WorldWideScience

Sample records for gastric-wall hyperactivity observed

  1. The clinical meaning of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, C.; Dumont, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: christian.cote@chuq.qc.ca

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate prospectively the incidence and clinical meaning, if any, of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This phenomenon is completely different from the well-known intraluminal gastric reflux of sestamibi. A group of 819 patients who underwent sestamibi cardiac SPECT was studied from January 2000 to October 2000. Gastric-wall activity was graded qualitatively. Only patients with gastric-wall activity near or equivalent to their heart activity were considered for subsequent analysis. The medical records of patient candidates were reviewed, and their family physicians were asked to respond to a questionnaire by telephone when further information was needed. We identified 13 patients with significant gastric-wall hyperactivity, which was more intense on rest images. Our review of the clinical data shows that all these patients were suffering from dyspepsia and were taking gastric medication. These 13 cases were assigned to 3 groups: gastroesophageal reflux, chronic functional dyspepsia and nonspecific gastritis. Significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is an infrequent observation on sestamibi cardiac SPECT. Our results indicate that the presence of significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is associated with dyspepsia. It is important to realize that this gastric-wall hyperactivity by its proximity to the inferior myocardial wall could in some circumstances lead to either false-negative or false-positive findings, representing a diagnostic problem. Although infrequent, this situation could be avoided by proper quality control, including a systematic review of the raw cine data before reading the images. (author)

  2. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  3. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  4. Cellular schwannoma arising from the gastric wall misdiagnosed as a gastric stromal tumor: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyao; Chen, Ping; Zong, Liang; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Cellular schwannomas have been previously described at almost every anatomic location of the human body, but reports in the gastric wall are rare. The current study presents a rare case of cellular schwannoma originating from the gastric wall. Computed tomography revealed a 5.6×5.3×4.0-cm 3 solid mass located in the posterior wall of the stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, the tissue was composed of spindle-shaped and fascicularly-arranged cells, but mitotic figures were rare. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor was negative for cluster of differentiation (CD)117, CD34, smooth muscle actin and desmin, but positive for S-100 and Ki67. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence and metastasis during follow-up. Gastric cellular schwannomas may be diagnosed by clinical characteristics, histological observations and immunohistochemical markers.

  5. Gastric wall thickening on spiral CT after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: comparision between recurrent caner and benign thickening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Sook; Choi, Jong Cheol; Yoon, Sung Kuk; Kim, Jae Ik; Oh, Jong Young; Kang, Myung Jin; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyuung Jin [Donga Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To determine the features revealed by two-phase spiral CT scanning useful for differential diagnosis between recurrent cancer and benign wall thickening in patients who have undergone subtotal gastrectomy for stomach cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 25 cases in which wall thickening of more than 1cm in the remnant stomach after subtotal gastrectomy was revealed by two-phase spiral CT scanning. All cases were confirmed: 11 were recurrent cancer, and in 14, benign wall thickening was demonstrated. We analyzed the CT findings including maximal thickness of the gastric wall, patterns of wall thickening, degree of contrast enhancement seen during the arterial and portal phases, and the presence of perigastric strands. Maximal wall thickness was classified as either more or less than 15mm, and as either focal or diffuse. We also determined whether lymphadenopathy was present. Mean maximal gastric wall thickness was 18.4mm in the recurrent cancer group ({sup g}roup A{sup )} and 12.6mm in the benign group ({sup g}roup B{sup )}. The gastric wall was thicker than 15mm in 10 of 11 group A cases and in 3 of 14 in group B; wall thickening was focal (n=3) or diffuse (n=8) in group A, and focal (n=13) or diffuse (n=1) in group B, while the enhancement patterns seen during the arterial and portal phase, respectively, were high/high (n=8), low/high (n=1) and low/low (n=2) in group A, and low/low (n=7), low/high (n=4), high/low (n=1) and high/high (n=2) in group B. Perigastric strands were observed in nine cases in group A, but in none in group B, while lymphadenopathy was combined with wall thickening in seven group A cases but in none of those in group B. In patients who have undergone subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer, two-phase spiral CT findings including maximal thickness of the gastric wall, patterns of wall thickening, degree of contrast enhancement seen during the arterial and portal phase, the presence of perigastric strands, and lymphadenopathy are useful for

  6. [Diagnosis and treatment of pancreas ectopy in the gastric wall in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinak, V M; Trubitsina, I A; Roshke, E V; Borodulin, I V

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe 6 children with pancreas ectopy to the gastric wall. Their age was between 8 and 14 years. The main clinical and endoscopic signs were: prolonged pain, dyspepsia and a "polyp" in pyloroantral part of the stomach. In 4 of 6 children the pancreas ectopy to the gastric wall was suspected. All patients had been operated on. The indications for surgery were the following: severe pain with no effect of conservative therapy, suspicion for "polyp" malignancy and ulceration, bleeding. In one patient Bilroth-1 resection has been performed and in 2 cases sectoral dissection of the gastric wall pancreatic ectopy has been done. In 3 patients enucleation of the ectopic pancreas was performed. All patients had ineventful postoperative period. The pancreas ectopy in children is an indication for the surgery because of severe pain and possibility of severe complications. The surgery relieves pain and provides recovery.

  7. The expression of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall of prehepatic portal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Liu, Yanzhang; Lin, Nan; Xu, Ruiyun

    2011-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding of portal hypertension cases may result from gastric mucosal lesions due to portal hypertensive gastropathy. The pathological changes in the vessels of the gastric wall are very important in the pathogenesis of portal hypertensive gastropathy. However, the mechanisms of these pathological changes are not completely understood. In this study, we examined the expression levels of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension. Eighteen healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups A and B. Group A was used to establish the prehepatic portal hypertensive model and group B to evaluate a sham surgery. The VEGF and PEDF expression in the rat gastric wall were detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. VEGF and PEDF were mainly expressed in the basal layer of the mucosal glands. The expression levels of VEGF and PEDF in group A were higher than that in group B at 7, 10 and 14 days after surgery. The expression levels of VEFG and PEDF in group B did not show significant changes. The results from the present study showed a significantly elevated expression of both VEGF and PEDF in the gastric walls during the development of portal hypertension. The expression of these proteins was mainly located in the basal layer of the gastric mucosa.

  8. Does a muscle flap accelerate wound healing of gastric wall defects compared with an omental flap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, Masashi; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Shunjiro; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Morishita, Tsuyoshi; Takanari, Keisuke; Kamei, Yuzuru

    2015-06-01

    Most often used for reconstruction at superficial sites, a muscle flap recently was reported to promote clinical wound healing in a duodenal defect. We therefore examined whether a muscle flap could promote wound healing comparably to an omental flap in rats with gastric wall defects. After perforation of the centre of the anterior gastric wall, rats were divided into 2 groups. In the muscle group, a muscle flap was fixed to the defect; in the omentum group, an omental flap was placed over the defect. We histopathologically compared tissue responses during gastric wall healing. While stratified villi had completely covered the defect by day 7 in both groups, scar maturation differed. Scar tissue persisted in the muscle group, but was gradually replaced by adipose tissue in the omentum group. Both muscle and omental flaps accelerated gastric wall wound healing. A muscle flap is an excellent alternative for repair of gastric defects when no omental flap is available. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Hypoglycemia in a dog with a leiomyoma of the gastric wall producing an insulin-like growth factor II-like peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boari, A; Barreca, A; Bestetti, G E; Minuto, F; Venturoli, M

    1995-06-01

    A 12-year-old mixed-breed male dog was referred to the Clinica Medica Veterinaria of Bologna University for recurrent episodes of seizures due to hypoglycemia with abnormally low plasma insulin levels (18 pmol/l). Resection of a large leiomyoma (780 g) of the gastric wall resulted in a permanent resolution of the hypoglycemic episodes. Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and -II) were measured by RIA in serum before and after surgery and in tumor tissue. Results were compared to the serum concentration of 54 normal and to the tissue concentration observed in eight non-hypoglycemic dog gastric wall extracts. Before surgery, circulating immunoreactive IGF-I was 0.92 nmol/l, which is significantly lower than the control values (16.92 +/- 8.44 nmol/l, range 3.53-35.03), while IGF-II was 152 nmol/l, which is significantly higher than the control values (42.21 +/- 3.75, range 31.99-50.74). After surgery, IGF-I increased to 6.80 nmol/l while IGF-II decreased to 45.52 nmol/l. Tumor tissue IGF-II concentration was higher than normal (5.66 nmol/kg tissue as compared to a range in normal gastric wall tissue of 1.14-3.72 nmol/kg), while IGF-I was 0.08 nmol/kg tissue, which is close to the lowest normal value (range in controls, 0.08-1.18 nmol/kg). Partial characterization of IGF-II immunoreactivity extracted from tissue evidenced a molecular weight similar to that of mature IGF-II, thus excluding that peptide released by the tumor is a precursor molecule.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. DYSPHAGIA AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC TOTAL FUNDOPLICATION: anterior or posterior gastric wall fundoplication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorísio BONADIMAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The occurrence of severe dysphagia after laparoscopic total fundoplication is currently an important factor associated with loss of quality of life in patients undergoing this modality of treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Objectives Compare the incidence and evaluate the causes of severe postoperative dysphagia in patients undergoing laparoscopic total fundoplication (LTF without short gastric vessels division, using the anterior gastric wall (Rossetti LTF or anterior and posterior gastric walls (Nissen LTF. Methods Analysis of the data of 289 patients submitted to LTF without short gastric vessels division from January 2004 to January 2012, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Patients were divided in Group 1 (Rossetti LTF – n = 160 and Group 2 (Nissen LTF – n = 129. Results The overall incidence of severe postoperative dysphagia was 3.11% (4.37% in group 1 and 1.55% in group 2; P = 0.169. The need for surgical treatment of dysphagia was 2.5% in group 1 and 0.78% in group 2 (= 0.264. Distortions of the fundoplication were identified as possible causes of the dysphagia in all patients taken to redo fundoplication after Rossetti LTF. No wrap distortion was seen in redo fundoplication after Nissen LTF. Conclusions The overall incidence of severe postoperative dysphagia did not differ on the reported techniques. Only Rossetti LTF was associated with structural distortion of the fundoplication that could justify the dysphagia.

  11. Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The…

  12. Lesions associated with plerocerci (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) in the gastric wall of a cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill), (Myliobatiformes: Rhinopteridae) from the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucinska, J D; Bullard, S A

    2011-02-01

    We describe lesions associated with a seemingly intense infection of trypanorhynch plerocerci (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) in the gastric wall of a female cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Myliobatiformes: Rhinopteridae) captured in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Grossly, the multitude of encapsulated, encysted plerocerci imparted a bumpy and cobbled appearance to the serosa of the stomach, and none was observed in any other tissue during routine parasitological necropsy. Histologically, the plerocerci were associated with severe intramural granulomatous gastritis, vascular ectasia and mesothelial polyposis with the exclusion of the mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first published case study documenting platyhelminth-associated histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of R. bonasus as well as that of the efficacy of immunocytochemical markers for smooth muscle actin, Factor VIII, S-100, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in Myliobatiformes. It also may serve as a potential primer for much needed ecological investigations regarding the potential role of elasmobranchs as intermediate or 'paratenic' hosts in the life cycles of trypanorhynch cestodes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Gastric full-thickness suturing during EMR and for treatment of gastric-wall defects (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Renteln, Daniel; Schmidt, Arthur; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2008-04-01

    The endoscopic full-thickness Plicator device was initially developed to provide an endoscopic treatment option for patients with GERD. Because the endoscopic full-thickness Plicator enables rapid and easy placement of transmural sutures, comparable with surgical sutures, we used the Plicator device for endoscopic treatment or prevention of GI-wall defects. To describe the outcomes and complications of endoscopic full-thickness suturing during EMR and for the treatment of gastric-wall defects. A report of 4 cases treated with the endoscopic full-thickness suturing between June 2006 and April 2007. A large tertiary-referral center. Four subjects received endoscopic full-thickness suturing. The subjects were women, with a mean age of 67 years. Of the 4 subjects, 3 received endoscopic full-thickness suturing during or after an EMR. One subject received endoscopic full-thickness suturing for treatment of a fistula. Primary outcome measurements were clinical procedural success and procedure-related adverse events. The mean time for endoscopic full-thickness suturing was 15 minutes. In all cases, GI-wall patency was restored or ensured, and no procedure-related complications occurred. All subjects responded well to endoscopic full-thickness suturing. The resection of one GI stromal tumor was incomplete. Because of the Plicator's 60F distal-end diameter, endoscopic full-thickness suturing could only be performed with the patient under midazolam and propofol sedation. The durable Plicator suture might compromise the endoscopic follow-up after EMR. The endoscopic full-thickness Plicator permits rapid and easy placement of transmural sutures and seems to be a safe and effective alternative to surgical intervention to restore GI-wall defects or to ensure GI-wall patency during EMR procedures.

  14. Clinical observations on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Qing; Li, Fu-Hai; Zhu, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Ruo-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy and related factors. The medical records of 190 children diagnosed with frontal lobe epilepsy at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively collected, and a follow-up analysis of the prevalence of ADHD in these children was conducted. Of the 161 children with an effective follow-up, 59.0% (95/161) with frontal lobe epilepsy suffered from ADHD as well. Analysis of epilepsy and ADHD-related factors indicated that the incidence of ADHD was 89.4% (76/85) in children with abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) discharges on the most recent EEG, which was significantly higher than the ADHD incidence of 25% (19/76) in children with normal readings on the most recent EEG (P frontal lobe epilepsy have a high incidence of ADHD. Sustained abnormal discharge on the electroencephalogram is associated with increased comorbidity of ADHD with frontal lobe epilepsy.

  15. Local tissue reaction after injection of contrast media on gastric wall of mouse: experimental study for application of contrast media to computed tomography lymphography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Hwi; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Park, Do Joong; Jee, Ye-Seob; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2012-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) lymphography is a simple technique of sentinel node navigation but tissue reaction after injection of contrast media has not been reported yet. NINETY MICE USED IN THIS STUDY WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: lipiodol, iopamidol, and normal saline. The test compounds were given by submucosal injection to the gastric wall of anesthetized mice. The specimens were subjected to histopathological examination. The mean grades of acute inflammatory response after iopamidol and lipiodol injection were significantly higher than control group. However, there was no significant difference between iopamidol and lipiodol injection. The mean grade of chronic inflammatory response and fibrosis showed no differences between groups. The presence or absence of fibrinoid necrosis and mesothelial hyperplasia showed no statistical differences at each time point between groups. The foam cell, which is similar to human signet ring cell carcinoma, were not identified in normal saline and iopamidol group, but were detected by postoperative day 7 in lipiodol group. We conclude that iopamidol and lipiodol when used as a contrast media of CT lymphography is an available material for preoperative sentinel node navigation surgery for gastric cancer with an acceptable incidence of pathological alterations in a mouse model. Our results are potentially useful to clinical (human) application.

  16. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  17. Parent-reported and clinician-observed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): implications for practice under DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Dick, Catherine; Lord, Catherine; Bishop, Somer

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with social difficulties, though the extent to which these clearly overlap with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not well understood. We explored parent-reported and directly-observed ASD symptoms on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children referred to ASD-specialty clinics who received diagnoses of either ADHD (n = 48) or ASD (n = 164). Of the ADHD sample, 21 % met ASD cut-offs on the ADOS and 30 % met ASD cut-offs on all domains of the ADI-R. Four social communication ADOS items (Quality of Social Overtures, Unusual Eye Contact, Facial Expressions Directed to Examiner, and Amount of Reciprocal Social Communication) adequately differentiated the groups while none of the items on the ADI-R met the criteria for adequate discrimination. Results of this work highlight the challenges that clinicians and researchers face when distinguishing ASD from other disorders in verbally fluent, school-age children.

  18. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völp Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans. They are structural and functional components of cell membranes and pre-stages of the hormonally and immunologically active eicosanoids. Recent discoveries have shown that the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA also play an important role in the central nervous system. They are essential for normal brain functioning including attention and other neuropsychological skills. Materials and methods In our large observational study we monitored 810 children from 5 to 12 years of age referred for medical help and recommended for consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in combination with zinc and magnesium by a physician over a period of at least 3 months. The food supplement ESPRICO® (further on referred to as the food supplement is developed on the basis of current nutritional science and containing a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc. Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. Assessment was performed by internationally standardised evaluation scales, i.e. SNAP-IV and SDQ. Tolerance (adverse events and acceptance (compliance of the dietary therapy were documented. Results After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. Further, the assessment by SDQ revealed fewer emotional problems at the end of the study period compared to baseline and also sleeping disorders. Mainly problems to fall asleep, decreased during the 12 week nutritional therapy. Regarding safety, no serious adverse events occurred. A

  19. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Under Treatment Outcomes Research (AUTOR): a European observational study in pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Virginia; Lopez-Romero, Pedro; Anand, Ernie

    2015-12-01

    The ADHD Under Treatment Observational Research (AUTOR) study was a European prospective, observational study that assessed factors associated with changes in ADHD severity, estimated change from baseline in quality of life (QoL), and characterized changes in ADHD symptoms over a 2-year period as a function of baseline treatment. The primary objective was to identify factors associated with worsening in ADHD severity during a 2-year follow-up period for subjects aged 6-17 years, who were receiving the same pharmacotherapy for 3-8 months before enrollment and had a Clinical Global Impression (CGI)-ADHD-Severity score of mild/lower and a CGI-ADHD-Improvement score of improved/very much improved. Multivariate logistic regression examined the association of factors with worsening in ADHD. Mixed-model repeated measures regression analyzed QoL in terms of change from baseline in CHIP-CE PRF scores. There were 704 subjects analyzed. Variables associated with worsening ADHD severity were parental occupation, poorer school outcomes, and use of psychoeducation; baseline treatment was not significant. Among the secondary objectives, initial use of atomoxetine (vs. stimulants) was associated with a significant improvement on the CHIP-CE PRF total score, with an adjusted treatment difference of -6.0 (95 % CI -7.9, -4.1) at 24 months. Additionally, the odds of stability (CGI-ADHD-S ≤ 3 over the 2-year period) were significantly lower for subjects initially responding to stimulants compared with atomoxetine (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.8). ADHD symptom worsening was associated with initial use of psychoeducation, parental occupation, and poorer school outcomes. Response to initial treatment with atomoxetine was associated with improved QoL over 2 years.

  20. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree with this. Side Effects Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame, and artificial flavors and colors lead to hyperactivity and other ...

  1. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  3. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Allergies and Hyperactivity Page Content Article Body Parents often ... for hyperactivity are based on the belief that allergies or reactions to foods cause undesirable behavior. The ...

  4. hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was once thought that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (ADHD) did not persist into adolescence, but results from two prospective studies suggest otherwise.1-3. The results of a meta-analysis suggest a 15% persistence rate of ADHD into adolescence when the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of.

  5. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717

  6. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  7. Hyperactivity: a current assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidler, H J; Walson, P D

    1979-10-01

    Hyperactivity in children is frequently overdiagnosed and inappropriately managed. When a syndrome of hyperactive behavior associated with learning difficulties is established, aggressive multifaceted management is indicated. Many possible etiologies have been suggested, but none of these has yet been proven. It may well be that more than one etiology exists and that many children have multiple factors contributing to their illness. None of the nontraditional therapies recently receiving attention, such as the Feingold diet, have had any proven benefit, although scattered anecdotal reports and some recent controlled trials suggest that some nontraditional therapies may be of limited value in some children. The most important consideration in therapy is that of defining specific problem areas for each individual child and assuring that each is dealt with appropriately. Caution must be exercised to avoid the pitfall of using drugs as the sole modality of treatment. Finally, parental education must never be overlooked.

  8. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroupAnemia Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity ...

  9. [A retrospective, observational and multicentre study on patients with hyperactive bladder on treatment with mirabegron and oxybutinine under usual clinical practice conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, A; Navarro-Artieda, R; Ruiz-Torrejón, A; Saez, M; Coll-de Tuero, G; Sánchez, L

    To evaluate therapeutic persistence, healthcare resources, medical costs and adverse events of oxybutynin and mirabegron treatments in patients with overactive bladder in routine medical practice. An observational, retrospective, multicentre study was carried out using the records of patients attended to in 3 different geographic locations (Barcelona, Girona, Asturias). An analysis was made on the 2 study groups (oxybutynin and mirabegron). Follow-up time was one year. Persistence was defined as the time (months), without discontinuation of the initial treatment, or without change of treatment at least 60 days after the initial prescription. Primary endpoints: comorbidity, healthcare resources used, and adverse events. The data was analysed using the SPSSWIN Program, with a significance of Pbladder had similar persistence with the treatment, lower healthcare costs, but with higher oxybutynin vs. mirabegron adverse reaction rates. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Age and Ritalin Dosage on the Mother-Child Interactions of Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Observed the mother-child interactions of three age groups of hyperactive children (N=54) during free play and task settings using two dose levels of Ritalin. Results indicated that the interactions of hyperactive boys with their mothers improve with age, and that Ritalin produces further improvements regardless of age examined. (LLL)

  12. Electrophysiological Indices of Abnormal Error-Processing in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cahill, John D.; Bates, Alan T.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Calton, Timothy G.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been frequently observed in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and might underlie the excessive hyperactivity and impulsivity in this population. We investigated behavioural and electrophysiological indices relevant to one domain of cognitive control; namely…

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  14. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...... were calculated for both girls and boys in three age-groups, for parent answers and teacher answers separately. CONCLUSION: There were significant variations in ratings of ADHD and behavioural symptoms as a function of gender and age. It is crucial, during an evaluation of a child, to compare his......, measure symptom-load and evaluate outcome of treatment of ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Apr-27...

  15. Contributing factors in the manifestation of aggression in preschoolers with hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont-Spurgin, M; Zentall, S S

    1995-03-01

    This study examined family characteristics of preschoolers with hyperactivity. We assessed child-rearing practices, maternal depression, marital conflict, and social support. Sixty-three preschool boys were placed in a hyperactivity-aggressive, hyperactive, aggressive or comparison group based on behavioral ratings. Parents were given questionnaires, mothers were interviewed, and children were administered the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery and were observed playing. Compared to preschoolers with hyperactivity, preschoolers with hyperactivity plus aggression had families with (a) more restrictive fathers, (b) siblings who retaliated aggressively, and (c) mothers who reported more physical aggression directed to their partners and more verbal aggression received. Follow-forward aggression ratings were predicted by initial child manageability and maternal depression, perceived support, and low income.

  16. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Children, Hyperactivity and Low Frustration Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Scott, Patricia Carol

    This paper addresses issues regarding the hyperactive child, the impulsive child, and the low frustration tolerance child. It points out the subjectivity involved in identifying children as hyperactive, and outlines various forms of hyperactivity: the child who is in constant movement, the child who manages control in school but exhibits whirlwind…

  18. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition of childhood onset with the hallmarks of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention includes excessive daydreaming, disorganization, and being easily distracted. Impulsivity manifests as taking an action before fully thinking of the consequences. Hyperactivity includes an excessive rate of speech and motor activity. Complications of ADHD include academic failure, low self-esteem, poor work performance, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and social problems. ADHD is predominately due to decreased activity in the frontal lobe. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the main neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, α2 agonists, bupropion, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most effective medications are the psychostimulants. Nonpharmacological treatment of ADHD includes coaching, providing structure, academic accommodations, and work accommodations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  20. BINGE EATING DAN STATUS GIZI PADA ANAK PENYANDANG ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Nur Rahmawati

    2014-07-01

    Abstract ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is characterized by a pattern of problems in concentrating attention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that’s settle at and occur continuously. Both types of ADHD, inattention and hyperactive-impulsive, can trigger the binge eating behaviour. This research aims to determine the association between both types with binge eating and nutritional status in children with ADHD using observational analytic method with cross sectional design. Inclusion criterioa for subjects were children aged between 5 to 18 years old with inattention or hyperactive-impulsive (n 29. The type of ADHD and binge eating was measured by ADHD Questionnaire that had been tested for its validity and reliability. The data of nutritional status was obtained through anthopometric measurement with indicator BMI/A. Result showed that in children with hyperactive-impulsive, 4 children (22,2% experienced binge eating behaviour, and 6 children (33,3% were in the category of overnutritional status. Whereas, in children with inattention type, the incidence of binge eating was not found (0% and only 1 child (9,1% who had overnutritional status. It is concluded that children with hyperactive-impulsive type are more likely to experience binge eating and has overnutrional status. Keywords: children with ADHD, inattention, hyperactive-impulsive, binge eating, nutritional status

  1. Testosterone and Androgen Receptor Sensitivity in Relation to Hyperactivity Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pivovarciova

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD and hyperactivity symptoms exhibit an incidence that is male-biased. Thus androgen activity can be considered a plausible biological risk factor for these disorders. However, there is insufficient information about the association between increased androgen activity and hyperactivity symptoms in children with ASD.In the present study, the relationship between parameters of androgenicity (plasmatic testosterone levels and androgen receptor sensitivity and hyperactivity in 60 boys (age 3-15 with ASD is investigated. Given well documented differences in parent and trained examiners ratings of symptom severity, we employed a standardized parent`s questionnaire (Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form as well as a direct examiner`s rating (Autism diagnostic observation schedule for assessment of hyperactivity symptoms.Although it was found there was no significant association between actual plasmatic testosterone levels and hyperactivity symptoms, the number of CAG triplets was significantly negatively correlated with hyperactivity symptoms (R2 = 0.118, p = 0.007 in the sample, indicating increased androgen receptor sensitivity in association with hyperactivity symptoms. Direct trained examiner´s assessment appeared to be a relevant method for evaluating of behavioral problems in the investigation of biological underpinnings of these problems in our study.A potential ASD subtype characterized by increased rates of hyperactivity symptoms might have distinct etiopathogenesis and require a specific behavioral and pharmacological approach. We propose an increase of androgen receptor sensitivity as a biomarker for a specific ASD subtype accompanied with hyperactivity symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for practice and future research.

  2. The nucleus accumbens 5-HTR4-CART pathway ties anorexia to hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, A; Laurent, L; Bockaert, J; Charnay, Y; Dusticier, N; Nieoullon, A; Barrot, M; Neve, R; Compan, V

    2012-01-01

    In mental diseases, the brain does not systematically adjust motor activity to feeding. Probably, the most outlined example is the association between hyperactivity and anorexia in Anorexia nervosa. The neural underpinnings of this ‘paradox', however, are poorly elucidated. Although anorexia and hyperactivity prevail over self-preservation, both symptoms rarely exist independently, suggesting commonalities in neural pathways, most likely in the reward system. We previously discovered an addictive molecular facet of anorexia, involving production, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of the same transcripts stimulated in response to cocaine and amphetamine (CART) upon stimulation of the 5-HT4 receptors (5-HTR4) or MDMA (ecstasy). Here, we tested whether this pathway predisposes not only to anorexia but also to hyperactivity. Following food restriction, mice are expected to overeat. However, selecting hyperactive and addiction-related animal models, we observed that mice lacking 5-HTR1B self-imposed food restriction after deprivation and still displayed anorexia and hyperactivity after ecstasy. Decryption of the mechanisms showed a gain-of-function of 5-HTR4 in the absence of 5-HTR1B, associated with CART surplus in the NAc and not in other brain areas. NAc-5-HTR4 overexpression upregulated NAc-CART, provoked anorexia and hyperactivity. NAc-5-HTR4 knockdown or blockade reduced ecstasy-induced hyperactivity. Finally, NAc-CART knockdown suppressed hyperactivity upon stimulation of the NAc-5-HTR4. Additionally, inactivating NAc-5-HTR4 suppressed ecstasy's preference, strengthening the rewarding facet of anorexia. In conclusion, the NAc-5-HTR4/CART pathway establishes a ‘tight-junction' between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of a primary functional unit susceptible to limit overeating associated with resting following homeostasis rules. PMID:23233022

  3. The nucleus accumbens 5-HTR₄-CART pathway ties anorexia to hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, A; Laurent, L; Bockaert, J; Charnay, Y; Dusticier, N; Nieoullon, A; Barrot, M; Neve, R; Compan, V

    2012-12-11

    In mental diseases, the brain does not systematically adjust motor activity to feeding. Probably, the most outlined example is the association between hyperactivity and anorexia in Anorexia nervosa. The neural underpinnings of this 'paradox', however, are poorly elucidated. Although anorexia and hyperactivity prevail over self-preservation, both symptoms rarely exist independently, suggesting commonalities in neural pathways, most likely in the reward system. We previously discovered an addictive molecular facet of anorexia, involving production, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of the same transcripts stimulated in response to cocaine and amphetamine (CART) upon stimulation of the 5-HT(4) receptors (5-HTR(4)) or MDMA (ecstasy). Here, we tested whether this pathway predisposes not only to anorexia but also to hyperactivity. Following food restriction, mice are expected to overeat. However, selecting hyperactive and addiction-related animal models, we observed that mice lacking 5-HTR(1B) self-imposed food restriction after deprivation and still displayed anorexia and hyperactivity after ecstasy. Decryption of the mechanisms showed a gain-of-function of 5-HTR(4) in the absence of 5-HTR(1B), associated with CART surplus in the NAc and not in other brain areas. NAc-5-HTR(4) overexpression upregulated NAc-CART, provoked anorexia and hyperactivity. NAc-5-HTR(4) knockdown or blockade reduced ecstasy-induced hyperactivity. Finally, NAc-CART knockdown suppressed hyperactivity upon stimulation of the NAc-5-HTR(4). Additionally, inactivating NAc-5-HTR(4) suppressed ecstasy's preference, strengthening the rewarding facet of anorexia. In conclusion, the NAc-5-HTR(4)/CART pathway establishes a 'tight-junction' between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of a primary functional unit susceptible to limit overeating associated with resting following homeostasis rules.

  4. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    to accomplish. 2. Self concerns which involve self esteem . This is the way one feels about oneself. One’s self esteem can often be related to...ADD group was described by teachers as less happy while ADHD boys were rated as more unpopular, self -destructive and aggressive. Many studies have...also have decreased self esteem , depression and poor peer acceptance (Pelham & Bender, 1982; Weiss, 1985). Children with hyperactivity have

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Maurs, C

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although considered a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition, is nevertheless a frequent and disabling condition in adults. A proportion of such patients are not diagnosed during childhood or adolescence, as diagnosis of the syndrome is rather complex, especially when other psychiatric, neurological or other neurodevelopmental conditions are also associated, yet comorbidities and consequences of ADHD are frequently observed in adults and older populations. As ADHD patients present to memory clinics with attentional and executive disorders, neuropsychological examinations of undiagnosed ADHD patients may reveal atypical cognitive profiles that can complicate the usual diagnostic procedure and increase the risk of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Thus, explorations of cognitive and/or behavioral disorders in adult populations should systematically screen for this neurodevelopmental condition. Accurate diagnosis could lead to non-pharmaceutical and/or pharmaceutical treatments to improve symptoms and quality of life for adult ADHD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  7. Histological and ultrastructural study of the gastric wall of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-01-05

    Jan 5, 1989 ... The stomach wall of the freshwater bream 0. mossambicus is described and compared with that of other bony fishes and vertebrates. The histology of the stomach layers and fine structure of the various cell types of. 0. mossambicus are basically similar to the correspondlngcells of other vertebrates although ...

  8. The different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhu

    Full Text Available Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression and the mechanism underling the dysfunction of HPA axis is not well understood. Chronic stress has a causal relationship with the hyperactivity of HPA axis. Stress induces the over-synthesis of glucocorticoids, which will arrive at all the body containing the brain. It is still complicated whether glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity and in which part of the brain the glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity. Here, we demonstrated that glucocorticoids were indispensable and sufficient for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Although acute glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus and hypothalamus exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis, we found that chronic glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus but not in the hypothalamus accounted for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Chronic glucocorticoids exposure in the hypothalamus still exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis activity. More importantly, we found mineralocorticoid receptor (MR - neuronal nitric oxide synthesis enzyme (nNOS - nitric oxide (NO pathway mediated the different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in regulating HPA axis activity. This study suggests that the glucocorticoids in the hippocampus play an important role in the development of HPA axis hyperactivity and the glucocorticoids in the hypothalamus can't induce hyperactivity of HPA axis, revealing new insights into understanding the mechanism of depression.

  9. The Different Roles of Glucocorticoids in the Hippocampus and Hypothalamus in Chronic Stress-Induced HPA Axis Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Han, Zhou; Wu, Hai-Yin; Jing, Xing; Zhou, Hai-Hui; Suh, Hoonkyo; Zhu, Dong-Ya; Zhou, Qi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression and the mechanism underling the dysfunction of HPA axis is not well understood. Chronic stress has a causal relationship with the hyperactivity of HPA axis. Stress induces the over-synthesis of glucocorticoids, which will arrive at all the body containing the brain. It is still complicated whether glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity and in which part of the brain the glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity. Here, we demonstrated that glucocorticoids were indispensable and sufficient for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Although acute glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus and hypothalamus exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis, we found that chronic glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus but not in the hypothalamus accounted for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Chronic glucocorticoids exposure in the hypothalamus still exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis activity. More importantly, we found mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) - neuronal nitric oxide synthesis enzyme (nNOS) - nitric oxide (NO) pathway mediated the different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in regulating HPA axis activity. This study suggests that the glucocorticoids in the hippocampus play an important role in the development of HPA axis hyperactivity and the glucocorticoids in the hypothalamus can't induce hyperactivity of HPA axis, revealing new insights into understanding the mechanism of depression. PMID:24831808

  10. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  11. The relationship between hyperactivity dyslexia disorder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperactivity and dyslexia disorder, which was discovered at begining of the the twentieth century, also affects academic life negatively. In this study, the relationship between hyperactivity/dyslexia disorder and emotional intelligence and success has been analysed. In this study, the first-year students of primary schools in ...

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention strategies for primary school teachers. Wrong labelling of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has given rise to this paper. Hitherto not much attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic behavioural ...

  13. A hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase enhances transgenesis in zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lardelli Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposons are useful molecular tools for transgenesis. The 'sleeping beauty' transposon is a synthetic member of the Tc1/mariner transposon family. Davidson et al. (2003 previously described a vector for zebrafish transgenesis consisting of the inverted repeats of 'sleeping beauty' flanking the gene to be transposed. Subsequently, there have been attempts to enhance the transpositional activity of 'sleeping beauty' by increasing the activity of its transposase. Recently, Mates et al. (2009 generated a hyperactive transposase giving a 100-fold increased transposition rate in mouse embryos. Findings The aim of this experiment was to determine whether this novel hyperactive transposase enhances transgenesis in zebrafish embryos. Using our previously characterised mitfa-amyloidβ-GFP transgene, we observed an eight-fold enhancement in transient transgenesis following detection of transgene expression in melanophores by whole mount in-situ hybridisation. However, high rates of defective embryogenesis were also observed. Conclusion The novel hyperactive 'sleeping beauty' transposase enhances the rate of transgenesis in zebrafish embryos.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients.

  15. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  16. Comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koyuncu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite high rates of reported comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity was not evaluated in these studies. Studies, investigating the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD comorbidity in social anxiety disorder are limited and little is known about it. The reason for this may be the fact that, ADHD have been seen as a childhood disease over a period of time. In the prospective studies ,it is reported that ADHD is often observed in the adulthood and effects persist . On the other hand, studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, higher rates of social anxiety disorder comorbidity have been reported. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorder increases the risk of impulsive feature in ADHD, causes problems in functionality, impaired compliance and resistance to the treatment. The aim of this article is to investigate the the status of social anxiety disorder and ADHD comorbidity and to discuss the hypothesis of antidepressant-associated hypomanic shift due to antidepressant treatment in social anxiety disorder patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 10-21

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosler, M.; Casas, M.; Konofal, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine available literature regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. METHODS: An electronic literature search of peer-reviewed English language articles using MEDLINE (without time limits) was undertaken. RESULTS: Symptoms of ADHD in adults exert a

  18. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visits Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 10.9 ...

  19. The relationship between hyperactivity dyslexia disorder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    and memory disorder, learning disabilities in some subjects ( reading, writting, spelling and mathematics ), hearing disorder, neurological findings, brain electroencephalography (EEG). He categorized these characteristics in four groups; learning disability, hyperactivity, social and emotional problems, insufficiency of.

  20. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us ... Power of Pets Sound Health Wise Choices Managing ADHD Help kids with ADHD stay on top of ...

  1. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... say about the relationship between food additives and ADHD? Answers from David C. Agerter, M.D Food ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and ...

  2. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of

  3. ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbins, Christopher; Weiss, Margaret D.; Goodman, David W.; Hodgkins, Paul S.; Landgraf, Jeanne M.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST) study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD subtype. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI), inattentive (IA) and combined subtypes were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and hea...

  4. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kotov; M. N. Borisova; M. V. Panteleeva; Yu. V. Matyuk; A. V. Shatalin

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90) and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of t...

  5. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Gastrointestinal hyperactivity and its importance in the formationof chronic allergic gastritis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrova V.I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the clinical and pathogenetic role in the formation of gastrointestinal hyperactivity and chronic allergic gastritis in children. Patients and methods. We observed 82 children aged 6 to 16 years. To verify the diagnosis all the children performed endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, intragastric pHmeter. To confirm the genesis of atopic disease of patients determined the level general IgE in the serum by ELISA. Results. As a result of studies we find, that in majority (92.7±2.9% patients examined early symptoms of gastrointestinal hyperactivity were diagnosed in the first six months of life. Gastrointestinal hyperactivity in infants is manifested by increased functional reaction of the gastrointestinal system, namely the disorders of the digestive and motorevacuation function of the gastrointestinal tract and symptoms of atopic dermatitis. In older children gastrointestinal hyperactivity transformed intoallergic gastritis, which is manifested by destructive changes of the gastric mucosa, increased production of hydrochloric acid , motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract mainly in the form of duodenogastric reflux. It was found that the determining factors of the formation of allergic inflammation should be considered a high percentage of family history as a gastroenterological and allergic diseases, disorders physiological feeding graphics and nutrition of children from the first days of life. A characteristic feature of current gastroenterological diseases in patients with gastrointestinal hyperactivity was the absence of seasonal exacerbations, severe pain in the right upper quadrant, belching and flatulence, against the background of destructive changes in the gastric mucosa. Conclusions. We have identified specific clinical symptoms is pathognomonic for children with gastrointestinal hyperactivity and provides the opportunity to be watchful for the diagnosis of allergic changes in the gastric

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Motor Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Marques, Juliana C B; De Oliveira, Jorge A

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment. We discuss the highly prevalent link between ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and the lack of a clear research consensus about motor difficulties in ADHD. Despite increasing evidence and diagnostic classifications that define DCD by motor impairment, the role of ADHD symptoms in DCD has not been delineated. Similarly, while ADHD may predispose children to motor problems, it is unclear whether any such motor difficulties observed in this population are inherent to ADHD or are mediated by comorbid DCD. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of motor impairment in children with ADHD and elucidate effective treatment strategies for these disorders together and apart.

