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Sample records for gastric vascular permeability

  1. Vascular gastric anomalies as a cause of relapsing bleeding

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    Golubović Gradimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relatively rare, gastric vascular anomalies can be recognized as a source of both chronic and acute blood loss, most often presenting as long term iron deficiency anemia, rarely as severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Case report. We present five patients with various gastric vascular anomalies, diagnosed during the year of 2003. in the Clinical Hospital Center Zemun. The diagnosis was based on endoscopic appearances, clinical history and characteristic histological findings. Gastric vascular anomalies presented in our review were: portal hypertensive gastropathy, gastric antral vascular ectasia, angiodysplasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Dieulafoy lesion. The used treatment modalities included surgery and various endoscopic techniques (schlerotherapy, argon plasma coagulation. Conclusion. Patients presented with chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute and recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage should be considered as having one of gastric vascular anomalies.

  2. Sensing of Vascular Permeability in Inflamed Vessel of Live Animal

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    Sang A Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in vascular permeability is a conclusive response in the progress of inflammation. Under controlled conditions, leukocytes are known to migrate across the vascular barriers to the sites of inflammation without severe vascular rupture. However, when inflammatory state becomes excessive, the leakage of blood components may occur and can be lethal. Basically, vascular permeability can be analyzed based on the intensity of blood outflow. To evaluate the amount and rate of leakage in live mice, we performed cremaster muscle exteriorization to visualize blood flow and neutrophil migration. Using two-photon intravital microscopy of the exteriorized cremaster muscle venules, we found that vascular barrier function is transiently and locally disrupted in the early stage of inflammatory condition induced by N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP. Measurement of the concentration of intravenously (i.v. injected Texas Red dextran inside and outside the vessels resulted in clear visualization of real-time increases in transient and local vascular permeability increase in real-time manner. We successfully demonstrated repeated leakage from a target site on a blood vessel in association with increasing severity of inflammation. Therefore, compared to other methods, two-photon intravital microscopy more accurately visualizes and quantifies vascular permeability even in a small part of blood vessels in live animals in real time.

  3. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

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    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observ...

  4. Atrial natriuretic factor increases vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockette, W.; Brennaman, B.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in central blood volume in microgravity may result in increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Since elevations in plasma ANF are found in clinical syndromes associated with edema, and since space motion sickness induced by microgravity is associated with an increase in central blood volume and facial edema, we determined whether ANF increases capillary permeability to plasma protein. Conscious, bilaterally nephrectomized male rats were infused with either saline, ANF + saline, or hexamethonium + saline over 2 h following bolus injections of 125I-albumin and 14C-dextran of similar molecular size. Blood pressure was monitored and serial determinations of hematocrits were made. Animals infused with 1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 ANF had significantly higher hematocrits than animals infused with saline vehicle. Infusion of ANF increased the extravasation of 125I-albumin, but not 14C-dextran from the intravascular compartment. ANF also induced a depressor response in rats, but the change in blood pressure did not account for changes in capillary permeability to albumin; similar depressor responses induced by hexamethonium were not accompanied by increased extravasation of albumin from the intravascular compartment. ANF may decrease plasma volume by increasing permeability to albumin, and this effect of ANF may account for some of the signs and symptoms of space motion sickness

  5. Gastric antral vascular ectasia causing severe anemia.

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    Toyota, M; Hinoda, Y; Nakagawa, N; Arimura, Y; Tokuchi, S; Takaoka, A; Kitagawa, S; Usuki, T; Yabana, T; Yachi, A; Imai, K

    1996-10-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) that caused continuous gastrointestinal bleeding is reported in a 76-year-old woman who had been treated with repeated blood transfusions because of severe anemia. Endoscopic examination was performed and diffuse speckled telangiectasia of the entire antrum was observed. Laboratory data showed SGOT > SGPT, decreased chE level and the increased levels of serum gastrin and ICG at 15 min. Anti-HCV antibody was positive. Image examination revealed splenomegaly. There was no family history of telangiectasia, and no telangiectasia was found in other organs. The diagnosis was established as GAVE with liver cirrhosis. Surgical resection of the distal stomach resulted in termination of the bleeding, and the cirrhotic changes of the surface of the liver were revealed at that time, providing further evidence of liver cirrhosis. Although the pathogenesis of GAVE is unknown, liver cirrhosis and hypergastrinemia are thought to be associated with the condition. Importantly, this condition is a cause of severe gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly patients.

  6. Gap junction protein connexin43 exacerbates lung vascular permeability.

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    James J O'Donnell

    Full Text Available Increased vascular permeability causes pulmonary edema that impairs arterial oxygenation and thus contributes to morbidity and mortality associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and sepsis. Although components of intercellular adhesive and tight junctions are critical for maintaining the endothelial barrier, there has been limited study of the roles of gap junctions and their component proteins (connexins. Since connexins can modulate inflammatory signaling in other systems, we hypothesized that connexins may also regulate pulmonary endothelial permeability. The relationships between connexins and the permeability response to inflammatory stimuli were studied in cultured human pulmonary endothelial cells. Prolonged treatment with thrombin, lipopolysaccharide, or pathological cyclic stretch increased levels of mRNA and protein for the major connexin, connexin43 (Cx43. Thrombin and lipopolysaccharide both increased intercellular communication assayed by transfer of microinjected Lucifer yellow. Although thrombin decreased transendothelial resistance in these cells, the response was attenuated by pretreatment with the connexin inhibitor carbenoxolone. Additionally, the decreases of transendothelial resistance produced by either thrombin or lipopolysaccharide were attenuated by reducing Cx43 expression by siRNA knockdown. Both carbenoxolone and Cx43 knockdown also abrogated thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Taken together, these data suggest that increased lung vascular permeability induced by inflammatory conditions may be amplified via increased expression of Cx43 and intercellular communication among pulmonary endothelial cells.

  7. Vascular permeability and iron deposition biomarkers in longitudinal follow-up of cerebral cavernous malformations

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    Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vascular permeability and iron leakage are central features of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) pathogenesis. The authors aimed to correlate prospective clinical behavior of CCM lesions with longitudinal changes in biomarkers of dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative permeability (...

  8. Customization of laparoscopic gastric devascularization and splenectomy for gastric varices based on CT vascular anatomy.

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    Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Nagao, Yoshihiro; Kinjo, Nao; Yoshida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric devascularization(Lap GDS) and splenectomy (SPL) for gastric varices is technically challenging because of highly developed collateral vessels and bleeding tendency. We investigated the feasibility of customization of Lap GDS and SPL based on CT vascular anatomy. We analyzed 61 cirrhotic patients with gastric varices who underwent Lap GDS and SPL between 2006 and 2014. Lap GDS was customized according to the afferent feeding veins (left gastric vein (LGV) and/or posterior gastric vein (PGV)/short gastric vein (SGV)) and efferent drainage veins (gastrorenal shunt and/or gastrophrenic shunt, or numerous retroperitoneal veins) based on CT imaging. Thirty-four patients with efferent drainage veins suitable for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) underwent B-RTO instead of surgical GDS, with subsequent Lap SPL. Among 27 patients with gastric varices unsuitable for B-RTO, 15 patients with PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater curvature and SPL, and 12 patients with LGV or LGV/PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater and lesser curvature and SPL. The mean operation time was 294 min and mean blood loss was 198 g. There was no mortality or severe morbidity. Gastric varices were eradicated in all 61 patients, with no bleeding or recurrence during a mean follow-up of 55.9 months. The cumulative 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 92, 82, and 64%, respectively. Lap GDS and SPL customized based on CT vascular anatomy is a safe and effective procedure for treating gastric varices.

  9. Radiologic findings of gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach): a case report

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    Kim, Joo Chang; Park, Kil Sun; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Dae Young [Chungbuk National Univ. College of Medicine, Cheongjushi (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach) is characterized by a prominent longitudinal erythematous fold of gastric antrum. Because it has usually been diagnosed by gastroscopy and biopsy, its radiologic findings have not been well described. We report a case of gastric antral vascular ectasia, and describe its findings, as seen on UGIS, ultrasonography, and computed tomography.

  10. Radiologic findings of gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach): a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Chang; Park, Kil Sun; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Dae Young

    1999-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach) is characterized by a prominent longitudinal erythematous fold of gastric antrum. Because it has usually been diagnosed by gastroscopy and biopsy, its radiologic findings have not been well described. We report a case of gastric antral vascular ectasia, and describe its findings, as seen on UGIS, ultrasonography, and computed tomography

  11. [Gastric vascular lesions in cirrhosis: gastropathy and antral vascular ectasia].

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    Casas, Meritxell; Calvet, Xavier; Vergara, Mercedes; Bella, Maria Rosa; Junquera, Félix; Martinez-Bauer, Eva; Campo, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (GHP) is a complication of portal hypertension usually associated with liver cirrhosis. The pathogenesis is unclear but the presence of portal hypertension is an essential factor for its development. GHP may be asymptomatic or present as gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopic lesions vary from a mosaic pattern to diffuse red spots; the most common location is the fundus. Treatment is indicated when there is acute or chronic bleeding, as secondary prophylaxis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend primary prophylaxis in patients who have never bled. Drugs that decrease portal pressure, such as non-cardioselective beta-blockers, and/or endoscopic ablative treatments, such as argon-beam coagulation, may be used. The role of transarterial intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) or bypass surgery has been insufficiently analyzed. Antral vascular ectasia (EVA) is a rare entity in liver cirrhosis, whose pathophysiology is still unknown. Clinical presentation is similar to that of GHP and endoscopy usually shows red spots in the antrum. Biopsy is often required to differentiate EVA from GHP. There is no effective medical therapy, so endoscopic ablative therapy and, in severe cases, antrectomy are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Characterization of Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia: A Potential Manifestation of the Metabolic Syndrome.

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    Smith, Elliot; Tekola, Bezawit; Patrie, James; Cornella, Scott; Caldwell, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia is a relatively common endoscopic finding. Past studies have shown an association of gastric antral vascular ectasia with cirrhosis and autoimmune disorders. We aimed to re-examine these associations and to investigate a possible association of gastric antral vascular ectasia with features of the metabolic syndrome. There were 135 patients with a diagnosis of gastric antral vascular ectasia from years 1995-2013 seen at the University of Virginia who were identified from a clinical data repository and age and sex matched to a cohort of patients without gastric antral vascular ectasia undergoing endoscopy within the same time frame as the index cases. The groups were compared for comorbidities including autoimmune disease, cirrhosis, vascular disease, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, and cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Sixty-four percent of gastric antral vascular ectasia patients were cirrhotic, compared with 14% of controls (P correlation of gastric antral vascular ectasia with features of metabolic syndrome such as diabetes, BMI, vascular disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis. The pathophysiology of gastric antral vascular ectasia remains uncertain, but we speculate that it may be a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of gastric antral vascular ectasia

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    Dray, X.; Repici, A.; Gonzalez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: The traditional endoscopic treatment for gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is argon plasma coagulation, but results are not always positive. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new endoscopic therapy that may be an attractive option for the treatment of GAVE. The aim...... of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of RFA for the treatment of GAVE. Patients and methods: This was an open-label, retrospective, case series study. The main outcome measures were number of red blood cell (RBC) packs transfused (transfusion requirement) and hemoglobin concentrations (g...

  14. Transcytosis Involvement in Transport System and Endothelial Permeability of Vascular Leakage during Dengue Virus Infection

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    Chanettee Chanthick

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The major role of endothelial cells is to maintain homeostasis of vascular permeability and to preserve the integrity of vascular vessels to prevent fluid leakage. Properly functioning endothelial cells promote physiological balance and stability for blood circulation and fluid components. A monolayer of endothelial cells has the ability to regulate paracellular and transcellular pathways for transport proteins, solutes, and fluid. In addition to the paracellular pathway, the transcellular pathway is another route of endothelial permeability that mediates vascular permeability under physiologic conditions. The transcellular pathway was found to be associated with an assortment of disease pathogeneses. The clinical manifestation of severe dengue infection in humans is vascular leakage and hemorrhagic diatheses. This review explores and describes the transcellular pathway, which is an alternate route of vascular permeability during dengue infection that corresponds with the pathologic finding of intact tight junction. This pathway may be the route of albumin transport that causes endothelial dysfunction during dengue virus infection.

  15. PLVAP in diabetic retinopathy: A gatekeeper of angiogenesis and vascular permeability

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    Wiśniewska-Kruk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, approximately 4 million people worldwide experience blindness or severe vision loss caused by diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a multifactorial disease that can progress from minor changes in vascular permeability, into a proliferative retinal disorder. The increasing

  16. Clinical application of subtraction CT imaging for evaluation of pulmonary vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shiro; Asai, Toshihiko; Yatagai, Shigeo; Oonuma, Noboru; Ohno, Kunihiko; Nakamoto, Takaaki; Iizuka, Masahiko

    1991-01-01

    In this clinical study, one normal subject, one patient with primary interstitial pneumonia, one patient with segmental pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, one patient with post-operative esophageal carcinoma, and two patients with mitral stenosis were studied. Dynamic CT scan images under continuous injection of low osmotic contrast medium were analyzed in series, in an attempt to evaluate vascular permeability quantitatively. The following results were obtained. Subtraction CT scan image 10 minutes after the start of contrast medium injection in two patients with pneumonia, showed a reduction of pulmonary vascular permeability following therapy. Subtraction CT scan image of the patient with post-operative esophageal carcinoma treated with 25 Gy radiation showed a discrepancy between pulmonary vascular permeability and other findings. In hemodynamically stable patients with mitral stenosis, subtraction CT images demonstrated that pulmonary vascular permeability was not affected by pulmonary congestion, irrespective of its severity. (author)

  17. Vascular permeability-increasing effect of the leaf essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Analysis of the differences in vascular permeability between treatment groups showed that, Ocimum oil, in intensity and duration, was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective in increasing cutaneous capillary permeability over a 24h period after ...

  18. Role of platelets in maintenance of pulmonary vascular permeability to protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, S.K.; Burhop, K.E.; Kaplan, J.E.; Malik, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors examined the role of platelets in maintenance of pulmonary vascular integrity by inducing thrombocytopenia in sheep using antiplatelet serum (APS). A causal relationship between thrombocytopenia and increase in pulmonary vascular permeability was established by platelet repletion using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Sheep were chronically instrumented and lung lymph fistulas prepared to monitor pulmonary lymph flow (Q lym ). A balloon catheter was positioned in the left atrium to assess pulmonary vascular permeability to protein after raising the left atrial pressure (P la ). Thrombocytopenia was maintained for 3 days by daily intramuscular APS injections. In studies using cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial monolayers, transendothelia permeability of 125 I-labeled albumin was reduced 50 and 95%, respectively, when 2.5 x 10 7 or 5 x 10 7 platelets were added onto endothelial monolayers. However, addition of 5 x 10 6 platelets or 5 x 10 7 red blood cells did not reduce endothelial monolayer albumin permeability. Results indicate that platelets are required for the maintenance of pulmonary vascular permeability. Reduction in permeability appears to involve an interaction of platelets with the endothelium

  19. Small GTP-Binding Protein Rac Is an Essential Mediator of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Endothelial Fenestrations and Vascular Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, A.; Cao, R.; Tritsaris, K.

    2003-01-01

    fenestrated endothelium, a feature linked with increased vascular permeability. A cell-permeable Rac antagonist (TAT-RacN17) converted VEGF-induced, leaky vascular plexuses into well-defined vascular networks. In addition, this Rac mutant blocked formation of VEGF-induced endothelial fenestrations...... in mediation of VEGF-induced vascular permeability but less so in neovascularization. This may have conceptual implications for applying Rac antagonists in treatment and prevention of VEGF-induced vascular leakage and edema in connection with ischemic disorders....

  20. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

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    Yun-Liang Cui

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein, at a low concentration, antagonized the MMP9-induced HUVEC monolayer permeability by promoting HUVEC proliferation and reducing extracellular VE-cadherin concentrations.

  1. Suppressions of Serotonin-Induced Increased Vascular Permeability and Leukocyte Infiltration by Bixa orellana Leaf Extract

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    Yoke Keong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Bixa orellana (AEBO leaves and its possible mechanisms in animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated using serotonin-induced rat paw edema, increased peritoneal vascular permeability, and leukocyte infiltrations in an air-pouch model. Nitric oxide (NO, indicated by the sum of nitrites and nitrates, and vascular growth endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured in paw tissues of rats to determine their involvement in the regulation of increased permeability. Pretreatments with AEBO (50 and 150 mg kg−1 prior to serotonin inductions resulted in maximum inhibitions of 56.2% of paw volume, 45.7% of Evans blue dye leakage in the peritoneal vascular permeability model, and 83.9% of leukocyte infiltration in the air-pouch model. 57.2% maximum inhibition of NO and 27% of VEGF formations in rats’ paws were observed with AEBO at the dose of 150 mg kg−1. Pharmacological screening of the extract showed significant (P<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, indicated by the suppressions of increased vascular permeability and leukocyte infiltration. The inhibitions of these inflammatory events are probably mediated via inhibition of NO and VEGF formation and release.

  2. Strategies for improving chemotherapeutic delivery to solid tumors mediated by vascular permeability modulation

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    Roy Chaudhuri, Tista

    An essential mode of distribution of blood-borne chemotherapeutic agents within a solid tumor is via the micro-circulation. Poor tumor perfusion, because of a lack of functional vasculature or a lack of microvessels, as well as low tumor vascular permeability, can prevent adequate deposition of even low molecular-weight agents into the tumor. The modulation of tumor vascular function and density can provides numerous strategies for improving intratumor deposition of chemotherapeutic agents. Here we investigated strategies to improve drug delivery to two tumor types that share in common poor drug delivery, but differ in the underlying cause. First, in an angiogenesis-driven brain tumor model of Glioblastoma, the vascular permeability barrier, along with poorly-functional vasculature, hinders drug delivery. A strategy of nanoparticle-based tumor 'priming' to attack the vascular permeability barrier, employing sterically stabilized liposomal doxorubicin (SSL-DXR), was investigated. Functional and histological evaluation of tumor vasculature revealed that after an initial period of depressed vascular permeability and vascular pruning 3--4 days after SSL-DXR administration, vascular permeability and perfusion were restored and then elevated after 5--7 days. As a result of tumor priming, deposition of subsequently-administered nanoparticles was enhanced, and the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ), if administered during the window of elevated permeability, was increased. The sequenced regimen resulted in a persistent reduction of the tumor proliferative index and a 40% suppression of tumor volume, compared to animals that received both agents simultaneously. Second, in a hypovascular, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma model, disruption of tumor-stromal communication via sonic hedgehog (sHH) signaling pathway inhibition mediated an indirect vascular proliferation and a more than 2-fold increase in intratumor nanoparticle deposition. Enhanced delivery of SSL-DXR in tumors pre

  3. The vascularization of a gastric tube as a substitute for the esophagus is affected by its diameter.

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    Pierie, J P; de Graaf, P W; van Vroonhoven, T J; Obertop, H

    1998-10-01

    The stomach is used for reconstruction of the upper gastrointestinal tract after esophageal resection for cancer. The whole stomach can be used, but also a wide or narrow gastric tube can be constructed. Short-term functional results are superior after use of a narrow tube. Healing of the cervical esophagogastrostomy can be impaired, leading to leakage and stricture. The decreased vascularization at the site of the anastomosis may be one reason. It was hypothesized that the quality of the vascularization of the gastric tube, used as a substitute for the oesophagus after esophagectomy, depends on its diameter. The vascularization of postmortem specimens was studied using angiography. Whole stomachs (3), wide (3) and narrow gastric tubes (3) were constructed. In a patient with an anastomotic stricture of a narrow tube with a cervical esophagogastrostomy vascularisation was evaluated by angiography. After infusion of contrast through the supplying arteries, the whole stomachs and wide gastric tubes showed adequate vascularization, whereas the narrow gastric tube showed poor vascularization especially at the site of the anastomosis. In narrow gastric tubes, the right gastroepiploic artery was the only feeding artery. In the patient's angiography, a limited contrast visualization of the proximal end of the gastric tube could be demonstrated. Although a narrow gastric tube is favoured by some surgeons, the use of whole stomach or a type of gastric tube with preservation of the right gastric artery may lead to a better anastomotic healing.

  4. Extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index may improve the definition of ARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Perel, Azriel

    2013-01-01

    The recent Berlin definition has made some improvements in the older definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), although the concepts and components of the definition remained largely unchanged. In an effort to improve both predictive and face validity, the Berlin panel has examined a number of additional measures that may reflect increased pulmonary vascular permeability, including extravascular lung water. The panel concluded that although extravascular lung water has improve...

  5. Modulation of enhanced vascular permeability by prostaglandins through alterations in blood flow (hyperemia). [/sup 85/Sr tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, M G; Hay, J B; Movat, H Z

    1976-11-01

    The enhanced vascular permeability induced by histamine or bradykinin in the skin of the guinea-pig and rabbit was significantly augmented by small amounts of prostaglandins of the E type. When injected alone these prostaglandins had little effect on vascular permeability. Furthermore, E type prostaglandins were found to be more potent at inducing hyperemia than either histamine or bradykinin. Prostaglandin F/sub 2/ alpha did not enhance the vascular permeability induced by histamine or bradykinin nor did it produce hyperemia in the skin. In the rat, prostaglandins alone enhanced vascular permeability but they also increased the effect of histamine, serotonin and bradykinin. Using /sup 85/Sr-microspheres to measure blood flow a correlation was found between the degree of hyperemia produced by prostaglandins and the degree to which they augmented enhanced vascular permeability due to histamine, serotonin or bradykinin. Prostaglandins therefore can directly mimic the hyperemia of the inflammatory process and can also modulate the changes in vascular permeability caused by other mediators of inflammation.

  6. Cortactin deficiency is associated with reduced neutrophil recruitment but increased vascular permeability in vivo.

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    Schnoor, Michael; Lai, Frank P L; Zarbock, Alexander; Kläver, Ruth; Polaschegg, Christian; Schulte, Dörte; Weich, Herbert A; Oelkers, J Margit; Rottner, Klemens; Vestweber, Dietmar

    2011-08-01

    Neutrophil extravasation and the regulation of vascular permeability require dynamic actin rearrangements in the endothelium. In this study, we analyzed in vivo whether these processes require the function of the actin nucleation-promoting factor cortactin. Basal vascular permeability for high molecular weight substances was enhanced in cortactin-deficient mice. Despite this leakiness, neutrophil extravasation in the tumor necrosis factor-stimulated cremaster was inhibited by the loss of cortactin. The permeability defect was caused by reduced levels of activated Rap1 (Ras-related protein 1) in endothelial cells and could be rescued by activating Rap1 via the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) exchange factor EPAC (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP). The defect in neutrophil extravasation was caused by enhanced rolling velocity and reduced adhesion in postcapillary venules. Impaired rolling interactions were linked to contributions of β(2)-integrin ligands, and firm adhesion was compromised by reduced ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) clustering around neutrophils. A signaling process known to be critical for the formation of ICAM-1-enriched contact areas and for transendothelial migration, the ICAM-1-mediated activation of the GTPase RhoG was blocked in cortactin-deficient endothelial cells. Our results represent the first physiological evidence that cortactin is crucial for orchestrating the molecular events leading to proper endothelial barrier function and leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

  7. Increased pulmonary vascular permeability as a cause of re-expansion edema in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlin, D.J.; Nessly, M.L.; Cheney, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism(s) underlying re-expansion edema, we measured the concentration of labeled albumin (RISA) in the extravascular, extracellular water (EVECW) of the lung as a measure of pulmonary vascular permeability. Re-expansion edema was first induced by rapid re-expansion of rabbit lungs that had been collapsed for 1 wk by pneumothorax. The RISA in EVECW was expressed as a fraction of its plasma concentration: (RISA)L/(RISA)PL. The volume of EVECW (ml/gm dry lung) was measured using a 24 Na indicator. Results in re-expansion edema were compared with normal control lungs and with oleic acid edema as a model of permeability edema. In re-expanded lungs, EVECW (3.41 +/- SD 1.24 ml/g) and (RISA)L/(RISA)PL 0.84 +/- SD 0.15) were significantly increased when compared with normal control lungs (2.25 +/- 0.41 ml/g and 0.51 +/- 0.20, respectively). Results in oleic acid edema (5.66 +/- 2.23 ml/g and 0.84 +/- 0.23) were similar to re-expansion edema. This suggested that re-expansion edema is due to increased pulmonary vascular permeability caused by mechanical stresses applied to the lung during re-expansion

  8. Estimating retinal vascular permeability using the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model with fluorescein videoangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Osswald, Christian R.; Dosmar, Emily; Guthrie, Micah J.; Hones, Logan; Sinha, Lagnojita; Xu, Xiaochun; Mieler, William F.; St. Lawrence, Keith; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J.

    2015-06-01

    Clinical symptoms of diabetic retinopathy are not detectable until damage to the retina reaches an irreversible stage, at least by today's treatment standards. As a result, there is a push to develop new, "sub-clinical" methods of predicting the onset of diabetic retinopathy before the onset of irreversible damage. With diabetic retinopathy being associated with the accumulation of long-term mild damage to the retinal vasculature, retinal blood vessel permeability has been proposed as a key parameter for detecting preclinical stages of retinopathy. In this study, a kinetic modeling approach used to quantify vascular permeability in dynamic contrast-enhanced medical imaging was evaluated in noise simulations and then applied to retinal videoangiography data in a diabetic rat for the first time to determine the potential for this approach to be employed clinically as an early indicator of diabetic retinopathy. Experimental levels of noise were found to introduce errors of less than 15% in estimates of blood flow and extraction fraction (a marker of vascular permeability), and fitting of rat retinal fluorescein angiography data provided stable maps of both parameters.

  9. Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin kills mice by inducing a major increase in lung vascular permeability.

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    Geny, Blandine; Khun, Huot; Fitting, Catherine; Zarantonelli, Leticia; Mazuet, Christelle; Cayet, Nadège; Szatanik, Marek; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Huerre, Michel; Popoff, Michel R

    2007-03-01

    When intraperitoneally injected into Swiss mice, Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin reproduces the fatal toxic shock syndrome observed in humans and animals after natural infection. This animal model was used to study the mechanism of lethal toxin-induced death. Histopathological and biochemical analyses identified lung and heart as preferential organs targeted by lethal toxin. Massive extravasation of blood fluid in the thoracic cage, resulting from an increase in lung vascular permeability, generated profound modifications such as animal dehydration, increase in hematocrit, hypoxia, and finally, cardiorespiratory failure. Vascular permeability increase induced by lethal toxin resulted from modifications of lung endothelial cells as evidenced by electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that VE-cadherin, a protein participating in intercellular adherens junctions, was redistributed from membrane to cytosol in lung endothelial cells. No major sign of lethal toxin-induced inflammation was observed that could participate in the toxic shock syndrome. The main effect of the lethal toxin is the glucosylation-dependent inactivation of small GTPases, in particular Rac, which is involved in actin polymerization occurring in vivo in lungs leading to E-cadherin junction destabilization. We conclude that the cells most susceptible to lethal toxin are lung vascular endothelial cells, the adherens junctions of which were altered after intoxication.

  10. Measurements of pulmonary vascular permeability with PET and gallium-68 transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintun, M.A.; Dennis, D.R.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.; Schuster, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    We quantified pulmonary vascular permeability with positron emission tomography (PET) and gallium-68-( 68 Ga) labeled transferrin. Six dogs with oleic acid-induced lung injury confined to the left lower lobe, two normal human volunteers, and two patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated. Lung tissue-activity measurements were obtained from sequential 1-5 min PET scans collected over 60 min, after in vivo labeling of transferrin through intravenous administration of [ 68 Ga]citrate. Blood-activity measurements were measured from simultaneously obtained peripheral blood samples. A forward rate constant describing the movement of transferrin from pulmonary vascular to extravascular compartments, the pulmonary transcapillary escape rate (PTCER), was then calculated from these data using a two-compartment model. In dogs, PTCER was 49 +/- 18 in normal lung tissue and 485 +/- 114 10(-4) min-1 in injured lung. A repeat study in these dogs 4 hr later showed no significant change. Values in the human subjects showed similarly marked differences between normal and abnormal lung tissue. We conclude that PET will be a useful method of evaluating vascular permeability changes after acute lung injury

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factors enhance the permeability of the mouse blood-brain barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shize Jiang

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB impedes entry of many drugs into the brain, limiting clinical efficacy. A safe and efficient method for reversibly increasing BBB permeability would greatly facilitate central nervous system (CNS drug delivery and expand the range of possible therapeutics to include water soluble compounds, proteins, nucleotides, and other large molecules. We examined the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF on BBB permeability in Kunming (KM mice. Human VEGF165 was administered to treatment groups at two concentrations (1.6 or 3.0 µg/mouse, while controls received equal-volume saline. Changes in BBB permeability were measured by parenchymal accumulation of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA as assessed by 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Mice were then injected with Evans blue, sacrificed 0.5 h later, and perfused transcardially. Brains were removed, fixed, and sectioned for histological study. Both VEGF groups exhibited a significantly greater signal intensity from the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia than controls (P<0.001. Evans blue fluorescence intensity was higher in the parenchyma and lower in the cerebrovasculature of VEGF-treated animals compared to controls. No significant brain edema was observed by diffusion weighted MRI (DWI or histological staining. Exogenous application of VEGF can increase the permeability of the BBB without causing brain edema. Pretreatment with VEGF may be a feasible method to facilitate drug delivery into the CNS.

  12. The Robo4 cytoplasmic domain is dispensable for vascular permeability and neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Prahst, Claudia; Mathivet, Thomas; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Zhang, Jiasheng; Genet, Gael; Tong, Raymond; Dubrac, Alexandre; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-11-24

    Vascular permeability and neovascularization are implicated in many diseases including retinopathies and diabetic wound healing. Robo4 is an endothelial-specific transmembrane receptor that stabilizes the vasculature, as shown in Robo4 -/- mice that develop hyperpermeability, but how Robo4 signals remained unclear. Here we show that Robo4 deletion enhances permeability and revascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and accelerates cutaneous wound healing. To determine Robo4 signalling pathways, we generated transgenic mice expressing a truncated Robo4 lacking the cytoplasmic domain (Robo4ΔCD). Robo4ΔCD expression is sufficient to prevent permeability, and inhibits OIR revascularization and wound healing in Robo4 -/- mice. Mechanistically, Robo4 does not affect Slit2 signalling, but Robo4 and Robo4ΔCD counteract Vegfr2-Y949 (Y951 in human VEGFR2) phosphorylation by signalling through the endothelial UNC5B receptor. We conclude that Robo4 inhibits angiogenesis and vessel permeability independently of its cytoplasmic domain, while activating VEGFR2-Y951 via ROBO4 inhibition might accelerate tissue revascularization in retinopathy of prematurity and in diabetic patients.

  13. Erythropoietin resistance in end-stage renal disease patient with gastric antral vascular ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Ji Re Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe observed a case of recombinant human erythropoietin resistance caused by Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia in a 40-year-old female with ESRD on hemodialysis. Some associated factors such as autoimmune disease, hemolysis, heart and liver disease were discarded on physical examination and complementary tests. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history and endoscopic appearance of watermelon stomach. The histologic findings are fibromuscular proliferation and capillary ectasia with microvascular thrombosis of the lamina propria. However, these histologic findings are not necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia is a serious condition and should be considered in ESRD patients on hemodialysis with anemia and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin because GAVE is potentially curable with specific endoscopic treatment method or through surgical procedure.

  14. Gastric antral vascular ectasia--a cause of refractory anaemia in systemic sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Busteed, S

    2012-02-03

    Recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage is an uncommon manifestation of systemic sclerosis. We report a case of gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Failure to recognise the condition as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding may delay the instigation of appropriate treatment. GAVE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis.

  15. Detection of active bleeding from gastric antral vascular ectasia by capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Nagisa; Nakamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Chiharu; Kise, Yuya; Yamashiro, Satoshi; Kinjo, Fukunori; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) has been recognized as one of the important causes of occult and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis is typically made based on the characteristic endoscopic features, including longitudinal row of flat, reddish stripes radiating from the pylorus into the antrum that resemble the stripes on a watermelon. These appearances, however, can easily be misinterpreted as moderate to severe gastritis. Although it is believed that capsule endoscopy (C...

  16. Effect of leukotriene receptor antagonists on vascular permeability during endotoxic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.A.; Li, E.J.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Halushka, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sulfidopeptide leukotrienes are significant pathogenic mediators of certain hematologic and hemodynamic sequelae of endotoxic shock. In the present study, the effects of a selective LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, LY171883 (LY), or a selective LTD4 receptor antagonist, SKF-104353 (SKF), were assessed on splanchnic and pulmonary localization of 99mTechnetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) in acute endotoxic shock in the rat. Dynamic gamma camera imaging of heart (H), midabdominal (GI), and lung regions of interest generated time activity curves for baseline and at 5-35 min after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin (10 mg/kg, i.v.). Slopes of GI/H and lung/H activity (permeability index, GI/H or lung/H X 10(-3)/min) provided indices of intestinal and lung localization. Rats received LY (30 mg/kg, i.v.), LY vehicle (LY Veh), SKF (10 mg/kg), or SKF vehicle (SK Veh) 10 min prior to endotoxin or endotoxin vehicle. In rats receiving the LY Veh and endotoxin (n = 8) or SKF Veh and endotoxin (n = 12), the splanchnic permeability indices to 99mTc-HSA were increased 11.2-fold and 5.1-fold, respectively (P less than 0.05) compared to vehicle control groups not given endotoxin (n = 5). Pulmonary permeability index for 99mTc-HSA was increased (P less than 0.05) to a lesser extent (3.2-fold) by endotoxin compared to vehicle controls. Pretreatment with SKF reduced the mesenteric permeability index to control levels (P less than 0.05) during the 5-35 min time interval post-endotoxin. LY reduced the mesenteric permeability index by 70%. Pulmonary relative permeability to 99mTc-HSA was not affected by LY pretreatment. Both splanchnic and lung relative permeability to the isotope was transient; at 135-225 min post-endotoxin, splanchnic localization of 99mTc-HSA (n = 4) was not significantly different from vehicle controls in these vascular beds

  17. Extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index may improve the definition of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perel, Azriel

    2013-01-24

    The recent Berlin definition has made some improvements in the older definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), although the concepts and components of the definition remained largely unchanged. In an effort to improve both predictive and face validity, the Berlin panel has examined a number of additional measures that may reflect increased pulmonary vascular permeability, including extravascular lung water. The panel concluded that although extravascular lung water has improved face validity and higher values are associated with mortality, it is infeasible to mandate on the basis of availability and the fact that it does not distinguish between hydrostatic and inflammatory pulmonary edema. However, the results of a multi-institutional study that appeared in the previous issue of Critical Care show that this latter reservation may not necessarily be true. By using extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index, both of which are derived from transpulmonary thermodilution, the authors could successfully differentiate between patients with ARDS and other patients in respiratory failure due to either cardiogenic edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis. This commentary discusses the merits and limitations of this study in view of the potential improvement that transpulmonary thermodilution may bring to the definition of ARDS.

  18. Resistance of essential fatty acid-deficient rats to endotoxin-induced increases in vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, E.J.; Cook, J.A.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Rokach, J.; Halushka, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Resistance to endotoxin in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats is associated with reduced synthesis of certain arachidonic acid metabolites. It was hypothesized that EFAD rats would manifest decreased vascular permeability changes during endotoxemia as a consequence of reduced arachidonic acid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, changes in hematocrit (HCT) and mesenteric localization rate of technetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) were assessed in EFAD and normal rats using gamma-camera imaging. Thirty minutes after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin, EFAD rats exhibited less hemoconcentration as determined by % HCT than normal rats. Endotoxin caused a less severe change in permeability index in the splanchnic region in EFAD rats than in normal rats (1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(-3)min-1 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(-3)min-1 respectively, P less than 0.05). In contrast to 99mTc-HSA, mesenteric localization of 99mTc-RBC was not changed by endotoxin in control or EFAD rats. Supplementation with ethyl-arachidonic acid did not enhance susceptibility of EFAD rats to endotoxin-induced splanchnic permeability to 99mTc-HSA. Leukotrienes have been implicated as mediators of increased vascular permeability in endotoxin shock. Since LTC3 formation has been reported to be increased in EFA deficiency, we hypothesized that LTC3 may be less potent than LTC4. Thus the effect of LTC3 on mean arterial pressure and permeability was compared to LTC4 in normal rats. LTC3-induced increases in peak mean arterial pressure were less than LTC4 at 10 micrograms/kg (39 +/- 5 mm Hg vs. 58 +/- 4 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05) and at 20 micrograms/kg (56 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 75 +/- 2 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05). LY171883 (30 mg/kg), an LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, attenuated the pressor effect of LTC4, LTD4, and LTC3

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus-infected monocytes and macrophages, induces vascular permeability and effusion in cats with FIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Ohyama, Taku; Kokumoto, Aiko; Satoh, Ryoichi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) causes a fatal disease called FIP in Felidae. The effusion in body cavity is commonly associated with FIP. However, the exact mechanism of accumulation of effusion remains unclear. We investigated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to examine the relationship between VEGF levels and the amounts of effusion in cats with FIP. Furthermore, we examined VEGF production in FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages, and we used feline vascular endothelial cells to examine vascular permeability induced by the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages. In cats with FIP, the production of effusion was related with increasing plasma VEGF levels. In FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages, the production of VEGF was associated with proliferation of virus. Furthermore, the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages induced hyperpermeability of feline vascular endothelial cells. It was suggested that vascular permeability factors, including VEGF, produced by FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages might increase the vascular permeability and the amounts of effusion in cats with FIP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The diaphragms of fenestrated endothelia: gatekeepers of vascular permeability and blood composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Radu V; Tse, Dan; Deharvengt, Sophie J; Smits, Nicole C; Xu, Yan; Luciano, Marcus R; McGarry, Caitlin L; Buitendijk, Maarten; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Elgueta, Raul; Kobayashi, Takashi; Shipman, Samantha L; Moodie, Karen L; Daghlian, Charles P; Ernst, Patricia A; Lee, Hong-Kee; Suriawinata, Arief A; Schned, Alan R; Longnecker, Daniel S; Fiering, Steven N; Noelle, Randolph J; Gimi, Barjor; Shworak, Nicholas W; Carrière, Catherine

    2012-12-11

    Fenestral and stomatal diaphragms are endothelial subcellular structures of unknown function that form on organelles implicated in vascular permeability: fenestrae, transendothelial channels, and caveolae. PV1 protein is required for diaphragm formation in vitro. Here, we report that deletion of the PV1-encoding Plvap gene in mice results in the absence of diaphragms and decreased survival. Loss of diaphragms did not affect the fenestrae and transendothelial channels formation but disrupted the barrier function of fenestrated capillaries, causing a major leak of plasma proteins. This disruption results in early death of animals due to severe noninflammatory protein-losing enteropathy. Deletion of PV1 in endothelium, but not in the hematopoietic compartment, recapitulates the phenotype of global PV1 deletion, whereas endothelial reconstitution of PV1 rescues the phenotype. Taken together, these data provide genetic evidence for the critical role of the diaphragms in fenestrated capillaries in the maintenance of blood composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of irradiation on the pulmonary hemodynamics and the pulmonary vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuda, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Shinkichi; Okada, Shinichiroh

    1982-01-01

    In 4 sheeps, base lines of hemodynamics and lymph dynamics were observed for 2 hours, and then 1,000 rad of 60 Co was irradiated to the inferior lobes of the lung. Pulmonary hemodynamics and lymph dynamics were continuously observed, and water and protein permeability of the irradiated pulmonary vessels was evaluated. In 4 control sheeps, no change in pulmonary hemodynamics and lymph dynamics was noted. In the irradiated group, there was no remarkable change in pulmonary hemodynamics for 6 to 8 hours after 60 Co irradiation. Pulmonary lymph flow began to increase 2 hours after irradiation to about 1.7 times the base line level after 4 hours. The increase in pulmonary lymph flow was accompanied by decrease in plasma protein concentration and increase in protein concentration of the lung lymph, resulting in an apparent increase in the ratio of lymph/plasma protein concentration. Water and protein leak from the pulmonary vessels increased. A photomicroscopic observation revealed dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in the lung interstice and a mild pulmonary interstitial edema. Vascular damage, especially due to increased water and protein permeability of the lung capillary vessels, occurred immediately after 60 Co irradiation. (Ueda, J.)

  2. Hydrogels with precisely controlled integrin activation dictate vascular patterning and permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuoran; Nih, Lina R.; Bachman, Haylee; Fei, Peng; Li, Yilei; Nam, Eunwoo; Dimatteo, Robert; Carmichael, S. Thomas; Barker, Thomas H.; Segura, Tatiana

    2017-09-01

    Integrin binding to bioengineered hydrogel scaffolds is essential for tissue regrowth and regeneration, yet not all integrin binding can lead to tissue repair. Here, we show that through engineering hydrogel materials to promote α3/α5β1 integrin binding, we can promote the formation of a space-filling and mature vasculature compared with hydrogel materials that promote αvβ3 integrin binding. In vitro, α3/α5β1 scaffolds promoted endothelial cells to sprout and branch, forming organized extensive networks that eventually reached and anastomosed with neighbouring branches. In vivo, α3/α5β1 scaffolds delivering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoted non-tortuous blood vessel formation and non-leaky blood vessels by 10 days post-stroke. In contrast, materials that promote αvβ3 integrin binding promoted endothelial sprout clumping in vitro and leaky vessels in vivo. This work shows that precisely controlled integrin activation from a biomaterial can be harnessed to direct therapeutic vessel regeneration and reduce VEGF-induced vascular permeability in vivo.

  3. Nlrp3 prevents early renal interstitial edema and vascular permeability in unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco P Pulskens

    Full Text Available Progressive renal disease is characterized by tubulo-interstitial injury with ongoing inflammation and fibrosis. The Nlrp3 inflammasome contributes to these pathophysiological processes through its canonical effects in cytokine maturation. Nlrp3 may additionally exert inflammasome-independent effects following tissue injury. Hence, in this study we investigated potential non-canonical effects of Nlrp3 following progressive renal injury by subjecting WT and Nlrp3-deficient (-/- mice to unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO. Our results revealed a progressive increase of renal Nlrp3 mRNA in WT mice following UUO. The absence of Nlrp3 resulted in enhanced tubular injury and dilatation and an elevated expression of injury biomarker NGAL after UUO. Moreover, interstitial edema was significantly elevated in Nlrp3-/- mice. This could be explained by increased intratubular pressure and an enhanced tubular and vascular permeability. In accordance, renal vascular leakage was elevated in Nlrp3-/- mice that associated with reduced mRNA expression of intercellular junction components. The decreased epithelial barrier function in Nlrp3-/- mice was not associated with increased apoptosis and/or proliferation of renal epithelial cells. Nlrp3 deficiency did not affect renal fibrosis or inflammation. Together, our data reveal a novel non-canonical effect of Nlrp3 in preserving renal integrity and protection against early tubular injury and interstitial edema following progressive renal injury.

