kate, F. J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Gastrin G cells and somatostatin D cells are important regulators of gastric acid secretion and alterations in their relative numbers may play a key role in gastroduodenal disease. Aim: To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on the density of immunoreactive G and D

  16. Kinetics of intraperitoneally infused insulin in rats - Functional implications for the bioartificial pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Vegter, D; de Haan, B.J; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, R

    Intraperitoneal transplantation of encapsulated islets can restore normoglycemia in diabetic recipients but not normal glucose tolerance nor normal insulin responses to a physiological stimulus. This study investigates whether the intraperitoneal implantation site as such contributes to the

  17. Stress affects a gastrin-releasing peptide system in the spinal cord that mediates sexual function: implications for psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Many men suffering from stress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, report sexual dysfunction, which is traditionally treated via psychological counseling. Recently, we identified a gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP system in the lumbar spinal cord that is a primary mediator for male reproductive functions.To ask whether an acute severe stress could alter the male specific GRP system, we used a single-prolonged stress (SPS, a putative rat model for PTSD in the present study. Exposure of SPS to male rats decreases both the local content and axonal distribution of GRP in the lower lumbar spinal cord and results in an attenuation of penile reflexes in vivo. Remarkably, pharmacological stimulation of GRP receptors restores penile reflexes in SPS-exposed males, and induces spontaneous ejaculation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, although the level of plasma testosterone is normal 7 days after SPS exposure, we found a significant decrease in the expression of androgen receptor protein in this spinal center.We conclude that the spinal GRP system appears to be a stress-vulnerable center for male reproductive functions, which may provide new insight into a clinical target for the treatment of erectile dysfunction triggered by stress and psychiatric disorders.

  18. Quantitative studies of the gastrin-producing cells of the human antrum. A methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H O; Halken, S; Lorentzen, M

    1980-01-01

    The antral gastrin-producing cells (G-cells) have been identified by the indirect immunoperoxidase technique in two antrum preparations removed due to a recurrent duodenal and gastric ulcer. Morphometric principles were applied to the G-cells with determination of their volume density, numerical....... A method for estimating the total G-cell population and the total G-cell volume in the antrum was developed. In the antrum removed due to a gastric ulcer the number of G-cells was 190 x 10(6) and their total volume 176 mm3....

  19. The concentration of glucose, insuline, thyroxine (T4), triiodthyronine (T3) and gastrine in the maternal blood, in the umbilical cord blood of their outcomes in the neonatal blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuch-Jaczewska, R.; Tomala, J.; Adamska, S.; Bielecka, W.; Mikulska, M.; Kalacinska, M.; Sieron, G.

    1978-01-01

    In the blood samples collected from the mothers, from the umbilical cord of their outcomes and from these neonates after 24 hours of life following estimations were performed collaterally: The concentration of insulin in 50 mothers and their fetuses and in 34 neonates, concentration of thyroxine (T 4 ) in 70 mothers and their fetuses and in 32 neonates, triiodothyronine binding coefficient (WWT 3 ) in 60 mothers and their fetuses and neonates, concentration of gastrine in 23 mothers and their fetuses and in 5 neonates. Besides that the concentration of glucose in total blood was established in 300 mothers - their fetuses and neonates. The insuline, WWT 3 and gastrine were estimated by radioimmune techniques and T 4 by radiocompetitive technique. The glucose concentration - with the aid of o-toluidine method. Basing on the results, the paper suggests that the fetus and the newborn represent independent unit in the aspect of regulation of the glucose concentration, secretion of insuline, T 3 , T 4 and gastrine, notwithstanding the possibility of transplacental passage of these hormones exists the correlation coefficients between the maternal and fetal blood concentrations of insuline, T 4 and WWT 3 were significant. The cord-blood glucose concentration exhibits a marked correlation with the maternal glicemia. Physiologic, asymptomatic hyperinsulinemia and hyperthyreosis and an increase of gastrine concentration demonstrate the presence, in the fetal and neonatal organisms, of certain compensatory-regulating mechanisms stimulating and inhibiting with feed-back properties, which guarantee the environmental homeostasis. (author)

  20. A Prospective, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Evaluation of the Effect of Omeprazole on Serum Calcium, Magnesium, Cobalamin, Gastrin Concentrations, and Bone in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, E; Clements, C; Reed, A; Giori, L; Steiner, J M; Lidbury, J A; Suchodolski, J S; Brand, M; Moyers, T; Emery, L; Tolbert, M K

    2016-05-01

    Chronic proton pump inhibitor administration has been associated with electrolyte and cobalamin deficiency, disrupted bone homeostasis, hypergastrinemia, and rebound acid hypersecretion in humans. It is unknown if this occurs in cats. Prolonged oral omeprazole results in altered bone mineral density or content, serum calcium, magnesium, cobalamin, and gastrin concentrations in healthy cats. Six healthy adult DSH cats. In a within subjects, before and after design, cats received placebo followed by omeprazole (0.83-1.6 mg/kg PO q12h) for 60 days each. Analysis of serum calcium, magnesium, cobalamin, and gastrin concentrations was performed on days 0, 30, and 60. Bone density and content were evaluated on days 0 and 60 of each intervention. Continuous data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA (α = 0.006). On day 60 of omeprazole administration, continuous intragastric pH monitoring was performed in 2 cats to evaluate the effects of abrupt withdrawal of omeprazole. No significant changes were detected between treatments for any variables, except serum gastrin, which was significantly higher during omeprazole treatment in comparison to placebo (P = 0.002). Evidence of gastric hyperacidity was seen in both cats in which intragastric pH monitoring was performed following cessation of omeprazole. Although further studies with larger populations of cats will be needed to draw any definitive conclusions, these preliminary results suggest that prolonged PPI treatment results in hypergastrinemia and abrupt PPI withdrawal might result in RAH in cats. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Development of new methods for the radioactive labelling of compounds useful in biology. Application to the study of digestive tract hormones and their analogues (gastrine, pentagastrine, cholecystokinine, pancreozymine, caeruleine, somatostatine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girma, J.-P.

    1976-01-01

    To establish the kinetics of fixation on receptor sites, tissular distribution and metabolism of hormones, it is necessary to obtain high specific activity labelled hormones possessing biological activities identical with those of the originals. In this context two aims were pursued: hormonal peptide labelling at high specific radioactivity; research on the biological fate of the intermediate compounds involved in the preparations. This research was centred chiefly on gastrine, caeruleine, cholecystokinine and pentagastrine, structural analogues representing one of the two groups of digestive tract hormones (the gastrine family). After a brief review of present knowledge on the gastro-intestinal system; the hormones selected are situated in their biological context. Part two is devoted mainly to the study of iodine and tritium labelling of peptides and includes the adaptation of an existing method to the problem of gastrine labelling and the development of two new tritium-labelling methods, one specific to tryptophanyl residues and the other to tyrosyl residues. Finally the separation of modified hormones during the preparations offered the occasion to develop a study of the biological behavior of these analogues [fr

  2. 99mTc-Hynic-minigastrin 1: a promising radiopharmaceutical for imaging gastrin/CCK-positive tumors: preclinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberg, E. von; Decristoforo, C.; Behe, M.; Behr, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Gastrin/CCK receptors are over expressed in a number of tumors such as MW and SCLC. Therefore gastrin analogues binding to the CCK-B receptor are. promising peptides for Nuclear Medicine imaging. Recently minigastrin 1 has been labeled with 131 I, 111 In and 90 Y (Behr et al 1999). HYNIC as bifunctional chelator has shown favorable properties for 99m Tc-labeling of small peptides. The aim of this study was the preparation, 99m Tc-labeling and evaluation in vitro and in vivo of HYNIC-minigastrin 1. HYNIC-minigastrin 1 was prepared by coupling protected HYNIC to minigastrin immobilized on a resin, followed by TFA cleavage and HPLC purification. The peptide was characterized by RP-HPLC and MS. 99m Tc-labeling was performed using different coligands, such as tricine, EDDA, tricine ternary ligand systems. In vitro stability was tested in plasma and towards cystein, plasma protein binding was determined. Receptor binding assays using a CCK-B receptor positive cellline (AR42J) were performed and biodistribution in normal Wistar rats was studied with a gamma camera followed by dissection. At specific activities >1 Ci/μmol HYNIC-minigastrin 1 could be labeled with yields >95 % only using tricine as coligand. Other coligands or addition of a ternary ligand failed to give reasonable labeling yields. Two isomers of 99m Tc-tricine-HYNIC-minigastrin 1 were observed. At higher temperature quantitative yields of a stable isomer with high hydrophilicity, low protein binding and low intestinal excretion in rat biodistribution studies was obtained. Overall biodistribution in rats was similar to 111 In-DTPA-minigastrin 1 with rapid renal excretion and high kidney retention. 99m Tc-Tricine-HYNIC-minigastrin could be displaced by unlabelled Minigastrin from AR4-2J cell-membranes. A gastrin derivative could be labeled at high specific activities with 99m Tc showing isomerism dependent on labeling conditions. 99m Tc-labelled HYNIC-minigastrin 1 shows promising in vitro and in

  3. Effects of Sex Steroids on the Spinal Gastrin-Releasing Peptide System Controlling Male Sexual Function in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Takumi; Takanami, Keiko; Ito, Saya; Ueda, Takashi; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Ukimura, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2018-04-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controls male sexual function in rats. In contrast, in female rats, GRP neurons could scarcely be detected around puberty when circulating ovarian steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone levels are increasing. However, little information is available on feminizing or demasculinizing effects of ovarian steroids on the central nervous system in female puberty and adulthood. In this study, to visualize the spinal GRP neurons in vivo, we generated a GRP-promoter-Venus transgenic (Tg) rat line and studied the effects of the sex steroid hormones on GRP expression in the rat lumbar cord by examining the Venus fluorescence. In these Tg rats, the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP neurons controlling male sexual function were clearly labeled with Venus fluorescence. As expected, Venus fluorescence in the male lumbar cord was markedly decreased after castration and restored by chronic androgen replacement. Furthermore, androgen-induced Venus expression in the spinal cord of adult Tg males was significantly attenuated by chronic treatment with progesterone but not with estradiol. A luciferase assay using a human GRP-promoter construct showed that androgens enhance the spinal GRP system, and more strikingly, that progesterone acts to inhibit the GRP system via an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism. These results demonstrate that circulating androgens may play an important role in the spinal GRP system controlling male sexual function not only in rats but also in humans and that progesterone could be an important feminizing factor in the spinal GRP system in females during pubertal development.

  4. The Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor as Target for Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer : GRPR expression in prostate cancer and targeting with Bombesin-like radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, Hildo

    2014-01-01

    Prostaatkanker is wereldwijd een veel voorkomende oorzaak van kanker, morbiditeit en sterfte. Nauwkeurige stagering is moeilijk en nog steeds suboptimaal. De Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor (GRPR) is een tumor-geassocieerd antigeen dat tot overexpressie wordt gebracht in prostaatkanker. Gerichte

  5. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Kaliner, M.A.; Shelhamer, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium. A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion

  6. A morphometric study of antral G-cell density in a sample of adult general population: comparison of three different methods and correlation with patient demography, helicobacter pylori infection, histomorphology and circulating gastrin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Fredrik; Borch, Kurt; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2008-01-01

    whether these methods are intercorrelated and the relation of these methods to plasma gastrin concentrations, demography, the occurrence of H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis. Gastric antral mucosal biopsy sections from 273 adults (188 with and 85 without H pylori infection) from a general...... population sample were examined immunohistochemically for G-cells using cell counting, stereology (point counting) and computerized image analysis. Gastritis was scored according to the updated Sydney system. Basal plasma gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The three methods for G...

  7. Concentration of glucose, insuline, thyroxine (T/sub 4/), triiodthyronine (T/sub 3/) and gastrine in the maternal blood, in the umbilical cord blood of their outcomes in the neonatal blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch-Jaczewska, R; Tomala, J; Adamska, S; Bielecka, W; Mikulska, M; Kalacinska, M; Sieron, G [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    In the blood samples collected from the mothers, from the umbilical cord of their outcomes and from these neonates after 24 hours of life the following estimations were performed collaterally: The concentration of insulin in 50 mothers and their fetuses and in 34 neonates, concentration of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) in 70 mothers and their fetuses and in 32 neonates, triiodothyronine binding coefficient (WWT/sub 3/) in 60 mothers and their fetuses and neonates, concentration of gastrine in 23 mothers and their fetuses and in 5 neonates. Besides that the concentration of glucose in total blood was established in 300 mothers - their fetuses and neonates. The insuline, WWT/sub 3/ and gastrine were estimated by radioimmune techniques and T/sub 4/ by radiocompetitive technique. The glucose concentration - with the aid of o-toluidine method. Basing on the results, the paper suggests that the fetus and the newborn represent independent unit in the aspect of regulation of the glucose concentration, secretion of insuline, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and gastrine, notwithstanding the possibility of transplacental passage of these hormones exists the correlation coefficients between the maternal and fetal blood concentrations of insuline, T/sub 4/ and WWT/sub 3/ were significant. The cord-blood glucose concentration exhibits a marked correlation with the maternal glicemia. Physiologic, asymptomatic hyperinsulinemia and hyperthyreosis and an increase of gastrine concentration demonstrate the presence, in the fetal and neonatal organisms, of certain compensatory-regulating mechanisms stimulating and inhibiting with feed-back properties, which guarantee the environmental homeostasis.

  8. Expression of the Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor, the Prostate Stem Cell Antigen and the Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, Hildo J. K.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Helfrich, Wijnand; de Jong, Igle J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Cell membrane antigens like the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), expressed in prostate cancer, are attractive targets for new therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Therefore, we

  9. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...

  10. Systematic review with meta-analysis: diagnostic performance of the combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies serum assays for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagari, R M; Rabitti, S; Greenwood, D C; Eusebi, L H; Vestito, A; Bazzoli, F

    2017-10-01

    The combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-H. pylori antibodies serological assays (panel test) is a non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. However, the diagnostic reliability of this test is still uncertain. To assess the diagnostic performance of the serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. Medline via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library databases and abstracts of international conferences proceedings were searched from January 1995 to December 2016 using the primary keywords "pepsinogens," "gastrin," "atrophic gastritis," "gastric precancerous lesions." Studies were included if they assessed the accuracy of the serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis using histology according to the updated Sydney System as reference standard. Twenty studies with a total of 4241 subjects assessed the performance of serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis regardless of the site in the stomach. The summary sensitivity was 74.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 62.0-84.3) and the specificity was 95.6% (95%CI, 92.6-97.4). With a prevalence of atrophic gastritis of 27% (median prevalence across the studies), the negative predictive value was 91%. Few studies with small sample size assessed the performance of the test in detecting the site of atrophic gastritis. The combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-H. pylori antibodies serological assays appears to be a reliable tool for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. This test may be used for screening subjects or populations at high risk of gastric cancer for atrophic gastritis; however, a cost-effectiveness analysis is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Spinal neurons that contain gastrin-releasing peptide seldom express Fos or phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in response to intradermal chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Andrew M; Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Polg?r, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is thought to play a role in the itch evoked by intradermal injection of chloroquine. Although some early studies suggested that GRP was expressed in pruriceptive primary afferents, it is now thought that GRP in the spinal cord is derived mainly from a population of excitatory interneurons in lamina II, and it has been suggested that these are involved in the itch pathway. To test this hypothesis, we used the transcription factor Fos and phosphoryla...

  12. The Diagnostic Value of Gastrin-17 Detection in Atrophic Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Ling, Li; Li, Shanshan; Qin, Guiping; Cui, Wei; Li, Xiang; Ni, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of gastrin-17 (G-17) for the early detection of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). An extensive literature search was performed, with the aim of selecting publications that reported the accuracy of G-17 in predicting CAG, in the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP. To assess the diagnostic value of G-17, the following statistics were estimated and described: sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), summary receiver operating characteristic curves, area under the curve (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 894 patients and 1950 controls. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of these studies were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45–0.51) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.77–0.81), respectively. The DOR was 5.93 (95% CI: 2.93–11.99), and the AUC was 0.82. G-17 may have potential diagnostic value because it has good specificity and a moderate DOR and AUC for CAG. However, more studies are needed to improve the sensitivity of this diagnostic tool in the future. PMID:27149493

  13. Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on motility and on the release of substance P, neurokinin A, somatostatin and gastrin in the isolated perfused porcine antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    increased by 154 +/- 15% in response to CGRP at 10(-8) mol L(-1). The release of gastrin was unaffected by pCGRP. In conclusion, pCGRP increases contractile activity in the porcine antrum, an effect that involves cholinergic mechanisms but is independent of the release of substance P and neurokinin A...

  14. Topical application of benzalkonium chloride to the stomach serosa increases gastric emptying time, acid secretion, serum gastrin and size of the mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucoloto, S; Romanello, L M F; Garcia, S B; Sobreira, L F R; Barbosa, A J A; Troncon, L E A

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of gastric myenteric denervation using benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the time for gastric emptying, as well as gastric secretion, and mucosal epithelial cell size and population in rats. Wistar rats were treated with topical serosal application of BAC to the stomach. Control animals received saline. Ninety days after surgery, gastric emptying time, gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels were studied. Next, the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were removed, fixed in formalin and histologically processed for histomorphometry of the height, area and volume of the glandular portion, and volume and population of mucous, chief, parietal, G- and labelled cells. BAC animals showed a significant delay in gastric emptying and an increase in gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels. These animals also presented a significant reduction of myenteric neuron number, hypertrophy of parietal and chief cells, hyperplasia of G cells and an increase in the gastric mucosa area. The absence of the myenteric plexus seems to protect the stomach from the hyperplastic effects of hypergastrinemia. Gastric food stasis may act as a factor triggering morphological and functional alterations of the gastric epithelium. Although gastric food stasis is a common finding in medical practice, its physiopathological consequences are poorly understood and have not been frequently discussed in the literature.

  15. The gastric acid secretagogue gastrin-releasing peptide and the inhibitor oxyntomodulin do not exert their effect directly on the parietal cell in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

    1988-01-01

    in vitro by measuring [14C]-aminopyrine accumulation, a reliable index of H+ generation, in isolated rat parietal cells. However, neither gastrin-releasing peptide nor oxyntomodulin influenced basal acid secretion or histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Electron-microscopic studies of unstimulated...... and histamine-stimulated parietal cells confirmed that the cells retained the normal morphology of intracellular organelles and that the cells responded to physiological stimulation by marked expansion of the intracellular canaliculi....

  16. Inflammation and Gli2 suppress gastrin gene expression in a murine model of antral hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Saqui-Salces

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation in the stomach can lead to gastric cancer. We previously reported that gastrin-deficient (Gast⁻/⁻ mice develop bacterial overgrowth, inflammatory infiltrate, increased Il-1β expression, antral hyperplasia and eventually antral tumors. Since Hedgehog (Hh signaling is active in gastric cancers but its role in precursor lesions is poorly understood, we examined the role of inflammation and Hh signaling in antral hyperplasia. LacZ reporter mice for Sonic hedgehog (Shh, Gli1, and Gli2 expression bred onto the Gast⁻/⁻ background revealed reduced Shh and Gli1 expression in the antra compared to wild type controls (WT. Gli2 expression in the Gast⁻/⁻ corpus was unchanged. However in the hyperplastic Gast⁻/⁻ antra, Gli2 expression increased in both the mesenchyme and epithelium, whereas expression in WT mice remained exclusively mesenchymal. These observations suggested that Gli2 is differentially regulated in the hyperplastic Gast⁻/⁻ antrum versus the corpus and by a Shh ligand-independent mechanism. Moreover, the proinflammatory cytokines Il-1β and Il-11, which promote gastric epithelial proliferation, were increased in the Gast⁻/⁻ stomach along with Infγ. To test if inflammation could account for elevated epithelial Gli2 expression in the Gast⁻/⁻ antra, the human gastric cell line AGS was treated with IL-1β and was found to increase GLI2 but decrease GLI1 levels. IL-1β also repressed human GAST gene expression. Indeed, GLI2 but not GLI1 or GLI3 expression repressed gastrin luciferase reporter activity by ∼50 percent. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation of GLI2 in AGS cells confirmed that GLI2 directly binds to the GAST promoter. Using a mouse model of constitutively active epithelial GLI2 expression, we found that activated GLI2 repressed Gast expression but induced Il-1β gene expression and proliferation in the gastric antrum, along with a reduction of the number of G-cells. In summary

  17. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-07-30

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations.

  18. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  19. Gastrin-releasing peptide induces monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium by upregulating endothelial adhesion molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Yeon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that plays roles in various pathophysiological conditions including inflammatory diseases in peripheral tissues; however, little is known about whether GRP can directly regulate endothelial inflammatory processes. In this study, we showed that GRP promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the aortic endothelium. GRP increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in endothelial cells. In addition, GRP activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38MAPK, and AKT, and the inhibition of these signaling pathways significantly reduced GRP-induced monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Overall, our results suggested that GRP may cause endothelial dysfunction, which could be of particular relevance in the development of vascular inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • GRP induces adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium. • GRP increases the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules through the activation of NF-κB. • ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and Akt pathways are involved in the GRP-induced leukocyte adhesiveness to endothelium.

  20. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass augments the feeding responses evoked by gastrin releasing peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Martha C.; Mhalhal, Thaer R.; Berger, Tanisha Johnson-Rouse Jose; Heath, John; Seeley, Randy; Sayegh, Ayman I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective method for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may reduce body weight by altering the feeding responses evoked by the short term satiety peptides. Materials and Methods Here, we measured meal size (MS, chow), intermeal interval (IMI) length and satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS; food consumed per a unit of time) by the small and the large forms of gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) in rats, GRP-10 and GRP-29 (0, 0.1, 0.5 nmol/kg) infused in the celiac artery (CA, supplies stomach and upper duodenum) and the cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, supplies small and large intestine) in a RYGB rat model. Results GRP-10 reduced MS, prolonged the IMI and increased the SR only in the RYGB group, whereas GRP-29 evoked these responses by both routes and in both groups. Conclusion The RYGB procedure augments the feeding responses evoked by exogenous GRP, possibly by decreasing total food intake, increasing latency to the first meal, decreasing number of meals or altering the sites of action regulating MS and IMI length by the two peptides. PMID:27884350

  1. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-targeted gadolinium oxide-based multifunctional nanoparticles for dual magnetic resonance/fluorescent molecular imaging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui DT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Danting Cui,1 Xiaodan Lu,1 Chenggong Yan,1 Xiang Liu,1 Meirong Hou,1 Qi Xia,2 Yikai Xu,1 Ruiyuan Liu2,3 1Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bombesin (BBN, an analog of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, specifically binds to GRP receptors, which are overexpressed in human prostate cancer (PC. Here, we synthesized a BBN-modified gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 nanoprobe containing fluorescein (Gd2O3-5(6-carboxyfluorescein [FI]-polyethylene glycol [PEG]-BBN for targeted magnetic resonance (MR/optical dual-modality imaging of PC. The Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN nanoparticles exhibited a relatively uniform particle size with an average diameter of 52.3 nm and spherical morphology as depicted by transmission electron microscopy. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1 of Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN (r1 =4.23 mM–1s–1 is comparable to that of clinically used Magnevist (Gd-DTPA. Fluorescence microscopy and in vitro cellular MRI demonstrated GRP receptor-specific and enhanced cellular uptake of the Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN in PC-3 tumor cells. Moreover, Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN showed more remarkable contrast enhancement than the corresponding nontargeted Gd2O3-FI-PEG according to in vivo MRI and fluorescent imaging. Tumor immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated improved accumulation of the targeted nanoprobe in tumors. BBN-conjugated Gd2O3 may be a promising nanoplatform for simultaneous GRP receptor-targeted molecular cancer diagnosis and antitumor drug delivery in future clinical applications. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium oxide, bombesin, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, molecular imaging

  2. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  3. Clinical decisions for anterior restorations: the concept of restorative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Jorge André; Almeida, Paulo Júlio; Fischer, Alex; Phaxay, Somano Luang

    2012-12-01

    The choice of the most appropriate restoration for anterior teeth is often a difficult decision. Numerous clinical and technical factors play an important role in selecting the treatment option that best suits the patient and the restorative team. Experienced clinicians have developed decision processes that are often more complex than may seem. Less experienced professionals may find difficulties making treatment decisions because of the widely varied restorative materials available and often numerous similar products offered by different manufacturers. The authors reviewed available evidence and integrated their clinical experience to select relevant factors that could provide a logical and practical guideline for restorative decisions in anterior teeth. The presented concept of restorative volume is based on structural, optical, and periodontal factors. Each of these factors will influence the short- and long-term behavior of restorations in terms of esthetics, biology, and function. Despite the marked evolution of esthetic restorative techniques and materials, significant limitations still exist, which should be addressed by researchers. The presented guidelines must be regarded as a mere orientation for risk analysis. A comprehensive individual approach should always be the core of restorative esthetic treatments. The complex decision process for anterior esthetic restorations can be clarified by a systematized examination of structural, optical, and periodontal factors. The basis for the proposed thought process is the concept of restorative volume that is a contemporary interpretation of restoration categories and their application. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53... justify restoration, trustees may proceed with the Restoration Planning Phase. Otherwise, trustees may not... discount all service quantities and/or values to the date the demand is presented to the responsible...

  5. Associations between blood gastrin, ghrelin, leptin, pepsinogen and Ostertagia ostertagi antibody concentrations and voluntary feed intake in calves exposed to a trickle infection with O. ostertagi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, A B; Warren, M; Upjohn, M; Jackson, B; Jones, J; Charlier, J; Fox, M T

    2009-06-10

    Twenty-five, castrated male Holstein-cross calves, between 4 and 5 months of age, weighing 156.5+/-12.2 kg and reared under conditions designed to minimise the risk of parasitic infection, were allocated to one of the five treatment groups on the basis of initial bodyweight. The groups were (1) ad libitum (ad lib) fed controls (ALC); (2) ad lib fed infected (INF) and treated with topical eprinomectin on Day 56; (3) controls pair-fed with the INF group (PFC); (4) ad lib fed controls treated with eprinomectin on Days 0 and 56 (E-ALC) and (5) ad lib fed, infected and treated with eprinomectin on Days 0 and 56 (E-INF). Infection comprised a trickle infection with the equivalent of 10,000 larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi per day from Day 0 to Day 56 and the study concluded on Day 77. Parameters measured throughout the study included: liveweight, feed intake, faecal egg counts; plasma pepsinogen, gastrin, ghrelin and leptin; plasma antibodies to adult O. ostertagi. No significant differences in feed intake or liveweight gain were observed between any of the different groups, a finding thought to result from the high quality of feed offered. Significant differences between the INF and control groups however were observed in faecal egg counts, plasma pepsinogen, gastrin and O. ostertagi antibodies, which were all elevated, and leptin, which was reduced. Values of these parameters for the E-INF group were intermediate between the INF and ALC groups. Plasma ghrelin showed no association with either feed intake or parasitism. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the roles of various biochemical and neuroendocrine mediators for inappetence in ruminants with parasitic gastroenteritis.

  6. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  7. Anterior provisional restorations used to determine form, function, and esthetics for complex restorative situations, using all-ceramic restorative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshad, Mamaly; Cascione, Domenico; Kim, Tae

    2010-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the restoration of a large and visible maxillary anterior defect. The importance of proper diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication is emphasized. Irreversible treatment should only be rendered once patient approval has been obtained through objective evaluation with provisional restorations. The techniques presented in this article use a combination of ceramic systems currently available to satisfy functional demands while achieving acceptable esthetics. A controlled series of steps, where the provisional restorative components are being replaced by the definitive ones is planned. The only difference between the provisional and definitive restorative components is the material used. The definitive restorations consisted of an implant-supported zirconium oxide framework. Individual pressed porcelain restorations were luted to the framework and a natural tooth. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Provisional restorations allow an objective form of communication. Vertical and horizontal transitional lines can be effectively masked with appropriate treatment planning and a skilled ceramist. Many traditional dental laboratory steps may be eliminated or simplified without compromising the definitive restorations.

  8. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in the central nervous system: role in brain function and as a drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eRoesler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides acting on specific cell membrane receptors of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR superfamily regulate a range of important aspects of nervous and neuroendocrine function. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP is a mammalian neuropeptide that binds to the GRP receptor (GRPR, BB2. Increasing evidence indicates that GRPR-mediated signaling in the central nervous system (CNS plays an important role in regulating brain function, including aspects related to emotional responses, social interaction, memory, and feeding behavior. In addition, some alterations in GRP or GRPR expression or function have been described in patients with neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disorders, as well as in brain tumors. Findings from preclinical models are consistent with the view that the GRPR might play a role in brain disorders, and raise the possibility that GRPR agonists might ameliorate cognitive and social deficits associated with neurological diseases, while antagonists may reduce anxiety and inhibit the growth of some types of brain cancer. Further preclinical and translational studies evaluating the potential therapeutic effects of GRPR ligands are warranted.

  9. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Cheung,; Nalliah,Romesh; Mei,May L

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  10. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  11. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  12. Infusion of exogenous cholecystokinin-8, gastrin releasing peptide-29 and their combination reduce body weight in diet-induced obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalhal, Thaer R; Washington, Martha C; Newman, Kayla; Heath, John C; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesized that exogenous gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and their combination reduce body weight (BW). To test this hypothesis, BW was measured in four groups of diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats infused in the aorta (close to the junctions of the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries) with saline, CCK-8 (0.5 nmol/kg), GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg) and CCK-8+GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg each) once daily for a total of 23 days. We found that CCK-8, GRP-29 and CCK-8+GRP-29 reduce BW relative to saline control. In conclusion, CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination reduce BW in the DIO rat model. If infused near their gastrointestinal sites of action CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination may have a role in regulating BW. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. High-dose fasudil preserves postconditioning against myocardial infarction under hyperglycemia in rats: role of mitochondrial KATP channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichinomiya Taiga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to determine whether fasudil hydrochloride (fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, has myocardial postconditioning (PostC activity under hyperglycemia as well as normoglycemia, and if so, whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (m-KATP channels. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. After opening the chest, all rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received low-dose (0.15 mg/kg or high-dose (0.5 mg/kg fasudil or diazoxide, an m-KATP channel opener, at 10 mg/kg, just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions. In another group, rats received 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5HD, an m-KATP channel blocker, at 10 mg/kg, before high-dose fasudil. Myocardial infarct size was expressed as a percentage of area at risk (AAR. Results Under normoglycemia, low-dose and high-dose fasudil and diazoxide reduced myocardial infarct size (23 ± 8%, 21 ± 9% and 21 ± 10% of AAR, respectively compared with that in the control (42 ± 7%. Under hyperglycemia, low-dose fasudil (40 ± 11% and diazoxide (44 ± 14% could not exert this beneficial effect, but high-dose fasudil reduced myocardial infarct size in the same manner as under normoglycemia (21 ± 13%. 5HD prevented fasudil-induced reduction of myocardial infarct size (42 ± 13%. Conclusion Fasudil induces PostC against myocardial infarction via activation of m-KATP channels in the rat. Although hyperglycemia attenuates the PostC, high-dose fasudil can restore cardioprotection.

  14. Stem Cell Therapies for Treating Diabetes: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Julie B; Tang, Qizhi; Stock, Peter; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Roy, Shuvo; Desai, Tejal; Hebrok, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Restoration of insulin independence and normoglycemia has been the overarching goal in diabetes research and therapy. While whole-organ and islet transplantation have become gold-standard procedures in achieving glucose control in diabetic patients, the profound lack of suitable donor tissues severely hampers the broad application of these therapies. Here, we describe current efforts aimed at generating a sustainable source of functional human stem cell-derived insulin-producing islet cells for cell transplantation and present state-of-the-art efforts to protect such cells via immune modulation and encapsulation strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Sazan (Cyprinus carpio Balığı Gastrointestinal Kanal Mukozasındaki CCK-8, Gastrin 1, VIP, Sekretin, Somatostatin-14, Bombesin ve Histamin Peptidlerinin Lokalizasyonu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Şenol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada; Cyprinus carpio (sazan gastrointestinal kanal mukozasının kolesistokinin-8, gastrin 1, vasoaktif intesinal polypeptid, sekretin, somatostatin-14, bombesin ve histamin peptidlerinin lokalizasyon ve dağılımlarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yapılan immunohistokimyasal çalışmalar sonucunda sazan (Cyprinus carpio’ın mide (sazanda genişlemiş ön bağırsak bölgesi ve bağırsak bölümlerinde (ilk, orta ve son bağırsak genel olarak çalışılan tüm peptidlerin farklı yoğunlukta lokalize oldukları tespit edildi

  16. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  17. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  18. Forward-looking farmers owning multiple potential wetland restoration sites: implications for efficient restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder (Kushch), Svetlana; Lang, Zhengxin; Rabotyagov, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    Wetland restoration can increase the provision of multiple non-market ecosystem services. Environmental and socio-economic factors need to be accounted for when land is withdrawn from agriculture and wetlands are restored. We build multi-objective optimization models to provide decision support for wetland restoration in the Le Sueur river watershed in Southern Minnesota. We integrate environmental objectives of sediment reduction and habitat protection with socio-economic factors associated with the overlap of private land with potential wetland restoration sites in the watershed and the costs representing forward-looking farmers voluntarily taking land out of agricultural production in favor of wetland restoration. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of these factors early on in the restoration planning process affects both the total costs of the restoration project and the spatial distribution of optimally selected wetland restoration sites.

  19. Ecological Restoration: Guidance from Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Zedler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and pathways toward targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges. To improve restoration progress, I advise that sites be designed as experiments to allow learning while doing. At least the larger projects can be restored in phases, each designed as experimental treatments to test alternative restoration approaches. Subsequent phases can then adopt one or more of the treatments that best achieved goals in earlier phases while applying new tests of other restoration measures. Both science and restoration can progress simultaneously. This phased, experimental approach (called “adaptive restoration” is an effective tool for improving restoration when monitoring, assessment, interpretation and research are integrated into the process.

  20. [Comparison of color reappearance between metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using crystaleye spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Zhang, Ning; Kong, Fan-wen; Zhan, De-song

    2010-10-01

    To study the color reappearance effect of metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using Crystaleye spectrophotometer. 58 metal-ceram restorations and 58 foundry-ceram restorations according to the result of the Crystaleye spectrophotometer were made respectively. The deltaE between restorations and natural teeth as referenced were analyzed. And satisfaction of dentists and patients were evaluated. The deltaE between metal-ceram restorations and natural teeth was 7.13 +/- 0.74. The deltaE between foundry-ceram restorations and teeth was 1.47 +/- 0.84. There were statistical differences between the deltaE (P spectrophotometer can provide accurate reference for foundry-ceram restoration, but for metal-ceram restoration it is not accurate.