  8. M-CHOLINOLYTICS IN RHEABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH VOIDING DISFUNCTION AND URNARY BLADDER HYPERACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kazanskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction is a common problem in pediatrics. Hyperactive urinary bladder is the most frequent cause of voiding dysfunction. Macholinolytic drugs are the first choice treatment for urinary bladder hyperactivity. The «urination pathology» center has investigated the efficacy of an macholinolytic, oxybutynin. The study included 25 children (aged 6–14 with different causes of voiding dysfunction and bladder hyperactivity. Oxybutynin was administered with a dosage of 5 mg twice a day, the follow up period was 8 weeks. The control evaluation of urodynamics (voiding rhythm, uroflowmetry, residual urine volume was performed at 4–8 weeks. Symptoms of bladder hyperactivity have been eliminated in 50% of patients, the bladder capacity has increased in 70% of cases, the frequency of night and day incontinence has diminished. The report demonstrates that oxybutynin has been most effective in patients with urinary bladder volume between 80 and 100 ml. the side effects, as dryness of mucous membranes and voiding difficulties, have been rarely observed. These side effects could be avoided by individual dose titration.Key words: voiding dysfunction, urinary bladder hyperactivity, oxybutynin, children.

  9. Attention in Hyperactive Children and the Effect of Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Donald H.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Hyperactive children treated with methylphenidate (ritalin) showed a significant improvement in all aspects of performance in an experimenter-paced task when compared to a control group of hyperactive children given a placebo. (Author/WY)

  10. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you ...

  11. Neurobiology of hyperactivity and reward : Agreeable restlessness in Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, Anton J. W.; Boersma, Gretha J.; Nergardh, Ricard; Sodersten, Per; Nergårdh, Ricard; Södersten, Per

    2010-01-01

    Restricted food intake is associated with increased physical activity, very likely an evolutionary advantage, initially both functional and rewarding. The hyperactivity of patients with Anorexia Nervosa, however, is a main problem for recovery. This seemingly paradoxical reward of hyperactivity in

  12. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Poblano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C, with Inattention (ADHD-I, and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H. Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with ADHD and controls in BOTMP general score and in static coordination, dynamic general- and hand- coordination, and in synkinetic movements. We also found differences in dynamic hand coordination between controls and children with ADHD-C; in dynamic general coordination between controls and children with ADHD-H; and in frequency of synkinetic movements between controls and children with ADHD-H. Conclusion Children with ADHD with a major degree of hyperactivity showed greater frequency of motor alterations.

  13. Recognizing and Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances; Young, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally diagnosed in children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now regarded as a life span condition. The academic difficulties experienced by children and adolescents with ADHD have been observed to continue into young adulthood. Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions…

  14. What Knowledge and Conceptions Do Irish Primary Schoolteachers Hold on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Victoria Ann

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis rates have increased significantly in recent times. A teacher's role is crucial in determining if a child will be referred for an ADHD assessment. Teachers' opinions and observations are also required for and play a huge role in the actual assessment process. For this reason, their…

  15. The storm before the quiet : neuronal hyperactivity and Aβ in the presymptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stargardt, Anita; Swaab, Dick F; Bossers, K.

    Neuronal activity directly promotes the production and secretion of amyloid β (Aβ). Interestingly, neuronal hyperactivity can be observed in presymptomatic stages of both sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in several AD mouse models. In this review, we will highlight the recent

  16. Does Response Variability Predict Distractibility among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Roberts, Walter M.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Increased intraindividual variability in response time (RTSD) has been observed reliably in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has often been used as a measure of inattention. RTSD is assumed to reflect attentional lapses and distractibility, though evidence for the validity of this connection is lacking. We assessed whether RTSD…

  17. The impact of hyperactivity and leptin on recovery from anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elburg, A.A. van; Kas, M.J.H.; Hillebrand, J.J.G.; Eijkemans, R.J.C.; Engeland, H. van

    2007-01-01

    In anorexia nervosa (AN), hyperactivity is observed in about 80% of patients and has been associated with low leptin levels in the acute stage of AN and in anorexia animal models. To further understand the importance of this correlation in AN, we investigated the relationship between

  18. Leptin's effect on hyperactivity : Potential downstream effector mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, J. J. G.; Kas, M.J.H.; van Elburg, A. A.; Hoek, H. W.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) demonstrate hyperactivity. Hyperactivity counteracts weight gain during treatment and is associated with poor outcome of the disease. We hypothesized that hyperactivity in AN patients has a neurobiological basis and used an animal model-based

  19. Mechanisms of coexistence of factor VII hyperactivity with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidaemia, DM and obesity were found to induce FVII hyperactivity. Hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, high levels of FFAs and leptin constitute the underlying mechanisms for coexistence of FVII hyperactivity and metabolic disorders. Factor VII hyperactivity does not cause development of MI de novo. In conclusion ...

  20. Decreased Callosal Thickness in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Phillips, Owen R.; Thompson, Paul M.; Valle, Jessica S.; Del'Homme, Melissa; Strickland, Tony; McCracken, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed structural abnormalities in the brains of affected individuals. One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments. Methods We applied novel surface-based geometrical modeling methods to establish the presence, direction, and exact location of callosal alterations in ADHD at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we calculated the thickness of the CC at 100 equidistant midsagittal points in an age-matched male sample of 19 individuals with ADHD and 19 typically developing control subjects. Results In close agreement with many prior observations, the CC was shown to be significantly thinner in ADHD subjects in anterior and, particularly, posterior callosal sections. Covarying for intelligence did not significantly alter the observed ADHD effects. However, group differences were no longer present in anterior sections when covarying for brain volume and after excluding ADHD subjects comorbid for oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusions Decreased callosal thickness may be associated with fewer fibers or a decrease in the myelination of fibers connecting the parietal and prefrontal cortices. This might affect interhemispheric communication channels that are necessary to sustain attention or motor control, thus contributing to symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, or inattention, observed in ADHD. Future studies are necessary to determine whether callosal abnormalities reflect maturational delays or persist into adulthood. PMID:18842255

  1. ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V. Faraone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD subtype. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI, inattentive (IA and combined subtypes were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and health-related quality of life. A consistent pattern of differences was found between the ADHD-I and combined subtypes, with the combined subtype being more likely to be diagnosed in childhood, more severe symptom severity and lower HRQL. Twenty-three patients out of the total sample of 691 patients (3% received a clinician diagnosis of ADHD - hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Review of the ratings on the ADHD-RS-IV demonstrated, however, that this group had ratings of inattention comparable to the inattentive group. There were no significant differences found between the ADHD-HI and the other subtypes in symptom severity, functioning or quality of life. The hyperactive/impulsive subtype group identified by clinicians in this study was not significantly different from the rest of the sample. By contrast, significant differences were found between the inattentive and combined types. This suggests that in adults, hyperactivity declines and inattention remains significant, making the hyperactive/impulsive subtype as defined by childhood criteria a very rare condition and raising questions as to the validity of the HI subtype in adults.

  2. Modafinil Trial in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A film-coated tablet formulation of modafinil (ProvigilR was used to treat a total of 246 patients, ages 6 to 17 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, and other centers.

  3. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Personality Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilveil, Ira; Clark, Dona

    This study delineates personality correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.) A standardized projective technique (the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale were administered to 52 ADHD children, ages 6-15. Results indicated that, when compared to the RATC standardization sample, ADHD…

  5. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  6. hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and psychiatric co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study aimed to establish the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in ...

  7. [The course of behaviour changes in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity after drug treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló, B; Pitarch, I; Abad, L

    2002-02-01

    Several studies have reported differences in behaviour in patients with various subtypes of attention deficit with hyperactivity and the benefits of psychostimulant medication in the treatment of behaviour problems of patients with the attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome (TDAH). 1. To determine possible differences in behaviour between patients with subtypes of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; 2. To analyze the efficacy of methylphenidate on behaviour in three subtypes of TDAH, evaluated on the opinions of patients and teachers. A total of 90 children were studied: 39 children with TDAH-C; 36 with TDAH-1 and 15 with TDAH-H/I. All patients were given 0.5 mg/kg of methylphenidate for a period of three months, once in the morning and once in the afternoon. The results show that the children with the three subtypes of TDAH have significant differences in all the behaviour variables studied except for the variable timidity anxiety, in which no differences were observed between the subtypes of TDAH. Statistical analysis also showed that children with all three subtypes of TDAH improved significantly with regard to most of the aspects of behaviour studied after psychostimulant medication, in the opinions of parents and teachers. Our findings are similar to those of other studies and give fresh data on the behaviour and advantages of methylphenidate in the new subtype included in the DSM-1V, the predominantly hyperactive impulsive type.

  8. Determination of hyperactive areas of Cortex Cerebri with using brain SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of the ability to apply of SPECT technique to determination of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. Analysis included 50 patients (mean aged 44 - 58). Brain SPECT scanning was performed after 1 hour after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of ethylcisteinate dimmer labeled 99m Technetium (99mTc-ECD) with the use one-head gamma camera with a low-energy, ultra-high resolution collimator. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed using specialised software. In 20 cases normal biodistribution of the radiotracer was observed (hyperactive areas in cerebellum and occiput). In patients with psychiatric and neurological disturbances hyperactive areas were visualized in 25 cases in temporal lobes, in 4 cases in parietal lobes and in 1 patient in frontal area and basal ganglia. It is concluded that a number of factors limit the wide-scale use of SPECT, including the sophistication of imaging equipment (single-head cameras are inferior to the newer multihead units) and the experience of the physicians interpreting the scans and utilizing the data. In many diseases physicians do not know which areas of the patient's brain according disorders. Brain SPECT study can be a very useful tool to evaluation of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. This technique visualization of cortex cerebri completes standard analysis of disorders of brain activity

  9. Initial Orientation of Attention towards Emotional Faces in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Ahmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early recognition of negative emotions is considered to be of vital importance. It seems that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have some difficulties recognizing facial emotional expressions, especially negative ones. This study investigated the preference of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for negative (angry, sad facial expressions compared to normal children.Method: Participants were 35 drug naive boys with ADHD, aged between 6-11 years ,and 31 matched healthy children. Visual orientation data were recorded while participants viewed face pairs (negative-neutral pairs shown for 3000ms. The number of first fixations made to each expression was considered as an index of initial orientation. Results: Group comparisons revealed no difference between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and their matched healthy counterparts in initial orientation of attention. A tendency towards negative emotions was found within the normal group, while no difference was observed between initial allocation of attention toward negative and neutral expressions in children with ADHD .Conclusion: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not have significant preference for negative facial expressions. In contrast, normal children have a significant preference for negative facial emotions rather than neutral faces.

  10. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  12. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anna K.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  13. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Yurteri; A. Evren Tufan; Gizem Melissa Akgun; Ayten Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attent...

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluat...

  15. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulne...

  16. Translational Hyperactivity as a Target for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrian, David

    2003-01-01

    ...) gene family contribute to the translational hyperactivity that accompanies the unrestrained cell cycle reentry and unlimited replicative potential of prostate cancer cells Experiments designed...

  17. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Eugen; Gastpar, Markus

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood, a systematic review of published follow-up data, mainly from observational studies was done. Electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo and PSYNDEXplus were searched from their earliest entries. All studies suggested significant relationships between ADHD and BPD. From a phenomenological point of view there seem to exist some similarities between these two disorders: deficits in affect regulation and impulse control, substance abuse, low self esteem and disturbed interpersonal relationship are common in both conditions. From a neuropsychological point of view dissociation in BPD might be regarded as a special form of behavioral inhibition and sustained attention comparable to ADHD. Possible therapeutic strategies of comorbid ADHD and BPD are discussed.

  19. Handwriting performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Marie Brossard; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. Consequences are multifaceted and include activity limitations in daily-living skills, academic challenges, diminished socialization skills, and motor difficulties. Poor handwriting performance is an example of an affected life skill that has been anecdotally observed by educators and clinicians for this population and can negatively impact academic performance and self-esteem. To guide health and educational service delivery needs, the authors reviewed the evidence in the literature on handwriting difficulties in children with ADHD. Existing evidence would suggest that children with ADHD have impaired handwriting performance, characterized by illegible written material and/or inappropriate speed of execution compared to children without ADHD. Studies with larger sample sizes using standardized measures of handwriting performance are needed to evaluate the prevalence of the problem and to better understand the nature of handwriting difficulties and their impact in this population.

  20. Hyperactivity in mice lacking one allele of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen Müller

    2018-03-19

    GABAergic interneuron loss, maturational delay or imbalance of glutamatergic to GABAergic signaling has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In schizophrenia, decreases in parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (Sst) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) RNA have been observed and seem to indicate a failure in maturation in PV and Sst neurons. In Tourette syndrome, which has a high level of comorbid ADHD, reduced numbers of parvalbumin expressing neurons have been observed in the basal ganglia of affected patients. In addition, polymorphisms in the GAD1 gene that codes for GAD67 protein have been associated with ADHD. We have examined whether mice with a disrupted Gad67 allele, the Gad67 GFP knock-in mice (Gad67-GFP +/- ), display abnormal locomotor behavior or altered anxiety behavior on the elevated plus maze. We found that Gad67-GFP +/- mice displayed a mild hyperactivity compared to control littermates.

  1. The relationship of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder to adaptive skills in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turygin, Nicole; Matson, Johnny L; Tureck, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to deficits in socialization and communication, similar to those observed in children with ASD. In the present study, we examine the differences in developmental quotient and subscale scores between children with ASD and children with ADHD. We compared the developmental scores in a sample of 2990 children who presented to an early intervention program, who met criteria for ASD, inattentive ADHD, hyperactive/impulsive ADHD, combined ASD/ADHD, or are at risk for developmental disorders. The overall developmental quotient did not significantly differ between those in the ADHD inattentive and hyperactive subtype groups. Adaptive skills differed most greatly between the ASD groups and the ADHD/atypically-developing groups. The present study represents a first step towards understanding the relationship of ADHD to ASD in early childhood. Young children with ASD symptoms are more greatly impaired than those with symptoms of ADHD.

  2. Mother-Son Interactions in Families of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder with and without Oppositional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipp, Carla M.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7-9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother-son play and clean-up…

  3. Association of atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder : A systematic review and meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Cicek, Rukiye; de Vries, Tjalling W.; Hak, Eelko; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Over the last decades, the hypothesis has been raised that an atopic response could lead to the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study systematically reviews the observational cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that assessed the association between atopic

  4. Hyperactivity, Shyness, and Sex: Development and Socio-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Ann-Margret; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    Based on formulations about the possible consequences for adaptation of gender non-normative behaviour, we investigated predictive and concurrent relations of hyperactivity and shyness to various aspects of adaptation focusing on possible effects of sex. At ages 5-6, parents and preschool teachers rated hyperactivity and shyness for 151 children…

  5. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  6. Hyper-Activity in Children Having Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, A. T.

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, child guidance clinics, pediatricians, teachers, and others have brought to their attention children who manifest hyper-activity as an outstanding feature and of such a degree as to be regarded outside the bounds of normal conduct. The literature on this subject, except for hyper-activity in infancy, has mostly to do with the…

  7. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  8. Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: A study conducted on parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Z Mahomedy, D van der Westhuizen, MJ van der Linde, J Coetsee. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder | du Plessis | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioural disorder that compromises the core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Many patients are still not diagnosed, or do not receive appropriate sustained treatment, in spite of a general greater ...

  10. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  11. Development of the Nursing Outcome (NOC) label: hyperactivity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Carol L; Wasson, Dianne; Anderson, Mary Ann; Brighton, Veronica; Dixon, Lois

    2005-01-01

    Hyperactivity, a persistent, severe pattern of inattention or impulsivity, places children at risk for impaired functioning in many developmental areas. This behavior is characterized by short attention span, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, distractibility, and increased physical activity. Responses from multiple sources in the child's environment must be monitored to manage childhood hyperactivity. Success at school, in peer relationships, and parent-child interactions is frequently affected by hyperactivity. Using a focus group approach, a Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) label, definition, and indicators were developed for Hyperactivity Level. Review of the literature allowed for a content analysis approach and conceptualization of hyperactivity at several levels. Twenty three (23) measurable indicators were formulated and refined into conceptually and clinically coherent outcomes. Clinical relevance and utility were presented through a case study approach.

  12. Hyper-active gap filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Akira; Lau, Ellen F; Davidson White, Imogen; Dakan, Myles L; Apple, Aaron; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English) wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking) that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal noun phrases is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes...

  14. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [DMS-5 - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Modifications to the DSM-5 criteria for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are described and discussed. The main modifications concern the onset of the disorder, the reduction on the number of criteria fulfilled for a diagnosis in patients aged 17 years or older, and the elimination of autism spectrum disorders as an exclusion criterion for this diagnosis. These changes are mainly welcomed. However, the demanded increase in the age for the latest onset of the disorder may prove to be problematic.

  16. Hyper-active gap filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOmaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure-building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal NPs is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  17. Oral and Dental Health Problems of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, and Solution Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Çağıl Yetiş

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common childhood onset behavioral disorder characterized by a developmentally inappropriate attention deficit, hyperactivity-impulsivity or a combination of these. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology. Because of the behavioral problems sourced from the disease itself and side effects of the drugs used in therapy, children with ADHD take place in the risk group in terms of oral and dental health problems and they are included in the group of patients who need special attention in pediatric dentistry. Drugs used in the treatment are known to cause dry mouth. Children with ADHD have been reported to have low oral hygiene habits and a high prevalence of dental caries. Also, parafunctional habits such as bruxism and dental trauma are observed more frequently in these children. In this review, oral health and behavior management problems in children with ADHD are pointed out, and solutions are suggested.

  18. Antecedents of Screening Positive for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Ten-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Alan; Hooper, Stephen R; Hunter, Scott J; Scott, Megan N; Allred, Elizabeth N; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. The risk profile of screening positive for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on a parent's report differed from the risk profile based on the teacher's report, whereas the risk profile according to a physician and according to any two observers closely resembled the parent-reported profile. Among the statistically significant risk factors were young maternal age (parent, physician, and two observers), maternal obesity (parent, physician, and two observers), maternal smoking (parent, physician, and two observers), magnesium given at delivery for seizure prophylaxis (parent and two observers), recovery of Mycoplasma sp. from the placenta (teacher and two observers), low gestational age (parent and two observers), low birth weight (teacher and physician), singleton (parent, physician, and two observers), male (parent, teacher, physician, and two observers), mechanical ventilation on postnatal day seven (physician), receipt of a sedative (parent and two observers), retinopathy of prematurity (parent), necrotizing enterocolitis (physician), antibiotic receipt (physician and two observers), and ventriculomegaly on brain scan (parent and two observers). The multiplicity of risk factors identified can be subsumed as components of four broad themes: low socioeconomic state, immaturity or vulnerability, inflammation, and epigenetic phenomena. Copyright © 2017

  19. Increase or Decrease of fMRI Activity in Adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Does It Depend on Task Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Stefanie C; Merz, Christian J; Dresler, Thomas; Heupel, Julia; Reichert, Susanne; Jacob, Christian P; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J

    2016-05-27

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been shown to affect working memory, and fMRI studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder report hypoactivation in task-related attentional networks. However, studies with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients addressing this issue as well as the effects of clinically valid methylphenidate treatment are scarce. This study contributes to closing this gap. Thirty-five adult patients were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind placebo or methylphenidate treatment. Patients completed an fMRI n-back working memory task both before and after the assigned treatment, and matched healthy controls were tested and compared to the untreated patients. There were no whole-brain differences between any of the groups. However, when specified regions of interest were investigated, the patient group showed enhanced BOLD responses in dorsal and ventral areas before treatment. This increase was correlated with performance across all participants and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the patient group. Furthermore, we found an effect of treatment in the right superior frontal gyrus, with methylphenidate-treated patients exhibiting increased activation, which was absent in the placebo-treated patients. Our results indicate distinct activation differences between untreated adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and matched healthy controls during a working memory task. These differences might reflect compensatory efforts by the patients, who are performing at the same level as the healthy controls. We furthermore found a positive effect of methylphenidate on the activation of a frontal region of interest. These observations contribute to a more thorough understanding of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide impulses for the evaluation of therapy-related changes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  20. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  1. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdizán, J R; Izaguerri-Gracia, A C

    2009-02-27

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may exist in up to 60% of adults, whose first symptoms appeared before they were seven years old. Since it is a neurobiological condition, its basic symptoms -lack of attention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness- are similar at all ages, but in adults the clinical manifestations are specific to the subgroup with more frequent comorbidities than in childhood. Manifestations that characteristically appear in adults are difficulty in concentrating, poorer memory and short-term memory, disorganisation, difficulties with self-discipline, impulsiveness, low self-esteem, mental restlessness, frustration and limited social skills. Today, adult cases are underdiagnosed because for a long time ADHD was thought to be a condition that only affected children and teenagers; however, although its clinical manifestations in adults are essentially similar to those seen in children, they are different and have different forms of presentation. There are no biomedical tests that allow an objective diagnosis to be established, and thus care must be taken to draw up and evaluate a patient record that includes possible symptoms since childhood, typical signs and symptoms, and any relevant comorbidities. Self-evaluation scales are necessary as the preferred instrument for use as an aid to the patient record. The main pharmacological treatment is based on psychopharmaceuticals such as immediate-, controlled- or extended-release methylphenidate and on atomoxetine; cognitive-behavioural and psychosocial treatment should also be associated.

  2. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. Living with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Merete B; Pedersen, Preben U; Larsen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD....... Medication has proven to be very useful as it leads to less hyperactivity and enhances ability to stay focused and be more organized. Finally, insight into ADHD has a positive impact on the ability to manage the consequences of ADHD.Health professionals should, when advising adults with ADHD, fundamentally...

  4. Assessing sensory processing problems in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Beth; Daly, Brian P; Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Gullo, Dominic F

    2015-02-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk than children without ADHD for problems with sensory processing and if certain sensory systems are more closely associated with the core symptoms of ADHD, specifically inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The sample included 20 children with ADHD and 27 children without ADHD, ages 5 to 10 years. Assessments included the Sensory Processing Measure-Home Form and the Conners 3rd edition-Parent Short Form. After controlling for age, children with ADHD exhibited more sensory processing problems on all scales of the Sensory Processing Measure with small to medium effect sizes observed (η(2) = .27 to .61). For children with ADHD, the Social Participation (r = .50) and Planning and Ideas (r = .73) subtests of the Sensory Processing Measure were significantly associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not with inattention on the subtests of the Conners Parent Short Form. The results suggest the importance of assessing sensory processing issues in children with ADHD to guide in the intervention process.

  5. Blocking PAR2 alleviates bladder pain and hyperactivity via TRPA1 signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Daihui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The goals of this study were to examine 1 the effects of blocking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2 on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and 2 the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of PAR2 in regulating cystic sensory activity. The protein expression of PAR2 was amplified in rats with cystitis by inducing it with systemic administration of cyclophosphamide (CYP as compared with control rats. Blocking PAR2 by intrathecal infusion of PAR2 antagonist FSLLRY-NH2 attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PAR2 attenuated the transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1 signal pathway, whereas inhibition of the TRPA1 decreased bladder hyperactivity and pain. The data revealed specific signaling pathways leading to CYP-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of PAR2 and TRPA1. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis.

  6. Urinary protein profiling in hyperactive delirium and non-delirium cardiac surgery ICU patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Hoeven Johannes G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suitable biomarkers associated with the development of delirium are still not known. Urinary proteomics has successfully been applied to identify novel biomarkers associated with various disease states, but its value has not been investigated in delirium patients. Results In a prospective explorative study hyperactive delirium patients after cardiac surgery were included for urinary proteomic analyses. Delirium patients were matched with non-delirium patients after cardiac surgery on age, gender, severity of illness score, LOS-ICU, Euro-score, C-reactive protein, renal function and aorta clamping time. Urine was collected within 24 hours after the onset of delirium. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS was applied to detect differences in the urinary proteome associated with delirium in these ICU patients. We included 10 hyperactive delirium and 10 meticulously matched non-delirium post-cardiac surgery patients. No relevant differences in the urinary excretion of proteins could be observed. Conclusions We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS of urine does not reveal a clear hyperactive delirium proteome fingerprint in ICU patients. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Register number: NCT00604773

  7. Assessing the impact of parent and teacher agreement on diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, Mark L; Lambert, E Warren; Bickman, Leonard; Simmons, Tonya; Doffing, Melissa A; Worley, Kim A

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the impact of interrater reliability on the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A screening of 6171 elementary school children identified 1573 children with a high risk for ADHD according to teacher rating. Follow-up parent interviews and information from teachers were collected on 243 children. Before screening, health care professionals had diagnosed ADHD in 40% of the identified children. There was low agreement between the parent and teacher reports of ADHD symptoms according to DSM-IV-based questionnaires: Inattentive (r =.34, kappa = 0.27), Hyperactive/Impulsive (r =.27, kappa = 0.22), and Performance Impairment (r =.31, kappa = 0.07). When the two-setting requirement was strictly enforced, poor interrater agreement decreased diagnostic rates for all three types of ADHD in this clinical sample: Inattentive (15%-5%), Hyperactive/Impulsive (11%-3%), and Combined (23%-7%). Parent and teacher agreement was low concerning ADHD symptoms and performance. The recommendation of multiple informants significantly decreased the prevalence. Allowing for observer disagreement by using more lenient core symptom scores could reduce the effect.

  8. Hyperactivity and hypoactivity in a rat model of Huntington's disease: the systemic 3-nitropropionic acid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlongan, C V; Koutouzis, T K; Freeman, T B; Hauser, R A; Cahill, D W; Sanberg, P R

    1997-08-01

    The present study proposes the use of systemic 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) treatment in rats as a model of Huntington's disease (HD). The systemic 3-NP model involves chronic injection of low dose intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 3-NP to rats once every 4 days over a period of time. Evidence from our experimental studies suggests that manipulating the number of injections can result in either increased nocturnal spontaneous locomotor activity (hyperactivity) or nocturnal akinesia (hypoactivity) [1]. For example, two injections of 3-NP (using the treatment of one injection every 4 days) result in hyperactivity, while four injections or more of 3-NP lead to hypoactivity [1]. The locomotor activity is recorded by Digiscan locomotor activity monitors [11]. The observation of these two types of locomotor activity is unique since no excitotoxin model has replicated a two-stage progression of a HD-like behavioral alteration. Most studies using excitotoxins like quinolinic acid (QA) and kainic acid (KA) have only reproduced the hyperactivity stage [4,5,7]. With the systemic 3-NP model, investigations into at least two stages of the disease are made possible. This allows for better assessment of intervention strategies such as neural transplants across different stages of the disease. The systemic 3-NP rat model is believed to be an improved animal model of HD.

  9. DOPAMINE BETA HYDROXYLASE: ITS RELEVANCE IN THE ETIOLOGY OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipa Bhaduri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Though symptoms of hyperactivity diminish with age, inattention and impulsivity persists through adulthood and often leads to behavioral as well as cognitive deficits. Majority of the patients respond to psychostimulants which forms the first line of therapy for ADHD. Some cases however fail to do so and treatment targeting the norepinephrine (NE system has been found to be an alternative for them. Dopamine (DA is metabolized to NE by the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH and availability of these neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortex is regulated by DβH. The enzyme is encoded by the DBH gene and polymorphisms in DBH have been found to exert independent influence on the enzymatic activity. We have explored association between DBH and two functional genetic polymorphisms, rs1611115 and rs1108580, in families with ADHD probands and compared with ethnically matched control individuals. Genomic DNA was subjected to PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Plasma DβH activity was measured using a photometric assay. Age-wise DβH activity and its correlation with genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in ADHD subjects. Data obtained were subjected to statistical evaluations. Though the genotypes failed to show any statistically significant association individually, strong correlation was observed between DβH activity and the studied SNPs. Statistically significant correlation between the rs1108580 “A” allele and hyperactive/oppositional traits were also noticed. The present investigation thus supports a role of DBH in the etiology of ADHD.

  10. School-based assessment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, M S; Pelham, W E

    1991-04-01

    Schools are uniquely situated to provide information relevant to the assessment and treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) across a variety of tasks, settings, and observers. The importance of the school setting to the assessment and treatment of ADHD has resulted in the development of numerous measures appropriate for such assessment, but few guidelines for their use. The purpose of this article is to describe school-based assessment procedures and their relationship to ADHD. These procedures include teacher rating measures, direct observations in classrooms and on playgrounds, peer rating and sociometric measures, and permanent product measures such as academic performance. It is recommended that school-based assessment of ADHD involve the concurrent use of multiple measures to assess adequately the wide variety of symptoms associated with this disorder. It is further recommended that assessment serve the purpose of determining treatment efficacy to avoid unwarranted preoccupation with diagnostic issues that are as yet unresolved. The components of a comprehensive school-based assessment of ADHD are described, and their relationship to school-based treatment is discussed.

  11. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetected feigned ADHD such as substantial costs covered by society for unnecessary assessments and treatments, unjustified occupation of limited medical resources and undermining society's trust in the existence of the disorder or the effectiveness of treatment. In times of economic crisis and cost savings in the medical sector, the detection of feigned ADHD is of importance. This review briefly describes the research on this topic with an emphasis on the approaches available for detection of feigned ADHD (i.e., self-report questionnaires, personality inventories, cognitive tests used in routine neuropsychological assessment and tests specifically designed for detecting feigned cognitive dysfunction). Promising approaches and measures are available for identifying feigned ADHD but there is an immediate need for further research.

  12. Neurobiology driving hyperactivity in activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, R A H; Hillebrand, J J G; Danner, U N; Cardona Cano, S; Kas, M J H; Verhagen, L A W

    2011-01-01

    Hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa is difficult to control and negatively impacts outcome. Hyperactivity is a key driving force to starvation in an animal model named activity-based anorexia (ABA). Recent research has started unraveling what mechanisms underlie this hyperactivity. Besides a general increase in locomotor activity that may be an expression of foraging behavior and involves frontal brain regions, the increased locomotor activity expressed before food is presented (food anticipatory behavior or FAA) involves hypothalamic neural circuits. Ghrelin plays a role in FAA, whereas decreased leptin signaling is involved in both aspects of increased locomotor activity. We hypothesize that increased ghrelin and decreased leptin signaling drive the activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. In anorexia nervosa patients, this altered activity of the dopamine system may be involved not only in hyperactivity but also in aberrant cognitive processing related to food.

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder may cause hyperactivity and inattention, and some children may have both autism and ADHD. As listed above, there are a ...

  14. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Müller, Kathi; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers

  15. Complex Prospective Memory in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Westermann, Celina; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been associated with disturbances of attention and executive functions. Furthermore, impairments of verbal and figural retrospective memory were reported. However, little is known about the effects of ADHD on prospective

  16. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  17. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF ... Overview Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly ...

  18. The origins and consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect about 5% of school-age children worldwide, with a substantial degree of persistence over time. Although the specific cause of ADHD is still largely unknown, despite a long history of research, it is believed to involve multip...

  19. Are Eating Disorders Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Reinblatt, Shauna P.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Binge-eating behavior is often impulsive and is the hallmark of the two eating disorders, binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), both of which are associated with significant health impairment. Bingeing behavior is also seen in the binge purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. Individuals with AN of the binge purge subtypes, BN and BED, have been found to exhib...

  20. Role of Prefrontal Serotonergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Encounter-Induced Hyperactivity in Methamphetamine-Sensitized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tatsunori; Ago, Yukio; Umehara, Chiaki; Imoto, Emina; Hasebe, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2017-05-01

    Isolation-reared mice show social encounter-induced hyperactivity with activation of prefrontal serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, but it is not known whether this stress response is observed in other pathological conditions. Here we examined whether the social encounter stimulation induces abnormal behavior during withdrawal in chronic methamphetamine-treated mice. To induce methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization, male mice were injected with methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days. The encounter with an intruder elicited hyperactivity 24 h after the last injection of methamphetamine in methamphetamine-sensitized mice. This response was observed even as long as 2 weeks after withdrawal of methamphetamine. The encounter increased c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal raphe nucleus and ventral tegmental area in methamphetamine-sensitized mice, while it did not in control mice. Furthermore, the encounter increased extracellular serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine, but not noradrenaline, levels in the prefrontal cortex in methamphetamine-sensitized mice. Local injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine and 6-hydroxydopamine into the prefrontal cortex attenuated encounter-induced hyperactivity in methamphetamine-sensitized mice and it markedly decreased prefrontal 5-HT and dopamine levels, respectively. Pharmacological analysis showed that the encounter-induced hyperactivity is mediated by dopamine D1 receptors and 5-HT2A receptors and attenuated by anxiolytics and antidepressants such as diazepam, osemozotan and selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors. The effect of paroxetine was blocked by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist azasetron. The present study shows that psychological stress elicits hyperactivity with activation of prefrontal 5-HT and dopamine systems in methamphetamine-dependent mice and suggests that the abnormal behavior is associated with anxiety and depression. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  1. Effects of chronic furosemide on central neural hyperactivity and cochlear thresholds after cochlear trauma in guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina eMulders

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased neuronal spontaneous firing rates have been observed throughout the central auditory system after trauma to the cochlea and this hyperactivity is believed to be associated with the phantom perception of tinnitus. Previously we have shown in an animal model of hearing loss, that an acute injection with furosemide can significantly decrease hyperactivity after cochlear trauma and eliminate behavioural evidence of tinnitus of early onset. However, furosemide also has the potential to affect cochlear thresholds. In this paper we measured the effects of a chronic (daily injections for 7 days furosemide treatment on the spontaneous firing rate of inferior colliculus neurons and on cochlear thresholds in order to establish whether a beneficial effect on hyperactivity can be obtained without causing additional hearing loss. Guinea pigs were exposed to a 10 kHz, 124dB, 2 hour acoustic trauma, and after 5 days of recovery, were given daily i.p. injections of 80mg/kg furosemide or an equivalent amount of saline. The activity of single IC neurons was recorded 24 hours following the last injection. The furosemide treatment had no effect on cochlear thresholds compared to saline injections but did result in significant reductions in spontaneous firing rates recorded in inferior colliculus. These results that suggest a long term beneficial effect of furosemide on hyperactivity after cochlear trauma may be achievable without detrimental effects on hearing, which is important when considering therapeutic potential.

  2. Neuromodulation attenuates bladder hyperactivity in a rat cystitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Nickles, Angela; Nelson, Dwight E

    2013-12-06

    We investigated the regulation of urinary bladder function by electrical stimulation of the L6 spinal nerve (SN) using cystometry in normal rats and in rats with cystitis induced by intravesical infusion of dilute acetic acid. In anesthetized rats, a cannula was placed into the bladder dome for saline/acetic acid infusion and intravesical pressure monitoring. Threshold pressure (TP), basal pressure (BP) and inter-contraction interval (ICI) were measured from the bladder pressure recording and void volume (VV) was measured by weighing the voided fluid. Comparison of cystometrograms obtained with infusion of saline or acetic acid showed that acetic acid decreases TP, ICI and VV. These excitatory effects, characteristic of acetic acid induced bladder hyperactivity, were significantly reversed by bilateral SN stimulation (P Hz and at motor threshold (0.19 ± 0.01 milliamps) increased ICI (265%) and VV (217%). In rats perfused with acetic acid, the corresponding increases produced by SN stimulation were 350% for ICI and 383% for VV. The percentage increases in the acetic acid-treated group were not significantly higher than those in saline-treated group. Using continuous flow cystyometry, we find that SN stimulation can produce effects on micturition consistent with its effects on isovolumetric model, and consistent with the therapeutic effect observed with InterStim® therapy in overactive bladder patients. Although the effect of SN stimulation was slightly greater in bladder irritated over normal rats, the difference was not statistically significant.

  3. Assessing attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Maria; Martella, Diana; Ruggiero, Maria Cleonice; Maccari, Lisa; Paloscia, Claudio; Rosa, Caterina; Pasini, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and interactions of attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by considering the effects of reinforcement and auditory warning on each component of attention. Thirty-six drug-naïve children (18 children with ADHD/18 typically developing children) performed two revised versions of the Attentional Network Test, which assess the efficiency of alerting, orienting, and executive systems. In feedback trials, children received feedback about their accuracy, whereas in the no-feedback trials, feedback was not given. In both conditions, children with ADHD performed more slowly than did typically developing children. They also showed impairments in the ability to disengage attention and in executive functioning, which improved when alertness was increased by administering the auditory warning. The performance of the attentional networks appeared to be modulated by the absence or the presence of reinforcement. We suggest that the observed executive system deficit in children with ADHD could depend on their low level of arousal rather than being an independent disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: From parents to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-van-Meerbeke, A; Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Zamora-Miramón, I; Guzmán-Ramírez, G M

    2017-04-01

    Multiple studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have recognised a heritability factor in that a higher frequency of the disorder is observed in children with an affected relative. Our aim was to determine the association between ADHD symptoms in young children enrolled in five schools in Bogota and a history of ADHD symptoms in their parents using the Wender-Utah Rating Scale. Case-control study of participants selected according to DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) completed by parents and teachers; the WISC-IV scale was used to exclude children with cognitive deficit. Parents completed the Wender-Utah Rating Scale to retrospectively identify any ADHD symptoms in childhood. A score of 36 was used as a cutoff point. The study included 202 children: 117 cases and 85 controls. A positive history of ADHD symptoms in childhood was identified for 16% of 175 mothers and 20.6% of 141 fathers. The presence of symptoms in either parent, especially the mother, constitutes a significant risk factor for ADHD in children and this relationship persists after controlling for different variables. If both parents have the disorder, the risk tends to increase. Although ADHD has been linked to a genetic component, other environmental factors may be involved in the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. METHODS: The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. RESULTS: Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  6. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  7. Social skills training for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social s...