  4. Correlations between vascular invasion, neural structures invasion and microvessel density with clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bădescu Alina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scopul: Scopul studiului efectuat a fost acela de a estima prezenţa invaziei tumorale la nivelul vaselor limfatice, sanguine şi la nivel neural în carcinoamele gastrice pe preparatele colorate hematoxilină-eozină (H-E şi, de asemenea, densitatea microvascularizatiei tumorale (MVD, detectată imunohistochimic, precum şi relaţia acestora cu parametrii clinico-patologici şi biologici ai tumorilor. Material şi metodă. Pentru evaluarea invaziei limfo-vasculare şi neurale am inclus în studiu 367 de pacienţi diagnosticaţi cu carcinoame gastrice. Pentru studiul imunohistochimic al MVD, au fost selectaţi 28 de pacienţi, din care 16 pacienţi cu gastrectomomie totală, în urma căreia s-a stabilit stadiul TNM al tumorii primare şi 12 pacienţi cu biopsie gastrică. Biopsiile gastrice şi probele chirurgicale au fost procesate folosind tehnica de includere la parafină şi coloraţia hematoxilină-eozină, iar pentru evaluarea imunohistochimică a MVD s-au utilizat anticorpii anti-CD31 şi anti-CD34. Rezultate: Prezenţa invaziei tumorale la nivelul vaselor sanguine a fost semnificativ asociată cu stadiile avansate de boală (p<0,01 şi cu carcinoamele gastrice slab diferenţiate (p<0,01, în timp ce invazia vaselor limfatice s-a asociat semnificativ doar cu stadiul avansat al tumorilor (p<0,001. În ceea ce priveşte invazia tumorală peri- sau intraneurală, s-a observat o corelaţie semnificativă a acesteia cu sexul feminin (p<0,05, cu stadiile avansate de boală (p<0,001, cu tipul difuz al carcinoamelor gastrice (p<0,05 şi cu tumorile slab diferenţiate (p<0,05. S-a observat o legătură strânsă între valoarea MVD determinată cu anticorpul anti CD34 şi doi dintre parametrii histopatologici importanţi: tipul histologic al carcinoamelor gastrice conform clasificării Lauren (tipul difuz; p<0,05 şi gradul de diferenţiere al tumorilor (tumorile slab diferenţiate; p<0,05. S-a observat de asemenea o corelaţie semnificativă a

  5. Isoproterenol attenuates high vascular pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L

    1997-12-01

    To separate the contributions of cellular and basement membrane components of the alveolar capillary barrier to the increased microvascular permeability induced by high pulmonary venous pressures (Ppv), we subjected isolated rat lungs to increases in Ppv, which increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) without significant hemorrhage (31 cmH2O) and with obvious extravasation of red blood cells (43 cmH2O). Isoproterenol (20 microM) was infused in one group (Iso) to identify a reversible cellular component of injury, and residual blood volumes were measured to assess extravasation of red blood cells through ruptured basement membranes. In untreated lungs (High Ppv group), Kfc increased 6.2 +/- 1.3 and 38.3 +/- 15.2 times baseline during the 31 and 43 cmH2O Ppv states. In Iso lungs, Kfc was 36.2% (P Kfc increases at moderate Ppv, possibly because of an endothelial effect, but it did not affect red cell extravasation at higher vascular pressures.

  6. VE-cadherin Y685F knock-in mouse is sensitive to vascular permeability in recurrent angiogenic organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibé, Adama; Polena, Helena; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Razanajatovo, Jeremy; Mannic, Tiphaine; Chaumontel, Nicolas; Bama, Soumalamaya; Maréchal, Irène; Huber, Philippe; Gulino-Debrac, Danielle; Bouillet, Laurence; Vilgrain, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    Covalent modifications such as tyrosine phosphorylation are associated with the breakdown of endothelial cell junctions and increased vascular permeability. We previously showed that vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin was tyrosine phosphorylated in vivo in the mouse reproductive tract and that Y685 was a target site for Src in response to vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to understand the implication of VE-cadherin phosphorylation at site Y685 in cyclic angiogenic organs. To achieve this aim, we generated a knock-in mouse carrying a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine point mutation of VE-cadherin Y685 (VE-Y685F). Although homozygous VE-Y685F mice were viable and fertile, the nulliparous knock-in female mice exhibited enlarged uteri with edema. This phenotype was observed in 30% of females between 4 to 14 mo old. Histological examination of longitudinal sections of the VE-Y685F uterus showed an extensive disorganization of myometrium and endometrium with highly edematous uterine glands, numerous areas with sparse cells, and increased accumulation of collagen fibers around blood vessels, indicating a fibrotic state. Analysis of cross section of ovaries showed the appearance of spontaneous cysts, which suggested increased vascular hyperpermeability. Electron microscopy analysis of capillaries in the ovary showed a slight but significant increase in the gap size between two adjacent endothelial cell membranes in the junctions of VE-Y685F mice (wild-type, 11.5 ± 0.3, n = 78; and VE-Y685F, 12.48 ± 0.3, n = 65; P = 0.045), as well as collagen fiber accumulation around capillaries. Miles assay revealed that either basal or vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated permeability in the skin was increased in VE-Y685F mice. Since edema and fibrotic appearance have been identified as hallmarks of initial increased vascular permeability, we conclude that the site Y685 in VE-cadherin is involved in the physiological regulation of capillary

  7. Dynamic Measurement of Tumor Vascular Permeability and Perfusion using a Hybrid System for Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wuwei; Elmer, Andreas; Buehlmann, David; Augath, Mark-Aurel; Vats, Divya; Ripoll, Jorge; Rudin, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Assessing tumor vascular features including permeability and perfusion is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to compare fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based vascular readouts in subcutaneously implanted tumors in mice by simultaneous dynamic measurement of tracer uptake using a hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT)/MRI system. Vascular permeability was measured using a mixture of extravascular imaging agents, GdDOTA and the dye Cy5.5, and perfusion using a mixture of intravascular agents, Endorem and a fluorescent probe (Angiosense). Dynamic fluorescence reflectance imaging (dFRI) was integrated into the hybrid system for high temporal resolution. Excellent correspondence between uptake curves of Cy5.5/GdDOTA and Endorem/Angiosense has been found with correlation coefficients R > 0.98. The two modalities revealed good agreement regarding permeability coefficients and centers-of-gravity of the imaging agent distribution. The FMT/dFRI protocol presented is able to accurately map physiological processes and poses an attractive alternative to MRI for characterizing tumor neoangiogenesis.

  8. A Case of Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia Which Was Aggravated by Acid Reducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiomi Nakade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE is known to be characterized by red patches or spots in a diffuse or linear array in the antrum of the stomach. The precise etiology of GAVE remains to be elucidated. Argon plasma laser coagulation (APC has been used to control oozing from GAVE; however, there is no satisfactory long-term effect of APC in the control of oozing from GAVE. An acid reducer is used after APC because even physiological acid exposure might delay post-APC ulcer healing. We describe the case of a patient who had used an acid reducer and experienced repeated gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to GAVE. After ceasing to administer the acid reducer, incidences of hospitalization due to oozing from GAVE stopped. After the administration of the acid reducer was restarted, the patient had tarry stool, and diffuse oozing of blood was seen again. We report a first case of GAVE which was aggravated by acid reducer.

  9. Detection of active bleeding from gastric antral vascular ectasia by capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Nagisa; Nakamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Chiharu; Kise, Yuya; Yamashiro, Satoshi; Kinjo, Fukunori; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) has been recognized as one of the important causes of occult and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis is typically made based on the characteristic endoscopic features, including longitudinal row of flat, reddish stripes radiating from the pylorus into the antrum that resemble the stripes on a watermelon. These appearances, however, can easily be misinterpreted as moderate to severe gastritis. Although it is believed that capsule endoscopy (CE) is not helpful for the study of the stomach with its large lumen, GAVE can be more likely to be detected at CE rather than conventional endoscopy. CE can be regarded as “physiologic” endoscopy, without the need for gastric inflation and subsequent compression of the vasculature. The blood flow of the ecstatic vessels may be diminished in an inflated stomach. Therefore, GAVE may be prominent in CE. We herein describe a case of active bleeding from GAVE detected by CE and would like to emphasize a possibility that CE can improve diagnostic yields for GAVE. PMID:23515703

  10. Effects of exogenous oxygen derived free radicals on myocardial capillary permeability, vascular tone, and incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in the canine heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Bjerrum, P J

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of exogenous oxygen derived free radicals on myocardial capillary permeability for a small hydrophilic indicator, postischaemic vascular tone, and the occurrence of arrhythmias in the canine heart in vivo.......The aim was to examine the effects of exogenous oxygen derived free radicals on myocardial capillary permeability for a small hydrophilic indicator, postischaemic vascular tone, and the occurrence of arrhythmias in the canine heart in vivo....

  11. Expression of vasoactive proteins in gastric antral mucosa reflects vascular dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebicka, Jonel; Wix, Cyrus; von Heydebrand, Matthias; Hittatiya, Kanishka; Reiberger, Thomas; Klein, Sabine; Schierwagen, Robert; Kristiansen, Glen; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Krag, Aleksander; Sauerbruch, Tilman

    2015-04-01

    Patients with cirrhosis display hypocontractility of splanchnic vessels because of dysregulation of vasoactive proteins, such as decreased effect of RhoA/ROCK and increased activity of β-Arrestin-2 and eNOS. However, it is unknown whether the dysregulation of vasoactive proteins is displayed in other vessels. We investigated whether expression of vasoactive proteins can be evaluated in gastric mucosa vessels. Biopsies from the gastric mucosa of 111 patients with cirrhosis were collected at three different centres and from 13 controls. Forty-nine patients had received TIPS. Portal pressure gradient was measured in 49 patients with TIPS and in 16 patients without TIPS. Biopsies from the antrum were conserved in formaldehyde for immunohistochemistry or shock-frozen for PCR and Western blot. The mucosal transcription of vascular markers (αSMA, CD31) was higher in cirrhotic patients than controls, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. On average, relative mucosal levels of RhoA and ROCK were lower, while β-Arrestin-2 levels were higher in cirrhotic patients compared to controls. Transcriptional levels of eNOS increased with presence of ascites and grade of oesophageal varices. Patients with TIPS showed less pronounced markers of vascular dysfunction in gastric mucosa. This is the first evidence that the expression of vasoactive proteins in mucosa from the gastric antrum of patients with cirrhosis reflects their vascular dysfunction and possibly changes after therapeutic interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Newly developed surface coil for endoluminal MRI, depiction of pig gastric wall layers and vascular architecture in ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yoshinori; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Yoshinaka, Hayato; Matsuoka, Yuichiro; Kuroda, Kagayaki; Gotanda, Masakazu; Sekino, Naomi; Kumamoto, Etsuko; Yoshida, Masaru; Inokuchi, Hideto; Azuma, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualize the gastric wall layers and to depict the vascular architecture in vitro by using resected porcine stomachs studied with high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Normal dissected porcine stomach samples (n = 4) were examined with a 3 Tesla MR system using a newly developed surface coil. MR images were obtained by the surface coil as receiver and a head coil as transmitter. High-spatial-resolution spin-echo MR images were obtained with a field of view of 8 x 8 cm, a matrix of 256 x 128 and slice thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm. T1 and T2-weighted MR images clearly depicted the normal porcine gastric walls as consisting of four distinct layers. In addition, vascular architectures in proper muscle layers were also visualized, which were confirmed by histological examinations to correspond to blood vessels. High-spatial-resolution MR imaging using a surface coil placed closely to the gastric wall enabled the differentiation of porcine gastric wall layers and the depiction of the blood vessels in proper muscle layer in this experimental study.

  13. Newly developed surface coil for endoluminal MRI, depiction of pig gastric wall layers and vascular architecture in ex vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yoshinori; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Yoshinaka, Hayato

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualize the gastric wall layers and to depict the vascular architecture in vitro by using resected porcine stomachs studied with high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Normal dissected porcine stomach samples (n=4) were examined with a 3 Tesla MR system using a newly developed surface coil. MR images were obtained by the surface coil as receiver and a head coil as transmitter. High-spatial-resolution spin-echo MR images were obtained with a field of view of 8 x 8 cm, a matrix of 256 x 128 and slice thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm. T1 and T2-weighted MR images clearly depicted the normal porcine gastric walls as consisting of four distinct layers. In addition, vascular architectures in proper muscle layers were also visualized, which were confirmed by histological examinations to correspond to blood vessels. High-spatial-resolution MR imaging using a surface coil placed closely to the gastric wall enabled the differentiation of porcine gastric wall layers and the depiction of the blood vessels in proper muscle layer in this experimental study. (author)

  14. Isthmin is a novel vascular permeability inducer that functions through cell-surface GRP78-mediated Src activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Shruthi; Chen, Mo; Liao, Wupeng; Er, Shi Yin; Wong, Wai-Shiu Fred; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-07-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a recently identified 60 kDa secreted angiogenesis inhibitor. Two cell-surface receptors for ISM have been defined, the high-affinity glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and the low-affinity αvβ5 integrin. As αvβ5 integrin plays an important role in pulmonary vascular permeability (VP) and ISM is highly expressed in mouse lung, we sought to clarify the role of ISM in VP. Recombinant ISM (rISM) dose-dependently enhances endothelial monolayer permeability in vitro and local dermal VP when administered intradermally in mice. Systemic rISM administration through intravenous injection leads to profound lung vascular hyperpermeability but not in other organs. Mechanistic investigations using molecular, biochemical approaches and specific chemical inhibitors revealed that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers a direct interaction between GRP78 and Src, leading to Src activation and subsequent phosphorylation of adherens junction proteins and loss of junctional proteins from inter-endothelial junctions, resulting in enhanced VP. Dynamic studies of Src activation, VP and apoptosis revealed that ISM induces VP directly via Src activation while apoptosis contributes indirectly only after prolonged treatment. Furthermore, ISM is significantly up-regulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse lung. Blocking cell-surface GRP78 by systemic infusion of anti-GRP78 antibody significantly attenuates pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability in LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ISM is a novel VP inducer that functions through cell-surface GRP78-mediated Src activation as well as induction of apoptosis. It induces a direct GRP78-Src interaction, leading to cytoplasmic Src activation. ISM contributes to pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability of LPS-induced ALI in mice. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Permeability to macromolecular contrast media quantified by dynamic MRI correlates with tumor tissue assays of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyran, Clemens C.; Sennino, Barbara; Fu, Yanjun; Rogut, Victor; Shames, David M.; Chaopathomkul, Bundit; Wendland, Michael F.; McDonald, Donald M.; Brasch, Robert C.; Raatschen, Hans-Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate dynamic MRI assays of macromolecular endothelial permeability with microscopic area–density measurements of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumors. Methods and material: This study compared tumor xenografts from two different human cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 tumors (n = 5), and MDA-MB-435 (n = 8), reported to express respectively higher and lower levels of VEGF. Dynamic MRI was enhanced by a prototype macromolecular contrast medium (MMCM), albumin-(Gd-DTPA)35. Quantitative estimates of tumor microvascular permeability (K PS ; μl/min × 100 cm 3 ), obtained using a two-compartment kinetic model, were correlated with immunohistochemical measurements of VEGF in each tumor. Results: Mean K PS was 2.4 times greater in MDA-MB-231 tumors (K PS = 58 ± 30.9 μl/min × 100 cm 3 ) than in MDA-MB-435 tumors (K PS = 24 ± 8.4 μl/min × 100 cm 3 ) (p < 0.05). Correspondingly, the area–density of VEGF in MDA-MB-231 tumors was 2.6 times greater (27.3 ± 2.2%, p < 0.05) than in MDA-MB-435 cancers (10.5 ± 0.5%, p < 0.05). Considering all tumors without regard to cell type, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.67, p < 0.05) was observed between MRI-estimated endothelial permeability and VEGF immunoreactivity. Conclusion: Correlation of MRI assays of endothelial permeability to a MMCM and VEGF immunoreactivity of tumors support the hypothesis that VEGF is a major contributor to increased macromolecular permeability in cancers. When applied clinically, the MMCM-enhanced MRI approach could help to optimize the appropriate application of VEGF-inhibiting therapy on an individual patient basis.

  16. Endothelial glycocalyx shedding and vascular permeability in severely injured trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbar, Elaheh; Cardenas, Jessica C; Baimukanova, Gyulnar

    2015-01-01

    of trauma patients. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from 5 healthy consented volunteers and 22 severely injured trauma patients upon admission to the emergency department. ELISA assays were performed to quantify shed HA, HS, CS and syndecan-1 in plasma. A colloid osmometer and Electric Cell......-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) system were used to measure plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and cell permeability, respectively. Thrombin generation was measured using a calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT). Initial vital signs, routine laboratory values, and injury severity scores (ISS) were recorded. Non......COP (≤16 mmHg) had significantly increased syndecan-1 and HA compared to those with normal COP, which corresponded to increased cell permeability via ECIS. CS and HS did not vary between COP groups. Lastly, patients with low COP displayed reduced peak thrombin...

  17. Band ligation of gastric antral vascular ectasia is a safe and effective endoscopic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, John; Berro, Wael; Harewood, Gavin C; Murray, Frank E; Patchett, Stephen E

    2013-07-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) or 'watermelon stomach' is a rare and often misdiagnosed cause of occult upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment includes conservative measures such as transfusion and endoscopic therapy. A recent report suggests that endoscopic band ligation (EBL) offers an effective alternative treatment. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate our experiences with this novel technique, and to compare argon plasma coagulation (APC) with EBL in terms of safety and efficacy. A retrospective analysis of all endoscopies with a diagnosis of GAVE was carried out between 2004 and 2010. Case records were examined for information pertaining to the number of procedures carried out, mean blood transfusions, mean hemoglobin, and complications. A total of 23 cases of GAVE were treated. The mean age was 73.9 (55-89) years. Female to male ratio was 17:6 and mean follow up was 26 months. Eight patients were treated with EBL with a mean number of treatments of 2.5 (1-5). This resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the endoscopic appearance and a trend towards fewer transfusions. Of the eight patients treated with EBL, six (75%) patients had previously failed APC treatment despite having a mean of 4.7 sessions. Band ligation was not associated with any short- or medium-term complications. The 15 patients who had APC alone had a mean of four (1-11) treatments. Only seven (46.7%) of these patients had any endoscopic improvement with a mean of four sessions. EBL represents a safe and effective treatment for GAVE. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  18. Contrast-enhanced power Doppler endosonography and pathological assessment of vascularization in advanced gastric carcinomas--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Sevastiţa; Filip, Maria-Monalisa; Georgescu, Claudia-Valentina; Angelescu, Cristina; Ciurea, Tudorel; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Besides representing angiogenesis markers, microvascular density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are two important tools for the assessment of prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the Doppler parameters (resistivity and pulsatility indexes) and vascularity index (VI) calculated by contrast-enhanced power Doppler endoscopic ultrasound (CEPD-EUS) in correlation with the expression of intra-tumoral MVD and VEGF in patients with gastric cancer. The study included 20 consecutive patients with advanced gastric carcinoma, but without distant metastasis at initial assessment. All the patients were assessed by contrast-enhanced power Doppler endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) combined with pulsed Doppler examinations in the late venous phase. The vascularity index (VI) was calculated before and after injection of second generation microbubble contrast specific agent (SonoVue 2.4 mL), used as a Doppler signal enhancer. Moreover, pulsed Doppler parameters (resistivity and pulsatility indexes) were further calculated. The correlation between power Doppler parameters and pathological/molecular parameters (MVD assessed through immunohistochemistry with CD31 and CD34, as well as VEGF assessed through real-time PCR) was assessed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for the assessment of prognosis. Significantly statistical correlations were found between post-contrast VI and CD34 (p=0.0226), VEGF (p=0.0231), VEGF-A (p=0.0464) and VEGF-B (p=0.0022) while pre-contrast VI was correlated only with CD34 expression. Pulsatility index and resistivity index were not correlated with MVD or VEGF expression. Survival analysis demonstrated that VEGF-A is an accurate parameter for survival rate (p=0.045), as compared to VEGF (p=0.085) and VEGF-B (p=0.230). We did not find any correlation between the survival rate and ultrasound parameters (RI, PI, pre-contrast VI or post-contrast VI). Assessment of tumor vascularity using contrast

  19. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of a Gastric Vascular Malformation: An Innovative Approach to Treatment of a Rare Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansing, Catherine E.; Marquardt, Joseph P.; Sutton, Daniel M.; York, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a high-flow form of a vascular malformation, which can be found anywhere in the body. While historically treated surgically, a multidisciplinary approach utilizing multiple specialties and treatment modalities is now commonly employed. In order to effectively treat an AVM, the nidus must be targeted and eradicated, which can be done via multiple approaches. We present the case of a 43-year-old male with a gastric wall AVM, which was initially incompletely treated using a percutaneous transarterial approach. The gastric AVM was noted to have dominant drainage through a gastrorenal shunt; therefore, Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) was utilized to eradicate the AVM nidus. This case illustrates the utility of Interventional Radiology, specifically BRTO, as another treatment option for challenging AVMs.

  20. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of a Gastric Vascular Malformation: An Innovative Approach to Treatment of a Rare Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansing, Catherine E., E-mail: catherine.e.hansing.mil@mail.mil [Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Transitional Year/Graduate Medical Education Department, Medical Corps, United States Navy (United States); Marquardt, Joseph P.; Sutton, Daniel M.; York, John D. [Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Radiology Department, Medical Corps, United States Navy (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a high-flow form of a vascular malformation, which can be found anywhere in the body. While historically treated surgically, a multidisciplinary approach utilizing multiple specialties and treatment modalities is now commonly employed. In order to effectively treat an AVM, the nidus must be targeted and eradicated, which can be done via multiple approaches. We present the case of a 43-year-old male with a gastric wall AVM, which was initially incompletely treated using a percutaneous transarterial approach. The gastric AVM was noted to have dominant drainage through a gastrorenal shunt; therefore, Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) was utilized to eradicate the AVM nidus. This case illustrates the utility of Interventional Radiology, specifically BRTO, as another treatment option for challenging AVMs.

  1. In vitro effect of carprofen and meloxicam on the conductance and permeability to mannitol and the histologic appearance of the gastric mucosa of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Merrin A; Hosgood, Giselle L; Morgan, Timothy W; Briere, Catherine A; McConnico, Rebecca S

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of carprofen and meloxicam on conductance and permeability to mannitol and on the histologic appearance of sections of canine gastric mucosa. Gastric mucosa from 6 mature mixed-breed dogs. Sections of gastric mucosa were mounted in Ussing chambers, and carprofen (40 or 400μg/mL [CAR40 and CAR400, respectively]), meloxicam (8 or 80μg/mL [MEL8 and MEL80, respectively]), or no drug (controls) was added to the bathing solution. For all sections, conductance was calculated every 15 minutes for 240 minutes and flux of mannitol was calculated for 3 consecutive 1-hour periods; histologic examination was performed after the experiment. The area under the conductance-time curve for each chamber was calculated. Values of conductance × time, flux of mannitol, and the frequency distribution of histologic findings were analyzed for treatment effects. For CAR400- and MEL80-treated sections, conductance X time was significantly higher than that for control and MEL8-treated sections. The effect of CAR40 treatment was not different from that of any other treatment. Over the three 1-hour periods, mannitol flux increased significantly in MEL80-, CAR40-, and CAR400-treated sections but not in MEL8- treated or control sections. Major histologic changes including epithelial cell sloughing were limited to the CAR400-treated sections. In the gastric mucosa of dogs, carprofen and meloxicam increased in vitro conductance and permeability to mannitol. At a concentration of 400 μg/mL, carprofen caused sloughing of epithelial cells. Carprofen and meloxicam appear to compromise gastric mucosal integrity and barrier function in dogs.

  2. Morphine induces expression of platelet-derived growth factor in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: implication for vascular permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiu Wen

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy, complications of HIV-1 infection with concurrent drug abuse are an emerging problem. Morphine, often abused by HIV-infected patients, is known to accelerate neuroinflammation associated with HIV-1 infection. Detailed molecular mechanisms of morphine action however, remain poorly understood. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, primarily due to its potent mitogenic and permeability effects. Whether morphine exposure results in enhanced vascular permeability in brain endothelial cells, likely via induction of PDGF, remains to be established. In the present study, we demonstrated morphine-mediated induction of PDGF-BB in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, an effect that was abrogated by the opioid receptor antagonist-naltrexone. Pharmacological blockade (cell signaling and loss-of-function (Egr-1 approaches demonstrated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, PI3K/Akt and the downstream transcription factor Egr-1 respectively, in morphine-mediated induction of PDGF-BB. Functional significance of increased PDGF-BB manifested as increased breach of the endothelial barrier as evidenced by decreased expression of the tight junction protein ZO-1 in an in vitro model system. Understanding the regulation of PDGF expression may provide insights into the development of potential therapeutic targets for intervention of morphine-mediated neuroinflammation.

  3. Radiation-induced changes in the profile of spinal cord serotonin, prostaglandin synthesis, and vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, Tali; Pfeffer, M. Raphael

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the profile of biochemical and physiological changes induced in the rat spinal cord by radiation, over a period of 8 months. Methods and Materials: The thoraco-lumbar spinal cords of Fisher rats were irradiated to a dose of 15 Gy. The rats were then followed and killed at various times afterward. Serotonin (5-HT) and its major metabolite 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were assayed as well as prostaglandin synthesis. Microvessel permeability was assessed by quantitative evaluation of Evans blue dye extravasation. Results: None of the rats developed neurologic dysfunction, and histologic examination revealed only occasional gliosis in the ventral white matter at 240 days after irradiation. Serotonin levels were unchanged at 2, 14, and 56 days after radiation but increased at 120 and 240 days in the irradiated cord segments when compared to both the nonirradiated thoracic and cervical segments (p 2 (PGE 2 ), thromboxane (TXB 2 ), and prostacyclin [6 keto-PGF1α (6KPGF)] was noted, which returned to normal at 3 days. This was followed after 7 and 14 days by a significant fall off in synthesis of all three prostaglandins. Thereafter, at 28, 56, 120, and 240 days, escalated production of thromboxane followed, while prostacyclin synthesis remained markedly reduced (-88% of control level at 240 days). Up to 7 days after radiation the calculated (TXB 2 (6KPGF)) ratio remained balanced, regardless of the observed abrupt early fluctuations in their rate of synthesis. Later, between 7 and 240 days after radiation, a significant imbalance was present which became more pronounced over time. In the first 24 h after radiation, a 104% increase in microvessel permeability was observed which returned to normal by 3 days. Normal permeability was maintained at 14 and 28 days, but at 120 and 240 days a persistent and significant increase of 98% and 73% respectively above control level was noted. Conclusions: Radiation induces severe impairment in

  4. Radiation-induced changes in the profile of spinal cord serotonin, prostaglandin synthesis, and vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, T.; Pfeffer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the profile of biochemical and physiological changes induced in the rat spinal cord by radiation, over a period of 8 months. The thoraco-lumbar spinal cords of Fisher rats were irradiated to a dose of 15 Gy. The rats were then followed and killed at various times afterward. Serotonin (5-HT) and its major metabolite 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were assayed as well as prostaglandin synthesis. Microvessel permeability was assessed by quantitative evaluation of Evans blue dye extravasation. None of the rats developed neurologic dysfunction, and histologic examination revealed only occasional gliosis in the ventral white matter at 240 days after irradiation. Serotonin levels were unchanged at 2, 14, and 56 days after radiation but increased at 120 and 240 days in the irradiated cord segments when compared to both the nonirradiated thoracic and cervical segments (p 2 (PGE 2 ), thromboxane (TXB 2 ), and prostacyclin [6 keto-PGF1α (6KPGF)] was noted, which returned to normal at 3 days. This was followed after 7 and 14 days by a significant fall off in synthesis of all three prostaglandins. Thereafter, at 28, 56, 120, and 240 days, escalated production of thromboxane followed, white prostacyclin synthesis remained markedly reduced (-88% of control level at 240 days). Up to 7 days after radiation the calculated TXB 2 /6KPGF ratio remained balanced, regardless of the observed abrupt early fluctuations in their rate of synthesis. Later, between 7 and 240 days after radiation, a significant imbalance was present which became more pronounced over time. In the first 24 h after radiation, a 104% increase in microvessel permeability was observed which returned to normal by 3 days. 57 refs., 3 figs

  5. Dissociation of VE-PTP from VE-cadherin is required for leukocyte extravasation and for VEGF-induced vascular permeability in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broermann, Andre; Winderlich, Mark; Block, Helena; Frye, Maike; Rossaint, Jan; Zarbock, Alexander; Cagna, Giuseppe; Linnepe, Ruth; Schulte, Dörte; Nottebaum, Astrid Fee

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that vascular endothelial protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP), an endothelial membrane protein, associates with VE-cadherin and is required for optimal VE-cadherin function and endothelial cell contact integrity. The dissociation of VE-PTP from VE-cadherin is triggered by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and by the binding of leukocytes to endothelial cells in vitro, suggesting that this dissociation is a prerequisite for the destabilization of endothelial cell contacts. Here, we show that VE-cadherin/VE-PTP dissociation also occurs in vivo in response to LPS stimulation of the lung or systemic VEGF stimulation. To show that this dissociation is indeed necessary in vivo for leukocyte extravasation and VEGF-induced vascular permeability, we generated knock-in mice expressing the fusion proteins VE-cadherin-FK 506 binding protein and VE-PTP-FRB* under the control of the endogenous VE-cadherin promoter, thus replacing endogenous VE-cadherin. The additional domains in both fusion proteins allow the heterodimeric complex to be stabilized by a chemical compound (rapalog). We found that intravenous application of the rapalog strongly inhibited VEGF-induced (skin) and LPS-induced (lung) vascular permeability and inhibited neutrophil extravasation in the IL-1β inflamed cremaster and the LPS-inflamed lung. We conclude that the dissociation of VE-PTP from VE-cadherin is indeed required in vivo for the opening of endothelial cell contacts during induction of vascular permeability and leukocyte extravasation. PMID:22025303

  6. Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate Inhibits Ocular Neovascularization and Vascular Permeability in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial and Human Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells via Suppression of MMP-9 and VEGF Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Sung Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is the main polyphenol component of green tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis. EGCG is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Here, we identify EGCG as a new inhibitor of ocular angiogenesis and its vascular permeability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF play a key role in the processes of extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and microvascular permeability during angiogenesis. We investigated the inhibitory effects of EGCG on ocular neovascularization and vascular permeability using the retina oriented cells and animal models induced by VEGF and alkaline burn. EGCG treatment significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9 in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPECs. EGCG also effectively protected ARPE-19 cells from cell death and attenuated mRNA expressions of key angiogenic factors (MMP-9, VEGF, VEGF Receptor-2 by inhibiting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. EGCG significantly inhibited proliferation, vascular permeability, and tube formation in VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs. Furthermore, EGCG significantly reduced vascular leakage and permeability by blood-retinal barrier breakdown in VEGF-induced animal models. In addition, EGCG effectively limited upregulation of MMP-9 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM/CD31 on corneal neovascularization (CNV induced by alkaline burn. Our data suggest that MMP-9 and VEGF are key therapeutic targets of EGCG for treatment and prevention of ocular angiogenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal neovascularization.

  7. Gastric antral vascular ectasia and its clinical correlates in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis in the SCOT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Emily W; Mayes, Maureen D; Sharif, Roozbeh; Assassi, Shervin; Machicao, Victor I; Hosing, Chitra; St Clair, E William; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh; Forman, Stephen; Mineishi, Shin; Phillips, Kristine; Seibold, James R; Bredeson, Christopher; Csuka, Mary Ellen; Nash, Richard A; Wener, Mark H; Simms, Robert; Ballen, Karen; Leclercq, Sharon; Storek, Jan; Goldmuntz, Ellen; Welch, Beverly; Keyes-Elstein, Lynette; Castina, Sharon; Crofford, Leslie J; Mcsweeney, Peter; Sullivan, Keith M

    2013-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and clinical correlates of endoscopic gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE; "watermelon stomach") in early diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc). Subjects with early, diffuse SSc and evidence of specific internal organ involvement were considered for the Scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide Or Transplant (SCOT) trial. In the screening procedures, all patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients were then categorized into those with or without endoscopic evidence of GAVE. Demographic data, clinical disease characteristics, and autoantibody data were compared using Pearson chi-square or Student t tests. Twenty-three of 103 (22.3%) individuals were found to have GAVE on endoscopy. Although not statistically significant, anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl70) was detected less frequently among those with GAVE (18.8% vs 44.7%; p = 0.071). Similarly, anti-RNP antibodies (anti-U1 RNP) showed a trend to a negative association with GAVE (0 vs 18.4%; p = 0.066). There was no association between anti-RNA polymerase III and GAVE. Patients with GAVE had significantly more erythema or vascular ectasias in other parts of the stomach (26.1% vs 5.0%; p = 0.003). Endoscopic GAVE was present on screening in almost one-fourth of these highly selected patients with early and severe diffuse SSc. While anti-Scl70 and anti-U1 RNP trended toward a negative association with GAVE, there was no correlation between anti-RNA Pol III and GAVE. Patients with GAVE had a higher frequency of other gastric vascular ectasias outside the antrum, suggesting that GAVE may represent part of the spectrum of the vasculopathy in SSc.

  8. The Probiotic Mixture VSL#3 Accelerates Gastric Ulcer Healing by Stimulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Poonam; De Simone, Claudio; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effect and mechanism of probiotics on diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI) including gastric ulcers are limited despite extensive work and promising results of this therapeutic option for other GI diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (a mixture of eight probiotic bacteria including Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Streptococcus species) heals acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. VSL#3 was administered orally at low (6×109 bacteria) or high (1.2×1010 bacteria) dosages from day 3 after ulcer induction for 14 consecutive days. VSL#3 treatments significantly enhanced gastric ulcer healing in a dose-dependent manner. To assess the mechanism(s) whereby VSL#3 exerted its protective effects, we quantified the gene expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, protein and expression of stomach mucin-Muc5ac, regulatory cytokine-IL-10, COX-2 and various growth factors. Of all the components examined, only expression and protein production of VEGF was increased 332-fold on day 7 in the ulcerated tissues of animals treated with VSL#3. Predictably, animals treated with VEGF neutralizing antibody significantly delayed gastric ulcer healing in VSL#3 treated animals. This is the first report to demonstrate high efficacy of the probiotic mixture VSL#3 in enhancing gastric ulcer healing. Probiotic efficacy was effective at higher concentrations of VSL#3 by specifically increasing the expression and production of angiogenesis promoting growth factors, primarily VEGF. PMID:23484048

  9. Cyclosporine suppression of lymphocyte recruitment, regional blood flow, and vascular permeability at sites of allogeneic cellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanto, D.W.; Harty, J.T.; Hoffman, R.; Simmons, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Although cyclosporine (CsA) has been thought to act primarily on the afferent phase of the immune response, we can demonstrate that it also acts at the efferent phase. The effect of CsA on lymphocyte recruitment (LR), regional blood flow (RBF), and vascular permeability (VP) was studied in paired, healed, subcutaneously placed urethane sponge grafts inoculated with specifically sensitized lymphocytes (SSLs) and allogeneic target cells. Intravenous injection of 111 In-labelled unsensitized lymphocytes, 86 RbCl and 125 I-labelled albumin were used to assess LR, RBF, and VP, respectively. Suspensions of SSL and targets in CsA at 10 and 1 microgram/ml prior to graft inoculation markedly reduce the preferential increase in LR to the site of interaction between SSLs and targets bearing the sensitizing alloantigen (P less than 0.002 for both). Similarly, CsA blocks the preferential increase in RBF (P . 0.017) and VP (P less than 0.002) to the graft site. These effects persist for at least 24 hours. If SSLs and targets are washed after incubation with CsA, LR is still reduced. These results are consistent with the idea that cell-bound CsA blocks the elaboration of lymphokines which results from the interaction between SSLs and specific alloantigen in vivo. These lymphokines increase RBF and VP and are accompanied by an increase in LR. Inhibition of these vascular effects may prevent the recruitment of additional lymphocytes to the graft site. CsA may, therefore, prevent or interrupt allograft rejection by blocking amplification of the rejection mechanism at the graft site

  10. Abdominal aortic occlusion and vascular compromise secondary to acute gastric dilatation in a patient with bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharif, M; Doulias, T; Aljundi, W; Balchandra, S

    2014-11-01

    Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression. Management of these patients is very challenging owing to the lack of a successful precedent. To our knowledge, such a catastrophic complication has only ever been reported once in the literature and the outcome was fatal. Our case is of additional importance as it offers a successful management strategy for these patients.

  11. Comparison of argon plasma coagulation in management of upper gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and gastric antral vascular ectasia hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Chun; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Tam, William; Hu, Ming-Luen; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chiu, King-Wah; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2012-06-09

    Vascular ectasias, including gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) and angiodysplasia, are increasingly recognized as important sources of gastrointestinal bleeding. This study investigated and compared the efficacies and outcomes of treatment of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) angiodysplasia and GAVE hemorrhage by endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC). From January 2006 to December 2009, 46 patients diagnosed with upper GI bleeding caused by angiodysplasia or GAVE at a tertiary hospital were recruited into this study. They included 26 males and 20 females with an average age of 65.6 years (range, 45-90 years). All patients underwent APC for hemostasis during an endoscopic procedure. Parameters such as underlying co-morbidities, number of endoscopic treatment sessions, recurrent bleeding, and clinical outcomes during follow-up were analyzed. The 46 patients with UGI vascular ectasia hemorrhage included 27 patients with angiodysplasia and 19 with GAVE. The patients with angiodysplasia were older than those with GAVE (71.6 ± 10.2 years versus 61.8 ± 11.9 years, P = 0.005). More GAVE patients than angiodysplasia patients had co-existing liver cirrhosis (63.2% versus 25.9%, P = 0.012). The patients with GAVE had a higher rate of recurrent bleeding (78.9% versus 7.4%, P bleeding. Further multivariate analysis revealed that GAVE was the only independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding after APC treatment (OR = 0.027, P bleeding. The efficacy of APC treatment is greater for angiodysplasia than for vascular ectasia bleeding. GAVE patients have a higher recurrent bleeding rate and may require multiple treatment sessions for sustained hemostasis.

  12. Helicobacter pylori induces vascular endothelial growth factor production in gastric epithelial cells through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jung; Song, Eun-Jung; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori have been known to induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in gastric epithelial cells, the precise mechanism for cellular signaling is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of bacterial virulence factor and host cellular signaling in VEGF production of H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. We evaluated production of VEGF, activation of nuclear factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stabilization in gastric epithelial cells infected with H. pylori WT or isogenic mutants deficient in type IV secretion system (T4SS). H. pylori induced VEGF production in gastric epithelial cells via both T4SS-dependent and T4SS-independent pathways, although T4SS-independent pathway seems to be the dominant signaling. The inhibitor assay implicated that activation of NF-κB and MAPKs is dispensable for H. pylori-induced VEGF production in gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori led to HIF-1α stabilization in gastric epithelial cells independently of T4SS, NF-κB, and MAPKs, which was essential for VEGF production in these cells. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, treatment impaired H. pylori-induced HIF-1α stabilization and VEGF production in gastric epithelial cells. We defined the important role of ROS-HIF-1α axis in VEGF production of H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells, and bacterial T4SS has a minor role in H. pylori-induced VEGF production of gastric epithelial cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of sucralfate on gastric permeability in an ex vivo model of stress-related mucosal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tracy L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2018-03-01

    Sucralfate is a gastroprotectant with no known systemic effects. The efficacy of sucralfate for prevention and treatment of stress-related mucosal diseases (SRMD) in dogs is unknown. To develop a canine ex vivo model of SRMD and to determine the effect of sucralfate on mucosal barrier function in this model. Gastric antral mucosa was collected immediately postmortem from 29 random-source apparently healthy dogs euthanized at a local animal control facility. Randomized experimental trial. Sucralfate (100 mg/mL) was applied to ex vivo canine gastric mucosa concurrent with and after acid injury. Barrier function was assessed by measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and radiolabeled mannitol flux. Application of acidified Ringers solution to the mucosal side of gastric antrum caused a reduction in gastric barrier function, and washout of acidified Ringers solution allowed recovery of barrier function (TER: 34.0 ± 2.8% of control at maximum injury, 71.3 ± 5.5% at recovery, P < .001). Sucralfate application at the time of injury or after injury significantly hastened recovery of barrier function (TER: 118.0 ± 15.2% of control at maximum injury, P < .001 and 111.0 ± 15.5% at recovery, P = .35). Sucralfate appeared effective at restoring defects in gastric barrier function induced by acid and accelerating repair of tissues subjected to acid in this model, suggesting that sucralfate could have utility for the treatment and prevention of SRMD in dogs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. A Case Report of Ischemic Stroke in a Patient with Metastatic Gastric Cancer Secondary to Treatment with the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Inhibitor Ramucirumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Christiansen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramucirumab is an antiangiogenesis agent targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, approved to treat advanced gastric and colon cancer. In clinical trials, it was shown to cause a small increase in arterial thromboembolism compared to placebo, including cerebral and myocardial ischemia, which was not statistically significant. Detailed case reports are lacking and we here present one of the first case reports of stroke secondary to ramucirumab-induced in situ thrombosis.