  1. Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ása L. Aradóttir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the main drivers for ecological restoration in Iceland from 1907 to 2010 and assessed whether the drivers have changed over time and what factors might explain the changes, if any. Our study was based on a catalogue of 100 restoration projects, programs, and areas, representing 75% to 85% of all restoration activities in Iceland. Catastrophic erosion was an early driver for soil conservation and restoration efforts that still ranked high in the 2000s, reflecting the immense scale of soil erosion and desertification in Iceland. Socioeconomic drivers such as farming and the provision of wood products were strong motivators of ecological restoration over most of the 20th century, although their relative importance decreased with time as the number and diversity of drivers increased. In the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of hard infrastructure, and moral values such as improving the aesthetics of the countryside and "repaying the debt to the land" emerged as motivations for restoration actions. In the late 1990s, the United Nations Climate Change Convention became a driver for restoration, and the importance of nature conservation and recreation increased. Technological development and financial incentives did not show up as drivers of ecological restoration in our study, although there are some indications of their influence. Furthermore, policy was a minor driver, which might reflect weak policy instruments for ecological restoration and some counteractive policies.

  2. Circulating levels of cholecystokinin and gastrin-releasing peptide in rainbow trout fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Elisabeth; Forsman, Antti; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E; Egnér, Barbro; Ruohonen, Kari; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2006-09-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are gastrointestinal peptides thought to be important regulators of intake and digestion of food in vertebrates. In this study, pre- and postprandial plasma levels of CCK and GRP were measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the establishment of homologous radioimmunoassays, and the hormonal levels assessed in relation to dietary lipid:protein ratio and food intake. Fish were acclimated to either a high protein/low lipid diet (HP/LL diet; 14.1% lipids) or a normal protein/high lipid diet (NP/HL diet; 31.4% lipids). On three consecutive sampling days, radio-dense lead-glass beads were included in the diets for assessment of feed intake. Fish were terminally sampled for blood and stomach contents prior to feeding at time 0, and at 0.3, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after feeding. There was a postprandial elevation of plasma CCK levels, which was most evident after 4 and 6 h. Fish fed the NP/HL diet had higher plasma CCK levels compared with those fed the HP/LL diet. Plasma CCK levels were not affected by the amount of food ingested. GRP levels in plasma were not influenced by sampling time, diet, or feed intake. The results indicate that the endocrine release of gastrointestinal CCK is increased during feeding and may be further influenced by the dietary lipid:protein ratio in rainbow trout. Plasma GRP levels, on the other hand, appear not to be influenced by feeding or diet composition.

  3. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  4. Immunopathological and Modulatory Effects of Cag A+ Genotype on Gastric Mucosa, Inflammatory Response, Pepsinogens, and Gastrin-17 Secretion in Iraqi Patients infected with H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ezzy, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    2018-05-20

    To determine the immunopathological correlation between Cag A+ H. pylori -specific IgG; pepsinogen I&II (PI&PII); gastrin-17 (G-17); status of gastric and duodenal mucosa and inflammatory activities on different gastroduodenal disorders. Eighty gastroduodenal biopsies were taken from patients with gastroduodenal disorders for histopathological evaluation and H. pylori diagnosis. Serum samples were used for evaluation of gastric hormones and detection of H. pylori -specific IgG antibodies. The tissue expression of H. pylori Cag A gene was detected by in situ hybridisation. H. pylori IgG antibodies were detected in (88.8%) of enrolled patients. According to Cag A gene expression, Significant difference (P value ˂ 0.05) was detected in levels of PG I; PGII, PG I/PG II among patients with gastric disorders. Serum G-17 level was negatively correlated with Cag A gene expression (P-value = 0.04). There was a significant correlation between H. pylori IgG and PG I; PG II; G-17. The current study revealed that corpus atrophic gastritis was diagnosed histologically with (5%) gastric ulcer cases; (3.75%) of duodenal ulcer cases; (3.75%) of duodenitis cases; (1.25%) of gastropathy cases and (8.75%) of gastritis cases. At the same time H. pylori gastritis diagnosed concurrently with (8.75%) of gastric ulcer cases; (11.25%) of duodenal ulcer cases; (17.5%) of gastropathy cases; (3.75%) of duodenitis cases and (2.5%) of prepyloric ulcer cases. A significant correlation was reported between the Immunopathological status of gastric mucosa and endoscopic mucosal finding among duodenal ulcer cases and gastritis cases only. A positive correlation was reported between serum levels of PGI; PGII; PGI/PGII; G-17; PMNs grade and Immunopathological status of the gastroduodenal mucosa of H. pylori Infected patients. A significant difference was reported in lymphocyte grades among gastric disorders without correlation with immunohistopathological changes in the mucosa (P-value = 0.002). A

  5. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  6. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  7. Remote sensing for restoration ecology: Application for restoring degraded, damaged, transformed, or destroyed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Molly K; Theel, Heather J

    2017-07-01

    Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases, and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high-resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar. Restoration practitioners in federal agencies require monitoring standards to assess restoration performance of injured resources. This review attempts to address a technical need and provides an introductory overview of spatial data and restoration metric considerations, as well as an in-depth review of optical (e.g., spaceborne, airborne, unmanned aerial vehicles) and active (e.g., radar, lidar) sensors and examples of restoration metrics that can be measured with remotely sensed data (e.g., land cover, species or habitat type, change detection, quality, degradation, diversity, and pressures or threats). To that end, the present article helps restoration practitioners assemble information not only about essential restoration metrics but also about the evolving technological approaches that can be used to best assess them. Given the need for monitoring standards to assess restoration success of injured resources, a universal monitoring framework should include a range of remote sensing options with which to measure common restoration metrics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:614-630. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  9. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  10. Fracture Resistance and Failure Mode of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Different Adhesive Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sarabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The restoration of endodontically treated teeth is a topic that has been studied extensively but it is still a challenge for dental practitioners. The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance, fracture patterns and fracture location of endodontically treated human maxillary premolars restored with direct and indirect composite resin and ceramic restoration. Methods: Eighty non-carious maxillary premolars were selected and divided into four groups (n=20. Endodontic treatment and mesio-occluso-distal preparations were carried out in all the groups except for the control group (group I. Subsequently, the prepared teeth were restored as follows: group II: indirect composite restoration; group III: ceramic restoration; group IV: direct composite restoration. The specimens were subjected to compressive axial loading until fracture occurred. The mode of failure was also recorded. Results: Group I had higher fracture resistance (1196.82±241.74 than the other groups (P

  11. Provision of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations to Chinese pre-school children--a 30-month evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E C; Holmgren, C J

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to provide restorations using the ART approach to pre-school children in Southern China in a kindergarten environment, using a high-strength glass-ionomer restorative material; to assess the acceptability of this approach and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the restorations placed. A total of 170 ART restorations were placed in 95 children, aged 5.1 +/- 0.7 years, by seven final-year dental students using standard ART procedures and hand instruments. The restorations were evaluated every six months thereafter by two calibrated independent examiners using explorers and mouth-mirrors. 93% of the children reported that they did not feel pain during treatment and 86% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 12- and 30-month survival rates of Class I restorations were 91% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding figures for Class V restorations were 79% and 70%, while those for Class II restorations were 75% and 51%. The failure rates of Class III and IV restorations were high with more than half of them scored as missing within the first year. The ART approach was shown to be acceptable to Chinese pre-school children for providing restorative dental care outside the traditional clinical setting. The success rates were high for Class I and V restorations in primary teeth, modest for Class II, and low for Class III and IV restorations.

  12. Predictable repair of provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Barry D; Cooper, Jeril R; Lazarchik, David A

    2009-01-01

    The importance of provisional restorations is often downplayed, as they are thought of by some as only "temporaries." As a result, a less-than-ideal provisional is sometimes fabricated, in part because of the additional chair time required to make provisional modifications when using traditional techniques. Additionally, in many dental practices, these provisional restorations are often fabricated by auxillary personnel who may not be as well trained in the fabrication process. Because provisionals play an important role in achieving the desired final functional and esthetic result, a high-quality provisional restoration is essential to fabricating a successful definitive restoration. This article describes a method for efficiently and predictably repairing both methacrylate and bis-acryl provisional restorations using flowable composite resin. By use of this relatively simple technique, provisional restorations can now be modified or repaired in a timely and productive manner to yield an exceptional result. Successful execution of esthetic and restorative dentistry requires attention to detail in every aspect of the case. Fabrication of high-quality provisional restorations can, at times, be challenging and time consuming. The techniques for optimizing resin provisional restorations as described in this paper are pragmatic and will enhance the delivery of dental treatment.

  13. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  14. In vitro evaluation of (99m)Tc-EDDA/tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin in gastrin-releasing peptide receptor positive tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt Lambrecht, Fatma; Durkan, Kübra; Ozgür, Aykut; Gündüz, Cumhur; Avcı, Cığır Biray; Susluer, Sunde Yılmaz

    2013-05-01

    Bombesin and its derivatives exhibit a high affinity for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr), which is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers (prostate, pancreatic, lung, etc.). The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro potential of the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-Q-Litorin. (99m)Tc labeling was performed by using different co-ligands: tricine and ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA). The radiochemical stability of radiolabeled peptide conjugates was checked at room temperature and in cysteine solution up to 24 h. The in vitro cell uptake of (99m)Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin and (99m)Tc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin were evaluated on pancreatic tumor and control cell lines. Optimum specific activity and incubation time were determined for all the cell lines. The results showed that the cell uptake of the radiolabeled peptide conjugates in tumor cell lines were higher than in the control cell line. The findings of this study indicated the need for further development of in vivo study as a radiopharmaceutical for pancreatic tumor imaging.

  15. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  16. New Gastrin Releasing Peptide Receptor-Directed [99mTc]Demobesin 1 Mimics: Synthesis and Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Berthold A; Charalambidis, David; Sallegger, Werner; Waser, Beatrice; Mansi, Rosalba; Nicolas, Guillaume P; Ketani, Eleni; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Fani, Melpomeni; Reubi, Jean-Claude; Maina, Theodosia

    2018-04-12

    We have previously reported on the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist [ 99m Tc]1, ([ 99m Tc]demobesin 1, 99m Tc-[N 4 '-diglycolate-dPhe 6 ,Leu-NHEt 13 ]BBN(6-13)). [ 99m Tc]1 has shown superior biological profile compared to analogous agonist-based 99m Tc-radioligands. We herein present a small library of [ 99m Tc]1 mimics generated after structural modifications in (a) the linker ([ 99m Tc]2, [ 99m Tc]3, [ 99m Tc]4), (b) the peptide chain ([ 99m Tc]5, [ 99m Tc]6), and (c) the C-terminus ([ 99m Tc]7 or [ 99m Tc]8). The effects of above modifications on the biological properties of analogs were studied in PC-3 cells and tumor-bearing SCID mice. All analogs showed subnanomolar affinity for the human GRPR, while most receptor-affine 4 and 8 behaved as potent GRPR antagonists in a functional internalization assay. In mice bearing PC-3 tumors, [ 99m Tc]1-[ 99m Tc]6 exhibited GRPR-specific tumor uptake, rapidly clearing from normal tissues. [ 99m Tc]4 displayed the highest tumor uptake (28.8 ± 4.1%ID/g at 1 h pi), which remained high even after 24 h pi (16.3 ± 1.8%ID/g), well surpassing that of [ 99m Tc]1 (5.4 ± 0.7%ID/g at 24 h pi).

  17. Marker-assisted identification of restorer gene(s) in iso-cytoplasmic restorer lines of WA cytoplasm in rice and assessment of their fertility restoration potential across environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Bhowmick, Prolay Kumar; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Malik, Manoj; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Seth, R; Nagarajan, M; Krishnan, S Gopala; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Iso-cytoplasmic restorers possess the same male sterile cytoplasm as the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, thereby minimizing the potential cyto-nuclear conflict in the hybrids. Restoration of fertility of the wild abortive CMS is governed by two major genes namely, Rf3 and Rf4 . Therefore, assessing the allelic status of these restorer genes in the iso-cytoplasmic restorers using molecular markers will not only help in estimating the efficiency of these genes either alone or in combination, in fertility restoration in the hybrids in different environments, but will also be useful in determining the efficacy of these markers. In the present study, the efficiency of molecular markers in identifying genotypes carrying restorer allele of the gene(s) Rf3 and Rf4, restoring male fertility of WA cytoplasm in rice was assessed in a set of 100 iso-cytoplasmic rice restorers using gene linked as well as candidate gene based markers. In order to validate the efficacy of markers in identifying the restorers, a sub-set of selected 25 iso-cytoplasmic rice restorers were crossed with four different cytoplasmic male sterile lines namely, IR 79156A, IR 58025A, Pusa 6A and RTN 12A, and the pollen and spikelet fertility of the F 1 s were evaluated at three different locations. Marker analysis showed that Rf4 was the predominant fertility restorer gene in the iso-cytoplasmic restorers and Rf3 had a synergistic effect on fertility restoration. The efficiency of gene based markers, DRCG-RF4-14 and DRRM-RF3-10 for Rf4 (87%) and Rf3 (84%) genes was higher than respective gene-linked SSR markers RM6100 (80%) and RM3873 (82%). It is concluded that the gene based markers can be effectively used in identifying fertility restorer lines obviating the need for making crosses and evaluating the F 1 s. Though gene based markers are more efficient, there is a need to identify functional polymorphisms which can provide 100% efficiency. Three iso-cytoplasmic restorers namely, PRR 300, PRR 363

  18. Provisional Restorations – A Permanent Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, William F; Keirby, Naomi; Ricketts, David N J

    2016-12-01

    Provisional restorations play an important role when providing indirect restorations. There are a number of materials and techniques available for their construction. Careful planning and construction can protect the prepared tooth surface, improve the periodontal condition and help plan for the definitive restoration. A good provisional restoration can save time, money and effort. Clinical relevance: Provisional restoration construction is an integral part of the indirect restorative process for inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges.

  19. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request... interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is providing notice of the Council's intent to revise the ''Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy'' and requesting public comments to guide its revision. DATES...

  20. Image restoration, uncertainty, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F T

    1969-01-01

    Some of the physical interpretations about image restoration are discussed. From the theory of information the unrealizability of an inverse filter can be explained by degradation of information, which is due to distortion on the recorded image. The image restoration is a time and space problem, which can be recognized from the theory of relativity (the problem of image restoration is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics). A detailed discussion of the relationship between information and energy is given. Two general results may be stated: (1) the restoration of the image from the distorted signal is possible only if it satisfies the detectability condition. However, the restored image, at the best, can only approach to the maximum allowable time criterion. (2) The restoration of an image by superimposing the distorted signal (due to smearing) is a physically unrealizable method. However, this restoration procedure may be achieved by the expenditure of an infinite amount of energy.

  1. 75 FR 32877 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... resources, aquatic-life forms, and sport fishing; and (e) develop responsible attitudes and ethics toward..., Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... governing the Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter...

  2. Overcoming restoration paradigms: value of the historical record and metapopulation dynamics in native oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald N. Lipcius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Restoration strategies for native oyster populations rely on multiple sources of information, which often conflict due to time- and space-varying patterns in abundance and distribution. For instance, strategies based on population connectivity and disease resistance can differ, and extant and historical records of abundance and distribution are often at odds, such that the optimal strategy is unclear and valuable restoration sites may be excluded from consideration. This was the case for the Lynnhaven River subestuary of lower Chesapeake Bay, which was deemed unsuitable for Eastern Oyster restoration based on physical conditions, disease challenge, and extant oyster abundance. Consequently, we (i evaluated previously unknown historical data from the 1800s, (ii quantified extant oyster recruitment and abundance, physical conditions, and disease presence on constructed restoration reefs and alternative substrates, and (iii assessed simulations from biophysical models to identify potential restoration sites in the metapopulation. The collective data distinguished numerous restoration sites (i in the polyhaline zone (salinity 18.4-22.2 where disease resistance is evolving, (ii where oysters were abundant in the late 1800s-early 1900s, (iii of recent high recruitment, abundance and survival, despite consistent and elevated disease challenge, and (iv interconnected as a metapopulation via larval dispersal. Moreover, a network of constructed restoration reefs met size structure, abundance and biomass standards of restoration success. These findings demonstrate that assumptions about the suitability of sites for oyster restoration based on individual processes can be severely flawed, and that in-depth examination of multiple processes and sources of information are required for oyster reef restoration plans to maximize success. We use these findings and previous information to recommend a strategy for successful restoration of subtidal oyster reefs

  3. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  4. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) promotes EMT, growth, and invasion in canine prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafae, Said M; Hassan, Bardes B; Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Camiener, Rachael Y; Ding, Haiming; Tweedle, Michael F; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) is upregulated in early and late-stage human prostate cancer (PCa) and other solid tumors of the mammary gland, lung, head and neck, colon, uterus, ovary, and kidney. However, little is known about its role in prostate cancer. This study examined the effects of a heterologous GRPr agonist, bombesin (BBN), on growth, motility, morphology, gene expression, and tumor phenotype of an osteoblastic canine prostate cancer cell line (Ace-1) in vitro and in vivo. The Ace-1 cells were stably transfected with the human GRPr and tumor cells were grown in vitro and as subcutaneous and intratibial tumors in nude mice. The effect of BBN was measured on cell proliferation, cell migration, tumor growth (using bioluminescence), tumor cell morphology, bone tumor phenotype, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR). GRPr mRNA expression was measured in primary canine prostate cancers and normal prostate glands. Bombesin (BBN) increased tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth and invasion in vivo. BBN upregulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (TWIST, SNAIL, and SLUG mRNA) and downregulated epithelial markers (E-cadherin and β-catenin mRNA), and modified tumor cell morphology to a spindle cell phenotype. Blockade of GRPr upregulated E-cadherin and downregulated VIMENTIN and SNAIL mRNA. BBN altered the in vivo tumor phenotype in bone from an osteoblastic to osteolytic phenotype. Primary canine prostate cancers had increased GRPr mRNA expression compared to normal prostates. These data demonstrated that the GRPr is important in prostate cancer growth and progression and targeting GRPr may be a promising strategy for treatment of prostate cancer. Prostate 76:796-809, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Expression of gastrin-releasing peptide by excitatory interneurons in the mouse superficial dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

    2014-12-11

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor have been shown to play an important role in the sensation of itch. However, although GRP immunoreactivity has been detected in the spinal dorsal horn, there is debate about whether this originates from primary afferents or local excitatory interneurons. We therefore examined the relation of GRP immunoreactivity to that seen with antibodies that label primary afferent or excitatory interneuron terminals. We tested the specificity of the GRP antibody by preincubating with peptides with which it could potentially cross-react. We also examined tissue from a mouse line in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is expressed under control of the GRP promoter. GRP immunoreactivity was seen in both primary afferent and non-primary glutamatergic axon terminals in the superficial dorsal horn. However, immunostaining was blocked by pre-incubation of the antibody with substance P, which is present at high levels in many nociceptive primary afferents. EGFP+ cells in the GRP-EGFP mouse did not express Pax2, and their axons contained the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), indicating that they are excitatory interneurons. In most cases, their axons were also GRP-immunoreactive. Multiple-labelling immunocytochemical studies indicated that these cells did not express either of the preprotachykinin peptides, and that they generally lacked protein kinase Cγ, which is expressed by a subset of the excitatory interneurons in this region. These results show that GRP is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory interneurons in laminae I-II that are likely to be involved in the itch pathway. They also suggest that the GRP immunoreactivity seen in primary afferents in previous studies may have resulted from cross-reaction of the GRP antibody with substance P or the closely related peptide neurokinin A.

  6. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  7. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Sansevero, Jerônimo B. B.; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biom...

  9. Flow Restoration in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of a Flow Restoration Accounting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy L; Holmes, S Rankin; Boisjolie, Brett A

    2018-03-01

    Securing environmental flows in support of freshwater biodiversity is an evolving field of practice. An example of a large-scale program dedicated to restoring environmental flows is the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, which has been restoring flows in dewatered tributary habitats for imperiled salmon species over the past decade. This paper discusses a four-tiered flow restoration accounting framework for tracking the implementation and impacts of water transactions as an effective tool for adaptive management. The flow restoration accounting framework provides compliance and flow accounting information to monitor transaction efficacy. We review the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework monitoring framework to demonstrate (a) the extent of water transactions that have been implemented over the past decade, (b) the volumes of restored flow in meeting flow targets for restoring habitat for anadromous fish species, and (c) an example of aquatic habitat enhancement that resulted from Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program investments. Project results show that from 2002 to 2015, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program has completed more than 450 water rights transactions, restoring approximately 1.59 million megaliters to date, with an additional 10.98 million megaliters of flow protected for use over the next 100 years. This has resulted in the watering of over 2414 stream kilometers within the Columbia Basin. We conclude with a discussion of the insights gained through the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework. Understanding the approach and efficacy of a monitoring framework applied across a large river basin can be informative to emerging flow-restoration and adaptive management efforts in areas of conservation concern.

  10. Flow Restoration in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of a Flow Restoration Accounting Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy L.; Holmes, S. Rankin; Boisjolie, Brett A.

    2018-03-01

    Securing environmental flows in support of freshwater biodiversity is an evolving field of practice. An example of a large-scale program dedicated to restoring environmental flows is the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, which has been restoring flows in dewatered tributary habitats for imperiled salmon species over the past decade. This paper discusses a four-tiered flow restoration accounting framework for tracking the implementation and impacts of water transactions as an effective tool for adaptive management. The flow restoration accounting framework provides compliance and flow accounting information to monitor transaction efficacy. We review the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework monitoring framework to demonstrate (a) the extent of water transactions that have been implemented over the past decade, (b) the volumes of restored flow in meeting flow targets for restoring habitat for anadromous fish species, and (c) an example of aquatic habitat enhancement that resulted from Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program investments. Project results show that from 2002 to 2015, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program has completed more than 450 water rights transactions, restoring approximately 1.59 million megaliters to date, with an additional 10.98 million megaliters of flow protected for use over the next 100 years. This has resulted in the watering of over 2414 stream kilometers within the Columbia Basin. We conclude with a discussion of the insights gained through the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework. Understanding the approach and efficacy of a monitoring framework applied across a large river basin can be informative to emerging flow-restoration and adaptive management efforts in areas of conservation concern.

  11. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Central ventilatory and cardiovascular actions of trout gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP in the unanesthetized trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Le Mével

    2013-07-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, a neuropeptide initially isolated from porcine stomach, shares sequence similarity with bombesin. GRP and its receptors are present in the brains and peripheral tissues of several species of teleost fish, but little is known about the ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of this peptide in these vertebrates. The goal of this study was to compare the central and peripheral actions of picomolar doses of trout GRP on ventilatory and cardiovascular variables in the unanesthetized rainbow trout. Compared to vehicle, intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of GRP (1–50 pmol significantly elevated the ventilation rate (ƒV and the ventilation amplitude (VAMP, and consequently the total ventilation (VTOT. The maximum hyperventilatory effect of GRP (VTOT: +225%, observed at a dose of 50 pmol, was mostly due to its stimulatory action on VAMP (+170% rather than ƒV (+20%. In addition, ICV GRP (50 pmol produced a significant increase in mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA (+35% and in heart rate (ƒH (+25%. Intra-arterial injections of GRP (5–100 pmol were without sustained effect on the ventilatory variables but produced sporadic and transient increases in ventilatory movement at doses of 50 and 100 pmol. At these doses, GRP elevated PDA by +20% but only the 50 pmol dose significantly increased HR (+15%. In conclusion, our study suggests that endogenous GRP within the brain of the trout may act as a potent neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the regulation of cardio-ventilatory functions. In the periphery, endogenous GRP may act as locally-acting and/or circulating neurohormone with an involvement in vasoregulatory mechanisms.

  13. Proteomics reveals novel oxidative and glycolytic mechanisms in type 1 diabetic patients' skin which are normalized by kidney-pancreas transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Folli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In type 1 diabetes (T1D vascular complications such as accelerated atherosclerosis and diffused macro-/microangiopathy are linked to chronic hyperglycemia with a mechanism that is not yet well understood. End-stage renal disease (ESRD worsens most diabetic complications, particularly, the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease is increased several fold.We evaluated protein regulation and expression in skin biopsies obtained from T1D patients with and without ESRD, to identify pathways of persistent cellular changes linked to diabetic vascular disease. We therefore examined pathways that may be normalized by restoration of normoglycemia with kidney-pancreas (KP transplantation. Using proteomic and ultrastructural approaches, multiple alterations in the expression of proteins involved in oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 1, Hsp27, Hsp60, ATP synthase delta chain, and flavin reductase, aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis (ACBP, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1, and intracellular signaling (stratifin-14-3-3, S100-calcyclin, cathepsin, and PPI rotamase as well as endothelial vascular abnormalities were identified in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients. These abnormalities were reversed after KP transplant. Increased plasma levels of malondialdehyde were observed in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients, confirming increased oxidative stress which was normalized after KP transplant.Our data suggests persistent cellular changes of anti-oxidative machinery and of aerobic/anaerobic glycolysis are present in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients, and these abnormalities may play a key role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-related vascular complications. Restoration of normoglycemia and removal of uremia with KP transplant can correct these abnormalities. Some of these identified pathways may become potential therapeutic targets for a new generation of drugs.

  14. Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Beute

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects and epidemiological (long-term effects research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1 capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2 distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3 bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4 advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area.

  15. [Progress and prospects on evaluation of ecological restoration: a review of the 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Wu

    2014-09-01

    The 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA on October 6-11, 2013. About 1200 delegates from more than 50 countries attended the conference, and discussed the latest developments in different thematic areas of ecological restoration. Discussions on evaluation of ecological restoration were mainly from three aspects: The construction for evaluation indicator system of ecological restoration; the evaluation methods of ecological restoration; monitoring and dynamic evaluation of ecological restoration. The meeting stressed the importance of evaluation in the process of ecological restoration and concerned the challenges in evaluation of ecological restoration. The conference had the following enlightenments for China' s research on evaluation of ecological restoration: 1) Strengthening the construction of comprehensive evaluation indicators system and focusing on the multi-participation in the evaluation process. 2) Paying more attentions on scale effect and scale transformation in the evaluation process of ecological restoration. 3) Expanding the application of 3S technology in assessing the success of ecological restoration and promoting the dynamic monitoring of ecological restoration. 4) Carrying out international exchanges and cooperation actively, and promoting China's international influence in ecological restoration research.

  16. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  17. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  18. Adenosine signaling promotes regeneration of pancreatic β-cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Olov; Adams, Bruce A.; Yoo, Daniel; Ellis, Gregory C.; Gut, Philipp; Anderson, Ryan M.; German, Michael S.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes can be controlled with insulin injections, but a curative approach that restores the number of insulin-producing β-cells is still needed. Using a zebrafish model of diabetes, we screened ~7000 small molecules to identify enhancers of β-cell regeneration. The compounds we identified converge on the adenosine signaling pathway and include exogenous agonists and compounds that inhibit degradation of endogenously produced adenosine. The most potent enhancer of β-cell regeneration was the adenosine agonist 5′-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), which acting through the adenosine receptor A2aa increased β-cell proliferation and accelerated restoration of normoglycemia in zebrafish. Despite markedly stimulating β-cell proliferation during regeneration, NECA had only a modest effect during development. The proliferative and glucose-lowering effect of NECA was confirmed in diabetic mice, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved role for adenosine in β-cell regeneration. With this whole-organism screen, we identified components of the adenosine pathway that could be therapeutically targeted for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22608007

  19. Applying Attention Restoration Theory to Understand and Address Clergy's Need to Restore Cognitive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Chelsea; Packer, Jan; Ballantyne, Roy

    2018-02-06

    Attention Restoration Theory is applied to explore the causes and consequences of mental fatigue in clergy and suggest practical interventions to restore cognitive wellbeing. Previous research has investigated the physical and emotional health and wellbeing of clergy, but has largely neglected clergy cognitive wellbeing. Due to the demanding nature of their work, clergy are particularly susceptible to mental fatigue and depletion of their capacity to maintain attention. Symptoms include inability to focus attention, inhibit distractions, make decisions or solve problems. Mental fatigue can be overcome, and cognitive capacity restored, by spending time in restorative environments that allow directed attention to rest.

  20. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...... stage patients and 71% in limited stage patients. Frequent initial monitoring of the substances showed an increase in the concentrations of pretherapeutic elevated CK-BB and NSE on day 1 or 2 followed by a sharp decrease within 1 week. These changes were correlated to objective clinical response...... determined within 4-8 weeks. The results indicate that serum CK-BB and NSE are potential markers for SCC at the time of diagnosis and that changes in the concentrations during the first course of cytostatic therapy are promising as biochemical tests for early detection of response to chemotherapy....

  1. Evaluation of periodontal status adjacent to interproximal surfaces restored with composite resin, in comparison with non-restored interproximal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Christina Barros de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the periodontal status of interproximal surfaces restored with composite resin, in comparison with non-restored interproximal surfaces. Methods: In 65 patients, we analyzed 145 restored surfaces and 145 non-restored surfaces. Results: Most of the restored surfaces (54.3% showed radiographic alterations, which was shown to be higher among restorations with clinically detected proximal excess (56.8% x 52.8%; with lack of restorative material (64.5% x 51.4%; in restorations with proximal overhang (67.7% x 44.4%; in teeth with gingival inflammation?/bleeding (55.1% x 40.0% and in teeth with probing depth exceeding 3 mm (64.3% x 52.9%. However, there were no significant associations for these variables. Of the non-restored surfaces, 24.4% showed radiographic alterations, however there were no significant associations. Conclusion: The results showed a statistical significance for radiographic alterations in restored and non-restored surfaces.

  2. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  3. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  4. Fracture Resistance of Pulpotomized Primary Molar Restored with Extensive Class II Amalgam Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mazhari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate fracture resistance of pulpoto-mized primary molar teeth restored with extensive multisurface amalgam restorations.Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted carious human primary molar teeth were se-lected forpresent study. Teeth were divided in to eight groups of ten. Mesio- or disto-occlusal and Mesio-occluso-distal cavities with different cavity wall thickness (1.5 or 2.5mm were prepared in both first and second primary molar teeth. After restoring teeth with amalgam, all specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. Then samples were thermocycled for 1000 cycles from 5°C to 55°C. The specimens then were subjected to a compressive load in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min-1. ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical analysis.Results: Mean fracture resistance of first and second molar teeth were 975.5 N (SD=368.8 and 1049.2 N (SD=540.1 respectively. In the first molar group, fracture resis-tance of two-surface cavities was significantly more than three-surface cavities (P<0.001, however this difference was not statistically significant in the second molar group. In both first and second molar group, fracture resistance incavities with 2.5 mm wall thickness, was significantly more than the group with 1.5 mm wall thickness.Conclusion: The mean fracture resistance in pulpotomized primary molar restored with amalgam restorations was higher than reported maximum bite force in primary teeth even in extensive multi-surface restorations. Therefore, the teeth with large proximal carious lesions in schoolchildren could be restored with amalgam.

  5. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  6. Power system restoration: planning and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D. [Assam Engineering Coll., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Assam (India); Sinha, A.K. [Inidan Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kharagpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a restoration guidance simulator, which allows power system operator/planner to simulate and plan restoration events in an interactive mode. The simulator provides a list of restoration events according to the priority based on some restoration rules and list of priority loads. It also provides in an interactive mode the list of events, which becomes possible as the system grows during restoration. Further, the selected event is validated through a load flow and other analytical tools to show the consequences of implementing the planned event. (Author)

  7. Survey and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, C.; Vegas, F.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser) and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  8. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  9. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  10. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  11. Economic barriers and incentives for biodiversity restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frapolli, Eduardo; Lindigcisneros, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.

  12. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  13. The science and practice of river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  14. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  15. Optical properties of composite restorations influenced by dissimilar dentin restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Jovana; Veljovic, Djordje N; Stasic, Jovana N; Savic-Stankovic, Tatjana; Trifkovic, Branka; Miletic, Vesna

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate optical properties (color and translucency) of 'sandwich' restorations of resin-based composites and esthetically unfavorable dentin restoratives. Cylindrical 'dentin' specimens (8mm in diameter and 2mm thick, N=5/group) were prepared using EverX Posterior (GC), Biodentine (Septodont), experimental hydroxyapatite (HAP) or conventional composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, GC; Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z500, 3M ESPE). Capping 'enamel' layers were prepared using composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, Filtek Z250 or Z550) of A1 or A3 shade and the following thickness: 0.6, 1 or 2mm. Color (ΔE) and translucency parameter (TP) were determined using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0, VITA Zahnfabrik). Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance with Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). TP was greatly affected by layer thickness, whilst ΔE depended on shade and layer thickness of the capping composite. HAP and Biodentine showed significantly lower TP and higher ΔE (deviation from 'ideal white') than composites (p<0.05). Greater TP was seen in EverX_composite groups than in corresponding control groups of the same shade and thickness. TP of composites combined with Biodentine or HAP was below 2, lower than the corresponding control groups (p<0.05). Within-group differences of ΔE were greatest in HAP_composite groups. EverX_Gradia and EverX_FiltekZ250 combinations showed the most comparable ΔE with the control groups. A 2mm thick layer of composite covering dentin restoratives with unfavorable esthetics is recommended for a final 'sandwich' restoration that is esthetically comparable to a conventional, mono-composite control restoration. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...... practitioners have to take account of a rather more complex picture than it had hitherto been thought. Restorative conferences are not simply about "shame management," though practitioners must certainly avoid shaming and humiliation. Given the nature of shame, guilt, and restorative conferences...