  8. Living with symptoms of Attention DeficitHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene; Bjerrum, Merete Bender; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD, people...

  9. Subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with specific creative processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Nevicka, B.; Baas, M.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Although ADHD generally associates with a range of cognitive impairments, evidence suggests that people with ADHD may be more creative than people

  10. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    The term adoption or adoptive filiation is understood as referring to the legal act by which family ties are created between two persons such that a relationship of fatherhood or motherhood is established between them. AIMS. The purpose of this study is to outline the problems derived from prenatal exposure to alcohol and other risk factors, from hypostimulation during the 'critical period' in institutionalised patients (especially those adopted from eastern European countries) and their relation with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This work also seeks to take a deeper look into the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these problems. These children have problems in terms of psychosocial relationships, behavioural problems, delayed language or reading development and, above all, ADHD. In practice it is extremely difficult to separate the two factors during the assessment of children adopted from eastern European countries in neuropaediatric consultations. Exactly how all these factors are interrelated is not well understood. There is a close relationship between prenatal exposure to alcohol and the consequences of adoption. There is a need for placebo-controlled randomised studies, with larger population samples, that test the benefits and profile of side effects, both with psychostimulants and with atomoxetine in this group of patients.

  11. Disorders of motor neurons manifested by hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapperon, A M; Attarian, S

    2017-05-01

    Neuronal and/or axonal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability is an important feature of motor neuron diseases. It results clinically in cramps and fasciculations. It is not specific to motor neuron diseases, and can occur in healthy subjects, as well as in various pathologies of the peripheral nervous system, including nerve hyperexcitability syndromes. Hyperexcitability plays an important and debated role in the pathophysiology of motor neuron diseases, especially in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The mechanisms causing hyperexcitability are not yet clearly identified. While most studies favor a distal axonal origin site of fasciculations, some of the fasciculations could be of cortical origin. The consequences of hyperexcitability are also discussed, whether it is rather protective or deleterious in the disease course. Fasciculations are depicted both clinically and using electromyogram, and more recently the interest of ultrasound has been highlighted. The importance of fasciculation potentials in the diagnosis of ALS led to changes in electrophysiological criteria at Awaji consensus conference. The contribution of these modifications to ALS diagnosis has been the subject of several studies. In clinical practice, it is necessary to distinguish fasciculations potentials of motor neuron disease from benign fasciculations. In most studies of fasciculation potentials in ALS, the presence of complex fasciculation potentials appears to be relevant for the diagnosis and the prognosis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  13. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  14. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna K; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children with ADHD, stigma in adults with ADHD, stigma in relatives or in people close to a patient with ADHD, and the influence of stigma on authorities' attitudes toward patients with ADHD. Variables identified to contribute to stigma in ADHD are public's uncertainty concerning the reliability/validity of an ADHD diagnosis and the related diagnostic assessment, public's perceived dangerousness of individuals with ADHD, socio-demographical factors as age, gender, and ethnicity of the respondent or the target individual with ADHD, stigmatization of ADHD treatment, for example public's skepticism toward ADHD medication and disclosure of diagnostic status as well as medication status of the individual with ADHD. The contribution of stigma associated with ADHD can be conceptualized as an underestimated risk factor, affecting treatment adherence, treatment efficacy, symptom aggravation, life satisfaction, and mentally well-being of individuals affected by ADHD. Public as well as health professionals' concepts about ADHD are highly diverse, setting individuals with an ADHD diagnosis at greater risk to get stigmatized.

  15. [A case of prolonged paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Ide, Shuhei; Iwasaki, Yuji; Kaga, Makiko; Arima, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH), after developing severe hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy because of cardiopulmonary arrest. She showed dramatic paroxysmal sympathetic activity with dystonia. She was treated with wide variety of medications against PSH, which were found to be effective in previous studies. Among them, morphine, bromocriptine, propranolol, and clonidine were effective in reducing the frequency of her attacks while gabapentin, baclofen, dantrolene, and benzodiazepine were ineffective. Though the paroxysms decreased markedly after the treatment, they could not be completely controlled beyond 500 days. Following the treatment, levels of plasma catecholamines and their urinary metabolites decreased to normal during inter- paroxysms. However, once a paroxysm had recurred, these levels were again very high. This case study is considered significant for two rea- sons. One is that PSH among children have been rarely reported, and the other is that this case of prolonged PSH delineated the transition of plasma catecholamines during the treatment. The excitatory: inhibitory ratio (EIR) model proposed by Baguley was considered while dis- cussing drug sensitivity in this case. Accumulation of similar case studies will help establish more effective treatment strategies and elucidate the pathophysiology of PSH.

  16. Mindfulness and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Susan L; Loo, Sandra K; Hale, T Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. One hundred and five adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the "Acting in Awareness" dimension, perhaps because of shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence.

  17. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, J; Breuer, S; Poeggel, G; Braun, K

    2017-03-01

    In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical observations revealed that early life stress impairs dopaminergic functions, we predicted that these symptoms can be normalized by treatment with methylphenidate. In line with our hypothesis, the behavioral analysis revealed that repeated ELS induced locomotor hyperactivity and reduced attention towards an emotionally relevant acoustic stimulus. Functional imaging using ( 14 C)-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose-autoradiography revealed that the behavioral symptoms are paralleled by metabolic hypoactivity of prefrontal, mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

  18. Testing the ability of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to accurately report the effects of medication on their behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Ardoin, S P; Martens, B K

    2000-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often treated with central nervous system stimulants, making the evaluation of medication effects an important topic for applied behavior analysts. Because assessment protocols emphasize informant reports and direct observations of child behavior, little is known about the extent to which children themselves can accurately report medication effects. Double-blind placebo-controlled procedures were used to examine whether 6 child...

  19. Maternal Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaaghas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD children (aged 6-12 years, selected via convenience sampling from October to December 2012. The subjects lived in districts 2 and 6 of Tehran and were referred to consultation centers. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42 and Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV questionnaires were completed by the subjects. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of the relationship between variables. Results: A positive correlation was found between maternal anxiety and children’s hyperactivity (P=0.05. In fact, high levels of maternal anxiety are accounted for various child-rearing problems such as children’s hyperactivity. Conclusion: High levels of maternal anxiety lead to child rearing problems, which in turn cause various disorders such as hyperactivity in children.

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and stress-related biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, S W N; Bijlenga, D; Verduijn, J; Bron, T I; Beekman, A T F; Kooij, J J S; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-05-01

    The current study examined whether (a) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms were associated with dysregulation of stress-related mechanisms, and (b) whether ADHD symptoms interact with affective disorders in their association with dysregulated stress-related mechanisms. Data were obtained from 2307 subjects participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Stress-related mechanisms were reflected by the following biomarkers: (1) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening curve, evening cortisol, cortisol suppression after a 0.5mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST)); (2) autonomic nervous system measures (heart rate, pre-ejection period, respiratory sinus arrhythmia); (3) inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha); (4) brain-derived neurotrophic factor. ADHD symptoms were measured using Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale and used both dichotomous (High ADHD symptoms (yes/no)) and continuous (Inattentive symptoms, Hyperactive/Impulsive symptoms, and the ADHD index). Regression analyses showed associations between High ADHD symptoms, Inattentive symptoms, the ADHD index and a higher cortisol awakening curve, between Hyperactive/Impulsive symptoms and less cortisol suppression after DST, and between Inattentive symptoms and a longer pre-ejection period. However, the associations with the cortisol awakening curve disappeared after adjustment for depressive and anxiety disorders. No associations were observed between ADHD symptoms and inflammatory markers or BDNF. ADHD symptoms did not interact with affective disorders in dysregulation of stress-related mechanisms. Some associations were observed between ADHD symptoms, the HPA-axis, and the pre-ejection period, but these were mostly driven by depressive and anxiety disorders. This study found no evidence that ADHD symptomatology was associated with dysregulations in inflammatory markers and BDNF. Consequently

  1. Teacher Response to the Methylphenidate (Ritalin) versus Placebo Status of Hyperactive Boys in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Carol K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Teacher behaviors toward hyperactive boys on methylphenidate (ritalin), toward hyperactive boys on placebo, and toward normal comparison peers were compared. Teachers were more intense and controlling toward hyperactive boys on placebo, but no differences emerged between comparison and medicated groups. Need for broader monitoring of treatment…

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Pergjika, Alba

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Although assessment tools exist, there is variability among them, and historically, parent-teacher agreement has not been consistent. Treatment algorithm for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers includes behavioral interventions first followed by psychopharmacologic treatment when behavioral therapies fail. Other nonpharmacologic and nonbehavioral interventions are discussed including the role of exercise and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperactivity and motoric activity in ADHD: Characterization, assessment, and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina eGawrilow

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1 We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in ADHD. (2 Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers. (3 Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD.

  4. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Katie Campbell

    2004-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 3% to 10% of children in the United States. Children with ADHD can have academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. There is also a higher risk of both cigarette smoking and substance abuse. Given this, the importance of treatment for ADHD needs to be underscored. This article will briefly review the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of ADHD, with particular focus on nonstimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities. Recent evidence suggests that the overall rate of medication treatment for ADHD has been increasing, with over 2 million children being treated with stimulants in 1997. With this increase, controversy has arisen over the possible association of stimulants with growth suppression. In addition, estimates indicate that as many as 30% of children with ADHD either do not respond to stimulant treatment or cannot tolerate the treatment secondary to side effects. This has lead to the consideration of treatment with both nonstimulant medications as well as alternative therapies, including diet, iron supplementation, herbal medications, and neurofeedback. Considering the various treatment options now available for ADHD, along with the complexity of the condition, clinical practice guidelines are emerging for the treatment of ADHD and will be discussed. ADHD continues to be a serious health problem. Adequate treatment is needed to avoid academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. This treatment includes consideration of stimulant medication, nonstimulant medication, as well as alternative therapies. The child with ADHD is likely better served with a mutimodal treatment plan, including medication, parent/school counseling, and behavioral therapy. Implementing an evidenced based algorithm for the treatment of ADHD may prove to be most effective.

  5. Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the published evidence for a role of zinc nutrition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A computer literature search was supplemented by the authors' knowledge. Numerous controlled studies report cross-sectional evidence of lower zinc tissue levels (serum, red cells, hair, urine, nails) in children who have ADHD, compared to normal controls and population norms. A few studies show correlations of zinc level with either clinical severity or a change thereof in response to stimulant or chemical challenge. Two placebo-controlled trials--one of zinc monotherapy, the other of zinc supplementation of methylphenidate--reported significant benefit. However, diagnostic procedures and sample representativeness were often not clear, and most such reports have come from countries and cultures with different diets and/or socioeconomic realities than are found in the United States (only one American sample in nine published reports). In particular, both positive clinical trials of zinc supplementation came from the Mid-East (Turkey and Iran), an area with suspected endemic zinc deficiency. The largest of these trials used zinc doses above the recommended upper tolerable limit and had a 2 in 3 dropout rate. It is not clear how well the accumulating evidence for a possible role of zinc in ADHD applies to middle-class American children. However, the evidence appears strong enough to warrant further controlled study in well-diagnosed samples representative of the socioeconomic spectrum. Hypothesis-testing clinical trials are needed of this potential treatment that, if found effective, might become a relatively safe, cheap substitute for, or adjunct to, current treatments in some patients. At present, it should remain an investigational treatment.

  6. Relationship between impulsivity, hyperactivity and working memory: a differential analysis in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellu-Hagedorn Françoise

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impulsivity is a behavioural trait that comprises several distinct processes. It is a key feature of many psychopathologies such as mania, addictive disorders or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders. To date, the aspects of impulsiveness involved in these pathologies have not yet been explicitly defined. In these disorders, sensation or drug seeking and cognitive deficits are closely related, but the nature of these relationships remains largely unknown. A new animal model of impulsiveness based on spontaneous inter-individual differences is proposed here to help clarify the relationship between characteristic aspects of impulsive-related pathologies. Methods Rats were divided into sub-groups according to their scores in three operant tasks with varying degrees of behavioural inhibition, timing and motor vs. cognitive impulsivity demands. These tasks included a fixed consecutive number schedule (ability to complete an action to receive a reinforcer, a multiple fixed-interval/extinction schedule of reinforcement (high level of responding, and a delayed reward task (delay discounting. In addition, measurements of locomotor responses to novelty and to amphetamine in a circular corridor, and working memory in an 8-arm radial maze were obtained. Results Substantial behavioural inter-individual differences were observed in each task, whereas few inter-task relationships were found. Impulsive rats, as defined in a task requiring inhibition of premature responses, presented a higher increase in amphetamine-induced locomotion. Reduced working memory performance was only observed in hyperactive rats in an extinction schedule. Conclusion This novel approach shows that distinct aspects of impulsiveness and hyperactivity can be expressed based on large inter-individual differences that vary from poorly to highly adapted behaviours ones in a normal population of rats. Inhibitory deficit was related to a higher response to

  7. [Sleeping disorders can imitate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan Ib; Bilenberg, Niels

    2005-10-10

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and sleeping difficulties. Sleeping disorders are reported in more than 50% of children with ADHD. On the other hand, symptoms of sleep disorder, inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness can imitate the symptoms of ADHD. We describe a 5(1/2)-year-old boy with symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal. His sleep was disturbed, with late sleep onset and frequent awakening during the night. After correction of his sleep pattern, the symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal disappeared.

  8. Association between childhood dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adulthood clinical severity of bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etain, Bruno; Lajnef, M; Loftus, J; Henry, C; Raust, A; Gard, S; Kahn, J P; Leboyer, M; Scott, J; Bellivier, F

    2017-04-01

    Clinical features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be frequently observed in cases with bipolar disorders and associated with greater severity of bipolar disorders. Although designed as a screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Wender Utah Rating Scale could, given its factorial structure, be useful in investigating the early history of impulsive, inattentive or mood-related symptoms among patients with bipolar disorders. We rated the Wender Utah Rating Scale in 276 adult bipolar disorder cases and 228 healthy controls and tested its factorial structure and any associations with bipolar disorder phenomenology. We confirmed a three-factor structure for the Wender Utah Rating Scale (' impulsivity/temper', ' inattentiveness' and ' mood/self-esteem'). Cases and controls differed significantly on Wender Utah Rating Scale total score and sub-scale scores ( p-values bipolar disorder cases versus 5% of controls were classified as ' WURS positive' (odds ratio = 5.21 [2.73-9.95]). In bipolar disorders, higher Wender Utah Rating Scale score was associated with earlier age at onset, severity of suicidal behaviors and polysubstance misuse; multivariate analyses, controlling for age and gender, confirmed the associations with age at onset ( p = 0.001) and alcohol and substance misuse ( p = 0.001). Adults with bipolar disorders who reported higher levels of childhood symptoms on the Wender Utah Rating Scale presented a more severe expression of bipolar disorders in terms of age at onset and comorbidity. The Wender Utah Rating Scale could be employed to screen for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder but also for ' at-risk behaviors' in adult bipolar disorder cases and possibly for prodromal signs of early onset in high-risk subjects.

  9. Reactive aggression and peer victimization from pre-kindergarten to first grade: accounting for hyperactivity and teacher-child conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runions, Kevin C

    2014-12-01

    The role of reactive aggression in the development of peer victimization remains unclear due in part to a failure to account for confounding problems of behavioural undercontrol (e.g., hyperactivity). As well, the school social context has rarely been examined to see whether these risks are mediated by relationships with teachers. This study tests the prospective relations between reactive aggression, hyperactivity, victimization, and teacher-child (T-C) relationship, to determine whether conflict mediates the relationships between externalizing problems and victimization. A sample of 1,114 Australian students were followed from pre-kindergarten through first grade. Cross-lagged path analyses were conducted, with comparison of gender-moderating models and autocorrelation models. Full-information maximum likelihood was deployed to account for missingness. Best fitting models found that the relationship of early externalizing problems to later victimization was mediated by T-C conflict. No evidence of victimization increasing externalizing problems nor gender differences were observed. T-C conflict in kindergarten predicted subsequent increases in victimization, reactive aggression, and hyperactivity. Understanding the processes whereby externalizing problems confer risk of victimization involves understanding the whole social context of classrooms, including relationships with teachers. Finer-grained research is needed to better understand how peer dynamics may be influenced by observation of T-C relationships. Pre-service teacher education needs to ensure a focus on the potential social impact of teacher's relationships with students. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Comorbidity of personality disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza Eguskiza, Luis Javier; Bellón, Jose M; Mora, María

    2016-03-08

    A high comorbidity has been observed among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and categorical personality disorders (PD). A study is conducted on the dimensional traits associated with ADHD and PD, in order to determine whether there are any differences. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 78 outpatients attending a Mental Health Clinic in Arganda (Madrid) from January 2013 to June 2015. ADHD diagnosis was evaluated with the CAARS, the CAADID, and the WURS scales, and the PD with the SCID-II-DSM-IV questionnaire. None of the patients were receiving any stimulant or atomoxetine before the study, and all patients signed the informed consent before the study. A high comorbidity was found with all PD clusters, especially with hyperactive and combined type ADHD. Depressive PD was associated with inattentive ADHD. In spite of using a questionnaire to evaluate PD, some differences can be observed between specific ADHD types and PD. More studies are needed to investigate dimensional personality traits in order to improve the diagnosis and therapeutics goals. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  12. Stent induced gastric wall erosion and endoscopic retrieval of nonadjustable gastric band: a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Todd D; Miller, Nathan; Brown, Nicholas; Snyder, Brad E; Wilson, Erik B

    2013-05-01

    In gastrointestinal surgery, specifically in bariatric surgery, there are many types of fixed bands used for restriction and there are a multitude reasons that might eventually be an impetus for the removal of those bands. Bands consisting of Marlex or non silastic materials can be extremely difficult to remove. Intraoperative complications removing fixed bands include the difficulty in locating the band, inability to remove all of the band, and damage to surrounding structures including gastrotomies. Removal of eroded bands endoscopically may pose less risk. Potentially, forced erosion may be an easier modality than surgery, allowing revision without having to deal with the actual band at the time of definitive revision surgery. A retrospective case series developed from a university single institution bariatric practice setting was utilized. Endpoints for the study include success of band removal, complications, length of time the stent was present, and the type of stent. A total of 15 consecutive cases utilizing endoscopic stenting to actively induce fixed gastric band erosion for subsequent endoscopic removal were reviewed. There was an 87 % success rate in complete band removal with partial removal of the remaining bands that resolved the patient's symptoms. A complication rate of 27 % was recorded among the 15 patients, consisting of pain and/or nausea and vomiting. The mean time period of the placement of the stent prior to removal or attempted removal was 16.3 days. Endoscopic forced erosion of fixed gastric bands is feasible, safe, and may offer an advantage over laparoscopic removal. This technique is especially applicable for gastric obstruction from fixed bands, prior to large and definitive revision surgeries, or anticipated hostile anatomy that might preclude an abdominal operation altogether.

  13. Chemosensory processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Anna; Scholz-Hehn, Deborah; Wiesner, Christian D; Wolff, Stephan; Bergmann, Til O; van Eimeren, Thilo; Lentfer, Luisa; Baving, Lioba; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    In attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) not only deficits in dopamine-related cognitive functioning have been found but also a lower dopamine-sensitive olfactory threshold. The aim of the present study was to proof that only olfactory but not trigeminal sensitivity is increased in ADHD. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to show increased olfactory bulb (OB) volume- a structure which is strongly shaped by olfactory performance through the mechanism of neuroplasticity (e.g. synaptogenesis). To elucidate whether cortical mechanisms are involved in altered olfaction in ADHD, functional MRI (fMRI) was introduced. A total of 18 boys with ADHD and 17 healthy controls (aged 7-12) were included in the study. Olfactory as well as trigeminal detection thresholds were examined. OB sizes were measured by means of structural MRI and an analysis of effective functional (fMRI) coupling of primary olfactory cortex was conducted. The frontal piriform cortex (fPIR) was chosen as seed region because of its importance in processing both trigeminal and olfactory stimuli as well as having profound influence on inner OB-signaling. Increased olfactory sensitivity as well as an increase in OB volume was found in ADHD. There were no group differences in sensitivity towards a trigeminal stimulus. Compared to healthy controls, the fPIR in ADHD was more positively coupled with structures belonging to the salience network during olfactory and, to a lesser extent, during trigeminal stimulation. Olfactory functioning is superior in subjects with ADHD. The observed increase in OB volume may relate to higher olfactory sensitivity in terms of neuroplasticity. During the processing of chemosensory stimuli, the primary olfactory cortex in ADHD is differently coupled to higher cortical structures which might indicate an altered top-down influence on OB structure and function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anxiety in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Lycett, Kate; Efron, Daryl; Mensah, Fiona; Gerner, Bibi; Hiscock, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    Although anxiety is common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is unclear how anxiety influences the lives of these children. This study examined the association between anxiety comorbidities and functioning by comparing children with ADHD and no, 1, or ≥2 anxiety comorbidities. Differential associations were examined by current ADHD presentation (subtype). Children with diagnostically confirmed ADHD (N = 392; 5-13 years) were recruited via 21 pediatrician practices across Victoria, Australia. Anxiety was assessed by using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Functional measures included parent-reported: quality of life (QoL; Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0), behavior and peer problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), daily functioning (Daily Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior), and school attendance. Teacher-reported behavior and peer problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) were also examined. Linear and logistic regression controlled for ADHD severity, medication use, comorbidities, and demographic factors. Children with ≥2 anxiety comorbidities (n = 143; 39%) had poorer QoL (effect size: -0.8) and more difficulties with behavior (effect size: 0.4) and daily functioning (effect size: 0.3) than children without anxiety (n = 132; 36%). Poorer functioning was not observed for children with 1 anxiety comorbidity (n = 95; 26%). Two or more anxiety comorbidities were associated with poorer functioning for children with both ADHD-Inattentive and ADHD-Combined presentation. Children with ADHD demonstrate poorer QoL, daily functioning and behavior when ≥2 anxiety comorbidities are present. Future research should examine whether treating anxiety in children with ADHD improves functional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  16. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  17. [The role of zinc in the treatment of hyperactivity disorder in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Dovhanj, Jasna; Curković, Mario; Dodig-Radić, Josipa; Degmecić, Dunja

    2009-10-01

    Zinc is an essential cofactor of more than 100 enzymes, including metalloenzymes and metalloenzyme complexes, which are necessary in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins and nucleic acids. It is an important factor in the metabolism of neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, and for maintaining brain structure and function. Dopamine is one of the most important factors in the pathophysiology of hyperactivity disorder, and the hormone melatonin has an important role in the regulation of dopamine. Because zinc is necessary in the metabolism of melatonin, it can be assumed that zinc is a very important factor in the treatment of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is known that deficit of some minerals and vitamins is connected with hyperkinetic disorder. Preliminary investigations in humans show that many children with ADHD have lower zinc concentration in relation to healthy children. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate has favorable effects in the treatment of ADHD children, pointing to the possible association of zinc deficit and ADHD pathophysiology. Zinc concentration can only point to some other factors (malnutrition) that can lead to ADHD, but is not a factor that has a causative role in ADHD. Therefore, zinc supplementation to nutrition or to ADHD therapy may be of great benefit in ADHD children with zinc deficit or low plasma zinc concentration. ADHD occurs in different cultures, mostly before seven years of age. In children younger than five years it is difficult to make an accurate diagnosis because their behavior is more variable than in older children. Hyperactive disorder is mostly observed in younger age, i.e. in childhood and adolescence. The majority of the main characteristics are less pronounced or completely lost in adult age. In the 1960s, the disorder was named "minimal cerebral dysfunction" and was most often the consequence of head trauma or low birth weight. Later, the term was changed as hyperactive

  18. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Nonattention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mostafa; Akouchekian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Alireza; Mahaki, Behzad; Rezaei, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological problem during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate multiple intelligences profiles of children with ADHD in comparison with non-ADHD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was done on 50 children of 6–13 years old in two groups of with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD were referred to Clinics of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. Samples were selected based on clinical interview (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV and parent–teacher strengths and difficulties questionnaire), which was done by psychiatrist and psychologist. Raven intelligence quotient (IQ) test was used, and the findings were compared to the results of multiple intelligences test. Data analysis was done using a multivariate analysis of covariance using SPSS20 software. Results: Comparing the profiles of multiple intelligence among two groups, there are more kinds of multiple intelligences in control group than ADHD group, a difference which has been more significant in logical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence (P intelligences in two groups (P > 0.05). The IQ average score in the control group and ADHD group was 102.42 ± 16.26 and 96.72 ± 16.06, respectively, that reveals the negative effect of ADHD on IQ average value. There was an insignificance relationship between linguistic and naturalist intelligence (P > 0.05). However, in other kinds of multiple intelligences, direct and significant relationships were observed (P interpersonal, and intrapersonal profiles. PMID:29285478

  19. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Nonattention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mostafa; Akouchekian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Alireza; Mahaki, Behzad; Rezaei, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological problem during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate multiple intelligences profiles of children with ADHD in comparison with non-ADHD. This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was done on 50 children of 6-13 years old in two groups of with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD were referred to Clinics of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. Samples were selected based on clinical interview (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV and parent-teacher strengths and difficulties questionnaire), which was done by psychiatrist and psychologist. Raven intelligence quotient (IQ) test was used, and the findings were compared to the results of multiple intelligences test. Data analysis was done using a multivariate analysis of covariance using SPSS20 software. Comparing the profiles of multiple intelligence among two groups, there are more kinds of multiple intelligences in control group than ADHD group, a difference which has been more significant in logical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence ( P multiple intelligences in two groups ( P > 0.05). The IQ average score in the control group and ADHD group was 102.42 ± 16.26 and 96.72 ± 16.06, respectively, that reveals the negative effect of ADHD on IQ average value. There was an insignificance relationship between linguistic and naturalist intelligence ( P > 0.05). However, in other kinds of multiple intelligences, direct and significant relationships were observed ( P < 0.05). Since the levels of IQ (Raven test) and MI in control group were more significant than ADHD group, ADHD is likely to be associated with logical-mathematical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal profiles.

  20. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Nonattention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Najafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common psychological problem during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate multiple intelligences profiles of children with ADHD in comparison with non-ADHD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was done on 50 children of 6–13 years old in two groups of with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD were referred to Clinics of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. Samples were selected based on clinical interview (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV and parent–teacher strengths and difficulties questionnaire, which was done by psychiatrist and psychologist. Raven intelligence quotient (IQ test was used, and the findings were compared to the results of multiple intelligences test. Data analysis was done using a multivariate analysis of covariance using SPSS20 software. Results: Comparing the profiles of multiple intelligence among two groups, there are more kinds of multiple intelligences in control group than ADHD group, a difference which has been more significant in logical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence (P 0.05. The IQ average score in the control group and ADHD group was 102.42 ± 16.26 and 96.72 ± 16.06, respectively, that reveals the negative effect of ADHD on IQ average value. There was an insignificance relationship between linguistic and naturalist intelligence (P > 0.05. However, in other kinds of multiple intelligences, direct and significant relationships were observed (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Since the levels of IQ (Raven test and MI in control group were more significant than ADHD group, ADHD is likely to be associated with logical-mathematical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal profiles.

  1. Persistence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-14

    Feb 14, 2006 ... Introduction. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which is marked by inattention, distractibility and impulsivity, has long been known as a childhood disorder. ADHD is the most common emotional, cognitive and behavioural disorder treated in children affecting an estimated 4-12% of school aged ...

  2. Classroom Discipline with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Edward A.; Kirby, Sandra H.

    1994-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often discipline problems, but their disruptive behavior is usually not willful or intentional. After describing the educational history of one person with ADHD, the article makes suggestions for disciplining children with ADHD in the classroom. (SM)

  3. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  4. Structural basis for hyperactivity of cN-II mutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnízda, Aleš; Škerlová, Jana; Šinalová, Martina; Pachl, Petr; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Fábry, Milan; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Veverka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 4 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology. Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : cN-II mutants * enzyme hyperactivity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  5. Interference Control in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Papanikolau, Alky; van Gellicum-Bijlhout, Joyce; van Oostenbruggen, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Post-Uiterweer, Annebeth; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naive children with ADHD (n = 35 and n = 51 in Experiments…

  6. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible

  7. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  8. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  9. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…

  10. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  12. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Functional Defecation Disorders in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Vriesman, Mana H.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; van Dijk, Marieke; Beelen, Maureen L. R.; Groeneweg, Michael; Stoffelsen, Reino J.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children presenting with functional defecation disorders (FDDs) and to assess the prevalence of FDDs in children with ADHD. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study was carried out

  14. The Role of Drugs, Diet, and Food Additives in Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Mary E.

    A variety of causes have been suggested for hyperactivity: anoxia and other adverse birth conditions, genetic factors, delayed maturation, maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy, interaction of temperament and environment, lead poisoning, radiation stress, allergy and food additives, and deprivation of required stimulation. Treatments…

  15. Infant Crying and Risk of Hyperactivity and Learning Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants with persistent crying (PC in the first 6 months (mean age 3.8 months were reassessed at 8 to 10 years of age and compared with 64 classroom controls for hyperactivity, conduct problems and academic difficulties in a prospective study at the University of Hertfordshire, UK.

  16. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mulligan, A.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  19. GAME BIOFEEDBACK TECHNOLOGY IN ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stoller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when using betastimulating game neurofeedback. The dynamics of segmental characteristics of the alpha rhythm and θ/β ratio for different groups of successful training. Evaluate the effectiveness of training in terms of the number of ADHD symptoms (at the beginning and end of the training.

  20. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop

  1. Assessing Stimulant Treatment of Hyperactivity by Bristol Social Adjustment Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, James

    Eighteen medically diagnosed hyperactive boys, matched individually for age, sex, teacher defined ability, and school class, took part in a double blind, placebo controlled trial of the effects of Ritalin on social behavior as measured by global rating scales. Behavior ratings by parents and teachers improved significantly when Ss were given…

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2001-01-01

    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  3. Sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Permatawati

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion The proportion of sleep disorder in children with ADHD is relatively high, with the majority having a disorder of initiating and maintaining sleep. Children with combined type ADHD experience a higher amount of sleep disorder than those with either the inattention or hyperactive-impulsive types of ADHD. Children with poor sleep hygiene have significantly more severe sleep disorders.

  4. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Why should we pay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, with a chronic, costly and debilitating course if untreated. Limited access to diagnosis and treatment for adults with ADHD contributes to the cost of the disorder and the burden of disease. Aim: This study aims to identify ...

  6. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among school children in Kinshasa, an African urban setting. Methods: The 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale (DBD), which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for ...

  7. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A database analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, costly and debilitating disorder. In South Africa (SA), access to funding for care and treatment of ADHD is limited, and research is lacking. Aim: This study aimed to establish the current situation with regard to the psychiatric management of and ...

  8. Community survey of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuro-developmental condition with early onset. ADHD affects children worldwide. However, there is a variation in the prevalence across different countries. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the prevalence. To provide the ...

  9. The medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses specifically on the medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the options currently available in South Africa. References are made to current thinking on the etiology of this disorder and the pharmacological principles involved in its treatment. This review will not try to ...

  10. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in children and adolescents. L Scribante. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v15i2.205 · AJOL African Journals ...

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all medical students who gave consent to participate in the study. Undertaken at Moi University's School of Medicine in ...

  13. Wildland firefighters and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Palmer; Steven Gaskill; Joe Domitrovich; Marcy McNamara; Brian Knutson; Alysha. Spear

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Research has indicated that the prevalence rate of ADHD in adult populations is approximately 4.4 percent and that the majority of those cases go untreated (Kessler et al. 2006). To date,...

  14. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Function Impairment: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Lindsey.

    2016-01-01

    As with any cognitive ability, attention is vulnerable to dysfunction. The most common attentional problem is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This brief overview will highlight the symptoms and deficits associated with ADHD, its prevalence in today’s society, the association between executive function impairment and ADHD using Barkley’s (1997) work, and the personal and societal effects of the disorder.

  16. Nurse evaluation of hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Hoek, Hans W.; Kas, Martien J.H.; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) manifest elevated levels of physical activity or hyperactivity. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate activity levels, mostly questionnaires but also expensive and invasive methods such as actometry or other measurements of energy

  17. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  18. Language impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa Refaat El Sady

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Abstract Language impairment (Li) is a highly prevalent comorbidity in children with psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems. The most common psychiatric diagnosis among children with. Li is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and conversely, Li is a frequent comorbidity found in children ...

  19. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asherson, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V; Rohde, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as

  20. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  1. Source Discrimination in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity

  2. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  3. [Electroencephalographic alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio-Nieto, José O; Borbolla-Sala, Manuel E; Gallegos-Dimas, Arturo

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse and determine the electroencephalographic alterations presented in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between 4 and 14 years of age. The research consisted in a prospective observation-based analytical study, conducted between January and July 2010, to detect electroencephalographic abnormalities in the population of children diagnosed with ADHD who visited the Doctor Rodolfo Nieto Padron Children's Hospital. The Latin-American ADHD questionnaire and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, were administered, together with a survey for detecting risk factors. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was later performed and a database was set up to record information about age, sex, perinatal asphyxia, family history of seizures, medicine used to control ADHD, the presence of tics and itemised findings from the EEG. A note was made of whether the EEG trace was normal or abnormal and, in the case of the latter, the location of the EEG phenomenon was stated. A total of 50 patients with EEG findings were included, with an average of 7.3 years; there was a predominance of male patients, with 36 males (72%) versus 14 females (28%). We found 21 children with motor tics (42%) and four with a history of having had seizures (8%), two of whom had previously been diagnosed with epilepsy. The total number of EEG within normal limits was 31 (34.5%) and there were 19 that could be considered abnormal (15.5%). Although the presence of abnormal EEG patterns existed in a significant group, it was not related to the presence of tics in the patients. Moreover, a direct relationship was found between the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. No correlation was observed between poor educational achievement and an abnormal EEG. EEG is the best study for determining whether there are epileptogenic foci, although there is no clinical correlation. The most frequent location of the abnormalities

  4. Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I exhibits aberrant hyperactivity in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzi Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that NADH/NAD+ redox balance is heavily perturbed in diabetes, and the NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance is a major source of oxidative stress in diabetic tissues. In mitochondria, complex I is the only site for NADH oxidation and NAD+ regeneration and is also a major site for production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. Yet how complex I responds to the NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance and any potential consequences of such response in diabetic pancreas have not been investigated. We report here that pancreatic mitochondrial complex I showed aberrant hyperactivity in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Further studies focusing on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes indicate that complex I hyperactivity could be attenuated by metformin. Moreover, complex I hyperactivity was accompanied by increased activities of complexes II to IV, but not complex V, suggesting that overflow of NADH via complex I in diabetes could be diverted to ROS production. Indeed in diabetic pancreas, ROS production and oxidative stress increased and mitochondrial ATP production decreased, which can be attributed to impaired pancreatic mitochondrial membrane potential that is responsible for increased cell death. Additionally, cellular defense systems such as glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sirtuin 3, and NQO1 were found to be compromised in diabetic pancreas. Our findings point to the direction that complex I aberrant hyperactivity in pancreas could be a major source of oxidative stress and β cell failure in diabetes. Therefore, inhibiting pancreatic complex I hyperactivity and attenuating its ROS production by various means in diabetes might serve as a promising approach for anti-diabetic therapies.

  5. Aripiprazole Selectively Reduces Motor Tics in a Young Animal Model for Tourette's Syndrome and Comorbid Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Francesca; Nespoli, Ester; Abaei, Alireza; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Deelchand, Dinesh K; Fegert, Jörg; Rasche, Volker; Hengerer, Bastian; Boeckers, Tobias M

    2018-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized primarily by motor and vocal tics. Comorbidities such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are observed in over 50% of TS patients. We applied aripiprazole in a juvenile rat model that displays motor tics and hyperactivity. We additionally assessed the amount of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) as an indicator for the presence of vocal tics and evaluated the changes in the striatal neurometabolism using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 11.7T. Thirty-one juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) underwent bicuculline striatal microinjection and treatment with either aripiprazole or vehicle. Control groups were sham operated and sham injected. Behavior, USVs, and striatal neurochemical profile were analyzed at early, middle, and late adolescence (postnatal days 35 to 50). Bicuculline microinjections in the dorsolateral striatum induced motor tics in SHR juvenile rats. Acute aripiprazole administration selectively reduced both tic frequency and latency, whereas stereotypies, USVs, and hyperactivity remained unaltered. The striatal neurochemical profile was only moderately altered after tic-induction and was not affected by systemic drug treatment. When applied to a young rat model that provides high degrees of construct, face, and predictive validity for TS and comorbid ADHD, aripiprazole selectively reduces motor tics, revealing that tics and stereotypies are distinct phenomena in line with clinical treatment of patients. Finally, our 1H-MRS results suggest a critical revision of the striatal role in the hypothesized cortico-striatal dysregulation in TS pathophysiology.

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Mothers and Fathers: Family Level Interactions in Relation to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David; Johnston, Charlotte; Noyes, Amira; Stewart, Kurtis; Weiss, Margaret D

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies linking parent ADHD symptoms to parenting have typically focused on each parent individually. To provide a broader understanding of family context, in this study, levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in mothers and fathers were examined, both individually and in combination, in relation to negative parenting and child-rearing disagreements. Two-parent families of 5 to 13 year old boys (126 with ADHD and 53 typically developing) participated. Parents reported their own ADHD symptoms and their perceptions of child-rearing disagreements. Parenting was measured using self-, partner-, and child-reports as well as observations. Controlling for child ADHD symptoms, inattention symptoms in fathers predicted parenting difficulties. For mothers, inattention symptoms were linked to parenting problems only when fathers also had high levels of inattention. In contrast, parenting was most problematic for both mothers and fathers in families in which fathers had higher and mothers had lower levels hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. These results remained essentially unchanged when child externalizing behavior and mother depression and hostility were controlled, but father depression reduced the significance of some interactions. The results highlight the importance of the match between father and mother levels of symptoms, and point to differential relations of parenting to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms in parents.