  15. Characterization of cutaneous vascular permeability induced by platelet-activating factor in guinea pigs and rats and its inhibition by a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.; Li, C.L.; Lam, M.H.; Shen, T.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanisms of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced increases of cutaneous vascular permeability in guinea pigs and in rats were further explored. PAF so far is the most potent vasoactive mediator, being more than 1000-fold more potent than histamine and bradykinin in both species. In guinea pigs, there is a time delay of 5 to 10 minutes before PAF action, whereas, in the rat, the increased vasopermeability occurs immediately following the intradermal PAF injection. Relative vasoactive potencies of PAF and several structure-related analogues in both species correlate very well with their relative inhibition of the binding of 3 H-PAF to specific receptor sites on isolated rabbit platelet plasma membranes and their aggregatory abilities of rabbit platelets. Furthermore, the PAF-induced cutaneous vascular permeability is inhibitable by a competitive specific PAF receptor antagonist, kadsurenone, suggesting that binding of PAF to its specific receptor site is the first step to initiate its action of increased cutaneous vascular permeability. Several pure cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including indomethacin, diflunisal, and flurbiprofen, and the dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, but not the histamine antagonists, inhibit the PAF-induced vasopermeability in guinea pigs. The inhibition by indomethacin or BW755C can be fully reversed by coinjection intradermally with PAF and prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4. Also, prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4 enhances the guinea pig in vivo response to PAF in this model. However, in rats, none of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors, histamine antagonists, or BW755C inhibit the PAF effect of cutaneous phenomena

  16. Expression of p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions: correlation with clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chang Wei; Wang, Li Dong; Jiao, Lian Hua; Liu, Bin; Zheng, Shu; Xie, Xin Ji

    2002-01-01

    The growth and metastasis of tumors depend on the development of an adequate blood supply via angiogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor suppressor p53 are fundamental play-markers of the angiogenic process. Overexpression of iNOS and VEGF has been shown to induce angiogenesis in tumors. P53 suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF and iNOS. The correlation of expression of p53, VEGF and iNOS and clinical features in gastric carcinogenesis, however, has not been well characterized. The expression of p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and its relation with the clinical features was determined with immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) on 55 randomly selected GC patients and 60 symptom-free subjects from the mass survey in the high-incidence area for GC in Henan, northern China. The positive immunostainig rates for p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric carcinomas were 51%, 44% and 51%, respectively, and correlated well with TNM stages, but did not show significant difference among the groups with different degrees of gastric wall invasion depth by GC. A positive immunostaining reaction for the iNOS protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019; Spearman correlation coefficient). P53 protein accumulation was higher in the poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in well-differentiated one. In gastric biopsies, no positive immunosatining was observed for p53, iNOS and VEGF in the histologically normal tissue and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG). However, p53, iNOS and VEGF positive immunostaining was observed in the tissues with different severities of lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS), and the positive rates increased with the lesion progression from CAG to IM to DYS. A high coincidental positive and negative immunostaining

  17. Role of leukotrienes in NSAID induced gastric ulceration and inflammation in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulik N Gandhi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Montelukast and Curcumin against indomethacin induced gastric damage in rats in order to assess the role of leukotriene (LTs if any, in non steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID induced gastroinflammation. Methods: The effects of Montelukast (10 mg/kg and Curcumin (100 mg/kg were observed on gastric lesion induced by Indomethacin. The blood samples were analyzed for neutrophil adhesion and lipid peroxide levels in gastric tissue measured spectrophotometrically. The skin vascular permeability study was performed by using compound 48/80 induced vascular permeability model. Results: Montelukast and Curcumin significantly reduced Indomethacin induced gastric lesion score. Pretreatment with Montelukast and Curcumin significantly counteracted Indomethacin induced gastropathy by a combination of its effect on inhibition of neutrophil adherence, through decrease in related production of free radicals that disrupts integrity of stomach mucosa and decrease in vascular permeability as compared to Indomethacin group. The results of the present study further indicates the role of 5-LOX metabolites in NSAIDs induced gastro inflammation and suggests that Montelukast and Curcumin counteracted the Indomethacin induced gastropathy by a combination of its effect on inhibition of neutrophil adherence and through decrease in related production of free radicals that disrupts integrity of stomach mucosa. Conclusions: Experimental data clearly demonstrated the role of LTs was indomethacin induced gastric ulcers. However, inhibition of ulcerogenic events by Montelukast and Curcumin is suggestive of an important balance between COX and 5-LOX products.

  18. Vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices: Comparative effectiveness between gelatin sponge embolization and permanent sclerosant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Jo, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jae Hyung; Park, Byeong Ho; Jung, Gyoo Sik

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term outcome of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) using vascular plugs and gelatin sponges in comparison with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for the management of gastric varices. From January 2005 to October 2014, 171 patients were referred for management of gastric varices, of which, 52 patients with hemodynamically stable gastric varices (48 recent bleeding; 4 primary prophylaxes) were evaluated. Of these, 38 received BRTO (men/women 23/15; mean age 61.3; Child-Pugh classes A/B/C = 11/25/2) and 14 underwent PARTO (men/women 11/3; mean age 63.4; Child-Pugh classes A/B/C = 9/4/1). The technical success rate, complications, variceal changes, liver function, and exacerbation of ascites/pleural effusion were compared between the 2 groups within 3 months after the procedure. The technical success rates were 92.1% in the BRTO and 100% in the PARTO group. Procedure-related early complications occurred in the BRTO group alone (8%, n = 3). Among patients with technical success, follow-up CT at 1 month was available for 98% (n = 48/49). Complete thrombosis of gastric varices was achieved in 97.1% in the BRTO and 100% in the PARTO group. Worsening of esophageal varices was observed in 24% of the BRTO group alone (n = 8). The albumin level increased significantly in both groups and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase level improved significantly in the PARTO group (p < 0.05). Exacerbation of ascites/pleural effusion was observed in both groups (35.2% vs. 21.4%, both p > 0.05). PARTO appears to be equivalent to BRTO for short-term management of gastric varices

  19. Vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices: Comparative effectiveness between gelatin sponge embolization and permanent sclerosant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Jo, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jae Hyung; Park, Byeong Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Dong A University Hospital, Dong A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Gyoo Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    To evaluate the short-term outcome of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) using vascular plugs and gelatin sponges in comparison with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for the management of gastric varices. From January 2005 to October 2014, 171 patients were referred for management of gastric varices, of which, 52 patients with hemodynamically stable gastric varices (48 recent bleeding; 4 primary prophylaxes) were evaluated. Of these, 38 received BRTO (men/women 23/15; mean age 61.3; Child-Pugh classes A/B/C = 11/25/2) and 14 underwent PARTO (men/women 11/3; mean age 63.4; Child-Pugh classes A/B/C = 9/4/1). The technical success rate, complications, variceal changes, liver function, and exacerbation of ascites/pleural effusion were compared between the 2 groups within 3 months after the procedure. The technical success rates were 92.1% in the BRTO and 100% in the PARTO group. Procedure-related early complications occurred in the BRTO group alone (8%, n = 3). Among patients with technical success, follow-up CT at 1 month was available for 98% (n = 48/49). Complete thrombosis of gastric varices was achieved in 97.1% in the BRTO and 100% in the PARTO group. Worsening of esophageal varices was observed in 24% of the BRTO group alone (n = 8). The albumin level increased significantly in both groups and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase level improved significantly in the PARTO group (p < 0.05). Exacerbation of ascites/pleural effusion was observed in both groups (35.2% vs. 21.4%, both p > 0.05). PARTO appears to be equivalent to BRTO for short-term management of gastric varices.

  20. Protective Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine against Diesel Exhaust Particles-Induced Intracellular ROS Generates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines to Mediate the Vascular Permeability of Capillary-Like Endothelial Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chang, Jing-Fen; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Gordon, Marion K.; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies using in vitro endothelial tubes as a simplified model of capillaries have found that DEP-induced ROS increase vascular permeability with rearrangement or internalization of adherens junctional VE-cadherin away from the plasma membrane. This allows DEPs to penetrate into the cell and capillary lumen. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines are up-regulated and mediate vascular permeability in response to DEP. However, the mechanisms through which these DEP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase vascular permeability remain unknown. Hence, we examined the ability of DEP to induce permeability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube cells to investigate these mechanisms. Furthermore, supplementation with NAC reduces ROS production following exposure to DEP. HUVEC tube cells contributed to a pro-inflammatory response to DEP-induced intracellular ROS generation. Endothelial oxidative stress induced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from tube cells, subsequently stimulating the secretion of VEGF-A independent of HO-1. Our data suggests that DEP-induced intracellular ROS and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α and IL-6, which would contribute to VEGF-A secretion and disrupt cell-cell borders and increase vasculature permeability. Addition of NAC suppresses DEP-induced ROS efficiently and reduces subsequent damages by increasing endogenous glutathione. PMID:26148005

  1. Protective Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine against Diesel Exhaust Particles-Induced Intracellular ROS Generates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines to Mediate the Vascular Permeability of Capillary-Like Endothelial Tubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Tseng

    Full Text Available Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies using in vitro endothelial tubes as a simplified model of capillaries have found that DEP-induced ROS increase vascular permeability with rearrangement or internalization of adherens junctional VE-cadherin away from the plasma membrane. This allows DEPs to penetrate into the cell and capillary lumen. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines are up-regulated and mediate vascular permeability in response to DEP. However, the mechanisms through which these DEP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase vascular permeability remain unknown. Hence, we examined the ability of DEP to induce permeability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube cells to investigate these mechanisms. Furthermore, supplementation with NAC reduces ROS production following exposure to DEP. HUVEC tube cells contributed to a pro-inflammatory response to DEP-induced intracellular ROS generation. Endothelial oxidative stress induced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from tube cells, subsequently stimulating the secretion of VEGF-A independent of HO-1. Our data suggests that DEP-induced intracellular ROS and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α and IL-6, which would contribute to VEGF-A secretion and disrupt cell-cell borders and increase vasculature permeability. Addition of NAC suppresses DEP-induced ROS efficiently and reduces subsequent damages by increasing endogenous glutathione.

  2. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  3. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  4. The Phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12 Regulates Endothelial Cell Migration and Adhesion, but Not Permeability, and Controls Vascular Development and Embryonic Viability*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cleiton Martins; Davidson, Dominique; Rhee, Inmoo; Gratton, Jean-Philippe; Davis, Elaine C.; Veillette, André

    2012-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST (PTPN12) is ubiquitously expressed. It is essential for normal embryonic development and embryonic viability in mice. Herein we addressed the involvement of PTP-PEST in endothelial cell functions using a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches. By generating primary endothelial cells from an inducible PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we found that PTP-PEST is not needed for endothelial cell differentiation and proliferation or for the control of endothelial cell permeability. Nevertheless, it is required for integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of endothelial cells. PTP-PEST-deficient endothelial cells displayed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas, paxillin, and Pyk2, which were previously also implicated in integrin functions. By eliminating PTP-PEST in endothelial cells in vivo, we obtained evidence that expression of PTP-PEST in endothelial cells is required for normal vascular development and embryonic viability. Therefore, PTP-PEST is a key regulator of integrin-mediated functions in endothelial cells seemingly through its capacity to control Cas, paxillin, and Pyk2. This function explains at least in part the essential role of PTP-PEST in embryonic development and viability. PMID:23105101

  5. Assessment of vascularity and permeability in brain tumor using SPECT and [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA-human serum albumin in relation to [sup 201]Tl SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Fukuoka, Seiji; Takahashi, Shuhei; Takahashi, Masaaki; Satoh, Katsuyasu; Suematsu, Katsumi; Nakamura, Jun-ichi (Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m-DTPA-human serum albumin ([sup 99m]Tc-HSA-D) and thallium-201 chloride ([sup 201]Tl) was simultaneously performed on 25 patients with brain tumors; 10 with brain metastasis, 8 with astrocytoma (Gr. 3) and 7 with meningioma. The early image was obtained 10 minutes after [sup 99m]Tc-HSA-D (740 MBq) injection, and the delayed image was taken 5 hours after the injection. HSA-D index, based on the ratio of [sup 99m]Tc-HSA-D uptake in the tumor versus the cortical area, was calculated on each image, and compared with Tl index (tumor/contralateral cerebrum ratio). HSA-D delayed index was significantly greater than HSA-D early index in all tumor types (p<0.05 by the Wilcoxon ranked sign test). Linear correlation between HSA-D early index and HSA-D delayed index was significant in astrocytoma (GR. 3) (p<0.01) and meningioma (p<0.001), and a linear correlation between HSA-D delayed index and Tl index was significant in astrocytoma (Gr. 3) (p<0.05). It is concluded that HSA-D early index and delayed index could reflect tumor vascularity and permeability, respectively, and provide supplementary information for Tl index. (author).

  6. Inhibition of Vascular c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 2 Improves Obesity-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doytcheva, Petia; Bächler, Thomas; Tarasco, Erika; Marzolla, Vincenzo; Engeli, Michael; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Stivala, Simona; Rohrer, Lucia; Tona, Francesco; Camici, Giovanni G; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Matter, Christian M; Lutz, Thomas A; Lüscher, Thomas F; Osto, Elena

    2017-11-14

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces obesity-associated comorbidities and cardiovascular mortality. RYGB improves endothelial dysfunction, reducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) vascular phosphorylation. JNK activation links obesity with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Herein, we examined whether JNK1 or JNK2 mediates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and if pharmacological JNK inhibition can mimic RYGB vascular benefits. After 7 weeks of a high-fat high-cholesterol diet, obese rats underwent RYGB or sham surgery; sham-operated ad libitum-fed rats received, for 8 days, either the control peptide D-TAT or the JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 (20 mg/kg per day subcutaneous). JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 treatment improved endothelial vasorelaxation in response to insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, as observed after RYGB. Obesity increased aortic phosphorylation of JNK2, but not of JNK1. RYGB and JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 treatment blunted aortic JNK2 phosphorylation via activation of glucagon-like peptide-1-mediated signaling. The inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 was reduced, whereas the protein kinase B/endothelial NO synthase pathway was increased and oxidative stress was decreased, resulting in improved vascular NO bioavailability. Decreased aortic JNK2 phosphorylation after RYGB rapidly improves obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction. Pharmacological JNK inhibition mimics the endothelial protective effects of RYGB. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of novel strategies targeting vascular JNK2 against the severe cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. A novel vascular-targeting peptide for gastric cancer delivers low-dose TNFα to normalize the blood vessels and improve the anti-cancer efficiency of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lan; Li, Zhi Jie; Li, Long Fei; Shen, Jing; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ming Xing; Xiao, Zhan Gang; Wang, Jian Hao; Cho, Chi Hin

    2017-11-01

    Various vascular-targeted agents fused with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been shown to improve drug absorption into tumor tissues and enhance tumor vascular function. TCP-1 is a peptide selected through in vivo phage library biopanning against a mouse orthotopic colorectal cancer model and is a promising agent for drug delivery. This study further investigated the targeting ability of TCP-1 phage and peptide to blood vessels in an orthotopic gastric cancer model in mice and assessed the synergistic anti-cancer effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with subnanogram TNFα targeted delivered by TCP-1 peptide. In vivo phage targeting assay and in vivo colocalization analysis were carried out to test the targeting ability of TCP-1 phage/peptide. A targeted therapy for improvement of the therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU and vascular function was performed through administration of TCP-1/TNFα fusion protein in this model. TCP-1 phage exhibited strong homing ability to the orthotopic gastric cancer after phage injection. Immunohistochemical staining suggested that and TCP-1 phage/TCP-1 peptide could colocalize with tumor vascular endothelial cells. TCP-1/TNFα combined with 5-FU was found to synergistically inhibit tumor growth, induce apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation without evident toxicity. Simultaneously, subnanogram TCP-1/TNFα treatment normalized tumor blood vessels. Targeted delivery of low-dose TNFα by TCP-1 peptide can potentially modulate the vascular function of gastric cancer and increase the drug delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Expression of vasoactive proteins in gastric antral mucosa reflects vascular dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebicka, Jonel; Wix, Cyrus; von Heydebrand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    . Portal pressure gradient was measured in 49 patients with TIPS and in 16 patients without TIPS. Biopsies from the antrum were conserved in formaldehyde for immunohistochemistry or shock-frozen for PCR and Western blot. RESULTS: The mucosal transcription of vascular markers (αSMA, CD31) was higher...

  9. Effect of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard against experimentally-induced gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, S S; Santani, D D

    2004-10-01

    Effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of the stem bark of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, have been studied on ethanol, ethanol-indomethacin and pylorus ligated gastric ulcers in experimental animals. Oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract (extract A3) inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol in a dose dependent manner. The protective effect of extract A3 against ethanol induced gastric lesions was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)). Further, extract A3 inhibited increase in vascular permeability due to ethanol administration. Extent of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in animals treated with extract. Extract A3 also inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by pylorus ligation, when administered both orally and intraperitoneally. Moreover, pretreatment with extract A3 increased mucus production and glycoprotein content, which was evident from the rise in mucin activity and TC: PR ratio. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Catalase and superoxide dismutase conjugated with platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule antibody distinctly alleviate abnormal endothelial permeability caused by exogenous reactive oxygen species and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingyan; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2011-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion (O(2)()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) produced by activated leukocytes and endothelial cells in sites of inflammation or ischemia cause endothelial barrier dysfunction that may lead to tissue edema. Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) conjugated with antibodies to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) specifically bind to endothelium, quench the corresponding ROS, and alleviate vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present work, we studied the effects of anti-PECAM/catalase and anti-PECAM/SOD conjugates on the abnormal permeability manifested by transendothelial electrical resistance decline, increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran influx, and redistribution of vascular endothelial-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers. Anti-PECAM/catalase protected HUVEC monolayers against H(2)O(2)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase exerted orders of magnitude lower endothelial uptake and no protective effect, similarly to IgG/catalase. Anti-PECAM/catalase, but not anti-PECAM/SOD, alleviated endothelial hyperpermeability caused by exposure to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, implicating primarily H(2)O(2) in the disruption of the endothelial barrier in this model. Thrombin-induced endothelial permeability was not affected by treatment with anti-PECAM/AOEs or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or overexpression of AOEs, indicating that the endogenous ROS play no key role in thrombin-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction. In contrast, anti-PECAM/SOD, but not anti-PECAM/catalase, inhibited a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced increase in endothelial permeability, identifying a key role of endogenous O(2)() in the VEGF-mediated regulation of endothelial barrier function. Therefore, AOEs targeted to endothelial cells provide versatile molecular tools for testing the roles of

  11. Helicobacter pylori promotes angiogenesis depending on Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor via the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ningning; Zhou, Ning; Chai, Ni; Liu, Xuan; Jiang, Haili; Wu, Qiong; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogenic factor in gastric carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis (i.e., the growth of new blood vessels) is closely associated with the incidence and development of gastric cancer. Our previous study found that COX-2 stimulates gastric cancer cells to induce expression of the angiogenic growth factor VEGF through an unknown mechanism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the role of angiogenesis in H. pylori-induced gastric cancer development. To clarify the relationship between H. pylori infection and angiogenesis, we first investigated H. pylori colonization, COX-2, VEGF, beta-catenin expression, and microvessel density (MVD) in gastric cancer tissues from 106 patients. In addition, COX-2, phospho-beta-catenin, and beta-catenin expression were measured by western blotting, and VEGF expression was measured by ELISA in H. pylori-infected SGC7901 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells. H. pylori colonization occurred in 36.8 % of gastric carcinoma samples. Furthermore, COX-2, beta-catenin, and VEGF expression, and MVD were significantly higher in H. pylori-positive gastric cancer tissues than in H. pylori-negative gastric cancer tissues (P < 0.01). H. pylori infection was not related to sex or age in gastric cancer patients, but correlated with the depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and tumor–node–metastasis stage (P < 0.05) and correlated with the COX-2 expression and beta-catenin expression(P < 0.01). Further cell experiments confirmed that H. pylori infection upregulated VEGF in vitro. Further analysis revealed that H. pylori-induced VEGF expression was mediated by COX-2 via activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. The COX-2/Wnt/beta-catenin/VEGF pathway plays an important role in H. pylori-associated gastric cancer development. The COX-2/Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is therefore a novel therapeutic target for H. pylori-associated gastric cancers

  12. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3-4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates.

  13. The clinical usefulness of extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability index to diagnose and characterize pulmonary edema: a prospective multicenter study on the quantitative differential diagnostic definition for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by features other than increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Pulmonary vascular permeability combined with increased extravascular lung water content has been considered a quantitative diagnostic criterion of ALI/ARDS. This prospective, multi-institutional, observational study aimed to clarify the clinical pathophysiological features of ALI/ARDS and establish its quantitative diagnostic criteria. Methods The extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and the pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were measured using the transpulmonary thermodilution method in 266 patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mmHg and bilateral infiltration on chest radiography, in 23 ICUs of academic tertiary referral hospitals. Pulmonary edema was defined as EVLWI ≥ 10 ml/kg. Three experts retrospectively determined the pathophysiological features of respiratory insufficiency by considering the patients' history, clinical presentation, chest computed tomography and radiography, echocardiography, EVLWI and brain natriuretic peptide level, and the time course of all preceding findings under systemic and respiratory therapy. Results Patients were divided into the following three categories on the basis of the pathophysiological diagnostic differentiation of respiratory insufficiency: ALI/ARDS, cardiogenic edema, and pleural effusion with atelectasis, which were noted in 207 patients, 26 patients, and 33 patients, respectively. EVLWI was greater in ALI/ARDS and cardiogenic edema patients than in patients with pleural effusion with atelectasis (18.5 ± 6.8, 14.4 ± 4.0, and 8.3 ± 2.1, respectively; P edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis patients (3.2 ± 1.4, 2.0 ± 0.8, and 1.6 ± 0.5; P edema patients. A PVPI value of 2.6 to 2.85 provided a definitive diagnosis of ALI/ARDS (specificity, 0.90 to 0.95), and a value < 1.7 ruled out an ALI/ARDS diagnosis (specificity, 0.95). Conclusion

  14. Crustal permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Ingebritsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth’s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures.  The practical importance of permeability – and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability – is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production (“fracking”), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration.  Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment.  This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. 

  15. Application of histogram analysis for the evaluation of vascular permeability in glioma by the K2 parameter obtained with the dynamic susceptibility contrast method: Comparisons with Ktrans obtained with the dynamic contrast enhance method and cerebral blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Hori, Saeka; Ochi, Tomoko; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Naganawa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    The "K2" value is a factor that represents the vascular permeability of tumors and can be calculated from datasets obtained with the dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) method. The purpose of the current study was to correlate K2 with Ktrans, which is a well-established permeability parameter obtained with the dynamic contrast enhance (DCE) method, and determine the usefulness of K2 for glioma grading with histogram analysis. The subjects were 22 glioma patients (Grade II: 5, III: 6, IV: 11) who underwent DSC studies, including eight patients in which both DSC and DCE studies were performed on separate days within 10days. We performed histogram analysis of regions of interest of the tumors and acquired 20th percentile values for leakage-corrected cerebral blood volume (rCBV20%ile), K2 (K220%ile), and for patients who underwent a DCE study, Ktrans (Ktrans20%ile). We evaluated the correlation between K220%ile and Ktrans20%ile and the statistical difference between rCBV20%ile and K220%ile. We found a statistically significant correlation between K220%ile and Ktrans20%ile (r=0.717, pK220%ile showed a statistically significant (pK2 value calculated from the DSC dataset, which can be obtained with a short acquisition time, showed a correlation with Ktrans obtained with the DCE method and may be useful for glioma grading when analyzed with histogram analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gastric epithelioid haemangioendothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, A B; Almeida, A G; Viveiros, F A; Cidade, C N; Barbosa, J M

    2011-05-10

    Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumour of vascular origin, characterised by celular proliferation, endotelial, epitelioid or hystiocitoid. It may develop in any organ, but it is more common in lung and liver. Surgery is the recommended treatment; however, in case of a potentially benign situation, an expectant attitude should be adopted. The case reports a 71-year-old female who underwent a laparotomy for a colonic adenocarcinoma. During surgery, a polypoid lesion in the dependency of the gastric wall was found incidentally, which was removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EHE. Gastric vascular neoplasms represent about 0.9-3.3% of all gastric tumours. Usually have a good prognosis, but due to the borderline biological behaviour of these tumours, it is important to have a detailed clinical evaluation at follow-up of these patients.

  17. Notional Permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.; Van den Bos, J.P.; Maertens, J.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Different layer design of a rock slope and under layers has a large effect on the strengths on the rock slope itself. In the stability formula developed of VAN DER MEER [1988] this effect is represented by the term Notional Permeability with symbol P. A more open, or permeable, structure underneath

  18. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  19. Prevention of ethanol-induced vascular injury and gastric mucosal lesions by sucralfate and its components: possible role of endogenous sulfhydryls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, S.; Brown, A.

    1987-09-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that sucralfate, which contains eight sulfate and aluminum molecules on a sucrose and its other components might decrease ethanol-induced vascular injury and hemorrhagic mucosal lesions through a sulfhydryl (SH)-sensitive process. Experiments performed in rats revealed that the entire sucralfate molecule is not a prerequisite for protection against ethanol-induced mucosal vascular injury and erosions. It appears that sulfate and sucrose octasulfate are potent components of sucralfate, although an equimolar amount of sucralfate is at least twice as effective in gastroprotection than its components. The SH alkylator N-ethylmaleimide abolished the gastroprotection by sucralfate, suggesting SH-sensitive process in the mucosal protection which seems to be associated with the prevention of rapidly developing vascular injury in the stomach of rats given ethanol.

  20. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, H.O.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer

  1. Gastric pseudolymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Hellerich, U.; Bodendoerfer, G.; Wimmer, B.; Ruf, G.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Gastric pseudolymphoma is an uncommon benign lesion which poses a difficult problem in diagnosis and management. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach, however, may occasionally precede true gastric lymphoma. Endoscopic, radiologic and pathological findings are not generally helpful in establishing the diagnosis preoperatively. Benign gastric lymphoid hyperplasia could be mistaken radiologically for ulcerated gastric carcinoma and pathologically for malignant lymphoma. Recognition of this condition is important to prevent unnecessary treatment by surgery or radiotherapy. About 140 case reports have been published to date. This paper describes the cases of two further patients. (orig.) [de

  2. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Primarily due to early detection of the disease, the results of treatment for gastric cancer have improved in Japan, Korea and several specialized Western centres. Surgery offers excellent long-term survival results for early gastric cancer (EGC). In the Western world, however more than 80 % of patients at diagnosis have an advanced gastric cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of surgery is the complete removal of the tumour (UICC R0-resection), which is known to be the only proven, effective treatment modality and the most important treatmentrelated prognostic factor. The prognosis after surgical treatment of gastric cancer remains poor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a rising option in locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiation has been shown to be beneficial in gastric cancer patients who have undergone suboptimal surgical resection. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy alone seem to be very small, Untreated metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a median survival of only 3 - 4 months, but this can be increased to 8 - 10 months, associated with improved quality of life, with combination chemotherapy. Currently, no standard combination chemotherapy regimen exists, although regimens utilizing both cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, such as epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) or docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (DCF) are amongst the most active. Newer chemotherapeutic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and taxanes, show promising activity, and are currently being tested with biologics in clinical trials. (author)

  3. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  4. Developments in permeable and low permeability barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.; Norris, G.H.; Thomas, A.O.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of the reactive treatment zone whereby pollutants are attenuated as they move along a pathway in the ground has enabled a re-thinking of many of the concepts of containment. In particular it offers the potential for the control of the flux from a contaminated area by controlling the contaminant concentration in the pathway(s) as well as or instead of using a low permeability barrier. The paper outlines the basic concepts of the reactive treatment zone and the use of permeable and low permeability reactive systems. The paper then gives a case history of the installation of a permeable barrier using an in-situ reaction chamber

  5. Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Achim; Thomas, Schraner; Melanie, Fruehauf; Rabia, Liamlahi; Klaghofer, Richard; Weiss, Markus; Kellenberger, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Cross-sectional gastric antral area (GAA) measurements by ultrasonography (US) have been proposed for preoperative assessment of gastric volume in adults but not been validated in children. This study investigates whether in children gastric volumes can be predicted by US performed in different patient positions. Gastric fluid and air volumes were examined by magnetic resonance imaging before or up to 120 min after ingestion of 7 ml·kg(-1) diluted raspberry syrup in healthy volunteers who had fasted overnight. GAA was measured with US three times each in supine (SUP), elevated 45° degree supine (E45) and right decubital (RDC) position using imaging planes defined by vascular landmarks. Correlation coefficients (Pearson) between GAA and gastric volumes were calculated and Bland-Altman analysis performed. Sixteen children aged from 6.4 to 12.8 (9.2) years were included in 23 examinations: 6 after overnight fasting, 3 directly after, and 14 with a delay of 74 ± 35 min after fluid intake. GAA was 221 ± 116, 218 ± 112, and 347 ± 188 mm(2) for SUP, E45, and RDC position, respectively. The best correlation between body weight corrected total gastric/gastric fluid volume (TGV(w)/GFV(w)) with GAA was found for RDC position (R = 0.79; P < 0.01/R = 0.78; P < 0.01). Bias and precision of calculated and measured GFV(w) was 0 ± 2.8 ml·kg(-1). Correlations between GAA and TGV(w) or GFV(w) in children are best in the RDC position, but not sufficient to predict GFV(w) with a given GAA. Interpretation of isolated GAA values may be misleading. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaz, B.; Hostein, J.; Caravel, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) of nutriments is a major function of the stomach. GE disorders are observed after gastric surgery and with various diseases, either of a strictly gastroenterologic kind or interesting other specialities (especially diabetes mellitus). Scintigraphy, which has allowed a better knowledge of GE physiological and pathological mechanisms, has now become the reference method for studying the emptying of solids and liquids. In a near future, it could well have two major applications: a diagnostic approach of functional digestive disorders and an assessment of the various effects of pharmacological drugs with digestive affinity [fr

  7. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  8. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  9. Film Permeability Determination Using Static Permeability Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The permeability of tarps to soil fumigant pesticides varies depending on the active ingredient chemical: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methyl bromide, chloropicrin, or other. The diffusion rate can be represented by the mass transfer coefficient (MTC).

  10. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Gastric Sleeve Surgery What's in ... or buying healthy food ) Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  11. Gastric Bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 12-year-old female with no past medical history presented with abdominal pain for 3 months. The pain was intermittent, located at the epigastric region, non-radiating, fluctuating intensity up to 8/10, and had worsened over the past month. She did not have fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or blood in her stool. The patient also endorsed hair loss over the same time period and noted that her previously long hair was now short and thin. On exam, patient was noted to have shoulder-length hair, a soft, non-distended abdomen with mild tenderness to the epigastric region, and a 5cm hard mass palpated at the epigastrium. Significant findings: In the abdominal radiograph, a nonspecific and non-obstructive bowel gas pattern with no air-fluid level was noted, however the stomach was distended with soft tissue. The CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a distended stomach with undigested heterogeneous contents (presumed bezoar. Discussion: A bezoar is a mass of incompletely digested material typically originating in the stomach and consisting of vegetable fibers, hair, or drugs.1 Bezoars develop after ingested foreign material accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract due to indigestibility, gastric outlet obstruction, or intestinal stasis. Trichobezoars are comprised of hair and classically form in young females with an underlying psychiatric disorder resulting in the urge to pull one’s hair out (trichotillomania and swallow it (trichophagia.2,3 Gastric bezoars are rare with an approximate incidence of 0.3 percent of patients undergoing upper endoscopy.4 Patients tend to remain asymptomatic for long periods, but may develop abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, and weight loss.5 Complications may include gastrointestinal ulcerations, perforations, intussusception, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and death.6-8 The diagnosis of a gastric bezoar can be made using plain films, ultrasound, or CT, and

  12. Preliminary study of the irradiation-induced modification of skin permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, R.; Istin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation of the skin of an animal leads immediately to a strong increase in vascular permeability. If a dye is at once injected intraveinously it diffuses very rapidly in the irradiated zone, this becomes highly coloured and the colour intensity measurement gives a clue to the severity of the lesions produced. This phenomenon has been used in the past as a pharmacological test to study vascular permeability and is employed in this work to observe the effect of diosmine-titrated flavonoids on vascular permeability in inflammatory diseases. The capillary permeability increase due to local γ irradiation of rabbit skin has been accurately determined by measurement of the colouration observed after injection of Geigy Blue. Diosmine, injected intraperitoneally, protects the vascular system against increased permeability due to ionising radiations [fr

  13. Permeability prediction in chalks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Prasad, Manika

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of elastic waves is the primary datum available for acquiring information about subsurface characteristics such as lithology and porosity. Cheap and quick (spatial coverage, ease of measurement) information of permeability can be achieved, if sonic velocity is used for permeability p...... significantly using the effective specific surface as the fluid-flow concept. The FZI unit is appropriate for highly permeable sedimentary rocks such as sandstones and limestones that have small surface areas....

  14. Scintigraphic assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier of human brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Front, D.

    1978-01-01

    Assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier was performed by sequential scintigraphy in 43 patients with brain tumours. The blood-tumour barrier was evaluated by use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, and vascularity using sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells. Three groups of tumours were found: tumours with low vascularity and permeable barrier, tumours with high vascularity and permeable barrier, and tumours with low vascularity and relatively impermeable barrier. The first group indicates that when vessels are permeable, there may be a rapid penetration of large amounts of pertechnetate into the tumour even when vascularity is not increased. In the other two groups penetration of pertechnetate into the tumour is affected by vascularity, as it determines the total area where passage of the radiopharmaceutical takes place. It is suggested that the permeability of the blood-tumour barrier and the amount of vascularity may have an effect on the success of chemotherapy in brain tumours. (author)

  15. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  16. Permeability of porour rhyolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K.; Rust, A.; Wright, H.; Roberge, J.

    2003-04-01

    The development of permeability in bubble-bearing magmas determines the efficiency of volatile escape during their ascent through volcanic conduits, which, in turn, controls their explosive potential. As permeability requires bubble connectivity, relationships between permeability and porosity in silicic magmas must be controlled by the formation, growth, deformation and coalescence of their constituent bubbles. Although permeability data on porous volcanic pyroclasts are limited, the database can be greatly extended by including data for ceramic and metallic foams1. Several studies indicate that a single number does not adequately describe the permeability of a foam because inertial effects, which predominate at high flow rates, cause deviations from Darcy's law. These studies suggest that permeability is best modeled using the Forschheimer equation to determine both the Darcy permeability (k1) and the non-Darcian (k2) permeability. Importantly, at the high porosities of ceramic foams (75-95%), both k1 and k2 are strongly dependent on pore size and geometry, suggesting that measurement of these parameters provides important information on foam structure. We determined both the connected porosity (by He-pycnometry) and the permeability (k1 and k2) of rhyolitic samples having a wide range in porosity (22-85%) and vesicle textures. In general, these data support previous observations of a power law relationship between connected porosity and Darcy permeability2. In detail, variations in k1 increase at higher porosities. Similarly, k2 generally increases in both mean and standard deviation with increasing porosity. Measurements made on three mutually perpendicular cores from individual pumice clasts suggest that some of the variability can be explained by anisotropy in the vesicle structure. By comparison with ceramic foams, we suggest that the remaining variability results from differences either in average vesicle size or, more likely, in the size of apertures

  17. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Gastric Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ayush; Mukewar, Saurabh; Chari, Suresh T; Wong Kee Song, Louis M

    2017-12-01

    Gastric ischemia is a rare condition associated with poor prognosis. Our study aim was to highlight the clinical features and outcomes of patients with gastric ischemia. A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with isolated gastric ischemia at our institution from January 1, 2000, to May 5, 2016, was performed. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, radiologic, and outcome variables were abstracted for analysis. Seventeen patients (65% men) with mean age of 69.3 ± 11.3 years and body mass index of 28.8 ± 11.1 were identified. The etiologies for gastric ischemia included local vascular causes (n = 8), systemic hypoperfusion (n = 4), and mechanical obstruction (n = 5). The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (65%), gastrointestinal bleeding (47%), and altered mental status (23%). The typical endoscopic appearance was mucosal congestion and erythema with or without ulceration. Gastric pneumatosis and portal venous air were more commonly seen on CT imaging. Radiologic and/or surgical intervention was needed in 9 patients, while the remaining 8 patients were managed conservatively with acid suppression, antibiotics, and nasogastric tube decompression. The median duration of hospital stay was 15 days (range 1-36 days). There were no cases of rebleeding and the mortality rate as a direct result of gastric ischemia was 24% within 6 months of diagnosis. Although uncommon, gastric ischemia is associated with significant mortality. Endoscopy and CT imaging play an important role in its diagnosis. The management of gastric ischemia is dictated by its severity and associated comorbidities.

  18. Soils - Mean Permeability

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas. The...

  19. Hydrogen permeability through metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, A.A.; Tsvetkov, I.V.; Marenkov, E.D.; Yarko, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of hydrogen permeability through one-layer and multi-layer membranes are considered. The effect of surface roughness, crystal defects, cracks and pores is described. Mathematical description of the processes is given [ru

  20. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types...

  1. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  2. CT Perfusion evaluation of gastric cancer. Correlation with histologic type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Joo, Ijin [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate if the perfusion parameters of gastric cancer can provide information on histologic subtypes of gastric cancer. We performed preoperative perfusion CT (PCT) and curative gastrectomy in 46 patients. PCT data were analysed using a dedicated software program. Perfusion parameters were obtained by two independent radiologists and were compared according to histologic type using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. To assess inter-reader agreement, we used intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-reader agreement for perfusion parameters was moderate to substantial (ICC = 0.585-0.678). Permeability surface value of poorly cohesive carcinoma (PCC) was significantly higher than other histologic types (47.3 ml/100 g/min in PCC vs 26.5 ml/100 g/min in non-PCC, P < 0.001). Mean transit time (MTT) of PCC was also significantly longer than non-PCC (13.0 s in PCC vs 10.3 s in non-PCC, P = 0.032). The area under the curve to predict PCC was 0.891 (P < 0.001) for permeability surface and 0.697 (P = 0.015) for MTT. Obtaining perfusion parameters from PCT was feasible in gastric cancer patients and can aid in the preoperative imaging diagnosis of PCC-type gastric cancer as the permeability surface and MTT value of PCC type gastric cancer were significantly higher than those of non-PCC. (orig.)

  3. CT Perfusion evaluation of gastric cancer. Correlation with histologic type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Joo, Ijin; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo

    2018-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate if the perfusion parameters of gastric cancer can provide information on histologic subtypes of gastric cancer. We performed preoperative perfusion CT (PCT) and curative gastrectomy in 46 patients. PCT data were analysed using a dedicated software program. Perfusion parameters were obtained by two independent radiologists and were compared according to histologic type using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. To assess inter-reader agreement, we used intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-reader agreement for perfusion parameters was moderate to substantial (ICC = 0.585-0.678). Permeability surface value of poorly cohesive carcinoma (PCC) was significantly higher than other histologic types (47.3 ml/100 g/min in PCC vs 26.5 ml/100 g/min in non-PCC, P < 0.001). Mean transit time (MTT) of PCC was also significantly longer than non-PCC (13.0 s in PCC vs 10.3 s in non-PCC, P = 0.032). The area under the curve to predict PCC was 0.891 (P < 0.001) for permeability surface and 0.697 (P = 0.015) for MTT. Obtaining perfusion parameters from PCT was feasible in gastric cancer patients and can aid in the preoperative imaging diagnosis of PCC-type gastric cancer as the permeability surface and MTT value of PCC type gastric cancer were significantly higher than those of non-PCC. (orig.)

  4. Intestinal Permeability: The Basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Bjarnason

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review some of the more fundamental principles underlying the noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans, the choice of test markers and their analyses, and the practical aspects of test dose composition and how these can be changed to allow the specific assessment of regional permeability changes and other intestinal functions. The implications of increased intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of human disease is discussed in relation to findings in patients with Crohn’s disease. A common feature of increased intestinal permeability is the development of a low grade enteropathy, and while quantitatively similar changes may be found in Crohn’s disease these seem to predict relapse of disease. Moreover, factors associated with relapse of Crohn’s disease have in common an action to increase intestinal permeability. While increased intestinal permeability does not seem to be important in the etiology of Crohn’s disease it may be a central mechanism in the clinical relapse of disease.

  5. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Radionuclide assessment of pulmonary microvascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, A.B.J. [Medical Intensive Care Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-04-01

    The literature has been reviewed to evaluate the technique and clinical value of radionuclide measurements of microvascular permeability and oedema formation in the lungs. Methodology, modelling and interpretation vary widely among studies. Nevertheless, most studies agree on the fact that the measurement of permeability via pulmonary radioactivity measurements of intravenously injected radiolabelled proteins versus that in the blood pool, the so-called pulmonary protein transport rate (PTR), can assist the clinician in discriminating between permeability oedema of the lungs associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and oedema caused by an increased filtration pressure, for instance in the course of cardiac disease, i.e. pressure-induced pulmonary oedema. Some of the techniques used to measure PTR are also able to detect subclinical forms of lung microvascular injury not yet complicated by permeability oedema. This may occur after cardiopulmonary bypass and major vascular surgery, for instance. By paralleling the clinical severity and course of the ARDS, the PTR method may also serve as a tool to evaluate new therapies for the syndrome. Taken together, the currently available radionuclide methods, which are applicable at the bedside in the intensive care unit, may provide a gold standard for detecting minor and major forms of acute microvascular lung injury, and for evaluating the severity, course and response to treatment. (orig.). With 2 tabs.

  7. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  8. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  9. Psuedotumoral gastric varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Choon Won

    1974-01-01

    The roentgenographic recognition of gastric varices often is difficult, even when there is a history of liver disease or splenomegaly without demonstrable esophageal varices. An apparant polypoid filling defect with exaggerated mucosal folds in proximal portion of the gastric body and funds on upper GI series, accompanied by hematemesis and splenomegly should suggest the presence of pseudotumoral gastric varices. We have an experience a case of polypoid filling defects in gastric fundus of psudotumoral gastric varices of 49 years old Korean woman, which was diagnosed by surgical and histopathological findings

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factors and angiogenesis in eye disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witmer, A. N.; Vrensen, G. F. J. M.; van Noorden, C. J. F.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2003-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of growth factors controls pathological angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability in important eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this review is to develop new insights

  11. Expression of claudin-11, -23 in different gastric tissues and its relationship with the risk and prognosis of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Youzhu; Jing, Jingjing; Sun, Liping; Gong, Yuehua; Chen, Moye; Wang, Zeyang; Sun, Mingjun; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Claudins play an important role in regulating the permeability of epithelial and endothelial cells and in the maintenance of cell polarity. We aimed to investigate expression of claudin-11, -23 in different gastric tissues and its relationship with clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis of gastric cancer. We compared their expression levels in the paired cancerous tissues versus those in the adjacent noncancerous tissues by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of claudin-11, -23 was greatly increased in paracancerous gastric tissue compared with cancerous tissue. We also compared their expression levels of tissues from gastric cancer, superficial gastritis, and atrophic gastritis by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the expression of claudin-11 and 23 was significantly higher in superficial gastritis than that in atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. The expression of claudin-23 was significantly lower in atrophic gastritis than that in gastric cancer, but no obviously difference was observed for claudin-11. As for analysis of clinicopathologic parameters of gastric cancer, logistic multiple regression indicated that claudin-11 was significantly associated with sex, smoking, alcohol, H. pylori infection and Borrmann classification while claudin-23 was significantly associated with vessel cancer embolus. Cox multivariate survival analysis indicated that gastric cancer patients with negative claudin-23 expression had significantly longer overall survival. In conclusion, the expression of claudin-11, -23 was remarkably downregulated in gastric cancer. Abnormal expression of these proteins was significantly correlated with some clinicopathologic parameters. In particular, claudin-23 positive expression was associated with poor prognostic outcomes of gastric cancer patients and may therefore serve as an independent prognosticator of patient survival.

  12. Injuries to the vascular endothelium: vascular wall and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial injury has multiple elements, and this article focuses on ischemia-related processes that have particular relevance to ischemic stroke. Distinctions between necrotic and apoptotic cell death provide a basic science context in which to better understand the significance of classical core and penumbra concepts of acute stroke, with apoptotic processes particularly prominent in the penumbra. The mitochondria are understood to serve as a reservoir of proteins that mediate apoptosis. Oxidative stress pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prominent in endothelial injury, both ischemic and nonischemic, with prominent roles of enzyme- and nonenzymemediated pathways; mitochondria once again have a critical role, particularly in the nonenzymatic pathways generating ROS. Inflammation also contributes to vascular endothelial injury, and endothelial cells have the capacity to rapidly increase expression of inflammatory mediators following ischemic challenge; this leads to enhanced leukocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by selectins and adhesion molecules. Preconditioning consists of a minor version of an injurious event, which in turn may protect vascular endothelium from injury following a more substantial event. Presence of the blood-brain barrier creates unique responses to endothelial injury, with permeability changes due to impairment of endothelial-matrix interactions compounding altered vasomotor tone and tissue perfusion mediated by nitric oxide. Pharmacological protection against vascular endothelial injury can be provided by several of the phosphodiesterases (cilostazol and dipyridamole), along with statins. Optimal clinical responses for protection of brain vascular endothelium may use preconditioning as a model, and will likely require combined protection against apoptosis, ROS, and inflammation.