  17. How is success or failure in river restoration projects evaluated? Feedback from French restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Bertrand; Piégay, Hervé; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Vaudor, Lise

    2014-05-01

    Since the 1990s, French operational managers and scientists have been involved in the environmental restoration of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive (2000) highlights the need for feedback from restoration projects and for evidence-based evaluation of success. Based on 44 French pilot projects that included such an evaluation, the present study includes: 1) an introduction to restoration projects based on their general characteristics 2) a description of evaluation strategies and authorities in charge of their implementation, and 3) a focus on the evaluation of results and the links between these results and evaluation strategies. The results show that: 1) the quality of an evaluation strategy often remains too poor to understand well the link between a restoration project and ecological changes; 2) in many cases, the conclusions drawn are contradictory, making it difficult to determine the success or failure of a restoration project; and 3) the projects with the poorest evaluation strategies generally have the most positive conclusions about the effects of restoration. Recommendations are that evaluation strategies should be designed early in the project planning process and be based on clearly-defined objectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hormonal assay in gastric secretion of portal hypertension and peptic ulceration by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; El-Haieg, M.O.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Moustafa, N.A.; Refaat, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relation between the plasma levels and the gastric secretion in cases of portal hypertension and the duodenal ulcer. The relation between gastrin levels and bleeding in case of duodenal ulcer was also studied regarding the role of acidity, gastrin level, and the portal pressure on the pathogenesis of bleeding from oesophageal varices. Finally, the relation between gastrin secretion and state of liver functions was tested. The radioimmunoassay ( RIA ) is the basic test in assessment of the gastrin. The obtained results revealed the following: 1. The fasting serum gastrin was increased in case of liver cirrhosis 2. The level of gastrin was markedly increased in case of peptic ulceration 3. The incidence of peptic ulceration was increased in case of liver cirrhosis.3 tab

  19. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  20. The state-of-the-art of ART restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E

    2014-04-01

    ART is less anxiety- and pain-provoking than traditional restorative treatments; administration of local anaesthesia is rarely required. Systematic reviews have provided evidence of the high level of effectiveness of high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restoration in restoring single-surface cavities, both in primary and permanent posterior teeth, but its survival rates in restoring multiple-surface cavities in primary posterior teeth needs to be improved. Insufficient information is available regarding the survival rates of multiple-surface ART restorations in permanent teeth. Evidence from these reviews indicates no difference in the survival rates of single-surface high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations and amalgam restorations in primary and permanent posterior teeth. Where indicated, high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations can be used alongside traditional restorations. ART provides a much more acceptable introduction to dental restorative care than the traditional 'injection, drill and fill'.

  1. Impact of stream restoration on flood waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtes, J.; Doyle, M.

    2008-12-01

    Restoration of channelized or incised streams has the potential to reduce downstream flooding via storing and dissipating the energy of flood waves. Restoration design elements such as restoring meanders, reducing slope, restoring floodplain connectivity, re-introducing in-channel woody debris, and re-vegetating banks and the floodplain have the capacity to attenuate flood waves via energy dissipation and channel and floodplain storage. Flood discharge hydrographs measured up and downstream of several restored reaches of varying stream order and located in both urban and rural catchments are coupled with direct measurements of stream roughness at various stages to directly measure changes to peak discharge, flood wave celerity, and dispersion. A one-dimensional unsteady flow routing model, HEC-RAS, is calibrated and used to compare attenuation characteristics between pre and post restoration conditions. Modeled sensitivity results indicate that a restoration project placed on a smaller order stream demonstrates the highest relative reduction in peak discharge of routed flood waves compared to one of equal length on a higher order stream. Reductions in bed slope, extensions in channel length, and increases in channel and floodplain roughness follow restoration placement with the watershed in relative importance. By better understanding how design, scale, and location of restored reaches within a catchment hydraulically impact flood flows, this study contributes both to restoration design and site decision making. It also quantifies the effect of reach scale stream restoration on flood wave attenuation.

  2. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  3. Atraumatic restorative treatment in atypical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Simino Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The atraumatic restorative treatment has been widely divulged among professionals in the area of Pediatric Dentistry. This restorative technique is included in the philosophy of Minimal Intervention and is considered one of the most conservative treatments, because only the layer of infected dentin caries is removed. Moreover, the atraumatic restorative treatment has been shown to be less painful than conventional approaches, and local anesthesia is rarely required. After the removal of the infected dentin, the cavities are filled with glass ionomer cement, a material that has antimicrobial capacity, good marginal sealing and constant fluorine release and recharge. In spite of the increasing number of studies about atraumatic restorative treatment, only studies related to restorations in occlusal cavities have shown scientific evidences about the technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of atraumatic restorative treatment in cavities with 3 or more surfaces involved, by means of a clinical case report of a patient with extensive dstruction in primary teeth, who was submitted to atraumatic restorative treatment, and observe the result of the treatment after one year of clinical and radiographic control.

  4. The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2014-06-01

    The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault.

  5. Restoration of landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A K; Chamley, M E

    1986-10-01

    Many excavated quarries are subsequently used for waste disposal operations and frequently imported landfill provides the only means of restoring a former quarry to some beneficial afteruse. Concentrating solely on the final surface cover, this paper sets out some of the principles, which should be considered by those involved in landfill operations to ensure the long term success of restoration schemes. With the emphasis on restoration to agriculture, factors such as availability of cover materials and depths necessary are discussed in terms of requirements to support plant growth, protect clay capping layers and prevent damage to agricultural implements. Soil handling and appropriate after care management are considered. 4 refs.

  6. The socioeconomic factors that facilitate or constrain restoration management: Watershed rehabilitation and wet meadow (bofedal) restoration in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brett D; Cleveland, David A

    2018-03-01

    Restoration ecology holds promise for addressing land degradation in impoverished rural environments, provided the approach is adapted to rural development settings. While there is a need for increased integration of social dynamics in land restoration, few systematic studies exist. We explored the socioeconomic factors that influence restoration management, including local motives and perceived benefits, incentives, land tenancy, institutional factors, conflict resolution, accessibility, off-farm labor, and outmigration. The study area is a successful watershed rehabilitation and wet meadow restoration project in the Bolivian Andes that began in 1992. We used household survey methods (n = 237) to compare the communities that had conducted the most restoration management with those that had conducted the least. Results suggest that several factors facilitate investments in land restoration, including aligning restoration objectives with local motives and perceived benefits, ensuring incentives are in place to stimulate long-term investments, conflict resolution, private land tenancy, and accessibility. However, higher levels of organization and active leadership can facilitate land restoration on communal lands. Increased livelihood benefits from land restoration helped slow the rate of rural to urban migration, with 24.5% outmigration in the highest restoration management communities compared to 62.1% in the lowest restoration management communities. Results suggest that land restoration projects that integrate community development into project planning and implementation will achieve greater success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  8. Process to identify and evaluate restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.; Senner, S.; Weiner, A.; Rabinowitch, S.; Brodersen, M.; Rice, K.; Klinge, K.; MacMullin, S.; Yender, R.; Thompson, R.

    1993-01-01

    The restoration planning process has yielded a number of possible alternatives for restoring resources and services injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. They were developed by resource managers, scientists, and the public, taking into consideration the results of damage assessment and restoration studies and information from the scientific literature. The alternatives thus far identified include no action natural recovery, management of human uses, manipulation of resources, habitat protection and acquisition, acquisition of equivalent resources, and combinations of the above. Each alternative consists of a different mix of resource- or service-specific restoration options. To decide whether it was appropriate to spend restoration funds on a particular resource or service, first criteria had to be developed that evaluated available evidence for consequential injury and the adequacy and rate of natural recovery. Then, recognizing the range of effective restoration options, a second set of criteria was applied to determine which restoration options were the most beneficial. These criteria included technical feasibility, potential to improve the rate or degree of recovery, the relationship of expected costs to benefits, cost effectiveness, and the potential to restore the ecosystem as a whole. The restoration options considered to be most beneficial will be grouped together in several or more of the above alternatives and presented in a draft restoration plan. They will be further evaluated in a companion draft environmental impact statement

  9. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  10. Restoration in multi-domain GMPLS-based networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of using restoration mechanisms in a dynamic multi-domain GMPLS network. Major challenges and solutions are introduced and two well-known restoration schemes (End-to-End and Local-to-End) are evaluated. Additionally, new restoration mechanisms are introdu......In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of using restoration mechanisms in a dynamic multi-domain GMPLS network. Major challenges and solutions are introduced and two well-known restoration schemes (End-to-End and Local-to-End) are evaluated. Additionally, new restoration mechanisms...... are introduced: one based on the position of a failed link, called Location-Based, and another based on minimizing the additional resources consumed during restoration, called Shortest-New. A complete set of simulations in different network scenarios show where each mechanism is more efficient in terms, such as...

  11. Basic research for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a literature on restoration techniques in restinga environments. It was found that forest restoration on restinga, in most cases there is use of natural regeneration techniques nucleation, and these studies highlight the successional advances and establishments of life forms preserved features of the area, thus making the restoration in these environments.

  14. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change in the coastal zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine coastal habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine coastal restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and coastal organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques

  15. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  16. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but

  17. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...

  18. Long-term evaluation of extensive restorations in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwenhuysen, J.-P. van; D'hoore, W.D.; Carvalho, J.

    2003-01-01

    Biostatistics, cast crowns, complex restorations, composite resins, decision making, dental amalgam, metal ceramic crowns, multi-surfaced restorations, prosthodontics, restorative dentistry......Biostatistics, cast crowns, complex restorations, composite resins, decision making, dental amalgam, metal ceramic crowns, multi-surfaced restorations, prosthodontics, restorative dentistry...

  19. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Solis-Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests (TDFs have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  20. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy; Boege, Karina; Del-Val, Ek

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  1. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  2. Restoration of an intruded maxillary central incisor with a uniquely designed dowel and core restoration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Tacir, Ibrahim Halil

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the restoration of an intruded root using a custom-made metal dowel and metal-ceramic veneer core restoration. The treatment plan for this patient consisted of restoring the missing esthetics and eliminating psychological trauma by utilizing the root of the intruded maxillary left central incisor to replace both missing central incisor crowns. This treatment will preserve space and bone until the patient is old enough for another prosthodontic restoration to be considered. As the lost fragments were not recovered, we considered this restoration of the intruded root to be the best therapeutic option, considering the effect on the patient's psyche. The patient was satisfied with the final result.

  3. Searching for Affective and Cognitive Restoration: Examining the Restorative Effects of Casual Video Game Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Michael A; Sweetman, Richard; Sosa, Alejandra E; Smither, Janan A; McConnell, Daniel S

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of a passive break, relaxation activity, and casual video game on affect, stress, engagement, and cognitive performance. Reducing stress and improving cognitive performance is critical across many domains. Previous studies investigated taking a break, relaxation techniques, or playing a game; however, these methods have not been compared within a single experiment. Participants completed a baseline affective and cognitive assessment (ACA), which included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, shortened version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, and backward digit-span. Next, participants completed a vigilance task, followed by another ACA. Participants were then assigned at random to complete a break or relaxation activity or play a casual video game, followed by a final ACA. Participants who played the casual video game exhibited greater engagement and affective restoration than the relaxation condition. The break condition slightly decreased affect and prevented cognitive restoration. Playing a casual video game even briefly can restore individuals' affective abilities, making it a suitable activity to restore mood in response to stress. However, future research is needed to find activities capable of cognitive restoration. Many activities in life require sustained cognitive demand, which are stressful and decrease performance, especially for workers in performance-critical domains. Our research suggests some leisure activities are better than others for restoring fatigued affective processes.

  4. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  5. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels 0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  7. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Chaperon

    Full Text Available Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA. Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6, Leu-NHEt(13, des-Met(14-Bombesin (6-14 did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  8. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  9. Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program: Restoration Design Challenges for Topographic Mounds, Channel Outlets, and Reed Canarygrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinks, Ian A. [Columbia Land Trust, Vancouver, WA (United States); Cullinan, Valerie I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to provide science-based information to practitioners and managers of restoration projects in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) regarding aspects of restoration techniques that currently pose known challenges and uncertainties. The CEERP is a program of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Portland District, in collaboration with the National Marine Fisheries Service and five estuary sponsors implementing restoration. The estuary sponsors are Columbia Land Trust, Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce, Cowlitz Tribe, Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The scope of the research conducted during federal fiscal year 2015 included three aspects of hydrologic reconnection that were selected based on available scientific information and feedback from restoration practitioners during project reviews: the design of mounds (also called hummocks, peninsulas, or berms); the control of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinaceae); and aspects of channel network design related to habitat connectivity for juvenile salmonids.

  10. Groundwater restoration of in-situ uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In-situ leaching is a relatively new uranium production technology that is expected to account for a growing share of future output. Depending upon the leaching solution used, the process may have considerable impact on the ground water. Since restoration of ground water quality is required in most countries and since this restoration is by far the most costly aspect of reclamation of an in-situ mine, it is necessary to utilize a process that lends itself both to the efficiency of the leaching process and the restoration process. This article examines a number of techniques that may be used in the restoration efforts. These include: (1) groundwater sweep, (2) reverse osmosis, (3) chemical restoration, and (4) electrodialysis. The article also discusses disposal of the excess fluids used in the restoration process

  11. Importance of including cultural practices in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehi, Priscilla M; Lord, Janice M

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide have a long history of use and management by indigenous cultures. However, environmental degradation can reduce the availability of culturally important resources. Ecological restoration aims to repair damage to ecosystems caused by human activity, but it is unclear how often restoration projects incorporate the return of harvesting or traditional life patterns for indigenous communities. We examined the incorporation of cultural use of natural resources into ecological restoration in the context of a culturally important but protected New Zealand bird; among award-winning restoration projects in Australasia and worldwide; and in the peer-reviewed restoration ecology literature. Among New Zealand's culturally important bird species, differences in threat status and availability for hunting were large. These differences indicate the values of a colonizing culture can inhibit harvesting by indigenous people. In Australasia among award-winning ecological restoration projects, restored areas beyond aesthetic or recreational use, despite many projects encouraging community participation. Globally, restoration goals differed among regions. For example, in North America, projects were primarily conservation oriented, whereas in Asia and Africa projects frequently focused on restoring cultural harvesting. From 1995 to 2014, the restoration ecology literature contained few references to cultural values or use. We argue that restoration practitioners are missing a vital component for reassembling functional ecosystems. Inclusion of sustainably harvestable areas within restored landscapes may allow for the continuation of traditional practices that shaped ecosystems for millennia, and also aid project success by ensuring community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  13. Restoration of a fractured central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    The treatment of a traumatically damaged single central incisor poses significant challenges relative to function and esthetics to the restoring clinician. Providing a good long-term prognosis is paramount when determining whether to maintain or extract a structurally compromised tooth. Successful restoration demands timely and thorough risk assessment along with excellent communication with both the patient and the laboratory fabricating the restoration.

  14. Authenticity and Restoration: The Benefits of Historical Studies on Re-Examining the Implemented Restorations in Persepolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Motamedmanesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Preserving the authenticity of historical monuments is an inseparable part of restoration activities that has always been asserted by the international principles of historical preservation. However, the local condition of historical sites may influence such a primitive intention of restorers. While historical documents are appropriate sources which can provide restorers with the real condition of ancient structures in the course of time, investigation through these precious materials is a time-consuming process and the reliability of these old evidences is, itself, a challenging issue. The Italian Institute for Middle and Far East (IsMEO missioned long-term restoration activities in Persepolis between 1964 and the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Generally, this institute is praised for this series of projects. In this paper, the author questions the historical authenticity of restoration activities missioned by this institute in a structure so-called The Gate of All Nations. Indeed, the restoration of this structure was influenced by the 2500th anniversary of the Persian Empire, which was held in Persepolis in 1971. By tracing the context of historical evidences and presenting a method for obtaining the authenticity of these documents, this paper demonstrates a new perspective towards the arrangement of a stone-made capital, which ornaments the uppermost part of a re-erected ancient column.

  15. Evaluating the Reasons of Amalgam Restoration Replacement in Esthetic and Restorative Department of Babol Dental School in 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Abolghasemzade

    2015-08-01

    Results: Within 263 patients, there were 81(30.8% men and 182(69.2% women. Most patients aged 30-40(42.2%, and were reported to suffer from class Ι dental occlusion(92.4%.The mean DMF was 9.7±2.4 . Lower molars were demonstrated as the most frequent teeth group for replacing amalgam restorations as well as causing secondary caries. Furthermore, secondary caries involved the major causes of amalgam restoration replacement. The most prevalent class for amalgam restoration replacement was class II restorations. It should be noted that secondary caries were most prevalent within class II MO / DO(25 cases(44.6%. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that the most common cause of the restoration replacement involved the secondary caries which was most observed in the Class II restorations.

  16. Prioritization of forest restoration projects: Tradeoffs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Vogler; Alan A. Ager; Michelle A. Day; Michael Jennings; John D. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine...

  17. Restoration and repair of Earth's damaged ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly P; Jones, Peter C; Barbier, Edward B; Blackburn, Ryan C; Rey Benayas, Jose M; Holl, Karen D; McCrackin, Michelle; Meli, Paula; Montoya, Daniel; Mateos, David Moreno

    2018-02-28

    Given that few ecosystems on the Earth have been unaffected by humans, restoring them holds great promise for stemming the biodiversity crisis and ensuring ecosystem services are provided to humanity. Nonetheless, few studies have documented the recovery of ecosystems globally or the rates at which ecosystems recover. Even fewer have addressed the added benefit of actively restoring ecosystems versus allowing them to recover without human intervention following the cessation of a disturbance. Our meta-analysis of 400 studies worldwide that document recovery from large-scale disturbances, such as oil spills, agriculture and logging, suggests that though ecosystems are progressing towards recovery following disturbances, they rarely recover completely. This result reinforces conservation of intact ecosystems as a key strategy for protecting biodiversity. Recovery rates slowed down with time since the disturbance ended, suggesting that the final stages of recovery are the most challenging to achieve. Active restoration did not result in faster or more complete recovery than simply ending the disturbances ecosystems face. Our results on the added benefit of restoration must be interpreted cautiously, because few studies directly compared different restoration actions in the same location after the same disturbance. The lack of consistent value added of active restoration following disturbance suggests that passive recovery should be considered as a first option; if recovery is slow, then active restoration actions should be better tailored to overcome specific obstacles to recovery and achieve restoration goals. We call for a more strategic investment of limited restoration resources into innovative collaborative efforts between scientists, local communities and practitioners to develop restoration techniques that are ecologically, economically and socially viable. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan- but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shuhei; Cho, Sungsam; Tosaka, Shinya; Higashijima, Ushio; Maekawa, Takuji; Hara, Tetsuya; Sumikawa, Koji

    2012-01-12

    The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Wistar rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. Under normoglycemia, both 30 μg/kg milrinone (29 ± 12%) and 10 μg/kg levosimendan (33 ± 13%) reduced infarct size compared with that in the control (58 ± 7%). Under hyperglycemia, milrinone (34 ± 13%) reduced infarct size at the same dose as under normoglycemia. In contrast, neither 10 nor 30 μg/kg levosimendan protected hyperglycemic hearts, and only 100 μg/kg levosimendan (32 ± 9%) reduced infarct size compared with that in the hyperglycemic control (58 ± 13%). All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside. Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan-induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia.

  19. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  20. Survival Rates from Fracture of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Full-coverage Crowns or Direct Resin Composite Restorations: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksaphar, Warattama; Banomyong, Danuchit; Jirathanyanatt, Titalee; Ngoenwiwatkul, Yaowaluk

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the survival rates against fracture of premolar endodontically treated teeth (ETT) restored with resin composite or crowns and to identify risk factors associated with the fracture. Data from dental records and radiographs of premolar ETT with postendodontic restorations (ie, resin composite or crowns) were collected between 2012 and 2016 and selected following selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Tooth location, type of restoration, number of proximal contacts, and amount of tooth surface loss were recorded. The incidence and restorability of postendodontic fractures were identified. Survival rates against fracture of the 2 restoration types were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Any potential factors associated with fractures were identified using Cox proportional hazards models. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns (95.1%) was higher than resin composite (77.0%). ETT restored with resin composite with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts had a high survival rate of 88.5% that was not significantly different from ETT with crowns. A higher incidence of restorability after fracture was observed in teeth restored with resin composite than crowns. The type of restoration and number of proximal contacts were identified as potential risk factors associated with fracture incidence. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns was higher than resin composite. However, ETT with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts and restored with resin composite showed a high survival rate that was comparable with ETT restored with crowns. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications of resin-based composite (RBC) restoration on cuspal deflection and microleakage score in molar teeth: Placement protocol and restorative material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Lauren E J; Politi, Ioanna; Al-Fodeh, Rami S; Fleming, Garry J P

    2017-09-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection of standardised large mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities in third molar teeth restored using conventional resin-based composite (RBC) or their bulk fill restorative counterparts compared with the unbound condition using a twin channel deflection measuring gauge. Following thermocycling, the cervical microleakage of the restored teeth was assessed to determine marginal integrity. Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in forty-eight sound third molar teeth and randomly allocated to six groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with (and without) a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a light-emitting-diode light-curing-unit. The dependent variable was the restoration protocol, eight oblique increments for conventional RBCs or two horizontal increments for the bulk fill resin restoratives. The cumulative buccal and palatal cuspal deflections from a twin channel deflection measuring gauge were summed, the restored teeth thermally fatigued, immersed in 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage score. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified third molar teeth restored using conventional RBC materials had significantly higher mean total cuspal deflection values compared with bulk fill resin restorative restoration (all pmaterial selection is vital in the absence of clinical data. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Restorative glass: reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidra Oikonomopoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and aesthetical integrity. Concurrently, the material’s unique mechanical properties enable the structural consolidation of the monument. As a proof of concept, the restoration of Lichtenberg Castle is proposed. Solid cast glass units are suggested to complete the missing parts, in respect to the existing construction technique and aesthetics of the original masonry. Aiming for a reversible system, the glass units are interlocking, ensuring the overall stability without necessitating permanent, adhesive connections. This results in an elegant and reversible intervention.

  3. Psycholegal abilities and restoration of competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; Deyoung, Nathaniel J

    2012-01-01

    Criminal defendants adjudicated incompetent to stand trial are typically hospitalized for competence restoration in state institutions. Prolonged restoration hospitalizations involve civil rights concerns and increasing financial costs, and there remains interest in determining which individuals are likely to be successfully restored. We retrospectively reviewed hospital records of 455 male defendants admitted to a forensic treatment center for competence restoration in an effort to determine whether psychiatric diagnoses, demographic factors, or psycholegal abilities were predictive of successful or failed restoration. At varying stages of restoration efforts, psychotic disorder, mental retardation, and previous state hospitalization predicted unsuccessful restoration, while substance use and personality disorders were predictive of successful restoration. Psycholegal abilities were predictive of successful restoration and appeared to form a continuum, with basic behavior and outlook, factual legal understanding, and rational attorney assistance factors demonstrating progressively increased importance in successful restoration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... these regulations on June 10, 2010, to address changes in law, regulation, policy, technology, and... Service 50 CFR Part 80 Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter... 80 [Docket No. FWS-R9-WSR-2009-0088; 91400-5110-POLI-7B; 91400-9410-POLI- 7B] RIN 1018-AW65 Financial...

  5. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G.F.; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L.B.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. OBJECTIVE: To test the

  6. Leadership success within disaster restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Randy R; Baroudi, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Successful project managers draw their performance from essential leadership traits, as guided by their core values.Within disaster recovery, contractors who mitigate, repair, and reconstruct the built environment are often faced with challenges exceeding the norm. The effective leader is commonly expected to consider stakeholder motivations within distressing situations as well as other external and environmental factors when seeking to lead the project team to successful outcomes. This research is most concerned with leadership within the context of disaster restoration of the built environment. Its stimulus comes from the Restoration Industry Association (RIA)'s efforts to highlight leadership traits and core values for its Certified Restorer Body of Knowledge but would be of value to others associated with disaster recovery operations. Among organizations whose membership includes thousands of practitioners who restore and reconstruct the built environment after disasters, the RIA is the only one yet to formally and substantially research which core values and leader traits are deemed critical for the success of efforts to manage the means and methods applied on recovery job sites. Forty-six seasoned disaster restoration industry project professionals voluntarily responded to a survey questionnaire that sought their opinions about the traits and core values that they consider most important for successful disaster restoration project leadership. The most important leader traits were effective communication, professional competence, and leadership by example. The most important restoration industry values were integrity, compassion, and trustworthiness. The recognized imperative of compassion was unexpected in light of stereotypes often associated with construction-related contractors. This and other findings permit disaster response and recovery stakeholders to better understand qualities they should wish to see in leaders of contractor organizations, which

  7. Atraumatic restorative treatment versus conventional restorative treatment for managing dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Mojtaba; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José; Walsh, Tanya; Marinho, Valeria Cc; Sheiham Deceased, Aubrey; Zaror, Carlos

    2017-12-28

    Dental caries is a sugar-dependent disease that damages tooth structure and, due to loss of mineral components, may eventually lead to cavitation. Dental caries is the most prevalent disease worldwide and is considered the most important burden of oral health. Conventional treatment methods (drill and fill) involve the use of rotary burs under local anaesthesia. The need for an electricity supply, expensive handpieces and highly trained dental health personnel may limit access to dental treatment, especially in underdeveloped regions.To overcome the limitations of conventional restorative treatment, the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) was developed, mainly for treating caries in children living in under-served areas of the world where resources and facilities such as electricity and trained manpower are limited. ART is a minimally invasive approach which involves removal of decayed tissue using hand instruments alone, usually without use of anaesthesia and electrically driven equipment, and restoration of the dental cavity with an adhesive material (glass ionomer cement (GIC), composite resins, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RM-GICs) and compomers). To assess the effects of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) compared with conventional treatment for managing dental caries lesions in the primary and permanent teeth of children and adults. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 22 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 February 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 22 February 2017), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 22 February 2017) and BBO BIREME Virtual Health Library (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia; 1986 to 22 February 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (Clinical

  8. Marine Ecosystem Restoration in Changing European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen; Delaney, Alyne; Carballo Cárdenas, Eira

    2017-01-01

    and using different narratives of marine restoration, and being confronted with different forms of uncertainties. The paper’s overall contribution is the synthesis of these seemingly disparate components (narratives of restoration, uncertainty in decision making, and governance arrangements) to evaluate...... the impact of existing (maritime and environmental) policies, the governance setting, definitions of restoration and uncertainties on the effectiveness of marine restoration projects. Such a synthesis is a necessary move toward a systematic evaluation of ways to govern and formally institutionalize marine...

  9. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Wetland restoration: a survey of options for restoring peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lode, Elve

    1999-01-01

    In spite of increased attention to wetland conservation following the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, the peat-harvesting industry in many countries is still interested in the further exploitation of peatlands. In some of the most industrialised countries, all natural peatlands have already been lost. In others, only small areas of native peatland remain. Among other possible uses for cut-over peatlands, peatland restoration is one: there is an urgent need for the development of measures for regenerating peat-accumulation processes. The redevelopment of a fen or bog peat landscape is a long-term process, which will probably take centuries. The restoration of any peatland may therefore be considered successful if the outcome is the development and growth of plant communities able to produce peat. The renewal of the hydrological regime of such areas is a major factor which determines the re-colonisation of cut-over peat fields by peat-forming plants. The aim of this paper is to give a brief survey of wetlands, and especially of peatland restoration options, for use in terminated peat-cuttings. It aims to show how peatland management may be made sustainable by means of existing and tried methods and principles, with the goal of returning cut-over peat fields to their former peat-accumulating state. A glossary of peat and peatland terminology is included 105 refs, 5 figs

  11. CEER 2014 Dedicated Session Proposal: Restoring Water Quality along with Restoring the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session focuses on the importance of restoring water quality as part of the larger Gulf of Mexico restoration efforts. Water quality has been identified as a significant indicator of water body condition, and Gulf waters have been impacted by increased urban development, agr...

  12. A Policy Analysis Perspective on Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Baker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple stages model of the policy process, we explore the politics of ecological restoration using an array of examples drawn across sector, different size and scale, and from different countries. A policy analysis perspective reveals how, at both the program and project levels, ecological restoration operates within a complex and dynamic interplay between technical decision making, ideologies, and interest politics. Viewed through the stages model, restoration policy involves negotiating nature across stages in the policy making process, including agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The stages model is a useful heuristic devise; however, this linear model assumes that policy makers approach the issue rationally. In practice, ecological restoration policy takes place in the context of different distributions of power between the various public and private actors involved at the different stages of restoration policy making. This allows us to reiterate the point that ecological restoration is best seen not only as a technical task but as a social and political project.

  13. The changing and its interaction of determining serum gastrin levels and helicobacter pylori test during chronic atrophic gastritis into gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Weijuan; Yang Yongqing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the changing and its interaction of determining serum gastrin levels and Helicobacter pylori test during chronic atrophic gastritis into gastric cancer. Methods: RIA and 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) determined the Gs levels and Hp infection rate in 63 rate cases (first visit) patients, 48 cases (after one year return visit) patients, 35 cases (after three year return visit) patients and 30 cases (after five years return visit) patients with CAG 90 cases patients with gastric cancer (and different position) and 61 cases normal controls. They all were done study compared. Results: Serum Gs levels in 63 cases (first visit) patients, 48 cases (after one year return visit) patients, 35 cases (after three year return visit) patients and 30 cases (after five years return visit) patient with CAG were significantly higher (t=4.716, 5.218, 5.624, 6.179, 6.5772, all P 0.05). Serum Gs levels in 90 cases with gastric cancer (and different position) was significantly higher (t=4.221, P<0.05; t=4.436, P<0.01) than 61 cases normal controls and the highest serum Gs level was found in cancer of cardia and fundus. And Hp infection rate was 88.8%. Conclusion: The early diagnosis on gastric cancer was very important by determining serum Gs and Hp infection rate. (authors)

  14. Re-interventions after restoring teeth-Mining an insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedel, Michael; Hartmann, Andrea; Priess, Heinz-Werner; Bohm, Steffen; Samietz, Stefanie; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Walter, Michael H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine re-interventions after restorative treatment. The data was collected from the digital database of a major German national health insurance company. Only permanent teeth were observed. Placing a permanent restoration other than a crown regardless of involved surfaces and material was the study intervention. The data did not allow for a differentiation between fillings and inlays that were estimated only a very small portion of the restorations. Success was defined as not undergoing any restorative re-intervention with fillings or inlays on the same tooth (primary outcome) and assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival analyses over four years. An additional analysis was conducted rating "crowning" and "extraction" of respective teeth as target events. Differences were tested with the Log-Rank-test. A multivariate Cox regression analyses was carried out. A total of 17,024,344 restorations placed in 4,825,408 anterior teeth and 9,973,177 posterior teeth could be traced. Focussing on the primary outcome re-intervention, the cumulative four-year success rate was 69.9% for one surface restorations, 74.8% for two surface restorations, 66.6% for three surface restorations and 61.0% for four surface and more extended restorations. These differences were significant (prestorations, 67.5% for two surface restorations, 63.0% for three surface restorations and 55.8% for four surface and more extended restorations. The number of restoration surfaces as well as the tooth position remained significant in the multivariate Cox regression. The sustainability of restorative dental treatment under the terms and conditions of the German national health insurance system shows room for improvement. From a public health perspective, special focus should be laid on primary and secondary prevention to minimize the restorative treatment need. This study shows that re-interventions are observed regularly after restorative treatment. Therefore, preventive and

  15. Effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical Marginal-gaps on the survival of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment approach restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Kemoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART approach has been in existence for a while, the reasons for the poor performance of multisurface ART restorations are not very clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical marginal-gaps on survival of proximal ART restorations. Settings: Two rural divisions in Kenya were selected for the study. Design: A randomized clinical trial. Material and Methods: The 804 children in the study had their baseline- and 2-year dental plaque levels documented. Each child received one proximal restoration in a primary molar using ART approach, together with trained and pre-tested operators/assistants, three glass ionomer cements (GIC-brands and two tooth-isolation methods. The restorations were clinically evaluated soon after placement and after 2 years. Post-restorative bite-wing radiographs taken soon after restoration were also evaluated. Statistical analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 14 computer programme was used and results tested using Pearson′s correlation, Cox Proportional Hazards regression analysis and Multiple Logistic regression models tests. Results: At baseline and after 2 years, the mean cumulative survival and plaque index changed from 94.4% to 30.8% and 2.34 (Standard Deviation, or SD of 0.46 to 1.92 (SD 2.1 respectively, with higher plaque indices associated with higher restoration failures. Of the 507 radiographs evaluated, 48 (9.5%, 63 (12.4% and 9 (1.8% restorations had residual caries (RC, cervical marginal-gaps (CMG and both RC/CMG respectively. Survival of the restorations with RC/CMG was significantly lower (p = 0.003 compared to those with RC or without RC. Conclusion: Low survival of proximal restorations in the study was associated with the presence of cervical marginal-gaps.

  16. Forests planted for ecosystem restoration or conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    1999-01-01

    Although the phrase, "planting for ecosystem restoration," is of recent origin, many of the earliest large-scale tree plantings were made for what we now refer to as "'restoration" or "conservation" goals. Forest restoration activities may be needed when ecosystems are disturbed by either natural or anthropogenic forces. Disturbances...

  17. Measures to restore metallurgical mine wasteland using ecological restoration technologies: A case study at Longnan Rare Earth Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yunzhang; Gu, Ruizhi; Guo, Ruikai; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Whereas mining activities produce the raw materials that are crucial to economic growth, such activities leave extensive scarring on the land, contributing to the waste of valuable land resources and upsetting the ecological environment. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate various ecological technologies to restore metallurgical mine wastelands. These technologies include measures such as soil amelioration, vegetation restoration, different vegetation planting patterns, and engineering technologies. The Longnan Rare Earth Mine in the Jiangxi Province of China is used as the case study. The ecological restoration process provides a favourable reference for the restoration of a metallurgical mine wasteland.

  18. The notion and basic principles of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .

  19. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  20. ROV Based Underwater Blurred Image Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhishen; DING Tianfu; WANG Gang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of ROV based image processing to restore underwater blurry images from the theory of light and image transmission in the sea. Computer is used to simulate the maximum detection range of the ROV under different water body conditions. The receiving irradiance of the video camera at different detection ranges is also calculated. The ROV's detection performance under different water body conditions is given by simulation. We restore the underwater blurry images using the Wiener filter based on the simulation. The Wiener filter is shown to be a simple useful method for underwater image restoration in the ROV underwater experiments. We also present examples of restored images of an underwater standard target taken by the video camera in these experiments.