  7. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Central administration of dipeptides, beta-alanyl-BCAAs, induces hyperactivity in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denbow D Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine is a putative neurotransmitter and has a possible role in neuron-glia cell interactions. Previously, we reported that carnosine induced hyperactivity in chicks when intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v. administered. In the present study, we focused on other β-alanyl dipeptides to determine if they have novel functions. Results In Experiment 1, i.c.v. injection of β-alanyl-L-leucine, but not β-alanyl-glycine, induced hyperactivity behavior as observed with carnosine. Both carnosine and β-alanyl-L-leucine stimulated corticosterone release. Thus, dipeptides of β-alanyl-branched chain amino acids were compared in Experiment 2. The i.c.v. injection of β-alanyl-L-isoleucine caused a similar response as β-alanyl-L-leucine, but β-alanyl-L-valine was somewhat less effective than the other two dipeptides. β-Alanyl-L-leucine strongly stimulated, and the other two dipeptides tended to stimulate, corticosterone release. Conclusion These results suggest that central β-alanyl-branched chain amino acid stimulates activity in chicks through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We named β-alanyl-L-leucine, β-alanyl-L-isoleucine and β-alanyl-L-valine as Excitin-1, Excitin-2 and Excitin-3, respectively.

  9. Comparative efficacy of Adderall and methylphenidate in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph; Roe, Christine

    2002-10-01

    Because methylphenidate is currently the most widely prescribed medication for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, several studies have used it as the active comparator medication for evaluating the efficacy of a newer stimulant, Adderall. These prior studies show Adderall to be superior to placebo and suggest it is at least as effective as the standard-release form of methylphenidate and has a longer duration of action. Although these initial studies provide useful information for clinicians treating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, they are difficult to interpret because findings vary among studies and among the different types of measures used within each study. To provide a clearer picture of what conclusions can be drawn from these studies, we performed a meta-analysis. Data from the four available studies suggest that Adderall has a small but statistically significant advantage over the standard-release form of methylphenidate. This advantage was observed for both symptom measures and global ratings but was strongest for global ratings. The effect of Adderall was significant for clinician and parent ratings but not for teacher ratings and was significant for both fixed-dose and best-dose designs.

  10. [Suicidal Behavior and Attention Decifit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents of Medellin (Colombia), 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Bernal, Diana; Bonfante-Olivares, Laura; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Berbesi-Fernández, Dedsy; Sierra-Hincapié, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem. In Colombia, teenagers are considered a group at high risk for suicidal behavior. To explore the possible association between suicidal behavior and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents of Medellin. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied to a total of 447 adolescents and the sociodemographic, clinical, familiar, and life event variables of interest were analyzed. The descriptive analysis of qualitative variables are presented as absolute values and frequencies, and the age was described with median [interquartile range]. A logistic regression model was constructed with explanatory variables that showed statistical association. Data were analyzed with SPSS® software version 21.0. Of the total, 59.1% were female, and the median age was 16 [14-18] years. Suicidal behavior was presented in 31% of females and 23% of males. Attention deficit was present in 6.3% of adolescents. The logistic regression analysis showed that the variables that best explained the suicidal behavior of adolescents were: female sex, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and cocaine use. The diagnosis and early intervention of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children may be a useful strategy in the prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of the cerebellum in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder--combined type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jesse C; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R

    2011-06-01

    Studies of healthy individuals and those with cerebellar damage have implicated the cerebellum in a variety of cognitive and behavioral processes. Decreased cerebellar volume has been found in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and differentially related to behavioral outcomes. The present study investigated whether smaller cerebellar vermis volume was present in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) compared with controls and whether volume related to parent- and teacher-reported levels of ADHD symptomatology. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms were acquired for 32 children diagnosed with ADHD-C and 15 typically developing controls. Participants were right-handed, had no comorbid diagnoses of learning disabilities, conduct disorder, or affective/mood disorder, and were 9 to 15 years of age. Participants with ADHD-C showed significantly smaller volume in the posterior inferior vermis compared with controls. No statistically significant differences were observed for cerebral volume, anterior vermis volume, posterior superior volume, or total cerebellar volume. Regression analyses indicated that a significant amount of the variance in parent-reported Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Hyperactivity and Attention and Conners Restless/Impulsive ratings was explained by volume of the posterior inferior vermis. Consistent with previous studies, children with ADHD had smaller volume in the posterior inferior vermis. New findings emerged with smaller volume of the posterior inferior vermis predicting a significant amount of the variance in parent-reported hyperactivity, attention, and restlessness/impulsivity. Thus, symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention in ADHD may be partly explained by smaller volume of the cerebellar vermis and its connections within the cerebrum. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Characterizing operant hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jade C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Operant hyperactivity, the emission of reinforced responses at an inordinately high rate, has been reported in children with ADHD and in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR, the most widely studied animal model of ADHD. The SHR emits behavior at hyperactive levels, relative to a normoactive strain, only when such behavior is seldom reinforced. Because of its dependence on rate of reinforcement, operant hyperactivity appears to be driven primarily by incentive motivation, not motoric capacity. This claim was evaluated in the present study using a novel strategy, based on the organization of behavior in bouts of reinforced responses separated by pauses. Method Male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and Wistar rats (WIS were exposed each to a multiple variable-interval schedule of sucrose reinforcement (12, 24, 48, 96, and 192 s between post-natal days (PND 48 and 93. Responding in each schedule was examined in two epochs, PND 58-62 and 89-93. Parameters of response-reinforcement functions (Herrnstein's hyperbola and bout-organized behavior were estimated in each epoch. Results SHR emitted higher response rates than WKY and WIS, but only when rate of reinforcement was low (fewer than 2 reinforcers per minute, and particularly in the second epoch. Estimates of Herrnstein's hyperbola parameters suggested the primacy of motivational over motoric factors driving the response-rate differential. Across epochs and schedules, a more detailed analysis of response bouts by SHR revealed that these were shorter than those by WKY, but more frequent than those by WKY and WIS. Differences in bout length subsided between epochs, but differences in bout-initiation rate were exacerbated. These results were interpreted in light of robust evidence linking changes in bout-organization parameters and experimental manipulations of motivation and response-reinforcement contingency. Conclusions Operant hyperactivity in SHR was confirmed. Although incentive

  13. The Effect of Stress Management Program Using Cognitive Behavior Approach on Mental Health of the Mothers of the Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Zarei, Shekufe; Alavi Shooshtari, Ali; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2015-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management program using cognitive behavior approach on mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this interventional study, 90 mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were randomly allocated into three intervention, placebo, and control groups. The general health questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Besides, stress was assessed through the depression-anxiety-stress scale. The two instruments were completed at baseline, immediately after, and one month after the intervention by the mothers. Afterwards, within group comparisons were made using one-sample repeated measurement ANOVA. One-way ANOVA was used for inter group comparisons. Mothers in the placebo group only participated in meetings to talk and express feelings without receiving any interventions. At the baseline, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding the means of stress, anxiety, depression, and mental health. However, a significant difference was observed in the mean score of stress immediately after the intervention (P = 0.033). The results also showed a significant difference among the three groups regarding the mean score of mental health (P mental health score remained significant only in the intervention group (P mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  14. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N; Skogli, Erik W; Hovik, Kjell T; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16 years) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 25 months later. The children were given a letter/number sequencing task to assess verbal working memory. The performance of children with high-functioning autism on verbal working memory did not improve after 2 years, while improvement was observed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. The results indicate a different developmental trajectory for verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. More research is needed to construct a developmental framework more suitable for children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD.

  16. Propranolol for Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity with Lateralizing Hyperhidrosis after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Siefferman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain injury can lead to impaired cortical inhibition of the hypothalamus, resulting in increased sympathetic nervous system activation. Symptoms of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity may include hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, vasodilation, and hyperhidrosis. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who suffered from a left middle cerebral artery stroke and subsequently developed central fever, contralateral temperature change, and hyperhidrosis. His symptoms abated with low-dose propranolol and then returned upon discontinuation. Restarting propranolol again stopped his symptoms. This represents the first report of propranolol being used for unilateral dysautonomia after stroke. Propranolol is a lipophilic nonselective beta-blocker which easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and may be used to treat paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity.

  17. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  18. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  19. Regional brain network organization distinguishes the combined and inattentive subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline F. Saad; Kristi R. Griffiths; Michael R. Kohn; Simon Clarke; Leanne M. Williams; Mayuresh S. Korgaonkar

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized clinically by hyperactive/impulsive and/or inattentive symptoms which determine diagnostic subtypes as Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-HI), Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and Combined (ADHD-C). Neuroanatomically though we do not yet know if these clinical subtypes reflect distinct aberrations in underlying brain organization. We imaged 34 ADHD participants defined using DSM-IV criteria as ADHD-I (n?=?16) or as ADH...

  20. Diagnostic Issues and Gender Differences of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Valdovinos, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This literature review looks at different studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and the findings on gender differences. Many studies have analyzed male and femaleADHD behaviors, cognitive functioning, IQ, task performance, and parent/teacher and selfreportedratings. Most studies have found that the results for gender differences vary due to thevarying sample selection methods that they use, which include clinical and community samples,sample size, culture, and age. Results...

  1. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Neto, Francisco; Goulardins, Juliana B.; Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Oliveira, Jorge A. de

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls), aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial ...

  2. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuermaier, Anselm BM; Tucha, Lara; Mueller, Anna K; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers have an important role for the individual development as they accompany students for a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to explore stigmatizing attitudes in teachers towards adults...

  3. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. METHODS: A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was devel...

  4. Sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Permatawati; Agung Triono; Mei Neni Sitaresmi

    2018-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral abnormality that commonly occurs among children. Sleep disorders are comorbid with ADHD. Sleep disorders in Indonesian children with ADHD have not been widely studied. Objective To understand the proportion and factors that influence sleep disorders in children with ADHD. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 54 children aged 3-14 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD by a pediatric growth and develo...

  5. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador, Juan Antonio; Aznar Casanova, José Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro Alves, Nelson; Moreno Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  6. Cognitive-behavioural programme for children with attention hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects between 1% and 20% of school-aged children. Many aspects of the disorder remain largely speculative including the treatment of it, and often these children experience significant learning, social and emotional difficulties from their childhood years through to adulthood. Pharmacological treatment of the disorder has gained wide acceptance and it has achieved much success in bringing about positive short-term changes in the behavi...

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese, Samuele; Tessari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    While psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr...

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Kevin; Smart, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determ...

  10. Utricular paresis and semicircular canal hyperactivity: a distinct otolith syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Simon I; Snapp, Hillary; Velandia, Sandra; Morgenstein, Kari

    2015-04-01

    Although combined utricular and canal paresis has been described previously, this is the first report of canal hyperactivity associated with utricular hypofunction. Unsteadiness and swaying were the most common symptoms, and patients with shorter duration of symptoms also had positional vertigo. We propose that this syndrome is a variant of utricular dysfunction and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral vestibular disorders. To describe a syndrome of instability associated with utricular dysfunction and hyperactive caloric responses. The study comprised 11 consecutive patients exhibiting abnormalities of the eccentric subjective visual vertical test (e-SVV) and high responses during the caloric test of the videonystagmography (VNG). We carried out a review of symptoms, physical examination, and vestibular tests. There was no gender predilection or obvious etiology. The patients' main complaint included instability with linear symptoms (i.e., tilting, rocking, and swaying), with positional vertigo as a secondary symptom. Oculomotor testing, visual fixation index, and brain MRI were normal, excluding a central nervous system disorder. VNG was essentially normal except for hyperactive responses during the caloric testing in all patients. Abnormal e-SVV was found in 10 patients unilaterally and bilaterally in 1 patient. Abnormal oVEMP was found in seven of seven patients, further supporting a utricular site of lesion.

  11. Body temperature, activity and melatonin profiles in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delayed sleep: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, Denise; Van Someren, Eus J W; Gruber, Reut; Bron, Tannetje I; Kruithof, I Femke; Spanbroek, Elise C A; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2013-12-01

    Irregular sleep-wake patterns and delayed sleep times are common in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but mechanisms underlying these problems are unknown. The present case-control study examined whether circadian abnormalities underlie these sleep problems in a naturalistic home setting. We included 12 medication-naïve patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delayed sleep phase syndrome, and 12 matched healthy controls. We examined associations between sleep/wake rhythm in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and circadian parameters (i.e. salivary melatonin concentrations, core and skin temperatures, and activity patterns) of the patients and controls during five consecutive days and nights. Daily bedtimes were more variable within patients compared with controls (F = 8.19, P profiles were equally stable within individuals. Dim-light melatonin onset was about 1.5 h later in the patient group (U = 771, Z = -4.63, P temperatures were delayed to comparable degrees in patients. Overall temperatures were lower in patients than controls. Sleep-onset difficulties correlated with greater distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG; i.e. colder hands, r(2)  = -0.32, P = 0.028) in patients. Observed day-to-day bedtime variability of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delayed sleep phase syndrome were not reflected in their melatonin profiles. Irregular sleep-wake patterns and delayed sleep in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delayed sleep phase syndrome are associated with delays and dysregulations of the core and skin temperatures. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Cingulate, Frontal and Parietal Cortical Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, George

    2011-01-01

    Functional and structural neuroimaging have identified abnormalities of the brain that are likely to contribute to the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, hypofunction of the brain regions comprising the cingulo-frontal-parietal (CFP) cognitive-attention network have been consistently observed across studies. These are major components of neural systems that are relevant to ADHD, including cognitive/attention networks, motor systems and reward/feedback-based processing systems. Moreover, these areas interact with other brain circuits that have been implicated in ADHD, such as the “default mode” resting state network. ADHD imaging data related to CFP network dysfunction will be selectively highlighted here to help facilitate its integration with the other information presented in this special issue. Together, these reviews will help shed light on the neurobiology of ADHD. PMID:21489409

  13. Circadian pattern of motor activity in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Conca, Andreas; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Natale, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the 24-hour activity rhythm in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 18 ADHD patients and 37 healthy controls (HCs) wore an actigraph for 7 days. ADHD patients showed higher motor activity than HCs at 4:00, 6:00, 15:00 and 16:00 hour. Within the theoretical framework of the two-process model of sleep regulation, the observed data may be explained by lower homeostatic sleep pressure in ADHD. This could lead to an increase in motor activity in the second half of the night, when sleep need decreases more rapidly, and in the first half of the afternoon, when patients do not experience the typical post-lunch dip.

  14. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle; Ramstad, Erica

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...... with placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents with ADHD. Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted. Quality was assessed using GRADE. Teachers, parents, and observers rated ADHD symptoms and general behaviour. STUDY ANSWER AND LIMITATIONS: The analyses included 38 parallel......) -0.77, n=1698), corresponding to a mean difference of -9.6 points on the ADHD rating scale. There was no evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in serious adverse events (risk ratio 0.98, nine trials, n=1532; TSA adjusted intervention effect RR 0.91). Methylphenidate...

  15. Sleep disorder investigation might be considered to be mandatory in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Azeredo Henriques Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in children with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD and compare amplitude and latency of the P300 potential among children with and without OSA. Method Sixty-one children with ADHD underwent oddball auditory attention tests for detection of P300 (ERPs followed by an all-night polysomnography. The children were divided in two groups, those with and without OSA. Results Significant decreased amplitude of the P300 potential was observed in children with OSA when compared with children without OSA. Conclusion The study showed that sleep fragmentation as a result of OSA can exacerbate the attention disorder that characterizes ADHD, and highlights the importance of assessing the presence of OSA in the differential diagnosis of children with attention deficits.

  16. Correlations of gene expression with ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in tourette syndrome : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Yingfang; Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Jickling, Glen C.; Gunther, Joan R.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Bos-Veneman, Netty G. P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Schweitzer, Julie B.; Sharp, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity are the primary behaviors associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies showed that peripheral blood gene expression signatures can mirror central nervous system disease. Tourette syndrome (TS) is

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W.N.; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Kooij, J. J.Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. Methods N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W N; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. METHODS: N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  19. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ADHD? For More Information Share Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Download PDF Download ePub ... organized? Have you wondered whether you might have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Our society has become ...

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 5-17 Years in the United States, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 ... 2009 The percentage of children ever diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased from 7% to ...

  1. A feasibility study on the effectiveness of a full-body videogame intervention for decreasing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdmeester, J.W.; Cima, M.; Granic, I.; Hashemian, Y.; Gotsis, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of a full-body-driven intervention videogame targeted at decreasing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, specifically inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and motor deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The

  2. Regional brain network organization distinguishes the combined and inattentive subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Jacqueline F; Griffiths, Kristi R; Kohn, Michael R; Clarke, Simon; Williams, Leanne M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized clinically by hyperactive/impulsive and/or inattentive symptoms which determine diagnostic subtypes as Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-HI), Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and Combined (ADHD-C). Neuroanatomically though we do not yet know if these clinical subtypes reflect distinct aberrations in underlying brain organization. We imaged 34 ADHD participants defined using DSM-IV criteria as ADHD-I ( n  = 16) or as ADHD-C ( n  = 18) and 28 matched typically developing controls, aged 8-17 years, using high-resolution T1 MRI. To quantify neuroanatomical organization we used graph theoretical analysis to assess properties of structural covariance between ADHD subtypes and controls (global network measures: path length, clustering coefficient, and regional network measures: nodal degree). As a context for interpreting network organization differences, we also quantified gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Each ADHD subtype was distinguished by a different organizational profile of the degree to which specific regions were anatomically connected with other regions (i.e., in "nodal degree"). For ADHD-I (compared to both ADHD-C and controls) the nodal degree was higher in the hippocampus. ADHD-I also had a higher nodal degree in the supramarginal gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and superior occipital cortex compared to ADHD-C and in the amygdala compared to controls. By contrast, the nodal degree was higher in the cerebellum for ADHD-C compared to ADHD-I and in the anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus and putamen compared to controls. ADHD-C also had reduced nodal degree in the rolandic operculum and middle temporal pole compared to controls. These regional profiles were observed in the context of no differences in gray matter volume or global network organization. Our results suggest that the clinical distinction between the Inattentive and Combined subtypes of ADHD may also be

  3. A population-based study of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and associated impairment in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. It frequently persists into adulthood and can have serious health and other adverse consequences. The majority of previous adult ADHD studies have focused on young adults so that relatively little is known about ADHD symptoms and their effects in mid and late life. In addition, effects of subclinical levels of attention deficit and hyperactivity have not been studied in detail. In this study we investigated ADHD symptoms and related impairment in a large population-based sample of middle-aged Australian adults (n = 2091; 47% male. Applying the WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS we observed that 6.2% of participants had scores that were previously associated with ADHD diagnosis. No significant gender difference in the distribution of ASRS scores was observed. Multiple regression analyses indicated strong positive correlations between symptoms of ADHD and depression/anxiety and significant negative associations (p<0.01 with employment, financial stress, relationship quality, health and well-being measures in this age group. Importantly, associations were highly significant even when few ADHD symptoms were reported. Compared to the hyperactivity component, the inattention trait was particularly strongly associated and remained significant after controlling for depression/anxiety symptoms. Our study confirms previous findings and significantly adds to existing literature especially for an age-group that has not been well-studied. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms continue to be associated with ill-health and functional impairment in mid-life and are, therefore, likely to be a major, previously unrecognized source of late-life morbidity with associated social and economic costs. Thus, there is a compelling need for better understanding and development of age-appropriate approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in mid- to late-life.

  4. A Population-Based Study of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Associated Impairment in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Easteal, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. It frequently persists into adulthood and can have serious health and other adverse consequences. The majority of previous adult ADHD studies have focused on young adults so that relatively little is known about ADHD symptoms and their effects in mid and late life. In addition, effects of subclinical levels of attention deficit and hyperactivity have not been studied in detail. In this study we investigated ADHD symptoms and related impairment in a large population-based sample of middle-aged Australian adults (n = 2091; 47% male). Applying the WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS) we observed that 6.2% of participants had scores that were previously associated with ADHD diagnosis. No significant gender difference in the distribution of ASRS scores was observed. Multiple regression analyses indicated strong positive correlations between symptoms of ADHD and depression/anxiety and significant negative associations (phealth and well-being measures in this age group. Importantly, associations were highly significant even when few ADHD symptoms were reported. Compared to the hyperactivity component, the inattention trait was particularly strongly associated and remained significant after controlling for depression/anxiety symptoms. Our study confirms previous findings and significantly adds to existing literature especially for an age-group that has not been well-studied. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms continue to be associated with ill-health and functional impairment in mid-life and are, therefore, likely to be a major, previously unrecognized source of late-life morbidity with associated social and economic costs. Thus, there is a compelling need for better understanding and development of age-appropriate approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in mid- to late-life. PMID:22347487

  5. Maternal Positive Parenting Style Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Many preschoolers are highly inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive; but only some are impaired in their functioning. Yet factors leading to functional impairment, above and beyond the severity of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, have not been systematically examined. This study examined a model suggesting that after controlling for…

  6. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  7. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  9. A Weak Association between Traits of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Gambling in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Will H.; Schatz, Nicole K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been characterized as a comorbidity to pathological gambling (PG). However, contradictory evidence has emerged, and it has not been established whether nonimpulsive features of ADHD (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity) contribute to PG risk, or how robust this relationship is in college samples.…

  10. Links between Co-Occurring Social-Communication and Hyperactive-Inattentive Trait Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pourcain, Beate; Mandy, William P.; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; Smith, George Davey; Skuse, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is overlap between an autistic and hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology when studied cross-sectionally. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal pattern of association between social-communication deficits and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms in the general population, from childhood through adolescence. We explored…

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  12. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  13. Reading and listening comprehension and their relation to inattention and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Separate groups of 7- to 11-year-olds participated in each study. In both studies, we used teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to identify three groups at risk of ADHD: poor attention, high hyperactivity, poor attention and high hyperactivity, and also same-age controls. In Study 1, we explored how inattention and hyperactivity predicted reading after controlling for non-verbal IQ and vocabulary. In Study 2, we compared listening and reading comprehension in these groups. Poor attention was related to poor reading comprehension, although the relation was partially mediated by word reading skill (Study 1). Groups with high hyperactivity had weak listening comprehension relative to reading comprehension (Study 2). These results indicate that the reading comprehension problems of children with attention difficulties are related to poor word reading and that listening comprehension is particularly vulnerable in children at risk of ADHD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  14. The Cheshire Cat Enigma: Emotion Recognition Abilities of Preschool Boys with and without Hyperactivity and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the emotion recognition abilities of preschoolers with and without hyperactivity and aggression. Previous research identified that school age children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have more difficulty understanding facial expressions associated with emotions, take longer than their age-matched peers…

  15. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, J. Preston

    Reported are findings of a study involving 46 families in which the effect of the Feingold (additive free) diet on hyperactivity in preschool and elementary age children was investigated. Eleven sections cover the following project components: introduction (definition of hyperactivity and the B. Feingold hypothesis), methodology, demographic…

  16. A MOTOR PRESETTING STUDY IN HYPERACTIVE, LEARNING-DISABLED AND CONTROL CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEERE, J; VREELING, HJ; SERGEANT, J

    1992-01-01

    Motor presetting was investigated in hyperactive children, learning disabled children and normal controls. The reaction time of the hyperactive group was more sensitive to increases in interstimulus interval (event rate) than was that of the learning disabled and the controls. This finding indicates

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  18. Efficacy of a family-focused intervention for young drivers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Schatz, Nicole K; Morris, Karen L; Willoughby, Michael T; Vujnovic, Rebecca K; Hulme, Kevin F; Riordan, Jessica; Howard, Marlana; Hennessy, Dwight; Lewis, Kemper; Hawk, Larry; Wylie, Amanda; Pelham, William E

    2016-12-01

    Teenage drivers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at significant risk for negative driving outcomes related to morbidity and mortality. However, there are few viable psychosocial treatments for teens with ADHD and none focus on the key functional area of driving. The Supporting the Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program was evaluated in a clinical trial to investigate whether it improved family functioning as a proximal outcome and driving behavior as a distal outcome. One hundred seventy-two teenagers with ADHD, combined type, were randomly assigned to STEER or a driver education driver practice program (DEDP). Relative to parents in the DEDP condition, parents in STEER were observed to be less negative at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up but not at 12-month follow-up, and there were no significant differences for observed positive parenting. Relative to teens in the DEDP condition, teens in STEER reported lower levels of risky driving behaviors at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up, but not at 12-month follow-up. Groups did not differ on objective observations of risky driving or citations/accidents. The STEER program for novice drivers with ADHD was effective in reducing observations of negative parenting behavior and teen self-reports of risky driving relative to DEDP; groups did not significantly differ on observations of positive parenting or driving behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The Intergenerational Association Between Parents' Problem Gambling and Impulsivity-Hyperactivity/Inattention Behaviors in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-11-04

    Despite the well-established association between problem gambling and ADHD core categories of impulsivity-hyperactivity and inattention, the link between parents' problem gambling and impulsivity-hyperactivity/inattention (IH/I) behaviors in children has not been investigated. This study investigated the association between parents' problem gambling and children's IH/I behaviors while controlling for potential confounding variables. A population-based prospective cohort followed-up from kindergarten to age 30, the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC), provided data over three generations. Among 1358 participants at age 30, parents with a child aged 1 year or older (N = 468; Mean age = 4.65 years; SD = 2.70) were selected. Generalized Linear Models included measures of grandparents' and parents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood, and a host of risk factors and comorbidities to predict IH/I in children. Intergenerational bivariate associations were observed between grandparents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I in childhood and problem gambling at age 30, and between parents' IH/I, problem gambling, and children's IH/I behaviors. Parents' problem gambling predicted children's IH/I behaviors above and beyond the effects of covariates such as family and socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol and drug use, depression symptoms and parents' gambling involvement. Parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood also predicted children's IH/I and had a moderating, enhancing effect on parents' problem gambling association with their offspring's IH/I behaviors. Problem gambling is a characteristic of parents' mental health that is distinctively associated with children's IH/I behaviors, above and beyond parents' own history of IH/I and of typically related addictive, psychopathological or socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities.

  20. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  1. CBT/DBT skills training for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Pierre; Weibel, Sebastien; Nicastro, Rosetta; Hasler, Roland; Dayer, Alexandre; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Prada, Paco; Perroud, Nader

    2016-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with marked impairments in familial, social, and professional functioning. Although stimulant treatments can be effective in adult ADHD, some patients will respond poorly or not at all to medication. Previous studies demonstrated that cognitive behavioural therapy- (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy- (DBT) oriented interventions are effective in reducing the burden of the disease, which is mainly marked by depression, interpersonal difficulties, low self-esteem, and low quality of life. In order to determine the effectiveness of this intervention, we assessed the benefits of a CBT/DBT programme to reduce residual symptoms and help patients improve their quality of life. 49 ADHD-patients, poor responders to medication, were enrolled in a one-year programme where they received individual therapy, associated with weekly sessions of group therapy with different modules: Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, Interpersonal Effectiveness and Distress Tolerance, Impulsivity/Hyperactivity and Attention. Each subject was assessed at baseline, at months 3 and 6, and at the end of the treatment for ADHD severity (ASRS v1.1), depression severity (BDI-II), hopelessness (BHS), mindfulness skills (KIMS), anger expression and control (STAXI), impulsivity (BIS-11), quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), and social functioning (QFS). The 49 ADHD patients were compared with 13 ADHD subjects on a waiting list. Linear mixed models were used to measure response to treatment. Overall, the psychotherapeutic treatment was associated with significant improvements in almost all dimensions. The most significant changes were observed for BDI-II (b=-0.30; pADHD patients showed a better, albeit non-significant, pattern of response. Individual and structured psycho-educational DBT/CBT groups support existing data suggesting that a structured psychotherapeutic approach is useful for patients who respond partially or not at all to drug therapy.

  2. Sarcosine treatment for oppositional defiant disorder symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzang, Ruu-Fen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Methylphenidate, a stimulant that activates dopaminergic and noradrenergic function, is an important agent in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sarcosine, a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor, may also play a role in treating ADHD by modulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission system through activating N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sarcosine in treating children with ADHD. We conducted a six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The primary outcome measures were those on the Inattention, Hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subscales of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale. Efficacy and safety were measured bi-weekly. A total of 116 children with ADHD were enrolled. Among them, 48 (83%) of the 58 sarcosine recipients and 44 (76%) of the 58 placebo recipients returned for the first post-treatment visit. The missing data values were imputed by the last observation carry forward method. From a multiple linear regression analysis, using the generalized estimating equation approach, and an intention to treat analysis, the efficacy of sarcosine marginally surpassed that of placebo at weeks 2, 4, and 6, with p-values=0.01, 0.026, and 0.012, respectively, although only for ODD symptoms. Treatment of ADHD by sarcosine (0.03 g/kg/day) was well tolerated. Sarcosine could possibly be a novel agent for managing ODD symptoms in the context of ADHD. However, future larger-scale studies are warranted to optimize its dosage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Elucidating X chromosome influences on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Bade Shrestha, Sharon; Chromik, Lindsay C; Rutledge, Keetan; Pennington, Bruce F; Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-09-01

    To identify distinct behavioral and cognitive profiles associated with ADHD in Turner syndrome (TS), relative to idiopathic ADHD and neurotypical controls, in order to elucidate X-linked influences contributing to ADHD. We used a multilevel-model approach to compare 49 girls with TS to 37 neurotypical females, aged 5-12, on established measures of behavior (BASC-2) and neurocognitive function (NEPSY). We further compared girls with TS to BASC-2 and NEPSY age-matched reference data obtained from children with idiopathic ADHD. Within the TS group, 51% scored at or above the "at-risk" range for ADHD-associated behaviors on the BASC-2 (TS/+ADHD). The BASC-2 behavioral profile in this TS/+ADHD-subgroup was comparable to a reference group of boys with ADHD with respect to attentional problems and hyperactivity. However, the TS/+ADHD-subgroup had significantly higher hyperactivity scores relative to a reference sample of girls with ADHD (p = 0.016). The behavioral profile in TS was associated with significantly lower attention and executive function scores on the NEPSY relative to neurotypical controls (p = 0.015); but was comparable to scores from a reference sample of children with idiopathic ADHD. Deficits in attention and executive function were not observed in girls with TS having low levels of ADHD-associated behavior (TS/-ADHD). ADHD-associated behavioral and cognitive problems in TS are prevalent and comparable in severity to those found in children with idiopathic ADHD. The ADHD phenotype in TS also appears relatively independent of cognitive features typically associated with TS, like visuospatial weaknesses. These findings suggest that X-linked haploinsufficiency and downstream biological effects contribute to increased risk for ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual giftedness: a study of symptom frequency and minor physical anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the presence of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in intellectually gifted adults and children. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed in children and adults whose intelligence quotient (IQ had been previously evaluated using Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM test. Seventy-seven adults displaying IQ scores above the 98th percentile were assessed using the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18 for signs of ADHD and a modified Waldrop scale for minor physical anomalies (MPAs. Thirty-nine children (grades 1-5 exhibiting IQ scores above the 99th percentile, as well as an equally matched control group, were assessed for ADHD by teachers using the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV Rating Scale (SNAP-IV as used in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA-SNAP-IV. Results: In gifted adults, the frequency of ADHD-positive cases was 37.8%, and the total MPA score was significantly associated with ADHD (p < 0.001. In children, the ADHD-positive case frequency was 15.38% in the gifted group and 7.69% in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.18, p = 0.288. Conclusions: The high frequency of ADHD symptoms observed, both in gifted adults and in gifted (and non-gifted children, further supports the validity of this diagnosis in this population. Furthermore, the significant association between MPAs and ADHD suggests that a neurodevelopmental condition underlies these symptoms.

  5. Comorbidity of Adult Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Bipolar and Unipolar Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmanci, Hatice; Çam Çelikel, Feryal; Etikan, İlker

    2016-09-01

    The co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in affective disorder patients is considerably high. The aims of the present study were to search for the frequency and impact of ADHD co-occurrence on the clinical features of affective disorders and to examine the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and ADHD. In total, 100 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), 100 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 100 healthy controls (HC) were included. All diagnoses were assigned according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The Adult Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Self-Report Scale (ASRS); Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS); and Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) were applied to all participants. The percentage of BD patients meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of current ADHD was 48% compared with the percentage of MDD patients and HCC subjects, i.e., 25% and 12%, respectively. ADHD was significantly more frequent in bipolar adults than in not only HC but also depressive patients. In the BD group, patients with a comorbid ADHD diagnosis had significantly more suicidal history than those without ADHD. The scores of the temperament traits, namely depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious, were significantly higher in subjects with ADHD in all groups, including in HC. The most important findings of the present study were the observations that (1) the frequency of ADHD is considerably high among bipolar patients; (2) the frequency of suicide attempts is high in the bipolar patient group with comorbid ADHD; and (3) depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperaments are significantly associated with ADHD comorbidity in bipolar and depressive patients as well as in HC. The high comorbidity and chronic course of ADHD and its possible negative influence on the course of both disorders increase the importance of screening for adult ADHD.

  6. Parental happiness and strain among young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A

    2018-03-01

    This study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine whether young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder experience less parental happiness and/or more parental strain than their counterparts not diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Results from logistic regression models indicated that young adult parents ever diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have significantly greater odds of feeling overwhelmed as parents and significantly lower odds of feeling close to their children or happy in their role as parents compared to those never diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Potential implications of these results for scholars as well as health professionals treating adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder patients with children are discussed.

  7. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Back, Odeya; Keren, Amit; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2011-03-01

    This prospective study explores the prevalence and characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy, compared with its prevalence in their siblings. Among 40 patients with benign epilepsy, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: 19 with the inattentive type, one with the hyperactive type, and eight with the combined type. In the control group of 12 siblings, only two (16.7%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Pattentional difficulties was evident in children whose seizures were more resistant and required more than one antiepileptic drug for seizure control. Children with more epileptiform features in their electroencephalograms were also more subject to signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Larger scale studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Madsen, Anders G.; Bikic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD......, the association between stimulant treatment in patients with ADHD and the risk of SUD and the guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and comorbid SUD. There is substantial evidence suggesting that patients with ADHD are at increased risk of SUD, and that comorbid conduct...

  9. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of disturbances in the perception of time, temporal processing (eg, delay aversion), and stimulus seeking associated with ADHD. Disrupted connections between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex may contribute to behavioral disinhibition. Our findings suggest involvement of the limbic system...

  10. Associations Between Autoimmune Diseases and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A cohort was formed of all singletons born in Denmark from 1990 to 2007, resulting in a study population of 983,680 individuals followed from 1995 to 2012. Information on autoimmune diseases was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register......OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that autoimmune diseases and immune activation play a part in the pathogenesis of different neurodevelopmental disorders. This study investigated the association between a personal history and a family history of autoimmune disease and the risk of developing...

  11. Correlation between sleep disorder screening and executive dysfunction in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zambrano-Sanchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare frequency of sleep disorders (SD and executive dysfunction (ED in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and a control group. Method We studied 156 children with ADHD with a mean age of 8.5 years, and a control group with 111 children with a mean age of 8.3 years. We utilized the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ to screen SD and the working memory measurement from the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV to screen ED. Results We did not observe an increased frequency of SD in children with ADHD compared with the controls. However, we did identify ED in children with ADHD; additionally a significant correlation was observed between the type of ADHD and SD and among ED, WISC-IV measurements, and type of SD in children with ADHD. Conclusion An increase of SD frequency in children with ADHD was not observed, but we did identify ED in children with ADHD. Additionally, a correlation among ADHD types, SD, ED, and WISC-IV measurements was observed in children with ADHD.

  12. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  13. Parental quality of life and depressive mood following methylphenidate treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeni; Kim, Bongseog; Chang, Jae-Seung; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hwang, Jun-Won

    2014-07-01

    This naturalistic study investigated the associations between quality of life and depressive mood in parents and symptom changes in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. At baseline and at weeks 4 and 8, the parents evaluated their children, who were receiving treatment with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (mean dosage 36.3 ± 15.5 mg/day), using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham - Fourth Edition (SNAP-IV-18) scale. The parents evaluated themselves using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment, Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF). A significant reduction in SNAP-IV-18 scores and improvements in parental BDI scores and parental WHOQOL-BREF scores were observed. The decrease in BDI scores from baseline to 8 weeks was significantly associated with increases in WHOQOL-BREF sub-domain scores from baseline to 8 weeks, with a greater decrease at 4 weeks and after. The decrease in the SNAP-IV-18 hyperactivity-impulsivity score was significantly associated with increases in WHOQOL social sub-domain scores from baseline to 8 weeks. For those patients who showed a 25% or greater decrease in the SNAP-IV-18 total scores from baseline to 8 weeks, the decreases in the SNAP-IV-18 total score and in the inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity scores were significantly associated with a decrease in BDI scores from baseline to 8 weeks. Methylphenidate treatment for ADHD was associated with both symptom alleviation in children with ADHD and improvement in parental depressive mood and quality of life, suggesting that the effects of treatment could go beyond symptom improvement in ADHD. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  14. Use of cognitive behavioral therapy and token economy to alleviate dysfunctional behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Flavia Coelho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with the Token Economy (TE technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11 on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior, a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in 7 categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  15. Eight-Year Latent Class Trajectories of Academic and Social Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve

    2017-09-15

    We examined trajectories of academic and social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to identify those who might be at risk for especially severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. We estimated a series of growth mixture models using data from two subsamples of children participating in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) including those with at least baseline and 96-month data for reading and mathematics achievement (n = 392; 77.3% male; M age = 7.7; SD = 0.8) or social skills ratings from teachers (n = 259; 74.9% male; M age = 7.6; SD = 0.8). We compared latent trajectories for children with ADHD to mean observed trajectories obtained from a local normative (i.e., non-ADHD) comparison group (n = 289; 80.6% male; M age = 9.9; SD = 1.1). Results indicated six latent trajectory classes for reading and mathematics and four classes for teacher social skills ratings. There was not only a relationship between trajectories of inattention symptoms and academic impairment, but also a similarly strong association between trajectory classes of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and achievement. Trajectory class membership correlated with socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics, inattention and hyperactive-impulsive symptom trajectories, externalizing behavior in school, and treatment receipt and dosage. Although children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and social skills growth trajectories, those with behavioral and socio-demographic disadvantages are especially likely to display severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Evidence-based early screening and intervention that directly address academic and social impairments in elementary school-aged children with ADHD are warranted. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT00000388.