  13. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J. (Dudley Road Hospital, Birmingham (UK); Birmingham General Hospital (UK))

    1982-06-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera.

  14. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  15. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... with the literature from South Africa over the last four decades, and reflects the high rate of interpersonal violence in the country.14,15 As expected, cervical ... via the intact circle of Willis in young patients is the most likely explanation for the lack of strokes. Five patients were referred to the Durban vascular ...

  16. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  17. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Choi, Ho Soon; Yang, Sun Young; Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo; Paik, Seung Sam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways

  18. Familial Gastric Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W; Duda, Dan G; Hong, Theodore S; Kwak, Eunice L; Mullen, John T; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-12-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%-3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. ©AlphaMed Press.

  19. Leucocyte depletion attenuates the early increase in myocardial capillary permeability to small hydrophilic solutes following ischaemia and reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hansen, P R; Ali, S

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to assess the significance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes on the myocardial capillary permeability to a small hydrophilic indicator, on the vascular tone of the resistance vessels, and on contractile function following ischaemia and reperfusion.......The aim was to assess the significance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes on the myocardial capillary permeability to a small hydrophilic indicator, on the vascular tone of the resistance vessels, and on contractile function following ischaemia and reperfusion....

  20. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  1. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  2. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  3. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  4. Application of CT texture analysis in predicting histopathological characteristics of gastric cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shunli; Liu, Song; Ji, Changfeng; Zheng, Huanhuan; Pan, Xia; Zhang, Yujuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Guan, Wenxian; Chen, Ling; Guan, Yue; Li, Weifeng; Ge, Yun

    2017-01-01

    To explore the application of computed tomography (CT) texture analysis in predicting histopathological features of gastric cancers. Preoperative contrast-enhanced CT images and postoperative histopathological features of 107 patients (82 men, 25 women) with gastric cancers were retrospectively reviewed. CT texture analysis generated: (1) mean attenuation, (2) standard deviation, (3) max frequency, (4) mode, (5) minimum attenuation, (6) maximum attenuation, (7) the fifth, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles, and (8) entropy. Correlations between CT texture parameters and histopathological features were analysed. Mean attenuation, maximum attenuation, all percentiles and mode derived from portal venous CT images correlated significantly with differentiation degree and Lauren classification of gastric cancers (r, -0.231 ∝-0.324, 0.228 ∝ 0.321, respectively). Standard deviation and entropy derived from arterial CT images also correlated significantly with Lauren classification of gastric cancers (r = -0.265, -0.222, respectively). In arterial phase analysis, standard deviation and entropy were significantly lower in gastric cancers with than those without vascular invasion; however, minimum attenuation was significantly higher in gastric cancers with than those without vascular invasion. CT texture analysis held great potential in predicting differentiation degree, Lauren classification and vascular invasion status of gastric cancers. (orig.)

  5. Application of CT texture analysis in predicting histopathological characteristics of gastric cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shunli; Liu, Song; Ji, Changfeng; Zheng, Huanhuan; Pan, Xia; Zhang, Yujuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang [The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Guan, Wenxian [The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing (China); Chen, Ling [The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Pathology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Guan, Yue; Li, Weifeng; Ge, Yun [Nanjing University, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China)

    2017-12-15

    To explore the application of computed tomography (CT) texture analysis in predicting histopathological features of gastric cancers. Preoperative contrast-enhanced CT images and postoperative histopathological features of 107 patients (82 men, 25 women) with gastric cancers were retrospectively reviewed. CT texture analysis generated: (1) mean attenuation, (2) standard deviation, (3) max frequency, (4) mode, (5) minimum attenuation, (6) maximum attenuation, (7) the fifth, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles, and (8) entropy. Correlations between CT texture parameters and histopathological features were analysed. Mean attenuation, maximum attenuation, all percentiles and mode derived from portal venous CT images correlated significantly with differentiation degree and Lauren classification of gastric cancers (r, -0.231 ∝-0.324, 0.228 ∝ 0.321, respectively). Standard deviation and entropy derived from arterial CT images also correlated significantly with Lauren classification of gastric cancers (r = -0.265, -0.222, respectively). In arterial phase analysis, standard deviation and entropy were significantly lower in gastric cancers with than those without vascular invasion; however, minimum attenuation was significantly higher in gastric cancers with than those without vascular invasion. CT texture analysis held great potential in predicting differentiation degree, Lauren classification and vascular invasion status of gastric cancers. (orig.)

  6. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  7. Clinical utility of ramucirumab in advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan MMK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Matthew MK Chan,1,2 Katrin M Sjoquist,1,3 John R Zalcberg4 1NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical Oncology, Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford Hospital, Gosford, NSW, Australia; 3Cancer Care Centre, St George Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Gastric cancer is currently the third most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Prognosis remains poor with most patients presenting with advanced or metastatic disease. A better understanding of angiogenesis has led to the investigation of drugs that inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF pathway including anti-VEGF antibody therapy (eg, bevacizumab, inhibitors of angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (eg, sunitinib, sorafenib, apatinib, regorafenib, and inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs (eg, ramucirumab. Ramucirumab, a VEGFR-2 inhibitor, is the first anti-angiogenic agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of advanced gastric cancers. This review will focus on the clinical utility and potential use of ramucirumab in advanced gastric cancer. Keywords: ramucirumab, IMC-1121B, gastric cancer, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, angiogenesis, targeted therapy

  8. Gastric emptying in morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venzina, W.; Chamberlain, M.; Carruthers, S.G.; Grace, D.M.; King, M.; Mowbray, R.D.; Bondy, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Weight loss following gastroplasty had no correlation with gastric emptying rate. Patients who showed transient prolongation of gastric emptying returned to normal one year later and showed no significant difference in weight loss from those who did not have temporary delayed gastric emptying. Perhaps gatroplasty (at least temporarily) reduces the gastric volume producing early satiation without affecting the gastric emptying rate as tested by a small volume radiolabelled test meal. Longer follow-up is indicated to see if delayed weight gain occurs because of gastric pouch stretching and if this has any correlation with gastric emptying rate. (Author)

  9. Gastric-emptying tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gastric emptying have been characterized through many decades of experimental work. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are important. Central mechanisms are related to the center of vomiting and are probably influenced by psychologic and emotional factors. Peripheral mechanisms are located at both sides of the pylorus. Gastric mechanisms are stimulatory and are triggered mainly by distention of the stomach, although hormonal mechanisms may also participate (gastrin). However, with complex, nutrient-containing meals, the intragastric volume is not the primary determinant of gastric emptying. Inhibitory mechanisms of the gut are more important. The key factors are the pH, osmolality, and nutrient content of the chyme being emptied into the duodenum. Osmotic and pH-sensitive receptors are thought to reside in the duodenum. On the other hand, receptors triggered by nutrients extend much more distally into the duodenum and are sensitive to nutrient composition and load. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids all inhibit gastric emptying, although the lipids are probably the most potent inhibitors. If the duodenal load or the characteristics of the emptying material are not adequate, inhibitory mechanisms will reduce gastric emptying at the expense of expanding the intragastric volume. It is therefore not possible to dissociate postprandial gastric emptying from postprandial gastric secretion

  10. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body will not get all of the calories from the food you eat. ... to a small hole in your pouch. The food you eat will now travel ... absorb fewer calories. Gastric bypass can be done in two ways. ...

  11. Electrokinetic effects and fluid permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid permeability of porous media depends mainly on connectivity of the pore space and two physical parameters: porosity and a pertinent length-scale parameter. Electrical imaging methods typically establish connectivity and directly measure electrical conductivity, which can then often be related to porosity by Archie's law. When electrical phase measurements are made in addition to the amplitude measurements, information about the pertinent length scale can then be obtained. Since fluid permeability controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the subsurface, inexpensive maps of permeability could improve planning strategies for remediation efforts. Detailed knowledge of fluid permeability is also important for oil field exploitation, where knowledge of permeability distribution in three dimensions is a common requirement for petroleum reservoir simulation and analysis, as well as for estimates on the economics of recovery

  12. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Diffuse Gastric Cancer MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Gastric Cancer National Cancer ... Option Overview General Information from MedlinePlus ( ...

  13. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  14. Helicobacter and Gastric Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, António Carlos; Isomoto, Hajime; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Machado, José Carlos; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    Individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, a stomach colonizing bacteria, have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancies. The risk for developing cancer relates to the physiologic and histologic changes that H. pylori infection induces in the stomach. In the last year numerous studies have been conducted in order to characterize the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. These studies range from epidemiologic approaches aiming at the identification of envir...

  15. Effect of permeability enhancers on paracellular permeability of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Muge; Kaynak, Mustafa Sinan; Sahin, Selma

    2016-06-01

    According to Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), acyclovir is a class III (high solubility, low permeability) compound, and it is transported through paracellular route by passive diffusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various pharmaceutical excipients on the intestinal permeability of acyclovir. The single-pass in-situ intestinal perfusion (SPIP) method was used to estimate the permeability values of acyclovir and metoprolol across different intestinal segments (jejunum, ileum and colon). Permeability coefficient (Peff ) of acyclovir was determined in the absence and presence of a permeation enhancer such as dimethyl β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium caprate (Cap-Na) and chitosan chloride. All enhancers increased the permeability of paracellularly transported acyclovir. Although Cap-Na has the highest permeability-enhancing effect in all segments, permeation-enhancing effect of chitosan and SLS was only significant in ileum. On the other hand, DM-β-CD slightly decreased the permeability in all intestinal segments. These findings have potential implication concerning the enhancement of absorption of paracellularly transported compounds with limited oral bioavailability. In the case of acyclovir, Cap-Na either alone or in combination with SLS or chitosan has the potential to improve its absorption and bioavailability and has yet to be explored. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  17. Primary Closure versus Gastric Resection for Perforated Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perforated gastric ulcer is one of the most life‑threatening complications of peptic ulcer disease with high .... tubes were removed and oral nutrition resumed. The .... surgical approach for perforated gastric cancer: One‑stage vs. two‑stage ...

  18. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  19. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B; Ahlers, M

    2008-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation

  20. Endothelial glycocalyx dysfunction in disease: albuminuria and increased microvascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Andrew H J; Satchell, Simon C

    2012-03-01

    Appreciation of the glomerular microcirculation as a specialized microcirculatory bed, rather than as an entirely separate entity, affords important insights into both glomerular and systemic microvascular pathophysiology. In this review we compare regulation of permeability in systemic and glomerular microcirculations, focusing particularly on the role of the endothelial glycocalyx, and consider the implications for disease processes. The luminal surface of vascular endothelium throughout the body is covered with endothelial glycocalyx, comprising surface-anchored proteoglycans, supplemented with adsorbed soluble proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and plasma constituents. In both continuous and fenestrated microvessels, this endothelial glycocalyx provides resistance to the transcapillary escape of water and macromolecules, acting as an integral component of the multilayered barrier provided by the walls of these microvessels (ie acting in concert with clefts or fenestrae across endothelial cell layers, basement membranes and pericytes). Dysfunction of any of these capillary wall components, including the endothelial glycocalyx, can disrupt normal microvascular permeability. Because of its ubiquitous nature, damage to the endothelial glycocalyx alters the permeability of multiple capillary beds: in the glomerulus this is clinically apparent as albuminuria. Generalized damage to the endothelial glycocalyx can therefore manifest as both albuminuria and increased systemic microvascular permeability. This triad of altered endothelial glycocalyx, albuminuria and increased systemic microvascular permeability occurs in a number of important diseases, such as diabetes, with accumulating evidence for a similar phenomenon in ischaemia-reperfusion injury and infectious disease. The detection of albuminuria therefore has implications for the function of the microcirculation as a whole. The importance of the endothelial glycocalyx for other aspects of vascular function

  1. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  2. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  3. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

  4. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Chronic Gastritis and Gastric Carcinoma, Correlation with Prognostic Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaka, R.M.; Abdou, A.G.; Abd El-Wahed, M.M.; Kandil, M.A.; El-Kady, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is the inducible form of cyclooxygenase enzyme. Cox-2 is induced in numerous processes such as cellular growth, differentiation, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Purpose: Assessment of Cox-2 expression in chronic gastritis s and gastric carcinoma. Material and Methods: Sixteen chronic gastritis (CG) and 43 gastric carcinoma cases were subjected to an immunohistochemical approach using anti Cox-2 antibody. Results: All CG cases displayed positive epithelial Cox-2 expression with only 25% positivity for stromal expression. Eighty six percent of gastric carcinoma showed epithelial Cox-2 expression that was significantly correlated with lymph node involvement (p=0.01), advanced stage (p=0.01), high micro vessel density (MVD) (p=0.0001), vascular invasion (p=0.002), peri neural invasion (p=0.0 I) and low apoptotic count (p<0.0001). Stromal Cox-2 expression was seen in 79% of gastric carcinoma cases and was significantly associated with low apoptotic count (p=0.0007), vascular invasion (p=0.001) and high micro vessel density (MVD) (p=0.0003). Only stromal Cox2 expression was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma than chronic gastritis (p=0.0001). Conclusions: Cox-2 appears to be involved in gastric carcinoma progression as it promotes angio genesis, suppresses apoptosis and facilitates invasion and metastasis Double expression of Cox-2 in gastric carcinoma epithelium and stroma and significant association between them demonstrate a paracrine cross effect between stromal and malignant epithelium

  6. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  7. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  8. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  10. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  11. Permeability of cork to gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, David P; Fonseca, Ana L; Pereira, Helen; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2011-04-27

    The permeability of gases through uncompressed cork was investigated. More than 100 samples were assessed from different plank qualities to provide a picture of the permeability distribution. A novel technique based on a mass spectrometer leak detector was used to directly measure the helium flow through the central area of small disks 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick. The permeability for nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases was measured by the pressure rise technique. Boiled and nonboiled cork samples from different sections were evaluated. An asymmetric frequency distribution ranging 3 orders of magnitude (roughly from 1 to 1000 μmol/(cm·atm·day)) for selected samples without macroscopic defects was found, having a peak below 100 μmol/(cm·atm·day). Correlation was found between density and permeability: higher density samples tend to show lower permeability. However, boiled cork showed a mean lower permeability despite having a lower density. The transport mechanism of gases through cork was also examined. Calculations suggest that gases permeate uncompressed cork mainly through small channels between cells under a molecular flow regime. The diameter of such channels was estimated to be in the range of 100 nm, in agreement with the plasmodesmata size in the cork cell walls.

  12. Delayed effects of cold atmospheric plasma on vascular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, Eva; Roks, Anton J. M.; Deelmm, Leo E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the long-term behaviour of vascular cells (endothelial and smooth muscle) after exposure to a cold atmospheric plasma source. The cells were treated through a gas-permeable membrane, in order to simulate intravenous treatment with a gas plasma-filled catheter. Such indirect treatment

  13. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  15. Effect of platelet activating factor on endothelial permeability to plasma macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handley, D.A.; Arbeeny, C.M.; Lee, M.L.; Van Valen, R.G.; Saunders, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of intrajugular administration of platelet activating factor (PAF-C16) on vascular permeability was examined in the guinea pig. To examine the loss of selective endothelial permeability, the extravasative effect of PAF was assessed by monitoring hemoconcentration and the plasma loss of 125 I-albumin (6.7 nm), 125 I-low density lipoproteins (22.0 nm) or 125 I-very low density lipoproteins (62.1 nm). Extravasation was dose-dependent and began 1 min after PAF administration, continuing for 5-7 min. During extravasation, there was no evidence for selective plasma retention of any of the labeled plasma tracers, as measured by plasma radioactivity. These results suggest that PAF-induced extravasation is dose-dependent, with increases in vascular permeability sufficient to permit similar plasma efflux rates of albumin, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins

  16. Bentonite Permeability at Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repository designs frequently favour geological disposal of radioactive waste with a backfill material occupying void space around the waste. The backfill material must tolerate the high temperatures produced by decaying radioactive waste to prevent its failure or degradation, leading to increased hydraulic conductivity and reduced sealing performance. The results of four experiments investigating the effect of temperature on the permeability of a bentonite backfill are presented. Bentonite is a clay commonly proposed as the backfill in repository designs because of its high swelling capacity and very low permeability. The experiments were conducted in two sets of purpose-built, temperature controlled apparatus, designed to simulate isotropic pressure and constant volume conditions within the testing range of 4–6 MPa average effective stress. The response of bentonite during thermal loading at temperatures up to 200 °C was investigated, extending the previously considered temperature range. The results provide details of bentonite’s intrinsic permeability, total stress, swelling pressure and porewater pressure during thermal cycles. We find that bentonite’s hydraulic properties are sensitive to thermal loading and the type of imposed boundary condition. However, the permeability change is not large and can mostly be accounted for by water viscosity changes. Thus, under 150 °C, temperature has a minimal impact on bentonite’s hydraulic permeability.

  17. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  18. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  20. Helicobacter pyloriand gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... only common but is second to lung cancer as a leading cause of cancer-related ... in the developing world,4 although cancer records are not readily available for .... gastric cancers are identified at a late stage due to lack of ...

  1. Mastication suppresses initial gastric emptying by modulating gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Takada, H; Nagayama, K; Sakiyama, T; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2012-03-01

    Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under conditions that excluded the influences of food comminution, taste, and olfaction. A (13)C-acetate breath test with electrogastrography and electrocardiography was performed in 14 healthy men who ingested a test meal with or without chewing gum. Autonomic nerve activity was evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the 'ingestion with mastication' group. Gastric myoelectrical activity was significantly suppressed during mastication and increased gradually in the post-mastication phase. A decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability was observed coincidentally with gastric myoelectrical activity suppression. These findings suggest that initial gastric emptying is suppressed by mastication, and that the suppression is caused by mastication-induced inhibition of gastric activity (UMIN Clinical Trial Registration no. UMIN000005351).

  2. Case Report - Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eventration of the diaphragm with gastric volvulus is uncommon. Gastric perforation in these cases is rare and usually associated with acute gastric volvulus with strangulation. We describe a case of diaphragmatic eventration with chronic gastric volvulus with gastric perforation without strangulation in an elderly man.

  3. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  4. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    ) = 0.15, P = 0.15 for intact GIP; r(2) = 0.21, P = 0.086 for total GIP). We conclude that gastric emptying does not appear to be influenced by GIP. The secretion of GIP after meal ingestion is not suppressed by its exogenous administration. The lack of effect of GIP on gastric emptying underlines......The insulinotropic gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric acid secretion and was proposed to possess "enterogastrone" activity. GIP effects on gastric emptying have not yet been studied. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23.9 +/- 3.3 yr, body mass....... Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA...

  5. Gastroprotective effects of several H2RAs on ibuprofen-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Dan; He, Jinfeng; Yang, Chengli; Hu, Tingting; Zhang, Lijing; Cao, Hua; Tong, Ai-Ping; Song, Xiangrong; Xie, Yongmei; He, Gu; Guo, Gang; Luo, Youfu; Cheng, Ping; Zheng, Yu

    2016-03-15

    Ibuprofen is the first line of treatment for osteoarthritis and arthritis. The main side effects of ibuprofen especially in long-term treatment include gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and indigestion etc. Therefore, screening drugs with effective gastric protective effects and low toxicity for combination therapy with ibuprofen is necessary. The mechanism of gastric damage induced by ibuprofen is still unclear, however, cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered as the main reason. Preliminary screening of literature with the criteria of low toxicity led to four histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs): nizatidine, famotidine, lafutidine, and roxatidine acetate, which were selected for further investigation. These drugs were evaluated systemically by examining the gastric ulcer index, lipid peroxidation (LPO), membrane permeability, toxicity to main organs, and the influence on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Nizatidine was found to be the best gastric protective agent. It exhibited excellent protective effect by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity, decreasing MPO activity, reducing LPO, and membrane permeability. Combination treatment with nizatidine and ibuprofen did not show any significant toxicity. Nizatidine was considered as a good option for combination therapy with ibuprofen especially for diseases that require long-term treatment such as arthritis and osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  7. Diagnosis of hydrostatic versus increased permeability pulmonary edema with chest radiographic criteria in critically ILL patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, D.R.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Webb, W.R.; Matthay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate chest radiographic criteria in distinguishing mechanisms of pulmonary edema, the authors studied 45 intubated patients with extensive edema. Edema type was clinically classified by the ratio of alveolar edema-to-plasma protein concentration in association with compatible clinical/hemodynamic parameters. Chest films were scored as hydrostatic, permeability, or mixed by three readers in blinded fashion based on cardiac size, vascular pedicle width, distribution of edema, effusions, peribronchial cuffs, septal lines, or air bronchograms. Overall radiographic score accurately identified 87% of patients with hydrostatic edema but only 60% of those with permeability edema. Edema distribution was most discriminating, with a patchy peripheral pattern relatively specific for clinical permeability edema. Hydrostatic features on chest radiograph were common with permeability edema, including effusions (36%), widened pedicle (56%), cuffs (72%), or septa (40%). The authors conclude that the chest radiograph is limited in distinguishing edema mechanism in the face of extensive pulmonary edema

  8. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  9. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost all gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas. Other types of gastric cancer are gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on gastric cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  10. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  11. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0472 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lawrence Fong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David Quigley...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We performed the screen of gastric cancer cell lines for their

  12. Gastric cancer review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Peirce Carcas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease.

  13. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3...... the high mortality associated with invasive disease, prophylactic total gastrectomy at a centre of expertise is advised for individuals with pathogenic CDH1 mutations. Breast cancer surveillance with annual breast MRI starting at age 30 for women with a CDH1 mutation is recommended. Standardised endoscopic...

  14. Novel targeted agents for gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Contemporary advancements have had little impact on the treatment of gastric cancer (GC, the world’s second highest cause of cancer death. Agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor mediated pathways have been a common topic of contemporary cancer research, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. Trastuzumab is the first target agent evidencing improvements in overall survival in HER2-positive (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gastric cancer patients. Agents targeting vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, and other biological pathways are also undergoing clinical trials, with some marginally positive results. Effective targeted therapy requires patient selection based on predictive molecular biomarkers. Most phase III clinical trials are carried out without patient selection; therefore, it is hard to achieve personalized treatment and to monitor patient outcome individually. The trend for future clinical trials requires patient selection methods based on current understanding of GC biology with the application of biomarkers.

  15. Endoluminal MR imaging of porcine gastric structure in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaka, Hayato; Morita, Yoshinori; Matsuoka, Yuichiro

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several new endoscopic instruments have been developed. However, even with the full use of current modalities, the safety of endoscopic surgery is not guaranteed. Information regarding factors such as fibrosis and the blood vessels under the mucosa is very important for avoiding procedure-related complications. The aim of this study was to define the detailed anatomy of the gastric wall structure in vivo using original endoluminal radiofrequency coils for safer endoscopic therapy. Swine were used as the subjects and controlled with general anesthesia. Anatomical images were obtained with T1-weighted fast spin echo (T1FSE) and T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2FSE). Dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) angiography was also obtained with three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (3D-DMRA) following the injection of hyaluronic acid sodium into the submucosal layer. Porcine gastric wall structure was visualized, and four layers were discriminated in the T1FSE and T2FSE images. The vascular structure was clearly recognized in the submucosa on 3D-DMRA. Endoluminal MR imaging was able to visualize the porcine stomach with similar quality to endoscopic ultrasonography imaging. Additionally, it was possible to visualize the vascular structures in the submucosal layer. This is the first report to show that blood vessels under the gastric mucosa can be depicted in vivo. (author)

  16. Gastric emptying in chronic dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielaff, F.; Jahnel, P.; Sest, C.; Sydow, K.; Sapia, C.; Hass, A.; Buchali, K.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying of a semiliquid test meal with 5 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid as a marker was measured in 97 chronic dyspeptic patients and 16 healthy subjects. A comparison of half emptying time between both showed that chronic dyspeptic patients empty semiliquid meal at a significantly (p < 0.005) slower rate (at 70 +- 33 min) than healthy controls (at 52 x 20 min). The studies indicate that gastric stasis in chronic dyspepsia is not caused by inflammatory changes in gastric or duodenal mucosa nor by different gastric acid secretion. The presence of stasis cannot be predicted sufficiently by anamnestic complaints or endoscopic findings. (author)

  17. Gastric Schwannoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Ho; Jee, Keum Nahn

    2006-01-01

    Gastric Schwannoma is a rare benign intramural tumor arising from the stomach, and it accounts for only 0.1% of all the different kinds of gastric neoplasms, and it's less than 4% of all the benign gastric tumors. This tumor is very difficult to differentiate from the other mesenchymal tumors by the clinical, endoscopic and radiologic findings. In this study, we demonstrate the appearance of this tumor on endoscopic ultrasound and contrast-enhanced abdomen CT. We also show the histopathologic findings of a surgically confirmed gastric Schwannoma that was located in the proper muscle layer

  18. and Gastric Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013. As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022. Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  19. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  20. Tricholithobezoar Causing Gastric Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Valenciano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoar is a rare condition seen almost exclusively in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia. When not recognized, the trichobezoar continues to grow, which increases the risk of severe complications such as gastric ulceration and even perforation. Formation of a gallstone within the trichobezoar (tricholithobezoar is an event that has not yet been described. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room with signals and symptoms of an epigastric mass and perforative acute abdomen. Radiological study revealed bilateral pneumoperitoneum. Personal history revealed depressive syndrome, trichotillomania and trichophagia. With a diagnosis of visceral perforation, an urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed. This confirmed the diagnosis of gastric perforation due to a large trichobezoar with the formation of a gastrolith that was removed by anterior gastrotomy. Biochemical study of the gastric stone revealed that it was composed of bile salts. There were no complications. The patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day and was referred for psychiatric treatment.

  1. Mucin dispersions as a model for the oromucosal mucus layer in in vitro and ex vivo buccal permeability studies of small molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxen, Eva; Mosgaard, Mette Dalskov; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2017-01-01

    The mucus layer is believed to play a part in drug permeation across the oral mucosa. Human freeze-dried saliva (HFDS) and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was evaluated as model for mucus layer per se or in conjunction with in vitro and ex vivo buccal permeability models. Four small molecules (nicoti...

  2. Neuroprotective effect of selective DPP-4 inhibitor in experimental vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-12-01

    Vascular risk factors are associated with a higher incidence of dementia. Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Both forms of dementia are posing greater risk to the world population and are increasing at a faster rate. In the past we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the role of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. Pancreatectomy diabetes rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of vildagliptin has significantly attenuated pancreatectomy induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor may be considered as potential pharmacological agents for the management of pancreatectomy induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. The selective modulators of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 may further be explored for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thromboxane A2 increases endothelial permeability through upregulation of interleukin-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su-Ryun; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Koanhoi; Park, Shi-Young; Jang, Hye-Ock; Yun, Il; Kim, Yung-Jin; Yoo, Mi-Ae; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2010-01-01

    Thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ), a major prostanoid formed from prostaglandin H 2 by thromboxane synthase, is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of vascular diseases. In this study, we report that TXA 2 mimetic U46619 significantly increases the endothelial permeability both in vitro and in vivo. U46619 enhanced the expression and secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a major inducer of vascular permeability, in endothelial cells. Promoter analysis showed that the U46619-induced expression of IL-8 was mainly regulated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). U46619 induced the activation of NF-κB through IκB kinase (IKK) activation, IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, the inhibition of IL-8 or blockade of the IL-8 receptor attenuated the U46619-induced endothelial cell permeability by modulating the cell-cell junctions. Overall, these results suggest that U46619 promotes vascular permeability through the production of IL-8 via NF-κB activation in endothelial cells.

  4. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  5. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  6. Quantifying porosity, compressibility and permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Frykman, Peter

    strain data. We found that Kozeny's modelled permeability fall in the same order of magnitude with measured permeability for shale rich in kaolinite but overestimates permeability by two to three orders of magnitudes for shale with high content of smectite. The empirical Yang and Aplin model gives good...... permeability estimate comparable to the measured one for shale rich in smectite. This is probably because Yang and Aplin model was calibrated in London clay which is rich in smectite....

  7. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces vascular leakage via autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ru Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular leakage is an important feature of acute inflammatory shock, which currently has no effective treatment. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce vascular leakage and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of shock. However, the mechanism of MIF-induced vascular leakage is still unclear. In this study, using recombinant MIF (rMIF, we demonstrated that MIF induced disorganization and degradation of junction proteins and increased the permeability of human endothelial cells in vitro. Western blotting analysis showed that rMIF treatment induced LC3 conversion and p62 degradation. Inhibition of autophagy with a PI3K inhibitor (3-MA, a ROS scavenger (NAC or autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine rescued rMIF-induced vascular leakage, suggesting that autophagy mediates MIF-induced vascular leakage. The potential involvement of other signaling pathways was also studied using different inhibitors, and the results suggested that MIF-induced vascular leakage may occur through the ERK pathway. In conclusion, we showed that MIF triggered autophagic degradation of endothelial cells, resulting in vascular leakage. Inhibition of MIF-induced autophagy may provide therapeutic targets against vascular leakage in inflammatory shock.

  8. Relative permeability of the endothelium and epithelium of rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effros, R.M.; Mason, G.R.; Silverman, P.; Hukkanen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Electron micrographic studies of lungs suggest that the epithelial cells are more tightly joined than the underlying endothelium, and macromolecules penetrate the endothelium more readily than the epithelium. Comparisons of epithelial and endothelial permeability to small molecules have been based upon the relative rates at which solutes traverse the alveolar-capillary barrier in fluid filled lungs and those at which they equilibrate across the capillaries in air-filled lungs. Because the former process is much slower than the latter, it has been concluded that the epithelium is less permeable to small solutes than the endothelium. However this difference may be related to inadequate access of solutes to airway surfaces. In this study, solute losses from the vascular space were compared to those from the airspace in perfused, fluid-filled rabbit lungs. 36 Cl - and 125 I - were lost from air-spaces almost twice as rapidly as 22 Na + . In contrast, the endothelium is equally permeable to 22 Na + and these anions. Loss of 3 H-mannitol from the perfusate resembled that of 22 Na + for about 30 minutes, after which diffusion of 3 H-mannitol into the tissue nearly ceased. These observations suggest that the epithelium is more permselective than the endothelium. By resisting solute and water transport, the epithelium tends to prevent alveolar flooding and confines edema to the interstitium, where it is less likely to interfere with gas exchange

  9. Viscous fingering with permeability heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.; Homsy, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Viscous fingering in miscible displacements in the presence of permeability heterogeneities is studied using two-dimensional simulations. The heterogeneities are modeled as stationary random functions of space with finite correlation scale. Both the variance and scale of the heterogeneities are varied over modest ranges. It is found that the fingered zone grows linearly in time in a fashion analogous to that found in homogeneous media by Tan and Homsy [Phys. Fluids 31, 1330 (1988)], indicating a close coupling between viscous fingering on the one hand and flow through preferentially more permeable paths on the other. The growth rate of the mixing zone increases monotonically with the variance of the heterogeneity, as expected, but shows a maximum as the correlation scale is varied. The latter is explained as a ''resonance'' between the natural scale of fingers in homogeneous media and the correlation scale

  10. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  11. Radiation Effects on the Cytoskeleton of Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Monolayer Permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrys, Dorota; Greco, Olga; Patel, Gaurang; Prise, Kevin M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Kanthou, Chryso

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of radiation on the endothelial cytoskeleton and endothelial monolayer permeability and to evaluate associated signaling pathways, which could reveal potential mechanisms of known vascular effects of radiation. Methods and Materials: Cultured endothelial cells were X-ray irradiated, and actin filaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments, and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin junctions were examined by immunofluorescence. Permeability was determined by the passage of fluorescent dextran through cell monolayers. Signal transduction pathways were analyzed using RhoA, Rho kinase, and stress-activated protein kinase-p38 (SAPK2/p38) inhibitors by guanosine triphosphate-RhoA activation assay and transfection with RhoAT19N. The levels of junction protein expression and phosphorylation of myosin light chain and SAPK2/p38 were assessed by Western blotting. The radiation effects on cell death were verified by clonogenic assays. Results: Radiation induced rapid and persistent actin stress fiber formation and redistribution of VE-cadherin junctions in microvascular, but not umbilical vein endothelial cells, and microtubules and intermediate filaments remained unaffected. Radiation also caused a rapid and persistent increase in microvascular permeability. RhoA-guanosine triphosphatase and Rho kinase were activated by radiation and caused phosphorylation of downstream myosin light chain and the observed cytoskeletal and permeability changes. SAPK2/p38 was activated by radiation but did not influence either the cytoskeleton or permeability. Conclusion: This study is the first to show rapid activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase by radiation in endothelial cells and has demonstrated a link between this pathway and cytoskeletal remodeling and permeability. The results also suggest that the RhoA pathway might be a useful target for modulating the permeability and other effects of radiation for therapeutic gain

  12. Effect of aggregate grain size distribution on properties of permeable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) ratio on the mechanical properties of permeable concrete is investigated. The aim of this study is to prepare permeable concrete mixture with optimum properties in terms of strength and permeability. For this purpose, five different permeable ...

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer.

  14. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  15. Permeability of highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1980-12-01

    The object of the study was the water flow through the bentonite which is caused by hydraulic gradients. The study comprised laboratory tests and theoretical considerations. It was found that high bulk densities reduced the permeability to very low values. It was concluded that practically impervious conditions prevail when the gradients are low. Thus with a regional gradient of 10 -2 and a premeability of 10 -13 m/s the flow rate will not be higher than approximately 1 mm in 30 000 years. (G.B.)

  16. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  17. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  18. Prophylactic effect of rebamipide on aspirin-induced gastric lesions and disruption of tight junctional protein zonula occludens-1 distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Yoshida, Norimasa; Nakabe, Nami; Isozaki, Yutaka; Kajikawa, Hirokazu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Matsui, Hirofumi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2008-03-01

    Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are known to induce gastroduodenal complications such as ulcer, bleeding, and dyspepsia. In this study, we examined the prophylactic effect of rebamipide, an anti-ulcer agent with free-radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effect, on acidified aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. In addition, we investigated the mucosal barrier functions disrupted by aspirin. Oral administration of acidified aspirin resulted in linear hemorrhagic erosions with increasing myeloperoxidase activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations in the gastric mucosa. Rebamipide suppressed these acidified aspirin-induced gastric lesions and inflammatory changes significantly, and its protective effect was more potent in the case of repeated (twice daily for 3 days) treatment than single treatment before aspirin administration. Immunostaining of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, one of the tight junctional proteins, was strengthened in rat gastric mucosa after repeated administration of rebamipide. In addition, aspirin induced the increasing transport of fluorescine isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans with localized disruption and decreased expression of ZO-1 protein on rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM-1. Rebamipide effectively prevented aspirin-induced permeability changes and disruption of ZO-1 distribution. These results suggest that rebamipide protects against aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions by preserving gastric epithelial cell-to cell integrity in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects.

  19. Gastric retention and gastric ileus in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Senot, P.; Champigneulle, B.; Drouin, P.

    1980-01-01

    Report of 2 cases of paralytic ileus of the stomach (gastric atony) and of 14 cases of gastric retention, diagnosed from the radiographs obtained from a group of 1500 diabetic patients within seven years. These disorders occur in diabetes mellitus present for many years and associated with peripheral neuropathy. The above findings often present diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Conservative drug therapy is usually sufficient management. (orig.) [de

  20. Steam-water relative permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  1. Towards cavitation-enhanced permeability in blood vessel on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, R.; Silvani, G.; Scognamiglio, C.; Sinibaldi, G.; Peruzzi, G.; Chinappi, M.; Kiani, M. F.; Casciola, C. M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of targeted delivery systems releasing pharmaceutical agents directly at the desired site of action may improve their therapeutic efficiency while minimizing damage to healthy tissues, toxicity to the patient and drug waste. In this context, we have developed a bio-inspired microdevice mimicking the tumour microvasculature which represents a valuable tool for assessing the enhancement of blood vessel permeability due to cavitation. This novel system allows us to investigate the effects of ultrasound-driven microbubbles that temporarily open the endothelial intercellular junctions allowing drug to extravasate blood vessels into tumour tissues. The blood vessel on a chip consists of a tissue chamber and two independent vascular channels (width 200 µm, height 100 µm, length 2762 µm) cultured with endothelial cells placed side-by-side and separated by a series of 3 µm pores. Its geometry and dimensions mimic the three-dimensional morphology, size and flow characteristics of microvessels in vivo. The early stage of this project had a twofold objective: 1. To define the protocol for culturing of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) within the vascular channel; 2. To develop a fluorescence based microscopy technique for measuring permeability. We have developed a reliable and reproducible protocol to culture endothelial cells within the artificial vessels in a realistic manner: HUVECs show the typical elongated shape in the direction of flow, exhibit tight junction formation and form a continuous layer with a central lumen that completely covers the channels wall. As expected, the permeability of cell-free device is higher than the one cultured with HUVECs in the vascular channels. The proposed blood vessel on a chip and the permeability measurement protocol have a significant potential to allow for the study of cavitation-enhanced permeability of the endothelium and improve efficiency in screening drug delivery systems.

  2. [AFP-producing gastric cancer and hepatoid gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y K; Zhang, X T

    2017-11-23

    AFP-producing gastric cancer(AFPGC) and hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) are two special subtypes of gastric cancer. There are both correlation and difference between them. AFPGC is usually identified as primary gastric cancer with serum AFP level more than 20 ng/ml or showed AFP positive staining by immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of HAS is mainly dependent on the pathological character of hepatocellular carcinoma-like differentiation of gastric cancer. The morbidity of AFPGC and HAS are rather low, especially the incidence of HAS is about 1%. The prognoses of these two subtypes are poorer than that of common gastric adenocarcinoma, due to a high incidence rate of liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis. With the development of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, gastric cancers, including these two rare subtypes, are now being investigated in more detail at the molecular level. Treatment remains the biggest challenge, early diagnosis and radical resection can dramatically improve patients'prognosis. Monitoring serum AFP and abdominal imaging examination during follow-up is important for early detection of liver metastasis. In combination with local treatment methods such as transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation of liver may further extend patients'survival time. Targeted therapy owes a great potential value in the future.

  3. Clogging in permeable concrete: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Alalea; Wong, Hong S; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2017-05-15

    Permeable concrete (or "pervious concrete" in North America) is used to reduce local flooding in urban areas and is an important sustainable urban drainage system. However, permeable concrete exhibits reduction in permeability due to clogging by particulates, which severely limits service life. This paper reviews the clogging mechanism and current mitigating strategies in order to inform future research needs. The pore structure of permeable concrete and characteristics of flowing particulates influence clogging, which occurs when particles build-up and block connected porosity. Permeable concrete requires regular maintenance by vacuum sweeping and pressure washing, but the effectiveness and viability of these methods is questionable. The potential for clogging is related to the tortuosity of the connected porosity, with greater tortuosity resulting in increased potential for clogging. Research is required to develop permeable concrete that can be poured on-site, which produces a pore structure with significantly reduced tortuosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Different Methods of Predicting Permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Krogsbøll, Anette

    by two to five orders of magnitudes at lower vertical effective stress below 40 MPa as the content of clay minerals increases causing heterogeneity in shale material. Indirect permeability from consolidation can give maximum and minimum values of shale permeability needed in simulating fluid flow......Permeability is often very difficult to measure or predict in shale lithology. In this work we are determining shale permeability from consolidation tests data using Wissa et al., (1971) approach and comparing the results with predicted permeability from Kozeny’s model. Core and cuttings materials...... effective stress to 9 μD at high vertical effective stress of 100 MPa. The indirect permeability calculated from consolidation tests falls in the same magnitude at higher vertical effective stress, above 40 MPa, as that of the Kozeny model for shale samples with high non-clay content ≥ 70% but are higher...

  5. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  6. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  7. Gastric Adenomyoma: The Unexpected Mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Adriana Duran Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric adenomyoma is a rare benign tumor composed of epithelial structures and smooth muscle stroma. Here, we report an unusual case of gastric adenomyoma mostly composed of smooth muscle that was incidentally found during a laparoscopic intervention. On radiology, it mimicked an acquired hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an adult patient, and pathologically it resembled a pure smooth muscle hamartoma. Complete submission of the lesion for histology was necessary to find the epithelial component and make the right diagnosis. As a mimicker of benign and malignant entities, gastric adenomyoma is usually an unexpected finding after surgery. The aim of this report is to analyze this adenomyoma variant in the setting of an unexplained thickening of the gastric wall, with explanations concerning histogenesis and biological potential.

  8. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  9. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young

    1985-01-01

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen

  10. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen.

  11. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  12. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  13. Managing obstructive gastric volvulus: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Garcia HA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hector Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia,1 Andrew S Wright,2–4 Robert B Yates1–3 1Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, 2Center for Videoendoscopic Surgery, 3Hernia Center, 4Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies, UWMC, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: Gastric volvulus is the abnormal torsion of the stomach along its short or long axis. Most patients who experience gastric volvulus present with mild or intermittent gastric obstructive symptoms. However, severe acute gastric volvulus can result in complete gastric outlet obstruction and ischemia. Consequently, acute gastric volvulus warrants immediate evaluation and management. The goals of management are to relieve the obstruction and prevent recurrent volvulus. Techniques to manage gastric volvulus depend on patient characteristics and the presence of gastric ischemia. In the absence of gastric ischemia, gastric volvulus can be managed with anterior abdominal wall gastropexy or paraesophageal hernia repair. If gastric ischemia is present, operative resection of the affected portion of the stomach is indicated. When operative management is indicated, many patients with gastric volvulus can be managed with minimally invasive (laparoscopic, endoscopic, or laparoendoscopic techniques. Keywords: gastric volvulus, paraesophageal hernia, hiatal hernia

  14. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0470 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yelena Janjigian CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David

  15. The Effect of DA-6034 on Intestinal Permeability in an Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Shin; Lee, Oh Young; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2016-05-23

    DA-6034 has anti-inflammatory activities and exhibits cytoprotective effects in acute gastric injury models. However, explanations for the protective effects of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability are limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury model and its protective effect against small intestinal injury. Rats in the treatment group received DA-6034 from days 0 to 2 and indomethacin from days 1 to 2. Rats in the control group received indomethacin from days 1 to 2. On the fourth day, the small intestines were examined to compare the severity of inflammation. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. Western blotting was performed to confirm the association between DA-6034 and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. The inflammation scores in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Hemorrhagic lesions in the treatment group were broader than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Intestinal permeability was lower in the treatment group than in the control group. DA-6034 enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression, and intestinal permeability was negatively correlated with ERK expression. DA-6034 may decrease intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced intestinal injury model via the ERK pathway.