  1. Current Concepts in Restorative Implant Dentistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prof.Marchack

    2009-01-01

    Patients today are incteasingly aware of dental implants.and their expectations are for esthetically and functionally pleasingimplant restorations that mimic natural teeth.This presentation will give both the experienced and novice practitioner a better understand-ing of how restorative implant dentistry has evolved.Treatment planning and restorative options for single implants.multiple implants andfully edentulons arches will be discussed,and the use of modern materials and CADCAM technology in fabricating the most contemporaryfixed implant supported prostheses will be demonstrated.

  2. Effect of dual-cure composite resin as restorative material on marginal adaptation of class 2 restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, Tissiana; Melian, Karla; Krejci, Ivo

    2013-10-01

    The present study attempted to find a simple direct adhesive restorative technique for the restoration of Class 2 cavities. A self-etch adhesive system with a dual-cured core buildup composite resin (paste 1 + paste 2) was evaluated in its ability to restore proximo-occlusal cavities with margins located on enamel and dentin. The groups were: A, cavity filling (cf) with paste 1 (light-curing component) by using a layering technique; B, cf by mixing both pastes, bulk insertion, and dual curing; and C, cf by mixing both pastes, bulk insertion, and chemical curing. Two control groups (D, negative, bulk; and E, positive, layering technique) were included by restoring cavities with a classic three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive and a universal restorative composite resin. SEM margin analysis was performed before and after thermomechanical loading in a chewing simulator. Percentages (mean ± SD) of "continuous margins" were improved by applying the material in bulk and letting it self cure (54 ± 6) or dual cure (59 ± 9), and no significant differences were observed between these two groups and the positive control (44 ± 19). The present study showed that the dual-cured composite resin tested has the potential to be used as bulk filling material for Class 2 restorations. When used as filling materials, dual-cure composite resins placed in bulk can provide marginal adaptation similar to light-cured composites applied with a complex stratification technique.

  3. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 1. Concepts for understanding and applying restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2015-10-26

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a landscape-dependent bird that requires intact habitat and combinations of sagebrush and perennial grasses to exist. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals also have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrushobligate animals. This restoration handbook is the first in a three-part series on restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. In Part 1, we discuss concepts surrounding landscape and restoration ecology of sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse that habitat managers and restoration practitioners need to know to make informed decisions regarding where and how to restore specific areas. We will describe the plant dynamics of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and their responses to major disturbances, fire, and defoliation. We will introduce the concepts of ecosystem resilience to disturbances and resistance to invasions of annual grasses within sagebrush steppe. An introduction to soils and ecological site information will provide insights into the specific plants that can be restored in a location. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are described as a tool for determining resilience and resistance and the potential for various restoration actions. Greater sage-grouse are considered landscape birds that require large areas of intact sagebrush steppe; therefore, we describe concepts of landscape ecology that aid our decisions regarding habitat restoration. We provide a brief overview of

  4. Dark diversity illuminates the dim side of restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann

    Dark diversity consists of the species that are absent from sites where they could potentially thrive despite the fact that they are actually in the regional species pool. Successful ecological restoration requires detailed knowledge of species that are less successful in (re)colonizing restored ...... in future restoration and conservation efforts.......Dark diversity consists of the species that are absent from sites where they could potentially thrive despite the fact that they are actually in the regional species pool. Successful ecological restoration requires detailed knowledge of species that are less successful in (re)colonizing restored...

  5. In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Various Restorative Materials used for restoring Class III Cavities in Deciduous Anterior Teeth: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyank, Harsh; Verma, Ankita; Gupta, Komal; Chaudhary, Esha; Khandelwal, Deepak; Nihalani, Shweta

    2016-12-01

    Beauty standards in today's modernized world scenario are formed by well-aligned and well-designed bright white teeth. One of the major reasons behind patients reporting to dental clinics is pain. Caries in the anterior primary teeth forms one of the major concerns from a restorative point of view. Very few studies are quoted in literature which stresses on the follow-up of anterior restorations in primary teeth. Hence, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RGIC) for class III restorations in primary anterior teeth. The present study was conducted in the pediatric dental wing and included a total of 80 patients aged 3 to 5½ years who reported with the chief complaint of carious lesions in the primary anterior teeth. Patients having minimal of a pair of similar appearing small carious lesions on the same proximal surfaces of the deciduous maxillary incisors were included for the study. All the patients were randomly divided into two groups: One in which RGIC restoration was done and other in which composite restoration was done. Cavity preparation was done and filling of the cavity with the restorative materials was carried out. Assessment of the restorations was done at 4, 8, and 12 months time following criteria given by Ryge et al. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the level of significance; p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. For composite and RGIC restorations, the mean score for anatomic shape was 1.21 and 1.10 respectively. While comparing the clinical parameters, nonsignificant results were obtained between composite and RGIC restorative materials at 4-, 8-, and 12-month interval. On comparing the clinical parameters for individual restorative materials at different time intervals, statistically significant results were obtained only for

  6. Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter for gastrin releasing peptide-sensitive and insensitive itch-related synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jennifer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Itch sensation is one of the major sensory experiences of human and animals. Recent studies have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP is a key neurotransmitter for itch in spinal cord. However, no direct evidence is available to indicate that GRP actually mediate responses between primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn neurons. Here we performed integrative neurobiological experiments to test this question. We found that a small population of rat dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with increases in calcium signaling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that a part of superficial dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with the increase of action potential firing in adult rats and mice, and these dorsal horn neurons received exclusively primary afferent C-fiber inputs. On the other hands, few Aδ inputs receiving cells were found to be GRP positive. Finally, we found that evoked sensory responses between primary afferent C fibers and GRP positive superficial dorsal horn neurons are mediated by glutamate but not GRP. CNQX, a blocker of AMPA and kainate (KA receptors, completely inhibited evoked EPSCs, including in those Fos-GFP positive dorsal horn cells activated by itching. Our findings provide the direct evidence that glutamate is the principal excitatory transmitter between C fibers and GRP positive dorsal horn neurons. Our results will help to understand the neuronal mechanism of itch and aid future treatment for patients with pruritic disease.

  7. The observational approach in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Quinn, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to completing environmental restoration of its facilities within the next 28 years (DOE 1990b). In order to achieve this, DOE must ensure that its restoration activities are both effective and efficient. A key aspect of fulfilling this commitment is the recognition and management of uncertainty that is inherent in waste-site clean-up actions. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the applicability and implementation of what is known as the ''observational approach'' to better address these needs. PNL's initial investigation resulted in the positive conclusion that the observational approach had potential benefit to DOE during environmental restoration. In a follow-on effort, PNL supported by CH2M HILL, has been providing guidance to DOE field-offices on observational approach fundamentals, implementation, and application to waste-site remediation. This paper outlines the fundamentals of the observational approach and discusses the progress in integrating the observational approach in DOE's environmental restoration efforts. 9 refs., 2 figs

  8. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail: l.brown@leeds.ac.uk; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  9. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lee E.; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  10. Overexpression of pro-gastrin releasing peptide promotes the cell proliferation and progression in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Zhiyun; Lu, Renquan; Xie, Suhong; Jiang, Minglei; Liu, Kai; Xiao, Ran; Shen, Jiabin; Wang, Yanchun; Guo, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) plays the role of oncogene in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we aim to explore the biological function of ProGRP in SCLC cells and its potential mechanism. Expression of ProGRP in SCLC tissues and cell lines were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, respectively. The transduced cell lines with ProGRP down-regulation were established using RNA interference technology. Cell viability, cologenic, apoptosis-associated assay and the biomarker levels determination for cell supernatant were performed in the transduced cells to elucidate the biological functions and mechanisms of ProGRP in SCLC cells. Our data showed that ProGRP protein was demonstrated a higher level in SCLC tissues and cells compared with the control, and its diagnostic efficiency was better than NSE, further, the higher levels of ProGRP were detected in the patients with extensive disease stage (P < 0.05), were also the unfavorable factor to the prognosis of SCLC patients. Additionally, the concentration of serum ProGRP is a useful biomarker in disease-monitoring of the patients with SCLC. Down-regulation of ProGRP significantly reduced SCLC cell growth, repressed colony formation, but increased cancer cell apoptosis. Additionally, repression of ProGRP also induced change in the cell cycle and output of NSE. Our data indicated that ProGRP serve as the useful biomarker in the management of SCLC and might be a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • ProGRP is overexpressed in the tissues and sera of the patients with SCLC. • Down-regulation of ProGRP inhibited cell proliferation. • Inhibition of ProGRP altered cell cycle distribution and triggers the apoptosis of lung cancer cells.

  11. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. River restoration: separating myths from reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, N.; Woodward, G.

    2015-12-01

    River restorations are a social construct where degraded systems are physically modified to obtain a pre-disturbance set of attributes. These can be purely esthetic but are often linked to some kind of biotic recovery or the provision of important ecosystem services such as flood control or self-purification. The social setting of restoration projects, with a range of potential conflicts, significantly reduces scale of most interventions to a size with little room, or wish, for natural processes. We show that projects sizes are still very small and that the restoration target is not to recover natural geomorphic processes but rather to fulfil human perception of what a nice stream looks like. One case from Danish lowland streams, using a space-for-time substitution approach, shows excess use of pebble and gravel when restoring channelized sandy bottom streams, de-coupling the link between energy and substrate characteristics that are found in natural lowland systems. This has implication for both the biological structure and functioning of these systems as a direct link between substrate heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity was not found in restored streams, while the density of grazer increased indicating an increased use of periphyton as a basal resource. Another case of adding woody debris to UK lowland streams, using a BACI study design, showed very little effect on the macroinvertebrate community even after a 100-year flood, which indicate that added tree trunks did not provide additional flow refugia. We suggest that restoration schemes should aim at restoring the natural physical structural complexity in the streams and at the same time enhance the possibility of re-generating the natural geomorphological processes sustaining the habitats in streams and rivers.

  13. Restoration of variable density film soundtracks

    OpenAIRE

    Hassaïne , Abdelâali; Decencière , Etienne; Besserer , Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Full text available at http://www.eurasip.org/Proceedings/Eusipco/Eusipco2009/contents/papers/1569192297.pdf; International audience; The restoration of motion picture films has been an active research field for many years. The restoration of the soundtrack however has mainly been performed at the audio domain in spite of the fast that it is recorded as a continuous image on the film stock. In this paper, we propose a new restoration method for variable density soundtracks. The method first d...

  14. Conservation and restoration of ornamental elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rallo Gruss

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervention on a building as complex and rich in ornamentation as the Palacio del Marqués de Dos Aguas requires special attention as regards the restoration of all the singular elements, both inside and outside, and the different finishes and furnishings. Within this methodology of integral restoration, it is worth pointing out especially the consolidation and cleaning of the emblematic alabaster portal, the restoration of the paintings and the treatment of the different collections of tiles.

  15. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  16. Science, uncertainty and changing storylines in nature restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Floor, Judith; (Kris) van Koppen, C.S.A.; Tatenhove, Jan P.M van

    2018-01-01

    Marine areas have been heavily affected by human activities, resulting in current attempts to both conserve and restore nature. In decisions about nature restoration, ecological knowledge plays a crucial role and is closely linked to nature preferences and political views. In this study......, the empirical case of seagrass (Zostera marina) restoration in the Dutch Wadden Sea (1989–2017) is analysed. The impact of storylines and uncertainty perceptions, together with socio-political context factors, on decisions concerning restoration action and research are investigated. This case illustrates...... the difficulties of establishing seagrass fields and the dynamic process in which meaning is attributed to nature restoration. Two basic storylines – authenticity and the ecological function of ecosystem engineers – supported the restoration efforts. Three different episodes are distinguished based on different...

  17. Habitat Restoration as a Key Conservation Lever for Woodland Caribou: A review of restoration programs and key learnings from Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bentham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Recovery Strategy for the Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, Boreal Population in Canada (EC, 2012, identifies coordinated actions to reclaim woodland caribou habitat as a key step to meeting current and future caribou population objectives. Actions include restoring industrial landscape features such as roads, seismic lines, pipelines, cut-lines, and cleared areas in an effort to reduce landscape fragmentation and the changes in caribou population dynamics associated with changing predator-prey dynamics in highly fragmented landscapes. Reliance on habitat restoration as a recovery action within the federal recovery strategy is high, considering all Alberta populations have less than 65% undisturbed habitat, which is identified in the recovery strategy as a threshold providing a 60% chance that a local population will be self-sustaining. Alberta’s Provincial Woodland Caribou Policy also identifies habitat restoration as a critical component of long-term caribou habitat management. We review and discuss the history of caribou habitat restoration programs in Alberta and present outcomes and highlights of a caribou habitat restoration workshop attended by over 80 representatives from oil and gas, forestry, provincial and federal regulators, academia and consulting who have worked on restoration programs. Restoration initiatives in Alberta began in 2001 and have generally focused on construction methods, revegetation treatments, access control programs, and limiting plant species favourable to alternate prey. Specific treatments include tree planting initiatives, coarse woody debris management along linear features, and efforts for multi-company and multi-stakeholder coordinated habitat restoration on caribou range. Lessons learned from these programs have been incorporated into large scale habitat restoration projects near Grande Prairie, Cold Lake, and Fort McMurray. A key outcome of our review is the opportunity to provide a

  18. A comparison of stresses in molar teeth restored with inlays and direct restorations, including polymerization shrinkage of composite resin and tooth loading during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejak, Beata; Młotkowski, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Polymerization shrinkage of composites is one of the main causes of leakage around dental restorations. Despite the large numbers of studies there is no consensus, what kind of teeth reconstruction--direct or indirect composite restorations are the most beneficial and the most durable. The aim was to compare equivalent stresses and contact adhesive stresses in molar teeth with class II MOD cavities, which were restored with inlays and direct restorations (taking into account polymerization shrinkage of composite resin) during simulated mastication. The study was conducted using the finite elements method with the application of contact elements. Three 3D models of first molars were created: model A was an intact tooth; model B--a tooth with a composite inlay, and model C--a tooth with a direct composite restoration. Polymerization linear shrinkage 0.7% of a direct composite restoration and resin luting cement was simulated (load 1). A computer simulation of mastication was performed (load 2). In these 2 situations, equivalent stresses according to the modified von Mises criterion (mvM) in the materials of mandibular first molar models with different restorations were calculated and compared. Contact stresses in the luting cement-tooth tissue adhesive interface around the restorations were also assessed and analyzed. Equivalent stresses in a tooth with a direct composite restoration (the entire volume of which was affected by polymerization shrinkage) were many times higher than in the tooth restored with a composite inlay (where shrinkage was present only in a thin layer of the luting cement). In dentin and enamel the stress values were 8-14 times higher, and were 13 times higher in the direct restoration than in the inlay. Likewise, contact stresses in the adhesive bond around the direct restoration were 6.5-7.7 times higher compared to an extraorally cured restoration. In the masticatory simulation, shear contact stresses in the adhesive bond around the direct

  19. Infrastructure system restoration planning using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Steven; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm to address restoration issues for supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure. Rapid restoration of infrastructure after a large-scale disaster is necessary to sustaining a nation's economy and security, but such long-term restoration has not been investigated as thoroughly as initial rescue and recovery efforts. A model of the Greater Saint Louis Missouri area was created and a disaster scenario simulated. An evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the order in which the bridges should be repaired based on indirect costs. Solutions were evaluated based on the reduction of indirect costs and the restoration of transportation capacity. When compared to a greedy algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm solution reduced indirect costs by approximately 12.4% by restoring automotive travel routes for workers and re-establishing the flow of commodities across the three rivers in the Saint Louis area.

  20. Forest restoration is forward thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Brian J. Palik; John A. Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    It is not surprising to us that the topic of forest restoration is being discussed in the Journal of Forestry. It is a topic frequently bantered about in the literature; a quick search in Google Scholar for "forest restoration" generates more than 1 million hits. A significant portion of the debate centers on the search for succinct, holistic, universally...

  1. Social welfare and restorative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Darrell

    2009-01-01

    "This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract

  2. Prescribed burning for understory restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to identify value for money solutions to government policies or projects. Environmental policy appraisal is typically complicated by the fact that thre are a number of feasible solutions to a decision problem - each yielding a different mix of environ...... is to illustrate the application of CBA within the field of river restoration. The Skjern River restoration project in Denmark is used as an empirical example of how these methods can be applied in the wetland restoration context....

  4. Continuous glucose monitoring in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra; Lavalle-González, Fernando Javier; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo Guadalupe; Zapata-Garrido, Alfonso Javier; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To compare the efficacy of devices for continuous glucose monitoring and capillary glucose monitoring in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome using the following parameters: time to achieve normoglycemia, period of time in normoglycemia, and episodes of hypoglycemia. We performed a pilot, non-randomized, unblinded clinical trial that included 16 patients with acute coronary artery syndrome, a capillary or venous blood glucose ≥ 140 mg/dl, and treatment with a continuous infusion of fast acting human insulin. These patients were randomized into 2 groups: a conventional group, in which capillary measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every 4h, and an intervention group, in which measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every hour with a subcutaneous continuous monitoring system. Student's t-test was applied for mean differences and the X(2) test for qualitative variables. We observed a statistically significant difference in the mean time for achieving normoglycemia, favoring the conventional group with a P = 0.02. Continuous monitoring systems are as useful as capillary monitoring for achieving normoglycemia. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan- but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Shuhei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP. Methods Wistar rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. Results Under normoglycemia, both 30 μg/kg milrinone (29 ± 12% and 10 μg/kg levosimendan (33 ± 13% reduced infarct size compared with that in the control (58 ± 7%. Under hyperglycemia, milrinone (34 ± 13% reduced infarct size at the same dose as under normoglycemia. In contrast, neither 10 nor 30 μg/kg levosimendan protected hyperglycemic hearts, and only 100 μg/kg levosimendan (32 ± 9% reduced infarct size compared with that in the hyperglycemic control (58 ± 13%. All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside. Conclusion Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan-induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia.

  6. Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cements and postrestoration meals consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; Opinya, G.N.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Mwalili, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary

  7. Rangeland restoration for Hirola, the world's most endangered antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland restoration can improve habitat for threatened species such as the hirola antelope (Beatragus hunteri) that inhabit savannas of eastern Kenya. However, restoration success likely varies across soil types and target restoration species, as well as according to restoration approach. We teste...

  8. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  9. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  10. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  11. Restoring degraded tropical forests for carbon and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiharta, Sugeng; Meijaard, Erik; Wilson, Kerrie A; Erskine, Peter D; Rondinini, Carlo; Pacifici, Michela

    2014-01-01

    The extensive deforestation and degradation of tropical forests is a significant contributor to the loss of biodiversity and to global warming. Restoration could potentially mitigate the impacts of deforestation, yet knowledge on how to efficiently allocate funding for restoration is still in its infancy. We systematically prioritize investments in restoration in the tropical landscape of East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and through this application demonstrate the capacity to account for a diverse suite of restoration techniques and forests of varying condition. To achieve this we develop a map of forest degradation for the region, characterized on the basis of aboveground biomass and differentiated by broad forest types. We estimate the costs of restoration as well as the benefits in terms of carbon sequestration and improving the suitability of habitat for threatened mammals through time. When the objective is solely to enhance carbon stocks, then restoration of highly degraded lowland forest is the most cost-effective activity. However, if the objective is to improve the habitat of threatened species, multiple forest types should be restored and this reduces the accumulated carbon by up to 24%. Our analysis framework provides a transparent method for prioritizing where and how restoration should occur in heterogeneous landscapes in order to maximize the benefits for carbon and biodiversity. (letter)

  12. Restoring degraded tropical forests for carbon and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharta, Sugeng; Meijaard, Erik; Erskine, Peter D.; Rondinini, Carlo; Pacifici, Michela; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2014-11-01

    The extensive deforestation and degradation of tropical forests is a significant contributor to the loss of biodiversity and to global warming. Restoration could potentially mitigate the impacts of deforestation, yet knowledge on how to efficiently allocate funding for restoration is still in its infancy. We systematically prioritize investments in restoration in the tropical landscape of East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and through this application demonstrate the capacity to account for a diverse suite of restoration techniques and forests of varying condition. To achieve this we develop a map of forest degradation for the region, characterized on the basis of aboveground biomass and differentiated by broad forest types. We estimate the costs of restoration as well as the benefits in terms of carbon sequestration and improving the suitability of habitat for threatened mammals through time. When the objective is solely to enhance carbon stocks, then restoration of highly degraded lowland forest is the most cost-effective activity. However, if the objective is to improve the habitat of threatened species, multiple forest types should be restored and this reduces the accumulated carbon by up to 24%. Our analysis framework provides a transparent method for prioritizing where and how restoration should occur in heterogeneous landscapes in order to maximize the benefits for carbon and biodiversity.

  13. The interface between the Mediation and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rabay Guerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work starts stating the failure of the dominant paradigm of the penal system, retributive model, pointing to the emergence of restorative justice as a new paradigm of criminal justice, from the change in focus about the offender and in the rescue of victim’s role of conflict situations in the criminal orbit. In this sense, from the employment of mediation as restorative practice and identification of theoretical disagreements about the relationship between restorative justice and mediation, this article has the intention to investigate the existing interface between mediation and restorative justice in Brazil. Therefore, we start from the assumption that mediation and restorative justice are institutes with different origins and trajectories that at some moments have common destinations, presenting an intersection relationship when mediation is used in criminal matters as restorative practice. Thus, the research has as main aim to analyze similarities and differences between mediation and restorative justice in the Brazilian practice. From this perspective, we intend to make use of a comparative approach in the analysis of the institutes, to identify their origins and trajectories

  14. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  15. Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Brake, te Bram; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration

  16. Survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors restored with different types of posts-and-core foundation restoration material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; de Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Magne, Pascal

    2018-05-01

    Which post-and-core combination will best improve the performance of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule is still unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the restoration of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule using glass-ceramic crowns bonded to various composite resin foundation restorations and 2 types of posts. Sixty decoronated endodontically treated bovine incisors without a ferrule were divided into 4 groups and restored with various post-and-core foundation restorations. NfPfB=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and bulk-fill resin foundation restoration (B); NfPfP=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and dual-polymerized composite resin core foundation restoration (P); NfPt=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and resin core foundation restoration; and NfPtB=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and bulk-fill resin core foundation restoration (B). Two additional groups from previously published data from the same authors (FPf=2mm of ferrule (F) and glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration; and NfPf=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration), which were tested concomitantly and using the same experimental arrangement, were included for comparison. All teeth were prepared to receive bonded glass-ceramic crowns luted with dual-polymerized resin cement and were subjected to accelerated fatigue testing under submerged conditions at room temperature. Cyclic isometric loading was applied to the incisal edge at an angle of 30 degrees with a frequency of 5 Hz, beginning with a load of 100 N (5000 cycles). A 100-N load increase was applied every 15000 cycles. The specimens were loaded until failure or to a maximum of 1000 N (140000 cycles). The 6 groups (4 groups from the present study and 2 groups from the previously published study) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival

  17. Transforming Ecosystems: When, Where, and How to Restore Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Farag, Aïda M; Cadotte, Marc W; Clements, William H; Smith, James R; Ulrich, Cheryl P; Woods, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: “When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?” Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore—biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else—and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems. PMID:26033665

  18. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Restoration of traumatized teeth with resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2018-01-01

    For a long time, the primary choice for initial restoration of a crown-fractured front tooth has been resin composite material. The restoration can in most cases be performed immediately after injury if there is no sign of periodontal injury. The method’s adhesive character is conservative to tooth...... present an aesthetic problem due to exposure of un-aesthetic crown-margins. The invasive permanent crown restorations are therefore often not suc-cessful on a long-term scale. On the other hand, a conservative direct restoration of an extensively fractured incisor crown with resin composite may......-structure and with minimal risk of pulpal complication. In addition, it offers an aesthetic solution to the patient immediately after an injury, which may bring a little comfort in a sad situation. The resin composite build-up is often changed or repaired a couple of times, before the tooth is restored with a porcelain...

  20. The Soil Program of the Restoration Seedbank Initiative: addressing knowledge gaps in degraded soils for use in dryland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Bateman, Amber; Erickson, Todd E.; Turner, Shane; Merritt, David J.

    2017-04-01

    Global environmental changes and other anthropogenic impacts are rapidly transforming the structure and functioning of ecosystems worldwide. These changes are leading to land degradation with an estimated 25 % of the global land surface being affected. Landscape-scale restoration of these degraded ecosystems has therefore been recognised globally as an international priority. In the resource-rich biodiverse semi-arid Pilbara region of north-west Western Australia hundreds of thousands of hectares are disturbed due to established and emerging iron-ore mine operations. At this scale, the need to develop cost-effective large-scale solutions to restore these landscapes becomes imperative to preserve biodiversity and achieve functionality and sustainability of these ecosystems. The Restoration Seedbank Initiative (RSB) (http://www.plants.uwa.edu.au/ research/restoration-seedbank-initiative) is a five-year multidisciplinary research project that aims to build knowledge and design strategies to restore mine-impacted landscapes in the Pilbara and other arid and semi-arid landscapes worldwide (Kildiseheva et al., 2016). The RSB comprises four research programs that focus on seedbank management and curation, seed storage, seed enhancement, and the use of alternative soil substrates (soil or growing medium program) respectively. These multi-disciplinary programs address the significant challenges of landscape scale restoration in arid systems. In the soil program we follow an integrated approach that includes the characterization of undisturbed ecosystems, assessment of restored soils with the use of soil quality indicators, and design of alternative soil substrates to support the establishment of native plant communities. A series of glasshouse studies and field trials have been conducted in the last three years to advance our knowledge on soil limitations and to provide solutions to effectively overcome these challenges in arid ecosystem restoration. These studies include

  1. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  2. Restorative Glass : Reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T.; Barou, L.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Nijsse, R.; Veer, F.A.; Henk, Schellen; van Schijndel, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and

  3. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55... success or the need for corrective action, and whether monitoring of a reference or control site is needed...

  4. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site

  5. How economics can further the success of ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Md Sayed; Polyakov, Maksym; Ansell, Dean; Gibson, Fiona; Kay, Geoffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Restoration scientists and practitioners have recently begun to include economic and social aspects in the design and investment decisions for restoration projects. With few exceptions, ecological restoration studies that include economics focus solely on evaluating costs of restoration projects. However, economic principles, tools, and instruments can be applied to a range of other factors that affect project success. We considered the relevance of applying economics to address 4 key challenges of ecological restoration: assessing social and economic benefits, estimating overall costs, project prioritization and selection, and long-term financing of restoration programs. We found it is uncommon to consider all types of benefits (such as nonmarket values) and costs (such as transaction costs) in restoration programs. Total benefit of a restoration project can be estimated using market prices and various nonmarket valuation techniques. Total cost of a project can be estimated using methods based on property or land-sale prices, such as hedonic pricing method and organizational surveys. Securing continuous (or long-term) funding is also vital to accomplishing restoration goals and can be achieved by establishing synergy with existing programs, public-private partnerships, and financing through taxation. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Technology needs assessment for DOE environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duray, J.R.; Carlson, T.J.; Carpenter, C.E.; Cummins, L.E.; Daub, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 'Technology Needs Assessment Final Report' describes current and planned environmental restoration activity, identifies technologies intended to be used or under consideration, and ranks technology deficiencies in the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration program. Included in the ranking are treatment technologies, characterization technologies, and non-technology issues that affect environmental restoration. Data used for the assessment was gathered during interviews in the spring of 1991 with DOE site personnel responsible for the environmental restoration work. (author)

  7. Wildlife Response to Riparian Restoration on the Sacramento River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H Golet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the success of riparian restoration projects seldom focus on wildlife. More generally, vegetation characteristics are studied, with the assumption that animal populations will recover once adequate habitats are established. On the Sacramento River, millions of dollars have been spent on habitat restoration, yet few studies of wildlife response have been published. Here we present the major findings of a suite of studies that assessed responses of four taxonomic groups (insects, birds, bats, and rodents. Study designs fell primarily into two broad categories: comparisons of restoration sites of different ages, and comparisons of restoration sites with agricultural and remnant riparian sites. Older restoration sites showed increased abundances of many species of landbirds and bats relative to younger sites, and the same trend was observed for the Valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, a federally threatened species. Species richness of landbirds and ground-dwelling beetles appeared to increase as restoration sites matured. Young restoration sites provided benefits to species that utilize early successional riparian habitats, and after about 10 years, the sites appeared to provide many of the complex structural habitat elements that are characteristic of remnant forest patches. Eleven-year old sites were occupied by both cavity-nesting birds and special-status crevice-roosting bats. Restored sites also supported a wide diversity of bee species, and had richness similar to remnant sites. Remnant sites had species compositions of beetles and rodents more similar to older sites than to younger sites. Because study durations were short for all but landbirds, results should be viewed as preliminary. Nonetheless, in aggregate, they provide convincing evidence that restoration along the Sacramento River has been successful in restoring riparian habitats for a broad suite of faunal species. Not only did

  8. Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program records management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, L.E.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) Environmental Restoration Field Office Management Plan [(FOMP) DOE-RL 1989] describes the plans, organization, and control systems to be used for management of the Hanford Site environmental restoration remedial action program. The FOMP, in conjunction with the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements document [(QARD) DOE-RL 1991], provides all the environmental restoration remedial action program requirements governing environmental restoration work on the Hanford Site. The FOMP requires a records management plan be written. The Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) Environmental Restoration Remedial Action (ERRA) Program Office has developed this ERRA Records Management Plan to fulfill the requirements of the FOMP. This records management plan will enable the program office to identify, control, and maintain the quality assurance, decisional, or regulatory prescribed records generated and used in support of the ERRA Program. 8 refs., 1 fig

  9. Where to restore ecological connectivity? Detecting barriers and quantifying restoration benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad H McRae

    Full Text Available Landscape connectivity is crucial for many ecological processes, including dispersal, gene flow, demographic rescue, and movement in response to climate change. As a result, governmental and non-governmental organizations are focusing efforts to map and conserve areas that facilitate movement to maintain population connectivity and promote climate adaptation. In contrast, little focus has been placed on identifying barriers-landscape features which impede movement between ecologically important areas-where restoration could most improve connectivity. Yet knowing where barriers most strongly reduce connectivity can complement traditional analyses aimed at mapping best movement routes. We introduce a novel method to detect important barriers and provide example applications. Our method uses GIS neighborhood analyses in conjunction with effective distance analyses to detect barriers that, if removed, would significantly improve connectivity. Applicable in least-cost, circuit-theoretic, and simulation modeling frameworks, the method detects both complete (impermeable barriers and those that impede but do not completely block movement. Barrier mapping complements corridor mapping by broadening the range of connectivity conservation alternatives available to practitioners. The method can help practitioners move beyond maintaining currently important areas to restoring and enhancing connectivity through active barrier removal. It can inform decisions on trade-offs between restoration and protection; for example, purchasing an intact corridor may be substantially more costly than restoring a barrier that blocks an alternative corridor. And it extends the concept of centrality to barriers, highlighting areas that most diminish connectivity across broad networks. Identifying which modeled barriers have the greatest impact can also help prioritize error checking of land cover data and collection of field data to improve connectivity maps. Barrier detection

  10. Integrating ecological restoration into CDM forestry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Maohua; Haapanen, Toni; Singh, Ram Babu; Hietala, Reija

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concerns and issues in sustainability of CDM forestry projects are reviewed. • Ecological restoration is suggested to be integrated in the CDM framework. • As an ecosystem supporting service, soil restoration on degraded land is of primary importance. • Regenerating forests naturally rather than through monoculture plantations is suggested. • Potential social impacts of ecological restoration are discussed. - Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development. CDM forestry projects should contribute to mitigation of climate change through afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities on degraded land in developing countries. However, like other types of CDM projects, the forestry projects have encountered a number of concerns and critiques. Appropriate approaches and concrete aims to achieve long-term sustainability have been lacking, and reforms have therefore been called for. The aims of this paper are to examine the published information relevant to these concerns, and frame appropriate approaches for a more sustainable CDM. In this review, as a first step to tackle some of these issues, ecological restoration is suggested for integration into the CDM framework. Essentially, this involves the restoration of ecosystem supporting service (soil restoration), upon which forests regenerate naturally rather than establishing monoculture plantations. In this way, forestry projects would bring cost-effective opportunities for multiple ecosystem services. Potential approaches, necessary additions to the monitoring plans, and social impacts of ecological restoration in CDM projects are discussed

  11. Guidelines for evaluating performance of oyster habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Lesley P.; Powers, Sean P.; Brumbaugh, Robert D.; Coen, Loren D.; DeAngelis, Bryan M.; Greene, Jennifer K.; Hancock, Boze T.; Morlock, Summer M.; Allen, Brian L.; Breitburg, Denise L.; Bushek, David; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Grizzle, Raymond E.; Grosholz, Edwin D.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Luckenbach, Mark W.; McGraw, Kay A.; Piehler, Michael F.; Westby, Stephanie R.; zu Ermgassen, Philine S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of degraded ecosystems is an important societal goal, yet inadequate monitoring and the absence of clear performance metrics are common criticisms of many habitat restoration projects. Funding limitations can prevent adequate monitoring, but we suggest that the lack of accepted metrics to address the diversity of restoration objectives also presents a serious challenge to the monitoring of restoration projects. A working group with experience in designing and monitoring oyster reef projects was used to develop standardized monitoring metrics, units, and performance criteria that would allow for comparison among restoration sites and projects of various construction types. A set of four universal metrics (reef areal dimensions, reef height, oyster density, and oyster size–frequency distribution) and a set of three universal environmental variables (water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen) are recommended to be monitored for all oyster habitat restoration projects regardless of their goal(s). In addition, restoration goal-based metrics specific to four commonly cited ecosystem service-based restoration goals are recommended, along with an optional set of seven supplemental ancillary metrics that could provide information useful to the interpretation of prerestoration and postrestoration monitoring data. Widespread adoption of a common set of metrics with standardized techniques and units to assess well-defined goals not only allows practitioners to gauge the performance of their own projects but also allows for comparison among projects, which is both essential to the advancement of the field of oyster restoration and can provide new knowledge about the structure and ecological function of oyster reef ecosystems.

  12. Natural look in volume restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  13. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  14. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Das Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  15. 21 CFR 878.3800 - External aesthetic restoration prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. 878... External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. (a) Identification. An external aesthetic restoration prosthesis... (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part...