  16. Hyperactivity, concentration difficulties and impulsiveness improve during seven weeks' treatment with valerian root and lemon balm extracts in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromball, Jürgen; Beschorner, Frank; Wantzen, Christian; Paulsen, Ute; Burkart, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Valerian root and lemon balm extracts have previously shown efficacy and excellent tolerability in children<12 years suffering from restlessness and insomnia. We now examined whether treatment with a fixed combination of both may also improve concentration, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. 169 primary school children suffering from hyperactivity and concentration difficulties but not meeting ADHS criteria were treated in an observational study by 27 office based pediatricians with a recommended daily dose of 640 mg valerian root extract WS(®) 1014 and 320 mg lemon balm extract WS(®) 1303 (Sandrin(®)), and evaluated by pediatricians and parents using standardized questionnaires at baseline, weeks 2 and 7. The fraction of children having strong/very strong symptoms of poor ability to focus decreased from 75% to 14%, hyperactivity from 61% to 13%, and impulsiveness from 59% to 22%. Parent rated social behavior, sleep and symptom burden showed highly significant improvements. Only in two children mild transient adverse drug reactions were observed. In primary school children with restlessness, concentration difficulties and impulsiveness treatment with WS(®) 1014 and WS(®) 1303 (Sandrin(®)) provides a viable option in addition to counseling and education. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. ENERGY DRINKS CONSUMPTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH HYPERACTIVITY/INATTENTION BEHAVIOUR AMONG THE INTERMEDIATE AND HIGH SCHOOL MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad S. Alsamghan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND New studies has revealed the consumption of energy drinks as a common, linked with potential risky hyperactivity/inattention behaviour among the adolescent and especially college students. To assess the prevalence of the energy drinks consumption and to evaluate hyperactivity/inattention behaviour symptoms among the adolescent intermediate and high school male and female students in Abha city. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study. The self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students who were studying in the intermediate and high school. Schools were randomly selected and all students (N=602 participated with consent. Total sample size included 602 students, 50% students from intermediate school and 50% students from high school. The tools used in the present study to collect the information from the students were a structured standardised questionnaire includes the basics characteristic, demographic and consumption of energy drinks related information. RESULTS Prevalence of the energy drinks consumption among students studying in intermediate and high school level was 303 (50.3%. Male 162 (53.3% are more consuming energy drinks than female 141 (46.7%. Students who are studying in high school (56.1% drinking more energy drinks than students (43.9% in higher level. Mean score of SDQ was 21.53±5.414 falling in abnormal category. Mean±SD score of the hyperactivity subscale of the SDQ was 3.76±1.980. Female students 66 (21.9%, p=0.162 are more likely to score hyperactivity subscale compared to male students 52 (17.3% (Table 1. Bivariate logistic regression analysis (Table 2 revealed that there was a significance association found with risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR=2.47, 95% Cl=1.61, 3.78 who consumed energy drinks. Most of the types of energy drinks types were associated with hyperactivity as regression analysis results shown. No association observed with study levels. CONCLUSION Energy drinks

  18. [Heritability and genetic comorbidity of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, Giannina; Rothhammer, Paula; Carrasco, Ximena; Aboitiz, Francisco; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    This review aims to summarize information about the genetic etiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), with particular reference to the contributions of our research group. We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A high genetic comorbidity was found between E and BD (46%), a moderate comorbidity between MDD and E, MDD and BD and MDD and ADHD (18%, 22% and 10% respectively) and a low comorbidity between E and ASD (2.5%). Furthermore, we show evidence concerning the genetic determination of psychiatric diseases, which is significantly lower when it is estimated from genome-wide SNP´s rather than using traditional quantitative genetic methodology (ADHD = E = 23%, BD = 25%, MDD = 21% and ASD = 17%). From an evolutionary perspective, we suggest that behavioral traits such as hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, which play a role in ADHD and perhaps also other hereditary traits which are part of major psychiatric disorders, could have had a high adaptive value during the early stages of the evolution of Homo sapiens. However, they became progressively less adaptive and definitively disadvantageous, to the extreme that they are involved in frequently diagnosed major psychiatric disorders.

  19. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  20. Toward a theory of childhood learning disorders, hyperactivity, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance.

  1. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  2. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: COMORBIDITIES, EMPHASIS ON CONCURRENCE WITH EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common cause of behavioral disorders and learning problems at preschool and school ages. Patients with ADHD are frequently found to have comorbidities that present additional diagnostic and therapeutic problems and result in an even greater decrease in quality of life in patients. Thus, ADHD is frequently concurrent with epilepsy; in this case, not only the manifestations of ADHD are more common in epilepsy, but the latter is more often encountered in patients with ADHD than in those as a whole. The authors consider the epidemiological factors and causes, which may lead to a concurrence of these two diseases in the same patient, the principles of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ADHD in epileptic patients, the specific features of treatment in this patient category. At the same time, the authors place emphasis on the fact that some antiepileptic drugs, such as barbiturates, may cause symptoms that mimic ADHD (in these cases, inattention and hyperactivity are adverse reactions of therapy and lessen or disappear after drug discontinuation or enhance the manifestations of ADHD in patients with a concurrence of these two diseases. On the other hand, care should be also taken to choose drugs for the treatment of ADHD due to the possible higher frequency of seizures. So preference should be given to the drugs having no negative effect on the course of comorbidities or those having a positive therapeutic effect against both diseases. 

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. Methods The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. Results No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004 and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033. In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017 and cocaine use (p = 0.033. Conclusions Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  4. Functional imaging of neurocognitive dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, I.; Tost, H.; Ruf, M.; Ende, G.

    2005-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder of early childhood onset. Defining symptoms are chronic impairments of attention, impulse control and motor hyperactivity that frequently persist until adulthood. Miscellaneous causes of the disorder have been discussed. Accumulating evidence from imaging- and molecular genetic studies strengthened the theory of ADHS being a predominantly inherited disorder of neurobiological origin. In the last 15 years, non-invasive brain imaging methods were successfully implemented in pediatric research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies gave major insight into the neurobiological correlates of executive malfunction, inhibitory deficits and psychomotoric soft signs. These findings are in good accordance with brain morphometric data indicating a significant volumetric decrease of major components of striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops, primarily influencing prefrontal executive functioning (e.g. basal ganglia). Empirical evidence points to a broad array of associated behavioral disturbances like deficient visuomotor abilities and oculomotor dysfunctions. This paper reviews the current empirical evidence derived from prior imaging studies. Special emphasis is given to the relevance of oculomotor dysfunctions in clinical and research settings, as well as their assessment in the MR environment. (orig.) [de

  5. [Attentional impairment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

  6. [Concordances between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, F; Roca, P

    2018-03-01

    The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. To review the current advances in these common aspects. Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders. From the genetic perspective, it is estimated that 50-72% of the genetic factors overlap between the two disorders. They also share a decrease in the volume of the corpus callosum and left frontal grey matter, as well as functional alterations such as dorsolateral prefrontal, striato-thalamic and superior parietal hypoactivation. Results are also found regarding executive functioning, with differential profiles for the two conditions, and also concerning the relationship between the repetitive and impulsive behaviours in the early stages of ASD and ensuing problems of hyperactivity. This new conception of the ASD-ADHD continuum, with a common neurodevelopmental basis and associated clinical features, could be of great use in clinical practice. It is suggested that this association should be taken into account when it comes to deciding on the treatment.

  7. Does Restless Legs Syndrome increase cardiovascular risk in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests a possible association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome with or without Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep. When comorbid, Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep might aggravate Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms. Pharmacological treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder may be associated, at least in some cases, with adverse cardiovascular events, including clinically significant elevation in heart rate and systemic blood pressure. However, the characteristics of patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at risk for cardiovascular events during pharmacological treatment are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that Restless Legs Syndrome and/or Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep comorbid with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder increase cardiovascular risk via imbalance in activity of the autonomic nervous system. Such an imbalance of the could be related to alterations of sleep microarchitecture also detected by cyclic alternating pattern analysis. If empirical studies confirm our hypothesis, the clinician would be advised to systematically screen for and effectively treat Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep even before starting treatment with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder drugs. The management of Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep might reduce cardiovascular risk during pharmacological treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  9. Tourette's syndrome, chronic tics, and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in elementary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Shahrokh; Fakhari, Ali; Golmirzaei, Javad; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Abdi, Salman

    2012-02-01

    This study estimated the true prevalence of chronic motor and vocal tic disorders, and Tourette's syndrome in students as well as its comorbidity with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A random clustered sample of elementary students was selected from schools in Tabriz, Iran. Students were screened by Conner's teacher rating scale for ADHD and a detailed history from parents and teachers for the presence of any type of tic was obtained. Next, a clinical interview based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), and an interview with parents lead to the definitive diagnosis. A total of 1658 children were evaluated. Vocal tic was observed in 3.2% (±SD = 0.02) students, and was more prevalent in boys. ADHD was diagnosed in 45.5% of these students. Motor tic was observed in 7.3% (±SD = 0.02) of students. Almost half (48.1%) of these students had ADHD. Tourette's syndrome was observed in 1.3% (±SD = 0.01), with a male/female ratio of 3.5:1. This is the first study to provide the prevalence of chronic tics in elementary school students in Iran. ADHD is more common among students with chronic tics and Tourette's syndrome.

  10. Efficacy of a family-focused intervention for young drivers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Schatz, Nicole K.; Morris, Karen L.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Hulme, Kevin F.; Riordan, Jessica; Howard, Marlana; Hennessy, Dwight; Lewis, Kemper; Hawk, Larry; Wylie, Amanda; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Teenage drivers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at significant risk for negative driving outcomes related to morbidity and mortality. However, there are few viable psychosocial treatments for teens with ADHD and none focus on the key functional area of driving. The Supporting the Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program was evaluated in a clinical trial to determine whether it improved family functioning as a proximal outcome and driving behavior as a distal outcome. Method One hundred seventy-two teenagers with ADHD, combined type, were randomly assigned to STEER or a driver education driver practice program (DEDP). Results Relative to parents in the DEDP condition, parents in STEER were observed to be less negative at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up, but not at 12-month follow-up and there were no significant differences for observed positive parenting. Relative to teens in the DEDP condition, teens in STEER reported lower levels of risky driving behaviors at post-treatment and six-month follow-up, but not at 12-month follow-up. They were not observed to differ on objective observations of risky driving or citations/accidents. Conclusions The STEER program for novice drivers with ADHD was effective in reducing observations of negative parenting behavior and teen self reports of risky driving relative to DEDP; groups did not significantly differ on observations of positive parenting or driving behaviors. Public Health Significance Statement Families with a teenager with ADHD may benefit from engaging in behavioral parent training around the transition to independent driving, especially via reductions in negative parenting. Teenagers with ADHD self-reported fewer risky driving behaviors within the family-focused intervention, but these findings were not replicated on objective observations of driving. PMID:27618640

  11. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy and hyperactive-distractible preschooler's: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen Linnet, Karen; Obel, Carsten; Bonde, Else

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between intrauterine exposure to tobacco smoke and behavioural disorders in preschool children, primarily symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity but also hostile-aggressive and anxious-fearful symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study in 1355...... using the self-administered Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire. The children were categorized into three not mutually exclusive behaviour groups: hyperactive - distractible (13.6%), hostile-aggressive (4.6%), and anxious-fearful (6.4%) children. RESULTS: Compared with children of non-smokers, children...... to tobacco smoke in utero was associated with hyperactive-distractible behaviour in preschool children....

  12. The Association of DRD2 Gene TaqI Polymorphism with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a Population Sample of Iranian Azeri-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mehdizadeh Fanid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a multi-factorial disorder that has defined by hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention deficits. Various neurotransmitters such as dopamine can play a role in its pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to examine the association of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in DRD2 gene, Taq I A (T/C and Taq I B (G/A, with ADHA risk among Iranian-Azeri population. Materials and Methods A study of case–control association was performed with 89 samples with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 96 healthy subjects. Peripheral blood samples were used for Genomic DNA extraction by salting-out method. SNP genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP technique. The collected data were analyzed through javastant online statistics software, using Chi-square, with a significance level of 0.05. Results There was not a significant difference in the allele and genotype frequencies between ADHD and Taq1B polymorphism in cases and controls (P>0.05. In the Taq IA of DRD2 gene, TT homozygous dominants and CC homozygous recessives were more frequent in case group than in control group but significant difference was not observed (P>0.05. Also, T/C heterozygotes were more frequent among the control group than the case group, and difference was significant (P

  13. Aripiprazole Selectively Reduces Motor Tics in a Young Animal Model for Tourette’s Syndrome and Comorbid Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourette’s syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized primarily by motor and vocal tics. Comorbidities such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are observed in over 50% of TS patients. We applied aripiprazole in a juvenile rat model that displays motor tics and hyperactivity. We additionally assessed the amount of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs as an indicator for the presence of vocal tics and evaluated the changes in the striatal neurometabolism using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS at 11.7T. Thirty-one juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs underwent bicuculline striatal microinjection and treatment with either aripiprazole or vehicle. Control groups were sham operated and sham injected. Behavior, USVs, and striatal neurochemical profile were analyzed at early, middle, and late adolescence (postnatal days 35 to 50. Bicuculline microinjections in the dorsolateral striatum induced motor tics in SHR juvenile rats. Acute aripiprazole administration selectively reduced both tic frequency and latency, whereas stereotypies, USVs, and hyperactivity remained unaltered. The striatal neurochemical profile was only moderately altered after tic-induction and was not affected by systemic drug treatment. When applied to a young rat model that provides high degrees of construct, face, and predictive validity for TS and comorbid ADHD, aripiprazole selectively reduces motor tics, revealing that tics and stereotypies are distinct phenomena in line with clinical treatment of patients. Finally, our 1H-MRS results suggest a critical revision of the striatal role in the hypothesized cortico-striatal dysregulation in TS pathophysiology.

  14. The association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and internet addiction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing-Qian; Yao, Nan-Qi; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Jian; Lv, Zheng-Tao

    2017-07-19

    This study aimed to analyze the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Internet addiction (IA). A systematic literature search was performed in four online databases in total including CENTRAL, EMBASE, PubMed and PsychINFO. Observational studies (case-control, cross-sectional and cohort studies) measuring the correlation between IA and ADHD were screened for eligibility. Two independent reviewers screened each article according to the predetermined inclusion criteria. A total of 15 studies (2 cohort studies and 13 cross-sectional studies) met our inclusion criteria and were included in the quantitative synthesis. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software. A moderate association between IA and ADHD was found. Individuals with IA were associated with more severe symptoms of ADHD, including the combined total symptom score, inattention score and hyperactivity/impulsivity score. Males were associated with IA, whereas there was no significant correlation between age and IA. IA was positively associated with ADHD among adolescents and young adults. Clinicians and parents should pay more attention to the symptoms of ADHD in individuals with IA, and the monitoring of Internet use of patients suffering from ADHD is also necessary. Longitudinal studies controlling for baseline mental health are needed.

  15. Spelling performance of students with developmental dyslexia and with developmental dyslexia associated to attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Débora Cristina; Casella, Erasmo Barbante; Ferraro, Alexandre Arcanjo

    2016-04-01

    Purpose to analyze and classify the spelling performance according to the semiology of spelling error of children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and with developmental dyslexia associated to attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity(DD and ADHD) comparing them to a group of children without learning process complaints. Methods Seventy students, from the third to fifth grade, participated in this study divided as follows: 32 children without complaints of learning difficulties (GI), mean age 9.5 years; 22 students with developmental dyslexia (GII), mean age 10 years; 16 scholars with developmental dyslexia associated to attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity (GIII), mean age 9.9. Spelling skills were assessed through a standardized word dictation task. Results Data indicated that GII and GIII children presented lower performance when compared with typically developed children. There was no statistical difference between the performance of GII and GIII children regarding the score reached in spelling, although GIII children presented the lowest performance. We observed differences between GII and GIII only in the type of misspelling. Conclusion Data from this research contribute to develop better programs for intervention in the studied population.

  16. Low quality of life scores in school children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder related to anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zambrano-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is an alteration that begins early in infancy and whose cardinal symptoms are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There are few studies for specific tests to measure Quality of Life (QoL in children with ADHD. METHODS: We evaluated QoL of 120 children from 7-12 years of age with ADHD and of a group of 98 healthy control children. To measure QoL, we utilized the Questionnaire of Quality of Life for Children in Pictures (AutoQuestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé, AUQUEI. We evaluated anxiety in children by the Children´s Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revisited (CMAS-R. We compared results among groups and employed the calculation of correlation between the AUQUEI questionnaire and the CMAS-R scale. RESULTS: The total average of the AUQUEI questionnaire in children with ADHD was 45.2, while in the control group it was 54.3 (p<0.05. We also observed significant differences between the control group and groups of children with ADHD in the CMAS-R scale. We found significant correlations between AUQUEI questionnaire and CMAS-R scale. CONCLUSION: The main result was to the disclosure that low QoL scores in ADHD children was anxiety-related.

  17. Eighteen-month follow-up of a play-based intervention to improve the social play skills of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie; Lincoln, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    There is a well-documented need for interventions to successfully address the social difficulties of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study aimed to further the development of a previously conducted pilot of a play-based intervention. To achieve this, children's social play outcomes pre-post and 18-month following the intervention were examined by raters unaware of the study's purpose. Additionally, parents' experiences of the intervention were explored. Participants included five children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who had participated in a play-based intervention and their typically developing playmates; parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also participated. Children and their playmates attended an 18-month follow-up play session and parents participated in semi-structured interviews. The Test of Playfulness was used to measure children's play outcomes in the context of social play with a peer, pre-post and 18-months following the intervention. Wilcoxon signed-ranks (Z) and Cohen's-d were used to measure effect. Thematic analysis was used to analyse reoccurring themes from parents' interviews. Children's social play outcomes improved pre-post intervention (Z = 2.02; P = 0.04; d = 1.6) and were maintained 18-month post intervention (Z = 0.14; P = 0.89; d = -0.4). Core themes included: the intervention as an enjoyable experience, a common language for talking about play/social interactions, an observable change in children's skills, transference of skills and the need for support to refresh learnt lessons over time. The intervention demonstrated preliminary and long-term efficacy in developing the social play skills of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Further research is required to optimise intervention feasibility and parent involvement prior to conducting a large-scale research. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Callous-Unemotional Traits Among Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Associations with Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Fabiano, Gregory; Willoughby, Michael T; Waschbusch, Daniel; Morris, Karen; Schatz, Nicole; Vujnovic, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the extent to which positive and negative parenting relates to conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits among 172 adolescents (72 % males; M age  = 16.91 years, SD = .67) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and whether CU traits moderate the link between parenting and CP. Mothers reported on their adolescents' CP, CU traits, and their own parenting practices. Maternal behaviors were observed during a problem-solving communication task. Parents who engaged in more positive parenting (self-reported and observed) reported their adolescents as having lower levels of CU traits. No effect was found for negative parenting. Moderation analyses indicated that lower levels of positive maternal behavior was only associated with higher CP in the presence of higher levels of CU traits. Negative parenting was positively related to CP regardless of CU traits. Positive parenting, irrespective of measurement approach, uniquely relates to adolescents' CU traits while both positive and negative parenting relate to CP.

  19. Amygdala Hyperactivity in MAM Model of Schizophrenia is Normalized by Peripubertal Diazepam Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijuan; Grace, Anthony A

    2016-09-01

    In addition to prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, amygdala may have a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, given its pivotal role in emotion and extensive connectivity with the PFC and hippocampus. Moreover, abnormal activities of amygdala may be related to the anxiety observed in schizophrenia patients and at-risk adolescents. These at-risk subjects demonstrated heightened levels of anxiety, which are correlated with the onset of psychosis later in life. Similarly, rats that received methyl azoxymethanol acetate (MAM) gestationally exhibited higher levels of anxiety peripubertally. In the current study, the heightened anxiety was also observed in adult MAM animals, as well as higher firing rates of BLA neurons in both peripubertal and adult MAM rats. In addition, the power of BLA theta oscillations of adult MAM rats showed a larger increase in response to conditioned stimuli (CS). We showed previously that administration of the antianxiety drug diazepam during the peripubertal period prevents the hyperdopaminergic state in adult MAM rats. In this study, we found that peripubertal diazepam treatment reduced heightened anxiety, decreased BLA neuron firing rates and attenuated the CS-induced increase in BLA theta power in adult MAM rats, supporting a persistent normalization by this treatment. This study provides a link between BLA hyperactivity and anxiety in schizophrenia model rats and that circumvention of stress may prevent the emergence of pathology in the adult.

  20. [Cognitive flexibility, an additional symptom of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Is it a therapeutically predictive element?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepareborda, M C; Mulas, F

    2004-02-01

    Cognitive flexibility is a capability acquired during infancy that can be evaluated from the age of 8 onwards. This executive function can affect patients with dorsolateral frontal lesions. Involvement of this function in some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) would point to an additional disorder. The objective of this study was to report on the involvement of cognitive flexibility in patients with ADHD from the age of 8 years onwards, to establish a correlation with the progressive phenomenon in its development, and to relate the findings from the study of cognitive flexibility with those of the attentional function. A group of 50 children diagnosed as suffering from ADHD (8 21 years old) and 50 normal children were evaluated. The same subjects were submitted to a study of their attentional functions, their inhibitory control mechanisms as well as their cognitive flexibility. At least 38% of the patients studied showed involvement of cognitive flexibility. No statistically significant relation was observed when data were linked to the age variable, which could point to the absence of the maturation factor, unlike the results observed in the case of sustained attention. Patients with poor cognitive flexibility also present disorders involving attentional discrimination, the control of impulses and interference control. The group with cognitive rigidity as a symptom added to the attentional disorder could correspond to a complex subtype that does not respond so successfully to stimulants. Consequently, cognitive flexibility studies could reflect an indicator for selecting the type of pharmacological treatment to be employed.

  1. Dopaminergic modulation of default mode network brain functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Richard B; Pipingas, Andrew; Farrow, Maree; Levy, Florence; Stough, Con K

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a range of brain functional connectivity abnormalities, with one of the most prominent being reduced inhibition of the default mode network (DMN) while performing a cognitive task. In this study, we examine the effects of a methylphenidate dose on brain functional connectivity in boys diagnosed with ADHD while they performed a cognitive task. Brain functional connectivity was estimated using steady-state visual evoked potential partial coherence before and 90 min after the administration of a methylphenidate dose to 42 stimulant drug-naïve boys newly diagnosed with ADHD while they performed the A-X version of the continuous performance task (CPT A-X). Methylphenidate robustly reversed the transient functional connectivity increase in the A-X interval seen premedication to a postmedication decrease during this interval. In addition, methylphenidate-induced reductions in individual reaction time were correlated with corresponding reductions in functional connectivity. These findings suggest that methylphenidate suppresses the increased functional connectivity observed in ADHD and that such suppression is associated with improved performance. Our findings support the suggestion that the increased functional connectivity we have observed in ADHD is associated with abnormal DMN activity. In addition, we comment on the significance of specific frequency channels mediating top-down communication within the cortex and the extent to which our findings are selectively sensitive to top-down intracortical communication.

  2. Modafinil Dependence: A Case with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Huseyin; Basay, Omer; Tumkaya, Selim; Mart, Mehmet; Kar, Gokce

    2018-03-30

    Modafinil is generally known as a drug with low addiction potential. There are few case reports in the literature demonstrating that Modafinil, stated being capable of diminishing symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), causes addiction. In the present article a Modafinil addicted ADHD case, consuming usurious doses (5,000 mg/per day) of Modafinil is presented. The case presented to our psychiatry outpatient clinic due to: requirement of in taking high dose Modafinil in order to achieve the initial effects, difficulty in obtaining the drug, irritability, anxiousness, sleep irregularities, fatigue and unpleasant vivid dreams when he did not use the drug. It was realized that the patient, himself increased doses of Modafinil incrementally, in order to keep its effects on attention symptoms at the same level. It has to be kept in mind that ADHD patients can develop Modafinil addiction. It is necessary to carry out systemic studies on this subject.

  3. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  4. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  5. [Textual pragmatics in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Paúls, B; Gimeno-Martínez, M; Moreno-Campos, V

    2010-03-03

    Clinical linguistics involves a study of linguistic deficits which focuses on a series of aspects that range from strictly formal, grammatical points to the effective and contextualised use of language. Thus, it is also inevitably concerned with the cognitive, i.e. mental, correlate of such language use, whose basic textual dimensions are narration and argument. To describe the argumentative skills in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine their relationship with academic achievement and sociability. We analysed 79 argumentative texts written by adolescents with ADHD, using a methodology from cognitive linguistics and from theories of argumentation with a dialogical foundation. Adolescents with ADHD provided a greater number of arguments than those in the control group, but with a higher predominance of emotional and negative sanction strategies compared with a greater use of fallacious or circular arguments in those in the control group; the difference between the use of rational arguments in the two groups is not significant.

  6. Children's accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Judy; Hatton, Diane; Beckett, Ann; Leo, Michael

    2003-01-01

    As a postmodern illness, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is embedded in controversy, reflective of the cultural times in which we live. Within this debate, 2 perspectives, ADHD as myth and ADHD as behavioral disorder, are most frequently voiced. This article describes these 2 differing perspectives and reports qualitative data from 39 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD regarding their perceptions, meanings,and experiences of living with this disorder. None of the participants in this study denied that they had difficulties and many of the difficulties they described corresponded to DSM-IV-R criteria and the scientific literature. Given these discoveries, the continual debate about the authenticity of ADHD only further victimizes families who are in desperate need of services.

  7. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. Aims To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Method Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30. Results Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Conclusions Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women. PMID:23661765

  8. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. DESIGN: A cross-sectional case-control study of the hippocampus and amygdala using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. SETTINGS: University research institute. PATIENTS: One hundred fourteen individuals aged 6 to 18 years, 51 with combined-type ADHD and 63...... healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P

  9. Smoking during pregnancy and hyperactivity-inattention in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Linnet, Karen Markussen; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to smoking has been associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a number of epidemiological studies. However, mothers with the ADHD phenotype may 'treat' their problem by smoking and therefore be more likely to smoke even in a society where...... smoking is not acceptable. This will cause genetic confounding if ADHD has a heritable component, especially in populations with low prevalence rates of smoking since this reason for smoking is expected to be proportionally more frequent in a population with few 'normal' smokers. We compared...... the association in cohorts with different smoking frequencies. METHODS: A total of 20 936 women with singleton pregnancies were identified within three population-based pregnancy cohorts in Northern Finland (1985-1986) and in Denmark (1984-1987 and 1989-1991). We collected self-reported data on their pre...

  10. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Wilens, Timothy

    2004-03-01

    There is a substantial body of literature documenting the efficacy of multiple unrelated pharmacological agents in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) individuals throughout the life-cycle. The available literature indicates the important role of psychopharmacological agents in the reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and associated impairments. The literature documents that stimulants not only improve abnormal behaviours of ADHD, but also improves self-esteem, cognition, and social and family function. However, response varied in different age groups and with certain comorbidities. In addition there is a large body of literature documenting the efficacy of atomoxetine which shows improvement in these same domains. More research is needed on alternative pharmacological treatments and to further evaluate established therapeutics beyond school-aged Caucasian boys. Further, more research is needed on the efficacy of treatment for comorbid ADHD, use of combined medications, and the combination of medication and psychosocial treatment.

  12. A token system for a class of underachieving hyperactive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P W; Newby, T J; Ganzell, S L

    1981-01-01

    Using a BAB design, a token system requiring cooperative interaction was used to change the reading and vocabulary performance of an 18-member class of third-grade hyperactive boys. Four different colored tokens, which could be exchanged for 15 minutes of play on electrovideo games, were earned by successful completion of two tasks that involved learning to read and to use new vocabulary words in sentences, and two tasks in which the student served as a proctor to a student who had not yet completed those tasks. The mean number of tasks completed during the intervention periods rose to over nine times the number completed during reversal. Additionally, the average completion rate for the school district's standardized weekly reading level examinations rose from four to eight fold during the token conditions. All 18 students responded to the token program by increasing their academic performance.

  13. Internet Addiction and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Yaacov, Yafa; Manning, Michal; Danon, Pinhas; Weizman, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction. We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns. Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: associations with overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2010-10-01

    In the past decade, we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between overweight/obesity and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. This review addresses the prevalence of the comorbidity and discusses some of the mechanisms that could account for their relationship. It is suggested that the inattentive and impulsive behaviors that characterize ADHD could contribute to overeating in our current food environment, with its emphasis on fast food consumption and its many food temptations. It is also proposed-based on the compelling evidence that foods high in fat, sugar, and salt are as addictive as some drugs of abuse-that excessive food consumption could be a form of self-medication. This view conforms with the well-established evidence that drug use and abuse are substantially higher among those with ADHD than among the general population.

  15. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  16. Cognitive control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58......-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...

  17. Pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkoff, Joshua; Greenfield, Brian

    2006-06-01

    With increased awareness that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist beyond childhood, pharmacological treatment options for adults have expanded. Short-acting stimulants continue to be the first-line approach, demonstrating clinical efficacy and few adverse events in well-controlled trials, with long-acting stimulants also showing promise. Atomoxetine has also been reported to improve ADHD symptoms and associated dysfunction, although longer-term, head-to-head studies with stimulants are needed. Several antidepressants (e.g., desipramine and buproprion) appear to be effective in the treatment of adult ADHD, but to a lesser extent than stimulants. Data are limited in evaluating the impact of combining pharmacological treatments for ADHD and comorbid conditions. This paper describes the safety and efficacy of medications for treating the core symptoms, psychosocial features and cognitive dysfunctions associated with adult ADHD.

  18. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30. Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.

  19. Amygdala hyperactivity and tonotopic shift after salicylate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Di; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard

    2012-11-16

    The amygdala, important in forming and storing memories of aversive events, is believed to play a major role in debilitating tinnitus and hyperacusis. To explore this hypothesis, we recorded from the lateral amygdala (LA) and auditory cortex (AC) before and after treating rats with a dose of salicylate that induces tinnitus and hyperacusis-like behavior. Salicylate unexpectedly increased the amplitude of the local field potential (LFP) in the LA making it hyperactive to sounds≥60 dB SPL. Frequency receptive fields (FRFs) of multiunit (MU) clusters in the LA were also dramatically altered by salicylate. Neuronal activity at frequencies below 10 kHz and above 20 kHz was depressed at low intensities, but was greatly enhanced for stimuli between 10 and 20 kHz (frequencies near the pitch of the salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat). These frequency-dependent changes caused the FRF of many LA neurons to migrate towards 10-20 kHz thereby amplifying activity from this region. To determine if salicylate-induced changes restricted to the LA would remotely affect neural activity in the AC, we used a micropipette to infuse salicylate (20 μl, 2.8 mM) into the amygdala. Local delivery of salicylate to the amygdala significantly increased the amplitude of the LFP recorded in the AC and selectively enhanced the neuronal activity of AC neurons at the mid-frequencies (10-20 kHz), frequencies associated with the tinnitus pitch. Taken together, these results indicate that systemic salicylate treatment can induce hyperactivity and tonotopic shift in the amygdala and infusion of salicylate into the amygdala can profoundly enhance sound-evoked activity in AC, changes likely to increase the perception and emotional salience of tinnitus and loud sounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amygdala Hyperactivity and Tonotopic Shift after Salicylate Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Di; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Salvi, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The amygdala, important in forming and storing memories of aversive events, is believed to play a major role in debilitating tinnitus and hyperacusis. To explore this hypothesis, we recorded from the lateral amygdala (LA) and auditory cortex (AC) before and after treating rats with a dose of salicylate that induces tinnitus and hyperacusis-like behavior. Salicylate unexpectedly increased the amplitude of the local field potential (LFP) in the LA making it hyperactive to sounds ≥60 dB SPL. Frequency receptive fields (FRF) of multiunit (MU) clusters in the LA were also dramatically altered by salicylate. Neuronal activity at frequencies below 10 kHz and above 20 kHz was depressed at low intensities, but was greatly enhanced for stimuli between 10 and 20 kHz (frequencies near the pitch of the salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat). These frequency-dependent changes caused the FRF of many LA neurons to migrate towards 10-20 kHz thereby amplifying activity from this region. To determine if salicylate-induced changes restricted to the LA would remotely affect neural activity in the AC, we used a micropipette to infuse salicylate (20 µl, 2.8 mM) into the amygdala. Local delivery of salicylate to the amygdala significantly increased the amplitude of the LFP recorded in the AC and selectively enhanced the neuronal activity of AC neurons at the mid-frequencies (10-20 kHz), frequencies associated with the tinnitus pitch. Taken together, these results indicate that systemic salicylate treatment can induce hyperactivity and tonotopic shift in the amygdala and infusion of salicylate into the amygdala can profoundly enhance sound-evoked activity in AC, changes likely to increase the perception and emotional salience of tinnitus and loud sounds. PMID:22464181

  1. ["Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in forensic psychiatry: A review"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, D; Tisserant, I; Notardonato, L

    2017-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders. ADHD may have behavioral consequences and involvements in minor and serious crimes. Our work aims to establish links between ADHD and forensic psychiatry. A review of international scientific literature concerning the relationship between ADHD and forensic psychiatry was conducted using the PudMed electronic database. We used the Mesh terms: "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" and "forensic psychiatry". We also used the "related articles" function of PubMed, the bibliography of selected articles and the Google Scholar database to identify possible additional papers. The prevalence of ADHD in prison populations may vary but remain higher than those found in the general population. Violence committed by a person with ADHD seems to be against other persons rather than property offences. Reactive-impulsive violence seems to be more prevalent than pro-active instrumental violence. The existence of ADHD does not appear as a risk factor of recidivism. The violence risk may be increased by the occurrence of comorbidities as conduct disorders and mental deficiency. There may exist a preferential association between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder or substance abuse which both increase the risk of violence. To put in perspective forensic psychiatry and ADHD allowed us to identify typology of violence, epidemiological aspect of ADHD in a prison environment and comorbidities involved in the risk of violence. This research permits to precise elements of prevention, diagnosis and assistance in the management of violent behaviour in ADHD and in expert practice. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Agony and the Empathy: A Hyperactive Child's Journey from Despair to Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Ken W.; McCluskey, Andrea L. A.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on experiences of living with ADHD from parents' and young adult's perspectives. Describes the types and characteristics of ADHD. Presents suggestions on ways to live and cope with a hyperactive child. (Author/JDM)

  3. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-2011. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomenon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and men as marginalised, exceptional or dangerous. There is also a focus on mothers as the spokespersons and caretakers for parenting and family health while fathers are rendered more invisible. This contributes to our understanding of how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is constructed in the media using a range of gendered representations that draw on cultural stereotypes familiar in Western societies.

  4. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  5. Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant Problems as Antecedents of School Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Veenstra, Rene; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Shaw, Philip; Tiemeier, Henning

    Objective: To examine whether early manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) increase children's later risk of bullying or victimization. Method: Using a population-based, prospective cohort, our multi-informant approach comprised

  6. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, S.D.; Luman, M.; Greven, C.U.; Veroude, K.; Faraone, S.V.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of

  7. No lower cognitive functioning in older adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semeijn, E.J.; Korten, N.C.M.; Comijs, H.; Michielsen, M.M.; Deeg, D.; Beekman, A.; Kooij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research illustrates cognitive deficits in children and younger adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Few studies have focused on the cognitive functioning in older adults. This study investigates the association between ADHD and cognitive functioning in older

  8. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  9. Circadian rhythm disruption as a link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.W.; Bijlenga, D.; Tanke, M.; Bron, T.I.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Swaab, H.; Beekman, A.T.; Kooij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have a high prevalence of obesity. This is the first study to investigate whether circadian rhythmdisruption is a mechanismlinking ADHD symptoms to obesity. Methods: ADHD symptoms and two manifestations of circadian

  10. Parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Grønkjær, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most prevalent mental disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging and parents find it difficult to raise the child and struggle to get professional...... support. Research has shown how living with a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder influences the families' daily life. This includes how the parents manage to maintain a bearable family life, supportive or not supportive factors as well as parents' experiences of collaboration...... with professionals in diverse settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of health care and other services. INCLUSION...

  11. Association between amygdala hyperactivity to harsh faces and severity of social anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, K.L.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Nathan, P.J.; Tancer, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous functional brain imaging studies of social anxiety have implicated amygdala hyperactivity in response to social threat, though its relationship to quantitative measures of clinical symptomatology remains unknown. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and personality characteristics in older adults in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; Comijs, H.C.; Semeijn, E.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors wanted to examine the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality characteristics and the potential mediating role of these characteristics in the relationship between ADHD and depression in older adults in the general Dutch population.

  13. Functional disconnection of frontal cortex and visual cortex in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazaheri, A.; Coffey-Corina, S.; Mangun, G.R.; Bekker, E.M.; Berry, A.S.; Corbett, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current pathophysiologic models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that impaired functional connectivity within brain attention networks may contribute to the disorder. In this electroencephalographic (EEG) study, we analyzed cross-frequency amplitude correlations

  14. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of

  15. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mindera, R.B.; Hoofdakker, B.J. van den; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  16. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, due...

  17. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  18. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Carlier, A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Derom, C.A.; Lubke, G.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  19. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, Marijn A.; Carlier, Angela; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  20. Attention problems and hyperactivity as predictors of college grade point average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanz, Kerry A; Palm, Linda J; Brallier, Sara A

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of measures of attention problems and hyperactivity to the prediction of college grade point average (GPA). A sample of 316 students enrolled in introductory psychology and sociology classes at a southeastern university completed the BASC-2 Self-Report of Personality College Form. Scores on the attention problems scale and the hyperactivity scale of the BASC-2 were entered into a regression equation as predictors of cumulative GPA. Each of the independent variables made a significant contribution to the prediction of GPA. Attention problem scores alone explained 7% of the variability in GPAs. The addition of hyperactivity scores to the equation produced a 2% increase in explanatory power. The implications of these results for assessing symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity in college students are discussed.

  1. Do inattention and hyperactivity symptoms equal scholastic impairment? Evidence from three European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Alina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects many children, adolescents, and adults and is associated with a number of impairments. Poor academic performance is related to ADHD in clinical samples. However, it is unclear to what extent core ADHD symptoms and scholastic...... children on inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and reported children's scholastic performance on basic skills. RESULTS: There was a significant association in all cohorts between core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment in reading, writing, and mathematics. Particularly, inattention was related...