  16. Low Permeability Polyimide Insulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resodyn Technologies proposes a new technology that enables the application of polyimide based cryogenic insulation with low hydrogen permeability. This effort...

  17. Modelling of water permeability in cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guang, Ye; Lura, Pietro; van Breugel, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a network model to predict the permeability of cement paste from a numerical simulation of its microstructure. Based on a linked list pore network structure, the effective hydraulic conductivity is estimated and the fluid flow is calculated according to the Hagen-Poiseuille law....... The pressure gradient at all nodes is calculated with the Gauss elimination method and the absolute permeability of the pore network is calculated directly from Darcy's law. Finally, the permeability model is validated by comparison with direct water permeability measurements. According to this model...

  18. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Why is the coexistence of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer rare? Examination of factors related to both gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Hideyuki; Nagata, Hiroyuki; Tabuchi, Takanobu; Konishi, Satoru; Kasuga, Teruhiko; Tabuchi, Takafumi

    2011-03-01

    The coexistence of gastric cancer with duodenal ulcer has been found empirically to be rare, but why it is rare is difficult to explain satisfactorily. To elucidate this question, we carried out a literature review of the subject. The frequency with which the two diseases coexist is 0.1-1.7%, and the main factor associated with both gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer is Helicobacter pylori infection. However, there are marked differences between the disorders of hyperchlorhydria in duodenal ulcer, and hypochlorhydria in gastric cancer. The most acceptable view of the reason for the difference may be that the acquisition of H. pylori infection occurs mainly in childhood, so that the time of acquisition of atrophic gastritis may be the most important, and if atrophic gastritis is not acquired early, high levels of gastric acid may occur, and consequently acute antral gastritis and duodenal ulcer may occur in youth, whereas, in elderly individuals, persistent H. pylori infections and the early appearance of atrophic gastritis may be the causes of low gastric acid, and consequently gastric cancer may occur. In patients with duodenal ulcer, factors such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and dupA-H. pylori strains may contribute to preventing the early acquisition of atrophic gastritis, while acid-suppressive therapy and vascular endothelial growth factor and other entities may inhibit atrophic gastritis. In contrast, in gastric cancer, factors such as excessive salt intake, acid-suppressive therapy, polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokines, and the homB-H. pylori strain may contribute to the early acquisition of atrophic gastritis, while factors such as NSAIDs; fruits and vegetables; vitamins A, C, and E; and good nutrition may inhibit it.

  20. Development and characterization of a new oral dapsone nanoemulsion system: permeability and in silico bioavailability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lidiane M; Lione, Viviane F; do Carmo, Flavia A; do Amaral, Lilian H; da Silva, Julianna H; Nasciutti, Luiz E; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Castro, Helena C; de Sousa, Valeria P; Cabral, Lucio M

    2012-01-01

    Dapsone is described as being active against Mycobacterium leprae, hence its role in the treatment of leprosy and related pathologies. Despite its therapeutic potential, the low solubility of dapsone in water results in low bioavailability and high microbial resistance. Nanoemulsions are pharmaceutical delivery systems derived from micellar solutions with a good capacity for improving absorption. The aim of this work was to develop and compare the permeability of a series of dapsone nanoemulsions in Caco-2 cell culture against that of effective permeability in the human body simulated using Gastroplus™ software. The release profiles of the dapsone nanoemulsions using different combinations of surfactants and cosolvent showed a higher dissolution rate in simulated gastric and enteric fluid than did the dispersed dapsone powder. The drug release kinetics were consistent with a Higuchi model. This comparison of dapsone permeability in Caco-2 cells with effective permeability in the human body simulated by Gastroplus showed a good correlation and indicates potential improvement in the biodisponibility of dapsone using this new system.

  1. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  2. Endoscopic Treatment of Early Gastric Obstruction After Sleeve Gastrectomy: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nuno Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbid obesity is an epidemic and complex disease which imposes a multidisciplinary approach. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has become a frequent procedure given its efficacy and safety compared to other surgical options. However, it isn’t free from complications. Lax gastric fixation or incorrect positioning of the stomach during surgery can result in early gastric outlet obstruction caused by a volvulus-like mechanism by rotation of the stomach around its anatomic axes. This report refers to two cases of post sleeve gastric torsion resulting in persisting vomiting after initiating oral intake. The diagnosis was confirmed by upper gastrointestinal-contrast study and gastroscopy. In both cases, a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent was inserted which prompted the gastric lumen to become permeable resulting in symptomatic resolution. The stents were removed endoscopically after two and three months. Beyond more than three years of follow-up, the patients remain asymptomatic and no recurring “stenosis” was noticed. In these cases the use of fully covered self-expandable metallic stents demonstrated to be effective and safe in the treatment of post sleeve gastric torsion.

  3. Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion for advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu CAO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of chemotherapy via arterial infusion in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods Forty-seven patients with advanced gastric cancer were given chemotherapy via arterial infusion.Chemotherapy plan was as follows: 5-Fluorouracil(Fu 500mg/m2,cyclophosphamide(MMX 10mg/m2,Hydroxycamptothecin(HPT 20mg/m2,once per week,2 weeks as a course,a total of 2-3 courses.Results After chemotherapy via arterial infusion,complete remission(CR was achieved in 1 case,partial remission(PR in 28 cases,stabilization of disease(SD in 16 cases,progression of disease(PD was found in 2 cases,and rate with response(CR+PR was 61.7%.Four of 28 PR patients underwent tumorectomy,the pathology revealed the presence of cancer cells around the vascular vessels,manifesting karyopyknosis,karyorrhexis,coagulation and necrosis of cytoplasm,intercellular edema,hyperplasia of fibroblasts,inflammatory cell infiltration,thickening of endothelium,and thrombosis.One,two and three-year survival rates were 70.2%,14.9% and 2.1%,respectively.The average survival period was 17.2 months.Conclusion Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion,as a part of the combined treatment,is beneficial to the patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer.

  4. Serum LAG-3 and DKK-1 levels in patients with gastric cancer and their correlation with clinical pathological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fang Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum LAG-3 and DKK-1 levels with cancer cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and other clinical pathological characteristics in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: 48 patients who were diagnosed with early gastric cancer in our hospital between June 2014 and October 2016 were selected as the gastric cancer group of the research, 50 healthy volunteers who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as the control group of the research, serum was collected to determine the levels of lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1 and angiogenesis molecules, and the gastric cancer tissue and the tissue adjacent to carcinoma were collected to determine the expression of proliferation and invasion-related molecules. Results: Serum LAG-1, DKK-1, angiogenin-1 (Ang-1, Ang-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF levels of gastric cancer group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05, and EPHA2, LOXL2, PCNA, Akt, CyclinD1, MYH-9, CXCR7, KDM1A and CatB mRNA expression in gastric cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in the tissue adjacent to carcinoma (P<0.05; serum Ang-1, Ang-2, VEGF and bFGF levels as well as EPHA2, LOXL2, PCNA, Akt, CyclinD1, MYH-9, CXCR7, KDM1A and CatB mRNA expression in gastric cancer tissue of patients with gastric cancer were positively correlated with serum LAG-3 and DKK-1 levels. Conclusion: Serum LAG-3 and DKK-1 levels are valuable to diagnose early gastric cancer and can assess the cancer cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and other clinical pathological characteristics in gastric cancer tissue.

  5. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  6. Magnetic resonance vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, L

    1989-01-01

    The basis principles of MRI are reviewed in order to understand how blood flow effects arise in conventional imaging. Then some of the ways these effects have ben used in MRI techniques specifically designed for vascular imaging, are considered. (author)

  7. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Erian Peter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959. While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients, vomiting (54.2%, diarrhea (21.9%, and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%. Respiratory (23.0% and cardiocirculatory (16.7% symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%, medium chain triglycerides (54.2% or enhanced caloric density (65.6% of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%, dehydration (27.5% and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly

  8. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Honda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO or gastric pneumatosis (GP. In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  9. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hirokazu; Ikeya, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Erika; Okada, Shuichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) or gastric pneumatosis (GP). In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  10. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Guillon, Françoise; Taourel, Patrice

    2014-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. CT is highly reliable for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus with two findings. The two signs are gastropyloric transition zone and abnormal location of the antrum. This allows fast surgical management of this emergency.

  11. Ethamsylate and lung permeability in ventilated immature newborn rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, M; Sun, B; Robertson, B

    1994-01-01

    The leakage of proteins in the immature neonatal lung can reduce the effect of exogenous surfactant. The effect of ethamsylate, a more specific prostaglandin inhibitor than indomethacin and aspirin-like drugs, on alveolar albumin leak was studied in a group of 27 immature newborn rabbits (gestational age 27 days). A pilot study was carried out using 4 animals and low-dose ethamsylate (10 mg/kg). A second group of animals (n = 12) received at birth, by intravenous injection, ethamsylate (50 mg/kg) and 10% human albumin (7 ml/kg). Animals not receiving ethamsylate (n = 11) served as control group. After 30 min of artificial ventilation with standard tidal volume (10 ml/kg) the lungs were lavaged and the amount of human albumin in lung lavage fluid was determined by immunodiffusion. No statistically significant differences were found in lung-thorax compliance and vascular to alveolar albumin leak between ethamsylate-treated animals and controls (p > 0.5). However, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between protein leak and lung compliance (r = -0.41; p ethamsylate administration on neonatal lung permeability in the immature neonate confirming that lung permeability is inversely related to compliance.

  12. Clinicopathological study of asymptomatic gastric cancer and symptomatic gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshiteru

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer can be classified into two categories based on the absence or presence of symptoms at diagnosis. Differences in clinicopathological features and prognoses between asymptomatic gastric cancer (ACG) and symptomatic gastric cancer (SGC) can be used to inform diagnosis strategies and ultimately improve survival rates. All cases of gastric cancer (239 AGC, 323 SGC) diagnosed in our hospital between 1997 and 1999 were used in this study. ACG patients showed significantly higher frequency of males, cases of early cancer, cases found by a mass screening program, cases treated by endoscopic resection, cases treated by curative operation, cases of type 0 macroscopic finding, cases of histologically-differentiated type, and stage I cases. By contrast, SGC patients showed significantly higher numbers of cases treated by chemotherapy alone or best support care, cases of type 2, 3, and 4 macroscopic findings, cases occupying the whole stomach, and cases of stage II, III, IV. Statistically significant differences were also found for the 5-year survival rate (83.3% in AGC, 41.2% in SGC), the incidence of early cancer (90.1% in AGC, 83.7% in SGC), and for advanced cancer (38.7% in AGC, 22.7% in SGC). The higher incidence of advanced cases in SGC than in AGC (40.0% vs. 13.0%), coupled with the low 5-year survival rate of advanced SGC (22.7%), provides strong evidence of the importance of diagnosing gastric cancer during its asymptomatic period. (author)

  13. Crustal permeability: Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gleeson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The topic of crustal permeability is of broad interest in light of the controlling effect of permeability on diverse geologic processes and also timely in light of the practical challenges associated with emerging technologies such as hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production (‘fracking’), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. This special issue of Geofluids is also motivated by the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic concept of permeability as a static material property that exerts control on fluid flow and the perspective of economic geologists, geophysicists, and crustal petrologists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. Issues associated with fracking, enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration have already begun to promote a constructive dialog between the static and dynamic views of permeability, and here we have made a conscious effort to include both viewpoints. This special issue also focuses on the quantification of permeability, encompassing both direct measurement of permeability in the uppermost crust and inferential permeability estimates, mainly for the deeper crust.

  14. Effect of temperature on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Kjøller, Claus

    Hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers is considered for seasonal energy storage in Denmark. However, an increase in the aquifer temperature might reduce permeability, and thereby increase production costs. An understanding of the factors that control permeability is required in order...... and the Klinkenberg procedure showed the expected correlation between the two measures, however, differences could be around one order of magnitude. In tight gas sandstones, permeability is often sensitive to net stress, which might change due to the pore pressure change in the Klinkenberg procedure. Besides...... affecting the Klinkenberg procedure, the combined effect of slip and changes in permeability would affect production during pressure depletion in tight gas sandstone reservoirs; therefore effects of gas slip and net stress on permeability were combined in a model based on the Klinkenberg equation. A lower...

  15. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  16. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed the way your ...

  17. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  18. Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric volvulus with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eventration; perforation of the stomach in gastric volvulus is rare, with very few cases reported in the .... it was a chronic volvulus and manifested owing to gastric ulcer perforation. ... without strangulation. Management in such cases without.

  19. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  20. Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus presenting with GIT Bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kadam; VSV Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in neonatal period is a life-threatening surgical emergency. We report a case of neonate with respiratory distress and GI bleeding who was diagnosed to have congenital diaphragmatic eventration with Intrathoracic gastric volvulus.

  1. Analysis of interventional therapy for progressing stage gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingde; Zhang Zijing; Ji Hongsheng; Ge Chenlin; Hao Gang; Wei Kongming; Yuan Yuhou; Zhao Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interventional therapy and its curative effect for progressing stage gastric cancer. Methods: two hundred and twelve patients with progressing stage gastric cancer were treated with arterial perfusion and arterial embolization. Gastric cardia cancer was treated through the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery or splenic artery. Cancers of lesser and greater gastric curvature was treated either through the left and right gastric arteries or common hepatic artery or through gastroduodenal artery, right gastroomental artery or splenic artery. Gastric antrum cancers were perfused through gastroduodenal artery or after the middle segmental embolization of right gastroomental artery. Results: One hundred and ninety three cases undergone interventional management were followed up. The CR + PR of gastric cardia cancer was 53.13%; gastric body cancer 44.44%; gastric antrum cancer 10%; recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer 0. There was no significant difference in outcome between gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer (P>0.05) but significant differences were shown both between gastric cardia cancer and gastric antrum cancer, and between gastric body cancer and gastric antrum cancer (P<0.05), with 1 year and 2 years survival rates of 81% and 56% respectively. Conclusion: The interventional therapeutic effect of progressing stage gastric cancers is different due to the different sites of the lesions in the gastric tissue. The curative effect of gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer is better than that of gastric antrum cancer, recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer. (authors)

  2. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huanling, E-mail: whl_hm@163.com [Key Laboratory of Coastal Disaster and Defence, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); LML, University of Lille, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Xu, Weiya; Zuo, Jing [Institutes of Geotechnical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO{sub 2,} shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10{sup −19} m{sup 2}; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens’ permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure.

  3. Gas and Water Permeability of Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Martin, P. L.; Romero, F. J.; Gutierrez-Rodirgo, V.; Barcala, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The gas pressure of concrete samples was measured in an unsteady-state equipment working under low injection pressures and in a newly fine tuned steady-state setup working under different pressures. These measurements allowed the estimation of the intrinsic and relative gas permeability of the concrete and of the effect of boundary conditions on them. Permeability decreased with water content, but it was also greatly affected by the hydraulic history of concrete, i.e. if it had been previously dried or wetted. In particular, and for a given degree of saturation, the gas permeability of concrete previously saturated was lower than if the concrete had been just air dried or saturated after air drying. In any case, the gas permeability was about two orders of magnitude higher than the liquid water permeability (10-16 vs. 10-18 m2), probably due to the chemical reactions taking place during saturation (carbonation). The relative gas permeability of concrete increased sharply for water degrees of saturation smaller than 50%. The boundary conditions also affected the gas permeability, which seemed to be mostly conditioned by the back pressure and the confining pressure, increasing as the former increased and decreasing as the latter increased, i.e. decreasing as the effective pressure increased. Overall the increase of pressure head or injection pressure implied a decrease in gas permeability. External,microcracking during air-drying could not be ruled out as responsible for the decrease of permeability with confining pressure. The apparent permeability obtained applying the Klinkenberg method for a given effective pressure was only slightly smaller than the average of all the values measured for the same confining pressure range. For this reason it is considered that the Klinkenberg effect was not relevant in the range of pressures applied. (Author) 37 refs.

  4. Permeability During Magma Expansion and Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge. M.; Giachetti, Thomas; Fliedner, Céline; Nguyen, Chinh T.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Crozier, Joshua A.; Carey, Rebecca J.

    2017-12-01

    Plinian lapilli from the 1060 Common Era Glass Mountain rhyolitic eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California, were collected and analyzed for vesicularity and permeability. A subset of the samples were deformed at a temperature of 975°, under shear and normal stress, and postdeformation porosities and permeabilities were measured. Almost all undeformed samples fall within a narrow range of vesicularity (0.7-0.9), encompassing permeabilities between approximately 10-15 m2 and 10-10 m2. A percolation threshold of approximately 0.7 is required to fit the data by a power law, whereas a percolation threshold of approximately 0.5 is estimated by fitting connected and total vesicularity using percolation modeling. The Glass Mountain samples completely overlap with a range of explosively erupted silicic samples, and it remains unclear whether the erupting magmas became permeable at porosities of approximately 0.7 or at lower values. Sample deformation resulted in compaction and vesicle connectivity either increased or decreased. At small strains permeability of some samples increased, but at higher strains permeability decreased. Samples remain permeable down to vesicularities of less than 0.2, consistent with a potential hysteresis in permeability-porosity between expansion (vesiculation) and compaction (outgassing). We attribute this to retention of vesicle interconnectivity, albeit at reduced vesicle size, as well as bubble coalescence during shear deformation. We provide an equation that approximates the change in permeability during compaction. Based on a comparison with data from effusively erupted silicic samples, we propose that this equation can be used to model the change in permeability during compaction of effusively erupting magmas.

  5. Sphingosine kinase inhibition alleviates endothelial permeability induced by thrombin and activated neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Qin; Hauser, Carl J

    2010-04-01

    Inflammation and microvascular thrombosis are interrelated causes of acute lung injury in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil [PMN]) and endothelial cells (EC) activated by systemic inflammatory response syndrome interact to increase pulmonary vascular permeability, but the interactions between PMN and EC are difficult to study. Recently, we reported that sphingosine 1-phosphate is a second messenger eliciting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in response to inflammatory agonists in both PMN and EC. Store-operated calcium entry is therefore a target mechanism for the therapeutic modulation of inflammatory PMN-EC interactions. Here, we isolated, modeled, and studied the effects of pharmacologic SOCE inhibition using real-time systems to monitor EC permeability after exposure to activated PMN. We created systems to continuously assess permeability of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells from lung. Endothelial cells show increased permeability after challenge by activated PMN. Such permeability increases can be attenuated by exposure of the cocultures to sphingosine kinase (SK) inhibitors (SKI-2, N,N-dimethylsphingosine [DMS]) or Ca2+ entry inhibitors (Gd3+, MRS-1845). Human microvascular endothelial cells from lung pretreated with SKI-2 or DMS showed decreased permeability when later exposed to activated PMN. Likewise, when PMNs were activated with thapsigargin (TG) in the presence of SKI-2, DMS, Gd, or MRS-1845, their ability to cause EC permeability subsequently was reduced. SKI-2 also inhibited the activation of human pulmonary artery ECs by thrombin. These studies will provide a firm mechanistic foundation for understanding how systemic SOCE inhibition may be used to prevent acute lung injury in vivo.

  6. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with gastric volvulus

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Prashant; Sanghavi, Beejal; Sanghani, Hemanshi; Parelkar, S. V.; Borwankar, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency presenting in various forms. Association with diaphragmatic defect is well known. Here we describe three cases of gastric volvulus associated with diaphragmatic defect having varied presentations and their management. A rare case of gastric volvulus with complete gangrene of the stomach is also reported. Three types of gastric volvulus have been described depending on the rotation axis: organoaxial, mesentericoaxial and combination of both types. Opera...

  7. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus on computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric volvulus is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, cause of upper gastro-intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis can prove clinically challenging, and hence there is increased reliance on imaging. There are different types of gastric volvulus, with the variant presented in our case being the less commonly encountered mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. Some of the CT features of gastric volvulus are described, and the usefulness of CT in assisting with the diagnosis is highlighted.

  8. Suitability of Torrent Permeability Tester to measure air-permeability of covercrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.; Gonzales-Gasca, C. [Institute of Construction Sciences ' Eduardo Torroja' , Madrid (Spain); Torrent, R. [Portland Cement Institute, (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    Suitability of the Torrent Permeability Tester (TPT) to measure the permeability of covercrete to air, both in the laboratory and the field, is investigated, and test results obtained in laboratory studies are discussed. The tests performed included the determination of air permeability (TPT method), oxygen permeability (Cembureau method) and capillary suction, rapid chloride permeability test (ASTM C 1202), as well as a one-year carbonation depth test. Concrete specimens of various compositions and curing regimes were used in the tests; the gas-permeability tests were repeated on the same specimens after 28 days, than again at 6 months and 12 months. Test results confirmed the suitability of the TPT as a useful tool in the characterization of the quality the of concrete cover. It was found to be sensitive to changes in concrete quality; repeatable for sensitive properties such as gas permeability ; also, it was found to correlate well with other durability-related properties. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. ACUTE GASTRIC DILATATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. D'yakonovax

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation is a rare surgical condition in children, which often results from blunt abdominal trauma. This condition is characterized by the gut-brain connection disorder or gastric muscular layer damage, which results in atony. Gradual gastric stretching with fluid contents and gases in the end leads to the development of various types of intestinal obstruction. When conservative measures are not sufficient (in rare cases, it is reasonable to resort to operative intervention. Several cases of such a pathology have been published around the world. This condition has been observed not only at the blunt abdominal trauma, but also at lesions of central and peripheral nervous systems and in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the event of excessive food consumption. The article presents a clinical case study and a follow-up analysis of a child with posttraumatic acute gastric dilatation. The authors describe clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and diagnostic algorithm, which allowed establishing this rare diagnosis. Along with the conventional drugs and intensive care measures, the treatment involved a complex of mini-invasive endosurgical and endoscopic manipulations, including laparoscopic jejunostomy, which was performed in order to provide long-term enteral feeding. The clinical case study demonstrated that the use of diagnostic laparoscopy helps to establish nature of the gastric damage correctly and formulate the following optimal treatment tactics on the basis of the obtained data. 

  10. Telomerase activity in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, E; Yokoyama, T; Tatsumoto, N; Hiyama, K; Imamura, Y; Murakami, Y; Kodama, T; Piatyszek, M A; Shay, J W; Matsuura, Y

    1995-08-01

    Although many genetic alterations have been reported in gastric cancer, it is not known whether all gastric tumors are capable of indefinite proliferative potential, e.g., immortality. The expression of telomerase and stabilization of telomeres are concomitant with the attainment of immortality in tumor cells; thus, the measurement of telomerase activity in clinically obtained tumor samples may provide important information useful both as a diagnostic marker to detect immortal cancer cells in clinical materials and as a prognostic indicator of patient outcome. Telomerase activity was analyzed in 66 primary gastric cancers with the use of a PCR-based assay. The majority of tumors (85%) displayed telomerase activity, but telomerase was undetectable in 10 tumors (15%), 8 of which were early stage tumors. Most of the tumors with telomerase activity were large and of advanced stages, including metastases. Survival rate of patients of tumors with detectable telomerase activity was significantly shorter than that of those without telomerase activity. Alterations of telomere length (reduced/elongated terminal restriction fragments) were detected in 14 of 66 (21%) gastric cancers, and all 14 had telomerase activity. Cellular DNA contents revealed that all 22 aneuploid tumors had detectable telomerase activity. The present results indicate that telomerase activation may be required as a critical step in the multigenetic process of tumorigenesis, and that telomerase is frequently but not always activated as a late event in gastric cancer progression.

  11. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  12. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  13. Gastric candidiasis with gastric adenocarcinoma intestinal type: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Selvi Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis of the gastrointestinal tract most commonly involves the esophagus and rarely involves the stomach and small bowel. The association of gastric carcinoma with candidiasis is even rare and only a very few case reports are available. We present here a 40-year-old female who presented with complaints of gastric outlet obstruction who on endoscopy showed a malignant ulcer involving the lesser curvature. The histopathological examination of biopsy from the ulcer showed adenocarcinoma intestinal type along with yeast and pseudohyphae forms of candida species.

  14. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Taourel, Patrice [Hopital Lapeyronie, Department of Radiology, Montpellier (France); Guillon, Francoise [University Hospital of Montpellier, Department of Surgery, Montpellier (France)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  15. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Taourel, Patrice; Guillon, Francoise

    2014-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  16. Lethal mechanisms in gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Kimberley J; Byard, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration. Death in cases of acute gastric volvulus usually occurs because of compromise of the gastric blood supply resulting in ischaemic necrosis with distention from swallowed air and fluid resulting in perforation with lethal peritonitis. Hypovolaemic shock may also occur. However, the current case demonstrates an alternative lethal mechanism, that of respiratory compromise due to marked thoracic organ compression.

  17. Measurement of intestinal permeability using 51Cr-EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peled, Y.; Watz, C.; Gilat, T.

    1985-01-01

    Intestinal permeability tests are a new class of tests of which the 51 Cr-EDTA seemed the easiest to perform. The authors have evaluated the 8- and 24-h urinary excretion of ingested 51 Cr-EDTA in 38 subjects. Twenty-seven patients with diseases not affecting the integrity of the small bowel served as controls. The test group consisted of two patients with celiac, six with Crohn's disease, and three with ulcerative colitis. Nineteen (70.37%) of the control patients had an abnormal test (more than 2.6% in 24 h). The patients with ulcerative colitis had normal excretion (mean 1.95% in 24 h). The patients with celiac disease had an elevated excretion (mean 3.62% in 24 h) and five out of six patients with Crohn's disease also had an increased excretion (mean 6.2% in 24 h). The elevated 51 Cr-EDTA excretion in the control patients casts serious doubts on the validity of the test. Possible causes for abnormal excretion in the controls include various medications used by the patients as well as changes in the chromatographic mobility of 51 Cr-EDTA, demonstrated after incubation with gastric juice

  18. Permeability Barrier Generation in the Martian Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Permeability barriers develop when a magma produced in the interior of a planet rises into the cooler lithosphere and crystallizes more rapidly than the lithosphere can deform (Sparks and Parmentier, 1991). Crystallization products may then clog the porous network in which melt is propagating, reducing the permeability to almost zero, i.e., forming a permeability barrier. Subsequent melts cannot cross the barrier. Permeability barriers have been useful to explain variations in crustal thickness at mid-ocean ridges on Earth (Magde et al., 1997; Hebert and Montési, 2011; Montési et al., 2011). We explore here under what conditions permeability barriers may form on Mars.We use the MELTS thermodynamic calculator (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002; Asimow et al., 2004) in conjunction with estimated Martian mantle compositions (Morgan and Anders, 1979; Wänke and Dreibus, 1994; Lodders and Fegley, 1997; Sanloup et al., 1999; Taylor 2013) to model the formation of permeability barriers in the lithosphere of Mars. In order to represent potential past and present conditions of Mars, we vary the lithospheric thickness, mantle potential temperature (heat flux), oxygen fugacity, and water content.Our results show that permeability layers can develop in the thermal boundary layer of the simulated Martian lithosphere if the mantle potential temperature is higher than ~1500°C. The various Martian mantle compositions yield barriers in the same locations, under matching variable conditions. There is no significant difference in barrier location over the range of accepted Martian oxygen fugacity values. Water content is the most significant influence on barrier development as it reduces the temperature of crystallization, allowing melt to rise further into the lithosphere. Our lower temperature and thicker lithosphere model runs, which are likely the most similar to modern Mars, show no permeability barrier generation. Losing the possibility of having a permeability

  19. Glutamine prevents gastric oxidative stress in an animal model of portal hypertension gastropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Camila; Mauriz, José L; Simonetto, Douglas; Marroni, Claudio A; Tuñon, María J; González-Gallego, Javier; Marrón, Norma P

    2011-01-01

    Portal hypertension (PHI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by increases of the blood flow and/or of the vascular resistance in the portal system. A direct consequence of PHI can appearance different lesions on the gastric mucosa and submucosa, cumulatively termed portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). To investigate the effects of glutamine on oxidative stress in an experimental model of PHG induced by partial portal vein ligation (PPVL). Portal pressure, transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activity were quantified. Gastric tissue damage was assessed by histological analysis. Oxidative stress was measured by quantification of cytosolic concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence (QL), and nitric oxide (NO) production. Moreover, activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were analyzed. Transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were not significantly modified by PPVL, indicating absence of liver injury. Histological analysis of gastric sections showed a lost of normal architecture, with edema and vasodilatation. TBARS, QL, and NO production were significantly increased in PPVL animals. A reduction of SOD activity was found. Glutamine administration markedly alleviated histological abnormalities and oxidative stress, normalized SOD activity, and blocked NO overproduction. Our results confirm that the use of molecules with antioxidant capacity can provide protection of the gastric tissue in portal hypertension. Glutamine treatment can be useful to reduce the oxidative damage induced by PHI on gastric tissue.

  20. Overview of vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    Vascular disease in the pediatric population is a poorly understood process which is often underestimated in its incidence. The common beginnings of such ubiquitous diseases as atherosclerosis manifest themselves at a cellular level shortly after birth. Other common systemic disorders, including congestive heart failure and sepsis, are also intricately associated with dysfunctional vasculature. Progress in the understanding of normal and pathophysiologic processes within the vascular system begins with the 'control center' - the endothelial cell. The purpose of this review is to consolidate a body of knowledge on the processes that occur at the cellular level within the blood vessel wall, and to simplify the understanding of how imbalances in these physiologic parameters result in vascular disease. (orig.)

  1. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  2. Attenuated expression of the tight junction proteins is involved in clopidogrel-induced gastric injury through p38 MAPK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hai-Lu; Gao, Xin; Jiang, Zong-Dan; Duan, Zhao-Tao; Wang, Shu-Kui; He, Bang-Shun; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Xie, Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Clopidogrel suppressed GES-1 cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. ► Clopidogrel significantly increased dextran permeability, reduced occludin and ZO-1 expression, and induced cell apoptosis. ► Clopidogrel activated p38 MAPK signaling pathway. ► Activation of p38 activity was involved in clopidogrel-induced increase in gastric epithelial cells permeability and disruption of TJ. -- Abstract: Bleeding complications and delayed healing of gastric ulcer associated with use of clopidogrel is a common clinical concern; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. This study aimed to clarify whether clopidogrel could cause the damage of the human gastric epithelial cells and to further elucidate the mechanisms involved. After human gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 had been treated with clopidogrel (0.5–2.5 mM), the cell proliferation was examined by MTT assay, apoptosis was measured with DAPI staining and flow cytometry analysis, and the barrier function of the tight junctions (TJ) was evaluated by permeability measurement and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, expression of the TJ proteins occludin and ZO-1 and the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38, ERK, and JNK were examined by western blot. In addition, three MAPK inhibitors specific to p38, ERK and JNK were used, respectively, to verify the signaling pathways responsible for regulating the expression of the TJ proteins being tested. Results showed that clopidogrel significantly increased dextran permeability, induced apoptosis, suppressed GES-1 cell viability, and reduced the expression of the TJ proteins (occludin and ZO-1), acting through p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, these observed effects were partially abolished by SB-203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor), rather than by either U-0126 (an ERK inhibitor) or SP-600125 (a JNK inhibitor), suggesting that clopidogrel-induced disruption in the gastric

  3. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  4. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  5. Endoscopic palliation in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivieso, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The integral search for improved living conditions for those patients with gastric cancer who have not received curative surgical treatment continues to challenge the knowledge, dexterity and ethical foundations of medical teams. The justification for palliative treatment must be based on a thorough consideration of the available options and the particular situation in each case. This article reviews endoscopic therapy with auto expandable prosthetics for palliative treatment of gastric cancer, as well as the scientific evidence that supports its use and the factors that determine its indication.

  6. Automated analysis of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abutaleb, A.; Frey, D.; Spicer, K.; Spivey, M.; Buckles, D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors devised a novel method to automate the analysis of nuclear gastric emptying studies. Many previous methods have been used to measure gastric emptying but, are cumbersome and require continuing interference by the operator to use. Two specific problems that occur are related to patient movement between images and changes in the location of the radioactive material within the stomach. Their method can be used with either dual or single phase studies. For dual phase studies the authors use In-111 labeled water and Tc-99MSC (Sulfur Colloid) labeled scrambled eggs. For single phase studies either the liquid or solid phase material is used

  7. Development and characterization of a new oral dapsone nanoemulsion system: permeability and in silico bioavailability studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro LM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lidiane M Monteiro,1 Viviane F Lione,1 Flavia A do Carmo,1 Lilian H do Amaral,1 Julianna H da Silva,2 Luiz E Nasciutti,2 Carlos R Rodrigues,1 Helena C Castro,3 Valeria P de Sousa,1 Lucio M Cabral11Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 2Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 3Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, BrasilBackground: Dapsone is described as being active against Mycobacterium leprae, hence its role in the treatment of leprosy and related pathologies. Despite its therapeutic potential, the low solubility of dapsone in water results in low bioavailability and high microbial resistance. Nanoemulsions are pharmaceutical delivery systems derived from micellar solutions with a good capacity for improving absorption. The aim of this work was to develop and compare the permeability of a series of dapsone nanoemulsions in Caco-2 cell culture against that of effective permeability in the human body simulated using GastroplusTM software.Methods and results: The release profiles of the dapsone nanoemulsions using different combinations of surfactants and cosolvent showed a higher dissolution rate in simulated gastric and enteric fluid than did the dispersed dapsone powder. The drug release kinetics were consistent with a Higuchi model.Conclusion: This comparison of dapsone permeability in Caco-2 cells with effective permeability in the human body simulated by Gastroplus showed a good correlation and indicates potential improvement in the biodisponibility of dapsone using this new system.Keywords: dapsone, nanoemulsions, antibacterial, permeability, Caco-2 cell, GastroplusTM

  8. Diagnosis of gastric cancers by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianbing; Gong Jianping; Huan Jian

    1999-01-01

    Forty two cases of gastric cancers were reviewed. The cancer had been examined by CT and was confirmed by operation and pathology. The diagnostic results of gastric cancers obtained by CT were compared with that from GI and fibro-gastroscopy examination. The results showed that the preparation of gastrointestinal tract before CT examination was important in the CT diagnosis of gastric cancer. CT in diagnosis of focus of gastric cancer and organ invasion is better than Gl and Fibro-gastroscopy and accuracy in diagnosis of gastric cancers is near to that of GI examination

  9. Radiologic features of gastric leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumors of stomach are unusual tumors, accounting for 1-3% of primary gastric malignancies. Diagnosis of these tumors is important because of the more favorable prognosis of this tumor than that of gastric carcinoma. A retrospective study was made in 18 patients who had pathology-proven gastric leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma to identify radiologic characteristics for recent 6 years from Jan. 1978 to July. 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Age of 13 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma ranged from 36 to 70 with average of 51 and the male to female ratio was 10 ; 3. Age of 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma ranged from 24 to 67 with average of 44 and the male to female ratio was 3 : 2. 2. Clinically, gastric leiomyosarcoma had epigastric pain in 7 cases, palpable mass in 4 cases, melena in 3 cases, haematemesis in 2 cases, 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma also had above symptoms respectively. 3. Of the 13 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma studied by upper gastrointestinal examination, 6 cases (32%) involved the fundus, 10 cases (50%) in the body, 3 cases (18%) in the antrum. Of the 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma, 4 cases were confined to the fundus and 1 case in the body. 4. The size of the 13 gastric leiomyosarcoma ranged from 5 to more than 20 cm in diameter. The size of the 5 gastric leiomyomas ranged from 3 to 9 cm in diameter. 5. The growth type of gastric leiomysarcoma was exophytic in 8 cases, endogastric in 1 case and mixed pattern in 4 cases. The growth type of gastric leiomyoma were exophytic in 1 case, endogastric in 2 cases and mixed in 2 cases. 6. Mucosal pattern of gastric leiomyosarcoma were mainly effaced pattern in 10 cases (77%), but 3 cases (23%) showed irregular destruction. 1 case of gastric leiomyoma showed mucosal irregularity. 7. Ulceration was present in 10 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma either single or multiple. 2 cases of gastric leiomyoma showed small ulcerations. Calciflation

  10. Study of the therapeutic benefit of cationic copolymer administration to vascular endothelium under mechanical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsos-Adams, Kristina; Lopez-Quintero, Veronica; Kopeckova, Pavla; Kopecek, Jindrich; Tarbell, John M.; Dull, Randal

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary edema and the associated increases in vascular permeability continue to represent a significant clinical problem in the intensive care setting, with no current treatment modality other than supportive care and mechanical ventilation. Therapeutic compound(s) capable of attenuating changes in vascular barrier function would represent a significant advance in critical care medicine. We have previously reported the development of HPMA-based copolymers, targeted to endothelial glycocalyx that are able to enhance barrier function. In this work, we report the refinement of copolymer design and extend our physiological studies todemonstrate that the polymers: 1) reduce both shear stress and pressure-mediated increase in hydraulic conductivity, 2) reduce nitric oxide production in response to elevated hydrostatic pressure and, 3) reduce the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) in an isolated perfused mouse lung model. These copolymers represent an important tool for use in mechanotransduction research and a novel strategy for developing clinically useful copolymers for the treatment of vascular permeability. PMID:20932573

  11. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.

    2003-01-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  12. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  13. Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO 4- ) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO 4 - localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO 4 - scanning for these disorders

  14. Borehole stoneley waves and permeability: Laboratory results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.W.; Plona, T.J.; Froelich, B.; Liu, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent interest in full waveform sonic logging has created the need for full waveform laboratory experiments on model boreholes. Of particular interest is the investigation of Stoneley waves and their interaction with permeable formations. The authors describe experimental results that show how Stoneley wave slowness and attenuation are affected by formation permeability. Both slowness and attenuation (1/Q) are observed to increase with formation permeability. This increase is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. The presence of simulated mudcakes on the borehole wall reduces the permeability effect on Stoneley waves, but does not eliminate it. The mudcake effect is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. In our experiments on rocks, the laboratory data is in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. In a very well characterized synthetic porous material, theory and experiment are in good quantitative agreement

  15. Octopus microvasculature: permeability to ferritin and carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, J

    1979-01-01

    The permeability of Octopus microvasculature was investigated by intravascular injection of carbon and ferritin. Vessels were tight to carbon while ferritin penetrated the pericyte junction, and was found extravascularly 1-2 min after its introduction. Vesicles occurred rarely in pericytes; fenestrae were absent. The discontinuous endothelial layer did not consitute a permeability barrier. The basement membrane, although retarding the movement of ferritin, was permeable to it; carbon did not penetrate the basement membrane. Evidence indicated that ferritin, and thus similarly sized and smaller water soluble materials, traverse the pericyte junction as a result of bulk fluid flow. Comparisons are made with the convective (or junctional) and slower, diffusive (or vesicular) passage of materials known to occur across the endothelium of continuous capillaries in mammals. Previous macrophysiological determinations concerning the permeability of Octopus vessels are questioned in view of these findings. Possible reasons for some major structural differences in the microcirculatory systems of cephalopods and vertebrates are briefly discussed.

  16. Dentin Permeability of Carious Primary Teeth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary dental pulp make it difficult to determine which modality offers the best ... The most common pathology of the dentine is dental caries. ... to evaluate dentine permeability is to calculate its hydraulic conductance (Lp) using fluid filtration ...

  17. Permeability of gypsum samples dehydrated in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsch, Harald; Priegnitz, Mike; Blöcher, Guido

    2011-09-01

    We report on changes in rock permeability induced by devolatilization reactions using gypsum as a reference analog material. Cylindrical samples of natural alabaster were dehydrated in air (dry) for up to 800 h at ambient pressure and temperatures between 378 and 423 K. Subsequently, the reaction kinetics, so induced changes in porosity, and the concurrent evolution of sample permeability were constrained. Weighing the heated samples in predefined time intervals yielded the reaction progress where the stoichiometric mass balance indicated an ultimate and complete dehydration to anhydrite regardless of temperature. Porosity showed to continuously increase with reaction progress from approximately 2% to 30%, whilst the initial bulk volume remained unchanged. Within these limits permeability significantly increased with porosity by almost three orders of magnitude from approximately 7 × 10-19 m2 to 3 × 10-16 m2. We show that - when mechanical and hydraulic feedbacks can be excluded - permeability, reaction progress, and porosity are related unequivocally.

  18. Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.

  19. Gadolinium prevents high airway pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L; Tucker, J A

    1998-04-01

    To determine the initial signaling event in the vascular permeability increase after high airway pressure injury, we compared groups of lungs ventilated at different peak inflation pressures (PIPs) with (gadolinium group) and without (control group) infusion of 20 microM gadolinium chloride, an inhibitor of endothelial stretch-activated cation channels. Microvascular permeability was assessed by using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), a measure of capillary hydraulic conductivity. Kfc was measured after ventilation for 30-min periods with 7, 20, and 30 cmH2O PIP with 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure and with 35 cmH2O PIP with 8 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure. In control lungs, Kfc increased significantly to 1.8 and 3.7 times baseline after 30 and 35 cmH2O PIP, respectively. In the gadolinium group, Kfc was unchanged from baseline (0.060 +/- 0.010 ml . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g-1) after any PIP ventilation period. Pulmonary vascular resistance increased significantly from baseline in both groups before the last Kfc measurement but was not different between groups. These results suggest that microvascular permeability is actively modulated by a cellular response to mechanical injury and that stretch-activated cation channels may initiate this response through increases in intracellular calcium concentration.

  20. Electron histochemical and autoradiographic studies of vascular smooth muscle cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Kohji; Aida, Takeo; Asano, Goro

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the vascular smooth muscle cell in the aorta and the arteries of brain, heart in autopsied cases, cholesterol fed rabbits and canine through electron histochemical and autoradiographic methods, using 3 H-proline and 3 H-thymidine. The vascular changes are variable presumably due to the functional and morphological difference of vessels. Aging, pathological condition and physiological requirement induce the disturbances of vascular functions as contractility. According to various pathological conditions, the smooth muscle cell altered their shape, surface properties and arrangement of subcellular organelles including changes in number. The morphological features of arteries during aging is characterized by the thickening of endothelium and media. Decreasing cellularity and increasing collagen contents in media. The autoradiographic and histochemical observations using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAM) and ruthenium red stains demonstrated that the smooth muscle cell is a connective tissue synthetic cell. The PAM impregnation have proved that the small bundle of microfilaments become associated with small conglomerate of collagen and elastic fibers. Cytochemical examination will provide sufficient evidence to establish the contribution of subcellular structure. The acid phosphatase play an important role in vascular disease and they are directly involved in cellular lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed animals, and the activity of Na-K ATPase on the plasma membrane may contribute to the regulation of vascular blood flow and vasospasms. Direct injury and subsequent abnormal contraction of smooth muscle cell may initiate increased permeability of plasma protein and lipid in the media layer and eventually may developed and enhance arteriosclerosis. (author)

  1. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2018-01-01

    Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance of restorat......Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance...