  16. Optimal conservation outcomes require both restoration and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possingham, Hugh P; Bode, Michael; Klein, Carissa J

    2015-01-01

    Conservation outcomes are principally achieved through the protection of intact habitat or the restoration of degraded habitat. Restoration is generally considered a lower priority action than protection because protection is thought to provide superior outcomes, at lower costs, without the time delay required for restoration. Yet while it is broadly accepted that protected intact habitat safeguards more biodiversity and generates greater ecosystem services per unit area than restored habitat, conservation lacks a theory that can coherently compare the relative outcomes of the two actions. We use a dynamic landscape model to integrate these two actions into a unified conservation theory of protection and restoration. Using nonlinear benefit functions, we show that both actions are crucial components of a conservation strategy that seeks to optimise either biodiversity conservation or ecosystem services provision. In contrast to conservation orthodoxy, in some circumstances, restoration should be strongly preferred to protection. The relative priority of protection and restoration depends on their costs and also on the different time lags that are inherent to both protection and restoration. We derive a simple and easy-to-interpret heuristic that integrates these factors into a single equation that applies equally to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service objectives. We use two examples to illustrate the theory: bird conservation in tropical rainforests and coastal defence provided by mangrove forests.

  17. Optimal conservation outcomes require both restoration and protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh P Possingham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation outcomes are principally achieved through the protection of intact habitat or the restoration of degraded habitat. Restoration is generally considered a lower priority action than protection because protection is thought to provide superior outcomes, at lower costs, without the time delay required for restoration. Yet while it is broadly accepted that protected intact habitat safeguards more biodiversity and generates greater ecosystem services per unit area than restored habitat, conservation lacks a theory that can coherently compare the relative outcomes of the two actions. We use a dynamic landscape model to integrate these two actions into a unified conservation theory of protection and restoration. Using nonlinear benefit functions, we show that both actions are crucial components of a conservation strategy that seeks to optimise either biodiversity conservation or ecosystem services provision. In contrast to conservation orthodoxy, in some circumstances, restoration should be strongly preferred to protection. The relative priority of protection and restoration depends on their costs and also on the different time lags that are inherent to both protection and restoration. We derive a simple and easy-to-interpret heuristic that integrates these factors into a single equation that applies equally to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service objectives. We use two examples to illustrate the theory: bird conservation in tropical rainforests and coastal defence provided by mangrove forests.

  18. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  19. STRATIFICATION TECHNIQUE IN MAXILLARY ANTERIOR INCISORS RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of their main characteristics: transparency, opalescence and color density, the tooth structures are extremely difficult to restore by means of completely inconspicuous restorations of the natural tooth tissue characteristics. The aim is to show successful aesthetic restoration of III Class dental lesions in upper incisors by means of high quality composites. Materials and method: A female patient visited the clinic being not satisfied with the esthetics of her front teeth. The intraoral examination showed previous restorations and carious lesions in 12, 11, 21, 22. After defining the tooth color a silicone key was made. The treatment was performed under anesthesia, the existing restorations were removed and the carious lesions in teeth 11, 12, 21, 22 were treated with restorations using Vanini edge preparation. The teeth were restored by means of stratification technique. After etching and rinsing, bonding was applied for 20 sec. and then polymerized. After fixing the silicone key enamel shade was applied and then dentine shades UD2, UD3, UD4 of 0.5mm thickness each. The polymerization was done layer by layer. Applied were 10 to 15 layers in total. The composite material was preheated in oven up to 55. Teeth 21 and 22 are restored with Enamel Plus HRi (Micerium. Results and Discussion: Excellent aesthetics is achieved with composite material. They have enamel and dentine shades and allow high quality aesthetics. The polishing is excellent in Enamel Plus HRi (Micerium which is typical for this type of composite. The result of the carious lesion treatment in this patient is real improvement of the dental appearance of her anterior incisors. Conclusion: Materials show excellent aesthetic results due to their characteristics and the stratification technique used.

  20. Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Collins, Mathias J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

  1. Generalized probabilistic scale space for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Mishra, Akshaya K

    2010-10-01

    A novel generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale space theory is proposed for image restoration. We explore extending the definition of scale space to better account for both noise and observation models, which is important for producing accurately restored images. A new class of scale-space realizations based on sampling and probability theory is introduced to realize this extended definition in the context of image restoration. Experimental results using 2-D images show that generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale-space theory can be used to produce more accurate restored images when compared with state-of-the-art scale-space formulations, particularly under situations characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios and image degradation.

  2. Restoration of opencast coal mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent-Jones, E.

    1983-10-01

    The paper describes the measures taken by the NCB Opencast Executive in the restoration of opencast sites on completion of mining. Soil surveys are carried out before mining and these, together with geological information, enable a comprehensive soil restoration strategy to be worked out. The soils replacement plan shows the location and thickness of soils to be replaced, and whether special treatment is required to improve the condition of the soil. The equipment that has been developed to cope with the heavy restoration work is described and the conditions under which it is used are given.

  3. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  4. Comparing herbaceous plant communities in active and passive riparian restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Gornish

    Full Text Available Understanding the efficacy of passive (reduction or cessation of environmental stress and active (typically involving planting or seeding restoration strategies is important for the design of successful revegetation of degraded riparian habitat, but studies explicitly comparing restoration outcomes are uncommon. We sampled the understory herbaceous plant community of 103 riparian sites varying in age since restoration (0 to 39 years and revegetation technique (active, passive, or none to compare the utility of different approaches on restoration success across sites. We found that landform type, percent shade, and summer flow helped explain differences in the understory functional community across all sites. In passively restored sites, grass and forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age, but in actively restored sites forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age. Native cover and richness were lower with passive restoration compared to active restoration. Invasive species cover and richness were not significantly different across sites. Although some of our results suggest that active restoration would best enhance native species in degraded riparian areas, this work also highlights some of the context-dependency that has been found to mediate restoration outcomes. For example, since the effects of passive restoration can be quite rapid, this approach might be more useful than active restoration in situations where rapid dominance of pioneer species is required to arrest major soil loss through erosion. As a result, we caution against labeling one restoration technique as better than another. Managers should identify ideal restoration outcomes in the context of historic and current site characteristics (as well as a range of acceptable alternative states and choose restoration approaches that best facilitate the achievement of revegetation goals.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of gastrin-releasing peptide, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and neurone-specific enolase in the uterus of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, A; Sasaki, M; Budipitojo, T; Kitamura, N; Krause, W J; Yamada, J

    2005-08-01

    The present study has demonstrated the immunohistochemical localization of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and neurone-specific enolase (NSE) in the uterus of the North American opossum. Although the presence of GRP, nNOS and NSE has been reported recently in the uterus of eutherian species this is the first description of these peptides in a metatherian species. Metatherian mammals are of interest because in these species it is the prolonged lactation phase of development that is the period of primary reproductive investment rather than intrauterine development as is true of eutherian mammals. The opossum, like other marsupial species, has a very abbreviated gestation period which in Didelphis lasts only 12.5 days. GRP was localized in the cytoplasm of cells forming the surface lining epithelium and the glandular epithelium of the opossum endometrium late in pregnancy, at 11.5 days of gestation. Likewise, immunoreactivities of nNOS and NSE were found primarily within the epithelial cells of the endometrium at 11.5 days of gestation. As these peptides and enzymes appear primarily at the time of establishment of the yolk sac placenta (between day 10 and day 12.5 gestation), the present results strongly suggest that these factors may play a fundamental role in the placentation of the opossum.

  6. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  7. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  8. Exxon Valdez -- Framework for natural resource restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Once the task of evaluating the nature and extent of natural resource injuries caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill neared completion, the equally daunting task of formulating proper restorative measures began. The essence of the natural resource restoration effort is to determine how to utilize the monies received from the criminal and civil settlements to fulfill the natural resource trustees' responsibilities to restore Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to their condition prior to the spill. Given the magnitude and variety of environmental impact, i.e., natural resource injuries ranging from the death of thousands of sea birds and marine mammals to the persistent sublethal affects of hydrocarbon contamination in intertidal sediments, the field of restorative endeavor is as broad and perplexing as was responding to the spill itself. This paper discusses the policy and legal parameters which give structure to the scientific and technical decisions the natural resource trustees must make in the years to come as they engage in their restoration responsibilities. The discussed policy and legal parameters translate generally to natural resource restoration under such statutes as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Clean Water Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

  9. Joint image restoration and location in visual navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuefeng; Sang, Nong; Lin, Wei; Shao, Yuanjie

    2018-02-01

    Image location methods are the key technologies of visual navigation, most previous image location methods simply assume the ideal inputs without taking into account the real-world degradations (e.g. low resolution and blur). In view of such degradations, the conventional image location methods first perform image restoration and then match the restored image on the reference image. However, the defective output of the image restoration can affect the result of localization, by dealing with the restoration and location separately. In this paper, we present a joint image restoration and location (JRL) method, which utilizes the sparse representation prior to handle the challenging problem of low-quality image location. The sparse representation prior states that the degraded input image, if correctly restored, will have a good sparse representation in terms of the dictionary constructed from the reference image. By iteratively solving the image restoration in pursuit of the sparest representation, our method can achieve simultaneous restoration and location. Based on such a sparse representation prior, we demonstrate that the image restoration task and the location task can benefit greatly from each other. Extensive experiments on real scene images with Gaussian blur are carried out and our joint model outperforms the conventional methods of treating the two tasks independently.

  10. Transparent Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  11. Transformational restoration: novel ecosystems in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Palle Madsen; Khosro Sagheb-Talebi; Ole K. Hansen

    2018-01-01

    Restoring the estimated 1 billion hectares of degraded forests must consider future climate accompanied by novel ecosystems. Transformational restoration can play a key role in adaptation to climate change but it is conceptually the most divergent from contemporary approaches favoring native species and natural disturbance regimes. Here...

  12. Ghost suppression in image restoration filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, T. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    An optimum image restoration filter is described in which provision is made to constrain the spatial extent of the restoration function, the noise level of the filter output and the rate of falloff of the composite system point-spread away from the origin. Experimental results show that sidelobes on the composite system point-spread function produce ghosts in the restored image near discontinuities in intensity level. By redetermining the filter using a penalty function that is zero over the main lobe of the composite point-spread function of the optimum filter and nonzero where the point-spread function departs from a smoothly decaying function in the sidelobe region, a great reduction in sidelobe level is obtained. Almost no loss in resolving power of the composite system results from this procedure. By iteratively carrying out the same procedure even further reductions in sidelobe level are obtained. Examples of original and iterated restoration functions are shown along with their effects on a test image.

  13. Environmental restoration and biological contamination: ecological and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Reis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental restoration is a pressing current need. However, protected areas have been exposed to biological contamination risks because the traditional techniques of restoration frequently use exotic species. This causes some concern, since biological contamination is the second major cause of species extinction in the world. It is important to use only native species in restoration projects in order to promote an effective environmental restoration without the risk of contamination. This paper discusses some issues concerning environmental restoration, biological contamination and the need for clearer laws.

  14. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE DALAM SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA ANAK / Restorative Justice In Juvenile Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Pradityo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anak sebagai generasi penerus bangsa sudah selayaknya mendapatkan perhatian khusus. Hal tersebut bertujuan dalam rangka pembinaan anak untuk mewujudkan sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas. Maka dari itu, diperlukan pula sarana dan prasarana hukum yang mengantisipasi segala permasalahan yang timbul. Sarana hukum ini bertujuan untuk mengantisipasi stigma atau cap jahat yang ditimbulkan ketika anak berhadapan dengan hukum, sekaligus memulihkan dan memasyarakatkan kembali anak tersebut. Salah satu solusinya adalah dengan mengalihkan atau menempatkan pelaku tindak pidana anak keluar dari sistem peradilan pidana serta memberikan alternatif bagi penyelesaian dengan pendekatan keadilan demi kepentingan terbaik bagi anak, yang kemudian dikenal dengan pendekatan restorative justice. Restorative justice yang merupakan implementasi konsep dari diversi telah dirumuskan dalam sistem peradilan pidana anak, namun sistem yang baik haruslah diiringi dengan suatu sikap yang dijiwai kehendak untuk memandang dan berkeyakinan bahwa dunia ini selalu menjadi lebih baik. Selain itu, hendaknya prinsip the best interest of the children selalu diutamakan ketika menangani anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum.   Children as the nation's next generation is already deserve special attention. It aims in order to develop the child to realize the quality of human resources. Therefore, it is also necessary legal infrastructure to anticipate any problems that arise. The legal means to anticipate stigma or stamp evil inflicted when the child against the law, as well as restoring and re-socialize the child. One solution is to divert or placing the offender children out of the criminal justice system as well as providing an alternative to the settlement with justice approach in the best interests of the child, who was then known as restorative justice approach. Restorative justice which is the implementation of the concept of diversion has been formulated in the juvenile justice system

  15. Do obese children with diabetic ketoacidosis have type 1 or type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Joey C; Felner, Eric I; Muir, Andrew B; Brown, Milton; Dorcelet, Margalie; Peng, Limin; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2012-04-01

    Many obese children with unprovoked diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) display clinical features of type 2 diabetes during follow up. We describe the clinical presentation, autoimmune markers and the long-term course of obese and lean children with DKA. We reviewed the medical records on the initial acute hospitalization and outpatient follow-up care of 21 newly diagnosed obese and 20 lean children with unprovoked DKA at Emory University affiliated children's hospitals between 1/2003 and 12/2006. Obese children with DKA were older and predominantly male, had acanthosis nigricans, and had lower prevalence of autoantibodies to islet cells and glutamic acid decarboxylase than lean children. Half of the obese, but none of the lean children with DKA achieve near-normoglycemia remission and discontinued insulin therapy during follow-up. Time to achieve remission was 2.2±2.3 months. There were no differences on clinical presentation between obese children who achieved near-normoglycemia remission versus those who did not. The addition of metformin to insulin therapy shortly after resolution of DKA resulted in lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, higher rates of near-normoglycemia remission, and lower frequency of DKA recurrence. Near-normoglycemia remission, however, was of short duration and the majority of obese patients required reinstitution of insulin treatment within 15 months of follow-up. In contrast to lean children with DKA, many obese children with unprovoked DKA display clinical and immunologic features of type 2 diabetes during follow-up. The addition of metformin to insulin therapy shortly after resolution of DKA improves glycemic control, facilitates achieving near-normoglycemia remission and prevents DKA recurrence in obese children with DKA. Copyright © 2011 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological Restoration Practices among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaher, Yara; Runnerstrom, Miryha G.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the restoration practices and the different types of environments sought out by college students during times of stress and also explores the potential for restorative experiences in built environments. In February 2015, 407 matriculated undergraduates at a large public research university voluntarily participated in this…

  17. 43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and definition. (1) In the event of a natural resource emergency, the natural resource trustee shall contact the National Response... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency restorations. 11.21 Section 11...

  18. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  20. Understanding and planning ecological restoration of plant-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, Mariano; Bailey, Sallie; Craze, Paul; Memmott, Jane

    2012-04-01

    Theory developed from studying changes in the structure and function of communities during natural or managed succession can guide the restoration of particular communities. We constructed 30 quantitative plant-flower visitor networks along a managed successional gradient to identify the main drivers of change in network structure. We then applied two alternative restoration strategies in silico (restoring for functional complementarity or redundancy) to data from our early successional plots to examine whether different strategies affected the restoration trajectories. Changes in network structure were explained by a combination of age, tree density and variation in tree diameter, even when variance explained by undergrowth structure was accounted for first. A combination of field data, a network approach and numerical simulations helped to identify which species should be given restoration priority in the context of different restoration targets. This combined approach provides a powerful tool for directing management decisions, particularly when management seeks to restore or conserve ecosystem function. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  1. 76 FR 9327 - Gulf Spill Restoration Planning; Notice of Intent To Begin Restoration Scoping and Prepare a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... to compensate the public and the environment for loss of natural resources and services from the... Florida, as well as human uses of these resources. Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) is the... Restoration Planning; Notice of Intent To Begin Restoration Scoping and Prepare a Programmatic Environmental...

  2. Restoring Landform Geodiversity in Modified Rivers and Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben; Clifford, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Extensive human modification and exploitation has created degraded and simplified systems lacking many of the landforms which would characterise healthy, geodiverse rivers. As awareness of geodiversity grows we must look to ways not only to conserve geodiversity but to also restore or create landforms which contribute to geodiverse environments. River restoration, with lessons learned over the last 30 years and across multiple continents, has much to offer as an exemplar of how to understand, restore or create geodiversity. Although not mentioned explicitly, there is an implicit emphasis in the Water Framework Directive on the importance of landforms and geodiversity, with landform units and assemblages at the reach scale assumed to provide the physical template for a healthy aquatic ecosystem. The focus on hydromorphology has increased the importance of geomorphology within river restoration programmes. The dominant paradigm is to restore landforms in order to increase habitat heterogeneity and improve biodiversity within rivers. However, the process of landform restoration is also a goal in its own right in the context of geodiversity, and extensive compilations of restoration experiences allow an inventory and pattern of landform (re-) creation to be assembled, and an assessment of landform function as well as landform presence/absence to be made. Accordingly, this paper outlines three principal research questions: Which landforms are commonly reinstated in river restoration activities? How do these landforms function compared to natural equivalents and thus contribute to 'functional' geodiversity as compared to the 'aesthetic' geodiversity? How does landform diversity scale from reach to catchment and contribute to larger-scale geodiversity? Data from the UK National River Restoration Inventory and the RHS are combined to assess the frequency and spatial distribution of commonly created landforms in relation to catchment type and more local context. Analysis is

  3. Function of mechanically lengthened jejunum after restoration into continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, Veronica F; Wagner, Justin P; Walthers, Christopher M; Chiang, Elvin K; Lee, Steven L; Wu, Benjamin M; Dunn, James C Y

    2014-06-01

    Distraction enterogenesis is a potential treatment for patients with short bowel syndrome. We previously demonstrated successful lengthening of jejunum using a degradable spring device in rats. Absorptive function of the lengthened jejunum after restoration into intestinal continuity needs to be determined. Encapsulated polycaprolactone springs were placed into isolated jejunal segments in rats for four weeks. Lengthened segments of jejunum were subsequently restored into intestinal continuity. Absorption studies were performed by placing a mixture of a non-absorbable substrate and glucose into the lumen of the restored jejunum. Restored jejunal segments demonstrated visible peristalsis at specimen retrieval. Compared to normal jejunal controls, restored segments demonstrated equal water absorption and greater glucose absorption. Restored segments had thicker smooth muscle, increased villus height, increased crypt depth, and decreased sucrase activity compared to normal jejunum. The density of enteric ganglia increased after restoration to near normal levels in the submucosa and to normal levels in the myenteric plexus. Jejunum lengthened with a degradable device demonstrates peristaltic and enzymatic activity as well as glucose and water absorption after restoration into intestinal continuity. Our findings further demonstrate the therapeutic potential of a degradable device. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary conservation and neuronal mechanisms of auditory perceptual restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Christopher I; Sutter, Mitchell L

    2011-01-01

    Auditory perceptual 'restoration' occurs when the auditory system restores an occluded or masked sound of interest. Behavioral work on auditory restoration in humans began over 50 years ago using it to model a noisy environmental scene with competing sounds. It has become clear that not only humans experience auditory restoration: restoration has been broadly conserved in many species. Behavioral studies in humans and animals provide a necessary foundation to link the insights being obtained from human EEG and fMRI to those from animal neurophysiology. The aggregate of data resulting from multiple approaches across species has begun to clarify the neuronal bases of auditory restoration. Different types of neural responses supporting restoration have been found, supportive of multiple mechanisms working within a species. Yet a general principle has emerged that responses correlated with restoration mimic the response that would have been given to the uninterrupted sound of interest. Using the same technology to study different species will help us to better harness animal models of 'auditory scene analysis' to clarify the conserved neural mechanisms shaping the perceptual organization of sound and to advance strategies to improve hearing in natural environmental settings. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecological and Social Dimensions of Ecosystem Restoration in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Hagen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An international overview of the extent and type of ecological restoration can offer new perspectives for understanding, planning, and implementation. The Nordic countries, with a great range of natural conditions but historically similar social and political structures, provide an opportunity to compare restoration approaches and efforts across borders. The aim of this study was to explore variation in ecological restoration using the Nordic countries as an example. We used recent national assessments and expert evaluations of ecological restoration. Restoration efforts differed among countries: forest and peatland restoration was most common in Finland, freshwater restoration was most common in Sweden, restoration of natural heathlands and grasslands was most common in Iceland, restoration of natural and semi-cultural heathlands was most common in Norway, and restoration of cultural ecosystems, mainly abandoned agricultural land, was most common in Denmark. Ecological restoration currently does not occur on the Faroe Islands. Economic incentives influence ecological restoration and depend on laws and policies in each country. Our analyses suggest that habitat types determine the methods of ecological restoration, whereas socio-economic drivers are more important for the decisions concerning the timing and location of restoration. To improve the understanding, planning, and implementation of ecological restoration, we advocate increased cooperation and knowledge sharing across disciplines and among countries, both in the Nordic countries and internationally. An obvious advantage of such cooperation is that a wider range of experiences from different habitats and different socio-economic conditions becomes available and thus provides a more solid basis for developing practical solutions for restoration methods and policies.

  6. Natural resource damage assessments: Linking injury to restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, M.; Collinson-Kahl, C.

    1993-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), natural resource trustees have the authority to act on behalf of the public to file claims for damages against potentially responsible parties for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources and related human services caused by releases of hazardous substances or discharges of oil. Damages recovered must be used to restore, replace, or acquire the equivalent of such resources. Therefore, to adequately restore an injured resource and the services it provides, a natural resource restoration proposal should address, as directly as possible, the injuries caused by a hazardous substance release. In other words, the resources restored and services generated by the restoration activities should be commensurate in type and amount with the reduction in services caused by the release. More specifically, the natural resource damage assessment regulations indicate that services should be used as the common currency for linking injury to restoration. The following conceptual steps may be followed to develop a primary restoration program that is linked to the injuries: Define the resources that were injured, and identify the services provided by those resources that were reduced by the injury. Define the baseline levels of the quantity of the resource, and the quantity of the services that would have been provided by the resource if the injury had not occurred. Quantify the interim lost value, which represents the reduction in services (compared to a baseline) from the time of the injury through the time of full recovery of the resources, assuming natural recovery. Evaluate the potential restoration projects for inclusion in the primary restoration program, which is designed to accelerate and enhance natural recovery of the resources and the flow of services from the resources

  7. Sediment Budgets and Sources Inform a Novel Valley Bottom Restoration Practice Impacted by Legacy Sediment: The Big Spring Run, PA, Restoration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. C.; Merritts, D.; Rahnis, M. A.; Gellis, A.; Hartranft, J.; Mayer, P. M.; Langland, M.; Forshay, K.; Weitzman, J. N.; Schwarz, E.; Bai, Y.; Blair, A.; Carter, A.; Daniels, S. S.; Lewis, E.; Ohlson, E.; Peck, E. K.; Schulte, K.; Smith, D.; Stein, Z.; Verna, D.; Wilson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Big Spring Run (BSR), a small agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania, is located in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, which has the highest nutrient and sediment yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. To effectively reduce nutrient and sediment loading it is important to monitor the effect of management practices on pollutant reduction. Here we present results of an ongoing study, begun in 2008, to understand the impact of a new valley bottom restoration strategy for reducing surface water sediment and nutrient loads. We test the hypotheses that removing legacy sediments will reduce sediment and phosphorus loads, and that restoring eco-hydrological functions of a buried Holocene wetland (Walter & Merritts 2008) will improve surface and groundwater quality by creating accommodation space to trap sediment and process nutrients. Comparisons of pre- and post-restoration gage data show that restoration lowered the annual sediment load by at least 118 t yr-1, or >75%, from the 1000 m-long restoration reach, with the entire reduction accounted for by legacy sediment removal. Repeat RTK-GPS surveys of pre-restoration stream banks verified that >90 t yr-1 of suspended sediment was from bank erosion within the restoration reach. Mass balance calculations of 137Cs data indicate 85-100% of both the pre-restoration and post-restoration suspended sediment storm load was from stream bank sources. This is consistent with trace element data which show that 80-90 % of the pre-restoration outgoing suspended sediment load at BSR was from bank erosion. Meanwhile, an inventory of fallout 137Cs activity from two hill slope transects adjacent to BSR yields average modern upland erosion rates of 2.7 t ha-1 yr-1 and 5.1 t ha-1 yr-1, showing modest erosion on slopes and deposition at toe of slopes. We conclude that upland farm slopes contribute little soil to the suspended sediment supply within this study area, and removal of historic valley bottom sediment effectively

  8. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  9. Ecological restoration of litter in mined areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Nino Diniz, Najara; Schweizer, Daniella; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Casagrande, José Carlos; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The success of ecological restoration projects depends on going monitoring of key ecological variables to determine if a desired trajectory has been established and, in the case of mining sites, nutrient cycling recovery plays an utmost importance. This study aimed to quantify and compare the annual litter production in native forests, and in restoration sites established in bauxite mines. We collected samples in 6 native forest remnants and 6 year-old restoration sites every month for a period of one year, in the city of Poços de Caldas/MG, SE Brazil. 120 wire collectors were used (0,6x0,6) and suspended 30cm above the soil surface. The material was dried until constant weight, weighed and fractionated in leaves, branches and reproductive material. The average annual litter production was 2,6 Mg ha-1 in native forests and 2,1 in forest in restoration sites, differing statistically. Litter production was higher in the rainy season, especially in September. Among the litter components, the largest contributor to total production was the fraction leaves, with 55,4% of the total dry weight of material collected, followed by reproductive material which contributed 24,5% and branches, with 20%. We conclude that the young areas in restoration process already restored important part, but still below the production observed in native areas.

  10. Implementation of the Save and Restoration application for KOMAC operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    KOMAC has been operating a 100 MeV proton linear Accelerator. There are about 10,000 PVs for operating the 100 MeV proton linac. It is important to archive the operating parameters for operating beam lines and machine study. The parameters are reported manually and with screenshot. There not fixed reporting type so it is difficult to compare archived data. To improve and compensate the reporting system, a Save and Restoration application, which is based on JAVA has been implemented and connected with KOMAC Control system based on EPICS with JCA library. The operating data are saved in Save and Restoration Server in file type, and are restored to the required values using the saved files. This paper presents Implementation of the Save and Restoration application and its function. The group list is shown in restore page using reload button. The saved value of the PVs in group is shown as selecting a group which clients require and current values are appeared beside the restore value table to compare with saved data. The set restore button input the values in restore value table to each PV. The Save and Restore application save and restore the value of the PVs that clients require. The application is installed in client PC but data are archived in save and restore server in file format.

  11. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  12. [Manufacture and clinical application of 215 IPS-Empress casting ceramic restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Zhou, Jian

    2008-08-01

    To explore the manufacture and clinical application of IPS-Empress casting ceramic restorations. The problems in manufacture and clinical operation of 215 casting ceramic restorations were analyzed. In 215 casting ceramic restorations, 12 (5.58%) casting ceramic restorations were affected by clinical design or application, 15 (6.98%) casting ceramic restorations were affected by some manufacture problems, and 14 (6.51%) casting ceramic restorations were affected by clinical try-in. Through 2-3 years' follow-up, the achievement ratio of 215 IPS-Empress casting ceramic restorations was 94.88%, and 11 casting ceramic restorations were affected by some problems. Beauty and simultaneous enamel wear are the characteristics of casting ceramic restorations. But because of its brittle, the indications should be strictly selected.

  13. Using plant functional traits to restore Hawaiian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ostertag; Laura Warman; Susan Cordell; Peter M. Vitousek

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration efforts are carried out by a variety of individuals and organizations with an equally varied set of goals, priorities, resources and time-scales. Once restoration of a degraded landscape or community is recognized as necessary, choosing which species to include in a restoration programme can be a difficult and value-laden process (Fry, Power &...

  14. Fluvial Geomorphology and River Restoration: Uneasy Allies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    A growing body of literature demonstrates that river restoration based on understanding of geomorphic and ecological process is more likely to be sustainable than form-based approaches. In the early days of river ‘restoration’ in North America, most projects involved bank stabilization, habitat structure placement, or construction of rocked meandering channels, at odds with restoration of the dynamic processes we now see as fundamental to effective, sustainable restoration. Recent years have seen a growing body of restoration programs emphasizing restoration of connectivity and geomorphic process. This evolution has been reflected in publications, from the form-based approach advocated in the early 1990s by an NRC panel (which did not include a geomorphologist) to more recent works by interdisciplinary panels emphasizing process restoration. Large-scale river restoration came later to Europe, motivated by the EU Water Framework Directive (2000) requirements that member states implement measures to improve ecological status of degraded rivers. Interestingly, European approaches to restoration have often reflected a more nuanced understanding of process, including deliberate recreation of unstable braided channels, removal of bank protection, and reconnecting floodplains. In part this may reflect a reaction to the more thorough post-war channelization of rivers in western Europe. In part it may also reflect a greater influence of academic and research laboratories upon practitioners than in the US, where a strong anti-intellectual strain, cultural preference for easy fixes, and reluctance to conduct objective post-project assessments have contributed to the adoption of form-based approaches by many public agencies.

  15. Periodontal and restorative considerations with clear aligner treatment to establish a more favorable restorative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    Although standard fixed appliances are better suited to control difficult tooth movement in three planes of space, clear aligner orthodontic treatment may be requested by patients because of the superior esthetics compared with conventional fixed appliances when clear aligners can be considered. Several clinical trials have shown improved periodontal status during orthodontic treatment with clear aligners while fixed appliances have almost always been associated with increased inflammation and mild periodontal breakdown despite preventive measures performed during treatment. There have been no reports of decalcification and only one reported case of root resorption with clear aligners, whereas with fixed appliances, numerous incidents of both decalcification and root resorption have been reported. In addition, studies have also shown significantly less pain from soft-tissue injuries and muscle soreness from parafunctional habits with computer-aided clear aligners. Restorative advantages include improved esthetics and comfort during treatment for better case acceptance and the ability to bleach teeth throughout treatment. Improving tooth alignment with orthodontic treatment with fixed or clear appliances increases the clinician's potential capability to perform more conservative restorative procedures, requiring less tooth structure removal and less endodontic involvement because of better tooth positions. In those cases in which clear aligner appliances may be appropriate, less damage may occur to existing porcelain restorations than might transpire from bonding of fixed appliances and their removal, as well as potentially reduced tooth wear during treatment. This article presents three case reports that demonstrate the periodontal and restorative aspects of treatment using the computer-aided clear appliances, which have either eliminated the need for certain restorative procedures or created a better periodontal and tooth position environment for performing these

  16. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  17. Restoring forest ecosystems: the human dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hull; Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades, ecological restoration has moved from an obscure and scientifically suspect craft to a widely practiced and respected profession with considerable scientific knowledge and refined on-the-ground practices. Concurrently, forest restoration has become a valued skill of forestry professionals and a popular goal for forest management. Politics and...

  18. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stress Analysis of a Mandibular Molar Tooth Restored by Different Indirect Restorations Using a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Köycü, Berrak; İmirzalıoğlu, Pervin

    2017-07-01

    Daily consumption of food and drink creates rapid temperature changes in the oral cavity. Heat transfer and thermal stress caused by temperature changes in restored teeth may damage the hard and soft tissue components, resulting in restoration failure. This study evaluates the temperature distribution and related thermal stress on mandibular molar teeth restored via three indirect restorations using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). A 3D finite element model was constructed of a mandibular first molar and included enamel, dentin, pulp, surrounding bone, and indirect class 2 restorations of type 2 dental gold alloy, ceramic, and composite resin. A transient thermal FEA was performed to investigate the temperature distribution and the resulting thermal stress after simulated temperature changes from 36°C to 4 or 60°C for a 2-second time period. The restoration models had similar temperature distributions at 2 seconds in both the thermal conditions. Compared with 60°C exposure, the 4°C condition resulted in thermal stress values of higher magnitudes. At 4ºC, the highest stress value observed was tensile stress (56 to 57 MPa), whereas at 60°C, the highest stress value observed was compressive stress (42 to 43 MPa). These stresses appeared at the cervical region of the lingual enamel. The thermal stress at the restoration surface and resin cement showed decreasing order of magnitude as follows: composite > gold > ceramic, in both thermal conditions. The properties of the restorative materials do not affect temperature distribution at 2 seconds in restored teeth. The pulpal temperature is below the threshold for vital pulp tissue (42ºC). Temperature changes generate maximum thermal stress at the cervical region of the enamel. With the highest thermal expansion coefficient, composite resin restorations exhibit higher stress patterns than ceramic and gold restorations. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Ecological restoration should be redefined for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David M

    2017-09-24

    Forty years ago, ecological restoration was conceptualized through a natural science lens. Today, ecological restoration has evolved into a social and scientific concept. The duality of ecological restoration is acknowledged in guidance documents on the subject but is not apparent in its definition. Current definitions reflect our views about what ecological restoration does but not why we do it. This viewpoint does not give appropriate credit to contributions from social sciences, nor does it provide compelling goals for people with different motivating rationales to engage in or support restoration. In this study, I give a concise history of the conceptualization and definition of ecological restoration, and I propose an alternative definition and corresponding viewpoint on restoration goal-setting to meet twenty-first century scientific and public inquiry.

  20. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Modification and channelization of streams and rivers have been conducted extensively throughout the world during the past century. Subsequently, much effort has been directed at re-creating the lost habitats and thereby improving living conditions for aquatic organisms. However, as restoration...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  1. Restoration planning to guide Aichi targets in a megadiverse country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Wolke; Urquiza-Haas, Tania; Koleff, Patricia; Schröter, Matthias; Ortega-Álvarez, Rubén; Campo, Julio; Lindig-Cisneros, Roberto; Sarukhán, José; Bonn, Aletta

    2017-10-01

    Ecological restoration has become an important strategy to conserve biodiversity and ecosystems services. To restore 15% of degraded ecosystems as stipulated by the Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi target 15, we developed a prioritization framework to identify potential priority sites for restoration in Mexico, a megadiverse country. We used the most current biological and environmental data on Mexico to assess areas of biological importance and restoration feasibility at national scale and engaged stakeholders and experts throughout the process. We integrated 8 criteria into 2 components (i.e., biological importance and restoration feasibility) in a spatial multicriteria analysis and generated 11 scenarios to test the effect of assigning different component weights. The priority restoration sites were distributed across all terrestrial ecosystems of Mexico; 64.1% were in degraded natural vegetation and 6% were in protected areas. Our results provide a spatial guide to where restoration could enhance the persistence of species of conservation concern and vulnerable ecosystems while maximizing the likelihood of restoration success. Such spatial prioritization is a first step in informing policy makers and restoration planners where to focus local and large-scale restoration efforts, which should additionally incorporate social and monetary cost-benefit considerations. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Influence of restored koa in supporting bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben H.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.