  2. Nutritional Status of Korean Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with an elevated risk for obesity but this seems to be paradoxical to the fact that many youths with ADHD have symptoms of hyperactivity. People diagnosed with ADHD tend to have a high risk of developing undesirable diet habits and consequently have health related problems. However, less attention has been paid to obesity in ADHD while many efforts have been devoted to the prevention of childhood obesity in mentally normal pe...

  3. Living in a family with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Øyfrid Larsen; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Hedelin, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    To describe experiences of everyday life in families with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a highly prevalent, clinically heterogeneous disorder characterised by behavioural symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that creates impairments for the child and affects the family life. The impairments vary with age and context, and the same symptoms do not necessarily have the same effects in different contexts and persons. A qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach. Family members, mothers, fathers, siblings and children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17) were interviewed individually. The findings include two descriptive categories 'safeguarding a functioning family' and 'fighting for acceptance and inclusion'. To create a stable and structured family life to avoid conflicts within the family and manage their daily life were crucial. The child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents developed special skills and strategies to live with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the family sphere and the social context. To apply for help before the problems in the family become too severe and to share responsibility with professionals, who have competence, to meet the families in their worries were stressed. The striving in the family strengthened the companionship in the families, and they conceived growth. This study contributes to knowledge of the parents, siblings and children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder experiences of everyday life with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. All family members need support before their problems become too severe. There is a need of family-focused approach with a dialogue with family members to share the view of their situation and identify their individual resources and needs. Nurses should help these families with family supervision.

  4. Clinical use of a modified release methylphenidate in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Takon, Inyang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder in childhood, affecting over 5% of children worldwide. As well as the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, patients often exhibit learning difficulties and impairment in social functioning. The frequency of referral is higher for boys than for girls (about 2:1), and girls are generally older at the time of referral. Pharmacological therapy is considered the...

  5. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, ...

  6. Oral and Dental Health Problems of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, and Solution Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan Çağıl Yetiş; Zuhal Kırzıoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood onset behavioral disorder characterized by a developmentally inappropriate attention deficit, hyperactivity-impulsivity or a combination of these. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology. Because of the behavioral problems sourced from the disease itself and side effects of the drugs used in therapy, children with ADHD take place in the risk group in terms of oral and dental health problems ...

  7. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sörös; Peter Sörös; Katharina Bachmann; Alexandra P. Lam; Alexandra P. Lam; Manuela Kanat; Eliza Hoxhaj; Swantje Matthies; Bernd Feige; Helge H. O. Müller; Christiane Thiel; Christiane Thiel; Alexandra Philipsen; Alexandra Philipsen; Alexandra Philipsen

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD.MethodsSurface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear...

  8. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sörös, Peter; Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P.; Kanat, Manuela; Hoxhaj, Eliza; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Müller, Helge H. O.; Thiel, Christiane; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD. Methods Surface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using Free...

  9. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; Moura, Luciana Monteiro de; Mello, Claudia Berlim de; Souza, Altay Alves Lino de; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...

  10. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, J. F.; Lindschou, Jane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and impulsivity and/or hyperactivity and a range of cognitive dysfunctions. Pharmacological treatment may be beneficial; however, many affected individuals...... of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions. METHODS...

  11. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel CS; Chaim-Avancini TM; Silva MA; Louzã MR

    2015-01-01

    Carmen Sílvia Miguel, Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini, Maria Aparecida Silva, Mario Rodrigues LouzãAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Program (PRODATH), Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities o...

  12. Candidate genetic pathways for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show association to hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralten, Janita; Franke, Barbara; Waldman, Irwin; Rommelse, Nanda; Hartman, Catharina; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard P; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph A; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic studies. This study investigated whether pathway-based analysis could bring scientists closer to unraveling the biology of ADHD. The pathway was described as a predefined gene selection based on a well-established database or literature data. Common genetic variants in pathways involved in dopamine/norepinephrine and serotonin neurotransmission and genes involved in neuritic outgrowth were investigated in cases from the International Multicentre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. Multivariable analysis was performed to combine the effects of single genetic variants within the pathway genes. Phenotypes were DSM-IV symptom counts for inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity (n = 871) and symptom severity measured with the Conners Parent (n = 930) and Teacher (n = 916) Rating Scales. Summing genetic effects of common genetic variants within the pathways showed a significant association with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms ((p)empirical = .007) but not with inattentive symptoms ((p)empirical = .73). Analysis of parent-rated Conners hyperactive/impulsive symptom scores validated this result ((p)empirical = .0018). Teacher-rated Conners scores were not associated. Post hoc analyses showed a significant contribution of all pathways to the hyperactive/impulsive symptom domain (dopamine/norepinephrine, (p)empirical = .0004; serotonin, (p)empirical = .0149; neuritic outgrowth, (p)empirical = .0452). The present analysis shows an association between common variants in 3 genetic pathways and the hyperactive/impulsive component of ADHD. This study demonstrates that pathway-based association analyses, using quantitative measurements of ADHD symptom domains, can increase the power of genetic analyses to

  13. The adolescent outcome of hyperactive girls: self-report of psychosocial status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Heptinstall, Ellen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Chadwick, Oliver; Taylor, Eric

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the developmental risk associated with hyperactive behaviour in girls in a longitudinal epidemiological design. This was investigated in a follow-up study of girls who were identified by parent and teacher ratings in a large community survey of 6- and 7-year-olds as showing pervasive hyperactivity or conduct problems or the comorbid mixture of both problems or neither problem. They were later investigated, at the age of 14 to 16 years, with a detailed self-report interview technique. Hyperactivity was a risk factor for later development, even allowing for the coexistence of conduct problems. Hyperactivity predicted academic problems and interpersonal relationship problems. Relationships with parents, by contrast, were not portrayed to be as problematic as relationships with peers and the opposite sex. Their psychological, social and occupational functioning was objectively rated to be more deviant and their self-report showed them to be more ambivalent about their future. There was a trend for hyperactivity to be self-reported as a risk for the development of continuing symptomatology but neither hyperactivity nor conduct problems were self-reported to be a risk for antisocial behaviour, substance misuse or low self-esteem in adolescence. However, they were at risk for the development of state anxiety. The results suggested girls' pattern of functioning may differ from that of boys because girls self-report a more pervasive range of social dysfunction than that previously reported in boys.

  14. Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossin, Mats H; Aaby, Jens B; Dalgård, Christine; Lykkedegn, Sine; Christesen, Henrik T; Bilenberg, Niels

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5. In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression. Results The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.5-127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L ( p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol/L ( p = 0.043), respectively. The adjusted odds of scoring above the 90th percentile on the Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem scale decreased by 11% per 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25(OH)D. An inverse association between cord 25(OH)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.

  15. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in ancient Greece: The Obtuse Man of Theophrastus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Marcelo M; S da Silva, Bruna; Kappel, Djenifer B; Bau, Claiton Hd; Grevet, Eugenio H

    2018-04-01

    We present an ancient Greek description written by the philosopher Theophrastus in his classic book ' Characters' comparable with modern attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The arguments are based in one chapter of this book-The Obtuse Man-presenting features of a character closely resembling the modern description of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In a free comparative exercise, we compared Theophrastus descriptions with modern Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The sentences describing The Obtuse Man written by Theophrastus are similar to several symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and he would probably be currently diagnosed with this disorder as an adult. To our knowledge, this is the oldest description compatible with the current conception of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults in the Western literature. Differently than the moralistic view of ancient Greece regarding those symptoms, the medical attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder conception may be advantageous to patients since it might reduce prejudice and allow individuals to seek treatment.

  16. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Peik; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils; Källén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.02). We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

  17. Effects of Yoga on Attention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity in Preschool-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samantha C L; Harvey, Danielle J; Shields, Rebecca H; Shields, Grant S; Rashedi, Roxanne N; Tancredi, Daniel J; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hansen, Robin L; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2018-04-01

    Behavioral therapies are first-line for preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies support yoga for school-aged children with ADHD; this study evaluated yoga in preschoolers on parent- and teacher-rated attention/challenging behaviors, attentional control (Kinder Test of Attentional Performance [KiTAP]), and heart rate variability (HRV). This randomized waitlist-controlled trial tested a 6-week yoga intervention in preschoolers with ≥4 ADHD symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Preschool Version. Group 1 (n = 12) practiced yoga first; Group 2 (n = 11) practiced yoga second. We collected data at 4 time points: baseline, T1 (6 weeks), T2 (12 weeks), and follow-up (3 months after T2). At baseline, there were no significant differences between groups. At T1, Group 1 had faster reaction times on the KiTAP go/no-go task (p = 0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI], -371.1 to -59.1, d = -1.7), fewer distractibility errors of omission (p = 0.009, 95% CI, -14.2 to -2.3, d = -1.5), and more commission errors (p = 0.02, 95% CI, 1.4-14.8, d = 1.3) than Group 2. Children in Group 1 with more severe symptoms at baseline showed improvement at T1 versus control on parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire hyperactivity inattention (β = -2.1, p = 0.04, 95% CI, -4.0 to -0.1) and inattention on the ADHD Rating Scale (β = -4.4, p = 0.02, 95% CI, -7.9 to -0.9). HRV measures did not differ between groups. Yoga was associated with modest improvements on an objective measure of attention (KiTAP) and selective improvements on parent ratings.

  18. The Effect of Neurofeedback Therapy on Reducing Symptoms Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deilami, Mostafa; Jahandideh, Asghar; Kazemnejad, Yousef; Fakour, Yousef; Alipoor, Shiva; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Pournesaie, Ghazal Saadat; Heidari, Rosemarie Noot; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of neurofeedback on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study without a control group. The study population included all children aged 5 to 12 years old affected with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Tehran, Iran who were referred to psychiatric clinics and given the diagnosis. The sample included 12 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were selected based...

  19. Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder insomnia with blue wavelength light-blocking glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargason RE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rachel E Fargason, Taylor Preston, Emily Hammond, Roberta May, Karen L GambleDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: The aim of this study was to examine a nonmedical treatment alternative to medication in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD insomnia, in which blue wavelength light-blocking glasses are worn during the evening hours to counteract the phase-delaying effect of light. Outcome measures included sleep quality and midsleep time. The capacity of ADHD subjects to comply with treatment using the glasses was assessed.Methods: Daily bedtime, wake-up time, and compliance diaries were used to assess sleep quality and timing during a baseline observation week and a 2-week intervention period. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was administered following baseline and intervention. The intervention protocol consisted of use of blue wavelength-blocking glasses and a moderate lighting environment during evening hours.Results: Partial and variable compliance were noted, with only 14 of 22 subjects completing the study due to nonadherence with wearing the glasses and diary completion. Despite the minimum 3-hour recommendation, glasses were worn, on average, for 2.4 hours daily. Lighting was reduced for only 58.7% of the evening. Compared with baseline, the intervention resulted in significant improvement in global PSQI scores, PSQI subcomponent scores, and sleep diary measures of morning refreshment after sleep (P = 0.037 and night-time awakenings (P = 0.015. Global PSQI scores fell from 11.15 to 4.54, dropping below the cut-off score of 5 for clinical insomnia. The more phase-delayed subjects, ie, those with an initial midsleep time after 4:15 am, trended towards an earlier midsleep time by 43.2 minutes following the intervention (P = 0.073. Participants reported less anxiety following the intervention (P = 0.048.Conclusions

  20. The Severity of Vestibular Dysfunction in Deafness as a Determinant of Comorbid Hyperactivity or Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Michelle W; Vijayakumar, Sarath; McKeehan, Nicholas; Jones, Sherri M; Hébert, Jean M

    2017-05-17

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety-related disorders occur at rates 2-3 times higher in deaf compared with hearing children. Potential explanations for these elevated rates and the heterogeneity of behavioral disorders associated with deafness have usually focused on socio-environmental rather than biological effects. Children with the 22q11.2 deletion or duplication syndromes often display hearing loss and behavioral disorders, including ADHD and anxiety-related disorders. Here, we show that mouse mutants with either a gain or loss of function of the T-Box transcription factor gene, Tbx1 , which lies within the 22q11.2 region and is responsible for most of the syndromic defects, exhibit inner ear defects and hyperactivity. Furthermore, we show that (1) inner ear dysfunction due to the tissue-specific loss of Tbx1 or Slc12a2 , which encodes a sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter and is also necessary for inner ear function, causes hyperactivity; (2) vestibular rather than auditory failure causes hyperactivity; and (3) the severity rather than the age of onset of vestibular dysfunction differentiates whether hyperactivity or anxiety co-occurs with inner ear dysfunction. Together, these findings highlight a biological link between inner ear dysfunction and behavioral disorders and how sensory abnormalities can contribute to the etiology of disorders traditionally considered of cerebral origin. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study examines the biological rather than socio-environmental reasons why hyperactivity and anxiety disorders occur at higher rates in deaf individuals. Using conditional genetic approaches in mice, the authors show that (1) inner ear dysfunction due to either Tbx1 or Slc12a2 mutations cause hyperactivity; (2) it is vestibular dysfunction, which frequently co-occurs with deafness but often remains undiagnosed, rather than auditory dysfunction that causes hyperactivity and anxiety-related symptoms; and (3) the severity of

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and risky sexual behavior in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, G M Monawar; Berenson, Abbey B; Tennen, Howard; Bauer, Lance O; Wu, Z Helen

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and high-risk sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study interviewed 462 low-income women aged 18-30 years. We used the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist to assess ADHD symptoms. Risky sexual behaviors included sex before 15 years of age, risky sex partners in lifetime, number of sex partners in the last 12 months, condom use in the last 12 months, alcohol use before sex in the last 12 months, traded sex in lifetime, and diagnosed with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in lifetime. Mean ADHD symptom score was 19.8 (SD±12.9), and summary index of all risky sexual behavior was 1.77 (SD±1.37). Using unadjusted odds ratios (OR), women who endorsed more ADHD symptoms reported engaging in more risky sexual behaviors of all types. However, when multivariable logistic regression was applied adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, the adjusted ORs remained significant for having risky sex partners and having ≥3 sex partners in the prior 12 months. We observed some differences in risky sexual behavior between two domains of ADHD. The ADHD symptom score appears to be associated with some risky sexual behaviors and deserves further attention. A brief ADHD screening can identify this high-risk group for timely evaluation and safe sex counseling.

  2. Neuroimaging of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current neuroscience-informed perspectives for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2012-10-01

    The neuroimaging literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Here, we provide a critical overview of neuroimaging studies published recently, highlighting perspectives that may be of relevance for clinicians. After a comprehensive search of PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and EMBASE, we located 41 pertinent papers published between January 2011 and April 2012, comprising both structural and functional neuroimaging studies. This literature is increasingly contributing to the notion that the pathophysiology of ADHD reflects abnormal interplay among large-scale brain circuits. Moreover, recent studies have begun to reveal the mechanisms of action of pharmacological treatment. Finally, imaging studies with a developmental perspective are revealing the brain correlates of ADHD over the lifespan, complementing clinical observations on the phenotypic continuity and discontinuity of the disorder. However, despite the increasing potential to eventually inform clinical practice, current imaging studies do not have validated applications in day-to-day clinical practice. Although novel analytical techniques are likely to accelerate the pace of translational applications, at the present we advise caution regarding inappropriate commercial misuse of imaging techniques in ADHD.

  3. Association of Tongue Bacterial Flora and Subtypes of Liver-Fire Hyperactivity Syndrome in Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-wei Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes in symbiotic human microorganisms can affect host phenotype. Liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome (LFHS presents as bitter taste, halitosis, xerostomia, odontalgia, and other oral symptoms. LFHS is associated with hypertension (EH. In this study, tongue flora was analyzed to further understand the intrinsic relationship between tongue flora and LFHS. Samples of tongue coating, from 16 patients with EH-LFHS, 16 with EH-non-LFHS, and 16 controls, were obtained; then, 16S rRNA variable (V3-V4 regions were amplified and sequenced by MiSeq PE300 Sequencing. Tag clustering and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs abundance analysis were used to compare the OTU sequence with the 16S database. The species were classified, and diversity and structure of the bacterial flora were compared between the three groups. Alpha diversity analysis, including Observed Species index and Chao index, indicated significantly higher richness of species in patients with EH-LFHS (p<0.05. Higher phylogenetic diversity, in patients with EH-non-LFHS, indicates greater differences in evolutionary history than in patients with EH-LFHS. Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseria, and Sphingomonas were the most prevalent in patients with EH-LFHS, differed from the other two groups. This indicates that richer bacterial diversity, and structure associated with EH-LFHS, may affect the occurrence, development, and outcome of hypertension and syndrome subtypes recognized by TCM.

  4. RLS in middle aged women and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Lyall, Kristen; Palacios, Natalia; Walters, Arthur S; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) could share some common genetic backgrounds, but the effect of these genetic components could be modest. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a large-scaled cross-sectional study to examine whether women with a child with ADHD had a higher risk of having RLS than women of unaffected children. We included 65,554 women free of diabetes, arthritis, and pregnancy in the current analyses. Information on RLS was assessed using a set of standardized questions. Participants were considered to have RLS if they met four RLS diagnostic criteria recommended by the International RLS Study Group and had restless legs ≥5 times/month. Information on ADHD in offspring was collected via questionnaire. We observed a significant association between presence of ADHD in the offspring and risk of having RLS; the multivariate-adjusted OR for RLS was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.41; PRLS. Further studies are warranted to explore biological mechanisms underling this association. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus W. Lange

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs has been suggested to have an impact on the development of symptoms of ADHD in children. Individuals with ADHD have been demonstrated to have significantly reduced blood concentrations of PUFAs and, in particular, reduced levels of omega-3 (n-3 PUFAs. These findings suggest that PUFA supplementation may reduce the attention and behavior problems associated with ADHD. Objective: To provide an overview of the efficacy of dietary LC-PUFA supplementation in the treatment of ADHD. Methods: Literature published up until December 2013 on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on ADHD symptoms was obtained using a PubMed search and critically reviewed. Results: Dietary PUFA supplementation appears to have beneficial effects on ADHD symptoms although these effects are small. The clinical relevance of these observations remains to be determined. Conclusion: There is only limited support for the efficacy of PUFA supplementation for the core symptoms of ADHD. Given the small effect sizes regarding PUFA supplementation, it may not be a sufficient therapy for a majority of patients with ADHD.

  6. Prevalence of and associated factors for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young Swiss men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Estévez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF. ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial.

  7. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  8. Quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana Barbosa; Marques, Juliana Cristina Fernandes Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo Barbante

    2011-08-01

    The knowledge of psychomotor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may help in defining therapeutic approaches in order to minimize losses in their quality of life. The study objectives were to evaluate the quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with ADHD and check your correlation. Fourteen children, from seven to ten years, with ADHD combined type were evaluate using the scales PedsQL™ and Motor Development Scale. Results showed adverse effects of ADHD on quality of life and a deficit in motor skills. Nine participants (64.2%) were classified in motor development as "Normal Medium", followed by the classification "Normal Low" in four (28.5%) and "Low" in one subject (7.1%). We observed a positive correlation between quality of life and psychomotor development of children with ADHD, especially in areas: fine motor and spatial organization with social and psychosocial aspects, gross motor control with the emotional and temporal organization with the emotional, psychosocial and overall quality of life.

  9. [Evolution of stress in families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerro-Prado, D; Mardomingo-Sanz, M L; Ortiz-Guerra, J J; García-García, P; Soler-López, B

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the evolution of stress in families of children and adolescents who start psychopharmacological treatment after being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the ability to detect this change using the FSI (Family Strain Index) questionnaire. Forty eight (48) specialists in child-adolescent psychiatry or neuropediatrics included 429 families of children diagnosed with ADHD, represented by the father, mother or guardian of the child. In the baseline visit, and at two and four months, the intensity of the symptoms of ADHD was evaluated using the abbreviated Conners scale, and family stress was evaluated using the FSI questionnaire. The following was observed: a) an improvement in the overall FSI score and in all its dimensions (PADHD and the reduction of family stress, as evaluated by the FSI questionnaire, after starting psychopharmacological treatment. This study showed a great sensitivity to change in the clinical situation of patients with ADHD, evaluated through the stress it produces on its families. It is recommended to use this questionnaire as an indirect measurement of the repercussions of the disorder on the environment of the child with ADHD in terms of family stress. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barbosa Goulardins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of psychomotor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD may help in defining therapeutic approaches in order to minimize losses in their quality of life. The study objectives were to evaluate the quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with ADHD and check your correlation. Fourteen children, from seven to ten years, with ADHD combined type were evaluate using the scales PedsQL™ and Motor Development Scale. Results showed adverse effects of ADHD on quality of life and a deficit in motor skills. Nine participants (64.2% were classified in motor development as "Normal Medium", followed by the classification "Normal Low" in four (28.5% and "Low" in one subject (7.1%. We observed a positive correlation between quality of life and psychomotor development of children with ADHD, especially in areas: fine motor and spatial organization with social and psychosocial aspects, gross motor control with the emotional and temporal organization with the emotional, psychosocial and overall quality of life.

  11. Math Error Types and Correlates in Adolescents with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Capodieci

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the types of errors made by youth with and without a parent-reported diagnosis of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD on a math fluency task and investigate the association between error types and youths’ performance on measures of processing speed and working memory.Method: Participants included 30 adolescents with ADHD and 39 typically developing peers between 14 and 17 years old matched in age and IQ. All youth completed standardized measures of math calculation and fluency as well as two tests of working memory and processing speed. Math fluency error patterns were examined.Results: Adolescents with ADHD showed less proficient math fluency despite having similar math calculation scores as their peers. Group differences were also observed in error types with youth with ADHD making more switch errors than their peers.Conclusion: This research has important clinical applications for the assessment and intervention on math ability in students with ADHD.

  12. Factors that influence the urodynamic results of botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurogenic hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martín, P; Vírseda-Chamorro, M; Salinas Casado, J; Gómez-Rodríguez, A; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2015-05-01

    To determine the urodynamic efficacy and factors that influence the urodynamic results of treatment of neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity with intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). A retrospective study was conducted with a cohort of 70 patients composed of 40 men and 30 women with stable SCI (mean age, 39 ± 13.3 years) who underwent an intradetrusor injection of 300 IUs of BTX-A. A urodynamic study was conducted prior to the injection and 6 ± 4.3 months after the treatment. New urodynamic studies were subsequently performed up to an interval of 16 ± 12.2 months. The BTX-A significantly increased (p bladder capacity, the bladder volume of the first involuntary contraction of the detrusor and the postvoid residue. We observed a decrease that tended towards statistical significance (p bladder accommodation nor the urethral resistance index (bladder outlet obstruction index) varied significantly. The increase in vesical capacity was maintained in 50% of the sample for more than 32 months. Age, sex, anticholinergic treatment and lesion age showed no influence in terms of the increase in bladder capacity. The indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) was the only statistically significant negative factor. The urodynamic effect of BTX-A is maintained for a considerable time interval. The IUC negatively influences the result of the treatment. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Tongue Bacterial Flora and Subtypes of Liver-Fire Hyperactivity Syndrome in Hypertensive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cong-huai; Zhu, Yao-bin; Zheng, Xing-yu; Wu, Yong-xi; Chen, Wei-wei; Yang, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Structural changes in symbiotic human microorganisms can affect host phenotype. Liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome (LFHS) presents as bitter taste, halitosis, xerostomia, odontalgia, and other oral symptoms. LFHS is associated with hypertension (EH). In this study, tongue flora was analyzed to further understand the intrinsic relationship between tongue flora and LFHS. Samples of tongue coating, from 16 patients with EH-LFHS, 16 with EH-non-LFHS, and 16 controls, were obtained; then, 16S rRNA variable (V3-V4) regions were amplified and sequenced by MiSeq PE300 Sequencing. Tag clustering and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) abundance analysis were used to compare the OTU sequence with the 16S database. The species were classified, and diversity and structure of the bacterial flora were compared between the three groups. Alpha diversity analysis, including Observed Species index and Chao index, indicated significantly higher richness of species in patients with EH-LFHS (p < 0.05). Higher phylogenetic diversity, in patients with EH-non-LFHS, indicates greater differences in evolutionary history than in patients with EH-LFHS. Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseria, and Sphingomonas were the most prevalent in patients with EH-LFHS, differed from the other two groups. This indicates that richer bacterial diversity, and structure associated with EH-LFHS, may affect the occurrence, development, and outcome of hypertension and syndrome subtypes recognized by TCM. PMID:29541146

  14. MEG Analysis of Neural Interactions in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Khadmaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the interchannel relationships of resting-state brain activity in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG signals were recorded using a 148-channel whole-head magnetometer in 13 patients with ADHD (range: 8–12 years and 14 control subjects (range: 8–13 years. Three complementary measures (coherence, phase-locking value, and Euclidean distance were calculated in the conventional MEG frequency bands: delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma. Our results showed that the interactions among MEG channels are higher for ADHD patients than for control subjects in all frequency bands. Statistically significant differences were observed for short-distance values within right-anterior and central regions, especially at delta, beta, and gamma-frequency bands (p<0.05; Mann-Whitney U test with false discovery rate correction. These frequency bands also showed statistically significant differences in long-distance interactions, mainly among anterior and central regions, as well as among anterior, central, and other areas. These differences might reflect alterations during brain development in children with ADHD. Our results support the role of frontal abnormalities in ADHD pathophysiology, which may reflect a delay in cortical maturation in the frontal cortex.

  15. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA. PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79. The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD.

  16. Early Fever As a Predictor of Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Holly E; Schreiber, Martin A; Laurie, Amber L; Baguley, Ian J; Bourdette, Dennis; Ling, Geoffrey S F

    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is characterized by episodic, hyperadrenergic alterations in vital signs after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to apply an objective scale to the vital sign alterations of PSH in order to determine whether 1 element might be predictive of developing PSH. We conducted an observational study of consecutive TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤12) and monitored the cohort for clinical evidence of PSH. PSH was defined as a paroxysm of 3 or more of the following characteristics: (1) tachycardia, (2) tachypnea, (3) hypertension, (4) fever, (5) dystonia (rigidity or decerebrate posturing), and (6) diaphoresis, with no other obvious causation (ie, alcohol withdrawal, sepsis). The Modified Clinical Feature Severity Scale (mCFSS) was applied to each participant once daily for the first 5 days of hospitalization. Nineteen (11%) of the 167 patients met criteria for PSH. Patients with PSH had a higher 5-day cumulative mCFSS score than those without PSH (median [interquartile range] = 36 [29-42] vs 29 [22-35], P = .01). Of the 4 components of the mCFSS, elevated temperature appeared to be most predictive of the development of PSH, especially during the first 24 hours (odds ratio = 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.40). Early fever after TBI may signal impending autonomic dysfunction.

  17. Residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and IQ, attention and hyperactivity in 7-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunier, Robert B; Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Holland, Nina T; Avery, Dylan; Harley, Kim G; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to examine the relationship between residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and neurodevelopment in 7-year old children. Participants were living in the agricultural Salinas Valley, California and enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children Of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th Edition) to assess cognition and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (2nd Edition) to assess behavior. We estimated agricultural fumigant use within 3, 5 and 8km of residences during pregnancy and from birth to age 7 using California's Pesticide Use Report data. We evaluated the association between prenatal (n = 285) and postnatal (n = 255) residential proximity to agricultural use of methyl bromide, chloropicrin, metam sodium and 1,3-dichloropropene with neurodevelopment. We observed decreases of 2.6 points (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -5.2, 0.0) and 2.4 points (95% CI: -4.7, -0.2) in Full-Scale intelligence quotient for each ten-fold increase in methyl bromide and chloropicrin use within 8km of the child's residences from birth to 7-years of age, respectively. There were no associations between residential proximity to use of other fumigants and cognition or proximity to use of any fumigant and hyperactivity or attention problems. These findings should be explored in larger studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Impact of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on School Performance: What are the Effects of Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Raman; Mattison, Richard E; Waxmonsky, James G

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects an estimated 5-7 % of schoolchildren worldwide. School functioning and academic achievement are frequently impaired by ADHD and represent one of the main reasons children start ADHD medication. Multiple potential causal pathways exist between ADHD and impaired school performance. In this review, we decompose school performance into three components and assess the impact of ADHD and its treatments on academic performance (assessed by grade point average [GPA], time on-task, percentage of work completed as well as percent completed correctly), academic skills (as measured by achievement tests and cognitive measures), and academic enablers (such as study skills, motivation, engagement, classroom behavior and interpersonal skills). Most studies examined only the short-term effects of medication on school performance. In these, ADHD medications have been observed to improve some aspects of school performance, with the largest impact on measures of academic performance such as seatwork productivity and on-task performance. In a subset of children, these benefits may translate into detectable improvements in GPA and achievement testing. However, limited data exists to support whether these changes are sustained over years. Optimizing medication effects requires periodic reassessment of school performance, necessitating a collaborative effort involving patients, parents, school staff and prescribers. Even with systematic reassessment, behavioral-based treatments and additional school-based services may be needed to maximize academic performance for the many youth with ADHD and prominent impairments in school performance.

  19. Age dependent electroencephalographic changes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poil, S-S; Bollmann, S; Ghisleni, C; O'Gorman, R L; Klaver, P; Ball, J; Eich-Höchli, D; Brandeis, D; Michels, L

    2014-08-01

    Objective biomarkers for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could improve diagnostics or treatment monitoring of this psychiatric disorder. The resting electroencephalogram (EEG) provides non-invasive spectral markers of brain function and development. Their accuracy as ADHD markers is increasingly questioned but may improve with pattern classification. This study provides an integrated analysis of ADHD and developmental effects in children and adults using regression analysis and support vector machine classification of spectral resting (eyes-closed) EEG biomarkers in order to clarify their diagnostic value. ADHD effects on EEG strongly depend on age and frequency. We observed typical non-linear developmental decreases in delta and theta power for both ADHD and control groups. However, for ADHD adults we found a slowing in alpha frequency combined with a higher power in alpha-1 (8-10Hz) and beta (13-30Hz). Support vector machine classification of ADHD adults versus controls yielded a notable cross validated sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 83% using power and central frequency from all frequency bands. ADHD children were not classified convincingly with these markers. Resting state electrophysiology is altered in ADHD, and these electrophysiological impairments persist into adulthood. Spectral biomarkers may have both diagnostic and prognostic value. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, G.C.; Pekcanlar, A.; Bekis, R.; Ada, E.; Miral, S.; Emiroglu, N.; Durak, H. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  1. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.C.; Pekcanlar, A.; Bekis, R.; Ada, E.; Miral, S.; Emiroglu, N.; Durak, H.

    2002-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  2. Neurological soft signs are associated with attentional dysfunction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Pontis, Marco; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Inattention is one of the core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most of patients with ADHD show motor impairment, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Our aim was to evaluate attentional and motor functioning in an ADHD sample and healthy children (HC) and possible link between attentional dysfunction and motor impairment in ADHD. Twenty-seven drug-naive patients with ADHD and 23 HC were tested with a test battery, measuring different aspects of attention. Motor evaluation has provided three primary variables: overflow movements (OM), dysrhythmia and total speed of timed activities. Compared to HC, patients were impaired in a considerable number of attentional processes and showed a greater number of NSS. Significant correlations between disturbances of attention and motor abnormalities were observed in ADHD group. Our findings suggest that attentional processes could be involved in the pathophysiology of the NSS and add scientific evidence to the predictive value of NSS as indicators of the severity of functional impairment in ADHD. Given the marked improvement or complete resolution of NSS following treatment with methylphenidate, we suggest that evaluation of NSS is useful to monitor the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment with MPH in ADHD.

  3. Generation of mice lacking DUF1220 protein domains: effects on fecundity and hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, JG; O’Bleness, MS; Anderson, N; Davis, JM; Arevalo, N; Busquet, N; Chick, W; Rozman, J; Hölter, SM; Garrett, L; Horsch, M; Beckers, J; Wurst, W; Klingenspor, M; Restrepo, D

    2014-01-01

    Sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains show the most extreme human lineage-specific copy number increase of any coding region in the genome and have been linked to human brain evolution. In addition, DUF1220 copy number (dosage) has been implicated in influencing brain size within the human species, both in normal populations and in individuals associated with brain size pathologies (1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly). More recently, increasing dosage of a subtype of DUF1220 has been linked with increasing severity of the primary symptoms of autism. Despite these intriguing associations, a function for these domains has not been described. As a first step in addressing this question we have developed the first transgenic model of DUF1220 function by removing the single DUF1220 domain (the ancestral form) encoded in the mouse genome. In a hypothesis generating exercise, these mice were evaluated by 197 different phenotype measurements. While resulting DUF1220-minus (KO) mice show no obvious anatomical peculiarities, they exhibit a significantly reduced fecundity (χ2= 19.1, df = 2, p = 7.0 × 10−5). Further extensive phenotypic analyses suggest hyperactivity (p metabolism. Finally, the substantially reduced fecundity we observe associated with KO mice argues that the ancestral DUF1220 domain provides an important biological function that is critical to survivability and reproductive success. PMID:25308000

  4. Impaired reward processing by anterior cingulate cortex in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Akina; Lukie, Carmen N; Kerns, Kimberly A; Müller, Ulrich; Holroyd, Clay B

    2014-06-01

    Decades of research have examined the neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control, but the motivational factors underlying task selection and performance remain to be elucidated. We recently proposed that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) utilizes reward prediction error signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system to learn the value of tasks according to the principles of hierarchical reinforcement learning. According to this position, disruption of the ACC-dopamine interface can disrupt the selection and execution of extended, task-related behaviors. To investigate this issue, we recorded the event-related brain potential (ERP) from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is strongly associated with ACC-dopamine dysfunction, and from typically developing children while they navigated a simple "virtual T-maze" to find rewards. Depending on the condition, the feedback stimuli on each trial indicated that the children earned or failed to earn either money or points. We found that the reward positivity, an ERP component proposed to index the impact of dopamine-related reward signals on ACC, was significantly larger with money feedback than with points feedback for the children with ADHD, but not for the typically developing children. These results suggest that disruption of the ACC-dopamine interface may underlie the impairments in motivational control observed in childhood ADHD.

  5. Neural correlates of response inhibition in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarotti, Alessandra M; Sweeney, John A; Pavuluri, Mani N

    2010-01-30

    Impulsivity, inattention and poor behavioral inhibition are common deficits in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to identify similarities and differences in the neural substrate of response inhibition deficits that are associated with these disorders. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted on 15 unmedicated PBD patients (Type I, manic/mixed), 11 unmedicated ADHD patients, and 15 healthy controls (HC) (mean age = 13.5 years; S.D. = 3.5). A response inhibition task examined the ability to inhibit a motor response to a target when a stop cue appeared shortly after. The PBD and ADHD groups did not differ on behavioral performance, although both groups were less accurate than the HC group. fMRI findings showed that for trials requiring response inhibition, the ADHD group, relative to the PBD and HC groups, demonstrated reduced activation in both ventrolateral (VLPFC) and dorsolateral (DLPFC) prefrontal cortex, and increased bilateral caudate activation compared with HC. The PBD group, relative to HC, showed decreased activation in the left VLPFC, at the junction of the inferior and middle frontal gyri, and in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Prefrontal dysfunction was observed in both the ADHD and PBD groups relative to HC, although it was more extensive and accompanied by subcortical overactivity in ADHD.

  6. Exercise improves behavioral, neurocognitive, and scholastic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontifex, Matthew B; Saliba, Brian J; Raine, Lauren B; Picchietti, Daniel L; Hillman, Charles H

    2013-03-01

    To examine the effect of a single bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on preadolescent children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using objective measures of attention, brain neurophysiology, and academic performance. Using a within-participants design, task performance and event-related brain potentials were assessed while participants performed an attentional-control task following a bout of exercise or seated reading during 2 separate, counterbalanced sessions. Following a single 20-minute bout of exercise, both children with ADHD and healthy match control children exhibited greater response accuracy and stimulus-related processing, with the children with ADHD also exhibiting selective enhancements in regulatory processes, compared with after a similar duration of seated reading. In addition, greater performance in the areas of reading and arithmetic were observed following exercise in both groups. These findings indicate that single bouts of moderately intense aerobic exercise may have positive implications for aspects of neurocognitive function and inhibitory control in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in School-Aged Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Autism via a Digital Smartglasses-Based Socioemotional Coaching Aid: Short-Term, Uncontrolled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, Arshya; Keshav, Neha U; Salisbury, Joseph P; Sahin, Ned T

    2018-03-24

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience symptoms related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. One-third of ASD cases may be complicated by the presence of ADHD. Individuals with dual diagnoses face greater barriers to accessing treatment for ADHD and respond less positively to primary pharmacologic interventions. Nonpharmacologic technology-aided tools for hyperactivity and inattention in people with ASD are being developed, although research into their efficacy and safety remains limited. The objective of this preliminary study was to describe the changes in ADHD-related symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults with ASD immediately after use of the Empowered Brain system, a behavioral and social communication aid for ASD running on augmented reality smartglasses. We recruited 8 children, adolescents, and young adults with ASD (male to female ratio of 7:1, mean age 15 years, range 11.7-20.5 years) through a Web-based research signup form. The baseline score on the hyperactivity subscale of the Aberrant Behavioral Checklist (ABC-H), a measure of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, determined their classification into a high ADHD-related symptom group (n=4, ABC-H≥13) and a low ADHD-related symptom group (n=4, ABC-Hhyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults with ASD. This digital smartglasses intervention can potentially be targeted at a broader array of mental health conditions that exhibit transdiagnostic attentional and social communication deficits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Further research is required to understand the clinical importance of these observed changes and to conduct longitudinal studies on this intervention with control groups and larger sample sizes. ©Arshya Vahabzadeh, Neha U Keshav, Joseph P Salisbury, Ned T Sahin. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health

  8. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris

    2015-07-28

    Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the

  9. Increased Sleep Disturbances in Thai Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Compared With Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiraphadhanakul, Kobrat; Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong; Pruksananonda, Chandhita; Chonchaiya, Weerasak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares sleep disturbances in Thai children aged 5-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)-Thai version. Fifty-five children with ADHD and 110 typically developing children were enrolled. Their parents completed the CSHQ, the ADHD rating scales, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children with ADHD had significantly higher scores in all subscales of the CSHQ compared to controls. Among children with ADHD, children with higher SDQ scores (> 15) appeared to have more sleep disturbances than those with relatively lower SDQ scores. Moreover, fewer sleep-related behavioral problems were observed in the medication treated group, which is particularly new to the field and for some perhaps not unexpected clinically.