  2. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  3. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  4. Gastric cancer and obstructive uropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Yukihisa; Tsunoda, H.S.; Matsueda, Kiyoshi; Kurosaki, Yoshihisa; Kuramoto, Kenmei

    1990-01-01

    In recent 5 years, we have experienced 24 cases of advanced gastric cancer associated with obstructive uropathy. Included were 19 cases of undifferentiated, 3 cases of differentiated and 2 cases of unknown histological type. Obstructive uropathy is diagnosed based on the typical radiological findings such as dilatation and delayed demonstration of the upper collecting systems. Pathologically, undifferentiated type of gastric cancer had tendency to spread infiltratively along the vessels, nerves and the lymphatics without alteration of the ordinary anatomical structures. In such cases, mucosal surface of the urinary tract tended to be spared in spite of extensive tumor invasion. It was proven that several radiological findings were characteristic of urinary tract involvement secondary to gastric cancer. Either thread-like ureteral stricture by IVU or ring-like appearance of the ureter by CT is one of those typical findings. Renal sinus involvement may occur continuously to diffuse retroperitoneal invasion and it appears as a thickened wall of renal pelvis or soft tissue mass directly extending into the fatty tissue of renal sinus by CT. In such cases IVU has less diagnostic ability because of the lack of mucosal destruction. If the urinary bladder is involved, it typically shows chestnut-bur appearance by IVU and diffuse wall thickening by CT. In cases of advanced gastric cancer, particularly in cases of histologically undifferentiated type, CT and IVU images should be carefully interpreted in consideration of the infiltrative part of tumor extention. (author)

  5. Roentgenological semiotics of gastric diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, A.N.; Rizaev, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A descriptive roentgenological picture of pathological changes and identification of gastric diseases are given. Retinoscopy (shadow) symptoms are described, which can provide a concrete syndrome of diseases of different stomach sections. The necessity to choose adequate roentgenologic method of investigation for a concrete part of stomach is emphasized. Investigation results should also be compared with clinical data

  6. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms may include: Loss of appetite or weight loss Nausea and vomiting Pain in the upper part of the belly Black stools Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material A gastric tissue biopsy and culture can help detect: Cancer Infections, most commonly Helicobacter ...

  7. Genetic Determinants of Gastric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boccia (Stefania)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractResults show that gastric cancer risk is increased by the inheritance of the variant alleles of the metabolic genes SULT1A1 and CYP2E1 *6, especially among smokers and drinkers, respectively. An additional increased risk is conferred by the inheritance of GSTT1 null variant, especially

  8. Radiologic findings of gastric volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Heon; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1987-01-01

    Gastric volvulus, organoaxial or mesenteroaxial rotation, is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction in childhood. It may be suspected on plain radiographic examination of the abdomen and confirmed by upper gastrointestinal series. Six affected children are described. Symptoms were mainly acute vomiting and abdominal distension. All patients had defect in perigastric ligaments

  9. Radiologic findings of gastric volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Heon; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Gastric volvulus, organoaxial or mesenteroaxial rotation, is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction in childhood. It may be suspected on plain radiographic examination of the abdomen and confirmed by upper gastrointestinal series. Six affected children are described. Symptoms were mainly acute vomiting and abdominal distension. All patients had defect in perigastric ligaments.

  10. gastric pneumatosis or emphysematous gastritis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A chest X-ray demonstrated a large mass adjacent to the right hemi-diaphragm. ... mediastinum (e.g. ruptured bullae or pneumothorax).2,3 These patients are usually ... gastric mucosal injury allows gas-forming organisms to gain access to.

  11. Transformable ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changjun; Jia, Chenglong; Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Xue, Desheng

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic permeability, which measures the response of a material to an applied magnetic field, is crucial to the performance of magnetic devices and related technologies. Its dynamic value is usually a complex number with real and imaginary parts that describe, respectively, how much magnetic power can be stored and lost in the material. Control of permeability is therefore closely related to energy redistribution within a magnetic system or energy exchange between magnetic and other degrees of freedom via certain spin-dependent interactions. To avoid a high power consumption, direct manipulation of the permeability with an electric field through magnetoelectric coupling leads to high efficiency and simple operation, but remains a big challenge in both the fundamental physics and material science. Here we report unambiguous evidence of ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability in a Co /Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3) 0.7Ti0.3O3 (Co/PMN-PT) heterostructure, in which the ferroelectric PMN-PT acts as an energy source for the ferromagnetic Co film via an interfacial linear magnetoelectric interaction. The electric field tuning of the magnitude and line shape of the permeability offers a highly localized means of controlling magnetization with ultralow power consumption. Additionally, the emergence of negative permeability promises a new way of realizing functional nanoscale metamaterials with adjustable refraction index.

  12. Defining clogging potential for permeable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Alalea; Wong, Hong S; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2018-08-15

    Permeable concrete is used to reduce urban flooding as it allows water to flow through normally impermeable infrastructure. It is prone to clogging by particulate matter and predicting the long-term performance of permeable concrete is challenging as there is currently no reliable means of characterising clogging potential. This paper reports on the performance of a range of laboratory-prepared and commercial permeable concretes, close packed glass spheres and aggregate particles of varying size, exposed to different clogging methods to understand this phenomena. New methods were developed to study clogging and define clogging potential. The tests involved applying flowing water containing sand and/or clay in cycles, and measuring the change in permeability. Substantial permeability reductions were observed in all samples, particularly when exposed to sand and clay simultaneously. Three methods were used to define clogging potential based on measuring the initial permeability decay, half-life cycle and number of cycles to full clogging. We show for the first time strong linear correlations between these parameters for a wide range of samples, indicating their use for service-life prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accurate control testing for clay liner permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R J

    1991-08-01

    Two series of centrifuge tests were carried out to evaluate the use of centrifuge modelling as a method of accurate control testing of clay liner permeability. The first series used a large 3 m radius geotechnical centrifuge and the second series a small 0.5 m radius machine built specifically for research on clay liners. Two permeability cells were fabricated in order to provide direct data comparisons between the two methods of permeability testing. In both cases, the centrifuge method proved to be effective and efficient, and was found to be free of both the technical difficulties and leakage risks normally associated with laboratory permeability testing of fine grained soils. Two materials were tested, a consolidated kaolin clay having an average permeability coefficient of 1.2{times}10{sup -9} m/s and a compacted illite clay having a permeability coefficient of 2.0{times}10{sup -11} m/s. Four additional tests were carried out to demonstrate that the 0.5 m radius centrifuge could be used for linear performance modelling to evaluate factors such as volumetric water content, compaction method and density, leachate compatibility and other construction effects on liner leakage. The main advantages of centrifuge testing of clay liners are rapid and accurate evaluation of hydraulic properties and realistic stress modelling for performance evaluations. 8 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Cell permeability beyond the rule of 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsson, Pär; Doak, Bradley C; Over, Björn; Kihlberg, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Drug discovery for difficult targets that have large and flat binding sites is often better suited to compounds beyond the "rule of 5" (bRo5). However, such compounds carry higher pharmacokinetic risks, such as low solubility and permeability, and increased efflux and metabolism. Interestingly, recent drug approvals and studies suggest that cell permeable and orally bioavailable drugs can be discovered far into bRo5 space. Tactics such as reduction or shielding of polarity by N-methylation, bulky side chains and intramolecular hydrogen bonds may be used to increase cell permeability in this space, but often results in decreased solubility. Conformationally flexible compounds can, however, combine high permeability and solubility, properties that are keys for cell permeability and intestinal absorption. Recent developments in computational conformational analysis will aid design of such compounds and hence prediction of cell permeability. Transporter mediated efflux occurs for most investigated drugs in bRo5 space, however it is commonly overcome by high local intestinal concentrations on oral administration. In contrast, there is little data to support significant impact of transporter-mediated intestinal absorption in bRo5 space. Current knowledge of compound properties that govern transporter effects of bRo5 drugs is limited and requires further fundamental and comprehensive studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bitter tastants alter gastric-phase postprandial haemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2014-07-03

    Since Greco-Roman times bitter tastants have been used in Europe to treat digestive disorders, yet no pharmacological mechanism has been identified which can account for this practice. This study investigates whether the bitter tastants, gentian root (Gentian lutea L.) and wormwood herb (Artemisia absinthium L.), stimulate cephalic and/or gut receptors to alter postprandial haemodynamics during the gastric-phase of digestion. Normal participants ingested (1) 100 mL water plus capsules containing either cellulose (placebo-control) or 1000 mg of each tastant (n=14); or (2) 100mL of water flavoured with 500 or 1500 mg of each tastant (a) gentian (n=12) and (b) wormwood (n=12). A single beat-to-beat cardiovascular recording was obtained for the entire session. Pre/post-ingestion contrasts with the control were analysed for (1) the encapsulated tastants, in the "10 to 15" minute post-ingestion period, and (2) the flavoured water in the "5 to 10" minute post-ingestion period. Water, the placebo-control, increased cardiac contraction force and blood pressure notwithstanding heart rate decreases. Encapsulated tastants did not further alter postprandial haemodynamics. In contrast gentian (500 and 1500 mg) and wormwood (1500 mg) flavoured water elicited increased peripheral vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output, primarily by reducing stroke volume rather than heart rate. Drinking 100mL water elicits a pressor effect during the gastric-phase of digestion due to increased cardiac contraction force. The addition of bitter tastants to water elicits an additional and parallel pressor effect due to increased peripheral vascular resistance; yet the extent of the post-prandial blood pressure increases are unchanged, presumably due to baroreflex buffering. The vascular response elicited by bitter tastants can be categorised as a sympathetically-mediated cephalic-phase response. A possible mechanism by which bitter tastants could positively influence digestion is altering

  17. Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric volvulus with perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V; Chandra, A; Gupta, P

    2012-01-01

    Eventration of the diaphragm with gastric volvulus is uncommon. Gastric perforation in these cases is rare and usually associated with acute gastric volvulus with strangulation. We describe a case of diaphragmatic eventration with chronic gastric volvulus with gastric perforation without strangulation in an elderly man.

  18. Effects of propranolol in combination with radiation on apoptosis and survival of gastric cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xinhua; Che, Xiangming; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Danjie; Long, Houlong; Chaudhary, Prakash; Li, Haijun

    2010-01-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend radiotherapy as a standard treatment for patients with a high risk of recurrence in gastric cancer. Because gastric cancer demonstrates limited sensitivity to radiotherapy, a radiosensitizer might therefore be useful to enhance the radiosensitivity of patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated if propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) antagonist, could enhance radiosensitivity and explored its precise molecular mechanism in gastric cancer cells. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines (SGC-7901 and BGC-823) were treated with or without propranolol and exposed to radiation. Cell viability and clonogenic survival assays were performed, and cell apoptosis was evaluated with flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were detected by western blot and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Propranolol combined with radiation decreased cell viability and clonogenic survivability. Furthermore, it also induced apoptosis in both cell lines tested, as determined by Annexin V staining. In addition, treatment with propranolol decreased the level of NF-κB and, subsequently, down-regulated VEGF, COX-2, and EGFR expression. Taken together, these results suggested that propranolol enhanced the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to radiation through the inhibition of β-ARs and the downstream NF-κB-VEGF/EGFR/COX-2 pathway

  19. Biomimetic carriers mimicking leukocyte plasma membrane to increase tumor vasculature permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, R.; Parodi, A.; Evangelopoulos, M.; Acciardo, S.; Corbo, C.; De Rosa, E.; Yazdi, I. K.; Scaria, S.; Molinaro, R.; Furman, N. E. Toledano; You, J.; Ferrari, M.; Salvatore, F.; Tasciotti, E.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine have demonstrated that biomimicry can further improve targeting properties of current nanotechnologies while simultaneously enable carriers with a biological identity to better interact with the biological environment. Immune cells for example employ membrane proteins to target inflamed vasculature, locally increase vascular permeability, and extravasate across inflamed endothelium. Inspired by the physiology of immune cells, we recently developed a procedure to transfer leukocyte membranes onto nanoporous silicon particles (NPS), yielding Leukolike Vectors (LLV). LLV are composed of a surface coating containing multiple receptors that are critical in the cross-talk with the endothelium, mediating cellular accumulation in the tumor microenvironment while decreasing vascular barrier function. We previously demonstrated that lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) transferred onto LLV was able to trigger the clustering of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Herein, we provide a more comprehensive analysis of the working mechanism of LLV in vitro in activating this pathway and in vivo in enhancing vascular permeability. Our results suggest the biological activity of the leukocyte membrane can be retained upon transplant onto NPS and is critical in providing the particles with complex biological functions towards tumor vasculature.

  20. Controlling DC permeability in cast steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, Aaran; Gerada, Chris; Brown, Neil; Clare, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Annealing (at multiple cooling rates) and quenching (with tempering) was performed on specimens of cast steel of varying composition. The aim was to devise a method for selecting the steel with the highest permeability, from any given range of steels, and then increasing the permeability by heat treatment. Metallographic samples were imaged using optical microscopy to show the effect of the applied heat treatments on the microstructure. Commonly cast steels can have DC permeability altered by the careful selection of a heat treatment. Increases of up to 381% were achieved by annealing using a cooling rate of 6.0 °C/min. Annealing was found to cause the carbon present in the steel to migrate from grain boundaries and from within ferrite crystals into adjacent pearlite crystals. The migration of the carbon resulted in less carbon at grain boundaries and within ferrite crystals reducing the number of pinning sites between magnetic domains. This gives rise to a higher permeability. Quenching then tempering was found to cause the formation of small ferrite crystals with the carbon content of the steel predominately held in the martensitic crystal structures. The results show that with any given range of steel compositions the highest baseline DC permeability will be found with the steel that has the highest iron content and the lowest carbon content. For the samples tested in this paper a cooling rate of 4.5 °C/min resulted in the relative permeability of the sample with the highest baseline permeability, AS4, increasing from 783 to 1479 at 0.5 T. This paper shows how heat treatments commonly applied to hypoeutectoid cast steels, to improve their mechanical performance, can be used to also enhance electromagnetic properties of these alloys. The use of cast steels allows the creation of DC components for electrical machines not possible by the widely used method of stacking of electrical grade sheet steels. - Highlights: • A range of structural steels had their

  1. Controlling DC permeability in cast steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Aaran, E-mail: aaran.sumner@nottingham.ac.uk [University of Nottingham, Nottingham University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England (United Kingdom); Gerada, Chris, E-mail: chris.gerada@nottingham.ac.uk [Electrical Machines, University of Nottingham, Tower Building, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England (United Kingdom); Brown, Neil, E-mail: neil.brown@cummins.com [Advanced Electrical Machines Research and Technology at Cummins Power Generation, Peterborough PE2 6FZ, England (United Kingdom); Clare, Adam, E-mail: adam.clare@nottingham.ac.uk [Advanced Manufacturing, University of Nottingham, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Annealing (at multiple cooling rates) and quenching (with tempering) was performed on specimens of cast steel of varying composition. The aim was to devise a method for selecting the steel with the highest permeability, from any given range of steels, and then increasing the permeability by heat treatment. Metallographic samples were imaged using optical microscopy to show the effect of the applied heat treatments on the microstructure. Commonly cast steels can have DC permeability altered by the careful selection of a heat treatment. Increases of up to 381% were achieved by annealing using a cooling rate of 6.0 °C/min. Annealing was found to cause the carbon present in the steel to migrate from grain boundaries and from within ferrite crystals into adjacent pearlite crystals. The migration of the carbon resulted in less carbon at grain boundaries and within ferrite crystals reducing the number of pinning sites between magnetic domains. This gives rise to a higher permeability. Quenching then tempering was found to cause the formation of small ferrite crystals with the carbon content of the steel predominately held in the martensitic crystal structures. The results show that with any given range of steel compositions the highest baseline DC permeability will be found with the steel that has the highest iron content and the lowest carbon content. For the samples tested in this paper a cooling rate of 4.5 °C/min resulted in the relative permeability of the sample with the highest baseline permeability, AS4, increasing from 783 to 1479 at 0.5 T. This paper shows how heat treatments commonly applied to hypoeutectoid cast steels, to improve their mechanical performance, can be used to also enhance electromagnetic properties of these alloys. The use of cast steels allows the creation of DC components for electrical machines not possible by the widely used method of stacking of electrical grade sheet steels. - Highlights: • A range of structural steels had their

  2. HIV-1 Tat reduces nephrin in human podocytes: a potential mechanism for enhanced glomerular permeability in HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, Sophie; Zennaro, Cristina; Spatola, Tiziana; Lupia, Enrico; Bottelli, Antonella; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Carraro, Michele; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; Camussi, Giovanni

    2007-02-19

    To determine whether HIV-1 Tat may directly alter glomerular permeability in HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Heavy proteinuria is a hallmark of HIVAN. The slit diaphragm is the ultimate glomerular filtration barrier critical for maintaining the efficiency of the ultrafiltration unit of the kidney. In this study, we evaluated the direct effect of Tat protein on the permeability of isolated glomeruli and on the expression of nephrin, the main slit diaphragm component, by human cultured podocytes. Permeability was studied by measuring the permeability to albumin in isolated rat glomeruli. We also evaluated the expression of nephrin in human cultured podocytes by using immunofluorescence and Western blot. We found that Tat increased albumin permeability in isolated glomeruli, and rapidly induced the redistribution and loss of nephrin in cultured podocytes. Pretreatment of glomeruli and podocytes with blocking antibodies showed that Tat reduced nephrin expression by engaging vascular endothelial growth factor receptors types 2 and 3 and the integrin alphavbeta3. Pre-incubation of podocytes with two platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists prevented the loss and redistribution of nephrin induced by Tat, suggesting that PAF is an intracellular mediator of Tat action. Tat induced a rapid PAF synthesis by podocytes. When podocytes transfected to overexpress PAF-acetylhydrolase, the main catabolic enzyme of PAF, were stimulated with Tat, the redistribution and loss of nephrin was abrogated. The present results define a mechanism by which Tat may reduce nephrin expression in podocytes, thus increasing glomerular permeability. This provides new insights in the understanding of HIVAN pathogenesis.

  3. Exploiting the Gastric Epithelial Barrier: Helicobacter pylori's Attack on Tight and Adherens Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backert, Steffen; Schmidt, Thomas P; Harrer, Aileen; Wessler, Silja

    2017-01-01

    Highly organized intercellular tight and adherens junctions are crucial structural components for establishing and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions, which control the microbiota and protect against intruding pathogens in humans. Alterations in these complexes represent key events in the development and progression of multiple infectious diseases as well as various cancers. The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori exerts an amazing set of strategies to manipulate these epithelial cell-to-cell junctions, which are implicated in changing cell polarity, migration and invasive growth as well as pro-inflammatory and proliferative responses. This chapter focuses on the H. pylori pathogenicity factors VacA, CagA, HtrA and urease, and how they can induce host cell signaling involved in altering cell-to-cell permeability. We propose a stepwise model for how H. pylori targets components of tight and adherens junctions in order to disrupt the gastric epithelial cell layer, giving fresh insights into the pathogenesis of this important bacterium.

  4. Acute tumor vascular effects following fractionated radiotherapy in human lung cancer: In vivo whole tumor assessment using volumetric perfusion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Q.-S.; Goh, Vicky; Milner, Jessica; Padhani, Anwar R.; Saunders, Michele I.; Hoskin, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the in vivo acute vascular effects of fractionated radiotherapy for human non-small-cell lung cancer using volumetric perfusion computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, undergoing palliative radiotherapy delivering 27 Gy in 6 fractions over 3 weeks, were scanned before treatment, and after the second (9 Gy), fourth (18 Gy), and sixth (27 Gy) radiation fraction. Using 16-detector CT, multiple sequential volumetric acquisitions were acquired after intravenous contrast agent injection. Measurements of vascular blood volume and permeability for the whole tumor volume were obtained. Vascular changes at the tumor periphery and center were also measured. Results: At baseline, lung tumor vascularity was spatially heterogeneous with the tumor rim showing a higher vascular blood volume and permeability than the center. After the second, fourth, and sixth fractions of radiotherapy, vascular blood volume increased by 31.6% (paired t test, p = 0.10), 49.3% (p = 0.034), and 44.6% (p = 0.0012) respectively at the tumor rim, and 16.4% (p = 0.29), 19.9% (p = 0.029), and 4.0% (p = 0.0050) respectively at the center of the tumor. After the second, fourth, and sixth fractions of radiotherapy, vessel permeability increased by 18.4% (p = 0.022), 44.8% (p = 0.0048), and 20.5% (p = 0.25) at the tumor rim. The increase in permeability at the tumor center was not significant after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Fractionated radiotherapy increases tumor vascular blood volume and permeability in human non-small-cell lung cancer. We have established the spatial distribution of vascular changes after radiotherapy; greater vascular changes were demonstrated at the tumor rim compared with the center

  5. A Novel Natural Product-Derived Compound, Vestaine A1, Exerts both Pro-Angiogenic and Anti-Permeability Activity via a Different Pathway from VEGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Ishimoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key molecule in the regulation of both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. However, it is known that overproduction of VEGF induces abnormal blood vessel formation and these vessels cause several disease pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to find novel vasoactive compounds which have different properties from VEGF. Methods/Results: We screened a natural product library using a co-culture angiogenic assay of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. By focusing on morphological changes of endothelial cells, we isolated the novel compounds vestaine A1 and vestaine B1 from the cultured broth of an actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sp. SANK 63697. Vestaine A1 enhanced tube formation of endothelial cells in Matrigel and suppressed cell death induced by serum deprivation. Vestaine A1 activated both MEK1/2 and PI-3 kinase pathways independently of the VEGF pathway in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Finally, vestaine A1 potently suppressed VEGF-induced vascular permeability both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Vestaine A1 has the potential to exhibit both pro-angiogenic and anti-permeability properties, and would therefore be useful for therapeutic treatment for abnormal vascular permeability-related diseases.

  6. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  7. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow and gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K

    1982-01-01

    of gastric mucosal blood flow, whereas stimulation of beta, muscarinic, and 'gastrinergic' receptors mainly occurs indirectly via changes in parietal cell function. The main effect of dopamine seems to be on gastric motility, whereas the effect on gastric acid secretion is of minor importance.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow. dopamine was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of the alpha, beta, and dopaminergic receptors. An increasing and dose......-dependent stimulation of gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine at 1, 5, and 10 micrograms/kg/min. A significant inhibition of gastric acid secretion was found with the highest dose of dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min). the stimulatory effect seems to be mediated by more than one receptor, whereas the inhibition...

  8. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ruokun; Wang, Rui; Sun, Peng; Zhao, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo . Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro , which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a

  9. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  10. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  11. Vascular Surgery and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of robotics to Vascular surgery has not progressed as rapidly as of endovascular technology, but this is changing with the amalgamation of these two fields. The advent of Endovascular robotics is an exciting field which overcomes many of the limitations of endovascular therapy like vessel tortuosity and operator fatigue. This has much clinical appeal for the surgeon and hold significant promise of better patient outcomes. As with most newer technological advances, it is still limited by cost and availability. However, this field has seen some rapid progress in the last decade with the technology moving into the clinical realm. This review details the development of robotics, applications, outcomes, advantages, disadvantages and current advances focussing on Vascular and Endovascular robotics

  12. Advanced Gastric Cancer and Perfusion Imaging Using a Multidetector Row Computed Tomography: Correlation with Prognostic Determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huan; Pan, Zilai; Du, Lianjun; Yan, Chao; Ding, Bei; Song, Qi; Ling, Huawei; Chen, Kemin

    2008-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the relationship between the perfusion CT features and the clinicopathologically determined prognostic factors in advanced gastric cancer cases. Materials and Methods : A perfusion CT was performed on 31 patients with gastric cancer one week before surgery using a 16-channel multi-detector CT (MDCT) instrument. The data were analyzed with commercially available software to calculate tumor blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability surface (PS). The microvessel density (MVD), was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of the surgical specimens with anti-CD34. All of the findings were analyzed prospectively and correlated with the clinicopathological findings, which included histological grading, presence of lymph node metastasis, serosal involvement, distant metastasis, tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging, and MVD. The statistical analyses used included the Student's t-test and the Spearman rank correlation were performed in SPSS 11.5. Result : The mean perfusion values and MVD for tumors were as follows: BF (48.14+/-16.46 ml/100 g/min), BV (6.70+/-2.95 ml/100 g), MTT (11.75+/-4.02 s), PS (14.17+/-5.23 ml/100 g/min) and MVD (41.7+/-11.53). Moreover, a significant difference in the PS values was found between patients with or without lymphatic involvement (p = 0.038), as well as with different histological grades (p 0.04) and TNM stagings (p = 0.026). However, BF, BV, MTT, and MVD of gastric cancer revealed no significant relationship with the clinicopathological findings described above (p > 0.05). Conclusion : The perfusion CT values of the permeable surface could serve as a useful prognostic indicator in patients with advanced gastric cancer

  13. Advanced Gastric Cancer and Perfusion Imaging Using a Multidetector Row Computed Tomography: Correlation with Prognostic Determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huan; Pan, Zilai; Du, Lianjun; Yan, Chao; Ding, Bei; Song, Qi; Ling, Huawei; Chen, Kemin [Jiaotong University, Jiaotong (China)

    2008-04-15

    Objective : To investigate the relationship between the perfusion CT features and the clinicopathologically determined prognostic factors in advanced gastric cancer cases. Materials and Methods : A perfusion CT was performed on 31 patients with gastric cancer one week before surgery using a 16-channel multi-detector CT (MDCT) instrument. The data were analyzed with commercially available software to calculate tumor blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability surface (PS). The microvessel density (MVD), was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of the surgical specimens with anti-CD34. All of the findings were analyzed prospectively and correlated with the clinicopathological findings, which included histological grading, presence of lymph node metastasis, serosal involvement, distant metastasis, tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging, and MVD. The statistical analyses used included the Student's t-test and the Spearman rank correlation were performed in SPSS 11.5. Result : The mean perfusion values and MVD for tumors were as follows: BF (48.14+/-16.46 ml/100 g/min), BV (6.70+/-2.95 ml/100 g), MTT (11.75+/-4.02 s), PS (14.17+/-5.23 ml/100 g/min) and MVD (41.7+/-11.53). Moreover, a significant difference in the PS values was found between patients with or without lymphatic involvement (p = 0.038), as well as with different histological grades (p 0.04) and TNM stagings (p = 0.026). However, BF, BV, MTT, and MVD of gastric cancer revealed no significant relationship with the clinicopathological findings described above (p > 0.05). Conclusion : The perfusion CT values of the permeable surface could serve as a useful prognostic indicator in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

  14. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Dextran Extravasation as a Measure of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Reka; Northrop, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed in part by vascular endothelial cells that constitute the capillaries and microvessels of the brain. The function of this barrier is to maintain homeostasis within the brain microenvironment and buffer the brain from changes in the periphery. A dysfunction of the BBB would permit circulating molecules and pathogens typically restricted to the periphery to enter the brain and interfere with normal brain function. As increased permeability of the BBB is associated with several neuropathologies, it is important to have a reliable and sensitive method that determines BBB permeability and the degree of BBB disruption. A detailed protocol is presented for assessing the integrity of the BBB by transcardial perfusion of a 10,000 Da FITC labeled dextran molecule and its visualization to determine the degree of extravasation from brain microvessels. PMID:28398646

  15. Gastric diverticulum causing gastric outlet obstruction in the setting of duodenal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashis Mukherjee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal obstruction due to duodenal atresia occurs in 1 in 10,000 live births and is the most common type of intestinal obstruction in neonates [1–3]. Gastric outlet obstruction in the newborn period from causes other than hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is very uncommon [3]. Potential etiologies include gastric volvulus, antral web, and duplication cysts. Gastric diverticula in the infant is even more rare, with only a few case reports published, and only one describes a gastric diverticulum in the presence of a duodenal atresia [4–8]. In this report, we describe the first case of a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gastric diverticulum in the presence of duodenal atresia. Keywords: Duodenal atresia, Gastric diverticulum, Gastric outlet obstruction

  16. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  17. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  18. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  19. Effect of desensitizing agents on dentin permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihata, Hiroshi; Kanehira, Masafumi; Nagai, Tomoko; Finger, Werner J; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Masashi

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro efficacy of two dentin desensitizing products at reducing liquid permeability through human dentin discs. The tested hypothesis was that the products, in spite of different chemical mechanisms were not different at reducing or eliminating flow through dentin discs. Dentin slices (1 mm thick) were prepared from 16 extracted human third molars and their permeability was indirectly recorded in a split chamber model, using a chemiluminescence technique, after EDTA treatment (control), after soaking with albumin, and after desensitizer application. Two products were studied: MS Coat, a self-curing resin-containing oxalate product, and Gluma Desensitizer, a glutaraldehyde/HEMA-based agent without initiator. The dentin slices were mounted between an upper chamber, filled with an aqueous solution of 1% potassium ferricyanide and 0.3% hydrogen peroxide, and a lower chamber filled with 1% sodium hydroxide solution and 0.02% luminol. The upper solution was pressurized, and upon contact with the luminol solution a photochemical signal was generated and recorded as a measure of permeability throughout two consecutive pressurizing cycles at 2.5 and 13 kPa (26 and 133 cm H2O), respectively. The permeability of the control and albumin-soaked samples was similarly high. After application of the desensitizing agents, dentin permeability was reduced to virtually zero at both pressure levels (P < 0.001).

  20. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to examine the in vivo buccal pH-dependent permeability of nicotine in humans and furthermore compare the in vivo permeability of nicotine to previous in vitro permeability data. The buccal permeability of nicotine was examined in a three-way cross-over study in eight healthy non......-smokers using a buccal perfusion cell. The disappearance of nicotine from perfusion solutions with pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1 was studied for 3h. The apparent permeability of nicotine (P(app)) was determined at each pH value. Parotid saliva was collected in an attempt to assess systemic levels of nicotine....... The disappearance rate of nicotine increased significantly as the pH increased, which resulted in P(app) values of 0.57+/-0.55 x 10(-4), 2.10+/-0.23 x 10(-4), and 3.96+/-0.54 x 10(-4)cms(-1) (mean+/-S.D.) at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1, respectively. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.993) was obtained between the P...

  1. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... Key words: Fasting, myomectomy, pH, residual gastric volume. Date of Acceptance: ... gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. Niger J Clin ..... of gastric residual volume: A simulated, controlled study.

  2. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastri...

  3. Absence of pepsinogen A3 gene expression in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, E J; Peña, A S; Crusius, J B; Defize, J; van der Stoop, P; Meuwissen, S G; Pals, G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the expression of pepsinogen A3 (Pg3) encoding genes in the gastric mucosa of normal controls and subjects with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. METHODS--One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with sampling of gastric biopsy specimens and serum. Pg3 isoproteins were determined by electrophoresis in serum and gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. Pg3 encoding genes were assessed by PCR in DNA obtained from peripheral blood. RESULTS...

  4. Metastatic Gastric Linitis Plastica from Bladder Cancer Mimicking a Primary Gastric Carcinoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Won Sun; Chung, Dong Jin; Lee, Jae Mun; Byun, Jae Ho; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2009-01-01

    Primary gastric carcinoma is the most common cause of linitis plastica. Less frequently, metastatic gastric cancer from the breast, omental metastases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the stomach have been reported to show similar radiographic findings as for linitis plastica. A metastatic gastric cancer from bladder cancer is extremely rare. We present an unusual case, the first to our knowledge, of gastric linitis plastica that resulted from a metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

  5. [Gastric magnetic resonance study (methods, semiotics)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashuk, G A

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the potentialities of gastric study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The methodic aspects of gastric study have been worked out. The MRI-semiotics of the unchanged and tumor-affected wall of the stomach and techniques in examining patients with gastric cancer of various sites are described. Using the developed procedure, MRI was performed in 199 patients, including 154 patients with gastric pathology and 45 control individuals who had no altered gastric wall. Great emphasis is placed on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of endophytic (diffuse) gastric cancer that is of priority value in its morphological structure. MRI was found to play a role in the diagnosis of the spread of a tumorous process both along the walls of the stomach and to its adjacent anatomic structures.

  6. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, A.; Horowitz, M.; Wishart, J.; Collins, P. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were evaluated in 31 obese patients and 31 control subjects. A double-isotope techniques was used to measure gastric emptying of a mixed solid/liquid meal, and esophageal emptying was measured as the time taken for a bolus of the solid meal to enter the stomach. Gastric emptying of the solid and the liquid meal and esophageal emptying were delayed in the obese patients compared with the control subjects. There were no significant relationships among gastric emptying, esophageal emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the obese patients alone. However, in the total group of 62 subjects there were significant correlations between body mass index and both gastric and esophageal emptying. These results indicate that delayed gastric and esophageal emptying occurs frequently in obesity and that these abnormalties relate to body weight.

  7. Correlative study of dynamic MRI and tumor angiogenesis in gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qunfeng; Shen Junkang; Feng Yizhong; Qian Minghui; Chai Yuhai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the dynamic MRI enhancement characteristics and tumor angiogenesis in gastric carcinoma. Methods: Histopathological slides of 30 patients underwent CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunohistochemical staining. Microvessel density (MVD) and VEGF protein expression were analyzed with their relationship to pathological features. The dynamic MRI characteristics, including the maximum contrast enhancement ratio (CERmax), were correlatively studied with MVD and VEGF expression. Results: In 30 cases, MVD was 13.00 to 68.25 per vision field with an average of 42.95 ±14.79. The low expression rate of VEGF was 30% (9/30), while the high expression rate of VEGF was 70% (21/30). MVD and VEGF expression correlated with lymph node metastasis (P>0.05), but their relationships to the degree of differentiation and depth of invasion were not significant (P>0.05). MVD was related to TNM-staging of gastric carcinoma (P>0.05). The expression of VEGF between the stage I and IV had significant differences (P>0.05). MVD was higher in VEGF-high expression than in VEGF-low expression [(47.30 ± 14.16) per vision versus (32.81 ± 11.25) per vision]. CERmax was significantly correlated with MVD (r=0.556, P=0.0014). The distribution features and shape of microvessels within gastric carcinoma were related to the enhancement characteristics such as irregular enhancement and delaminated enhancement. The correlation between CERmax and expression of VEGF was not significant (t=-0.847, P=0.404). Conclusion: The manifestations on dynamic MR images can reflect the distribution features and shape of microvessels within gastric carcinoma. Dynamic MR imaging may prove to be a valuable means in estimating the MVD of gastric carcinoma noninvasively, and further predicting the biological behavior of gastric carcinoma and judging the prognosis. (authors)

  8. The diminished expression of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in gastric ulcers of cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Peng, Yen-Ling; Hou, Ming-Chih; Huang, Kuang-Wei; Huang, Hui-Chun; Wang, Ying-Wen; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the higher occurrence of peptic ulcer disease in cirrhotic patients is complex. Platelets can stimulate angiogenesis and promote gastric ulcer healing. We compared the expressions of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in the gastric ulcer margin between cirrhotic patients with thrombocytopenia and those of non-cirrhotic patients to elucidate possible mechanisms. Eligible cirrhotic patients (n = 55) and non-cirrhotic patients (n = 55) who had gastric ulcers were enrolled. Mucosa from the gastric ulcer margin and non-ulcer areas were sampled and the mRNA expressions of the proangiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], platelet derived growth factor [PDGF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF]) and their receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1, FGFR2) were measured and compared. Platelet count and the expressions of these growth factors and their receptors were correlated with each other. The two groups were comparable in terms of gender, ulcer size and infection rate of Helicobacter pylori. However, the cirrhotic group were younger in age, had a lower platelet count than those in the non-cirrhotic group (pexpressions of PDGFB, VEGFR2, FGFR1, and FGFR2 in gastric ulcer margin when compared with those of the non-cirrhotic patients (pexpressions of PDGFB and VEGFR2, FGFR1, and FGFR2 were well correlated with the degree of thrombocytopenia in these cirrhotic patients (ρ>0.5, pimplied that diminished activity of proangiogenic factors and their receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers in cirrhotic patients.

  9. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  10. A clinicopathological study of asymptomatic gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsukuma, A.; Furusawa, M.; Tomoda, H.; Seo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The clinicopathological profiles of 419 patients with asymptomatic gastric cancer (AGC) first detected by gastric screening, were reviewed and compared with those of the 1727 patients with symptomatic gastric cancer (SGC). The incidence of AGC increased gradually and has amounted to 30% of the total resected cases in recent years. About 75% of AGC cases were of early cancer and 84% were negative for lymph node metastases. In contrast, only 33% of SGC cases were of early cancer and 57% were no...

  11. Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis

  12. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-06-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas.

  13. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-01-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas

  14. Managing obstructive gastric volvulus: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Garcia,Hector; Wright,Andrew; Yates,Robert

    2017-01-01

    Hector Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia,1 Andrew S Wright,2–4 Robert B Yates1–3 1Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, 2Center for Videoendoscopic Surgery, 3Hernia Center, 4Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies, UWMC, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: Gastric volvulus is the abnormal torsion of the stomach along its short or long axis. Most patients who experience gastric volvulus present with mild or intermittent gastr...

  15. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  16. Radiation therapy for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobelbower, R.R.; Bagne, F.; Ajlouni, M.I.; Milligan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a moderately radioresponsive neoplasm. Attempts to treat patients with unresectable disease with external beam radiation therapy alone have generally failed because of problems with tumor localization and adequate dose delivery as well as the inherent radioresponsiveness of the gastric mucosa and the organs intimately related to the stomach. Combining external beam therapy and chemotherapy (acting as a systemic agent and as a radiosensitizer) seems to be of some (albeit limited) benefit in the management of unresectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Optimum combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation sensitizers in this situation remain to be determined. The authors discuss strides which have been made in the treatment of gastric cancer. They also address the unanswered clinical questions which remain regarding the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of this highly lethal disease

  17. Radiation therapy of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shogo

    1980-01-01

    A total of 136 cases with gastric cancer was treated with radiation and some anti-cancer drugs. The tumor responded markedly to radiation in 37% of 92 cases, irradiated more than 5000 rad and regressed completely in only 5% of them. Out of them, the permanent cure was achieved in 3% of T2-4 M0 cases. Serious complications, such as hemorrhagic gastritis, massive bleeding, chronic ulcer of the stomach and perforation, were also observed in a few per cent of them. It was suggested that in the treatment of inoperable gastric cancer, the combination treatment of radiation and chemotherapy should be chosen as a valuable therapeutic procedure to get a good palliation. (author)

  18. Gastric Osteoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Kye, J. S. Park, S. K. Ku1, S. H. Yun, T. H. Oh, K.W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight year old female dog was referred with anorexia, nervousness and emaciation. At the point of time, severe lifelessness was the only symptom. Then euthanasia was done according to the owner’s decision. As a result of postmortem examination, thin white matters were found on the gastric mucosa of the greater curvature and there were no other significant gross findings. Tissue specimens were collected from the gastric wall, esophagus, gall bladder, aorta, heart, kidneys, liver, mesenteric lymph node, lungs, urinary bladder and spleen and processed for histopathology. Microscopically, the masses of stomach were consisted of well-differentiated osteoid tissues, the compact bone-osteocytes and the matured lamellated bone with Haversian system. It was diagnosed as osteoma of the stomach. Other organs were free on such histological findings.

  19. Radiation therapy of gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, H; Yamada, S [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1980-10-01

    A total of 136 cases with gastric cancer was treated with radiation and some anti-cancer drugs. The tumor responded markedly to radiation in 37% of 92 cases, irradiated more than 5000 rad and regressed completely in only 5% of them. Out of them, the permanent cure was achieved in 3% of T2-4 M0 cases. Serious complications, such as hemorrhagic gastritis, massive bleeding, chronic ulcer of the stomach and perforation, were also observed in a few per cent of them. It was suggested that in the treatment of inoperable gastric cancer, the combination treatment of radiation and chemotherapy should be chosen as a valuable therapeutic procedure to get a good palliation.

  20. Liquid scintigraphic gastric emptying - is it reproducible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.G.; Shuter, B.; Leach, M.; Roach, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Radioisotope gastric emptying (GE) studies have been used as a non-invasive technique for motility assessment for many years. In a recent study investigating the correlation of mesenteric vascular changes with GE, six subjects had a repeat study 2-4 months later. Repeat studies were required due to minor technical problems (5 subjects) and a very slow GE (I subject) on the original study. Subjects drank 275 ml of 'Ensure Plus' mixed with 8 MBq 67 Ga-DTPA and were imaged for 2 h while lying supine. GE time-activity curves for each subject were generated and time to half emptying (T l/2 ) calculated. Five of the six subjects had more rapid GE on the second study. Three of the subjects had T l/2 values on their second study which were within ± 15 min of their original T l/2 . The other three subjects had T l/2 values on their second study which were 36 min, 55 min and 280 min (subject K.H.) less than their original T l/2 . Statistical analysis (t-test) was performed on paired T l/2 values. The average T l/2 value was greater in the first study than in the second (149 ± 121 and 86 ± 18 min respectively), although the difference was not statistically significant (P ∼ 0.1). Subjects' anxiety levels were not quantitated during the GE study; however, several major equipment faults occurred during the original study of subject K.H., who became visibly stressed. These results suggest that the reproducibility of GE studies may be influenced by psychological factors

  1. The psyche and gastric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Although the idea that gastric problems are in some way related to mental activity dates back to the beginning of the last century, until now it has received scant attention by physiologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists. The major breakthrough in understanding the interactions between the central nervous system and the gut was the discovery of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the 19th century. ENS (also called 'little brain') plays a crucial role in the regulation of the physiological gut functions. Furthermore, the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists have permitted to characterize the neurochemical basis of the stress response. The neurobiological response to stress in mammals involves three key mechanisms: (1) stress is perceived and processed by higher brain centers; (2) the brain mounts a neuroendocrine response by way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and (3) the brain triggers feedback mechanisms by HPA and ANS stimulation to restore homeostasis. Various stressors such as anger, fear, painful stimuli, as well as life or social learning experiences affect both the individual's physiologic and gastric function, revealing a two-way interaction between brain and stomach. There is overwhelming experimental and clinical evidence that stress influences gastric function, thereby outlining the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. A better understanding of the role of pathological stressors in the modulation of disease activity may have important pathogenetic and therapeutic implications. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    affected in subsets of these tumors. For example, mutations in BRCA1/2 were found in about 15% of gastric cancer, loss of BRCA1 protein expression...platform   Figure 4: Nuclear-RFP tagged SNU1 cell lines after 6 days in culture . (A) Phase contrast. (B) RFP. (C) Markup image of RFP confluence...Title: Cell Cultures and Xenografts from Esophagogastric, Pancreatic, Colorectal and Neuroendocrine Tumors, IACUC protocol number 10-02-003, Protocol

  3. Particulate matter air pollution causes oxidant-mediated increase in gut permeability in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarzian Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution may be an important environmental factor leading to exacerbations of inflammatory illnesses in the GI tract. PM can gain access to the gastrointestinal (GI tract via swallowing of air or secretions from the upper airways or mucociliary clearance of inhaled particles. Methods We measured PM-induced cell death and mitochondrial ROS generation in Caco-2 cells stably expressing oxidant sensitive GFP localized to mitochondria in the absence or presence of an antioxidant. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a very high dose of urban PM from Washington, DC (200 μg/mouse or saline via gastric gavage and small bowel and colonic tissue were harvested for histologic evaluation, and RNA isolation up to 48 hours. Permeability to 4kD dextran was measured at 48 hours. Results PM induced mitochondrial ROS generation and cell death in Caco-2 cells. PM also caused oxidant-dependent NF-κB activation, disruption of tight junctions and increased permeability of Caco-2 monolayers. Mice exposed to PM had increased intestinal permeability compared with PBS treated mice. In the small bowel, colocalization of the tight junction protein, ZO-1 was lower in the PM treated animals. In the small bowel and colon, PM exposed mice had higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and reduced levels of ZO-1 mRNA. Increased apoptosis was observed in the colon of PM exposed mice. Conclusions Exposure to high doses of urban PM causes oxidant dependent GI epithelial cell death, disruption of tight junction proteins, inflammation and increased permeability in the gut in vitro and in vivo. These PM-induced changes may contribute to exacerbations of inflammatory disorders of the gut.