    2017-01-01

    Deforestation of Hawaiian forests has adversely impacted native wildlife, including forest birds, bats and arthropods. Restoration activities have included reforestation with the native koa (Acacia koa), a dominant canopy tree species that is easy to propagate, has high survivorship, and has fast growth rates. We review recent research describing the ecological benefits of koa restoration on wildlife colonization/use, plant dispersal, and native plant recruitment. In general, planting monotypic koa stands can provide forest habitats for species that need them but does not automatically lead to natural regeneration of a diverse forest species assemblage and may require additional restoration activities such as outplanting of other native plants and alien grass control to achieve more natural forest systems. Although early signs of forest and wildlife recovery have been encouraging, the goals of restoration for wildlife conservation versus commercial grade harvesting require different restoration methods.

  3. Restorative Justice in Indonesia: Traditional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achjani Zulfa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.

  4. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  5. Vecrīgas restorānu ģeogrāfija

    OpenAIRE

    Udova, Alīna

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs “Vecrīgas restorānu ģeogrāfija” izstrādāts ar mērķi izvērtēt restorānu pakalpojumu vietu un attīstības iespējas Vecrīgā. Darbs sastāv no 7 nodaļām, kas veltītās restorānu attīstības vēsturei; attīstības tendencēm restorānos Latvijā; Vecrīgas restorānu izplatībai, daudzumam un virtuvei; Vecrīgas restorānu salīdzinājumam ar Viļņas un Tallinas restorāniem; Vecrīgas restorānu nozīmei Rīgas tūrisma piedāvājumu klāstā un Vecrīgas attīstības iespēju izvērtējumam ar pētījuma autora ...

  6. The importance of demonstratively restoring order.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Keizer

    Full Text Available Contrary to what is often assumed, order is not the strongest context for encouraging normative behavior. The strongest context effect on normative behavior comes from cues that clearly convey other people's respect for norms. Ironically, this show of respect necessitates some contrasting disrespect that is being restored. Using civic virtues (such as helping behavior as a prototype of normative behavior, the three field experiments described in this paper reveal the impact of normative cues on civic virtues. Results show that the strongest effect on making people follow prosocial norms in public places emanates from seeing order being restored, rather than just order being present. The robust and surprisingly large effects show that observing other people's respect for one particular norm (as evidenced in their restoring physical order makes it more likely that the onlooker follows other norms as well. This implies that prosocial behavior has the highest chance of spreading when people observe order being restored. There are clear policy implications: create low cost "normative respect cues" wherever it is desirable to increase conformity to norms.

  7. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  8. Restoring Complexity to Industrially Managed Timberlands: The Mill Creek Interim Management Recommendations and Early Restoration Thinning Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Porter; Valerie Gizinski; Ruskin Hartley; Sharon Hendrix Kramer

    2007-01-01

    The Mill Creek Property was a commercial timberland acquired by the State of California to protect and restore local and regional ecological values and provide opportunities for compatible recreation. Interim Management Recommendations (IMR) were developed to guide protection, restoration, and public access of the Property until the California Department of Parks and...

  9. Restorative justice: a changing community response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We draw attention to this emerging trend via current research and resources that enable us to put forward a definition, theoretical background and list the characteristic traits of this alternative mode of life consequence. Finally, we argue that the use of restorative justice in schools is a focus that is really a paradigm shift within the landscape of the educational enterprise.

  10. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  11. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  12. A resilience approach can improve anadromous fish restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, John R.; Wilson, Karen A.; Mather, Martha E.; Snyder, Noah P.

    2016-01-01

    Most anadromous fish populations remain at low levels or are in decline despite substantial investments in restoration. We explore whether a resilience perspective (i.e., a different paradigm for understanding populations, communities, and ecosystems) is a viable alternative framework for anadromous fish restoration. Many life history traits have allowed anadromous fish to thrive in unimpacted ecosystems but have become contemporary curses as anthropogenic effects increase. This contradiction creates a significant conservation challenge but also makes these fish excellent candidates for a resilience approach. A resilience approach recognizes the need to maintain life history, population, and habitat characteristics that increase the ability of a population to withstand and recover from multiple disturbances. To evaluate whether a resilience approach represents a viable strategy for anadromous fish restoration, we review four issues: (1) how resilience theory can inform anadromous fish restoration, (2) how a resilience-based approach is fundamentally different than extant anadromous fish restoration strategies, (3) ecological characteristics that historically benefited anadromous fish persistence, and (4) examples of how human impacts harm anadromous fish and how a resilience approach might produce more successful outcomes. We close by suggesting new research and restoration directions for implementation of a resilience-based approach.

  13. Discriminative Transfer Learning for General Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Schö lkopf, Bernhard; Hirsch, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g., denoising, deblurring, demosaicing) and problem condition (e.g., noise level of input images). This makes it time-consuming and difficult to encompass all tasks and conditions during training. In this paper, we propose a discriminative transfer learning method that incorporates formal proximal optimization and discriminative learning for general image restoration. The method requires a single-pass discriminative training and allows for reuse across various problems and conditions while achieving an efficiency comparable to previous discriminative approaches. Furthermore, after being trained, our model can be easily transferred to new likelihood terms to solve untrained tasks, or be combined with existing priors to further improve image restoration quality.

  14. Discriminative Transfer Learning for General Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2018-04-30

    Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g., denoising, deblurring, demosaicing) and problem condition (e.g., noise level of input images). This makes it time-consuming and difficult to encompass all tasks and conditions during training. In this paper, we propose a discriminative transfer learning method that incorporates formal proximal optimization and discriminative learning for general image restoration. The method requires a single-pass discriminative training and allows for reuse across various problems and conditions while achieving an efficiency comparable to previous discriminative approaches. Furthermore, after being trained, our model can be easily transferred to new likelihood terms to solve untrained tasks, or be combined with existing priors to further improve image restoration quality.

  15. Sinogram restoration in computed tomography with an edge-preserving penalty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Kevin J., E-mail: little@uchicago.edu; La Rivière, Patrick J. [Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: With the goal of producing a less computationally intensive alternative to fully iterative penalized-likelihood image reconstruction, our group has explored the use of penalized-likelihood sinogram restoration for transmission tomography. Previously, we have exclusively used a quadratic penalty in our restoration objective function. However, a quadratic penalty does not excel at preserving edges while reducing noise. Here, we derive a restoration update equation for nonquadratic penalties. Additionally, we perform a feasibility study to extend our sinogram restoration method to a helical cone-beam geometry and clinical data. Methods: A restoration update equation for nonquadratic penalties is derived using separable parabolic surrogates (SPS). A method for calculating sinogram degradation coefficients for a helical cone-beam geometry is proposed. Using simulated data, sinogram restorations are performed using both a quadratic penalty and the edge-preserving Huber penalty. After sinogram restoration, Fourier-based analytical methods are used to obtain reconstructions, and resolution-noise trade-offs are investigated. For the fan-beam geometry, a comparison is made to image-domain SPS reconstruction using the Huber penalty. The effects of varying object size and contrast are also investigated. For the helical cone-beam geometry, we investigate the effect of helical pitch (axial movement/rotation). Huber-penalty sinogram restoration is performed on 3D clinical data, and the reconstructed images are compared to those generated with no restoration. Results: We find that by applying the edge-preserving Huber penalty to our sinogram restoration methods, the reconstructed image has a better resolution-noise relationship than an image produced using a quadratic penalty in the sinogram restoration. However, we find that this relatively straightforward approach to edge preservation in the sinogram domain is affected by the physical size of imaged objects in addition

  16. Parameter Estimation for the Blind Restoration of Blurred Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    4 Ii. Image Restoration Theory . ............. 5 Linear Space Invariant Systems.... .... 5 Imaging System .. ............ ... 5 Image Restoration...transformation and inversion, and image file input/output. - o A IiI. Image Restoration Theory Linear Space Invariant Systems We can think of a system as a

  17. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd BenDor

    Full Text Available Domestic public debate continues over the economic impacts of environmental regulations that require environmental restoration. This debate has occurred in the absence of broad-scale empirical research on economic output and employment resulting from environmental restoration, restoration-related conservation, and mitigation actions - the activities that are part of what we term the "restoration economy." In this article, we provide a high-level accounting of the size and scope of the restoration economy in terms of employment, value added, and overall economic output on a national scale. We conducted a national survey of businesses that participate in restoration work in order to estimate the total sales and number of jobs directly associated with the restoration economy, and to provide a profile of this nascent sector in terms of type of restoration work, industrial classification, workforce needs, and growth potential. We use survey results as inputs into a national input-output model (IMPLAN 3.1 in order to estimate the indirect and induced economic impacts of restoration activities. Based on this analysis we conclude that the domestic ecological restoration sector directly employs ~ 126,000 workers and generates ~ $9.5 billion in economic output (sales annually. This activity supports an additional 95,000 jobs and $15 billion in economic output through indirect (business-to-business linkages and increased household spending.

  18. Collarless metal ceramic restorations to obscure the umbrella effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz Shaista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetics with porcelain fused to metal restoration in the anterior region can be adversely affected due to the inadequate teeth preparations and design of the prosthesis. We presented here a case report where esthetics was compromised due to darkening of the interdental papilla and marginal gingival and overcontoured restorations in relation to porcelain fused to metal restorations. Good esthetic results were obtained by using basic principles of tooth preparation and using collarless metal ceramic restorations.

  19. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... American chestnut appears feasible if a sufficiently diverse array of Chinese chestnut germplasm is used as a source of blight resistance. Our study provided a between-continent climate matching approach to facilitate the range-wide species restoration, which can be readily applied in planning...... the restoration of other threatened or endangered species....

  20. Bulk Restoration for SDN-Based Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bulk restoration scheme for software defined networking- (SDN- based transport network. To enhance the network survivability and improve the throughput, we allow disrupted flows to be recovered synchronously in dynamic order. In addition backup paths are scheduled globally by applying the principles of load balance. We model the bulk restoration problem using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation. Then, a heuristic algorithm is devised. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulation and the results are analyzed comparing with sequential restoration schemes.

  1. Dental lesions and restorative treatment in molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghiu Irina-Maria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article review specific clinical issues of the molar teeth, as well as the therapeutic approach of their pathology. The dental pathology we face in the group of molars is related to: dental caries, dental trauma (crown and crown-root fractures, dental wear phenomena. The therapeutic approach of the molar teeth is represented by: restoration of the loss of hard dental tissues; endodontic treatments of pulpal and periapical complications; surgical treatment. The restorative treatments in molars are: direct restorations, with or without supplementary anchorage for obturations; inlay, onlay; prosthetic crown.

  2. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration. PMID:29425214

  3. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sandra Isay; Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  4. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isay Saad

    Full Text Available The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil, where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion, so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  5. Posterior composite restoration update: focus on factors influencing form and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaty, Brenda S; Ye, Qiang; Misra, Anil; Sene, Fabio; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    Restoring posterior teeth with resin-based composite materials continues to gain popularity among clinicians, and the demand for such aesthetic restorations is increasing. Indeed, the most common aesthetic alternative to dental amalgam is resin composite. Moderate to large posterior composite restorations, however, have higher failure rates, more recurrent caries, and increased frequency of replacement. Investigators across the globe are researching new materials and techniques that will improve the clinical performance, handling characteristics, and mechanical and physical properties of composite resin restorative materials. Despite such attention, large to moderate posterior composite restorations continue to have a clinical lifetime that is approximately one-half that of the dental amalgam. While there are numerous recommendations regarding preparation design, restoration placement, and polymerization technique, current research indicates that restoration longevity depends on several variables that may be difficult for the dentist to control. These variables include the patient’s caries risk, tooth position, patient habits, number of restored surfaces, the quality of the tooth–restoration bond, and the ability of the restorative material to produce a sealed tooth–restoration interface. Although clinicians tend to focus on tooth form when evaluating the success and failure of posterior composite restorations, the emphasis must remain on advancing our understanding of the clinical variables that impact the formation of a durable seal at the restoration–tooth interface. This paper presents an update of existing technology and underscores the mechanisms that negatively impact the durability of posterior composite restorations in permanent teeth. PMID:23750102

  6. Effect of bulk-fill base material on fracture strength of root-filled teeth restored with laminate resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, N A; Maghaireh, G A; Ghannam, A S; Palamara, J E

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of using a bulk-fill flowable base material on fracture strength and fracture patterns of root-filled maxillary premolars with MOD preparations restored with laminate restorations. Fifty extracted maxillary premolars were selected for the study. Standardized MOD cavities with endodontic treatment were prepared for all teeth, except for intact control. The teeth were divided randomly into five groups (n=10); (Group 1) sound teeth, (Group 2) unrestored teeth; (Group 3) MOD cavities with Vitrebond base and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal); (Group 4) MOD cavities with 2mm GIC base (Fuji IX GP) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal) open laminate, (Group 5) MOD cavities were restored with 4mm of bulk-fill flowable base material (SDR) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal). All teeth were thermocycled and subjected to a 45° ramped oblique load in a universal testing machine. Fracture load and fracture patterns were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test. Restoration in general increased the fracture strength compared to unrestored teeth. The fracture strength of group 5 (bulk-fill) was significantly higher than the fracture strength of the GIC laminate groups and not significantly different from the intact teeth (355±112N, P=0.118). The type of failure was unfavorable for most of the groups, with the majority being mixed failures. The use of a bulk-fill flowable base material significantly increased the fracture strength of extracted root-filled teeth with MOD cavities; however it did not improve fracture patterns to more favorable ones. Investigating restorative techniques that may improve the longevity of root-filled premolar teeth restored with direct resin restorations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil on cut slopes restored with OSSS - Influence of restoration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Chen, Jiao; Ai, Xiaoyan; Li, Ruirui; Ai, Yingwei; Li, Wei

    2017-09-15

    Outside soil spray seeding (OSSS) is widely used to restore cut slopes in southwest of China, and artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes to establish a soil layer for revegetation. The stability of artificial soil layer and its supply of water and nutrients for plants is crucial for successful restoration. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of OSSS, the texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil were studied, various soil samples were obtained from three cut slopes with different restoration time (restored with OSSS in 1996, 2003 and 2007 respectively) and one natural developed slope (NS). The properties measured including soil particle size distribution (PSD), texture, fractal dimension of PSD (D m ), the bias (C S ) and peak convex (C E ) coefficients of aggregate size distribution, structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), calcium carbonate content, Available nitrogen (N A ), Available phosphorus (P A ), and Available potassium (K A ). The results showed that different restoration time resulted in significant differences in soil PSD, D m , C S , C E , structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, N A , and K A . And these properties improved with increasing restoration age. However, there is still a huge disparity in soil texture, structure, and the availability of nutrients and moisture between the cut slopes and NS over a restoration period of up to 17 years, and this is caused by the little fine particles and the lack of slow release fertilizers and organic fertilizers in the artificial soil, resulting in poorer soil structure stability, retention and availability of moisture and nutrients on the cut slopes. Overall, the OSSS technique shows a long-term effectiveness in southwest of China, but there is still room for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive restoration of river terrace vegetation through iterative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Michelle P.; Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Decker, Cheryl E.; O’Neil, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Restoration projects can involve a high degree of uncertainty and risk, which can ultimately result in failure. An adaptive restoration approach can reduce uncertainty through controlled, replicated experiments designed to test specific hypotheses and alternative management approaches. Key components of adaptive restoration include willingness of project managers to accept the risk inherent in experimentation, interest of researchers, availability of funding for experimentation and monitoring, and ability to restore sites as iterative experiments where results from early efforts can inform the design of later phases. This paper highlights an ongoing adaptive restoration project at Zion National Park (ZNP), aimed at reducing the cover of exotic annual Bromus on riparian terraces, and revegetating these areas with native plant species. Rather than using a trial-and-error approach, ZNP staff partnered with academic, government, and private-sector collaborators to conduct small-scale experiments to explicitly address uncertainties concerning biomass removal of annual bromes, herbicide application rates and timing, and effective seeding methods for native species. Adaptive restoration has succeeded at ZNP because managers accept the risk inherent in experimentation and ZNP personnel are committed to continue these projects over a several-year period. Techniques that result in exotic annual Bromus removal and restoration of native plant species at ZNP can be used as a starting point for adaptive restoration projects elsewhere in the region.

  9. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  10. RESTORED RIPARIAN BUFFERS AS TOOLS FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN THE MAIA PROCESSES, ENDPOINTS, AND MEASURES OF SUCCESS FOR WATER, SOIL, FLORA AND FAUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts, moreover the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  11. Longterm survival and reason for failure of anterior composite restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Djustiana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Composites resin restorations have been used for repairing and restoring anterior teeth for decades due to the growing needs for a cost- effective aesthetic restoration and the advancement in dental material and polymer technology. Failure of composite restorations cannot be neglected, due to multiple factors, i.e. failure to diagnose the gingival tissue, inadequate tissue management, quality of remaining tooth structure, and inadequate preparation. The aim of this review is to improve clinical performances of direct composite as permanent restorations. Long lasting aesthetic composite restorations required proper mouth preparations ,which  includes supporting and dental hard tissue preparations, tooth preparation, proper isolation, bonding procedures, light cure unit, and the resin composite itself.

  12. Quantifying the "So what?" of Restoration: A Framework for Evaluating the Ecological and Socio-economic Outcomes of Restoration Activities in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, J. R.; Dausman, A.; Cowan, J.; Sutter, B.

    2017-12-01

    Healthy and sustainable ecosystems are essential for thriving and resilient coastal communities. As a result of settlements following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Council (Council) and other funding entities, will receive billions of dollars over the next 15 years for restoration projects and programs. These and future restoration efforts present an opportunity to improve the function of coastal wetlands in the Gulf of Mexico, and potentially address long-standing barriers to ecosystem health and resilience in the region. In its Comprehensive Plans, the Council has committed to science-based decision-making, collaboration among its eleven state and federal members, and close coordination with other Gulf restoration and conservation funding efforts including NRDA, NFWF and other federal programs to leverage resources and integrate complementary restoration efforts. To help fulfill these commitments the Council is exploring methods and tools to collect and assess data to evaluate and report on both ecological and socio-economic outcomes of restoration projects. Application of these tools in coordination with restoration partners, will demonstrate the cascading benefits of ecosystem restoration in a quantifiable way, and can help decision-makers increase investments in ecosystem restoration that will support the long-term sustainability of coastal systems. An understanding of ecosystem function and services can also provide a transparent lens for communicating the results of successful ecosystem restoration projects to the public (helping answer the "So what?" of ecosystem restoration). As the Council moves forward making decisions based on the best available science, improving ecosystem functioning and services will play a role in project and program selection and will result in more resilient ecosystems. This will enable the Council to help communities enhance their ability to recover from natural and manmade disasters and

  13. Changing trends in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is an important and common cause for baldness. Despite recent advances, the drug therapy of this condition remains unsatisfactory. Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent method of treating this condition. Introduction of recent techniques such as follicular unit transplantation have improved the cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. This article discusses the latest trends in hair restoration surgery.

  14. Composite Resin – A Versatile Restorative Tool | Koleoso | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the use of composite resin restorations as a treatment option in several situations where conventional aesthetic restorations such as porcelain veneers, crowns and cream-metal crown could otherwise be placed. Methods and Materials: Patients who presented with restoration aesthetic challenges over a six months period ...

  15. Restorative Justice Of Adjudication On The Household Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srigandawati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence of restorative justice in the settlement of household violence is very important as bridge for peace of the parties to restoring good relations between the perpetrator and victim both the direct and indirect victim the family of victim. The type of research is socio-legal research with the normative law method doctrinal research. The results shows that the implementation of restorative justice of adjudication on household violence cases can be applied although there is no legal arrangement. The judge may apply in its judgment based on the fact that the judge cannot refuse a case because of a law that does not exist or it is unclear. Judges are required to explore the values that live within society to discover the law. It can be concluded that restorative justice has been acknowledged by its existence in the adjudication as the purpose of punishment. Similar perceptions are required for law enforcers concern the concept of restorative justice as the purpose of punishment.

  16. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Van Loon, Anne F.; Te Brake, Bram; Van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H. J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds) in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined....

  17. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Asmussen, E

    2008-01-01

    Survival of endodontically treated, post-restored teeth depends on a multitude of factors, all of which are practically impossible to include in a randomized, controlled clinical study. The purpose of this survey was to characterize and analyze reported failures of post-retained restorations...

  18. Towards a decision support system for stream restoration in the Netherlands: an overview of restoration projects and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Nijboer, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Stream restoration is one of the answers to the lowland stream deterioration. For making proper choices in stream restoration, one firstly needs to understand the complex spatial and temporal interactions between physical, chemical and biological components in the stream ecosystem. Several

  19. Project Rio Blanco: site restoration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco was a joint Government-industry experiment using nuclear explosives to stimulate the flow of natural gas from low permeability formations which could not be economically produced through conventional methods. The project consisted of the simultaneous detonation of three nuclear explosives on May 17, 1973, in a 7,000 foot well in northwestern Colorado. Gas production testing and project evaluation continued through June 1976. The site cleanup and restoration planning phase began in December 1975 and was concluded with the issuance of an operational plan, Project Rio Blanco Site Cleanup and Restoration Plan, NVO-173, in May 1976. Actual site restoration activities were conducted during the period from July to November 1976. The activities throughout the restoration period are summarized and the final site status, including the disposition of all project facilities and the status of all project related wells after plug and abandonment and recompletion work are described

  20. A Global Synthesis Reveals Gaps in Coastal Habitat Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Stacy Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems have drastically declined in coverage and condition across the globe. To combat these losses, marine conservation has recently employed habitat restoration as a strategy to enhance depleted coastal ecosystems. For restoration to be a successful enterprise, however, it is necessary to identify and address potential knowledge gaps and review whether the field has tracked scientific advances regarding best practices. This enables managers, researchers, and practitioners alike to more readily establish restoration priorities and goals. We synthesized the peer-reviewed, published literature on habitat restoration research in salt marshes, oyster reefs, and seagrasses to address three questions related to restoration efforts: (i How frequent is cross-sector authorship in coastal restoration research? (ii What is the geographic distribution of coastal restoration research? and (iii Are abiotic and biotic factors equally emphasized in the literature, and how does this vary with time? Our vote-count survey indicated that one-third of the journal-published studies listed authors from at least two sectors, and 6% listed authors from all three sectors. Across all habitat types, there was a dearth of studies from Africa, Asia, and South America. Finally, despite many experimental studies demonstrating that species interactions can greatly affect the recovery and persistence of coastal foundation species, only one-fourth of the studies we examined discussed their effects on restoration. Combined, our results reveal gaps and discrepancies in restoration research that should be addressed in order to further propel coastal restoration science.

  1. Fatigue resistance of teeth restored with cuspal-coverage composite restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Kuijs, R.H.; Kreulen, C.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the influence of palatal cuspal coverage on the in vitro fatigue resistance and failure mode of Class II resin composite restorations including replacement of the buccal cusp in premolars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A master model was made of a maxillary premolar with an MOD

  2. Biomanipulation - a tool in marine ecosystem management and restoration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2010-01-01

    Widespread losses of production and conservation values make large-scale ecosystem restoration increasingly urgent. Ecological restoration by means of biomanipulation, i.e., by fishing out planktivores as to reduce the predation pressure on herbivorous zooplankton, has proven an effective tool...... in restoring degraded lakes and coastal ecosystems. Whether biomanipulation may prove a useful restoration method in open and structurally complex marine ecosystems is however still unknown. To promote a recovery of the collapsed stock of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua), large-scale biomanipulation of sprat...

  3. ENDODONTIC TREATMENT AND POST-CORE RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Hafifah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic root canal treatment is to maintain the tooth as long as possible in the arch’s width in a good functional status. In order to reach that goal, all irritation to the pulp should be eliminated so that the tooth has a healthy periodontal tissue support. A female patient, aged 37 years, came for her upper front tooth which had been restored with a pin crown a year ago. One month ago she had a swelling accompanied with throbbing pain. There was no history of general diseases and her oral hygiene was good. Clinically 11 was restored with a pin crown and the radiographic picture showed a narrow pulp chamber, normal roots with normal canals, thickened periodontium, broken laminar dura, and diffuse periapical rarefaction. The tooth was diagnosed with pulpal necrosis. A conventional root canal treatment was performed followed by the insertion of a post core crown. The result showed a satisfactory treatment plan, a good restoration, successful treatment in this case was due to the role of the dentist to create healthy soft and hard tissues in the oral cavity before restoration, and also due to patient cooperation.

  4. Oral environment control before restorative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Matos Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe caries disease treatment, by means of a clinical case report, with a view to promoting the patient’s health before definitive restorative treatments, considering that treatment should include changes in the patient’s dietary and hygiene habits, and not be restricted only to restoring lesions, as well as the establishment of an individualized treatment plan for each patient. Iodine-based antimicrobial solution was applied, instructions about oral hygiene and dietary habit changes were provided. The stepwise excavation technique was performed in tooth 15, mass excavation followed by the application of glass ionomer cement in the other teeth that presented carious lesions. White stain lesions were remineralized, and cicatrizes and fissures in the posterior teeth were sealed. After health was reestablished, the temporary restorations were replaced by definitive restorations. Changes in the treatment philosophy of caries disease, based on changes in the patient’s habits and removal of foci of infection have been presented with the object of producing an effective change in this paradigm, in order to increase the longevity of teeth with less operative intervention.

  5. Estimating restorable wetland water storage at landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles Nathan; Evenson, Grey R.; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Lang, Megan W.; McCarty, Greg W.; Golden, Heather E.; Lane, Charles R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2018-01-01

    Globally, hydrologic modifications such as ditching and subsurface drainage have significantly reduced wetland water storage capacity (i.e., volume of surface water a wetland can retain) and consequent wetland functions. While wetland area has been well documented across many landscapes and used to guide restoration efforts, few studies have directly quantified the associated wetland storage capacity. Here, we present a novel raster-based approach to quantify both contemporary and potential (i.e., restorable) storage capacities of individual depressional basins across landscapes. We demonstrate the utility of this method by applying it to the Delmarva Peninsula, a region punctuated by both depressional wetlands and drainage ditches. Across the entire peninsula, we estimated that restoration (i.e., plugging ditches) could increase storage capacity by 80%. Focusing on an individual watershed, we found that over 59% of restorable storage capacity occurs within 20 m of the drainage network, and that 93% occurs within 1 m elevation of the drainage network. Our demonstration highlights widespread ditching in this landscape, spatial patterns of both contemporary and potential storage capacities, and clear opportunities for hydrologic restoration. In Delmarva and more broadly, our novel approach can inform targeted landscape-scale conservation and restoration efforts to optimize hydrologically mediated wetland functions.

  6. Improving restorer line of hybrid rice by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Guangrong; Yi Weiping; Liu Wuquan

    1995-03-01

    The work for improving restorer line of hybrid rice has been done. The results showed the radiosensitivity of foreign varieties overtakes Chinese ones at average level. Because of their different blood relationship, there are various situation on foreign varieties, i.e. varieties from IR system are not sensitive, Shui-yun system are second and Miyang system are sensitive. The radiosensitivity for restorer lines of hybrid F 0 overtakes one for F 1 . According to this results. We have put forward the point of view 'Multi-gene type blend system'. M 2 mutant frequency of restorer line was investigated. The results showed: there was a little difference between the total mutant frequencies from the different varieties. But, there may be difference in some characters by over thirty times between them. So a problem, worthy to be further studied is proposed that do the differences of radiosensitivity between varieties relate to the mutant frequency of these characters? Various mutants were obtained by irradiation treatment, among which a few mutants changed to maintainer line because losing restorer genes, other more mutants still were restorer lines. New combinations developed by these new mutant restorer lines have strong heterosis. The optimum combinations have been utilized in rice production. (7 tabs.)

  7. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  8. The impact of pre-restoration land-use and disturbance on sediment structure, hydrology and the sediment geochemical environment in restored saltmarshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kate L; Carr, Simon J; Diggens, Lucy M; Tempest, James A; Morris, Michelle A; Harvey, Gemma L

    2017-06-01

    Saltmarshes are being lost or degraded as a result of human activity resulting in loss of critical ecosystem services including the provision of wild species diversity, water quality regulation and flood regulation. To compensate, saltmarshes are being restored or re-created, usually driven by legislative requirements for increased habitat diversity, flood regulation and sustainable coastal defense. Yet, there is increasing evidence that restoration may not deliver anticipated ecosystem services; this is frequently attributed to poor drainage and sediment anoxia. However, physical sediment characteristics, hydrology and the sediment geochemical environment are rarely examined in restoration schemes, despite such factors being critical for plant succession. This study presents the novel integration of 3D-computed X-ray microtomography to quantify sediment structure and porosity, with water level and geochemical data to understand the impact of pre-restoration land use and disturbance on the structure and functioning of restored saltmarshes. The study combines a broad-scale investigation of physical sediment characteristics in nine de-embanked saltmarshes across SE England, with an intensive study at one site examining water levels, sediment structure and the sediment geochemical environment. De-embankment does not restore the hydrological regime, or the physical/chemical framework in the saltmarshes and evidence of disturbance includes a reduction in microporosity, pore connectivity and water storage capacity, a lack of connectivity between the sub-surface environment and overlying floodwaters, and impeded sub-surface water flow and drainage. This has significant consequences for the sediment geochemical environment. This disturbance is evident for at least two decades following restoration and is likely to be irreversible. It has important implications for plant establishment in particular, ecosystem services including flood regulation, nutrient cycling and wild

  9. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy.

  10. 3.10. Habitat restoration and creation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    1.12.1 Terrestrial habitat Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for terrestrial habitat restoration and creation? Beneficial ● Replant vegetation Likely to be beneficial ● Clear vegetation● Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites● Create refuges● Restore habitat connectivity Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence) ● Change mowing regime No evidence found (no assessment) ● Create habitat connectivity Beneficial Repla...

  11. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  12. Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca J; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Wickey, Philipp; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7- to 8-year-old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50-m plots in four former pasture sites in southern Costa Rica: plantation - trees planted throughout the plot; applied nucleation/islands - trees planted in patches of different sizes; and natural regeneration - no tree planting. Arthropod abundance, measures of richness and diversity, and a number of functional groups were greater in the island treatment than in natural regeneration or plantation treatments and, in many cases, were similar to reference forest. Litter and pitfall morphospecies and functional group composition in all three restoration treatments were significantly different than reference sites, but island and plantation treatments showed more recovery than natural regeneration. Abundance and functional group diversity showed a much greater degree of recovery than community composition. Synthesis and applications: The less resource-intensive restoration strategy of planting tree islands was more effective than tree plantations in restoring arthropod abundance, richness, and functional diversity. None of the restoration strategies, however, resulted in similar community composition as reference forest after 8 years of recovery, highlighting the slow rate of recovery of arthropod communities after disturbance, and underscoring the importance of conservation of remnant forests in fragmented landscapes.

  13. Regional restoration benchmarks for Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopmeyer, Stephanie A.; Lirman, Diego; Bartels, Erich; Gilliam, David S.; Goergen, Elizabeth A.; Griffin, Sean P.; Johnson, Meaghan E.; Lustic, Caitlin; Maxwell, Kerry; Walter, Cory S.

    2017-12-01

    Coral gardening plays an important role in the recovery of depleted populations of threatened Acropora cervicornis in the Caribbean. Over the past decade, high survival coupled with fast growth of in situ nursery corals have allowed practitioners to create healthy and genotypically diverse nursery stocks. Currently, thousands of corals are propagated and outplanted onto degraded reefs on a yearly basis, representing a substantial increase in the abundance, biomass, and overall footprint of A. cervicornis. Here, we combined an extensive dataset collected by restoration practitioners to document early (1-2 yr) restoration success metrics in Florida and Puerto Rico, USA. By reporting region-specific data on the impacts of fragment collection on donor colonies, survivorship and productivity of nursery corals, and survivorship and productivity of outplanted corals during normal conditions, we provide the basis for a stop-light indicator framework for new or existing restoration programs to evaluate their performance. We show that current restoration methods are very effective, that no excess damage is caused to donor colonies, and that once outplanted, corals behave just as wild colonies. We also provide science-based benchmarks that can be used by programs to evaluate successes and challenges of their efforts, and to make modifications where needed. We propose that up to 10% of the biomass can be collected from healthy, large A. cervicornis donor colonies for nursery propagation. We also propose the following benchmarks for the first year of activities for A. cervicornis restoration: (1) >75% live tissue cover on donor colonies; (2) >80% survivorship of nursery corals; and (3) >70% survivorship of outplanted corals. Finally, we report productivity means of 4.4 cm yr-1 for nursery corals and 4.8 cm yr-1 for outplants as a frame of reference for ranking performance within programs. Such benchmarks, and potential subsequent adaptive actions, are needed to fully assess the

  14. Species richness accelerates marine ecosystem restoration in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Sur, Christine; Abbott, Jessica M; Limbong, Steven R

    2017-11-07

    Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region. Here we demonstrate that species diversity can set the trajectory of restoration. In a seagrass restoration experiment in the heart of the Coral Triangle (Sulawesi, Indonesia), plant survival and coverage increased with the number of species transplanted. Our results highlight the positive role biodiversity can play in ecosystem restoration and call for revision of the common restoration practice of establishing a single target species, particularly in regions having high biodiversity. Coastal ecosystems affect human well-being in many important ways, and restoration will become ever more important as conservation efforts cannot keep up with their loss. Published under the PNAS license.

  15. Restoration of Endodontically Treated Molars Using All Ceramic Endocrowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopak Bose Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical success of endodontically treated posterior teeth is determined by the postendodontic restoration. Several options have been proposed to restore endodontically treated teeth. Endocrowns represent a conservative and esthetic restorative alternative to full coverage crowns. The preparation consists of a circular equigingival butt-joint margin and central retention cavity into the entire pulp chamber constructing both the crown and the core as a single unit. The case reports discussed here are moderately damaged endodontically treated molars restored using all ceramic endocrowns fabricated using two different systems, namely, CAD/CAM and pressed ceramic.