  10. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following neonatal aortic arch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistino, Joseph J; Atz, Andrew M; Simpson, Kit N; Ellis, Charles; Ikonomidis, John S; Bradley, Scott M

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population of children who underwent neonatal heart surgery involving repair of the aortic arch for Norwood Stage I, interrupted aortic arch, and combined repair of aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 were surveyed using the ADHD-IV and the Child Heath Questionnaire-50. Classification as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was defined for this study as either a parent-reported diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD-IV inattention score of ⩾93 percentile. Of the 134 surveys, 57 (43%) were returned completed. A total of 25 (44%) children either had a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or ADHD-IV inattention score ⩾93 percentile. Eleven of the 13 (85%) children with interrupted aortic arch, 3 of the 7 (42.9%) children with combined coarctation/ventricular septal defect repair, and 9 of the 33 (27.3%) children with hypoplastic left-heart syndrome were classified as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Only 7 of the 25 (28%) children received medical treatment for this condition. Quality of life indicators in the Child Heath Questionnaire-50 Questionnaire were highly correlated with the ADHD-IV scores. The risks for the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are multifactorial but are significantly increased in this post-surgical population. This study revealed a low treatment rate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and a significant impact on the quality of life in these children.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  12. Candidate genetic pathways for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show association to hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Waldman, I.D.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Hartman, C.; Asherson, P.; Banaschewski, T.; Ebstein, R.P.; Gill, M.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Arias-Vasquez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic

  13. Candidate genetic pathways for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show association to hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Waldman, I.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Hartman, C.; Asherson, P.; Banaschewski, T.; Ebstein, R.P.; Gill, M.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Arias Vasquez, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic

  14. Candidate Genetic Pathways for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Show Association to Hyperactive/Impulsive Symptoms in Children With ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bralten, Janita; Franke, Barbara; Waldman, Irwin; Rommelse, Nanda; Hartman, Catharina; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic

  15. Narrative writing competence and internal state terms of young adults clinically diagnosed with childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the written expression competence of young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of young adults without ADHD on three types of measures: indicators of the story's microstructure with regard to productivity and morphosyntax; indicators of the macrostructure (story grammar); and expressions of the mental states of the story's characters (internal state language). The second objective consisted of determining the relationships among the different narrative writing measures and the ADHD behavior ratings of inattention and hyperactivity obtained using the family observer report. The sample was composed of 54 participants, aged from 18 to 24, divided equally into a group with a childhood clinical diagnosis of combined subtype ADHD and a control group without ADHD. Written composition was assessed using a narrative task based on a sequence of images. As expected, the young adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the control group on the majority of the parameters of the story's microstructure and macrostructure. Likewise, they included a significantly lower number of terms about the characters' mental states. A correlation was also observed between measures of narrative competence and core symptoms of ADHD, as well as between the use of words with an emotional content and estimations related to core symptoms of ADHD. The findings of this study point out that expressive writing should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of screening and comprehensive evaluation. More research is needed to design and implement effective interventions in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional connectivity and temporal variability of brain connections in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Petroni, Agustín; Báez, Sandra; Urquina, Hugo; Sigman, Mariano; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Torrente, Fernando; Lischinsky, Alicia; Castellanos, Xavier; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    To assess brain functional connectivity and variability in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) relative to a control (CT) group. Electroencephalography (EEG) was measured in 35 participants (BD = 11; ADHD = 9; CT = 15) during an eyes-closed 10-min rest period, and connectivity and graph theory metrics were computed. A coefficient of variation (CV) computed also the connectivity's temporal variability of EEG. Multivariate associations between functional connectivity and clinical and neuropsychological profiles were evaluated. An enhancement of functional connectivity was observed in the ADHD (fronto-occipital connections) and BD (diffuse connections) groups. However, compared with CTs, intrinsic variability (CV) was enhanced in the ADHD group and reduced in the BD group. Graph theory metrics confirmed the existence of several abnormal network features in both affected groups. Significant associations of connectivity with symptoms were also observed. In the ADHD group, temporal variability of functional connections was associated with executive function and memory deficits. Depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity levels in the ADHD group were associated with abnormal intrinsic connectivity. In the BD group, levels of anxiety and depression were related to abnormal frontotemporal connectivity. In the ADHD group, we found that intrinsic variability was associated with deficits in cognitive performance and that connectivity abnormalities were related to ADHD symptomatology. The BD group exhibited less intrinsic variability and more diffuse long-range brain connections, and those abnormalities were related to interindividual differences in depression and anxiety. These preliminary results are relevant for neurocognitive models of abnormal brain connectivity in both disorders.

  17. Addiction in developmental perspective: influence of conduct disorder severity, subtype, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on problem severity and comorbidity in adults with opioid dependence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.; Knapen, L.J.; Gogh, M.T. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examines whether conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with problem severity and psychiatric comorbidity in 193 middle-aged, opioid-dependent patients. Conduct disorder history, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,

  18. Randomised social-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - the SOSTRA trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Jesper; Skoog, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hyperactive and impulsive, cannot maintain attention, and have difficulties with social interactions. Medical treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD, but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social-skills training...

  19. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.

  20. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity: An entity to keep in mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, D A; Panhke, P; Guerrero Suarez, P D; Murillo-Cabezas, F

    2017-12-15

    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a potentially life-threatening neurological emergency secondary to multiple acute acquired brain injuries. It is clinically characterized by the cyclic and simultaneous appearance of signs and symptoms secondary to exacerbated sympathetic discharge. The diagnosis is based on the clinical findings, and high alert rates are required. No widely available and validated homogeneous diagnostic criteria have been established to date. There have been recent consensus attempts to shed light on this obscure phenomenon. Its physiopathology is complex and has not been fully clarified. However, the excitation-inhibition model is the theory that best explains the different aspects of this condition, including the response to treatment with the available drugs. The key therapeutic references are the early recognition of the disorder, avoiding secondary injuries and the triggering of paroxysms. Once sympathetic crises occur, they must peremptorily aborted and prevented. of the later the syndrome is recognized, the poorer the patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. [Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder at schools in Sfax-Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, Khaoula; Ayadi, Héla; Moalla, Yousr; Yaich, Sourour; Hadjkacem, Imen; Walha, Adel; Damak, Jamel; Ghribi, Farhat

    2015-05-01

    Frequency, social impact, the negative effects of ADHD on personal development, make it a public health problem. Tunisian existing data confirm its frequency and severity in clinical population. The absence of data in student population has led us to develop this work.The objectives of our study were to study epidemiological profile of ADHD in school population. The analysis involved a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted from April 2008 to October 2008 using a representative randomized multistage sample of schoolchildren between 6 and 12 years old. Measurement was performed in two stages first the parents and teachers of each children filled Conners questionnaire separately then students with the score in subscales inattention, hyperactivity with impulsivity higher than 70 were selected for psychiatric interview. Psychiatric interview was intended to confirm or refute the diagnosis of ADHD. The diagnoses were made according to DSM IV-TR. To study the possible associated factors with the disorder they were compared in children with ADHD and children without the disorder taken as controls. A total of 51 students out of 513 had ADHD. Prevalence was found to be 9,94%. For the study of factors associated with ADHD were found in males, neonatal hospitalization, psychiatric and family history of ADHD and the existence of a family dysfunctionment. Our prevalence is similar to the majority of those reported by studies conducted through the same methodology as ours. The etiology of ADHD is not unequivocal. The disorder appears to be multifactorial.

  2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and complementary/alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju

    2008-08-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased both by parents and health care providers. Despite scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of stimulants in the treatment of ADHD, the use of stimulants has received negative publicity and, for many parents, is worrisome. Concerns regarding adverse effects and the prospect of long-term use of pharmacologic treatments make many parents uncomfortable thus they seek "alternative treatments." With the information explosion produced by the Internet, marketing for alternative therapies such as herbal remedies, elimination diets, and food supplements for ADHD has increased. Many people use CAM because they are attracted to the CAM philosophies and health beliefs, dissatisfied with the process or results of conventional treatments, or concerned about adverse effects of stimulants. Although some scientific evidence exists regarding some CAM therapies, for most there are key questions regarding safety and efficacy of these treatments in children. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview and focus on the evidence-based studies of CAM modalities that are commonly used for ADHD.

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment. Keywords: adults, academic performance, stimulants, treatment

  4. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls, aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization.Results:Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample.Conclusion:The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  5. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa Neto, Francisco; Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P; Oliveira, Jorge A de

    2015-01-01

    To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of typically developing children. Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls), aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization. Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample. The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  6. Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gulcin; Oztura, Ibrahim; Hiz, Semra; Akdogan, Ozlem; Karaarslan, Dilay; Ozek, Handan; Akay, Aynur

    2015-10-01

    The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a prebariatric surgery sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Barbara; Mueller, Astrid; Horbach, Thomas; Martin, Alexandra; de Zwaan, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that obese children, adolescents and adults frequently suffer from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of adult ADHD in a group of patients with grade 3 obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2)) prior to bariatric surgery. We assessed 116 patients for childhood and adult ADHD, co-occurring psychiatric disorders, severity of depression and daytime sleepiness. Fourteen participants (12.1%) screened positive for adult ADHD. Even though this rate is higher compared with prevalence rates in representative population samples, it was not elevated compared with a group of morbidly obese individuals in a German general population sample (14.3%). Adult ADHD was associated with greater severity of depressive symptoms and more psychotherapy contact in the past but not with binge eating disorder or daytime sleepiness. As ADHD appears to be a common condition in morbidly obese individuals, the impact of adult ADHD on postsurgical weight loss needs to be examined. Besides, the causal link between obesity and ADHD in adults should be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is recognized to exist in males and females although the literature supports a higher prevalence in males. However, when girls are diagnosed with ADHD, they are more often diagnosed as predominantly inattentive than boys with ADHD. This article provides a review of gender differences noted across the lifespan. Males and females with ADHD are more similar than different, and generally ADHD profiles are not sex specific. Small gender differences have been found: adolescent girls with ADHD have lower self-efficacy and poorer coping strategies than adolescent boys with ADHD; rates of depression and anxiety may be higher, and physical aggression and other externalizing behaviors lower in girls and women with ADHD. Men with ADHD seem to be incarcerated more often than women with ADHD. However, many studies suffer from small sample sizes, referral biases, differences in diagnostic procedures, and possible rater influences. Treatments are reviewed and discussed with reference to the reported gender differences in functioning and the global deficits noted in all samples. The data available so far suggest that treatments are likely to be equally effective in males and females. However, referral bias is a problem, in that females with ADHD are less likely to be referred for treatment than males with ADHD. Future research should include equal representation of both sexes in samples such that sex by treatment analyses can be routinely conducted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of stigmatization towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity.A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants.Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants.The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

  10. Measurement of stigmatization towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants. Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants. The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

  11. Multicomponent attention deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Birim Günay; Sener, Sahnur; Koçkar, Aylin Ilden; Karakaş, Sirel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the specific aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and short-term memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined subtype (ADHD-C). A total of 40 children with a diagnosis of ADHD from the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, aged 6-11 years old were compared with 40 controls matched for age and gender on a battery of tests. Short-term memory span and attention was measured by Visual Aural Digit Span Test-Revised. Stroop test and the Turkish version of Cancellation Test were used to assess selective and sustained attention, respectively. In order to check for factor structure in two groups on the test scores, principal component analysis was conducted for both groups separately. Relative to the comparison children, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on tests that are related to different aspects of attention. The results are consistent with the theories explaining the biological basis of ADHD by scattered attention networks in the brain, which have reciprocal dynamic interactions. Further comparative studies are needed to elucidate whether the cognitive processes that are known to be assessed by these tests are specific to ADHD.

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a chronic care paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Larry; Fried, Ronna

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence and disease burden of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that primary care physicians (PCPs) have an opportunity to improve the functioning and quality of life of a significant number of adult patients. The American Academy of Pediatrics provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines that recognize ADHD as a chronic condition, and a large proportion of children with ADHD continue to meet diagnostic criteria as adults. Therefore, the management of ADHD should incorporate principles common to the management of other chronic conditions, including proactive planning for continuity of treatment across the life span and integrated, multidisciplinary health care teams for optimal disease management. This article describes a clinical approach whereby adult ADHD is treated within a chronic care paradigm that prominently features the involvement of the PCP. If PCPs envision ADHD as a chronic illness, similar to asthma or diabetes, they may be less likely to refer individuals to be managed by specialists, and more likely to see their role in coordinating and monitoring adult ADHD care, knowing when and how to bring other resources into play, and when and how to educate patients.

  13. Emotion perception in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisch, Jeanne; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Bretscher, Johannes; Wildgruber, Dirk; Fallgatter, Andreas; Ethofer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This study examined identification of emotional information in facial expression, prosody, and their combination in 23 adult patients with combined attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus 31 healthy controls (HC) matched for gender, age, and education. We employed a stimulus set which was carefully balanced for valence as well as recognizability of the expressed emotions as determined in an independent sample of HC to avoid potential biases due to different levels of task difficulty. ADHD patients were characterized by impaired recognition of all employed categories (neutral, happiness, eroticism, disgust, anger). Basic cognitive functions as assessed by neuropsychological testing, such as sustained attention, constancy of alertness, and verbal intelligence partially explained lower recognition rates. Removal of the correlated variance by means of regression analyses did not abolish lower performance in ADHD indicating deficits in social cognition independent of these neuropsychological factors (p emotional intelligence (r = 0.38, p emotion perception. ADHD patients could partly compensate their deficit in unimodal emotion perception by audiovisual integration as revealed by larger gains in emotion recognition accuracy during bimodal presentation (p perception of emotional information in adult ADHD.

  14. [Executive function training in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Sirera-Conca, M Angeles; Cornesse, Marcel; Delgado-Mejía, Iván D; Etchepareborda, Máximo C

    2011-03-01

    A number of different treatments have been proposed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet little material has been published in the literature to improve the performance of the mechanisms behind attention, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and working memory in these children. We think that a working model that is effective in the treatment of persons with ADHD can only be consolidated by means of a thorough understanding of the syndromes involved in this deficit. In addition to reviewing the latest and most significant proposals aimed at improving the cognitive under-standing of the disorder, this work also refers to three neurobiological syndromes that are recognised as forming part of ADHD, i.e. medial cingulate syndrome, dorsolateral syndrome and orbitofrontal syndrome. Advances in neuroscientific research and the design of computerised treatment materials offer extremely valuable data that will undoubtedly help to improve the results of psychopedagogical and neuropsychological interventions in ADHD, since they provide information about the temporal and spatial equation.

  15. Evaluation of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Golmirzaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls. All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance (P value < 0.0001. The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease (P value < 0.0001, history of trauma and accident during pregnancy (P value = 0.039, abortion proceeds (P value < 0.0001, unintended pregnancy (P value < 0.0001, and history of head trauma (P value < 0.0001. Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor.

  16. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmøy Anne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information was collected between 1997 and 2005 using auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including asthma, and work status. Results The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in the ADHD patient group compared to the controls, 24.4% vs. 11.3% respectively (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.89-3.44, and controls with asthma scored higher on ratings of both past and present symptoms of ADHD. Female ADHD patients had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma compared to male ADHD patients (30.9% vs. 18.2%, OR = 2.01, CI 1.36-2.95, but in controls a slight female preponderance was not statistically significant. In both ADHD patients and controls, having asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms of mood- and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The present findings point to a co-morbidity of ADHD and asthma, and these patients may represent a clinical and biological subgroup of adult patients with ADHD.

  17. [Usefulness of the Stroop test in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Serrano-Pintado, Isabel; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Sánchez-Mateos, Juan Delgado; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2010-03-16

    The aim of this study is to analyse the differences in the Stroop effect between cases with attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) and controls. It also seeks to find the best model based on the third task of the colours and words test (Stroop-CW) for predicting ADHD and to analyse the validity of the Stroop-CW test for diagnosing the disorder. The sample studied consisted of 100 cases of ADHD -according to Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) criteria- and 100 controls, between 7 and 11 years of age, who were evaluated using the Stroop test. The controls were recruited at random and paired by age, sex and sociodemographic area with the cases. The cases present a mean cognitive style that is significantly less flexible (d = -1.06) and they also display a lower capacity to inhibit or control automatic responses than the controls at all ages (7 years: d = 1.67; 8 years: d = 1.02; 9 years: d = 1.32; 10 years: d = 2.04; 11 years: d = 0.89). The model of logistic regression analysis that best predicts ADHD is made up of age and Stroop-CW. The formulation derived from the model offers a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 72%, taking the criteria of the DSM-IV for ADHD as the reference test. The Stroop-CW test presents usefulness and complementary criteria validity for the diagnosis of ADHD.

  18. Functional MRI studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jin Zhen; Zeng Yawei; Wang Yan; Zang Yufeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain activation map during Go-NoGo tasks in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls using functional MRI. Methods: Block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was performed on 10 boys having ADHD and 11 healthy boys. The 2 groups were matched by age, sex, and handedness. Executing advanced inhibitory Go-NoGo tasks served as stimuli for all subjects. The fMRI data was analyzed by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) software with statistic t-test to generate the activation map. Results: (1) The normal children showed significant activations in left thalamus and right cingulate gyrus and fewer activations in right middle frontal gyrus during stimulate controlled Go task, but the children with ADHD showed less activations in left thalamus. (2) In response controlled Go task, the normal children showed activations in right insula, cingulate gyrus and left frontal gyrus, while the ADHD children showed lower power of response in the right middle frontal gyrus.(3) In NoGo task, right middle frontal gyrus was the dominant activated regions, and left anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus and right thalamus also had some activations in normal children, while the activations of right prefrontal decreased and the thalamus increased in ADHD boys. Conclusion: In children with ADHD, some dysfunctional brain areas, mainly the prefrontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus were found. Thalamus was also involved according to the brain activation map

  19. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  20. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  1. Altered salience processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-06-01

    Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11-16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  3. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation, and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  4. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerkt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The term compensation is widely used in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992 to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: We will (1 introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2 discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3 set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  5. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for safe and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practising health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help for common mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Sally I; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh M D

    2009-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous syndrome which is comorbid with childhood conduct disorder, alcoholism, substance abuse, dis-social personality disorder, and affective disorders. A small but consistent overlap with autistic symptoms has also been established. Twin and family studies of ADHD show a substantial genetic heritability with little or no family environmental effect. Linkage and association studies have conclusively implicated the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). DAT1 has also been confirmed as being associated with bipolar disorder. Remarkably, and for the first time in psychiatry, genetic markers at the DAT1 locus appear to be able to predict clinical heterogeneity because the non-conduct disordered subgroup of ADHD is associated with DAT1 whereas other subgroups do not appear to be associated. The second most well replicated susceptibility gene encodes the DRD4 dopamine receptor and many other dopamine related genes appear to be implicated. It is becoming increasingly clear that genes causing bipolar mania overlap with genes for a subtype of ADHD. The key to understanding the genetics of ADHD is to accept very considerable heterogeneity with different genes having effects in different families and in different individuals. It is too early to interpret the new wave of genome-wide association and copy number variant studies but preliminary data support the overlap with affective disorder genes and also with CNS connectivity genes likely to be involved in autism and affective disorders.

  7. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Hyperactivity Behavior in Chinese Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingmei; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Yin, Xiao-Na; Wen, Guo-Min; Sun, Dengli; Xian, Dan-Xia; Fan, Lijun; Jiang, Hui; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Wu, Chuan-An; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and hyperactivity behaviors in young children. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 21,243 participants from all of the kindergartens in Longhua District of Shenzhen, China. Multivariate logistic regression models and hierarchical linear models were employed to assess the associations. After adjusting for potential confounders of gender, preterm birth, birth asphyxiation, etc., prenatal ETS exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of hyperactivity behaviors in young children (OR (95% CI) = 1.51 (1.28-1.77); β (95% CI) = 0.017 (0.013-0.020)). Along with increases in children's prenatal ETS exposure dose (measured by daily ETS exposure duration, daily cigarette consumption by household members, and overall score of prenatal ETS exposure), the children were also increasingly more likely to exhibit hyperactivity behaviors. Furthermore, children whose mothers had prenatal ETS exposure in any one or more of the pregnancy trimesters were more likely to exhibit hyperactivity behaviors as compared with those born to non-exposure mothers (all p prenatal ETS exposure could be associated with a detrimental impact on offspring's hyperactivity behaviors, and public health efforts are needed to reduce prenatal ETS exposure.

  9. [Analysis of Applying Chinese Medical Clinical Pathway for Treating Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-qing; Han, Xin-min; Zhu, Xian-kang; Zhou, Zheng; Ma, Bing-xiang; Zhang, Bao-qing; Li, Yan-ning; Feng, Yu-lin; Xue, Zheng; Wang, Yong-hong; Li, Yi-min; Jiang, Zhi-mei; Xu, Jin-xing; Yue, Wei-zhen; Xiang, Xi-xiong

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the application effect of Chinese medical clinical pathway for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to provide evidence for further improving clinical pathways. Totally 270 ADHD children patients were recruited and treated at pediatrics clinics of 9 cooperative hospitals from December 2011 to December 2012. The treatment course for all was 3 months. Scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, scores of behavior, Conners index of hyperactivity (CIH), and Chinese medical syndrome scores were compared between before and after treatment. The efficacy difference in various sexes, ages, and disease courses were evaluated by judging standards for Chinese medical syndrome and ADHD. Fifteen children patients who entered clinical pathway dropped out, and the rest 255 completed this trial. Compared with before treatment, total scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, CIH, and Chinese medical syndrome scores obviously decreased (all P < 0.01). The total effective rate in disease efficacy was 87.8% (224/255 cases), and the total effective rate in Chinese medical syndrome curative effect was 87.5% (223/255 cases). The clinical curative effect was not influenced by age, gender, or course of disease when statistically analyzed from judging standards for Chinese medical syndrome or for disease efficacy. Intervention by Chinese medical clinical pathway could improve ADHD patients' symptoms, and its efficacy was not influenced by sex, age, or course of disease.

  10. Childhood trajectories of inattention-hyperactivity and academic achievement at 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Julie; Michel, Grégory; Pingault, Jean Baptiste; Lacourse, Eric; Paquin, Stéphane; Galéra, Cédric; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M

    2016-11-01

    Few prospective studies spanning early childhood to early adolescence have examined separately the contribution of inattention and hyperactivity to academic achievement. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the developmental trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms during early and middle childhood are independently associated with academic achievement at age 12 years. The independent associations between inattention and hyperactivity trajectories during early and middle childhood and academic performance at age 12 years were examined in a population-based longitudinal birth cohort (n = 2120). In adjusted analyses, high early childhood inattention trajectories were associated with teacher-rated academic performance in reading, writing and mathematics and with government exam score in writing. High and moderate inattention trajectories during middle childhood predicted lower performance on both teacher-rated academic performance and government exam scores in reading, writing, and mathematics. Hyperactivity was not a consistent predictor of educational outcomes. Childhood inattention symptoms rather than hyperactivity carry risk of poor educational outcomes at age 12 years. Children with high levels of inattention can be identified during the preschool years. Prevention programs supporting the development of attentional capacities and executive functions could help reduce the negative consequences of inattention.

  11. Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of adolescents and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jadwiga Najib1–31Division of Pharmacy Practice, Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Psychiatry, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders defined by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Symptoms begin in childhood and may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Currently available pharmacological treatment options for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents include stimulants that are efficacious and well tolerated; however, many of these preparations require multiple daily dosing and have the potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the first prodrug stimulant, was developed to provide a longer duration of effect. It demonstrates a predictable delivery of the active drug, d-amphetamine, with low interpatient variability, and has a reduced potential for abuse. A literature search of the MEDLINE database and clinical trials register from 1995–2011, as well as relevant abstracts presented at annual professional meetings, on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children and adolescents were included for review. This article presents the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and, more recently, in adolescents.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, prodrug stimulant, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders, safety, efficacy, children, adolescents

  12. Use of complementary medicine in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Tsur, Varda; Lahad, Amnon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2003-07-01

    We retrospectively studied use of complementary medicine in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, epilepsy, and controls. Parents of patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 120; mean age 11.0 +/- 3.1 years), epilepsy (n = 115; 10.9 +/- 5.5), and healthy children seen in the emergency room during an acute illness (n = 115; 5.0 +/- 4.9) were individually interviewed regarding past and present use of complementary medicine. We found that 34 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 37 with epilepsy, and 24 controls had, at some time during their life, received complementary medicine: diet (n = 50), homeopathy (n = 46), acupuncture (n = 23), and biofeedback (n = 9). Current use was significantly less: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- 7.5%, epilepsy-14%, and controls-7%. No differences among groups were found for either past use or method of complementary medicine employed. However, the most significant predictor for current use of complementary medicine was past use (OR 3.2, P epilepsy (OR = 1.7) and children from religious families (OR = 1.51) to be currently receiving complementary medicine. In summary, only a small minority of patients with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or epilepsy used complementary medicine as part of their current medical regimen, although during their lifetime a third had received complementary medicine. Complementary medicine was more consistently used in children who had previously received complementary medicine, regardless of their medical diagnosis.

  13. Prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, K W; Lai, Kelly Y C; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Tong, Luke C T

    2016-04-01

    Local data on the occurrence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are not available but an understanding of this important issue may enable better planning of medical services. We aimed to determine the prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a local population. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, children aged 6 to 9 years diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder over a period of 6 months from 1 July to 31 December 2011 were recruited from the Joint Paediatric and Child Psychiatric ADHD Program in New Territories East Cluster in Hong Kong. Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire-Chinese version were used to determine the presence of motor problems. Data from 95 participants were included in the final analysis. The number of children who had no, borderline, or definite motor problems was 63, 15, and 17, respectively. It is estimated that up to one third of local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder might have developmental coordination disorder. Motor problems are common in local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and figures are comparable with those from other parts of the world. Despite the various limitations of this study, the magnitude of the problem should not be overlooked.

  14. Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Naomi J; Frenette, Elizabeth C; Rene, Kirsten M; Brennan, Robert T; Perrin, Ellen C

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of 2 computer attention training systems administered in school for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children in second and fourth grade with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 104) were randomly assigned to neurofeedback (NF) (n = 34), cognitive training (CT) (n = 34), or control (n = 36) conditions. A 2-point growth model assessed change from pre-post intervention on parent reports (Conners 3-Parent [Conners 3-P]; Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF] rating scale), teacher reports (Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham scale [SKAMP]; Conners 3-Teacher [Conners 3-T]), and systematic classroom observations (Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools [BOSS]). Paired t tests and an analysis of covariance assessed change in medication. Children who received NF showed significant improvement compared with those in the control condition on the Conners 3-P Attention, Executive Functioning and Global Index, on all BRIEF summary indices, and on BOSS motor/verbal off-task behavior. Children who received CT showed no improvement compared to the control condition. Children in the NF condition showed significant improvements compared to those in the CT condition on Conners 3-P Executive Functioning, all BRIEF summary indices, SKAMP Attention, and Conners 3-T Inattention subscales. Stimulant medication dosage in methylphenidate equivalencies significantly increased for children in the CT (8.54 mg) and control (7.05 mg) conditions but not for those in the NF condition (0.29 mg). Neurofeedback made greater improvements in ADHD symptoms compared to both the control and CT conditions. Thus, NF is a promising attention training treatment intervention for children with ADHD.

  15. Feedback-based probabilistic category learning is selectively impaired in attention/hyperactivity deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Goldfarb, Liat

    2017-07-01

    Although Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is closely linked to executive function deficits, it has recently been attributed to procedural learning impairments that are quite distinct from the former. These observations challenge the ability of the executive function framework solely to account for the diverse range of symptoms observed in ADHD. A recent neurocomputational model emphasizes the role of striatal dopamine (DA) in explaining ADHD's broad range of deficits, but the link between this model and procedural learning impairments remains unclear. Significantly, feedback-based procedural learning is hypothesized to be disrupted in ADHD because of the involvement of striatal DA in this type of learning. In order to test this assumption, we employed two variants of a probabilistic category learning task known from the neuropsychological literature. Feedback-based (FB) and paired associate-based (PA) probabilistic category learning were employed in a non-medicated sample of ADHD participants and neurotypical participants. In the FB task, participants learned associations between cues and outcomes initially by guessing and subsequently through feedback indicating the correctness of the response. In the PA learning task, participants viewed the cue and its associated outcome simultaneously without receiving an overt response or corrective feedback. In both tasks, participants were trained across 150 trials. Learning was assessed in a subsequent test without a presentation of the outcome or corrective feedback. Results revealed an interesting disassociation in which ADHD participants performed as well as control participants in the PA task, but were impaired compared with the controls in the FB task. The learning curve during FB training differed between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that the ability to incrementally learn by feedback is selectively disrupted in ADHD participants. These results are discussed in relation to both

  16. Factors associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingineni, Ravi K; Biswas, Swati; Ahmad, Naveed; Jackson, Bradford E; Bae, Sejong; Singh, Karan P

    2012-05-14

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and various factors using a representative sample of US children in a comprehensive manner. This includes variables that have not been previously studied such as watching TV/playing video games, computer usage, family member's smoking, and participation in sports. This was a cross-sectional study of 68,634 children, 5-17 years old, from the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH, 2007-2008). We performed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with ADHD classification as the response variable and the following explanatory variables: sex, race, depression, anxiety, body mass index, healthcare coverage, family structure, socio-economic status, family members' smoking status, education, computer usage, watching television (TV)/playing video games, participation in sports, and participation in clubs/organizations. Approximately 10% of the sample was classified as having ADHD. We found depression, anxiety, healthcare coverage, and male sex of child to have increased odds of being diagnosed with ADHD. One of the salient features of this study was observing a significant association between ADHD and variables such as TV usage, participation in sports, two-parent family structure, and family members' smoking status. Obesity was not found to be significantly associated with ADHD, contrary to some previous studies. The current study uncovered several factors associated with ADHD at the national level, including some that have not been studied earlier in such a setting. However, we caution that due to the cross-sectional and observational nature of the data, a cause and effect relationship between ADHD and the associated factors can not be deduced from this study. Future research on ADHD should take into consideration these factors, preferably through a longitudinal study design.

  17. DCLK1 variants are associated across schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte Håvik

    Full Text Available Doublecortin and calmodulin like kinase 1 (DCLK1 is implicated in synaptic plasticity and neurodevelopment. Genetic variants in DCLK1 are associated with cognitive traits, specifically verbal memory and general cognition. We investigated the role of DCLK1 variants in three psychiatric disorders that have neuro-cognitive dysfunctions: schizophrenia (SCZ, bipolar affective disorder (BP and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. We mined six genome wide association studies (GWASs that were available publically or through collaboration; three for BP, two for SCZ and one for ADHD. We also genotyped the DCLK1 region in additional samples of cases with SCZ, BP or ADHD and controls that had not been whole-genome typed. In total, 9895 subjects were analysed, including 5308 normal controls and 4,587 patients (1,125 with SCZ, 2,496 with BP and 966 with ADHD. Several DCLK1 variants were associated with disease phenotypes in the different samples. The main effect was observed for rs7989807 in intron 3, which was strongly associated with SCZ alone and even more so when cases with SCZ and ADHD were combined (P-value = 4 × 10(-5 and 4 × 10(-6, respectively. Associations were also observed with additional markers in intron 3 (combination of SCZ, ADHD and BP, intron 19 (SCZ+BP and the 3'UTR (SCZ+BP. Our results suggest that genetic variants in DCLK1 are associated with SCZ and, to a lesser extent, with ADHD and BP. Interestingly the association is strongest when SCZ and ADHD are considered together, suggesting common genetic susceptibility. Given that DCLK1 variants were previously found to be associated with cognitive traits, these results are consistent with the role of DCLK1 in neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity.

  18. DCLK1 variants are associated across schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håvik, Bjarte; Degenhardt, Franziska A; Johansson, Stefan; Fernandes, Carla P D; Hinney, Anke; Scherag, André; Lybæk, Helle; Djurovic, Srdjan; Christoforou, Andrea; Ersland, Kari M; Giddaluru, Sudheer; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nick; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mattheisen, Manuel; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Renner, Tobias; Warnke, Andreas; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Sinzig, Judith; Albayrak, Özgür; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus M; Bramham, Clive R; Werge, Thomas; Hebebrand, Johannes; Haavik, Jan; Andreassen, Ole A; Cichon, Sven; Steen, Vidar M; Le Hellard, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    Doublecortin and calmodulin like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is implicated in synaptic plasticity and neurodevelopment. Genetic variants in DCLK1 are associated with cognitive traits, specifically verbal memory and general cognition. We investigated the role of DCLK1 variants in three psychiatric disorders that have neuro-cognitive dysfunctions: schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar affective disorder (BP) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We mined six genome wide association studies (GWASs) that were available publically or through collaboration; three for BP, two for SCZ and one for ADHD. We also genotyped the DCLK1 region in additional samples of cases with SCZ, BP or ADHD and controls that had not been whole-genome typed. In total, 9895 subjects were analysed, including 5308 normal controls and 4,587 patients (1,125 with SCZ, 2,496 with BP and 966 with ADHD). Several DCLK1 variants were associated with disease phenotypes in the different samples. The main effect was observed for rs7989807 in intron 3, which was strongly associated with SCZ alone and even more so when cases with SCZ and ADHD were combined (P-value = 4 × 10(-5) and 4 × 10(-6), respectively). Associations were also observed with additional markers in intron 3 (combination of SCZ, ADHD and BP), intron 19 (SCZ+BP) and the 3'UTR (SCZ+BP). Our results suggest that genetic variants in DCLK1 are associated with SCZ and, to a lesser extent, with ADHD and BP. Interestingly the association is strongest when SCZ and ADHD are considered together, suggesting common genetic susceptibility. Given that DCLK1 variants were previously found to be associated with cognitive traits, these results are consistent with the role of DCLK1 in neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity.

  19. Factors associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children: Results from a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingineni Ravi K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and various factors using a representative sample of US children in a comprehensive manner. This includes variables that have not been previously studied such as watching TV/playing video games, computer usage, family member’s smoking, and participation in sports. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 68,634 children, 5–17 years old, from the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH, 2007–2008. We performed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with ADHD classification as the response variable and the following explanatory variables: sex, race, depression, anxiety, body mass index, healthcare coverage, family structure, socio-economic status, family members’ smoking status, education, computer usage, watching television (TV/playing video games, participation in sports, and participation in clubs/organizations. Results Approximately 10% of the sample was classified as having ADHD. We found depression, anxiety, healthcare coverage, and male sex of child to have increased odds of being diagnosed with ADHD. One of the salient features of this study was observing a significant association between ADHD and variables such as TV usage, participation in sports, two-parent family structure, and family members’ smoking status. Obesity was not found to be significantly associated with ADHD, contrary to some previous studies. Conclusions The current study uncovered several factors associated with ADHD at the national level, including some that have not been studied earlier in such a setting. However, we caution that due to the cross-sectional and observational nature of the data, a cause and effect relationship between ADHD and the associated factors can not be deduced from this study. Future research on ADHD should take into consideration these factors, preferably through a

  20. A boy with conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline intellectual disability, and 47,XXY syndrome in combination with a 7q11.23 duplication, 11p15.5 deletion, and 20q13.33 deletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolaitis, G. (Gerasimos); C.G. Bouwkamp (Christian); A. Papakonstantinou (Alexia); I. Otheiti (Ioanna); M. Belivanaki (Maria); S. Haritaki (Styliani); T. Korpa (Terpsihori); Z. Albani (Zinovia); E. Terzioglou (Elena); P. Apostola (Polyxeni); A. Skamnaki (Aggeliki); A. Xaidara (Athena); K. Kosma (Konstantina); S. Kitsiou-Tzeli (Sophia); M. Tzetis (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract_Background:_ This is a case with multiple chromosomal aberrations which are likely etiological for the observed psychiatric phenotype consisting of attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorders. _Case presentation:_ We report on an 11 year-old boy, admitted to the

  1. Cortical Inhibition in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from the Electroencephalographic Response to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Sarah; Hauk, Daniela; Roessner, Veit; Resch, Franz; Freitag, Christine M.; Kammer, Thomas; Ziemann, Ulf; Rothenberger, Aribert; Weisbrod, Matthias; Bender, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies based on muscle responses (motor-evoked potentials) suggested that reduced motor inhibition contributes to hyperactivity, a core symptom of the disease. Here we employed the N100 component of the…

  2. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  3. Temperament and character as endophenotype in adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Brink, W. van den

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  4. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity among Children Attending Outpatient Clinic in Psychiatric Teaching Hospital in Erbil City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Lana Nabeel; Sulaiman, Karwan Hawez

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the common psychiatric disorder in childhood and it affects on children socially and academically. The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among the studied population, describe its association with certain…

  5. Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Jeffry P.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect on academic achievement. Impairments in attention, and not hyperactivity/impulsivity, are associated with learning difficulties and academic problems in students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, most studies have focused on symptoms…

  6. Predictive Validity of a Continuous Alternative to Nominal Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder for "DSM-V"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2010-01-01

    Three subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on numbers of symptoms of inattention (I) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) were defined in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) to reduce heterogeneity of the disorder, but the subtypes proved to be highly unstable over time. A continuous…

  7. Gender Differences in University EFL Students' Language Proficiency Corresponding to Self-Rated Attention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hsin-Yi; Kelsen, Brent A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines university students' self-reported inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and their relation to performance on a high-stakes English proficiency test while taking gender into consideration. Method: Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity attributes were assessed using the Adult Attention…

  8. Sleep-Related Disorders in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Preliminary Results of a Full Sleep Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Esposito, Maria; Foderaro, Giuseppe; Ramelli, Gian Paolo; Pezzoli, Valdo; Manconi, Mauro

    2016-11-01

    We present the preliminary results of a prospective case-control sleep study in children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A deep sleep assessment including sleep questionnaires, sleep habits, a video-polysomnographic recording with full high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and cardiorespiratory polygraphy, multiple sleep latency test, and 1-week actigraphic recording were performed to verify whether children with ADHD may be classified into one of the following five phenotypes: (1) hypoarousal state, resembling narcolepsy, which may be considered a "primary" form of ADHD; (2) delayed sleep onset insomnia; (3) sleep-disordered breathing; (4) restless legs syndrome and/or periodic limb movements; and (5) sleep epilepsy and/or EEG interictal epileptiform discharges. Fifteen consecutive outpatients with ADHD were recruited (two female, mean age 10.6 ± 2.2, age range 8-13.7 years) over 6 months. The narcolepsy-like sleep phenotype was observed in three children, the sleep onset insomnia phenotype was observed in one child, mild obstructive sleep apnea was observed in three children, sleep hyperkinesia and/or PLMs were observed in five children, while IEDs and or nocturnal epilepsy were observed in three children. Depending on the sleep phenotype, children received melatonin, iron supplementation, antiepileptic drugs, or stimulants. Our study further highlights the need to design an efficient sleep diagnostic algorithm for children with ADHD, thereby more accurately identifying cases in which a full sleep assessment is indicated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Look-at-the-air João and Unquiet Felipe: attention riots and hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo Stella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the cognitive processes, from the relations between the citizen and the enviroment, constitutes the learning base. Amongst the diverse cognitive processes, the attention represents an essential mechanism for the understanding and incorporation of new contents. Riots of the attention process, besides compromising the learning, are extended for hyperactivity behaviors. The attention riots and the hyperactivity – intimately correlated phenomena - contribute to the significant difficulties the citizen has in other cognitive functions, as language, calculation, capacity of recognition and planning, ability of behaviors self-correction, etc. The teacher’s pedagogical performance, integrated to the interdisciplinary action of other qualified professionals and family, constitutes a promising strategy in the boarding and orientation of the child with attention riots and hyperactivity.

  10. Predicting Substance Abuse from Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Alizadeh G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed to predict substance abuse from child and adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Method: To this purpose 361 students were selected via stratified random sampling from different faculties of Tabriz University and completed Canners Adult ADHD Rating scale-self report Form & Subscale Questionnaire, Wender Utah Rating Scale, Addiction Acknowledgment Scale & Mac Andrew Alcoholism-Revised Scale. Findings: To analyze the data Pearson correlation and multiple regressions (step by step were used. Results indicated that there is significant relation between addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism via child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Also, results indicated that child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism. Conclusion: According to this results these can be explained that behavioral disorders, especially ADHD have effect in tendency to drug and therefore primary treatments of behavioral disorders can prevent drug abuse.

  11. The Effect of Simple Febrile Seizure on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Salehi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Febrile seizure is one of the most prevalent childhood convulsions. There are controversy about possible relation between febrile seizure and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The aim of this study was to find the effect of simple febrile seizure on ADHD in children. Materials and Methods In a case-control study all children of 3-12 years old with febrile seizure referring Amir-Kabir hospital, Arak-Iran. Among these children, 103 of them with no corporeal or psychiatric disorders were compared to 103 children of the same age and gender admitted due to disease other than febrile seizure utilizing DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results This study shows that the hyperactivity disorder in the same order were 34.3% and 16.7%, respectively, which also denotes a significant relation between simple febrile seizure and hyperactivity(P

  12. Efficacy of Adderall for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, S V; Biederman, J

    2002-09-01

    Stimulant medication has, for many years, been the pharmacological treatment of choice for children and adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have shown Adderall , to be efficacious for measures of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggression, disruptive behavior, and academic productivity. Although these studies provide useful information for clinicians treating ADHD children and adults, the variability in efficacy among the different types of measures used within each study has not been comprehensively examined. Thus, to provide a clearer picture of what conclusions can be drawn from these studies, we performed a meta-analysis. Data from the six available studies of standard release Adderall show it to be efficacious for symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and aggression, as well as global ratings. Its efficacy was significant for clinician, parent, and teacher ratings, and for both fixed- and best-dose designs.

  13. Associations between sleep and inattentive/hyperactive problem behavior among foster and community children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tininenko, Jennifer R; Fisher, Philip A; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C

    2010-10-01

    Sleep disruption has been linked to numerous neural regulatory problems and problems with social emotional and behavioral functioning, and researchers have shown that sleep disruption is prominent in children with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These issues are germane to foster children, who have numerous disparities in areas of self-regulation and psychopathology but for whom there has been very little examination of sleep quality or the associations between poor sleep quality and physiological/behavioral dysregulation. Actigraphy measures were used to examine associations between sleep duration/quality and inattentive/hyperactive problem behavior in a sample of 79 children (aged 5-7 years): 32 foster children and 47 nonmaltreated community children. Of the sleep variables examined, only sleep duration was significantly associated with inattentive/hyperactive problem behavior. These associations were more significant in foster children compared to community children and in boys compared to girls. The results have several implications for prevention and intervention research.

  14. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase for somatic integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhang

    Full Text Available We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We found that in all mice which received the hyperactive SB transposase, transgene expression levels were stabilized in a dose-dependent manner and that the highest vector dose was accompanied by fatalities in mice. To analyze potential genotoxic side-effects due to somatic integration into host chromosomes, we performed a genome-wide integration site analysis using linker-mediated PCR (LM-PCR and linear amplification-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR. Analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from HSB5 treated female and male mice revealed a total of 1327 unique transposition events. Overall the chromosomal distribution pattern was close-to-random and we observed a random integration profile with respect to integration into gene and non-gene areas. Notably, when using the LM-PCR protocol, 27 extra-chromosomal integration events were identified, most likely caused by transposon excision and subsequent transposition into the delivered adenoviral vector genome. In total, this study provides a careful evaluation of the safety profile of adenovirus/Sleeping Beauty transposase hybrid-vectors. The obtained information will be useful when designing future preclinical studies utilizing hybrid-vectors in small and large animal models.

  15. Comorbidity of Drug Abuse in Adolescents: Screening for Depression, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jazayeri

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen comorbidity with substance abuse in adolescents. Among different disorders, 3 disorders of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder, and depression were studied in a sample of Iranian adolescents.   Materials & Methods: A total of 33 substance abusers, 35 criminal substance abusers, 34 non-substance abusers were selected from Tehran correctional and rehabilitation center for adolescents and 33 normal subjects (girl and boy were studied from schools of Tehran south using Achenbach youth self-report questionnaire (YSR (Achenbach, 1991, demographic and history of drug abuse questionnaire (designed by researchers. Results: There was a significant different regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder between two groups of substance abuser and non-substance abuser, but the difference was not significant between boys and girls. Regarding conduct disorder, there was a significant difference between two sexes. In boys, there was a significant difference between substance abusers and normal groups. In depression disorder, the difference between two sexes was significant regarding boys differences were observed between three groups selected from correctional and rehabilitation center and normal group regarding girls, there was a significant difference between substance abusers with criminals and normal group. Conclusion: Apparently, these 3 disorders have shown significant difference between two sexes. ADHD pattern was the same in two sexes. There was a significant difference between two sexes with regard to depression and conduct disorder. In both sexes, ADHD was not correlated with substance abuse. The conduct disorder was not related to substance abuse in both sexes and depression disorder was only related to substance abuse in girls. Considering the youth self-report test (YSR, there is a special mental profile for substance abusers, which separates them from non-substance abusers.

  16. Screening for Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Psychiatric Outpatient Population with Specific Focus on Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Corbisiero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/aimsAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often overlooked in adults; moreover, the problem seems to be even more critical in women. In the present, observational screening study, a clinical, particularly adult outpatient population was examined regarding frequency and severity of a likely ADHD, whereby sex differences were of particular interest.Methods224 participants, 146 men and 78 women, were included. Based on data recorded with the self-rating WHO screening instrument Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1, it was examined how many participants were conspicuous for adult ADHD by exceeding a predefined cutoff value (COV (COV ≥ 4 for ASRS-6, and ≥12 for ASRS-18. To examine frequency distributions, χ2 tests were conducted. For the inferential statistical comparison of means, t-tests for independent samples or Mann–Whitney U tests were calculated.Results34.4% of the sample was screened positive in the ASRS-v1.1 screener short version, ASRS-6, while 17.4% were conspicuous in the symptom checklist, ASRS-18. There were indeed more men screened positive, but the difference in the frequency between the sexes was not statistically significant, indicating a balanced sex ratio. Further, severity of ADHD core symptoms inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity was examined by comparing ASRS-18 symptom subscale scores. In concordance with the hypothesis, men and women did not differ in severity of symptoms.ConclusionResults indicate that women might be affected by ADHD in a comparable manner as men; this emphasizes the importance for the awareness of ADHD in both sexes in clinical practice.

  17. Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 and methylphenidate (ritalin(®)) in treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Naser; Hekmat, Hoda; Soltani, Hamid Reza; Rahimdel, Abolghasem; Javaherchian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fixed pattern of disregard and hyperactivity that is much more severe than what is normal in children of the same age. Multiple drugs are used for the treatment of children with ADHD; however, their side effects and efficacy are not clearly known. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two drugs, that is, omega-3 and methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin(®)), used to treat patients with ADHD. In a randomized, placebo control clinical trial in Yazd, Iran, 85 ADHD children were divided into two experimental and one control groups. Thus, 29 subjects were treated with Ritalin(®), 28 subjects received omega-3, and the remaining 28 received placebo. The data collection tools used in this study consisted of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale and Teacher Rating Scale. The scores obtained from these questionnaires were analyzed using chi-square test and paired t-test in PASW Statistics. The average age of the population was 8.22 (± 1.65) years. Significant associations were observed between Ritalin(®) therapy and the changes before and after the treatment, and the omega-3 treatment and the changes before and after treatment (p 0.050). Omega-3 had considerable efficacy as well as Ritalin(®) (P = 0.001). More attention should be given to screening, prevention, and treatment with omega-3 and its effective role in the development of the brain and mental health, and increasing children's attention span and thinking ability.

  18. A Systematic Review of the Use of Bupropion for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qin Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. Stimulants are usually the first choice of drug; however, as many as 20% of patients do not respond to them. Stimulants may also worsen comorbid sleep, mood, and anxiety disorders, and they are associated with problems of misuse and diversion. Bupropion, a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is a promising nonstimulant alternative with reports of positive outcomes for ADHD management in both adolescent and adult populations. This study systematically reviews clinical trials on the subject. Using the keywords bupropion or Wellbutrin or Zyban or Elontril and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD or ADDH, a preliminary search on the PubMed and Ovid databases yielded 25,455 articles published in English between January 1, 1988 and May 1, 2016. Of these, there were only six articles on clinical trials involving children. Full articles were also reviewed for references of interest. All available open, controlled, and randomized trials demonstrated bupropion's efficacy in improving ADHD symptoms. The three head-to-head trials found that bupropion had efficacy comparable to methylphenidate (p > 0.05). However, a large double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study of bupropion found smaller effect sizes for bupropion, as quantified using teacher and parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, than methylphenidate. In terms of tolerability, a head-to-head trial found that headache was observed more frequently in the methylphenidate-treated group than in the bupropion-treated group, whereas the frequency of other side effects did not differ significantly. Current findings should be interpreted with caution because of the very limited database. Bupropion should be considered for pharmacological management of childhood and adolescent ADHD, but more randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes are warranted. There is

  19. An online survey of Turkish psychiatrists’ attitudes about and experiences of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altın M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Murat Altın,1 Gamze Ergil Altın,2 Bengi Semerci3 1Department of Psychiatry, Medical Park Gaziosmanpasa Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Boylam Psychiatry Institute, 3Department of Psychiatry, Bengi Semerci Institute, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: Although adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often persists beyond childhood, daily clinical practices and transition of adult patients with ADHD into adult mental health services in Turkey are not well studied. The aim of this study was to provide data about the presentation of adult patients with ADHD and evaluate the treatment strategies of Turkish adult psychiatrists based on their personal clinical experience in different hospital settings.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey to be filled out by Turkish adult psychiatrists was designed and administered in May 2014. The survey focused on the treatment environment, patterns of patient applications and transition, treatment strategies, and medication management for adults with ADHD.Results: Significant differences were observed in the number of adult patients with ADHD in follow up, and a significant positive correlation was found between number of adult patients with ADHD in follow up and the clinician’s opinion about their level of self-competence to treat adult ADHD. A significant portion of adult psychiatrists have not received any information about their adult ADHD patients’ treatment during childhood. The most preferred medical treatment was stimulants and the majority of the participants always preferred psychoeducation in addition to medication treatment. A majority of participants did not define themselves competent enough to treat and follow up adult patients with ADHD.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate the need to increase the knowledge, skills, and awareness of adult psychiatrists about adult ADHD. In addition, a more collaborative working relationship between child and adolescent psychiatrists and

  20. Screening for Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Psychiatric Outpatient Population with Specific Focus on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbisiero, Salvatore; Hartmann-Schorro, Raffaela M; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often overlooked in adults; moreover, the problem seems to be even more critical in women. In the present, observational screening study, a clinical, particularly adult outpatient population was examined regarding frequency and severity of a likely ADHD, whereby sex differences were of particular interest. 224 participants, 146 men and 78 women, were included. Based on data recorded with the self-rating WHO screening instrument Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1), it was examined how many participants were conspicuous for adult ADHD by exceeding a predefined cutoff value (COV) (COV ≥ 4 for ASRS-6, and ≥12 for ASRS-18). To examine frequency distributions, χ 2 tests were conducted. For the inferential statistical comparison of means, t -tests for independent samples or Mann-Whitney U tests were calculated. 34.4% of the sample was screened positive in the ASRS-v1.1 screener short version, ASRS-6, while 17.4% were conspicuous in the symptom checklist, ASRS-18. There were indeed more men screened positive, but the difference in the frequency between the sexes was not statistically significant, indicating a balanced sex ratio. Further, severity of ADHD core symptoms inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity was examined by comparing ASRS-18 symptom subscale scores. In concordance with the hypothesis, men and women did not differ in severity of symptoms. Results indicate that women might be affected by ADHD in a comparable manner as men; this emphasizes the importance for the awareness of ADHD in both sexes in clinical practice.

  1. Evidence-Based Considerations and Recommendations for Athletic Trainers Caring for Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Elizabeth S; Madden, Kelly J

    2016-10-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be noncompliant, impulsive, and disruptive in an athletic training or physical rehabilitation facility. Athletic trainers (ATs) are valuable and essential health care providers for active patients with ADHD. However, for a patient with ADHD to have a successful outcome in a busy athletic training environment, the AT or health care provider must tailor the treatment setting to the patient's needs. To educate and raise awareness among ATs about patients with ADHD and to provide ATs with strategies and tools that will allow them to treat patients with ADHD more effectively. We retrieved and reviewed articles from PubMed, PsychINFO, and Ovid without date restrictions. Search words were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder plus 1 of the following topics or search words: athletic training, athletics, coaching, sport, or sport psychology. Any ADHD articles that were not applicable or translatable in good faith to athletic training, physical rehabilitation, or sport and exercise were excluded. Nonpharmacologic interventions were reviewed and amassed into categories from which the recommendations were created. No statistical analyses were conducted for this review. We identified 1241 articles, and 86 met the inclusion criteria. Five groups of evidence were observed: (1) goal setting and coaching, (2) reinforcements and outcomes, (3) routines and treatment timing, (4) simplified feedback and instructions, and (5) environmental control. Reliable evidence suggests that these techniques can be translated and applied within an athletic training and physical rehabilitation setting. Athletic trainers are a vital component in providing health care for patients with ADHD. Using goal contagion creates a structured environment and positive reinforcements that accommodate patients with ADHD. Furthermore, ATs may use the evidence-based recommendations in this review to create a treatment and physical rehabilitation

  2. Course of self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity in substance abusers during early treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder has been associated with poor outcome in studies of substance use disorders. This study aimed to assess the course of self-reported symptoms of both attention deficit and hyperactivity among adults presenting for treatment for substance use disorders....... A sample of 75 substance abusers were assessed after they were admitted to a centralized intake unit, and followed at 3 and 6 months after intake by independent interviewers (follow-up rate 81%). Symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity were assessed with the Adult Self-report Scale for ADHD (ASRS......). Both types of symptoms declined significantly during follow-up, but attention symptoms had a high intraclass correlation (0.79), and hyperactivity had a moderate intraclass correlation (0.64). Both baseline attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms were associated with worse work and social...

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this NIH Consensus Statement is to inform the biomedical research and clinical practice communities of the results of the NIH Consensus Development Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The statement provides state-of-the-art information regarding effective treatments for ADHD and presents the conclusions and recommendations of the consensus panel regarding these issues. In addition, the statement identifies those areas of study that deserve further investigation. Upon completion of this educational activity, the reader should possess a clear working clinical knowledge of the state of the art regarding this topic. The target audience of clinicians for this statement includes, but is not limited to, psychiatrists, family practitioners, pediatricians, internists, neurologists psychologists, and behavioral medicine specialists. Participants were a non-Federal, nonadvocate, 13-member panel representing the fields of psychology, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, epidemiology, biostatistics, education and the public. In addition, 31 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 1215. The literature was searched through Medline and an extensive bibliography of references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Experts prepared abstracts with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. The draft

  4. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Blum1,6,7,8,9,10, Amanda Lih-Chuan Chen2, Eric R Braverman3,9, David E Comings4, Thomas JH Chen5, Vanessa Arcuri9, Seth H Blum6, Bernard W Downs7,8, Roger L Waite7, Alison Notaro9, Joel Lubar10, Lonna Williams7, Thomas J Prihoda11, Tomas Palomo12, Marlene Oscar-Berman131Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; 2Department of Engineering and Management of Advanced Technology, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Weill College of Medicine, New York, NY; 4Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA; 5Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Psychoneurogenetics, Synapatamine, Inc., San Antonio, TX; 7LifeGen, Inc., La Jolla, CA; 8Allied Nutraceutical Research, Lederach, PA; 9PATH Research Foundation, New York, NY; 10Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; 11Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX; 12Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; 13Boston University School of Medicine, and Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MAParts of this manuscript have been published in Theor Biol Med Model (Comings et al 2005, which is an open access journalAbstract: Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a

  5. Validity of DSM-IV attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Nigg, Joel T.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Solanto, Mary V.; Rohde, Luis A.; Tannock, Rosemary; Loo, Sandra K.; Carlson, Caryn L.; McBurnett, Keith; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    DSM-IV criteria for ADHD specify two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that are used to define three nominal subtypes: predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H), predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I), and combined type (ADHD-C). To aid decision-making for DSM-5 and other future diagnostic systems, a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis of 546 studies was completed to evaluate the validity of the DSM-IV model of ADHD. Results indicated that DSM-IV criteria identify individuals with significant and persistent impairment in social, academic, occupational, and adaptive functioning when intelligence, demographic factors, and concurrent psychopathology are controlled. Available data overwhelmingly support the concurrent, predictive, and discriminant validity of the distinction between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, and indicate that nearly all differences among the nominal subtypes are consistent with the relative levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that define the subtypes. In contrast, the validity of the DSM-IV subtype model is compromised by weak evidence for the validity of ADHD-H after first grade, minimal support for the distinction between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in studies of etiological influences, academic and cognitive functioning, and treatment response, and the marked longitudinal instability of all three subtypes. Overall, it is concluded that the DSM-IV ADHD subtypes provide a convenient clinical shorthand to describe the functional and behavioral correlates of current levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, but do not identify discrete subgroups with sufficient long-term stability to justify the classification of distinct forms of the disorder. Empirical support is stronger for an alternative model that would replace the subtypes with dimensional modifiers that reflect the number of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms at the

  6. Atomoxetine treatment in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel J; Mason, Oren; Clemow, David B; Day, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a CNS disorder that has its onset in childhood, but often persists into adulthood. There is growing recognition that adult ADHD can result in multiple negative consequences for individuals. ADHD is also often associated with a number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant, selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor, was approved in the United States in 2002 for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, as well as adults. We review here the safety and efficacy of ATX in adults with ADHD, including data in special populations, functional outcomes, as well as provider and patient real-world perceptions. We searched the databases Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO using the terms 'ADHD' and 'adult' and 'ATX' capturing publications from January 1, 1998, to March 27, 2014. Only publications in English were considered. ATX demonstrated significantly greater improvement than placebo (PBO) on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator rated:Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) in all trials (N = 6; total score difference ranged from -3.5 to -5.5). For long-term trials using the CAARS-Inv:SV, ATX demonstrated significantly greater improvement than PBO in three of four trials (total score differences ranged from -0.1 to -6.0). In short-term studies, ATX showed significantly greater improvement than PBO on the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life scale total score in three of three studies, but results were mixed on the Sheehan Disability Scale. Three studies of ATX have reported statistically significant improvement (compared with PBO) on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Self Report scale. The most common adverse events (occurring in ≥ 10% of patients taking ATX) were nausea, dry mouth, decreased appetite, insomnia and fatigue. ATX is an important treatment option for the right patient. ATX can provide long-term, consistent symptom relief and functional improvement

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Tessari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    While psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr Top Behav Neurosci 9:199-218, 2012), focusing on pertinent peer-reviewed empirical papers published since 2012. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge databases (search dates: from January 1st, 2012, to July 16th, 2016). We retained a total of 41 studies, providing information on the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD, focusing on the rates of ADHD in individuals with obesity, or reporting data useful to gain insight into possible mechanisms underlying the putative association between ADHD and obesity. Overall, over the past 4 years, an increasing number of studies have assessed the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD or the rates of ADHD in patients with obesity. Although findings are mixed across individual studies, meta-analytic evidence shows a significant association between ADHD and obesity, regardless of possible confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidities. An increasing number of studies have also addressed possible mechanisms underlying the link between ADHD and obesity, highlighting the role, among others, of abnormal eating patterns, sedentary lifestyle, and possible common genetic alterations. Importantly, recent longitudinal studies support a causal role of ADHD in contributing to weight gain. The next generation of studies in the field should explore if and to which extent the treatment of comorbid ADHD in individuals with obesity may lead to long-term weight loss, ultimately improving their

  8. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guzmán Alba,1 Ernesto Pereda,2 Soledad Mañas,3 Leopoldo D Méndez,3 Almudena González,1 Julián J González1 1Physiology Unit, Health Sciences Faculty (S Medicine, 2Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, University of La Laguna, 3Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, University Hospital La Candelaria, Tenerife, Spain Abstract: The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures, the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. Keywords: EEG, ADHD, power spectrum, functional connectivity, clinical assessment

  9. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm Bm; Tucha, Lara; Mueller, Anna K; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-14

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers have an important role for the individual development as they accompany students for a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to explore stigmatizing attitudes in teachers towards adults with ADHD, thereby focusing on the developmental trajectory of the condition. Furthermore, it was aimed to identify factors contributing to prevention and intervention of stigmatization in ADHD. Stigma responses of 170 teachers and 170 comparison participants were measured and compared with a recently developed tool for the assessment of stigmatization towards adults with ADHD. Furthermore, the contribution of knowledge about ADHD and the frequency of contact with adults with ADHD to stigmatization were explored. Teachers showed significantly less stigmatizing attitudes than comparison participants in various dimensions, including Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication and the total scale. With regard to teachers, frequency of contact with adults with ADHD was not related to stigma. However, knowledge about the disorder was negatively correlated with stigma in teachers, indicating lower expressed stigma with increasing knowledge about adult ADHD. Teachers demonstrated more sensitized attitudes towards stigma in adults with ADHD than comparison participants. Since the present results indicate that knowledge about ADHD increase the sensitivity towards the disorder, special education programs for the community may have the potential to reduce stigmatization towards adults with ADHD. Possibilities for intervention strategies of stigmatization in educational settings were discussed.

  10. [Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in different age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Ji, Ning; Guan, Li-li; Chen, Yun; Qian, Qiu-jin; Wang, Yu-feng

    2007-06-18

    To study age distribution of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidities in a relatively large sample, and exam the hypothesis of bad prognosis for ADHD. Using semi-structured clinical diagnosis interview scale, we investigated comorbidities of 1,002 ADHD children and adolescents from psychiatric out-patient clinic, and compared comorbidity frequency in 4 age groups. The comorbidity frequencies of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), mood disorder, tics disorder and learning disorder (LD) in different age groups of ADHD patients differed significantly (Pdisorder in the age group of 12-14 years (124 cases,51.5%;18 cases,7.5%, respectively) were more than those in the 6-8 years group (160 cases,41.7%;9 cases,2.3%, respectively; PTics disorder in the 12-14 years group (50 cases,20.8%)was more than those in the two age groups of less than 12 years group (for the 6-8 years group, 51 cases,13.4%;for the 9-11 years group , 42 cases,12.5%; Pdisorder grew up with age. The comorbidity frequency of the 9-11 years group (106 cases,31.5%) was significantly higher than that of the 6-8 years group (80 cases,20.9%; PADHD patients without any comorbidities in the two age groups more than 12 years (for the 12-14 years group, 29 cases,12.0%;for the 15-17 years group, 4 cases,10.0%)were less than those in the two age groups of less than 12 years (for the 6-8 years group, 126 cases,32.8%;for the 9-11 years group, 110 cases,32.6%; Pdisorders increase as the ADHD children become adolescents. The situation is severer in late adolescence. Therefore, ADHD children should accept appropriate treatment as early as possible, and adopt the second degree prevention actively.

  11. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: nonstimulant medication approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2007-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common chronic health conditions and mental disorders affecting school-aged children. Prevalence with a conservative estimate is reported to be 3-5% of this population. Boys are approximately three-times more likely to be diagnosed than girls. The diagnosis refers to a family of related chronic neurobiological disorders that interfere with an individual's capacity to regulate activity level, inhibit behavior and attend to tasks in developmentally appropriate ways. Signs and symptoms of ADHD are typically present during the preschool period or in the early elementary school years, and the diagnosis requires that difficulties were present at or before age 7 years and create problems or impairment in at least two areas of the child's life (e.g., at school, on the playground, on the bus, at home or socially with peers). Stimulants are the first-line medication in the psychopharmacological treatment of ADHD. Between 10 and 30% of those affected with ADHD may not respond to stimulants or may not be able to tolerate associated side effects, such as appetite suppression, sleep disturbance, mood difficulties or exacerbation of comorbid tic disorders. In such instances, or when families are unwilling to consider a stimulant, nonstimulant medications may be appealing. Several nonstimulant medications that affect noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic pathways have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of ADHD, although effect sizes are comparable with methylphenidate, fewer data have accumulated regarding the safety profile of nonstimulants in general. This review focuses on etiology, assessment and treatment of ADHD, in particular alternative treatment approaches with various nonstimulant agents, especially atomoxetine.

  12. Cardiac Sympathetic Hyperactivity after Chemotherapy: Early Sign of Cardiotoxicity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimarães, Sarita Lígia Pessoa de Melo Machado; Brandão, Simone Cristina Soares; Andrade, Luciana Raposo; Maia, Rafael José Coelho; Markman Filho, Brivaldo

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab can cause cardiotoxicity. Alteration of cardiac adrenergic function assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled with iodine-123 ( 123 I-mIBG) seems to precede the drop in left ventricular ejection fraction. To evaluate and to compare the presence of cardiovascular abnormalities among patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab, and only with anthracycline. Patients with breast cancer were analyzed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic and cardiac sympathetic activity. In scintigraphic images, the ratio of 123 I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum, and the washout rate were calculated. The variables were compared between patients who received anthracyclines and trastuzumab (Group 1) and only anthracyclines (Group 2). Twenty patients, with mean age 57 ± 14 years, were studied. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography was 67.8 ± 4.0%. Mean washout rate was 28.39 ± 9.23% and the ratio of 123 I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was 2.07 ± 0.28. Of the patients, 82% showed an increased in washout rate, and the ratio of 123 I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum decreased in 25%. Concerning the groups, the mean washout rate of Group 1 was 32.68 ± 9.30% and of Group 2 was 24.56 ± 7.72% (p = 0,06). The ratio of 123 I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was normal in all patients in Group 2, however, the Group 1, showed 50% the ratio of 123 I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum ≤ 1.8 (p = 0.02). In women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy, assessment of cardiac sympathetic activity with 123 I-mIBG appears to be an early marker of cardiotoxicity. The combination of chemotherapy showed higher risk of cardiac adrenergic hyperactivity

  13. Cardiac Sympathetic Hyperactivity after Chemotherapy: Early Sign of Cardiotoxicity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimarães, Sarita Lígia Pessoa de Melo Machado [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (HAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Brandão, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Andrade, Luciana Raposo [Hospital Santa Joana, Recife, PE (Brazil); Maia, Rafael José Coelho [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (HAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Markman Filho, Brivaldo [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab can cause cardiotoxicity. Alteration of cardiac adrenergic function assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled with iodine-123 ({sup 123}I-mIBG) seems to precede the drop in left ventricular ejection fraction. To evaluate and to compare the presence of cardiovascular abnormalities among patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab, and only with anthracycline. Patients with breast cancer were analyzed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic and cardiac sympathetic activity. In scintigraphic images, the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum, and the washout rate were calculated. The variables were compared between patients who received anthracyclines and trastuzumab (Group 1) and only anthracyclines (Group 2). Twenty patients, with mean age 57 ± 14 years, were studied. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography was 67.8 ± 4.0%. Mean washout rate was 28.39 ± 9.23% and the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was 2.07 ± 0.28. Of the patients, 82% showed an increased in washout rate, and the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum decreased in 25%. Concerning the groups, the mean washout rate of Group 1 was 32.68 ± 9.30% and of Group 2 was 24.56 ± 7.72% (p = 0,06). The ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was normal in all patients in Group 2, however, the Group 1, showed 50% the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum ≤ 1.8 (p = 0.02). In women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy, assessment of cardiac sympathetic activity with {sup 123}I-mIBG appears to be an early marker of cardiotoxicity. The combination of chemotherapy showed higher risk of cardiac adrenergic hyperactivity.

  14. Progress and Promise of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pharmacogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E.; McGough, James J.; Stein, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy for understanding variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, and therefore redressing the current trial-and-error approach to ADHD medication management, is to identify genetic moderators of treatment. This article summarizes ADHD pharmacogenetic investigative efforts to date, which have primarily focused on short-term response to methylphenidate and largely been limited by modest sample sizes. The most well studied genes include the dopamine transporter and dopamine D4 receptor, with additional genes that have been significantly associated with stimulant medication response including the adrenergic α2A-receptor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, D5 receptor, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) transporter protein 1 and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa. Unfortunately, results of current ADHD pharmacogenetic studies have not been entirely consistent, possibly due to differences in study design, medication dosing regimens and outcome measures. Future directions for ADHD pharmacogenetics investigations may include examination of drug-metabolizing enzymes and a wider range of stimulant and non-stimulant medications. In addition, researchers are increasingly interested in going beyond the individual candidate gene approach to investigate gene-gene interactions or pathways, effect modification by additional environmental exposures and whole genome approaches. Advancements in ADHD pharmacogenetics will be facilitated by multi-site collaborations to obtain larger sample sizes using standardized protocols. Although ADHD pharmacogenetic efforts are still in a relatively early stage, their potential clinical applications may include the development of treatment efficacy and adverse effect prediction algorithms that incorporate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, as well as the development of novel ADHD treatments. PMID:20088618

  15. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  16. Late Ediacaran magnetostratigraphy of Baltica: Evidence for Magnetic Field Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Levashova, Natalia M.; Meert, Joseph G.; Golovanova, Inessa V.; Danukalov, Konstantin N.; Fedorova, Natalia M.

    2016-02-01

    Long-term changes in characteristics of the geomagnetic field may signal evolutionary changes within the Earth's interior. Among these long-term variations, the magnetic field reversal rate is probably the best known and most frequently used parameter to evaluate concomitant changes in the Earth's core. Although the reversal rate is well known for the last 150 Ma and reasonably constrained back to 300 Ma, knowledge of the early Paleozoic and earlier times is limited. Hence, the haunting question is whether the reversal pattern for the last 300 Myr is a good representation of the field behavior over a much longer interval. A paleomagnetic study of Upper Ediacaran sediments from the Zigan Fm. (Baltica in the western South Urals) revealed a high-temperature, dual-polarity component that is of primary origin (Levashova et al., 2013). In this paper, we present the results of a magnetostratigraphic study from the same sections that can be summed up as follows: 1) >30 magnetozones are found in the ca. 110 meters thick composite section of the Zigan Fm.; 2) A similar reversal pattern was reported from Upper Ediacaran sediments from the White Sea coast (North Russia) and SW Siberia but has never been found in clastic rocks of any other age; 3) The reversal pattern in three remote Ediacaran sections could not result from remagnetization or extremely slow sedimentation; 4) The reversal rate in the Late Ediacaran exceeded 20 reversals per million years; 5) The field appears to behave in a bipolar fashion during the period of hyperactivity.

  17. Utility of the electroencephalogram in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Millichap, John J; Stack, Cynthia V

    2011-07-01

    An electroencephalogram (EEG) has not been routinely utilized in the evaluation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The utility of the EEG in ADHD is unclear. A recent study in our laboratory using sleep and sleep deprivation routinely found one in four non-epileptic children evaluated for attention deficit disorder has epileptiform discharges in the EEG, more than half focal. The majority of abnormalities (97.5%) occur in sleep and sleep-deprived records compared to 7% in prior wake only records. A review of eight publications showed that laboratories using awake only as routine EEG recordings report a relatively low prevalence of epileptiform discharges, whereas the higher prevalence of epileptiform discharges is seen in those with more prolonged sleep recordings. We have determined that sleep deprivation and sleep are essential to rule out an abnormal EEG in attention deficit disorder. In patients with attention deficit disorder complicated by epilepsy, stimulant therapy is generally safe, provided seizures are controlled by antiepileptic medication. Patients with epilepsy or subclinical electrographic abnormalities not treated with anticonvulsants are at increased risk of seizures when stimulant therapy is introduced, especially extended-release methylphenidate. Apart from an increase in risk of seizures and need for caution in use of stimulants, studies show that epileptiform discharges in the electroencephalogram are linked to a better response of attention deficit to methylphenidate and a higher cognitive performance. Transient cognitive impairment related to subclinical electrographic abnormalities responds to antiepileptic medication. An EEG is important in selected cases of attention deficit disorder and is useful in choice of medication, especially in children with lack of awareness and transient cognitive impairment.

  18. Association Between Childhood to Adolescent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Trajectories and Late Adolescent Disordered Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Javaras, Kristin N; Baker, Jessica H; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Disordered eating is more prevalent among adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms show strong associations with disordered eating, but few investigations of these associations have been longitudinal. Thus, we examined the effect of childhood to adolescent inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories on late adolescent disordered eating. We used growth mixture modeling to identify distinct inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories (called "classes") across three time points (ages 8-9, 13-14, and 16-17 years) in the Swedish Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development. The resulting classes were used to predict Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction subscales at age 16-17 years, with adjustment for sex and body mass index at age 16-17 years. The combined inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectory classes included: a "low symptom" class characterized by low inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity throughout childhood/adolescence; a "predominantly inattention" class characterized by elevated inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, throughout childhood/adolescence; a "predominantly hyp/imp" class characterized by elevated hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not inattention, throughout childhood/adolescence; and a "both inattention and hyp/imp" class characterized by elevated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity throughout childhood/adolescence. After adjusting for sex and body mass index or sex and anxiety/depression symptoms, the "both inattention and hyp/imp" (vs. "low symptom") class predicted significantly higher Eating Disorder Inventory-2 subscale scores during late adolescence. Increased vigilance for disordered eating among children who have both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms throughout childhood and adolescence could aid in early identification of eating

  19. The influence of participation in target-shooting sport for children with inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive symptoms - A controlled study of best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Annegrete Gohr; Elmose, Mette; Dalsgaard, Søren; Roessler, Kirsten K

    2017-03-28

    Practising target-shooting sport requires focused attention and motoric steadiness. A previous non-controlled pilot study suggests that children with impairing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) benefit from participating in target-shooting sport in local shooting associations, as rated by parents and teachers. This study aims at examining if, and to which extent, target-shooting sport reduces parent- and teacher-reported severity of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children with attention difficulties, and if, and to which extend, target-shooting sport improves the children's wellbeing and quality of life. A mixed method approach is applied. A non-blinded, waiting list controlled study is combined with a case study, consisting of interviews and observations. The intervention consists of children practising target-shooting sport, by attending a local shooting association, once a week for six months, during regular school hours. Data from questionnaires (ADHD-RS, SDQ, Kidscreen-27), as well as a computerized continued performance test (Qb test), measure the children's activity and attention. The study includes 50 children in an intervention group and 50 children in a waiting list control group. The Qb test collects data from at least 20 children from the intervention group and at least 20 children from the waiting list control group. Data from the questionnaires and Qb-test is collected at baseline, and six months post intervention. In addition, a case study is carried out, consisting of interviews of at least five children from the intervention group, their parents, teachers and shooting instructors. Observations are carried out, when children are in school and while they are attending the local shooting association. The case study adds to an in-depth understanding of children's participation in target-shooting sports. At present, little is known about the effects and influence of practising target-shooting sport for

  20. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebrenz Michael

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin® and 20 mg sustained-release methylphenidate (Ritalin SR® daily. When he was 13, his medication was changed to desipramine (Norpramin®, and both Ritalin® and Ritalin SR® were discontinued; and at age 18, when he developed obsessive-compulsive symptoms, his medication was changed to clomipramine (Anafranil® 75 mg daily. Still suffering from inattention and hyperactivity, the patient began college when he was 19, but did not receive stimulant medication until three years later, when Ritalin® 60 mg daily was re-established. During the 14 months that followed, he began to use Ritalin® excessively, both orally and rectally, in dosages from 4800-6000 mg daily. Four years ago, he was referred to our outpatient service, where his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was re-evaluated. At that point, the patient’s daily Ritalin® dosage was reduced to 200 mg daily orally, but he still experienced pronounced symptoms of, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder so this dosage was raised again. The patient’s plasma levels consistently remained between 60–187 nmol/l—within the recommended range—and signs of his obsessive-compulsive symptoms diminished with fluoxetine 40 mg daily. Finally, on a dosage of 378 mg extended-release methylphenidate (Concerta®, his symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have improved dramatically and no further use of methylphenidate has been recorded during the 24 months preceding this report. Conclusions Symptoms of