  4. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  5. Development of functional MRI in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Shao Guoliang

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in digestive tract functional MRI can represent the functional changes of the tumor. DWI not only provides a new way to diagnosis the gastric cancer, but also reflect the pathology changes of the tumor, which has great value to predict the therapeutic effect and prognosis of the tumor. MRS is the only method to test the chemical composition of tissues in live without injury, which has great value in the early diagnosis of gastric tumor and in the research of tumor mechanism. This review is mainly focused on the status and development of functional MRI in gastric cancer. (authors)

  6. Recent advances in gastric emptying scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.C.; Mayeur, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric emptying scintigraphy was introduced more than 25 years ago by Grittith and still remains the gold standard to assess gastric emptying. Test meals, radiopharmaceuticals and acquisition procedures have been refined and optimized over the years and the test procedure is now pretty well standardized. However, in its most common use, gastric emptying scintigraphy provides little information on gastric physiology. Over the last decade, modelling of the liquid and solid emptying curves have brought some insight in the complex gastric physiology. Compartmental analysis of the stomach has also provided information on the pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed gastric emptying. Over the past 5 years, the most dramatic development in gastric emptying scintigraphy has been the introduction of Digital Antral Scintigraphy (DAS). Digital Antral scintigraphy basically consists in dynamically imaging of the stomach and the use of a refined Fourier transform processing method. This new procedure allows for the visualization of antral contractions and, alike manometry, permits quantitative characterization on the frequency and amplitude of these contractions. Overall, this new procedure provides a unique, non invasive tool to characterize gastric motility, to define the pathophysiologic mechanisms of gastric motor disorders and to evaluate the effect of new gastro-kinetic compounds. (authors). 241 refs., 5 figs

  7. Gastric pseudolymphoma: Report of 3 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun

    1983-01-01

    The pseudolymphoma of the stomach is known to be a benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue, which can be mistaken histologically for malignant lymphoma. The etiology of pseudo lymphoma is controversial, but it B believed to be a manifestation of chronic inflammatory process. Authors present 3 cases of gastric lymphoma. Impression of upper gastrointestinal series were as follows; lymphoma or chronic gastritis in one case, ulcerative carcinoma in another case and early gastric carcinoma in the other case. Initial endoscopic findings suggested infiltrating carcinoma, ulcerative carcinoma and two benign gastric ulcers, respectively. One case was associated with early gastric carcinoma

  8. Gastric pseudolymphoma: Report of 3 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    The pseudolymphoma of the stomach is known to be a benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue, which can be mistaken histologically for malignant lymphoma. The etiology of pseudo lymphoma is controversial, but it B believed to be a manifestation of chronic inflammatory process. Authors present 3 cases of gastric lymphoma. Impression of upper gastrointestinal series were as follows; lymphoma or chronic gastritis in one case, ulcerative carcinoma in another case and early gastric carcinoma in the other case. Initial endoscopic findings suggested infiltrating carcinoma, ulcerative carcinoma and two benign gastric ulcers, respectively. One case was associated with early gastric carcinoma.

  9. In situ permeability testing of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Broce, R.D.; Lie, K.

    1981-04-01

    Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 μdarcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

  10. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassandro, Francesco; Romano, Stefania; Rossi, Giovanni; Muto, Roberto; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Grassi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions

  11. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassandro, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.lassandro@fastwebnet.it; Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Muto, Roberto [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Cappabianca, Salvatore [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions.

  12. [Gastric band erosion: Alternative management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaverry-Navarrete, Denis José; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Cabrera-Jardines, Ricardo; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo; Castillo-González, Federico Armando

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem, for which the prevalence has increased worldwide at an alarming rate, affecting 1.7 billion people in the world. To describe the technique employed in incomplete penetration of gastric band where endoscopic management and/or primary closure is not feasible. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band was performed in five patients with incomplete penetrance using Foley catheterization in the perforation site that could lead to the development of a gastro-cutaneous fistula. The cases presented include a leak that required surgical lavage with satisfactory outcome, and one patient developed stenosis 3 years after surgical management, which was resolved endoscopically. In all cases, the penetration site closed spontaneously. Gastric band erosion has been reported in 3.4% of cases. The reason for inserting a catheter is to create a controlled gastro-cutaneous fistula, allowing spontaneous closure. Various techniques have been described: the totally endoscopic, hybrid techniques (endoscopic/laparoscopic) and completely laparoscopic. A technique is described here that is useful and successful in cases where the above-described treatments are not viable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  13. VIP and its homologous increase vascular conductance in certain endocrine and exocrine glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, L.J.; Connors, J.M.; Hedge, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and related structural homologues on tissue vascular conductances were investigated in anesthetized male rats. VIP, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), secretin, growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRF), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), or saline was infused intravenously over 4 min. Tissue blood flows were measured during this time by use of 141 Ce-labeled microspheres. Circulating thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and thyroxine (T 4 ) levels were determined before and at 20 min and 2 h after treatment. Marked increases in thyroid, pancreatic, and salivary gland vascular Cs occurred during peptide infusion with the order of potency correlating with the degree of structural homology to VIP. PHI and secretin produced maximal increases in vascular Cs, which were the same as those obtained with VIP. Circulating TSH, T 3 , and T 4 levels were not different from values in saline-infused rats after peptide treatments that caused striking increases in thyroid vascular C. These observations indicate that the vascular beds of certain endocrine and exocrine glands are responsive to the vasodilatory action of VIP and related homologues with the order of potency corresponding to the degree of structural homology to VIP. These results are also consistent with the proposal that structural homologues of VIP act at the same vascular receptor as VIP. Alternative, the involvement of different vascular receptors, acting through the same mechanism at a level beyond the receptor site, cannot be excluded

  14. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies......, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability....

  15. Ammonia and urea permeability of mammalian aquaporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Søgaard, Rikke; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    significant at alkaline pH. It is debated whether the H(+) ion passes via the aquaporin or by some external route; the investigation of this problem requires the aquaporin-expressing cell to be voltage-clamped. The ammonia-permeable aquaporins differ from other aquaporins by having a less restrictive aromatic...... groups differ in the amino acid composition of their aromatic/arginine regions. The location of the ammonia-permeable aquaporins in the body parallels that of the Rh proteins. This applies to erythrocytes and to cells associated with nitrogen homeostasis and high rates of anabolism. In the liver, AQPs 8...

  16. Endothelial cell permeability during hantavirus infection involves factor XII-dependent increased activation of the kallikrein-kinin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Taylor

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS are diseases caused by hantavirus infections and are characterized by vascular leakage due to alterations of the endothelial barrier. Hantavirus-infected endothelial cells (EC display no overt cytopathology; consequently, pathogenesis models have focused either on the influx of immune cells and release of cytokines or on increased degradation of the adherens junction protein, vascular endothelial (VE-cadherin, due to hantavirus-mediated hypersensitization of EC to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. To examine endothelial leakage in a relevant in vitro system, we co-cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC to generate capillary blood vessel-like structures. In contrast to results obtained in monolayers of cultured EC, we found that despite viral replication in both cell types as well as the presence of VEGF, infected in vitro vessels neither lost integrity nor displayed evidence of VE-cadherin degradation. Here, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular leakage involving activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS. We show that incubation of factor XII (FXII, prekallikrein (PK, and high molecular weight kininogen (HK plasma proteins with hantavirus-infected EC results in increased cleavage of HK, higher enzymatic activities of FXIIa/kallikrein (KAL and increased liberation of bradykinin (BK. Measuring cell permeability in real-time using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS, we identified dramatic increases in endothelial cell permeability after KKS activation and liberation of BK. Furthermore, the alterations in permeability could be prevented using inhibitors that directly block BK binding, the activity of FXIIa, or the activity of KAL. Lastly, FXII binding and autoactivation is increased on the surface of hantavirus-infected EC. These data are the first to demonstrate KKS activation

  17. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor from Embryonic Status to Cardiovascular Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a multifunctional cytokine with distinct functions in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, vascular permeability, and hematopoiesis. VEGF is a highly conserved, disulfide-bonded dimeric glycoprotein of 34 to 45 kDa produced by several cell types including fibroblasts, neutrophils, endothelial cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, particularly T lymphocytes and macrophages. Six VEGF isoforms are generated as a result of alternative splicing from a single VEGF gene, consisting of 121, 145, 165, 183, 189, or 206 amino acids. VEGF121, VEGF145, and VEGF165 are secreted whereas VEGF183, VEGF189, and VEGF206 are cell membrane-bound. VEGF145 has a key role during the vascularization of the human ovarian follicle and corpus luteum, in the placentation and embryonic periods, and in bone and wound healing, while VEGF165 is the most abundant and biologically active isoform. VEGF has been linked with a number of vascular pathologies including cardiovascular diseases such ischemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and diabetes and its related complications. In this review we aimed to present some important roles of VEGF in a number of clinical issues and indicate its involvement in several phenomena from the initial steps of the embryonic period to cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent macrophages in gastric ulcer healing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Y; Nakase, Y; Isomoto, Y; Matsuda, N; Amagase, K; Kato, S; Takeuchi, K

    2011-08-01

    We examined the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent macrophages in the healing of gastric ulcers in mice. Male M-CSF-deficient (op/op) and M-CSF-expressing heterozygote (+/?) mice were used. Gastric ulcers were induced by thermal cauterization under ether anesthesia, and healing was observed for 14 days after ulceration. The numbers of macrophages and microvessels in the gastric mucosa were determined immunohistochemically with anti-CD68 and anti-CD31 antibodies, respectively. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA was determined via real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the mucosal content of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) was determined via enzyme immunoassay on day 10 after ulceration. The healing of gastric ulcers was significantly delayed in op/op mice compared with +/? mice. Further, significantly fewer macrophages were observed in the normal gastric mucosa of op/op mice than in +/? mice. Ulcer induction caused a marked accumulation of macrophages around the ulcer base in +/? mice, but this response was attenuated in op/op mice. The mucosal PGE(2) content as well as the expression of COX-2, VEGF, and TNF-α mRNA were all upregulated in the ulcerated area of +/? mice but significantly suppressed in op/op mice. The degree of vascularization in the ulcerated area was significantly lower in op/op mice than in +/? mice. Taken together, these results suggest that M-CSF-dependent macrophages play an important role in the healing of gastric ulcers, and that this action may be associated with angiogenesis promoted by upregulation of COX-2/PGE(2) production.

  19. Adrenergic mechanism responsible for pathological alteration in gastric mucosal blood flow in rats with ulcer bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I. A.; Gekalyuk, A. S.; Ulanova, M. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    The adrenergic system plays an important role in regulation of central and peripheral circulation in normal state and during hemorrhage. Because the impaired gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) is the major cause of gastroduodenal lesions, including ulcer bleeding (UB), we studied the adrenergic mechanism responsible for regulation of GMBF in rats with a model of stress-induced UB (SUB) using the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). First, we examined the effect of adrenaline on GMBF in rats under normal state and during UB. In all healthy animals the submucosal adrenaline injection caused a decrease in local GMBF. During UB the submucosal injection of adrenaline was accompanied by less pronounced GMBF suppression in 30,3% rats with SUB vs. healthy ones. In 69,7% rats with SUB we observed the increase in local GMBF after submucosal injection of adrenaline. Second, we studied the sensitivity of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors and the activity of two factors which are involved in β2-adrenomediated vasorelaxation-KATP -channels and NO. The effects of submucosal injection of isoproterenol, ICI118551 and glybenclamide on GMBF as well as NO levels in gastric tissue were significantly elevated in rats with SUB vs. healthy rats. Thus, our results indicate that high activation of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors associated with the increased vascular KATP -channels activity and elevated NO production is the important adrenergic mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of UB.

  20. Necl 4 and RNase 5 Are Important Biomarkers for Gastric and Colon Adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, İlyas; Gökçe, Aysun; Demirtas, Levent; Eken, Hüseyin; Çimen, Ferda Keskin; Çimen, Orhan

    2017-05-31

    BACKGROUND There is a need to identify new prognostic factors that may be used in addition to the known risk factors in gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression of Necl 4 and RNase 5 biomarkers in gastric and colon adenocarcinomas, as well as the prognostic efficacy of these biomarkers in gastric and colon adenocarcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-two cases resected due to stomach and colon adenocarcinoma were included in the study. The expression of Necl 4 and RNase 5 biomarkers was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of the stomach and colon normal mucosa and adenocarcinoma areas. RESULTS In colon adenocarcinomas, there was a significant association between Necl 4 and lymphovascular invasion, vascular invasion, and perineural invasion (p<0.05). There was a significant association between RNase 5 and histological differentiation in colon adenocarcinomas (p<0.05). There was no association between RNase 5 and Necl 4 in gastric or colon adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS Necl 4 may have prognostic value in colon adenocarcinomas, but it is difficult to ascertain in gastric adenocarcinomas.

  1. Anti-angiogenic Therapy in Patients with Advanced Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Tzong; Oh, Do-Youn; Ryu, Min-Hee; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Yeo, Winnie; Carlesi, Roberto; Cheng, Rebecca; Kim, Jongseok; Orlando, Mauro; Kang, Yoon-Koo

    2017-10-01

    Despite advancements in therapy for advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers, their prognosis remains dismal. Tumor angiogenesis plays a key role in cancer growth and metastasis, and recent studies indicate that pharmacologic blockade of angiogenesis is a promising approach to therapy. In this systematic review, we summarize current literature on the clinical benefit of anti-angiogenic agents in advanced gastric cancer. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and conference proceedings including the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the European Society for Medical Oncology, and the European Cancer Congress. Included studies aimed to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-angiogenic agents in advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Each trial investigated at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, progression-free survival/time to progression, and/or objective response rate. Our search yielded 139 publications. Forty-two met the predefined inclusion criteria. Included studies reported outcomes with apatinib, axitinib, bevacizumab, orantinib, pazopanib, ramucirumab, regorafenib, sorafenib, sunitinib, telatinib, and vandetanib. Second-line therapy with ramucirumab and third-line therapy with apatinib are the only anti-angiogenic agents so far shown to significantly improve survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Overall, agents that specifically target the vascular endothelial growth factor ligand or receptor have better safety profile compared to multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  2. Redox signaling in cardiovascular pathophysiology: A focus on hydrogen peroxide and vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Byon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress represents excessive intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Besides having a critical impact on the development and progression of vascular pathologies including atherosclerosis and diabetic vasculopathy, oxidative stress also regulates physiological signaling processes. As a cell permeable ROS generated by cellular metabolism involved in intracellular signaling, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exerts tremendous impact on cardiovascular pathophysiology. Under pathological conditions, increased oxidase activities and/or impaired antioxidant systems results in uncontrolled production of ROS. In a pro-oxidant environment, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC undergo phenotypic changes which can lead to the development of vascular dysfunction such as vascular inflammation and calcification. Investigations are ongoing to elucidate the mechanisms for cardiovascular disorders induced by oxidative stress. This review mainly focuses on the role of H2O2 in regulating physiological and pathological signals in VSMC.

  3. Characterization of fasted human gastric fluid for relevant rheological parameters and gastric lipase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Barbre; Vilmann, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    be considered important during development of gastric simulated media. Further, the activity of the HGL is active even under fasted gastric conditions and might contribute to the digestion and emulsification of lipid-based drug delivery systems in the entire gastrointestinal tract. HGL should therefore......PURPOSE: To characterize human gastric fluid with regard to rheological properties and gastric lipase activity. In addition, traditional physicochemical properties were determined. METHODS: Fasted HGA were collected from 19 healthy volunteers during a gastroscopic examination. Rheological...... be considered in gastric evaluation of lipid-based drug delivery systems....

  4. Vascular remodeling and mineralocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K T; Sun, Y; Campbell, S E; Slight, S H; Ganjam, V K

    1995-01-01

    Circulating mineralocorticoid hormones are so named because of their important homeostatic properties that regulate salt and water balance via their action on epithelial cells. A broader range of functions in nonclassic target cellular sites has been proposed for these steroids and includes their contribution to wound healing following injury. A chronic, inappropriate (relative to intravascular volume and dietary sodium intake) elevation of these circulating hormones evokes a wound healing response in the absence of tissue injury--a wound healing response gone awry. The adverse remodeling of vascularized tissues seen in association with chronic mineralocorticoid excess is the focus of this review.

  5. A Prospective Study of Periodontal Disease and Risk of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcer in Male Health Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan, Matthew R; Khalili, Hamed; Huang, Edward S; Michaud, Dominique S; Izard, Jacques; Joshipura, Kaumudi J; Chan, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Periodontal disease has been associated with higher circulating levels of inflammatory markers and conditions associated with chronic inflammation, including vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Limited data exist on the relationship between periodontal disease and gastric and duodenal ulcer. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 49,120 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, aged 40–75 years at enrollment in 1986. Biennially, we assessed periodo...

  6. High-permeability criterion for BCS classification: segmental/pH dependent permeability considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Miller, Jonathan M; Hilfinger, John M; Yamashita, Shinji; Yu, Lawrence X; Lennernäs, Hans; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-10-04

    The FDA classifies a drug substance as high-permeability when the fraction of dose absorbed (F(abs)) in humans is 90% or higher. This direct correlation between human permeability and F(abs) has been recently controversial, since the β-blocker sotalol showed high F(abs) (90%) and low Caco-2 permeability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the scientific basis for this disparity between permeability and F(abs). The effective permeabilities (P(eff)) of sotalol and metoprolol, a FDA standard for the low/high P(eff) class boundary, were investigated in the rat perfusion model, in three different intestinal segments with pHs corresponding to the physiological pH in each region: (1) proximal jejunum, pH 6.5; (2) mid small intestine, pH 7.0; and (3) distal ileum, pH 7.5. Both metoprolol and sotalol showed pH-dependent permeability, with higher P(eff) at higher pH. At any given pH, sotalol showed lower permeability than metoprolol; however, the permeability of sotalol determined at pH 7.5 exceeded/matched metoprolol's at pH 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. Physicochemical analysis based on ionization, pK(a) and partitioning of these drugs predicted the same trend and clarified the mechanism behind these observed results. Experimental octanol-buffer partitioning experiments confirmed the theoretical curves. An oral dose of metoprolol has been reported to be completely absorbed in the upper small intestine; it follows, hence, that metoprolol's P(eff) value at pH 7.5 is not likely physiologically relevant for an immediate release dosage form, and the permeability at pH 6.5 represents the actual relevant value for the low/high permeability class boundary. Although sotalol's permeability is low at pH 6.5 and 7.0, at pH 7.5 it exceeds/matches the threshold of metoprolol at pH 6.5 and 7.0, most likely responsible for its high F(abs). In conclusion, we have shown that, in fact, there is no discrepancy between P(eff) and F(abs) in sotalol's absorption; the data emphasize that

  7. The role of gastric scintigraphy in primary or post surgical disorders of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, R.; Lemann, M.; Rain, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric scintigraphy is the gold standard for the measurement of the gastric emptying of a meal because of its reliability and its reproducibility and the respect of physiological conditions. Moreover, this technique allows to measure the emptying of solid and liquid phases simultaneously. Symptoms motivating a gastric scintigraphy, suggest either a gastric stasis (dyspepsia) or a gastric incontinence (dumping syndrome). The two most frequent clinical conditions triggering this test are motility disorders following vagotomy, a delayed emptying of solids is often associated to an accelerated emptying of liquids. Gastric scintigraphy proves quite useful in these conditions, since the diagnosis of such complex abnormalities is uneasy to establish exclusively on a clinical basis. In idiopathic dyspepsia, gastric stasis is proved only in 50 % of the patients. However, a radionuclide study of gastric emptying is seldom ordered because of the common character and good tolerance of these symptoms. In everyday practice, gastric scintigraphy is considered only when gastric or intestinal obstructive lesions have been ruled out. A suggestive clinical picture and/or absence of a deteriorated general condition allow to prescribe a symptomatic treatment. More rarely, equivocal symptoms, degradation of the general condition and unresponsiveness to symptomatic drugs call for gastric scintigraphy. (authors). 241 refs., 2 figs

  8. Assessment of two methods of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Z J; Powell, L L; Hulting, K J

    2013-02-01

    To assess gastric trocarization and orogastric tubing as a means of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus. Retrospective review of 116 gastric dilatation-volvulus cases from June 2001 to October 2009. Decompression was performed via orogastric tubing in 31 dogs, gastric trocarization in 39 dogs and a combination of both in 46 dogs. Tubing was successful in 59 (75·5%) dogs and unsuccessful in 18 (23·4%) dogs. Trocarization was successful in 73 (86%) dogs and unsuccessful in 12 (14%) dogs. No evidence of gastric perforation was noted at surgery in dogs undergoing either technique. One dog that underwent trocarization had a splenic laceration identified at surgery that did not require treatment. Oesophageal rupture or aspiration pneumonia was not identified in any dog during hospitalization. No statistical difference was found between the method of gastric decompression and gastric compromise requiring surgical intervention or survival to discharge. Orogastric tubing and gastric trocarization are associated with low complication and high success rates. Either technique is an acceptable method for gastric decompression in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a neonate presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung Hyo; Kim, Woo Sun; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Park, Sung Hye

    2013-03-01

    Gastric adenomyoma is a rare tumour-like lesion composed of glandular components and smooth muscle bundles. We report a case of gastric adenomyoma in a 1-week-old neonate who presented with gastric outlet obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest child reported with gastric adenomyoma and a unique case demonstrating radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a young infant. At US, the lesion was seen as an asymmetrical mass-like wall-thickening of the pylorus. Upper gastrointestinal series showed findings similar to those seen in a case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We suggest that gastric adenomyoma should be included in the causes of gastric outlet obstruction in neonates even though it is rare in young children.

  10. Autoradiographic study of the permeability characteristics of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingham, J G.C.; Baker, J H; Loehry, C A [Royal Victoria Hospital, Bournemouth (UK)

    1978-02-01

    This autoradiographic study demonstrates the distribution of a range of small solutes and macromolecules in the mucosa of the guinea-pig small intestine after intracardiac injection. The substances investigated were: /sup 14/C-urea, /sup 3/H-mannose, /sup 3/H-inulin, and /sup 125/I polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Small bowel biopsies were taken at intervals from one to 60 minutes after injection and the tissues processed for autoradiography. Light microscopic examination of the autoradiographs showed that the compartmental distribution depended on the molecular size of the substances being studied. Urea and mannose, as small solutes, were uniformly distributed throughout the intravascular, extravascular, and epithelial compartments. Inulin was evenly distributed in the vessel lumen and extravascular space but there was a considerable drop in concentration in the epithelium. PVP exhibited the most marked gradients, the concentration being greatest in the vascular lumina, lower in the extravascular space, least in the epithelium. Thus there appear to be two barriers to macromolecular passage which are freely permeable to small solutes: the capillary wall and the epithelium. At a light microscopical level it was not possible to observe whether the limiting membrane of each of these barriers is the cell plasmalemmal membrane or the basement membrane. The selectivity of the epithelial barrier was greater than that of the capillary barrier.

  11. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  12. Water permeability in human airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Steen; Procida, Kristina; Larsen, Per Leganger

    2005-01-01

    Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) was studied in spheroid-shaped human airway epithelia explants derived from nasal polyps by the use of a new improved tissue collection and isolation procedure. The fluid-filled spheroids were lined with a single cell layer with the ciliated apical cell membrane ...

  13. Foam film permeability: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Krastev, R; Zitha, Pacelli L J

    2008-02-28

    The mass transfer of gas through foam films is a prototype of various industrial and biological processes. The aim of this paper is to give a perspective and critical overview of studies carried out to date on the mass transfer of gas through foam films. Contemporary experimental data are summarized, and a comprehensive overview of the theoretical models used to explain the observed effects is given. A detailed description of the processes that occur when a gas molecule passes through each layer that forms a foam film is shown. The permeability of the film-building surfactant monolayers plays an important role for the whole permeability process. It can be successfully described by the models used to explain the permeability of surfactant monolayers on aqueous sub-phase. For this reason, the present paper briefly discusses the surfactant-induced resistance to mass transfer of gases through gas-liquid interface. One part of the paper discusses the experimental and theoretical aspects of the foam film permeability in a train of foam films in a matrix or a cylinder. This special case is important to explain the gas transfer in porous media or in foams. Finally, this paper will highlight the gaps and challenges and sketch possible directions for future research.

  14. Color-magnetic permeability of QCD vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K

    1980-03-01

    In the very strong background gauge field the QCD true vacuum has been shown to have lower energy than the ''perturbative vacuum.'' The color-magnetic permeability of the QCD true vacuum is then calculated to be 1/2 within the quark-one-loop approximation.

  15. The Permeability of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, A.F.; Burcharth, H. F.; Adel, H. den

    1992-01-01

    . A new series of tests designed to test for deviations from the Forchheimer equation and investigate the effects of material shape are described. While no evidence can be found to indicate a deviation from the Forchheimer equation a dependency of permeability and the surface roughness the material...

  16. Programs for the calculi of blocks permeabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Hernandez, J.J.; Sovero Sovero, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    This report studies the stochastic analysis of radionuclide transport. The permeability values of blocks are necessary to do a numeric model for the flux and transport problems in ground soils. The determination of block value by function on grill value is the objective of this program

  17. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  18. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  20. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wandering spleen, gastric and pancreatic volvulus and right-sided descending and sigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ríos, Enrique; Méndez-Díaz, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Esther; Pérez-Ramos, Tania

    2015-10-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition, characterized by a mobile spleen that is attached only by an elongated vascular pedicle, allowing it to migrate to any part of the abdomen or pelvis. Mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus usually occurs in children and may be associated with wandering spleen. Both entities result from abnormal laxity or absence of the peritoneal attachments due to abnormal fusion of the peritoneal mesenteries. Pancreatic volvulus is a very rare anomaly, with only a few isolated case reports described in association with wandering spleen. Anomalous right sided descending and sigmoid colon is a very rare entity and its association with wandering spleen has not been previously reported. We report a case of wandering spleen associated with mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus, pancreatic volvulus and rightward shift of the splenic flexure of the colon and right sided descending and sigmoid colon in a young female.

  3. DNA excision repair in permeable human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.K.; Bodell, W.J.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    U.v. irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts activated DNA repair, aspects of which were characterized in the cells after they were permeabilized. Incubation of intact cells for 20 min between irradiation and harvesting was necessary to obtain a maximum rate of reparative DNA synthesis. Cells harvested immediately after irradiation before repair was initiated displayed only a small stimulation of DNA synthesis, indicating that permeable cells have a reduced capacity to recognize pyrimidine dimers and activate repair. The distribution of sizes of DNA strands labeled during 10 min of reparative DNA synthesis resembled that of parental DNA. However, during a 60-min incubation of permeable cells at 37 degrees C, parental DNA and DNA labeled by reparative DNA synthesis were both cleaved to smaller sizes. Cleavage also occurred in unirradiated cells, indicating that endogenous nuclease was active during incubation. Repair patches synthesized in permeable cells displayed increased sensitivity to digestion by micrococcal nuclease. However, the change in sensitivity during a chase with unlabeled DNA precursors was small, suggesting that reassembly of nucleosome structure at sites of repair was impaired. To examine whether this deficiency was due to a preponderance of incomplete or unligated repair patches, 3H-labeled (repaired) DNA was purified, then digested with exonuclease III and nuclease S1 to probe for free 3' ends and single-stranded regions. About 85% of the [3H]DNA synthesized during a 10-min pulse resisted digestion, suggesting that a major fraction of the repair patches that were filled were also ligated. U.v. light-activated DNA synthesis in permeable cells, therefore, appears to represent the continuation of reparative gap-filling at sites of excision repair activated within intact cells. Gap-filling and ligation were comparatively efficient processes in permeable cells

  4. A morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation of gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastric resections for carcinoma are common, but gastric carcinoma in South Africa, and particularly within the Western Cape province, has not been well documented. Method: The objective of the study was to immunohistochemically evaluate HER2/ neu overexpression, determine aberrations in β-catenin and ...

  5. A tale of gastric layering and sieving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; Graaf, de Kees; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more

  6. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θ YC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  7. Standard lymphadenectomy technique in the gastric adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Fernandez, Roberto Eduardo; Fernandez Vazquez, Pedro Ivan; LLera Dominguez, Gerardo de la

    2012-01-01

    The surgical technique used from 1990 in the 'Celia Sanchez Manduley' Clinical Surgical Teaching Provincial Hospital in Manzanillo, Granma province to carry out the gastrectomy together with the standard lymphadenectomy in patients carriers of a gastric adenocarcinoma, allowing application of the current oncologic and surgical concepts of the Japanese Society for Research of Gastric Cancer, essential to obtain a better prognosis in these patients

  8. Gastric pain | Schellack | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this article provides an overview of the aetiology, classification, risk factors, diagnostic criteria and management strategies aimed at gastric pain, and its two more distinct gastrointestinal-related manifestations, namely epigastric pain and dyspepsia. Keywords: gastric pain, epigastric pain, dyspepsia, peptic ulcer ...

  9. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined

  10. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Cover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI. Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed.

  11. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  12. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach (gastric) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions. Start here to find information on stomach (gastric) cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  13. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1984-09-08

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined.

  14. Calcification of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Ohtomo, K.; Nishikawa, J.; Sasaki, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Peritoneal calcification is noted in peritoneal dissemination from serious cystoadenocarcinoma of the ovary, pseudomyxoma peritonei and meconium peritonitis. This article discusses a case of peritoneal disseminated calcification from gastric carcinoma. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report in English literature of gastric cancer showing peritoneal calcification. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig

  15. Congenital paraesophageal hiatus hernia with gastric volvulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirsagar Ashok

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraesophageal hiatus hernia is rarely seen in the neonatal period. An intrathoracic gastric volvulus complicating such a hernia is rarer. The upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study is diagnostic. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is essential. It avoids lethal complications as gastric dilatation, gangrene and perforation, which in turn may lead to cardiopulmonary arrest.

  16. Diffuse benign gastric inflammatory hyperplastic polyps presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benign gastric inflammatory hyperplasic polyps are benign lesions that rarely occur in young age. We report a case of diffuse benign gastric inflammatory hyperplastic polyps in a 19 year old boy who presented with cough, nausea, and hematamesis. In the presented case symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are non ...

  17. Methodology for the study of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Ramos, P.A. de; Leal, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Differents methods for the study of dynamics of the gastric flow following a critical analysis of its potencials and limitations are discussed. The methdo utilizing radiosiotopes as tracers of the standard meals for the study of the gastric flow, is presented, in detail, emphasizing the aspects that create major difficulties in its utilization. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. The long noncoding RNA TUG1 regulates blood-tumor barrier permeability by targeting miR-144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Heng; Xue, Yixue; Wang, Ping; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Li, Zhiqing; Shang, Xiuli; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-08-14

    Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent to brain tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in various biologic processes of tumors. However, the role of lncRNAs in BTB permeability is unclear. LncRNA TUG1 (taurine upregulated gene 1) was highly expressed in glioma vascular endothelial cells from glioma tissues. It also upregulated in glioma co-cultured endothelial cells (GEC) from BTB model in vitro. Knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability, and meanwhile down-regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Both bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that TUG1 influenced BTB permeability via binding to miR-144. Furthermore, Knockdown of TUG1 also down-regulated Heat shock transcription factor 2 (HSF2), a transcription factor of the heat shock transcription factor family, which was defined as a direct and functional downstream target of miR-144. HSF2 up-regulated the promoter activities and interacted with the promoters of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 in GECs. In conclusion, our results indicate that knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability via binding to miR-144 and then reducing EC tight junction protein expression by targeting HSF2. Thus, TUG1 may represent a useful future therapeutic target for enhancing BTB permeability.

  19. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce human microvascular endothelial cell permeability through reactive oxygen species production and microtubule remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xianglin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered iron nanoparticles are being explored for the development of biomedical applications and many other industry purposes. However, to date little is known concerning the precise mechanisms of translocation of iron nanoparticles into targeted tissues and organs from blood circulation, as well as the underlying implications of potential harmful health effects in human. Results The confocal microscopy imaging analysis demonstrates that exposure to engineered iron nanoparticles induces an increase in cell permeability in human microvascular endothelial cells. Our studies further reveal iron nanoparticles enhance the permeability through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the stabilization of microtubules. We also showed Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathways are involved in iron nanoparticle-induced cell permeability. The inhibition of ROS demonstrate ROS play a major role in regulating Akt/GSK-3β – mediated cell permeability upon iron nanoparticle exposure. These results provide new insights into the bioreactivity of engineered iron nanoparticles which can inform potential applications in medical imaging or drug delivery. Conclusion Our results indicate that exposure to iron nanoparticles induces an increase in endothelial cell permeability through ROS oxidative stress-modulated microtubule remodeling. The findings from this study provide new understandings on the effects of nanoparticles on vascular transport of macromolecules and drugs.

  20. Lactobacillus fermentum Suo Attenuates HCl/Ethanol Induced Gastric Injury in Mice through Its Antioxidant Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayi Suo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research mice and explain the mechanism of these effects through the molecular biology activities of LF-Suo. The studied mice were divided into four groups: healthy, injured, LF-Suo-L and LF-Suo-H group. After the LF-Suo intragastric administration, the gastric injury area was reduced compared to the injured group. The serum MOT (motilin, SP (substance P, ET (endothelin levels of LF-Suo treated mice were lower, and SS (somatostatin, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide levels were higher than the injured group mice. The cytokine IL-6 (interleukin 6, IL-12 (interleukin 12, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α and IFN-γ (interferon-γ serum levels were decreased after the LF-Suo treatment. The gastric tissues SOD (superoxide dismutase, GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase, NO (nitric oxide and activities of LF-Suo treated mice were increased and MDA (malondialdehyde activity was decreased compared to the injured group mice. By the RT-PCR assay, LF-Suo raised the occludin, EGF (epidermal growth factor, EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor, Fit-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, IκB-α (inhibitor kappaB-α, nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase, eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT (catalase mRNA or protein expressions and reduced the COX-2, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappaB, and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions in gastric tissues compared to the gastric injured group mice. A high concentration (1.0 × 109 CFU/kg b.w. of LF-Suo treatment showed stronger anti-gastric injury effects compared to a low concentration of (0.5 × 109 CFU/kg b.w. of LF-Suo treatment. LF-Suo also showed strong survival in pH 3.0 man-made gastric juice and hydrophobic properties. These results indicate that LF-Suo has potential use as

  1. Phagocytosis (cannibalism) of apoptotic neutrophils by tumor cells in gastric micropapillary carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Valeria; Branca, Giovanni; Ieni, Antonio; Rigoli, Luciana; Tuccari, Giovanni; Caruso, Rosario Alberto

    2015-05-14

    To identify those with a micropapillary pattern, ascertain relative frequency and document clinicopathological characteristics by reviewing gastric carcinomas. One hundred and fifty-one patients diagnosed with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy were retrospectively studied and the presence of a regional invasive micropapillary component was evaluated by light microscopy. All available hematoxylin-eosin (HE)-stained slides were histologically reviewed and 5 tumors were selected as putative micropapillary carcinoma when cancer cell clusters without a vascular core within empty lymphatic-like space comprised at least 5% of the tumor. Tumor tissues from these 5 invasive gastric carcinomas were immunostained using an anti-mucin 1 (MUC1) antibody (clone MA695) to detect the characteristic inside-out pattern and with D2-40 antibody to determine the presence of intratumoral lymph vessels. Detection of intraepithelial neutrophil apoptosis was evaluated in consecutive histological tissue sections by three independent methods, namely light microscopy with HE staining, the conventional terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 (clone C92-605). Among 151 gastric cancers resected for cure, 5 (3.3%) were adenocarcinomas with a micropapillary component. Four of the patients died of disease from 6 to 23 mo and one patient was alive with metastases at 9 mo. All patients had advanced-stage cancer (≥ pT2) and lymph node metastasis. Positive MUC1 immunostaining on the stroma-facing surface (inside-out pattern) of the carcinomatous cluster cells, together with negative immunostaining for D2-40 in the cells limiting lymphatic-like spaces, confirmed the true micropapillary pattern in these gastric neoplasms. In all five cases, several micropapillae were infiltrated by neutrophils. HE staining, TUNEL assay and immunostaining for caspase-3 demonstrated apoptotic neutrophils within

  2. Sub-core permeability and relative permeability characterization with Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahasky, C.; Benson, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    This study utilizes preclinical micro-Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to image and quantify the transport behavior of pulses of a conservative aqueous radiotracer injected during single and multiphase flow experiments in a Berea sandstone core with axial parallel bedding heterogeneity. The core is discretized into streamtubes, and using the micro-PET data, expressions are derived from spatial moment analysis for calculating sub-core scale tracer flux and pore water velocity. Using the flux and velocity data, it is then possible to calculate porosity and saturation from volumetric flux balance, and calculate permeability and water relative permeability from Darcy's law. Full 3D simulations are then constructed based on this core characterization. Simulation results are compared with experimental results in order to test the assumptions of the simple streamtube model. Errors and limitations of this analysis will be discussed. These new methods of imaging and sub-core permeability and relative permeability measurements enable experimental quantification of transport behavior across scales.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  4. The epidemiology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David M

    2002-01-01

    Gastric cancer mortality has declined markedly around the world. In South Australia, the reduction approximated 40% over the last 20 years. Possible reasons include: better refrigeration; reduced consumption of salted, smoked, and chemically preserved foods; increased intake of fruit and vegetables; and improved living standards and a greater use of antibiotics, which may have reduced Helicobacter pylori infection. Reductions generally have been greater for intestinal than diffuse histopathologies. Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, probably accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed cancers. High rates apply to Japan, China. Central and South America, Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East, and low rates to North America, Australia and New Zealand, Northern Europe, and India. Rates usually are higher in lower socioeconomic groups. Five-year relative survivals of around 20% or less are frequently reported. A figure of 50% or more has been cited for Japan, where there has been radiological screening, although this exceptional figure could have been affected artificially by lead-time and related effects. Male-to-female incidence ratios generally are in the 1.5-2.5 range, with higher ratios for intestinal than diffuse cancers and higher-risk populations. In South Australia, the ratio has been 1.8 to one, although higher at 4.6 to one for cardia lesions. Recent increases in cardia cancers, especially in males in populations of European extraction, often are accompanied by increases for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is estimated that the global burden of gastric cancer could be reduced by up to 50% by dietary changes that included an increased intake of fruit and vegetables.

  5. Inactivation of Smad4 in gastric carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Harper, J C; Hamilton, S R; Robinson, C R; Cummings, O W

    1997-10-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 18q has been noted in intestinal type gastric adenocarcinomas. Smad4 is a gene located at 18q that was recently cloned in humans and found to be significantly altered in pancreatic cancers. We sought to determine whether Smad4 genetic alterations played a significant role in gastric tumorigenesis by studying 35 gastric adenocarcinomas of all histopathological types and pathological stages. Microdissected specimens were used for mutational analysis of Smad4 at the nucleotide level, including the entire coding region and intron/exon boundaries. Allelic imbalance was also analyzed at the Smad4 locus using two nearby microsatellite markers. One case of apparent biallelic inactivation of Smad4 was found in our study of 35 gastric carcinomas. A nonsense point mutation at codon 334 was demonstrated, which, similar to other Smad4 mutations, is predicted to truncate the conserved COOH-terminal domain of this protein. This Smad4 C to T transition mutation was proven to be somatically acquired. Allelic loss was also noted on chromosome 18q at a marker near Smad4 in this mutated gastric cancer, apparently producing complete inactivation of Smad4 in this tumor. Significant 18q allelic loss (56% of 34 informative cases) was noted in our gastric carcinomas using microsatellite markers near the Smad4 locus, regardless of histological subtype or pathological stage. Additionally, three cases of microsatellite instability were observed. Thus, Smad4 inactivation was noted in our gastric carcinomas; however, this event was rare. The frequent loss of chromosomal arm 18q observed in gastric cancers suggests the presence of other tumor suppressor genes in this region that are involved in gastric tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to identify these other targets of inactivation during gastric cancer development.

  6. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  7. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1972-01-01

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may be defined as a dysfunction of the distal esophagus causing return of gastric contents into the esophagus. GER is a rather common problem during infancy, with an incidence estimated as 1 in 500 infants. Several methods are available to diagnose and quantitate GER. These include fluoroscopy after barium feedings, in conjunction with an upper gastrointestinal series; esophageal manometry; endoscopy; pH probe monitoring, in conjunction with a Tuttle Test; and extended pH probe evaluation for a 24-h period. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy has been advocated as an alternative noninvasive study requiring no sedation. Scintigraphy offers the advantages of prolonged observation, high sensitivity, and low radiation exposure

  9. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  10. Calpain/SHP-1 interaction by honokiol dampening peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer in nu/nu mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing Hwa Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honokiol, a small-molecular weight natural product, has previously been reported to activate apoptosis and inhibit gastric tumorigenesis. Whether honokiol inhibits the angiogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer cells remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the effects of honokiol on angiogenic activity and peritoneal dissemination using in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assay systems. The signaling responses in human gastric cancer cells, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs, and isolated tumors were detected and analyzed. In a xenograft gastric tumor mouse model, honokiol significantly inhibited the peritoneal dissemination detected by PET/CT technique. Honokiol also effectively attenuated the angiogenesis detected by chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, mouse matrigel plug assay, rat aortic ring endothelial cell sprouting assay, and endothelial cell tube formation assay. Furthermore, honokiol effectively enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 dephosphorylation and inhibited STAT-3 DNA binding activity in human gastric cancer cells and HUVECs, which was correlated with the up-regulation of the activity and protein expression of Src homology 2 (SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1. Calpain-II inhibitor and siRNA transfection significantly reversed the honokiol-induced SHP-1 activity. The decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and increased SHP-1 expression were also shown in isolated peritoneal metastatic tumors. Honokiol was also capable of inhibiting VEGF generation, which could be reversed by SHP-1 siRNA transfection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Honokiol increases expression and activity of SPH-1 that further deactivates STAT3 pathway. These findings also suggest that honokiol is a novel and potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer cells, providing support for the application potential of honokiol in gastric cancer therapy.

  11. Solubility and Permeability Studies of Aceclofenac in Different Oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solubility and permeability of aceclofenac were compared with the hydroalcoholic solution of ... the use of lipid based systems such as micro- or .... carriers/vehicles for enhanced solubility and permeability ... modifications: A recent review.