  16. Posterior composite restoration update: focus on factors influencing form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohaty BS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brenda S Bohaty,1,2 Qiang Ye,3 Anil Misra,3,4 Fabio Sene,6 Paulette Spencer3,51Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO, USA; 3Bioengineering Research Center, 4Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA; 6Department of Restorative Dentistry, State University of Londrina, School of Dentistry, Londrina, BrazilAbstract: Restoring posterior teeth with resin-based composite materials continues to gain popularity among clinicians, and the demand for such aesthetic restorations is increasing. Indeed, the most common aesthetic alternative to dental amalgam is resin composite. Moderate to large posterior composite restorations, however, have higher failure rates, more recurrent caries, and increased frequency of replacement. Investigators across the globe are researching new materials and techniques that will improve the clinical performance, handling characteristics, and mechanical and physical properties of composite resin restorative materials. Despite such attention, large to moderate posterior composite restorations continue to have a clinical lifetime that is approximately one-half that of the dental amalgam. While there are numerous recommendations regarding preparation design, restoration placement, and polymerization technique, current research indicates that restoration longevity depends on several variables that may be difficult for the dentist to control. These variables include the patient's caries risk, tooth position, patient habits, number of restored surfaces, the quality of the tooth–restoration bond, and the ability of the restorative material to produce a sealed tooth–restoration interface. Although clinicians tend to focus on tooth form when evaluating the success and failure of

  17. Assessing floodplain restoration success using soil morphology indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenat, Claire; Fournier, Bertrand; Bullinger-Weber, Géraldine; Grin, Karin; Pfund, Simona; Mitchell, Edward

    2010-05-01

    Floodplains are complex ecological systems that fulfil different ecological, economic and social functions related to physical, chemical, and biological processes. The fluvial dynamics of most rivers in industrialized countries have been altered to such an extent that floodplains are now one of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. This adverse impact has been widely recognized and, nowadays, extensive attempts are underway to return rivers to more natural conditions and restore their ecological quality and essential ecosystem functions. As a consequence, the number of restoration projects worldwide is rapidly increasing. However, despite an estimated global cost of more than 1 billion dollars annually, there is a crucial lack of monitoring and quantitative evaluations. Indeed, most projects are never monitored post-restoration (NRC 1992). In Switzerland, only 35% of the projects include a monitoring program mainly based on flora and fauna (BAFU). The design, selection and optimization of indicators for project monitoring are of major importance for sustainable management of riverine ecosystems. However, despite the growing body of literature on potential indicators and criteria for assessing the success of restoration projects no standardised or generally applicable method exists. Furthermore, soils are rarely considered among the possible indicators despite their crucial roles in ecosystems such as decomposition, supplying resources (habitats, gene pool, biomass, and raw materials), and environmental interactions (storage, filtering, transformation). We therefore hypothesized that soils may constitute an appropriate synthetic and functional indicator for the evaluation of river restoration success, especially in the framework of river widening aiming to increase the terrestrial biodiversity. In agreement with the current concepts of river restoration, we propose an assessment tool for floodplain restoration based on three soil morphology criteria (soil

  18. Assessment of restorative treatment of patients with amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung-Fen; Hu, Jan Ching Chun; Estrella, Maria Regina Padilla; Peters, Mathilde C; Bresciani, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess restorative treatment outcomes in the mixed dentition of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) patients and determine the postrehabilitation oral health status and satisfaction of the patients. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed on eight AI patients, who had 74 restorations placed in permanent incisors and molars, to allow evaluation of the integrity of the restorations and periodontal status post-treatment. Subjects completed a survey regarding esthetics, function, and sensitivity. Among the 74 restorations evaluated, seven were lost; of the remaining restorations, 31 were posterior, and 36 were anterior. Ten were rated clinically unacceptable. Teeth with stainless steel crowns had a moderate gingival index (mean=2.3) and plaque index (mean=2.0) scores. Widening of the periodontal ligament and pulp canal obliteration were common radiographic findings. Subject's recall of satisfaction regarding esthetics (P=.002) and sensitivity (brushing-P=.03; eating-P=.01) showed a statically significant difference before and after treatment. During mixed dentition, teeth with amelogenesis imperfecta may be restored with conventional treatment modalities. Direct restorations should be considered "interim" with multiple repairs anticipated. Post-treatment, gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation were observed. Subjects were satisfied with their appearance and reported a decrease of hypersensitivity.

  19. Development of an Assessment Framework for Restored Forested Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; E.A. Nelson

    1998-01-01

    Development of an assessment framework and associated indicators that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a wetland restoration is critical to demonstrating the sustainability of restored sites. An interdisciplinary approach was developed to assess how succession is proceeding on a restored bottomland site in South Carolina relative to an undisturbed...

  20. All-ceramic restorations: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, F; Carossa, S; Pera, P; Preti, G

    1998-09-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations are reviewed particularly from the aesthetic point of view. All-ceramic restorations offer the best results because they let the light through optimally. In constructing all-ceramic crowns on teeth which have been endodontically treated, the material used to rebuild the pin-abutments must be taken into consideration if the best aesthetic results are to be achieved. Materials which, because of their translucent characteristics, are the most aesthetic alternatives to metal alloy pin-abutments in rebuilding teeth which have been endodontically treated, are then described.

  1. Design for Restoration: beyond the survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carbonara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  This new issue, that we can define special, marks an important change for DISEGNARECON (its transfer from the University of Bologna to the University of L’Aquila facing the topic of the Design for the Restoration in a way that is special too. Treated in fact - beside the outgoing editor in chief, Roberto Mingucci - by Mario Centofanti, who now assumes the responsibility for the magazine, and Giovanni Carbonara, which is definitely authoritative reference in the field. Sharing a strong interest for communicating the Restoration Project, they intended to indicate the substantial union of methods and objectives between the disciplines of architectural survey and of restoration, which makes the meaning of an aggregation now also institutionally formalized and particularly significant for the project on the existing architecture. 

  2. Review: Mangrove ecosystem in Java: 2. Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURIN CANDRA PURNAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available R E V I E W:Ekosistem Mangrove di Jawa: 2. RestorasiThe restoration of mangroves has received a lot of attentions world wide for several reasons. Mangrove ecosystem is very important in term of socio-economic and ecology functions. Because of its functions, wide range of people paid attention whenever mangrove restoration taken place. Mangrove restoration potentially increases mangrove resource value, protect the coastal area from destruction, conserve biodiversity, fish production and both of directly and indirectly support the life of surrounding people. This paper outlines the activities of mangrove restoration on Java island. The extensive research has been carried out on the ecology, structure and functioning of the mangrove ecosystem. However, the findings have not been interpreted in a management framework, thus mangrove forests around the world continue to be over-exploited, converted to aquaculture ponds, and polluted. We strongly argue that links between research and sustainable management of mangrove ecosystem should be established.

  3. Forest restoration: a global dataset for biodiversity and vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Curran, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Restoration initiatives are becoming increasingly applied around the world. Billions of dollars have been spent on ecological restoration research and initiatives, but restoration outcomes differ widely among these initiatives in part due to variable socioeconomic and ecological contexts. Here, we present the most comprehensive dataset gathered to date on forest restoration. It encompasses 269 primary studies across 221 study landscapes in 53 countries and contains 4,645 quantitative comparisons between reference ecosystems (e.g., old-growth forest) and degraded or restored ecosystems for five taxonomic groups (mammals, birds, invertebrates, herpetofauna, and plants) and five measures of vegetation structure reflecting different ecological processes (cover, density, height, biomass, and litter). We selected studies that (1) were conducted in forest ecosystems; (2) had multiple replicate sampling sites to measure indicators of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure in reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems; and (3) used less-disturbed forests as a reference to the ecosystem under study. We recorded (1) latitude and longitude; (2) study year; (3) country; (4) biogeographic realm; (5) past disturbance type; (6) current disturbance type; (7) forest conversion class; (8) restoration activity; (9) time that a system has been disturbed; (10) time elapsed since restoration started; (11) ecological metric used to assess biodiversity; and (12) quantitative value of the ecological metric of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure for reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems. These were the most common data available in the selected studies. We also estimated forest cover and configuration in each study landscape using a recently developed 1 km consensus land cover dataset. We measured forest configuration as the (1) mean size of all forest patches; (2) size of the largest forest patch; and (3) edge:area ratio of forest patches. Global analyses of the

  4. Ecological restoration across the Mediterranean Basin as viewed by practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Alice; Oliveira, Graça; Mexia, Teresa; Valdecantos, Alejandro; Zucca, Claudio; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Abraham, Eleni M; Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos P; Salah, Ayman; Prasse, Ruediger; Correia, Otília; Milliken, Sarah; Kotzen, Benz; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Restoration efforts in the Mediterranean Basin have been changing from a silvicultural to an ecological restoration approach. Yet, to what extent the projects are guided by ecological restoration principles remains largely unknown. To analyse this issue, we built an on-line survey addressed to restoration practitioners. We analysed 36 restoration projects, mostly from drylands (86%). The projects used mainly soil from local sources. The need to comply with legislation was more important as a restoration motive for European Union (EU) than for non-EU countries, while public opinion and health had a greater importance in the latter. Non-EU countries relied more on non-native plant species than EU countries, thus deviating from ecological restoration guidelines. Nursery-grown plants used were mostly of local or regional provenance, whilst seeds were mostly of national provenance. Unexpected restoration results (e.g. inadequate biodiversity) were reported for 50% of the projects and restoration success was never evaluated in 22%. Long term evaluation (>6years) was only performed in 31% of cases, and based primarily on plant diversity and cover. The use of non-native species and species of exogenous provenances may: i) entail the loss of local genetic and functional trait diversity, critical to cope with drought, particularly under the predicted climate change scenarios, and ii) lead to unexpected competition with native species and/or negatively impact local biotic interactions. Absent or inappropriate monitoring may prevent the understanding of restoration trajectories, precluding adaptive management strategies, often crucial to create functional ecosystems able to provide ecosystem services. The overview of ecological restoration projects in the Mediterranean Basin revealed high variability among practices and highlighted the need for improved scientific assistance and information exchange, greater use of native species of local provenance, and more long

  5. Annual carbon balance of a peatland 10 yr following restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Strack

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Undisturbed peatlands represent long-term net sinks of carbon; however, peat extraction converts these systems into large and persistent sources of greenhouse gases. Although rewetting and restoration following peat extraction have taken place over the last several decades, very few studies have investigated the longer term impact of this restoration on peatland carbon balance. We determined the annual carbon balance of a former horticulturally-extracted peatland restored 10 yr prior to the study and compared these values to the carbon balance measured at neighboring unrestored and natural sites. Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes were measured using the chamber technique biweekly during the growing season from May to October 2010 and three times over the winter period. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC export was measured from remnant ditches in the unrestored and restored sites. During the growing season the restored site had greater uptake of CO2 than the natural site when photon flux density was greater than 1000 μmol m−2 s−1, while the unrestored site remained a source of CO2. Ecosystem respiration was similar between natural and restored sites, which were both significantly lower than the unrestored site. Methane flux remained low at the restored site except from open water pools, created as part of restoration, and remnant ditches. Export of DOC during the growing season was 5.0 and 28.8 g m−2 from the restored and unrestored sites, respectively. Due to dry conditions during the study year all sites acted as net carbon sources with annual balance of the natural, restored and unrestored sites of 250.7, 148.0 and 546.6 g C m−2, respectively. Although hydrological conditions and vegetation community at the restored site remained intermediate between natural and unrestored conditions, peatland restoration resulted in a large reduction in annual carbon loss from the system resulting in a carbon balance more similar to a natural

  6. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Savage, Melissa; Falk, Donald A.; Suckling, Kieran F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Schulke, Todd; Stacey, Peter B.; Morgan, Penelope; Hoffman, Martos; Klingel, Jon T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emerged that it is urgent to restore more natural conditions to these forests. Efforts to restore Southwestern forests will require extensive projects employing varying combinations of young-tree thinning and reintroduction of low-intensity fires. Treatments must be flexible enough to recognize and accommodate: high levels of natural heterogeneity; dynamic ecosystems; wildlife and other biodiversity considerations; scientific uncertainty; and the challenges of on-the-ground implementation. Ecological restoration should reset ecosystem trends toward an envelope of “natural variability,” including the reestablishment of natural processes. Reconstructed historic reference conditions are best used as general guides rather than rigid restoration prescriptions. In the long term, the best way to align forest conditions to track ongoing climate changes is to restore fire, which naturally correlates with current climate. Some stands need substantial structural manipulation (thinning) before fire can safely be reintroduced. In other areas, such as large wilderness and roadless areas, fire alone may suffice as the main tool of ecological restoration, recreating the natural interaction of structure and process. Impatience, overreaction to crown fire risks, extractive economics, or hubris could lead to widespread application of highly intrusive treatments that may further damage forest ecosystems. Investments in research and monitoring of restoration treatments are essential to refine

  7. Clinical performance of ART restorations in primary teeth: a survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccin, Elise Sasso; Ferreira, Simone Helena; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2009-01-01

    To assess the survival of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations in primary teeth performed in a dental clinical setting. One hundred and five single-surface ART restorations placed in 56 preschool children (mean age 31 months) were included. Final-year dental students performed the restorations using standard ART procedures with hand instruments. A resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer 3M/ESPE) was used as a restorative material. Performances of the restorations were assessed directly by the ART evaluation criteria. Follow-up period ranged from 6 to 48 months. Survival estimates for restoration longevity were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test (P ART restorations were 89%, 85% and 72% in 6 to 11, 12 to 24 and 25 to 48 months of evaluation respectively. Differences in success rates among demographic and clinical characteristics were not statistically significant. High survivals rates of the ART restorations found in this study seem to indicate the reliability of this approach as an appropriate treatment option for primary teeth in a clinical setting.

  8. Food Web Response to Habitat Restoration in Various Coastal Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W. R.; Nelson, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetland habitats provide important ecosystem services, including supporting coastal food webs. These habitats are being lost rapidly. To combat the effects of these losses, millions of dollars have been invested to restore these habitats. However, the relationship between restoring habitat and restoring ecosystem functioning is poorly understood. Analyzing energy flow through food web comparisons between restored and natural habitats can give insights into ecosystem functioning. Using published stable isotope values from organisms in restored and natural habitats, we assessed the food web response of habitat restoration in salt marsh, mangrove, sea grass, and algal bed ecosystems. We ran Bayesian mixing models to quantify resource use by consumers and generated habitat specific niche hypervolumes for each ecosystem to assess food web differences between restored and natural habitats. Salt marsh, mangrove, and sea grass ecosystems displayed functional differences between restored and natural habitats. Salt marsh and mangrove food webs varied in the amount of each resource used, while the sea grass food web displayed more variation between individual organisms. The algal bed food web showed little variation between restored and natural habitats.

  9. Evaluation of ball and roller bearings restored by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. Groups of each of these bearings were visually and dimensionally inspected for suitability for restoration. A total of 250 bearings were restored by grinding. Of this number, 30 bearings from each type were endurance tested to a TBO of 1600 hours. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The two bearing failures which occurred were due to defective rolling elements and were typical of those which may occur in new bearings. The restorable component yield to the three groups was in excess of 90 percent.

  10. Intelligent decision support algorithm for distribution system restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Reetu; Mehfuz, Shabana; Kumar, Parmod

    2016-01-01

    Distribution system is the means of revenue for electric utility. It needs to be restored at the earliest if any feeder or complete system is tripped out due to fault or any other cause. Further, uncertainty of the loads, result in variations in the distribution network's parameters. Thus, an intelligent algorithm incorporating hybrid fuzzy-grey relation, which can take into account the uncertainties and compare the sequences is discussed to analyse and restore the distribution system. The simulation studies are carried out to show the utility of the method by ranking the restoration plans for a typical distribution system. This algorithm also meets the smart grid requirements in terms of an automated restoration plan for the partial/full blackout of network.

  11. Use of the Empress all-ceramic restoration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, M K

    1997-01-01

    New dental materials and techniques have been introduced in the past few years to fabricate aesthetic ceramic restorations with improved strength, biocompatibility, resistance to wear, and better fit. Aesthetic concerns and increasing demand for tooth-colored posterior restorations have led to a number of all-ceramic restorations such as IPS Empress (Ivoclar-Williams, Amherst, NY). The Empress system offers superior aesthetics and physical properties. New generation ceramics along with the current adhesive techniques have resulted in the ability to provide higher strength, therefore indicating crowns for posterior restorations as well. These materials are being used more frequently and in more extensive oral prosthetic rehabilitations such as the case that will be presented. We discuss the different properties and advantages of IPS Empress.

  12. Self-restoration of contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapis, G.; Sobotovich, E.; Bondarenko, G.; Sadolko, I.; Petrayev, E.; Sokolik, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper illustrates the experience gained in the field of natural restoration of contaminated vast ecosystems. Prior to recommending a large-scale application of any rehabilitation technique, it is important to know the medium-and long- term intensity of self-restoration for most of the affected territories. Three main ways express the process of self-restoration: the natural radioactive decay, the transfer of radionuclides out of natural ecosystems and the ability of some pedological components to fixate the contaminants. The first way is a real decontamination process resulting in the removal from the biosphere of significant quantities of radionuclides. Indeed, during the last years the total activity of short-life-isotopes was decreased by a factor of some thousand and actually, the main contaminants are 137 Cs and 90 Sr which are decreasing according to their half-life. The two other ways of self-restoration are closely connected with radionuclides migration (vertical or/and horizontal) in soils. The vertical migration velocities of 137 Cs and 90 St in typical soils of contaminated regions in Ukraine and Belarus were evaluated annually during 9 years since the accident. In most of these soils the migration rate of 90 Sr seems higher than this of 137 Cs and ranges from 0.71 to 1.54 cm/year and 0.10 to 1.16 cm/year respectively. At present time the main part of radionuclides is located in the upper 10 cm layer of soils. The ability of soils components to immobilize the radionuclides was also investigated. From 1989 to 1994 approximately 57% of 137 Cs was converted in fixed forms and for the year 2000 it is expected that this percentage will be 80%. Finally, for total contaminated regions, the obtained results on vertical migration velocity of radionuclides as a function of the soil type, are presented under the form of a map in order to help decision makers to determine the feasibility and the methodology for restoration of areas contaminated by 137 Cs and 90

  13. Techniques of Fabrication of Provisional Restoration: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Regish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A properly fabricated provisional restoration is important in achieving a successful indirect restoration. The importance of provisional restorations as an integral part of fixed prosthodontic treatment is evident from the abundance of the literature pertaining to their importance regarding margin fidelity, function, occlusion, and esthetics. There are a variety of techniques available to suit the individual needs of the clinician and of the clinical situation, from a single unit to a complete-arch provisional fixed prostheses.

  14. Use of hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling for ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeysekera, J.; Kuebler, L.; Ahmed, S.; Chang, M.-L.; Engel, V.; Langevin, C.; Swain, E.; Wan, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and implementation of unprecedented projects for restoring the greater Everglades ecosystem are underway and the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of restoration alternatives has become essential for success of restoration efforts. In view of the complex nature of the South Florida water resources system, regional-scale (system-wide) hydrologic models have been developed and used extensively for the development of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In addition, numerous subregional-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models have been developed and are being used for evaluating project-scale water management plans associated with urban, agricultural, and inland costal ecosystems. The authors provide a comprehensive summary of models of all scales, as well as the next generation models under development to meet the future needs of ecosystem restoration efforts in South Florida. The multiagency efforts to develop and apply models have allowed the agencies to understand the complex hydrologic interactions, quantify appropriate performance measures, and use new technologies in simulation algorithms, software development, and GIS/database techniques to meet the future modeling needs of the ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  15. Reconstruction and restoration of historical buildings of transport infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareeva, Daria; Glazkova, Valeriya

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article is to identify the main problems in the restoration of the historical objects. For this reason, it is rationally to collect and analyze the existing world experience of restoration. The information which was put together showed that there are some problems which are common and can be solved. In addition, the protection of the Monuments of Culture and Architecture Comittees always makes the restoration and reconstruction of the historical buildings complicated. By the examples of Germany, Italy and Russia it is shown that there are problems in organization, economy, planning and control. Engineers should think of and justify the methodology of organizing and monitoring of the restoration of the historical buildings. As a second solution, it will be possible to minimize time and financial costs through a favorable financial and legal background for investors and through the creation of a system of restoration work organizing. And for a faster process of restoration the imitation programs should be optimized for research and selection of the reconstruction technological and economic methods.

  16. Fluoride-releasing restorative materials and secondary caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Donly, Kevin; Flaitz, Catherine

    2003-03-01

    Secondary caries is responsible for 60 percent of all replacement restorations in the typical dental practice. Risk factors for secondary caries are similar to those for primary caries development. Unfortunately, it is not possible to accurately predict which patients are at risk for restoration failure. During the past several decades, fluoride-releasing dental materials have become a part of the dentist's armamentarium. Considerable fluoride is released during the setting reaction and for periods up to eight years following restoration placement. This released fluoride is readily taken up by the cavosurface tooth structure, as well as the enamel and root surfaces adjacent to the restoration. Resistance against caries along the cavosurface and the adjacent smooth surface has been shown in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Fluoride-releasing dental materials provide for improved resistance against primary and secondary caries in coronal and root surfaces. Plaque and salivary fluoride levels are elevated to a level that facilitates remineralization. In addition, the fluoride released to dental plaque adversely affects the growth of lactobacilli and mutans streptococci by interference with bacterial enzyme systems. Fluoride recharging of these dental materials is readily achieved with fluoridated toothpastes, fluoride mouthrinses, and other sources of topical fluoride. This allows fluoride-releasing dental materials to act as intraoral fluoride reservoirs. The improvement in the properties of dental materials with the ability to release fluoride has improved dramatically in the past decade, and it is anticipated that in the near future the vast majority of restorative procedures will employ fluoride-releasing dental materials as bonding agents, cavity liners, luting agents, adhesives for orthodontic brackets, and definitive restoratives.

  17. Marginal microfiltration in amalgam restorations. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoud Salem, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The present articule is review references from phenomenon of microfiltration in restorations with amalgam and yours consecuents in changes of color in the interface tooth-restorations, margin deterioted , sensitivity dentinarea postoperate, caries secondary and pulp inflamation. Besides naming the mechanicals for to reduce microfiltration, and yours effects for use of sealers dentinaries representation for the varnish cavitys and adhesive systens Conclusive indicate wath the amalgam is the ma...

  18. Restoration of floodplain meadows: Effects on the re-establishment of mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Grzegorz J.; Harnisch, Matthias; Otte, Annette; Bomanowska, Anna; Donath, Tobias W.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular plants serve as target species for the evaluation of restoration success as they account for most of the plant species diversity and vegetation cover. Although bryophytes contribute considerably to the species diversity of meadows, they are rarely addressed in restoration projects. This project is a first step toward making recommendations for including mosses in alluvial floodplain restoration projects. The opportunity to assess the diversity and ecological requirements of mosses on floodplain meadows presented itself within the framework of a vegetation monitoring that took place in 2014 on meadows located along the northern Upper Rhine. In this area, large-scale meadow restoration projects have taken place since 1997 in both the functional and fossil floodplains. Other studies have shown that bryophytes are generally present in green hay used in restoration, providing inadvertent bryophyte introduction. We compared bryophyte communities in donor and restored communities and correlated these communities with environmental variables—taking into account that the mosses on the restoration sites possibly developed from green hay. This analysis provided insights as to which species of bryophytes should be included in future restoration projects, what diaspores should be used, and how they should be transferred. Data on bryophyte occurrence were gathered from old meadows, and from restoration sites. We found distinct differences in bryophyte composition (based on frequency) in restored communities in functional flood plains compared to donor communities. Generally, restoration sites are still characterized by a lower species-richness, with a significantly lower occurrence of rare and red listed species and a lower species-heterogeneity. In conclusion, our research establishes what mosses predominate in donor and restored alluvial meadows along the northern Upper River, and what microsite conditions favour particular species. This points the way to deliberate

  19. Ecosystem restoration: a systems approach to exotic plant control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl D. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration is a systems approach because it relates to all of the thousands of interrelated and interacting systems within the ecosystem. Ecosystem restoration also changes your role in the forest from observer to participant. Some of the goals of ecosystem restoration are to improve the health, vigor, and diversity of the ecosystem--and these goals can and...

  20. Experiences in reconciling risk management and restorative justice: how circles of support and accountability work restoratively in the risk society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannem, Stacey

    2013-03-01

    Circles of Support and Accountability (COSA) is a restorative justice-based model that originated in Canada in the mid-1990s for the postincarceration reintegration of those who have offended sexually. Although the roots of COSA are in restorative justice philosophy, the program has also found favour, to some degree, with organisations such as police services and corrections that are traditionally concerned more with protecting community safety than with the ideals of restorative justice. Informed by the author's research and personal experience as a COSA volunteer, and analysis of recent and historical representations of COSA, this article explores theoretically how the development of the COSA initiative has been influenced by the seemingly disparate concerns of both the restorative justice and community protection movements, and examines the importance of balancing these paradigms in the everyday practices of circles.

  1. Frequency of Iatrogenic Changes Caused from Overhang Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boteva E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overhangs from different restorations are an iatrogenic error with different results, short and long term consequences related to bone changes and periodontal diseases. Amalgam “tattoos”, idiopathic subgingival hypertrophy, marginal periodontitis and bone reductions in the intradental septum are major problems. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the frequency of traumatic restorations in distal teeth and clinical criteria, related to the x-ray findings. Evaluating criteria, for repairing the overhangs or for replacement of the restorations, is also a goal. Three hundred and sixteen - 316 patients from both sexes, 632 dental x-rays with 948 distal teeth and 632 restorations, at least two radiographs for each patient, were analyzed. Overhangs are classified in three groups: small, middle and large. In the criteria bone changes from the overhangs are analyzed separately from the existing or nonexisting bone changes from a generalized periodontal diseases. The frequency of iatrogenic changes in this cohort group is 10.6% from 632 restored teeth. This is a relatively small number compared with the other published studies. These overhangs are on distal teeth in sound teeth arches which makes them difficult for corrections. The evaluated criteria for replacement based on x-ray findings and clinical experience includes: operative and nonoperative corrections, restoration replacement, perio- and endo-therapy and follow up terms for secondary caries.

  2. Conservation, management, and restoration of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanich, Suchana; Soong, Keryea; Zvuloni, Assaf; Rinkevich, Baruch; Alino, Porfirio

    2015-04-01

    The 8th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology (ICCB 8) was held in Eilat, Israel from December 1st to 5th 2013. The conference included 15 sessions, one of which discussed the latest information on the conservation, management, and restoration of Coelenterata in different parts of the world. A total of 16 oral presentations and 5 posters were presented in this session. Of these 21 papers, 11 were related to conservation issues, 7 described management, and 3 discussed restoration. This session provided insights on the current conservation, management, and restoration of coelenterates in different parts of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  4. Environmental Restoration 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosper, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    During 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Savannah River Site achieved all of the ''Breakthrough Goals'' that were established with the regulatory agencies in 1995 to advance their cleanup efforts. Effective focus on field remediation was demonstrated by the allocation of 75% of program funding to remediation activities. The Remediation Phase is complete or has begun on sixty-nine waste sites that represent approximately 80% of the known environmental and health risk. The average time required for the assessment phase of active projects was reduced by 50%, from 49 to less than 24 months, which allows cleanup actions to start twice as fast as before. Breakthrough performance has tangible results. During 1997, all of the funding allocation was used effectively to accomplish environmental restoration scope worth over $123 million. That represents a validated cost efficiency of over 20% for the third straight year. Over half of the 500 contaminated acres at SRS have been cleaned up or are currently in the remediation phase. Almost 3 billion gallons of groundwater have been restored by removing over half a million pounds of organic solvents

  5. Small-kernel constrained-least-squares restoration of sampled image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Rajeeb; Park, Stephen K.

    1992-10-01

    Constrained least-squares image restoration, first proposed by Hunt twenty years ago, is a linear image restoration technique in which the restoration filter is derived by maximizing the smoothness of the restored image while satisfying a fidelity constraint related to how well the restored image matches the actual data. The traditional derivation and implementation of the constrained least-squares restoration filter is based on an incomplete discrete/discrete system model which does not account for the effects of spatial sampling and image reconstruction. For many imaging systems, these effects are significant and should not be ignored. In a recent paper Park demonstrated that a derivation of the Wiener filter based on the incomplete discrete/discrete model can be extended to a more comprehensive end-to-end, continuous/discrete/continuous model. In a similar way, in this paper, we show that a derivation of the constrained least-squares filter based on the discrete/discrete model can also be extended to this more comprehensive continuous/discrete/continuous model and, by so doing, an improved restoration filter is derived. Building on previous work by Reichenbach and Park for the Wiener filter, we also show that this improved constrained least-squares restoration filter can be efficiently implemented as a small-kernel convolution in the spatial domain.

  6. Prestresses in bilayered all-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Feilzer, Albert J; de Jager, Niek; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J

    2008-10-01

    A general trend in all ceramic systems is to use veneering ceramics of slightly lower thermal expansion coefficients compared with that of the framework resulting in a positive mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient (+DeltaTEC). The concept behind this TEC mismatch is to generate compressive stresses in the weaker veneering ceramic and thus enhance the overall strength of the restoration. This technique had excellent results with porcelain fused to metal restorations (PFM). However, there are concerns to apply this concept to all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this research was to determine the stresses in bilayered all-ceramic restorations due to the mismatch in TEC. Two commercial veneering ceramics with a TEC lower than that of zirconia (+DeltaTEC); NobelRondo zirconiatrade mark and Lava Ceramtrade mark, plus one experimental veneering ceramic with an identical TEC that matches that of zirconia (DeltaTEC = 0) were used to veneer zirconia discs. The specimens were loaded in biaxial flexure test setup with the veneer ceramic in tension. The stresses due to load application and TEC mismatch were calculated using fractography, engineering mathematics, and finite element analysis (FEA). In this study, the highest load at failure (64 N) was obtained with the experimental veneer where the thermal mismatch between zirconia and veneering ceramic was minimal. For the two commercial veneer ceramics the magnitude of the thermal mismatch localized at the zirconia veneer interface (42 MPa) exceeded the bond strength between the two materials and resulted in delamination failure during testing (ca. 50 MPa). For all-ceramic zirconia veneered restorations it is recommended to minimize the thermal mismatch as much as possible. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hypoglycemia-related electroencephalogram changes are independent of gender, age, duration of diabetes, and awareness status in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, Line Sofie; Elsborg, Rasmus; Sejling, Anne-Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Neuroglycopenia in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results in reduced cognition, unconsciousness, seizures, and possible death. Characteristic changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be detected even in the initial stages. This may constitute a basis for a hypoglycemia alarm...... device. The aim of the present study was to explore the characteristics of the EEG differentiating normoglycemia and hypoglycemia and to elucidate potential group differences. Methods: We pooled data from experiments in T1DM where EEG was available during both normoglycemia and hypo-glycemia for each...

  8. Management Restoration Plans for Coastal Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudianto Rudianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The village is located in the coastal area up to this time has decreased the quality of the coastal environment either caused by the process of natural or anthropogenic processes. Coastal damage Persistent will affect people's lives. Based on studies conducted by Rudianto (2013 and continued research by Rudianto (2014 on the institutional model for implementing the strategy, the resulting output coast of research called restoration plan for coastal villages or R2DP coastal villages. The objective of R2DP is helping the village administration to alleviate the problems of coastal areas. R2DP is a guideline that will be used by the village government based on a legal framework called the village regulations. The method used to compile R2DP is descriptive method. By using the method of Miles and Huberman (1984 used data reduction techniques. This technique is to pick and choose which data is critical to focus on the purpose of research. the results of research to produce findings about the restoration plan or a coastal village called R2DP. The essence of the mechanism and procedure R2DP is doing the restoration work by using institutions as a means of restoration.

  9. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration under CGMS system in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    restore complete fertility of a certain CMS line by various restorer lines (Tan et ... Keywords. rice; heterosis; three-way test cross; fertility restoration genetics. Journal of ..... plants indicating a strong genetic load of maintenance in. DE2. Table 8.

  11. Public support for river restoration. A mixed-method study into local residents' support for and framing of river management and ecological restoration in the Dutch floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Arjen E

    2009-06-01

    In many European countries, accommodating water has become the dominant paradigm in river management. In the Netherlands, extensive river restoration projects are being implemented, many of which draw serious opposition from the public. To investigate the causes of such opposition, a comprehensive study of public attitudes towards river restoration was conducted in three floodplains, both before and after river restoration. The study combined quantitative questionnaires (N=562) with open interviews (N=29). This paper describes how local residents perceive the effects of river restoration on landscape quality and how residents and protest groups use landscape quality in combination with other arguments to strategically frame river management policies. Results show that measurement of the perceived outcomes of nature restoration needs to be complemented by a more dynamic type of research, focusing on the social processes of the framing of restoration plans. Theoretically, the paper aims to contribute to the development of a rigorous research strategy to study framing processes in environmental management, using a mixed-methods approach. In general, local residents are supportive of river restoration projects. Although restoration may diminish feelings of attachment to an area, for most people this negative effect is compensated by the positive effects on scenic beauty and perceived protection from flooding. However, these positive effects may become contested because of the active framing of river restoration by protest groups. Residents use three distinct frames to give meaning to river restoration projects: (i) an attachment frame, focusing on cultural heritage and place attachment (ii) an attractive nature frame, focusing on nature as attractive living space and the intrinsic value of nature (iii) a rurality frame, focusing on rural values, agriculture and cultural heritage. Resistance to river restoration plans stems from the attachment and rurality frames

  12. Conservative restoration of a traumatically involved central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Joyce

    2012-04-01

    The use of a direct composite material known for excellent polishability, polish retention, and wear resistance is described in this case of a fractured central incisor restoration. The method used enabled the clinician to conserve tooth structure and maintain full control of the outcome while creating an esthetically imperceptible, reliable, and durable restoration for a young male patient. Emphasized in this case are the techniques of layering, contouring, and polishing of a nanocomposite used to maximize esthetics and meet patient expectations. To further ensure imperceptibility, the author recommends first facilitating color shade selection for both body and dentin-especially in two-shade or multiple-shade restorations-by placing the composite in its planned area of the restoration and curing it in its proper thickness to allow a preview and recipe map.

  13. Plant succession and approaches to community restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy

    2005-01-01

    The processes of vegetation change over time, or plant succession, are also the processes involved in plant community restoration. Restoration efforts attempt to use designed disturbance, seedbed preparation and sowing methods, and selection of adapted and compatible native plant materials to enhance ecological function. The large scale of wildfires and weed invasion...