  12. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging mechanism of these systems that effects the infiltration. A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary...

  13. Preliminary study of soil permeability properties using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, M.; Sudriani, Y.; Rustini, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Soil permeability measurement is undoubtedly important in carrying out soil-water research such as rainfall-runoff modelling, irrigation water distribution systems, etc. It is also known that acquiring reliable soil permeability data is rather laborious, time-consuming, and costly. Therefore, it is desirable to develop the prediction model. Several studies of empirical equations for predicting permeability have been undertaken by many researchers. These studies derived the models from areas which soil characteristics are different from Indonesian soil, which suggest a possibility that these permeability models are site-specific. The purpose of this study is to identify which soil parameters correspond strongly to soil permeability and propose a preliminary model for permeability prediction. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 16 parameters analysed from 37 sites consist of 91 samples obtained from Batanghari Watershed. Findings indicated five variables that have strong correlation with soil permeability, and we recommend a preliminary permeability model, which is potential for further development.

  14. Cardiac and vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, S.; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of the heart and great vessels show a high degree of variation. There are numerous variants and defects with only few clinical manifestations and are only detected by chance, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Other cardiovascular malformations are manifested directly after birth and need prompt mostly surgical interventions. At this point in time echocardiography is the diagnostic modality of choice for morphological and functional characterization of malformations. Additional imaging using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is only required in a minority of cases. If so, the small anatomical structures, the physiological tachycardia and tachypnea are a challenge for imaging modalities and strategies. This review article presents the most frequent vascular, cardiac and complex cardiovascular malformations independent of the first line diagnostic imaging modality. (orig.) [de

  15. Curcumin modulates endothelial permeability and monocyte transendothelial migration by affecting endothelial cell dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfoulet, Laurent-Emmanuel; Mercier, Sylvie; Bayle, Dominique; Tamaian, Radu; Barber-Chamoux, Nicolas; Morand, Christine; Milenkovic, Dragan

    2017-11-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic compound that exhibits beneficial properties for cardiometabolic health. We previously showed that curcumin reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the vascular wall and prevented atherosclerosis development in mice. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) and to decipher the underlying mechanisms of these actions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to curcumin (0.5-1μM) for 3h prior to their activation by Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α). Endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration assays were conducted under static condition and shear stress that mimics blood flow. We further investigated the impact of curcumin on signaling pathways and on the expression of genes using macroarrays. Pre-exposure of endothelial cells to curcumin reduced monocyte adhesion and their transendothelial migration in both static and shear stress conditions. Curcumin also prevented changes in both endothelial permeability and the area of HUVECs when induced by TNF-α. We showed that curcumin modulated the expression of 15 genes involved in the control of cytoskeleton and endothelial junction dynamic. Finally, we showed that curcumin inhibited NF-κB signaling likely through an antagonist interplay with several kinases as suggested by molecular docking analysis. Our findings demonstrate the ability of curcumin to reduce monocyte TEM through a multimodal regulation of the endothelial cell dynamics with a potential benefit on the vascular endothelial function barrier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A dual energy CT study on vascular effects of gold nanoparticles in radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Jeffrey R.; Hoye, Jocelyn; Deland, Katherine; Whitley, Melodi; Qi, Yi; Moding, Everett; Kirsch, David G.; West, Jennifer; Badea, Cristian T.

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are emerging as promising agents for both cancer therapy and CT imaging. AuNPs are delivered to tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect and they preferentially accumulate in close proximity to the tumor blood vessels. AuNPs produce low-energy, short-range photoelectrons during external beam radiation therapy (RT), boosting dose. This work is focused on understanding how tumor vascular permeability is influenced by AuNP-augmented radiation therapy (RT), and how this knowledge can potentially improve the delivery of additional nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics. We use dual energy (DE) CT to detect accumulation of AuNPs and increased vascular permeability to liposomal iodine (i.e. a surrogate for chemotherapeutics with liposome encapsulation) following RT. We used sarcoma tumors generated in LSL-KrasG12D; p53FL/FL conditional mutant mice. A total of n=37 mice were used in this study. The treated mice were injected with 20 mg AuNP (0.1 ml/25 g mouse) 24 hours before delivery of 5 Gy RT (n=5), 10 Gy RT (n=3) or 20 Gy RT (n=6). The control mice received no AuNP injection and either no RT (n=6), 5 Gy RT (n=3), 10 Gy RT (n=3), 20 Gy RT (n=11). Twenty four hours post-RT, the mice were injected with liposomal iodine (0.3 ml/25 mouse) and imaged with DE-CT three days later. The results suggest that independent of any AuNP usage, RT levels of 10 Gy and 20 Gy increase the permeability of tumor vasculature to liposomal iodine and that the increase in permeability is dose-dependent. We found that the effect of RT on vasculature may already be at its maximum response i.e. saturated at 20 Gy, and therefore the addition of AuNPs had almost no added benefit. Similarly, at 5 Gy RT, our data suggests that there was no effect of AuNP augmentation on tumor vascular permeability. However, by using AuNPs with 10 Gy RT, we observed an increase in the vascular permeability, however this is not yet statistically significant due to the small

  17. Gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer: upper gastrointestinal series and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyu Sun; Yun, Ku Sub; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hun; Kang, Gu; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the causes of gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer, upper gastrointestinal study was correlated with pathologic findings. We evaluated 41 cases (M:F = 1.7:1, average age = 49) of early gastric cancer, retrospectively. The gastric wall shortening were classified as Grade I; none, Grade II; intermediate, and Grade III; prominent. Pathologic findings such as size of lesions, depth of tumor invasion, degree of the submucosal fibrosis, degree of thickness of the submucosa and muscularis propria, and morphologic patterns of lesions including conversing mucosal folds were correlated with the degree of gastric wall shortening on upper gastrointestinal series. Submucosal fibrosis was present in 4 cases in Grade I (n = 21), 4 cases in Grade II (n = 6) and 8 cases in Grade III (n = 10). Positive conversing mucosal folds were seen in 5 cases in Grade I (n = 17), 0 case in Grade II (n = 2) and 9 cases in Grade III (n = 9). Gastric wall shortening was significantly associated with submucosal fibrosis and conversing mucosal folds of early gastric cancer. (ρ = 0.0001, and ρ = 0.02, respectively) Upper gastrointestinal finding of gastric wall protrusion in patients with early gastric cancer should not misinterprete as advanced gastric cancer since the finding could be a result of submucosal fibrosis

  18. Intestinal permeability study of minoxidil: assessment of minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for biopharmaceutics classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Zur, Moran; Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). The permeability of minoxidil was determined in in situ intestinal perfusion studies in rodents and permeability studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was compared with that of metoprolol, an FDA reference drug for BCS classification. In rat perfusion studies, the permeability of minoxidil was somewhat higher than that of metoprolol in the jejunum, while minoxidil showed lower permeability than metoprolol in the ileum. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of intestinal segment, while the permeability of metoprolol was region-dependent. Similarly, in mouse perfusion study, the jejunal permeability of minoxidil was 2.5-fold higher than that of metoprolol. Minoxidil and metoprolol showed similar permeability in Caco-2 study at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of pH, while metoprolol showed pH-dependent transport in Caco-2 study. Minoxidil exhibited similar permeability in the absorptive direction (AP-BL) in comparison with secretory direction (BL-AP), while metoprolol had higher efflux ratio (ER > 2) at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. No concentration-dependent transport was observed for either minoxidil or metoprolol transport in Caco-2 study. Verapamil did not alter the transport of either compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of both pH and intestinal segment in intestinal perfusion studies and Caco-2 studies. Caco-2 studies also showed no involvement of carrier mediated transport in the absorption process of minoxidil. These results suggest that minoxidil may be an acceptable reference drug for BCS high permeability classification. However, minoxidil exhibited higher jejunal permeability than metoprolol and thus to use minoxidil as a reference drug would raise the

  19. Serum and gastric fluid levels of cytokines and nitrates in gastric diseases infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmet, N; Refik, M; Harputluoglu, M; Ersoy, Y; Aydin, N Engin; Yildirim, B

    2004-04-01

    This case control study presents data on the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2R (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha in gastric fluid and serum. Patients with gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer are studied and grouped according to infection by Helicobacter pylori. The 208 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination were classified as follows; H. pylori-positive gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-negative gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-positive ulcers (n = 34), H. pylori-negative ulcers (n = 34), 43 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancer in addition to 33 H. pylori-negative healthy control individuals. Gastric fluids and blood samples were taken concomitantly. Cytokines and nitrite and nitrate determinations were attempted as soon as possible after collection of the samples. Nitrite and nitrate levels of serum and gastric fluids of H. pylori-positive gastritis and ulcers were higher than H. pylori-negative gastritis and ulcers. The concentrations of total nitrite and nitrate and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8) in gastric fluids and sera of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients were higher than H. pylori-negative control groups. IL-1 beta level was significantly elevated in gastric fluid of infected cancer patients but not in serum. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in cytokine-NO combination in gastric mucosa previously reported by many studies is not restricted to local infected gastric tissue but also detected in gastric fluid and sera of H. pylori-positive subjects and may have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of common gastric diseases.

  20. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  1. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  2. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  3. The vascular secret of Klotho

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Ewa; Olgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Klotho is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein related to longevity. Increasing evidence of a vascular protecting effect of the Klotho protein has emerged and might be important for future treatments of uremic vascular calcification. It is still disputed whether Klotho is locally expressed ...

  4. Observation on CEA and IL-6 contents in gastric juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhonglin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice in patients with gastric cancer and gastritis. Methods: CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice were measured with RIA in 60 patients and 30 controls. Results: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in the controls (p < 0.001), however, CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastritis and controls were not much different. Conclusion: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 assay is of diagnostic significance in patients with gastric malignant tumor

  5. Interleukin-17A and vascular remodelling in severe asthma; lack of evidence for a direct role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panariti, A; Baglole, C J; Sanchez, V; Eidelman, D H; Hussain, S; Olivenstein, R; Martin, J G; Hamid, Q

    2018-04-01

    Bronchial vascular remodelling may contribute to the severity of airway narrowing through mucosal congestion. Interleukin (IL)-17A is associated with the most severe asthmatic phenotype but whether it might contribute to vascular remodelling is uncertain. To assess vascular remodelling in severe asthma and whether IL-17A directly or indirectly may cause endothelial cell activation and angiogenesis. Bronchial vascularization was quantified in asthmatic subjects, COPD and healthy subjects together with the number of IL-17A + cells as well as the concentration of angiogenic factors in the sputum. The effect of IL-17A on in vitro angiogenesis, cell migration and endothelial permeability was assessed directly on primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) or indirectly with conditioned medium derived from normal bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC), fibroblasts (NHBF) and airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) after IL-17A stimulation. Severe asthmatics have increased vascularity compared to the other groups, which correlates positively with the concentrations of angiogenic factors in sputum. Interestingly, we demonstrated that increased bronchial vascularity correlates positively with the number of subepithelial IL-17A + cells. However IL-17A had no direct effect on HMVEC-L function but it enhanced endothelial tube formation and cell migration through the production of angiogenic factors by NHBE and ASMC. Our results shed light on the role of IL-17A in vascular remodelling, most likely through stimulating the synthesis of other angiogenic factors. Knowledge of these pathways may aid in the identification of new therapeutic targets. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  7. Social media in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of lung injuries on [14C]urea permeability-surface area product in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelter, M.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether [ 14 C]urea permeability-surface area product (PS) is a reliable indicator of changes in permeability in various injuries and its relationship to indicator-dilution and gravimetric lung water contents, we studied six groups of anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated dogs (5 animals each). The groups consisted of control dogs, those injured by intravenous alloxan, oleic acid, or glass beads, and those exposed to acute hypoxia or increased left atrial pressure from volume loading (Pla). Interanimal variation of PS was large (3.0-15.0 ml/s), but successive hourly values in individual animals were stable for 2 h in experimental groups and for 4 h in controls. The PS increased after alloxan, elevated Pla, and 2 h of hypoxia; PS decreased after oleic acid and micremboli. The gravimetric lung water increased after alloxan, oleic acid, and microemboli, and indicator-dilution lung water increased only after alloxan. We conclude (1) that intersubject variability requires normalization to enable detection of significant deviation from base line, and (2) that decreased PS after oleic acid and microvascular injury occurred because vascular obstruction, which decreased surface area, masked probable coexisting increases in capillary permeability

  9. Intimal permeability evaluated in a short-term organ culture of diabetic guinea pig aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.J.; Verlangieri, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A novel short-term organ culture system was used to evaluate intimal permeability changes by measuring aortic [ 14 C]methylated albumin accumulation. Aortic plugs were removed from the upper thoracic aorta of male guinea pigs and maintained in serum-free media. The accumulation of [ 14 C]albumin in the intimal-medial layer was determined after a 5 h incubation. In preliminary studies, albumin recovered from intimal-injured aortic plugs was significantly greater than those from non-injured plugs. Aortic plugs from streptozotocin-treated guinea pigs, diabetic for 3 weeks, also accumulated significantly more [ 14 C]albumin than plugs from nondiabetic controls. Histological changes were not observed in the aorta of either the diabetic or control group. A strong significant inverse correlation was found between plasma ascorbic acid levels and [ 14 C]-activity recovered from aortic plugs. This study demonstrates a simple and rapid method for assessing aortic permeability changes under a well-defined in vitro system, and suggests that vascular permeability changes in the streptozotocin-diabetic guinea pig may be associated with an ascorbic acid deficit

  10. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp (AP-BL) ) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp (AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp (AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  11. Long-term Metal Performance of Three Permeable Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot surfaced with three permeable pavements (permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt) on the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Samples from each permeable pavement infiltrate were collected...

  12. Gastric pythiosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ciciane P M; Giordani, Cláudia; Grecco, Fabiane B; V Sallis, Elisa Simone; R Stainki, Daniel; Gaspar, Luiz Fernando J; Garcez Ribeiro, Carmem Lucia; Nobre, Márcia O

    2012-01-01

    Pythiosis is caused by the agent Pythium insidiosum, an aquatic oomycete of the kingdom Stramenopila. To describe the symptoms, pathological changes and diagnosis methods of gastric pythiosis in dogs. A three-year-old female German shepherd, with access to wetlands, was attended due to vomiting and recurrent diarrhea of 30 days of duration. A palpable mass in the abdomen filling the left epigastric region was identified in the clinical examination. Simple and contrasted radiological examination and ultrasound of abdominal cavity were performed. The animal was referred for exploratory laparotomy for the removal of the mass. The extent of the mass prevented from the excision and the animal was euthanized. Samples of the tumor mass were collected and sent for morphological study and immunohistochemistry. The changes observed in imaging studies were consistent with gastric pythiosis. In cytology and histopathology, non-septate hyphae were identified, and in immunohistochemistry a strong positivity of anti-Pythium antibodies was observed, confirming the diagnosis of pythiosis. Pythiosis in dogs is diagnosed late and tends to evolve in the animal's death. The definitive diagnosis is by cytology, histology and immunohistochemistry. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Images of gastric cancer stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Aragon, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work has the objective to review the importance of the images in the preoperating stage of the gastric cancer. It has been emphasized in the modalities of transabdominal ultrasound as much as endoscopic and TAC since they are most valuable in the stage. Certainly the importance of conventional radiology (gastroduodenal series) is also valuable in the stage of the tumor, specially in considering the depth of the same one. In order to make this overhaul, the recent bibliography was consulted but, specially the published one by Japaneses since they follow a classification and methodology different from the used one in most of the countries that belong to the World-wide Organization of the Health. They made an overhaul of approximately 200 cases of patients who have been diagnosed and treated in the Center of Detection of Gastric Cancer of Cartago. In each case review the file, radiological, sonographic and pathological studies, and the cases were chosen that better illustrated the exposed subjects. (Author) [es

  14. Bone metastases from gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi

    1983-01-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N 0 or N 1 regional lymph node metastases, highly deferenciated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone stastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer. (author)

  15. Gastric cancer screening, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras Alfaro, Erika

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review was made of the methods of screening (pepsinogen test, gastrin-17, anti HP, SGD and Endoscopy). The review and descriptive study of the scientific literature related to the subject was conducted in the scientific databases: Pud Med, MD Consult and Medscape, from August 2013 to March 2014. 65 articles were found related to the topic. The review has included 47 items, assigned according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Available methods were defined of high cost, difficult to spread, little sensitive, little specific and invasive. Endoscopy has had limitations of cost, quality, morbidity, mortality and availability. Pepsinogen tests and helicobacter pylori have helped identify the population at risk for later sift with endoscopy; but it is a very sensitive method. Endoscopy is recommended every two years in the population at risk (patients between 50 and 70 years with a family history of gastric cancer, chronic atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, patients with symptomatology of dyspepsia and with positive pepsinogen test) is a higher method than SGD in cost, sensitivity and specificity similar to invasive level. The training of the endoscopists should be strengthened in early gastric cancer detection since the detection depends on the quality of endoscopy [es

  16. Gastric leiomyosarcoma about seven cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.; Vicente, J.; Antunez, C.; Telechea, M.; Ayala, D.; Torres, M.; Di Leoni, F.

    2004-01-01

    Gastric leiomyosarcoma is a rare tumor. Its clinical symptoms are non specific, its diagnosis during preoperative is generaly difficult. Surgery is the main therapeutic pillar because neither radiation nor chemical therapy have proven to be effective.Even though its prognosis taken globally is more favorable than of adenocarcinoma, its biologic behavior is hi gly and depends on various factors. In this paper the author conduct a retrospective analysis of seven cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma s treated in health care centers throughout Uruguay, not only in Montevideo but in other towns as well, during the period extending as from 1992 through 2001. In no case was diagnosis made in the pre or intra operative; in 43% of cases there occurred tumor involvement of the surgical resection margins. Local resections were the most frequent procedures employed, there being no operative mortality, survivals being 5 and 9 years and in 2 others survival extended to 10 years.The three remaining ones have not as yet completed the first year

  17. Permeability of cork for water and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana Luisa; Brazinha, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Crespo, Joao G; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2013-10-09

    Transport properties of natural (noncompressed) cork were evaluated for water and ethanol in both vapor and liquid phases. The permeability for these permeants has been measured, as well as the sorption and diffusion coefficients. This paper focuses on the differences between the transport of gases' relevant vapors and their liquids (water and ethanol) through cork. A transport mechanism of vapors and liquids is proposed. Experimental evidence shows that both vapors and liquids permeate not only through the small channels across the cells (plasmodesmata), as in the permeation of gases, but also through the walls of cork cells by sorption and diffusion as in dense membranes. The present study also shows that cork permeability for gases was irreversibly and drastically decreased after cork samples were exposed to ethanol or water in liquid phase.

  18. The kinetics of denitrification in permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evrard, Victor; Glud, Ronnie N.; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Permeable sediments comprise the majority of shelf sediments, yet the rates of denitrification remain highly uncertain in these environments. Computational models are increasingly being used to understand the dynamics of denitrification in permeable sediments, which are complex environments...... on sediments taken from six shallow coastal sites in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. The results showed that denitrification commenced rapidly (within 30 min) after the onset of anoxia and the kinetics could be well described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with half saturation constants (apparent K...... in cohesive sediments despite organic carbon contents one order of magnitude lower for the sediments studied here. The ratio of sediment O-2 consumption to V-max was in the range of 0.02-0.09, and was on average much lower than the theoretical ratio of 0.8. As a consequence, models implemented...

  19. Plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of gastric variceal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Min Yung; Kim, Man Deuk; Shin, Won Seon; Shin, Min Woo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Tae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension

  20. Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors of 63 gastric cancer patients with metachronous ovarian metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Qiang; Pei, Wei; Zheng, Zhao-Xu; Bi, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Xing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors of gastric cancer patients with metachronous ovarian metastasis. Clinicopathologic data were collected from 63 post-operative gastric cancer patients with metachronous ovarian metastasis. The patients were admitted to the Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College between January 1999 and December 2011. A log-rank test was conducted for survival analysis. Possible prognostic factors that affect survival were examined by univariate analysis. A Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The incidence of ovarian metastasis was 3.4% with a mean age of 45 years. Up to 65.1% of the patients were pre-menopausal. The mean interval between ovarian metastasis and primary cancer was 16 months. Lowly differentiated carcinoma ranked first in the primary gastric cancers. The majority of lesions occurred in the serous membrane (87.3%). The metastatic sites included N 2-3 lymph nodes (68.3%), bilateral ovaries (85.7%), and peritoneal membrane (73%). Total resection of metastatic sites was performed (31.7%). The overall median survival was 13.6 months, whereas the overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 52.5%, 22.0%, and 9.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate was zero. Univariate analysis showed that the patient prognosis was correlated with metastatic peritoneal seeding, vascular tumor embolus, range of lesion excision, and mode of comprehensive treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that metastatic peritoneal seeding was an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients with ovarian metastasis (P<0.01). Effective control of peritoneal seeding—induced metastasis is important for improving the prognosis of gastric cancer patients with ovarian metastasis

  1. Evaluation of the recurrence pattern of gastric cancer after laparoscopic gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yuichiro; Satoh, Seiji; Umeki, Yusuke; Ishida, Yoshinori; Suda, Koichi; Uyama, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the oncological aspects of gastric cancer following laparoscopic gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy (LG-D2). We retrospectively evaluated the long-term outcomes of 354 patients who underwent LG-D2 for primary gastric cancer. Recurrence patterns and predictors of peritoneal metastasis were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 43.8 months. Five-year overall survival rates for yp/pStages I, II, and III gastric cancer were 93.7, 78.5, and 42.2 %, respectively. Recurrence was observed in 86 patients. Peritoneal metastasis was the most frequent recurrence pattern (n = 51), followed by hepatic metastasis (n = 17). Lymphatic recurrence at distant sites was observed in 10 patients. No locoregional lymph node metastasis or local recurrence was seen. Nine of 51 cases of peritoneal recurrence were detected by probe laparoscopy. Peritoneal recurrence rates were significantly higher in yp/pT4 and yp/pN3 diseases compared with yp/pT ≤ 3 and yp/pN ≤ 2 diseases. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that yp/pT4, yp/pN3, tumor size ≥70 mm, vascular invasion, and undifferentiated tumors were predictors of peritoneal recurrence following LG-D2. Long-term outcomes of gastric cancer following LG-D2, including recurrence patterns and predictors of peritoneal metastasis, were comparable to those following open D2 gastrectomy. LG-D2 showed good local control. Probe laparoscopy after LG may be effective in detecting peritoneal recurrence, which is not determined with less invasive examinations, including a CT scan. Future large-scale prospective studies are desirable to evaluate not only surgical but also oncological benefits and safety of LG-D2 for advanced gastric cancer.

  2. Plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of gastric variceal hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Min Yung; Kim, Man Deuk; Shin, Won Seon; Shin, Min Woo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, National Health Insurance Serivce Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension.

  3. Vascular Hyperpermeability Response in Animals Systemically Exposed to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chao-Yuah; Lin, Ming-Lu

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases induced by chronic exposure to arsenic remain unclarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether increased vascular leakage is induced by inflammatory mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to various doses of arsenic and whether an increased vascular leakage response is still present in arsenic-fed mice after arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. ICR mice were fed water or various doses of sodium arsenite (10, 15, or 20 mg/kg/day; 5 days/week) for 8 weeks. In separate experiments, the mice were treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 2 or 8 weeks, followed by arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. Vascular permeability to inflammatory mustard oil was quantified using Evans blue (EB) techniques. Both arsenic-exposed and water-fed (control) mice displayed similar basal levels of EB leakage in the ears brushed with mineral oil, a vehicle of mustard oil. The levels of EB leakage induced by mustard oil in the arsenic groups fed with sodium arsenite (10 or 15 mg/kg) were similar to those of water-fed mice. However, increased levels of EB leakage in response to mustard oil stimulation were significantly higher in mice treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg; high dose) than in arsenic-fed (10 or 15 mg/kg; low and middle doses) or control mice. After arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months, mustard oil-induced vascular EB leakage in arsenic-fed (20 mg/kg) mice was similar to that in control mice. Dramatic increases in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage were only present in mice systemically exposed to the high arsenic dose, indicating the synergistic effects of the high arsenic dose and mustard oil.

  4. Nonequilibrium gas absorption in rotating permeable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, V. K.; Bazhaikin, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    The absorption of ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide by water and aqueous solutions in rotating permeable media, a cellular porous disk, and a set of spaced-apart thin disks has been considered. The efficiency of cleaning air to remove these impurities is determined, and their anomalously high solubility (higher than equilibrium value) has been discovered. The results demonstrate the feasibility of designing cheap efficient rotor-type absorbers to clean gases of harmful impurities.

  5. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation

    OpenAIRE

    Krasniqi, Avdyl Selmon; Hoxha, Faton Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptom...

  6. Pediatric gastric volvulus--experience with 7 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, W. H.; Choi, S. O.; Suh, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Gastric volvulus, organoaxial or mesenterioaxial, is a rare condition in infancy and childhood. We experienced 7 cases of pediatric gastric volvulus, consisting of 3 cases of secondary gastric volvulus due to left diaphragmatic eventration or paraesophageal hernia and 4 cases of idiopathic gastric volvulus. Of 7 cases, five were organoaxial in type and two were mesenterioaxial. The main symptoms of secondary gastric volvulus were vomiting and respiratory difficulty whereas those of idiopathic...

  7. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  8. Correlation between pepsinogens and gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Mengjun; Xiao Zhijian; Yang Xizhen; Huang Xuquan; Yu Huixin; Zhang Rongjun; Tao Yonghui; Zhang Lianfen; Cai Gangming; Tan Cheng; Xiao Ye; Jin Jian; Wang Bocheng

    2001-01-01

    Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen II (PG I and PG II) were purified from human gastric mucosa using DE-52 anion exchange chromatography, Gel filtration HPLC and Q-2 anion exchange fast pressure chromatography. The antiserums against at both PG I and PG II were established respectively by preparing 125 I-PG I and 125 I-PG II using the chloramine-T method. Serum Pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by RIA in 190 healthy controls and other gastric diseases. The results were analyzed by statistics method. Compared with healthy controls, the serum PG I levels of duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer were significantly higher. The serum PG I levels of gastritis patients were significantly lower and the serum PG I levels and PG I/PG II ratio of gastric cancer patients were much more lower. After total gastrectomy, the serum PG I and PG II levels of patients with recurrence of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those without recurrence. The changes of serum PG I and PG II levels are valuable for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and detecting the recurrence of gastric cancer after total gastrectomy

  9. Gastric cancer: epidemiology, prevention, classification, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitarz R

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert Sitarz,1–3 Małgorzata Skierucha,1,2 Jerzy Mielko,1 G Johan A Offerhaus,3 Ryszard Maciejewski,2 Wojciech P Polkowski1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 2Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 3Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, the epidemiology of which has changed within last decades. A trend of steady decline in gastric cancer incidence rates is the effect of the increased standards of hygiene, conscious nutrition, and Helicobacter pylori eradication, which together constitute primary prevention. Avoidance of gastric cancer remains a priority. However, patients with higher risk should be screened for early detection and chemoprevention. Surgical resection enhanced by standardized lymphadenectomy remains the gold standard in gastric cancer therapy. This review briefly summarizes the most important aspects of gastric cancers, which include epidemiology, risk factors, classification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. The paper is mostly addressed to physicians who are interested in updating the state of art concerning gastric carcinoma from easily accessible and credible source. Keywords: gastric cancer, epidemiology, classification, risk factors, treatment

  10. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  11. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  12. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  13. Correlation between pepsinogens and gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengjun, Jiang; Zhijian, Xiao; Xizhen, Yang; Xuquan, Huang; Huixin, Yu; Rongjun, Zhang; Yonghui, Tao; Lianfen, Zhang; Gangming, Cai; Cheng, Tan; Ye, Xiao; Jian, Jin; Bocheng, Wang [Jiangsu Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi (China). State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen II (PG I and PG II) were purified from human gastric mucosa using DE-52 anion exchange chromatography, Gel filtration HPLC and Q-2 anion exchange fast pressure chromatography. The antiserums against at both PG I and PG II were established respectively by preparing {sup 125}I-PG I and {sup 125}I-PG II using the chloramine-T method. Serum Pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by RIA in 190 healthy controls and other gastric diseases. The results were analyzed by statistics method. Compared with healthy controls, the serum PG I levels of duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer were significantly higher. The serum PG I levels of gastritis patients were significantly lower and the serum PG I levels and PG I/PG II ratio of gastric cancer patients were much more lower. After total gastrectomy, the serum PG I and PG II levels of patients with recurrence of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those without recurrence. The changes of serum PG I and PG II levels are valuable for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and detecting the recurrence of gastric cancer after total gastrectomy.

  14. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  15. A Reconciliation of Packed Column Permeability Data: Column Permeability as a Function of Particle Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert M. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his textbook teaching of packed bed permeability, Georges Guiochon uses mobile phase velocity as the fluid velocity term in his elaboration of the Darcy permeability equation. Although this velocity frame makes a lot of sense from a thermodynamic point of view, it is valid only with respect to permeability at a single theoretical boundary condition. In his more recent writings, however, Guiochon has departed from his long-standing mode of discussing permeability in terms of the Darcy equation and has embraced the well-known Kozeny-Blake equation. In this paper, his teaching pertaining to the constant in the Kozeny-Blake equation is examined and, as a result, a new correlation coefficient is identified and defined herein based on the velocity frame used in his teaching. This coefficient correlates pressure drop and fluid velocity as a function of particle porosity. We show that in their experimental protocols, Guiochon et al. have not adhered to a strict material balance of permeability which creates a mismatch of particle porosity and leads to erroneous conclusions regarding the value of the permeability coefficient in the Kozeny-Blake equation. By correcting the experimental data to properly reflect particle porosity we reconcile the experimental results of Guiochon and Giddings, resulting in a permeability reference chart which is presented here for the first time. This reference chart demonstrates that Guiochon’s experimental data, when properly normalized for particle porosity and other related discrepancies, corroborates the value of 267 for the constant in the Kozeny-Blake equation which was derived by Giddings in 1965.

  16. Ammonia gas permeability of meat packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Faris; Hijaz, Faraj; Kastner, Curtis L; Smith, J Scott

    2011-03-01

    Meat products are packaged in polymer films designed to protect the product from exterior contaminants such as light, humidity, and harmful chemicals. Unfortunately, there is almost no data on ammonia permeability of packaging films. We investigated ammonia permeability of common meat packaging films: low-density polyethylene (LDPE; 2.2 mil), multilayer polyolefin (MLP; 3 mil), and vacuum (V-PA/PE; 3 mil, 0.6 mil polyamide/2.4 mil polyethylene). The films were fabricated into 10 × 5 cm pouches and filled with 50 mL deionized water. Pouches were placed in a plexiglass enclosure in a freezer and exposed to 50, 100, 250, or 500 ppm ammonia gas for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h at -17 ± 3 °C and 21 ± 3 °C. At freezing temperatures, no ammonia residues were detected and no differences in pH were found in the water. At room temperature, ammonia levels and pH of the water increased significantly (P packaging materials have low ammonia permeability and protect meat products exposed to ammonia leaks during frozen storage.

  17. Endothelial cell permeability to water and antipyrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The endothelium provides a structural barrier between plasma constituents and the tissues. The permeability characteristics of the the endothelial cells regulate the transcellular movement of materials across this barrier while other movement is paracellular. In this study the permeability of the endothelial cells to tritiated water ( 3 HHO) and 14 C-labeled antipyrine (AP) was investigated. The cells were isolated non-enzymatically from calf pulmonary artery and were maintained in culture and used between the seventh and fifteenth passage. The cells were removed from the T-flasks with a rubber policeman, titurated with a 22g needle and centrifuged. The cells were mixed with an extracellular marker, drawn into polyethylene tubing and packed by centrifugation for use in the linear diffusion technique. All measurements were made at 37 C. The diffusion coefficients for 3 HHO through the packed cells (D), the intracellular material (D 2 ), and the extracellular material (D 1 ) were 0.682, 0.932 and 2.45 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 and for AP were 0.273, 0.355 and 1.13 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 respectively. The permeability coefficient calculated by the series-parallel pathway model for 3 HHO was higher than that for AP and for both 3 HHO and AP were lower than those calculated for isolated lung cells and erythrocytes

  18. Permeable treatment wall design and cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manz, C.; Quinn, K.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable treatment wall utilizing the funnel and gate technology has been chosen as the final remedial solution for one industrial site, and is being considered at other contaminated sites, such as a closed municipal landfill. Reactive iron gates will be utilized for treatment of chlorinated VOCs identified in the groundwater. Alternatives for the final remedial solution at each site were evaluated to achieve site closure in the most cost effective manner. This paper presents the remedial alternatives and cost analyses for each site. Several options are available at most sites for the design of a permeable treatment wall. Our analysis demonstrates that the major cost factor's for this technology are the design concept, length, thickness, location and construction methods for the reactive wall. Minimizing the amount of iron by placement in the most effective area and construction by the lowest cost method is critical to achieving a low cost alternative. These costs dictate the design of a permeable treatment wall, including selection of a variety of alternatives (e.g., a continuous wall versus a funnel and gate system, fully penetrating gates versus partially penetrating gates, etc.). Selection of the appropriate construction methods and materials for the site can reduce the overall cost of the wall

  19. Permeability of different size waste particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Gavelytė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The world and life style is changing, but the most popular disposal route for waste is landfill globally until now. We have to think about waste prevention and preparing for re-use or recycling firstly, according to the waste disposal hierarchy. Disposed waste to the landfill must be the last opportunity. In a landfill, during waste degradation processes leachate is formed that can potentially cause clogging of bottom drainage layers. To ensure stability of a landfill construction, the physical properties of its components have to be controlled. The hydrology of precipitation, evaporation, runoff and the hydraulic performance of the capping and liner materials are important controls of the moisture content. The water balance depends also on the waste characteristics and waste particle size distribution. The aim of this paper is to determine the hydraulic permeability in a landfill depending on the particle size distribution of municipal solid waste disposed. The lab experiment results were compared with the results calculated with DEGAS model. Samples were taken from a landfill operated for five years. The samples particle sizes are: >100 mm, 80 mm, 60 mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 0.01 mm and <0.01 mm. The permeability test was conducted using the column test. The paper presents the results of experiment and DEGAS model water permeability with waste particle size.

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, E.D.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total-body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total-body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive Beta endorphin.

  2. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  3. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals

  4. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  5. Pneumatosis in canine gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, Anthony J; Saunders, H Mark; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2004-01-01

    Retrospectively, 243 dogs with radiographic evidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) were studied for radiographic signs of pneumatosis (intramural gas), pneumoperitoneum, splenomegaly, and severity of gastric distention. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of these imaging signs as predictors of gastric wall necrosis, as determined by visual inspection at surgery or necropsy, were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of gastric pneumatosis were 14.1% and 92.7%, respectively. The prevalence of gastric wall necrosis was 26.6%. The positive and negative predictive values of gastric pneumatosis for predicting gastric necrosis were 40.9% and 74.9%, respectively. Gastric pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum were identified together in four dogs. Pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in conjunction with pneumatosis, yielded similar results as a test for gastric necrosis. Splenomegaly and severity of gastric distention were insensitive and nonspecific for gastric wall necrosis. Splenomegaly did not predict the need for splenectomy at surgery. Although pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum are relatively specific signs of gastric wall necrosis, the utility of these signs as a test for gastric necrosis is limited in clinical practice. The significance of pneumatosis should be taken into consideration with previous treatments for gastric decompression, as percutaneous gastric trocharization or orogastric intubation may increase the number of false-positive results.

  6. Features of gastritis predisposing to gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meining, A; Riedl, B; Stolte, M

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The results of several studies indicate that gastric adenomas, which are considered premalignant lesions, may also be associated with H pylori gastritis. However, it is not clear whether there are different patterns of gastritis in these patients compared with patients with gastric cancer or patients with H pylori gastritis alone. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the pattern...

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound coil placement of gastric varices: Emerging modality for recurrent bleeding gastric varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Harwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric varices are the probable source of bleeding in 10-36% of patients, with acute variceal bleeding and carry high mortality and rebleeding rates. Till date, cyanoacrylate glue injection is considered as the standard of care but has high complication rate. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS guided coil placement is a new emerging technique of management of gastric varices. In this case report, we detail the EUS guided coil placement for management of gastric varices after failed glue injections.

  8. Gastric cancer-derived MSC-secreted PDGF-DD promotes gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Wang, Mei; Yang, Tingting; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Zixuan; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of PDGF-DD secreted by gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) in human gastric cancer progression. Gastric cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with GC-MSCs in a transwell system. The growth and migration of gastric cancer cells were evaluated by cell colony formation assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The production of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was determined by using Luminex and ELISA. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f and siRNA interference of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was used to demonstrate the role of PDGF-DD produced by GC-MSCs in gastric cancer progression. GC-MSC conditioned medium promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Co-culture with GC-MSCs increased the phosphorylation of PDGFR-β in SGC-7901 cells. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f blocked the promoting role of GC-MSC conditioned medium in gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. Recombinant PDGF-DD duplicated the effects of GC-MSC conditioned medium on gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs abolished its effects on gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PDGF-DD secreted by GC-MSCs is capable of promoting gastric cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the PDGF-DD/PDGFR-β interaction between MSCs and gastric cancer cells may represent a novel strategy for gastric cancer therapy.

  9. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2009-01-01

    of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  10. Premalignant alterations of the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.; Mitsudo, S.; Kozecky, O.; Frager, J.; Wolf, E.; Beneventano, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrophic gastritus or intestinal metaplasia is the precursor to many gastric carcinomas that arise in a dysplatic epithelium. The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographic features of the gastric mucosa in 30 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (27) or atrophic gastritus (3). In 12 patients (40%) the area gastricae were enlarged to 5 mm or greater. In these 12 patients and in an additional 11 (total of 23, or 76%), a polypoid-nodular gastric mucosal pattern was seen. These findings and patterns are illustrated, and the differential diagnosis and clinical implications are discussed

  11. Extraintestinal heterotopic gastric tissue simulating acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth Bender; Steven P Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old otherwise healthy male who presented to our emergency room with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. Exploratory surgery revealed a normal appendix. Further examination revealed an enlarged lymph node-like mass of tissue near the appendix, in the ileocecal mesentery. This mass was removed and was found to be inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue. Although reports of heterotopic gastric tissue in the literature are common, we believe that this case represents the first report of inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue simulating appendicitis.

  12. Neonatal Intrathoracic Stomach without Gastric Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare and serious congenital abnormality. The anomaly may be complicated by gastric volvulus and can lead to ischemic gastric infarction in the neonate. If diagnosed antenatally, neonatal management can be planned in advance so as to reduce morbidity. This anomaly must be differentiated from the more common congenital diaphragmatic hernia, as associated pulmonary hypoplasia is common in the latter and rare with gastric herniation. We report a case of intrathoracic stomach in a neonate without volvulus, fortunately a rare entity which was managed operatively, and the child has been under regular follow-up.

  13. Gastric carcinoma: when is palliative gastrectomy justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Scheidbach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is frequently diagnosed with an advanced stage of non-curable tumor growth characterized by infiltration of the gastric serosa, peritoneal tumor spread and/or metastases within lymph nodes and liver. Currently, there is a controversy on the value of palliative resection with regard to the safety and benefit to the patient outcome. Based on the available literature, this overview summarizes the various aspects and interprets the limited data on the palliative resection of gastric carcinoma. It turns out that the available study results may indicate potential for an improved quality of life and a prolongation of survival if an acceptable morbidity and mortality are present.

  14. Gastric ulceration in dog: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Parrah

    Full Text Available The common acid related diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract could be considered as primarily due to the defect in barrier function either of the gastric mucosal or duodenal epithelium leading to the formation of gastric or duodenal ulcers. An attempt was made in this review to discuss the classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of gastric ulcer in dogs. Early surgical advances in the management of peptic ulcers are emphasized that were then subsequently replaced by pharmacological treatment (histamine H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors and considered as the major strategy against the acid disorders. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 449-454

  15. Gastric Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie On-On Chan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the world. However, in the past 10 decades, the view of gastric cancer has been changing. This includes the unexplained decline in the incidence of the cancer, the proximal shift of the cancer in the stomach, the identification of Helicobacter pylori as an etiological agent, rapid development in molecular tumour biology, new treatment modalities and the adoption of mass screening for prevention. This article reviews the changing views of gastric cancer and the latest developments.

  16. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  17. Evolution of permeability in diatomaceous rocks mediated by pressure solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhara, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Naoki; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kishida, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    A conceptual model is presented to follow the evolution of permeability in diatomaceous rocks mediated by pressure solution. The progress of compaction and the evolution of permeability may be followed with time. Specifically, the main minerals of diatomaceous rocks that are quartz, cristobalite, and amorphous silica, are focused to examine differences of the permeability evolutions among them at effective stresses of 5, and 10 MPa, and temperatures of 20 and 90degC. The rates and magnitudes of permeability reduction increase with increase of the dissolution rate constants. Ultimate permeabilities reduce to the order of 90% at the completion of dissolution-mediated compaction. (author)

  18. Vascular disease in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Keren; Mani, Venkatesh; Jeyachandran, Devi; Fayad, Zahi A; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best. We review major postmortem and in vitro studies documenting cocaine-induced vascular toxicity. PubMed and Academic Search Complete were used with relevant terms. Findings consist of the major mechanisms of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherosclerosis, emphasizing acute, chronic, and secondary effects of cocaine. The etiology underlying cocaine's acute and chronic vascular effects is multifactorial, spanning hypertension, impaired homeostasis and platelet function, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and alterations in blood flow. Early detection of vascular disease in cocaine addiction by multimodality imaging is discussed. Treatment may be similar to indications in patients with traditional risk-factors, with few exceptions such as enhanced supportive care and use of benzodiazepines and phentolamine for sedation, and avoiding β-blockers. Given the vascular toxicity cocaine induces, further compounded by smoking and alcohol comorbidity, and interacting with aging of the crack generation, there is a public health imperative to identify pre-symptomatic markers of vascular impairments in cocaine addiction and employ preventive treatment to reduce silent disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [The future of vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K; Luther, B

    2014-10-01

    In the future vascular medicine will still have a great impact on health of people. It should be noted that the aging of the population does not lead to a dramatic increase in patient numbers, but will be associated with a changing spectrum of co-morbidities. In addition, vascular medical research has to include the intensive care special features of vascular patients, the involvement of vascular medicine in a holistic concept of fast-track surgery, a geriatric-oriented intensive monitoring and early geriatric rehabilitation. For the future acceptance of vascular medicine as a separate subject area under delimitation of cardiology and radiology is important. On the other hand, the subject is so complex and will become more complex in future specialisations that mixing of surgery and angiology is desirable, with the aim to preserve the vascular surgical knowledge and skills on par with the medical and interventional measures and further develop them. Only large, interdisciplinary guided vascular centres will be able to provide timely diagnosis and therapy, to deal with the growing multi-morbidity of the patient, to perform complex therapies even in an acute emergency and due to sufficient number of cases to present with well-trained and experienced teams. These requirements are mandatory to decrease patients' mortality step by step. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.