  14. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  16. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  17. Mastering events of the past. Restoration strategies for radioactive contaminated ecosystems (RESTORE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Burrough, P.; Crout, N.; Desmet, G.; Howard, B.J.; Rauret, G.; Sansone, U.; Strand, P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a short presentation of the results of the European Commission funded ECP is given, and how the programme RESTORE will contribute to solving some of these deficiencies of existing models paying little attention to factors such as spatial and temporal variation in radioecological operative parameters which influence transfer to foodstuffs and man. Data obtained after the Chernobyl accident are mainly based on information of collective systems and do inadequately consider private farming, different consumption behaviours or socio-economic factors of special groups within the population. However, the effect of countermeasures will depend very much on these factors. The work programme of RESTORE is designed to improve these models and to provide a model which is suitably constructed so that different sources and subsets of population are appropriately considered. It will make maximum use of data and information available from studies carried out in the CIS countries in recent years, and will include a radioecological evaluation of the Semipalatinsk test site and provide detailed, scientifically based recommendations for restoration techniques based on spatial analysis of selected regions. The overall aim is to produce an environmental management package integrating over areas contaminated by radioactive fallout based on an understanding of the nature of contamination, the processes and routes by which radioactivity is transferred in a variety of ecosystems, and the importance and potential of appropriate countermeasures to reduce radiation doses to humans and to minimize adverse socio-economic effects. (J.P.N.)

  18. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    as a major neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The tissue-specific expression of the hormones is regulated at the transcriptional level, but the posttranslational phase is also decisive and is highly complex in order to ensure accurate maturation of the prohormones in a cell...... specific manner. Despite the structural similarities of gastrin and CCK, there are decisive differences in the posttranslational processing and secretion schemes, suggesting that specific features in the processing may have evolved to serve specific purposes. For instance, CCK peptides circulate in low...... picomolar concentrations, whereas the cellular expression of gastrin is expressed at higher levels, and accordingly gastrin circulates in 10-20-fold higher concentrations. Both common cancers and the less frequent neuroendocrine tumors express the gastrin gene and prohormone. But the posttranslational...

  19. Annealing effect on restoration of irradiation steel properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishkarev, O.M.; Kolesova, T.N.; Myasnikova, K.P.; Pecherin, A.M.; Shamardin, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of temperature and annealing time on the restoration of properties of the 15Kh2NMFAA and 15Kh2MFA steels after irradiation at 285 deg with the fluence of 6x10 23 neutr/m 2 (E>0.5 MeV) is studied. Microhardness (H μ ) restoration in the irradiated 15Kh2NMFAA steel is shown to start from 350 deg C annealing temperature. The complete microhardness restoration is observed at the annealing temperature of 500 deg C for 10 hours

  20. Feasibility of online IMPT adaptation using fast, automatic and robust dose restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, Kinga; Geets, Xavier; Barragan, Ana; Janssens, Guillaume; Souris, Kevin; Sterpin, Edmond

    2018-04-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) offers excellent dose conformity and healthy tissue sparing, but it can be substantially compromised in the presence of anatomical changes. A major dosimetric effect is caused by density changes, which alter the planned proton range in the patient. Three different methods, which automatically restore an IMPT plan dose on a daily CT image were implemented and compared: (1) simple dose restoration (DR) using optimization objectives of the initial plan, (2) voxel-wise dose restoration (vDR), and (3) isodose volume dose restoration (iDR). Dose restorations were calculated for three different clinical cases, selected to test different capabilities of the restoration methods: large range adaptation, complex dose distributions and robust re-optimization. All dose restorations were obtained in less than 5 min, without manual adjustments of the optimization settings. The evaluation of initial plans on repeated CTs showed large dose distortions, which were substantially reduced after restoration. In general, all dose restoration methods improved DVH-based scores in propagated target volumes and OARs. Analysis of local dose differences showed that, although all dose restorations performed similarly in high dose regions, iDR restored the initial dose with higher precision and accuracy in the whole patient anatomy. Median dose errors decreased from 13.55 Gy in distorted plan to 9.75 Gy (vDR), 6.2 Gy (DR) and 4.3 Gy (iDR). High quality dose restoration is essential to minimize or eventually by-pass the physician approval of the restored plan, as long as dose stability can be assumed. Motion (as well as setup and range uncertainties) can be taken into account by including robust optimization in the dose restoration. Restoring clinically-approved dose distribution on repeated CTs does not require new ROI segmentation and is compatible with an online adaptive workflow.

  1. Restoration of color in a remote sensing image and its quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuxun; Li, Zhijiang; Zhang, Jianqing; Wang, Zhihe

    2003-09-01

    This paper is focused on the restoration of color remote sensing (including airborne photo). A complete approach is recommended. It propose that two main aspects should be concerned in restoring a remote sensing image, that are restoration of space information, restoration of photometric information. In this proposal, the restoration of space information can be performed by making the modulation transfer function (MTF) as degradation function, in which the MTF is obtained by measuring the edge curve of origin image. The restoration of photometric information can be performed by improved local maximum entropy algorithm. What's more, a valid approach in processing color remote sensing image is recommended. That is splits the color remote sensing image into three monochromatic images which corresponding three visible light bands and synthesizes the three images after being processed separately with psychological color vision restriction. Finally, three novel evaluation variables are obtained based on image restoration to evaluate the image restoration quality in space restoration quality and photometric restoration quality. An evaluation is provided at last.

  2. Resource impact evaluation of in-situ uranium groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.; Rohlich, G.A.

    1981-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of restoration on the groundwater following in-situ uranium solution mining in South Texas. Restoration is necessary in order to reduce the amounts of undesired chemical constituents left in solution after mining operations have ceased, and thus return the groundwater to a quality consistent with pre-mining use and potential use. Various restoration strategies have been proposed and are discussed. Of interest are the hydrologic, environmental, social, and economic impacts of these restoration alternatives. Much of the discussion concerning groundwater restoration is based on the use of an ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate leach solution in the mining process. This has been the principal leach solution used during the early period of mining in South Texas. Recently, because of apparent difficulties in restoring ammonium to proposed or required levels, many of the companies have changed to the use of other leach solutions. Because little is known about restoration with these other leach solutions they have not been specifically addressed in this report. Likewise, we have not addressed the question of the fate of heavy metals. Following a summary of the development of South Texas in-situ mining in Chapter Two, Chapter Three describes the surface and groundwater resources of the uranium mining district. Chapter Four addresses the economics of water use, and Chapter Five is concerned with regulation of the in-situ uranium industry in Texas. A discussion of groundwater restoration alternatives and impacts is presented in Chapter Six. Chapter Seven contains a summary and a discussion, and conclusions derived from this study. Two case histories are presented in Appendices A and B

  3. A conservative approach for restoring anterior guidance: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontons-Melo, Juan Carlos; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Mondelli, José

    2012-06-01

    One of the most common dental problems in today's clinics is tooth wear, specifically when related to bruxism. In such cases, the esthetics of anterior teeth may be compromised when excessive wear to the incisal surfaces occurs. Anterior tooth wear resulting from parafunctional bruxism can be conservatively treated with the use of direct resin composite restorations. This restorative approach has the advantages of presenting good predictability, load resistance, acceptable longevity, preservation of healthy dental tissues, and lower cost when compared with indirect restorations. The use of resin composites to solve esthetic problems, however, requires skill and practice. Thus, the present article demonstrates a conservative approach for restoring the esthetics and function of worn anterior teeth with the aid of direct resin composite restorations and selective occlusal adjustment. A conservative approach to restore anterior teeth with excessive wear is possible with direct resin composites. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Have wet meadow restoration projects in the Southwestern U.S. been effective in restoring geomorphology, hydrology, soils, and plant species composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramstead Karissa M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wet meadows occur in numerous locations throughout the American Southwest, but in many cases have become heavily degraded. Among other things they have frequently been overgrazed and have had roads built through them, which have affected the hydrology of these wetland ecosystems. Because of the important hydrologic and ecological functions they are believed to perform, there is currently significant interest in wet meadow restoration. Several restoration projects have been completed recently or are underway in the region, sometimes at considerable expense and with minimal monitoring. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of wet meadow restoration projects in the southwestern United States on geomorphology, hydrology, soils and plant species composition. A secondary objective was to determine the effects of wet meadow restoration projects on wildlife. Methods Electronic databases, internet search engines, websites and personal contacts were used to find articles of relevance to this review. Articles were filtered by title, abstract and full text. Summary information for each of the articles remaining after the filtering process was compiled and used to assess the quality of the evidence presented using two different approaches. Results Our searches yielded 48 articles, of which 25 were published in peer-reviewed journals, 14 were monitoring or project reports, and 9 were published in conference proceedings or are unpublished theses or manuscripts. A total of 26 operational-scale restoration projects were identified. A wide range of restoration techniques were employed, ranging from small-scale manipulations of stream channels (e.g., riffle structures to large scale pond-and-plug projects. Other common restoration techniques included fencing to exclude livestock (and sometimes also native ungulates, other forms of grazing management, seeding, and transplanting seedlings. Most of the articles reported that

  5. The restoration lines; Les chaines de restauration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference allowed the restoration sector to discover the advantages of the gas energy for cooking: a cheaper cost, a adequate technology for a maximum of efficiency and safety. Gaz De France presents a great interest in this restoration sector and will continue to invest on this market in the future. (A.L.B.)

  6. Restoring Nature: Human Actions, Interactions and reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    Regardless of one's viewpoint, the conflict that erupted in the spring of 1996 and became known as the Chicago restoration controversy has left an indelible mark on the region's environmental community and has forever changed the way those involved will think about restoration. Its implications extend far beyond Chicago; since its inception, the controversy...

  7. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-06-01

    Results and conclusions: Direct adhesive restorations, indirect bonded restorations and traditional full crown are three therapeutic options for the single posterior endodontically treated teeth. The amount of remaining sound tooth structure is the most significant factor influencing the therapeutic approach. The clinician's operative skill is a determining aspect for long-term success of adhesive inlays.

  8. Incorporating resilience and cost in ecological restoration strategies at landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Stefanes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of deforested or degraded areas can contribute to biodiversity conservation and global resilience given the current and projected impacts of climate change. In recent years, a robust array of ecological restoration frameworks have been generated to address restoration challenges at large scales in different ecosystems around the world. Unfortunately, the costs associated with restoration at such scales greatly challenges the implementation of such frameworks. We used landscape ecology principles with multicriteria optimization of landscape resilience and agricultural productivity as a way to mitigate the trade-offs between production and restoration. We used the Cerrado biome in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, as a case study to apply our framework. We compared three scenarios: minimal legal compliance (MLC; selection by ecological resilience (SER; and selection by restoration cost (SRC. Our results show that increasing the restoration target from MLC (25% to SER (30% means moving from 968,316 to 1592 million hectares, which can represent a huge opportunity cost for agricultural lands. However, because costs and resilience are not homogeneously distributed throughout landscapes, we can select areas of intermediate ecological resilience and low cost, for the same restoration area target. This process can reduce potential conflicts and make restoration a more viable process. Our results also reveal some areas that can be particularly important for reconciling agriculture and landscape restoration. Those areas combined high and intermediate resilience and an above average profitability. This could mean that increasing restoration in this area could be very expensive, assuming that our proxy roughly represents the restoration implementation cost. However, there is another important message here, that some areas can be productive at the same time that they maintain levels of resilience above the legal compliance, which facilitates

  9. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  10. Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

    2003-07-01

    The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

  11. Bulk-filled posterior resin restorations based on stress-decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W.V.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Class I restorations could be evaluated. Six failed Class II molar restorations, three in each group, were observed, resulting in a success rate of 93.9% for all restorations and an annual failure rate (AFR) of 1.0% for both groups. The AFR for Class II and Class I restorations in both groups was 1...

  12. Restoration of a temperate reef: Effects on the fish community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Stenberg, Claus; Dahl, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Trindel in Kattegat, Denmark, has now been re-established with the aim of restoring the reef’s historical structure and function. The effects of the restoration on the local fish community are reported here. Fishing surveys using gillnets and fyke nets were conducted before the restoration (2007) and four...... years after the restoration of the reef (2012). Species of the family Labridae, which have a high affinity for rocky reefs, dominated both before and after the restoration. Commercially important species such as cod Gadus morhua, and saithe Pollachius virens, occurred infrequently in the catches in 2007....... The findings highlight the importance of reef habitats for fish communities and the need for their protection...

  13. Real-time image restoration for iris recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2007-12-01

    In the field of biometrics, it has been reported that iris recognition techniques have shown high levels of accuracy because unique patterns of the human iris, which has very many degrees of freedom, are used. However, because conventional iris cameras have small depth-of-field (DOF) areas, input iris images can easily be blurred, which can lead to lower recognition performance, since iris patterns are transformed by the blurring caused by optical defocusing. To overcome these problems, an autofocusing camera can be used. However, this inevitably increases the cost, size, and complexity of the system. Therefore, we propose a new real-time iris image-restoration method, which can increase the camera's DOF without requiring any additional hardware. This paper presents five novelties as compared to previous works: 1) by excluding eyelash and eyelid regions, it is possible to obtain more accurate focus scores from input iris images; 2) the parameter of the point spread function (PSF) can be estimated in terms of camera optics and measured focus scores; therefore, parameter estimation is more accurate than it has been in previous research; 3) because the PSF parameter can be obtained by using a predetermined equation, iris image restoration can be done in real-time; 4) by using a constrained least square (CLS) restoration filter that considers noise, performance can be greatly enhanced; and 5) restoration accuracy can also be enhanced by estimating the weight value of the noise-regularization term of the CLS filter according to the amount of image blurring. Experimental results showed that iris recognition errors when using the proposed restoration method were greatly reduced as compared to those results achieved without restoration or those achieved using previous iris-restoration methods.

  14. Restoration of the Serranos Towers in Valencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Mileto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent restoration of the emblematic Serranos Towers carried out by an interdisciplinary team of specialists was an excuse to delve into the history and masonry of the towers, from their initial building and use as a prison to the restorations works practised in the 19th century and subsequent repairs. The cleaning of the walls permitted a direct study of the masonry, which provided a great deal of information that complemented the rigorous historical investigation. The maintenance scheme planned for the future is an interesting proposal, where good sense prevails over improvisation, so often a reality in the restoration of monuments today.

  15. Various Effects of Sandblasting of Dental Restorative Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Nishigawa

    Full Text Available Sandblasting particles which remain on the surfaces of dental restorations are removed prior to cementation. It is probable that adhesive strength between luting material and sandblasting particle remnants might exceed that with restorative material. If that being the case, blasting particles adhere to sandblasted material surface could be instrumental to increasing adhesive strength like underlying bonding mechanism between luting material and silanized particles of tribochemical silica coating-treated surface. We hypothesize that ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces, which were pretreated with sandblasting, may affect adhesive strength of a resin luting material to dental restorative materials.We therefore observed adhesive strength of resin luting material to aluminum oxide was greater than those to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy beforehand. To measure the shear bond strengths of resin luting material to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, forty specimens of each restorative material were prepared. Bonding surfaces were polished with silicon abrasive paper and then treated with sandblasting. For each restorative material, 40 sandblasted specimens were equally divided into two groups: ultrasonic cleaning (USC group and non-ultrasonic cleaning (NUSC group. After resin luting material was polymerized on bonding surface, shear test was performed to evaluate effect of ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces pretreated with sandblasting on bond strength.For both zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, NUSC group showed significantly higher shear bond strength than USC group.Ultrasonic cleaning of dental restorations after sandblasting should be avoided to retain improved bonding between these materials.

  16. Radiopacity of 28 Composite Resins for Teeth Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitz, Ricardo; Moruzzi, Patrizia Dubinskas; Vieira, Glauco; Fenyo-Pereira, Marlene

    2016-02-01

    Radiopacity is a fundamental requisite to check marginal adaptation of restorations. Our objective was to assess the radiopacity of 28 brands of light-cured composite resins and compare their radiopacity with that of enamel, dentin, and aluminum of equivalent thickness. Composite resin disks (0.2, 0.5, and 1 mm) were radiographed by the digital method, together with an aluminum penetrometer and a human tooth equivalent tooth section. The degree of radiopacity of each image was quantified using digital image processing. Wilcoxon nonparametric test was used for comparison of the mean thickness of each material. All of the materials tested had an equal or greater radiopacity than that of aluminum of equivalent thickness. Similar results for enamel were found with the exception of Durafill, which was less radiopaque than enamel (p composite resins comply with specification #27 of the American Dental Association. The radiopacity of Amelogen Plus, Aph, Brilhiante, Charisma, Concept Advanced, Evolux X, Exthet X, Inten S, Llis, Master Fill, Natural Look, Opallis, P60, Tetric, Tph, Z100, and Z250 was significantly higher than that of enamel (p composites, it is possible to observe the boundaries between restoration and tooth structure, thus allowing clinicians to establish the presence of microleakage or restoration gap. Suitable radiopacity is an essential requisite for good-quality esthetic restorative materials. We demonstrate that only some composites have the sufficient radiopacity to observe the boundaries between restoration and tooth structure, which is the main cause of restoration failure.

  17. Aquifer restoration at uranium in situ leach sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasi, F.S.; Williams, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    In situ mining of uranium involves injection of a leaching solution (lixiviant) into an ore-bearing aquifer. Frequently, the ground water in the mined aquifer is a domestic or livestock water supply. As the lixiviant migrates through the ore body, uranium and various associated elements such as arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium and radium-226 are mobilized in the ground water. Aquifer restoration after in situ mining is not fully understood. Several methods have been developed to restore mined aquifers to pre-mining (baseline) quality. Commonly used methods include ground water sweeping, clean water injection, and treatment by ion exchange and reverse osmosis technologies. Ammonium carbonate lixiviant was used at one RandD in situ mine. Attempts were made to restore the aquifer using a variety of methods. Efforts were successful in reducing concentrations of the majority of contaminants to baseline levels. Concentrations of certain parameters, however, remained at levels above baseline six months after restoration ceased. Relatively large quantities of ground water were processed in the restoration attempt considering the small size of the project (1.25 acre). More thorough characterization of the hydrogeology of the site may have enhanced the effectiveness of restoration and reduced potential environmental impacts associated with the project. This paper presents some of the findings of a research project conducted by the Mineral Resources Waste Management Team at the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. Views contained herein do not reflect U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy

  18. Coral restoration Bonaire : an evaluation of growth, regeneration and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, H.W.G.; Boomstra, B.; Hurtado-Lopez, N.; Montbrun, A.; Virdis, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Coral restoration of Staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) and Elkhorn (A. palmata) as practiced by the Coral Restoration Foundation Bonaire (CRFB) is shown to be highly successful in terms of growth and survival of new colonies, in both nurseries and transplant locations. Coral restoration is

  19. The relationship between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration and the mainstreaming of the concept of ecosystem services will be critical if global society is to move toward sustainability. Conference of the Parties 21 (COP21 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and COP12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity should help foster support for vastly increased investment in the better management and restoration of natural capital. Large-scale restoration demonstrably improves ecological functioning to sustain both biodiversity and human well-being. However, much progress is needed to improve the effectiveness and cost efficiency of any restoration. The ecosystem services concept provides a framework for identifying the types of restorative interventions needed to target different forms and degrees of degradation, and achieve goals related to both ecosystem health and delivery of services to people. Moreover, it can strengthen the argument for, and planning of, large-scale restoration and conservation of natural capital. We use case studies from four continents to help demonstrate how the interconnection between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept is being utilized in land-use planning and enlightened ecosystem management. We offer ways in which this relationship can be better understood and communicated to support the scaling up of restoration activities to the landscape and regional scales across the full spectrum of land uses and ecosystem types.

  20. Restorative Justice in Schools: The Influence of Race on Restorative Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Allison Ann; Welch, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Schools today are more frequently using punitive discipline practices to control student behavior, despite the greater effectiveness of community-building techniques on compliance that are based on restorative justice principles found in the criminal justice system. Prior research testing the racial threat hypothesis has found that the racial…

  1. The effect of peatland drainage and restoration on Odonata species richness and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Merja; Penttinen, Jouni; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2015-04-09

    Restoration aims at reversing the trend of habitat degradation, the major threat to biodiversity. In Finland, more than half of the original peatland area has been drained, and during recent years, restoration of some of the drained peatlands has been accomplished. Short-term effects of the restoration on peatland hydrology, chemistry and vegetation are promising but little is known about how other species groups apart from vascular plants and bryophytes respond to restoration efforts. Here, we studied how abundance and species richness of Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) respond to restoration. We sampled larvae in three sites (restored, drained, pristine) on each of 12 different study areas. We sampled Odonata larvae before restoration (n = 12), during the first (n = 10) and the third (n = 7) year after restoration and used generalized linear mixed models to analyze the effect of restoration. Drained sites had lower abundance and species richness than pristine sites. During the third year after restoration both abundance and species richness had risen in restored sites. Our results show that Odonata suffer from drainage, but seem to benefit from peatland restoration and are able to colonize newly formed water pools already within three years after restoration.

  2. New approaches to the restoration of shallow marginal peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E; Anderson, K; Smith, D; Angus, M; Luscombe, D J; Gatis, N; Bray, L S; Brazier, R E

    2015-09-15

    Globally, the historic and recent exploitation of peatlands through management practices such as agricultural reclamation, peat harvesting or forestry, have caused extensive damage to these ecosystems. Their value is now increasingly recognised, and restoration and rehabilitation programmes are underway to improve some of the ecosystem services provided by peatlands: blocking drainage ditches in deep peat has been shown to improve the storage of water, decrease carbon losses in the long-term, and improve biodiversity. However, whilst the restoration process has benefitted from experience and technical advice gained from restoration of deep peatlands, shallow peatlands have received less attention in the literature, despite being extensive in both uplands and lowlands. Using the experience gained from the restoration of the shallow peatlands of Exmoor National Park (UK), and two test catchments in particular, this paper provides technical guidance which can be applied to the restoration of other shallow peatlands worldwide. Experience showed that integrating knowledge of the historical environment at the planning stage of restoration was essential, as it enabled the effective mitigation of any threat to archaeological features and sites. The use of bales, commonly employed in other upland ecosystems, was found to be problematic. Instead, 'leaky dams' or wood and peat combination dams were used, which are both more efficient at reducing and diverting the flow, and longer lasting than bale dams. Finally, an average restoration cost (£306 ha(-1)) for Exmoor, below the median national value across the whole of the UK, demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of these techniques. However, local differences in peat depth and ditch characteristics (i.e. length, depth and width) between sites affect both the feasibility and the cost of restoration. Overall, the restoration of shallow peatlands is shown to be technically viable; this paper provides a template for such process

  3. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  4. Storied experiences of school-based habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anne C.

    The purpose of this study has been to consider the eco-pedagogical promise of school-based habitat restoration. How does the practice of restoration foster a lived sense of being in a more-than-human world1 while inviting alternative approaches to teaching and learning? What opportunities does it offer to resist the societal forces and patterns, reinforced through the school system, which are eroding and effacing human relationships with other life? A literature review sets the broader context for an in-depth exploration of the experiences and understandings of participants (students, teachers, parents) involved in a case study. I proceeded with my research on the assumption that both the discursive and non-discursive dimensions of habitat restoration were key to appreciating its eco-pedagogical potential. Through participant observation over a ten month period, interviewing and a survey, I listened to some of the ways that habitat restoration challenged the typically disembodied, decontextualized organization of schooling by privileging hands-on involvement and encouraging attentive, caring relationships within the human and natural communities of which students were a part. I investigated particular storylines and metaphors which encoded and supported participants' endeavours, especially with regard to their potential to disrupt human-centered values and beliefs. This study suggests that the promise of habitat restoration lies in the openings created to attune to and interact with human and nonhuman others in fully embodied, locally situated and personally meaningful ways. Participants overwhelmingly attested to the importance of the experience of restoration which many deemed to be memorable and motivating and to provide fertile ground for future engagements in/for nature and society. As participants attended to the nuances and complexities of their interactions with a specific place and its inhabitants, their intimate involvement added a depth of feeling and

  5. Environmental restoration remedial action quality assurance requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document (DOE/RL 90-28) defines the quality assurance program requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. This paper describes the objectives outlined in DOE/RL 90-28. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency

  6. Bulk fill restoratives: to cap or not to cap--that is the question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Iwona M; Kearns, Jennifer O; Ilie, Nicoleta; Fleming, Garry J P

    2015-03-01

    To assess the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage scores of standardised large mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavities filled with different restoration protocols: (1) conventional resin restoratives, (2) bulk fill flowable base materials 'capped' with a conventional dimethacrylate resin-based composite (RBC) or (3) bulk fill resin restorative materials. Standardised MOD cavities were prepared in sixty-four sound maxillary premolar teeth and randomly allocated to eight groups. Restorations were placed in conjunction with a universal bonding system and resin restorative materials were irradiated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing-unit. Restoration protocol (eight oblique increments of conventional resin restorative, bulk fill flowable base and two occlusal 'capping' RBC increments (three increments in total) or bulk fill resin restorative (two increments)) was the dependent variable. A twin channel deflection measuring gauge measured the buccal and palatal cuspal deflections. Teeth were thermally fatigued, immersed in a 0.2% basic fuchsin dye for 24h, sectioned and examined for cervical microleakage score. Post hoc Tukey's tests highlighted significant differences in the mean total cuspal deflection values between resin restoratives (p fill flowable base materials with occlusal 'capping' RBC increments (restoration protocol 2) compared with bulk fill resin restoratives (restoration protocol 3). Not all bulk fill flowable materials or bulk fill resin restoratives behave in a similar fashion when used to restore standardised MOD cavities in maxillary premolar teeth and material selection is vital in the absence of clinical data. Poorly performing bulk fill flowable materials or bulk fill restoratives can be identified using the cuspal deflection and cervical microleakage protocol which could save the complications encountered clinically when restoring Class II restorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals

  8. Preparation and evaluation of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin for imaging gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Cortés, Jeanette; Pedraza-López, Martha; Ramírez-Iglesias, María Teresa

    2006-04-01

    Bombesin is a peptide that was initially isolated from frog skin and which belongs to a large group of neuropeptides with many biological functions. The human equivalent is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), whose receptors are over-expressed in a variety of malignant tumours. To prepare a HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin analogue that could be easily labelled with 99mTc from lyophilized kit formulations and to evaluate its potential as an imaging agent for GRP receptor-positive tumours. HYNIC was conjugated to the epsilon-amino group of Lys 3 residue at the N-terminal region of bombesin via succinimidyl-N-Boc-HYNIC at pH 9.0. 99mTc labelling was performed by addition of sodium pertechnetate solution and 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 7.0 to a lyophilized formulation. Stability studies were carried out by reversed phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses in serum and cysteine solutions. In-vitro internalization was tested using human prostate cancer PC-3 cells with blocked and non-blocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumour uptake were determined in PC-3 tumour-bearing nude mice. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin was obtained with radiochemical purities >93% and high specific activity ( approximately 0.1 GBq.nmol). Results of in-vitro studies demonstrated a high stability in serum and cysteine solutions, specific cell receptor binding and rapid internalization. Biodistribution data showed a rapid blood clearance, with predominantly renal excretion and specific binding towards GRP receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and PC-3 tumours. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin obtained from lyophilized kit formulations has promising characteristics for the diagnosis of malignant tumours that over-express the GRP receptor.

  9. Occlusal wear of provisional implant-supported restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santing, Hendrik J; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Werner, Arie; Feilzer, Albert J; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A

    2015-02-01

    Implant-supported provisional restorations should be resistant to occlusal wear. The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate three-body wear of three indirect laboratory composite resins, five chair side bis-acryl resin-based materials, and two chair side methacrylate-based materials used to fabricate provisional implant-supported restorations. The materials were handled and cured according to the manufacturers' instructions. The three-body wear was measured 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after curing using the ACTA wear device. Wear rate decreased significantly after 8 weeks compared with the first day for all tested materials, except for Estenia C&B. The three-body wear of two indirect laboratory composite resins, that is, Estenia C&B and Solidex, was significantly less compared with all other tested materials used for fabricating provisional implant-supported restorations. Of the chair side materials, the wear rate of Protemp Crown Paste was significantly less compared with the others materials used to fabricate chair side provisional implant-supported restorations. The methacrylate-based materials, Temdent Classic and Trim, showed extreme high wear rates. Based on the results of this laboratory study on long-term wear, the use of indirect composite resin is preferred over chair side methacrylate-based materials when the provisional implant-supported restoration has to be in service for a long period of time. Of the investigated materials, only Estenia C&B and Solidex showed wear rate comparable with posterior resin composites. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H S; Kim, G N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  11. Science in Action: Aesthetic Considerations for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aesthetics are an integral component of the social and economic benefits of stream restoration and should be considered in restoration projects for sustainable management. According to Bernhardt et al. (2005), aesthetics is one of the frequently listed goals for stream restoratio...

  12. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H. S.; Kim, G. N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of D evelopment of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology , the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  13. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  14. [Multiple agenesis and prosthetic restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, P

    1990-03-01

    Cases of multiple agenesia present some difficulties in the treatment planing. Three situations may be encountered: limited agenesia, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia without remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis or the partial adjacent prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia with remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by means of a supra-dental prosthesis. The first two situations have been described in dental literature and are relatively easy to treat. The same is not true for the third situation, where the decision to keep the temporary teeth considerably increases the difficulty of prosthetic restoration. This subject will be illustrated by the presentation of a clinical case of multiple bi-maxillary agenesia. The patient has: on the maxilla: an absence of 9 permanent teeth (18, 15, 14, 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28) and the presence of 4 deciduous teeth (62, 63, 64, 65), on the mandible: an absence of all permanent teeth, with the exception of 36 and 46, and the remaining of 4 deciduous teeth (75, 73, 83, 84). The remaining of deciduous teeth and the presence of a very high inter-arch space led to opting for dental coverage so as to keep the deciduous teeth and a proper vertical dimension. The patient wished to solve his "problem" in the maxilla first, and is not wanting to undergo the extraction of his deciduous teeth. The following therapeutic proposal was adapted: On the maxilla, a three-step procedure: first step: building of metal copings on 13, 16 and 26 and metal-ceramic crowns on 11 and 21, second step: building of telescop crowns on 16 and 26 and clasps on 13, 11 and 21, third step: casting of the removable partial denture framework and soldering to the telescop crowns and clasps. On the mandible, a provisional restoration using a supra-dental resin removable partial denture with ceramic occlusal surfaces was adopted. The aesthetic and functional

  15. What Further Research Is Needed on Restorative Justice in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Nancy; Guckenburg, Sarah; Persson, Hannah; Fronius, Trevor; Petrosino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Restorative justice is a non-punitive approach to resolving conflict that focuses on restoring relationships. This report summarizes recommendations about future research and evaluation needs that would advance the understanding of restorative justice in K-12 schools in the United States. The recommendations were generated from interviews with…

  16. Book review: Restoring paradise: Rethinking and rebuilding nature in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The native ecosystems of Hawai‘i have been severely degraded by the introduction of herbivorous mammals and a myriad of invasive plant species. Left unmanaged, most natural areas would continue along a trajectory towards domination by nonnative species; however, several projects have undertaken the daunting task of ecological restoration, four of which are the subject of Restoring Paradise by Robert Cabin: Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge; Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park; the Auwahi dryland forest, Maui and Limahuli Garden and Preserve, Kaua‘i. After an introductory section discussing the setting and factors that have contributed to so much of the degradation and extinction of Hawai‘i’s native biota, Cabin outlines two different views of restoration in two central sections of the book: ad hoc, trial-and-error approaches versus the careful application of science to direct restoration. The time-tested methods of fence construction, ungulate removal, weed control, and replanting native species with the help of numerous volunteers and community support are presented in marked contrast to inconsistent applications of science in guiding restoration, and illustrated by some of the author’s unsuccessful research. The book is largely presented as a non-technical first-person account of travels and meetings with key personalities driving restoration projects. The philosophies of restoration practitioners are embedded in passages from interviews. Setbacks, obstacles, logistical constraints, and successes are narrated in between as Cabin revisits each of the restoration sites. The utility of science in restoration is frequently questioned by the author and sometimes abandoned by practitioners in favour of a ‘let-nature-take-its-course’ approach.

  17. Peatland restoration in Canada by the sphagnum moss layer transfer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochefort, L.; Boismenu, C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Phytologie, Peatland Ecology and Research Group; Quinty, F. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    This article described a peatland restoration approach that has received international recognition for restoring the ecological functions of cutover sphagnum dominated peatlands. The Peatland Ecology Research Group (PERG) conducted a long-term study at the Bois-des-Bel (BDB) peatland site in Quebec to restore plant composition to a peat accumulating ecosystem. The sphagnum moss layer transfer restoration method includes 5 obligatory steps and one optional. These include planning; surface preparation; plant collection and spreading; straw mulch spreading; blocking drainage ditches; and fertilization if needed. Variable moisture conditions throughout the restoration site contribute to the spatial variability in the development of the sphagnum layer. The site has been monitored each year since its restoration. sphagnum cover reached 60 per cent in the restored zone in 2005, a value close to the range of sphagnum cover found in natural sites. In addition, a new moss layer has developed with an average of 25 cm in thickness. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H. S.; Kim, G. N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  19. Remakes of Colorlogic and IPS Empress ceramic restorations in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekland, Helge; Riise, Trond; Berg, Einar

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study frequencies and distribution of remakes of all-ceramic inlays/onlays, veneers, and crowns occurring before and after cementation. A total of 2,069 sintered feldspathic ceramic restorations (Colorlogic) and 1,136 pressure-molded ceramic restorations (IPS Empress 1 and 2) were produced during the study period by one dental laboratory. The laboratory gave an unqualified and unlimited guarantee for their ceramic restorations. The outcome variable was reports from the clinicians to the dental laboratory about any problems related to the restoration, necessitating remake. Problems occurring before cementation occurred in 4.4% of the restorations. Veneers were remade more frequently than the other types of restorations (6.6%). After cementation, the overall 2-year rate of remakes was 1%, indicating a survival rate of the ceramic restorations of 99%, with inlays/onlays exhibiting the highest (99.8%) and crowns the lowest (98.4%) rates. This difference in rates was significant. No significant differences in remakes between ceramics or tooth categories were found. There were few problems in a short- to medium-term perspective that, in the opinion of general practitioners, necessitated remakes of all-ceramic restorations.

  20. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs