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Sample records for gastric mucosal release

  1. Glucose-mediated control of ghrelin release from primary cultures of gastric mucosal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ichiro; Park, Won-Mee; Walker, Angela K.; Piper, Paul K.; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is released from a distinct group of gastrointestinal cells in response to caloric restriction, whereas its levels fall after eating. The mechanisms by which ghrelin secretion is regulated remain largely unknown. Here, we have used primary cultures of mouse gastric mucosal cells to investigate ghrelin secretion, with an emphasis on the role of glucose. Ghrelin secretion from these cells upon exposure to different d-glucose concentrations, the glucose antimetabolite 2-deoxy-d-glucose, and other potential secretagogues was assessed. The expression profile of proteins involved in glucose transport, metabolism, and utilization within highly enriched pools of mouse ghrelin cells and within cultured ghrelinoma cells was also determined. Ghrelin release negatively correlated with d-glucose concentration. Insulin blocked ghrelin release, but only in a low d-glucose environment. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of high d-glucose exposure on ghrelin release. mRNAs encoding several facilitative glucose transporters, hexokinases, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunit Kir6.2, and sulfonylurea type 1 receptor were expressed highly within ghrelin cells, although neither tolbutamide nor diazoxide exerted direct effects on ghrelin secretion. These findings suggest that direct exposure of ghrelin cells to low ambient d-glucose stimulates ghrelin release, whereas high d-glucose and glucose metabolism within ghrelin cells block ghrelin release. Also, low d-glucose sensitizes ghrelin cells to insulin. Various glucose transporters, channels, and enzymes that mediate glucose responsiveness in other cell types may contribute to the ghrelin cell machinery involved in regulating ghrelin secretion under these different glucose environments, although their exact roles in ghrelin release remain uncertain. PMID:22414807

  2. Misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Eskerod, O; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    antagonists in preventing ulcer relapse. It could be that prostaglandin analogues inhibit gastric mucosal synthesis or release of endogenous eicosanoids, thereby abrogating their own effects. This study, therefore, examined how a single therapeutic dose (200 micrograms) of misoprostol, a synthetic analogue...... blind, cross over design. In each subject misoprostol or placebo was instilled in randomised order into the stomach, which was subsequently perfused with isotonic mannitol. Misoprostol significantly decreased basal as well as acid stimulated output of PGE2 and TXB2, without affecting output of LTB4....... These data show that misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal synthesis of prostanoids. Decreased concentrations, or even a changed profile, of native eicosanoids modulating the release of inflammatory mediators from immune cells might explain why prostaglandin analogues have a comparatively poor clinical...

  3. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  4. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on rat gastric mucosal leukotriene C4 and prostanoid release: relation to ethanol-induced injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Peskar, B. M.; Hoppe, U.; Lange, K.; Peskar, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of oral and subcutaneous administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs sodium salicylate, aspirin and indomethacin on ex vivo gastric mucosal release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were investigated in rats under basal conditions as well as after challenge with ethanol. 2. Basal release of PGE2, 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha and TXB2 was inhibited by oral administration of aspirin (0.6-400 mgkg-1) and indomethacin (...

  5. Helicobacter pylori-elicited induction in gastric mucosal matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) release involves ERK-dependent cPLA2 activation and its recruitment to the membrane-localized Rac1/p38 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

    2016-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases implicated in a wide rage of degenerative and inflammatory diseases, including Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, and gastric and duodenal ulcer. As gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to H. pylori are characterized by the rise in MMP-9 production, as well as the induction in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 activation, we investigated the role of Rac1/MAPK in the processes associated with the release of MMP-9. We show that H. pylori LPS-elicited induction in gastric mucosal MMP-9 release is associated with MAPK, ERK and p38 activation, and occurs with the involvement of Rac1 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). Further, we demonstrate that the LPS-induced MMP-9 release requires ERK-mediated phosphorylation of cPLA2 on Ser(505) that is essential for its membrane localization with Rac1, and that this process necessitates p38 participation. Moreover, we reveal that the activation and membrane translocation of p38 to the Rac1-GTP complex plays a pivotal role in cPLA2-dependent enhancement in MMP-9 release. Hence, our findings provide a strong evidence for the role of ERK/cPLA2 and Rac1/p38/cPLA2 cascade in H. pylori LPS-induced up-regulation in gastric mucosal MMP-9 release.

  6. Gut-Brain Axis in Gastric Mucosal Damage and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgambato, Dolores; Capuano, Annalisa; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Miranda, Agnese; Federico, Alessandro; Romano, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The gut-brain axis plays a potential role in numerous physiological and pathological conditions. Several substances link stomach with central nervous system. In particular, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, thyrotropinreleasing factor-containing nerve fibers and capsaicin-sensitive nerves are principal mediators of the harmful and protective central nervous system-mediated effects on gastric mucosa. Also, existing evidence indicates that nitric oxide, prostaglandins and calcitonin gene-related peptide play a role as final effectors of gastric protection. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peerreviewed research literature with the aim of focusing on the role of gut-brain axis in gastric damage and protection. In particular, we examined manuscripts dealing with the role of steroids, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, prostaglandins, melatonin, hydrogen sulfide and peptides influencing food intake (i.e. leptin, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, central glucagon-like peptide-1, and ghrelin). Also, the role of GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways in gastric mucosal protection have been examined. We found and reviewed 61 peer-reviewed papers dealing with the major aspects related to the role of gut brain axis in gastric mucosal damage and protection. A dense neuronal network links stomach with central nervous system and a number of neurotransmitters and peptides functionally and anatomically related to central nervous system play a major role in contributing to gastric mucosal integrity. Exploiting the mechanisms underlying the connection between brain and gut may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of gastric mucosal injury and to an improvement in the prevention and, eventually, management of gastric damage.

  7. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  8. The Relationship between Gastric Juice Nitrate/Nitrite Concentrations and Gastric Mucosal Surface pH

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Hyunjung; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Cho, Young-Seok; Kim, Byung-Wook; Han, Sok-Won; Maeng, Lee So; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Kim, Hee Na

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate gastric juice nitrate/nitrite concentration according to mucosal surface pH extent (area) of gastric corpus intimately contacting the gastric juice. Materials and Methods We included ninety-nine patients with dyspepsia. To evaluate gastric mucosal surface pH and its extent, gastric chromosocpy was performed by spraying phenol red dye on the corpus mucosa and estimating the extent of area with color changed. Nitrate/nitrite concentrations and pH of gastric juice were mea...

  9. Prevention of acute gastric mucosal lesions by Solcoseryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, T; Radecki, T; Sendur, R; Gustaw, P; Konturek, S J

    1987-04-01

    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract from calf blood containing various biologically active substances, has been reported to promote the healing of skin wounds and gastric ulceration In this study, the gastroprotective effects of Solcoseryl vis-a-vis acute gastric mucosal damage were examined in rats. Solcoseryl significantly reduced the formation of acute lesions induced by intragastric application of absolute ethanol or acidified taurocholate and by water immersion and restraint stress, but failed to affect those caused by acidified aspirin. Since Solcoseryl did not offer protection in the absence of mucosal prostaglandins (PG) e.g. in aspirin-induced gastric damage, it is likely that PG may be involved in the observed gastroprotective activity of the drug. Solcoseryl failed to affect gastric acid or pepsin secretion, but increased mucosal blood flow. Thus PG generated by Solcoseryl might contribute to the maintenance of the observed mucosal microcirculation and the prevention of lesion formation by corrosive substances and stress conditions.

  10. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  11. (CGRP) on gastric mucosal barrier in stress induced rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... The aim of this investigation was to examine and compare the effects of calcitonin gene related peptide. (CGRP) and salmon calcitonin (sCT) on gastric lesions and mucosal barrier components such as mucus and phospholipids in rats exposed to cold + restraint stress (CRS). Twenty-eight Wistar albino.

  12. The effect of i.v. indomethacin on the gastric mucosal electrical potential difference and blood flow in anaesthetized dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Ewald, H; Holm, I E

    1988-01-01

    Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and causes gastric mucosal damage. The correlation between the gastric mucosal function and gastric blood flow was investigated. The intragastric liquid junction corrected potential difference (PD) across the stomach wall was used to characterize the ...

  13. Localized gastric amyloidosis differentiated histologically from scirrhous gastric cancer using endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamata Tsugumasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyloidosis most often manifests as a systemic involvement of multiple tissues and organs, and an amyloidal deposit confined to the stomach is extremely rare. It is sometimes difficult to provide a definitive diagnosis of localized gastric amyloidosis by biopsy specimen and diagnosis of amyloidosis in some cases has been finalized only after surgical resection of the stomach. Case presentation A 76-year-old Japanese woman with epigastric discomfort underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedure. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening, suggesting scirrhous gastric carcinoma, at the greater curvature from the upper to the lower part of the gastric corpus. A biopsy specimen revealed amyloid deposits in the submucosal layer with no malignant findings. We resected a representative portion of the lesion by endoscopic mucosal resection using the strip biopsy method to obtain sufficient tissue specimens, and then conducted a detailed histological evaluation of the samples. The resected specimens revealed deposition of amyloidal materials in the gastric mucosa and submucosa without any malignant findings. Congo red staining results were positive for amyloidal protein and exhibited green birefringence under polarized light. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL amyloid protein type. Based on these results, gastric malignancy, systemic amyloidosis and amyloid deposits induced by inflammatory disease were excluded and this lesion was consequently diagnosed as localized gastric amyloidosis. Our patient was an older woman and there were no findings relative to an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms or anemia, so no further treatment was performed. She continued to be in good condition without any finding of disease progression six years after verification of our diagnosis. Conclusions We report an unusual case of primary amyloidosis of the stomach

  14. Tracheal left mainstem bronchus and obstructive gastric mucosal intussusception associated with esophageal atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C. J.; Aronson, D. C.; Ekkelkamp, S.; van de Heide-Jalving, M.; Vos, A.

    1995-01-01

    A tracheal left mainstem bronchus and gastric outlet obstruction owing to gastric mucosal intussusception occurred in a child who had esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Bronchography and bronchoscopy, indicated because of persisting atelectasis and ventilation dependency, showed a

  15. Acute Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Gastric Acid Secretion and Gastric Mucosal Integrity in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. E. Abdel Salam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 3- or 6-Gray (Gy whole-body gamma irradiation on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion was studied in pylorus-ligated rats. Different groups of rats were irradiated with a single 3- or 6-Gy fraction and examined 7 days after irradiation. Exposure to 3-Gy fraction led to marked increase in basal (nonstimulated gastric acid output in the 4-h pylorus-ligated rat (47.5% compared with unirradiated controls. After exposure to 6 Gy, only 18.2% increase in gastric acid output was noted compared with unirradiated controls. Under pentagastrin or histamine stimulation, gastric acid secretion in those irradiated with 3- or 6-Gy fraction was markedly reduced compared to that of unirradiated controls. Exposure to 3- or 6-Gy gamma irradiation intensified the degree of gastric mucosal injury evoked by indomethacin or 50% ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that in the pylorus-ligated rat model, lower doses of gamma irradiation increase basal gastric acid secretion and impair the gastric mucosal barrier with marked increase in its permeability to H+ following stimulation of acid secretion or exposure to barrier breakers. Exposure to irradiation is likely to result in failure of the parietal cell to respond to direct stimulation with histamine or pentagastrin.

  16. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow and gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K

    1982-01-01

    -dependent stimulation of gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine at 1, 5, and 10 micrograms/kg/min. A significant inhibition of gastric acid secretion was found with the highest dose of dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min). the stimulatory effect seems to be mediated by more than one receptor, whereas the inhibition...... by high dopamine doses could be explained by a beta 1 stimulation. Dopamine (10 micrograms/kg/min) was found to increase the bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow. Phentolamine (alpha blackade) increased this dopamine-elevated blood flow further, with a significant increase in the ratio...

  17. Adrenergic influence on gastric mucosal blood flow in gastric fistula dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of alpha-, beta- and dopaminergic receptors on gastric mucosal blood flow during "high", "normal", and "low" vagal conditions obtained by stimulation with bethanechol and pentagastrin and by parietal cell vagotomy respectively. During pentagastri...... increasing effect on mucosal blood flow. One may conclude that blood flow and acid secretion are not unconditionally linked and that at least two different mechanisms are involved in blood flow changes in the stomach.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...... and bethanechol stimulation, a linear relationship between gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow was observed. During pentagastrin stimulation, dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min) did not change the blood flow values while a decrease in acid secretion was found. During bethanechol stimulation dopamine (10...... micrograms/kg/min) induced an increase in mucosal blood flow and a similar increase in acid secretion. If the dopamine infusion was preceded by alpha-receptor blockade, a pronounced increase in mucosal blood flow was observed without a similar increase in acid secretion. beta-adrenergic stimulation...

  18. Effect of large fundal varices on changes in gastric mucosal hemodynamics after endoscopic variceal ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayama, C; Iwao, T; Oho, K; Toyonaga, A; Tanikawa, K

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS AND STUDY AIMS: Effect of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) on gastric mucosal hemodynamics would differ in patients with and without large fundal varices. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. Twenty-seven patients with cirrhosis and large sized esophageal varices were prospectively studied. There were eight patients with large fundal varices and 19 patients without large fundal varices. Before EVL, gastric mucosal hemodynamics were endoscopically assessed by laser-Doppler velocimetry and reflectance spectrophotometry in the antrum and the corpus. In the reflectance spectrophotometric measurements, gastric mucosal hemoglobin content (IHb) and gastric mucosal oxygen saturation (ISO2) were determined. The severity of portal-hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) was also recorded at the antrum and the corpus. For data analysis, PHG was scored (absent, 0; mild, 1; severe, 2; bleeding, 3). These measurements were repeated after initial (three days after initial session) and repeated (seven days after last session) EVL. At the antrum, neither PHG score nor gastric mucosal hemodynamic parameters were modified after initial and repeated EVL in patients with and without large fundal varices. In addition, no significant differences of the integrated changes in PHG score and gastric mucosal hemodynamic parameters were observed in the two groups. At the corpus, PHG score significantly increased after initial and repeated EVL in patients without large fundal varices. In these patients, laser-Doppler signal and ISO2 significantly decreased and IHb significantly increased after initial and repeated EVL. In contrast, PHG score, laser-Doppler signal, and ISO2 did not change significantly in patients with large fundal varices, although IHb transiently increased after initial EVL. Furthermore, the integrated changes in PHG score and gastric mucosal hemodynamic parameters were significantly lower in patients with large fundal varices than in those without. The

  19. Gastric potential difference measurements. The gastric mucosal integrity and function studied with a new method for measurement of the electric potential difference across the stomach wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L

    1991-01-01

    H increase were found along with stress induction, thereby indicating an influence of mental stress on stomach mucosal function. It is concluded that gastric PD measurement may be useful in ulcer pathogenetic research, and a sufficient gastric mucosal blood flow is stressed as being important for the mucosal...

  20. Protective effect of ginsenoside Re on acute gastric mucosal lesion induced by compound 48/80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of ginsenoside Re, isolated from ginseng berry, against acute gastric mucosal lesions was examined in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 (C48/80. Ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg was orally administered 0.5 h prior to C48/80 treatment. Ginsenoside Re dose-dependently prevented gastric mucosal lesion development 3 h after C48/80 treatment. Increases in the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO; an index of neutrophil infiltration and xanthine oxidase (XO and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an index of lipid peroxidation and decreases in the contents of hexosamine (a marker of gastric mucus and adherent mucus, which occurred in gastric mucosal tissues after C48/80 treatment, were significantly attenuated by ginsenoside Re. The elevation of Bax expression and the decrease in Bcl2 expression after C48/80 treatment were also attenuated by ginsenoside Re. Ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated all these changes 3 h after C48/80 treatment. These results indicate that orally administered ginsenoside Re protects against C48/80-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions in rats, possibly through its stimulatory action on gastric mucus synthesis and secretion, its inhibitory action on neutrophil infiltration, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosal tissue.

  1. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection favourably affects altered gastric mucosal MMP-9 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubben, F.J.G.M.; Sier, C.F.M.; Schram, M.; Witte, T.A.M.C.; Veenendaal, R.A.; Duijn, W. van; Verheijen, J.H.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Lamers, C.B.H.W.; Verspaget, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is recognized as an important pathogenetic factor in peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinogenesis, and is accompanied by strongly enhanced gastric mucosal matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels. Aim: This study was performed to investigate whether H.

  2. Centella asiatica Leaf Extract Protects Against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong-Mei; Choi, Myung-Joo; Kim, Jae Min; Cha, Kyung Hoi; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Hong, Soon-Sun; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protective effect of Centella asiatica (gotu kola) leaf extract (CAE) against indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Gastric mucosal injury was induced by the oral administration of IND to the rats after a 24 h fast. CAE (50 or 250 mg/kg) or lansoprazole (a reference drug) was orally administrated 30 min before the IND administration, and 5 h later, the stomachs were removed to quantify the lesions. Orally administered CAE significantly reduced IND-induced gastric injury. The histopathological observations (hematoxylin-eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining) confirmed the protection against gastric mucosal injury. Also, CAE decreased the malondialdehyde content compared to the control group. Moreover, pretreatment with CAE resulted in a significant reduction in the elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor, Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results suggested that CAE possesses gastroprotective effects against IND-induced gastric mucosal injury, which could be attributed to its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and stimulate gastric mucus secretion in the rat gastric mucosa.

  3. Gastric potential difference measurements. The gastric mucosal integrity and function studied with a new method for measurement of the electric potential difference across the stomach wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L

    1991-01-01

    PD--the electric potential difference across the gastric mucosa--is a variable used to describe the gastric mucosal integrity and function. A new, reliable, and easily applied method for gastric PD measurements corrected for the disturbing liquid junction potentials between gastric juice and the PD...

  4. In vitro dissolution/release methods for mucosal delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jug

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro dissolution/release tests are an indispensable tool in the drug product development, its quality control and the regulatory approval process. Mucosal drug delivery systems are designed to provide both local and systemic drug action following ocular, nasal, oromucosal, vaginal or rectal administration. They exhibit significant differences in formulation design, physicochemical characteristics and drug release properties. Therefore it is not possible to devise a single method which would be suitable for release testing of such versatile and complex dosage forms. Different apparatuses and techniques for in vitro release testing for mucosal delivery systems considering the specific conditions at the administration site are described. In general, compendial apparatuses and methods should be used as a first approach in method development when applicable. However, to assure adequate simulation of conditions in vivo, novel biorelevant in vitro dissolution/release methods should be developed. Equipment set up, the selection of dissolution media and volume, membrane type, agitation speed, temperature, and assay analysis technique need to be carefully defined based on mucosal drug delivery system characteristics. All those parameters depend on the delivery system and physiological conditions at the site of application and may vary in a wide range, which will be discussed in details.

  5. The dose-response of canine focal gastric mucosal blood flow to misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gana, T.J.; Pherson, B.R.; Koo, J.

    1989-01-01

    The dose-response of focal gastric mucosal blood flow was measured simultaneously by laser-Doppler flowmetry and hydrogen gas clearance in the canine chambered gastric segment to topical misoprostol. Simultaneously obtained mucosal blood flow values showed a highly significant linear correlation in the basal but not misoprostol periods between the two techniques. Laser-Doppler flowmetry measured a dose-dependent increase in blood flow, while in contrast, hydrogen gas clearance showed a gradual decline in blood flow after misoprostol administration throughout all experiments. It is concluded that misoprostol dose-dependently and transiently increases focal gastric mucosal blood flow. However, only laser-Doppler flowmetry is sensitive enough to detect it. Although it can measure steady-state blood flow, owing to the duration of one measurement, hydrogen gas clearance is incapable of detecting rapid flow changes

  6. The dose-response of canine focal gastric mucosal blood flow to misoprostol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gana, T.J.; Pherson, B.R.; Koo, J. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The dose-response of focal gastric mucosal blood flow was measured simultaneously by laser-Doppler flowmetry and hydrogen gas clearance in the canine chambered gastric segment to topical misoprostol. Simultaneously obtained mucosal blood flow values showed a highly significant linear correlation in the basal but not misoprostol periods between the two techniques. Laser-Doppler flowmetry measured a dose-dependent increase in blood flow, while in contrast, hydrogen gas clearance showed a gradual decline in blood flow after misoprostol administration throughout all experiments. It is concluded that misoprostol dose-dependently and transiently increases focal gastric mucosal blood flow. However, only laser-Doppler flowmetry is sensitive enough to detect it. Although it can measure steady-state blood flow, owing to the duration of one measurement, hydrogen gas clearance is incapable of detecting rapid flow changes.

  7. Differences in gastric mucosal microbiota profiling in patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using pyrosequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Byung Kwon; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Kyung Mo; Choi, Bo Youl; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium. Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. The composition, diversity, and richness of microbial communities were compared between three groups. The composition of H. pylori-containing Epsilonproteobacteria class appeared to be the most prevalent, but the relative increase in the Bacilli class in the gastric cancer group was noticed, resulting in a significant difference compared with the chronic gastritis group. By analyzing the Helicobacter-dominant group at a family level, the relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae family was significantly lower in the gastric cancer group compared with chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia groups, while the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae family significantly increased. In a UPGMA clustering of Helicobacter-dominant group based on UniFrac distance, the chronic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were clearly separated, while the intestinal metaplasia group was distributed in between the two groups. The evenness and diversity of gastric microbiota in the gastric cancer group was increased compared with other groups. In Helicobacter predominant patients, the microbial compositions of gastric mucosa from gastric cancer patients are significantly different to chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia patients. These alterations of gastric microbial composition may play an important, as-yet-undetermined role in

  8. Aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage: prevention by enteric-coating and relation to prostaglandin synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, A B; Mahida, Y R; Cole, A T; Hawkey, C J

    1991-01-01

    1. Gastric damage induced by low-dose aspirin and the protective effect of enteric-coating was assessed in healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial using Latin square design. Each was administered placebo, plain aspirin 300 mg daily, plain aspirin 600 mg four times daily, enteric-coated aspirin 300 mg daily, or enteric-coated aspirin 600 mg four times daily for 5 days. Gastric damage was assessed endoscopically, and gastric mucosal bleeding measured. 2. Aspirin...

  9. Hypercapnic Acidosis Preserves Gastric Mucosal Microvascular Oxygen Saturation in a Canine Model of Hemorrhage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartges, Ingo; Picker, Olaf; Beck, Christopher; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Schwarte, Lothar A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors aimed to clarify the effects of hypercapnic acidosis and its timing on gastric mucosal oxygenation in a canine model of hemorrhage. This was designed as a prospective, controlled, randomized animal study set in a university research laboratory. Five chronically instrumented dogs were

  10. Autophagy protects gastric mucosal epithelial cells from ethanol-induced oxidative damage via mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weilong; Bai, Jie; Tian, Shaobo; Ma, Muyuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Yuping; Deng, Rui; Cui, Jinyuan; Li, Jinjin; Wang, Guobin; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Kaixiong

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol abuse is an important cause of gastric mucosal epithelial cell injury and gastric ulcers. A number of studies have demonstrated that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular mechanism, has a protective effect on cell survival. However, it is not known whether autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against the toxic effects of ethanol. In the present study, gastric mucosal epithelial cells (GES-1 cells) and Wistar rats were treated with ethanol to detect the adaptive response of autophagy. Our results demonstrated that ethanol exposure induced gastric mucosal epithelial cell damage, which was accompanied by the downregulation of mTOR signaling pathway and activation of autophagy. Suppression of autophagy with pharmacological agents resulted in a significant increase of GES-1 cell apoptosis and gastric mucosa injury, suggesting that autophagy could protect cells from ethanol toxicity. Furthermore, we evaluated the cellular oxidative stress response following ethanol treatment and found that autophagy induced by ethanol inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species and degradation of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate oxidative damage induced by ethanol in gastric mucosal epithelial cells. Therefore, modifying autophagy may provide a therapeutic strategy against alcoholic gastric mucosa injury. Impact statement The effect and mechanism of autophagy on ethanol-induced cell damage remain controversial. In this manuscript, we report the results of our study demonstrating that autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against ethanol toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate ethanol-induced oxidative damage in

  11. Protective effect of histamine microinjected into cerebellar fastigial nucleus on stress gastric mucosal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiao; Yang, Jun; Fei, Su-Juan; Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Zhu, Sheng-Ping; Liu, Zhang-Bo; Li, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jian-Fu

    2015-12-10

    In the study, we investigated the effect of histamine microinjected into cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) on stress gastric mucosal damage (SGMD), and its mechanisms in rats. The model of SGMD was established by restraining and water (21±1°C)-immersion for 3h. The gastric mucosal damage index (GMDI) indicated the severity of gastric mucosal damage. Histamine or receptor antagonist was microinjected into the FN. The decussation of superior cerebellar peduncle (DSCP) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were destroyed, respectively. The pathological changes of gastric mucosa were evaluated using biological signal acquisition system, Laser-Doppler flowmeter, and western blotting. We found that the microinjection of histamine (0.05, 0.5, and 5μg) into FN significantly attenuated the SGMD, in a dose-dependent manner, whereas, the microinjection of histamine H2 receptor antagonist, ranitidine, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antagonist, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) exacerbated the SGMD. The protective effect of histamine on SGMD was abolished by electrical lesion of DSCP or chemical ablation of LHA. The microinjection of histamine decreased the discharge frequency of the greater splanchnic nerve, and the gastric mucosal blood flow was increased. In addition, the cellular proliferation was enhanced, but the cellular apoptosis was reduced in the gastric mucosa. Also the pro-apoptosis protein, Bax, and caspase-3 were down-regulated, and the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2 was up-regulated following microinjection of histamine. In conclusion, the FN participated in the regulation of SGMD after histamine microinjected into FN, and cerebellar-hypothalamic circuits (include: DSCP, LHA) contribute to the process, which may provide a new therapeutic strategy for SGMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Endoscopic hemostasis with endoscopic mucosal resection and multiple synchronous early gastric cancers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujihara Shintaro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Endoscopic hemostasis for severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors and malignant lymphoma, is temporarily effective. However, permanent hemostasis is difficult in many cases because of diffuse bleeding. Case presentation A 60-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital with hematemesis. Endoscopy revealed multiple gastric polyps and fresh blood in her stomach. One of the gastric polyps, which was associated with oozing bleeding, was found near the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We initially applied hemostatic forceps and argon plasma coagulation over the tumor surface, but the bleeding persisted. After endoscopic mucosal resection, exposed vessels were seen at the base of the mucosal resection site with oozing bleeding. Coagulation of the bleeding vessels using hemostatic forceps allowed successful completion of the hemostatic procedure. Our patient also had eight synchronous gastric cancer lesions. Histological examination of the resected specimens showed various types of cancer. Conclusion This is a case report of gastric cancer associated with eight gastric cancer lesions, confirmed by histology, in which hemostasis was achieved through endoscopy.

  13. Protective Effect of Repeatedly Preadministered Brazilian Propolis Ethanol Extract against Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tadashi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Ikeno, Kumiko; Ohashi, Koji; Ikeno, Takeyuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the protective effect of Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE) against stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. The protective effect of BPEE against gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) for 6 h was compared between its repeated preadministration (50 mg/kg/day, 7 days) and its single preadministration (50 mg/kg). The repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions and gastric mucosal oxidative stress more largely than the single BPEE preadministration. In addition, the repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated neutrophil infiltration in the gastric mucosa of rats exposed to WIRS. The protective effect of the repeated preadministration of BPEE against WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions was similar to that of a single preadministration of vitamin E (250 mg/kg) in terms of the extent and manner of protection. From these findings, it is concluded that BPEE preadministered in a repeated manner protects against gastric mucosal lesions in rats exposed to WIRS more effectively than BPEE preadministered in a single manner possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24639881

  14. Protective Effect of Repeatedly Preadministered Brazilian Propolis Ethanol Extract against Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to clarify the protective effect of Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE against stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. The protective effect of BPEE against gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS for 6 h was compared between its repeated preadministration (50 mg/kg/day, 7 days and its single preadministration (50 mg/kg. The repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions and gastric mucosal oxidative stress more largely than the single BPEE preadministration. In addition, the repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated neutrophil infiltration in the gastric mucosa of rats exposed to WIRS. The protective effect of the repeated preadministration of BPEE against WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions was similar to that of a single preadministration of vitamin E (250 mg/kg in terms of the extent and manner of protection. From these findings, it is concluded that BPEE preadministered in a repeated manner protects against gastric mucosal lesions in rats exposed to WIRS more effectively than BPEE preadministered in a single manner possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

  15. Effects of Atractylodis Rhizoma Pharmacopuncture on an Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesion Induced by Compound 48/80 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun-Kyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Atractylodis Rhizoma pharmacopuncture (ARP against acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 in rats. Methods: The ARP was injected in Joksamni (ST36 and Jungwan (CV12 1 hr before treatment with compound 48/80. The animals were sacrificed under anesthesia 3 hrs after treatment with compound 48/80. The stomachs were removed, and the amounts of gastric adherent mucus, gastric mucosal hexosamine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, xanthine oxidase (XO, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured. Also, histological examination were performed. Results: Gastric adherent mucus, gastric mucosal hexosamine and histological defects of gastric mucosa declined significantly after ARP treatment. Changes in gastric mucosal TBARS were also reduced by ARP treatment, but this result was not statistically significant. ARP treatment did not change the XO and the SOD activities. Conclusions: ARP showed protective effects for acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 in rats. These results suggest that ARP may have protective effects for gastritis.

  16. MECHANISMS OF CELLULAR CYTOTOXICITY INDUCTION IN GASTRIC MUCOSAL INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and chronicity of inflammatory process in gastric mucosa may contribute to persistence of a number of microorganisms – Helicobacter (H. pylori, Staphylococcus (S. aureus, Candida species (spp., Herpesvirus and others in the host organism. Many authors have recognized an important role of T helper (Th type 1 and regulatory T cells in evolvement of gastritis, whereas importance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs is still to be confirmed. This review presents analysis of available scientific data about induction mechanisms of cellular cytotoxicity in inflammatory process affecting gastric mucosa. Bacterial populations, depending on their density, are able to regulate expression of genes encoding synthesis of protein virulence factors, thus accelerating adaptation for changing environmental conditions. Upon receptor-mediated recognition of characteristic microbial structures, i.e., pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and danger signals altered by stress, or cellular structures damaged by infectious pathogens (DAMPs, transcription factors are activated, thus leading to production of early pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL, interferons (IFN type I and induction of immune responses. It is shown that the antigens of H. pylori and Candida spp. promote infiltration of mucosa gastric by activated CD8+CTLs, and Herpesvirus induce a significant increase in the number of perforin-positive (Pr+ CD8+ and CD16+ cells, phenotypic changes in CD4+lymphocytes, with acquisition of direct cytolytic activity.

  17. Lack of correlation between fecal blood loss and drug-induced gastric mucosal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenbro, J.L.; Wetterberg, P.; Vallgren, S.; Bergqvist, L.

    1988-01-01

    Increased fecal blood loss was produced in healthy volunteers by the administration of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), naproxen or fenflumizole. Basal as well as drug-induced gastrointestinal blood loss was measured using 51 Cr erythrocyte labeling. Median rise in daily fecal blood loss was 432%. All subjects were endoscoped at the initiation and at the completion of the study. Endoscopic findings were assessed quantitatively by two observers in two different ways. All subjects but three had gastric mucosal lesions at follow-up endoscopy. There was a good correlation between the endoscopic assessments but no statistical correlation between the endoscopic assessment and the increase in fecal blood loss. The data suggest that factors other than gastric mucosal lesions have to be taken into account when investigating NSAID-induced gastrointestinal bleeding

  18. Esomeprazole immediate release tablets: Gastric mucosa ex vivo permeation, absorption and antisecretory activity in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Camillo; Flammini, Lisa; Vivo, Valentina; Colombo, Paolo; Colombo, Gaia; Elviri, Lisa; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Buttini, Francesca; Bettini, Ruggero; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rossi, Alessandra

    2016-10-10

    The aim of this work was to study the esomeprazole activity on the control of gastric secretion after administration of a novel immediate release tablet. The ex vivo permeation of esomeprazole across porcine gastric mucosa from immediate release tablets, containing sodium carbonate or magnesium oxide as alkalinizing agents, was firstly assessed. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies in conscious rats following the administration of immediate release tablets with sodium carbonate, in comparison with delayed-release tablets having the same formula, were also conducted. The results showed an important effect of sodium carbonate and magnesium oxide on the drug release, on the ex vivo trans-mucosal transport and the stability in acid environment. In particular, the presence of sodium carbonate in esomeprazole tablet formulation provided the maximum increase of the drug in vitro transport across the mucosa. Then, the absorption and the antisecretory activity of this proton pump inhibitor orally administered in rats as immediate release tablets containing Na2CO3, was superior but not significantly different compared to delayed-release tablets having the same formula. In the adopted animal model, an activity of esomeprazole from immediate release alkaline formulation was seen also in presence of partial gastric absorption allowing inhibition of proton pumps reached via systemic circulation. This esomeprazole immediate release formulation could be used for the on-demand treatment of acid-related disorders such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased mucosal thickness of the stomach in transabdominal ultrasonogram: Correlation with gastric hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Myoung Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of transabdominal ultrasonography in predicting the hemorrhage gastritis by the evaluation of gastric wall. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of gastric wall was performed 42 patients. Layers of gastric wall were preserved in all patients. Twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had diffuse thickening more than 5 mm were classified as hypertrophic group. The other twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had thickness less than 5 mm were classified as control group. In all 42 patients, endoscopic examination was performed and the prevalence of gastric hemorrhage was recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy for predicting the hemorrhage gastritis were calculated based on mucosal thickness. Sixteen patients who had been diagnosed as a hemorrhagic gastritis in the hypertrophic group on endoscopic examination were classified as a hemorrhage group. The thickness of each layers in hemorrhagic and the control group were compared using t-test and Fisher's exact test. Using 5 mm of mucosal thickness as a predictor, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 80.8%, the positive predictive value was 76.2%, and the accuracy was 88.1%. Mean thickness of mucosa in hemorrhagic group and the control group were 9.6 {+-} 1.6 mm, and 1.4 {+-} 0.4 mm, respectively (p<0.01). Mean thickness of submucosa was 1.1 {+-} 0.3 mm in hemorrhagic group and 0.6 {+-} 0.3 mm in control group (p,0.01). The submucosal layer was hyperechoic and well- defined in most control groups (18/21) while it was ill-defined and less echogenic in hemorrhagic group (p<0.01). The diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastritis can be suggested when there is diffuse thickening in the gastric mucosa shile submucosal layer shows decreased echogenicits and indistinct border. This may improve the value of sonographic evaluation.

  20. Increased mucosal thickness of the stomach in transabdominal ultrasonogram: Correlation with gastric hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Myoung Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of transabdominal ultrasonography in predicting the hemorrhage gastritis by the evaluation of gastric wall. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of gastric wall was performed 42 patients. Layers of gastric wall were preserved in all patients. Twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had diffuse thickening more than 5 mm were classified as hypertrophic group. The other twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had thickness less than 5 mm were classified as control group. In all 42 patients, endoscopic examination was performed and the prevalence of gastric hemorrhage was recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy for predicting the hemorrhage gastritis were calculated based on mucosal thickness. Sixteen patients who had been diagnosed as a hemorrhagic gastritis in the hypertrophic group on endoscopic examination were classified as a hemorrhage group. The thickness of each layers in hemorrhagic and the control group were compared using t-test and Fisher's exact test. Using 5 mm of mucosal thickness as a predictor, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 80.8%, the positive predictive value was 76.2%, and the accuracy was 88.1%. Mean thickness of mucosa in hemorrhagic group and the control group were 9.6 ± 1.6 mm, and 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, respectively (p<0.01). Mean thickness of submucosa was 1.1 ± 0.3 mm in hemorrhagic group and 0.6 ± 0.3 mm in control group (p,0.01). The submucosal layer was hyperechoic and well- defined in most control groups (18/21) while it was ill-defined and less echogenic in hemorrhagic group (p<0.01). The diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastritis can be suggested when there is diffuse thickening in the gastric mucosa shile submucosal layer shows decreased echogenicits and indistinct border. This may improve the value of sonographic evaluation.

  1. Protective effect of Holothurian intestine against indomethacin induced gastric mucosal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Qiao, Xuejing; Zhang, Cuiping; Gao, Hua; Niu, Qinghui; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Zibin

    2017-06-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Holothurian intestines (HI) on NSAIDs-induced gastric mucosal damage and the possible mechanism. At first, 60 male Wistar rats were induced of gastric lesions with indomethacin (IDM, 30 mg kg-1). The rats were pretreated for 15 consecutive days with saline, sucralfate, or HI (0.4 g kg-1d-1, 0.8 g kg-1d-1 and 1.6 g kg-1d-1) prior to IDM treatment, followed by evaluations of macroscopic damage and microscopic features; and investigation of the levels of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress parameters, gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and total hexosamine in tissues. The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA in the gastric tissue were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Pathological gastric ulcer indexes, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-17, TNF-α) and lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in HI-treated groups, whereas the levels of protective factors (TGF-β, GSH, SOD activity and PGE2) were significantly elevated especially in the group with HI 1.6 g kg-1d-1 ( P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of COX-2 mRNA decreased significantly in HI groups ( P < 0.05). The study investigates that holothurian intestines may act as a kind of marine medicine which have protective effect on IDM-induced gastric ulcer, which could be a dietary preventive agent for the prevention of gastric damage.

  2. Prevention of ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions by paracetamol and salicylate in rats: role of endogenous prostaglandins.

    OpenAIRE

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Piastucki, I; Radecki, T

    1982-01-01

    Paracetamol or sodium salicylate given intragastrically 30 minutes before the administration of absolute ethanol or acidified aspirin dose-dependently reduced the formation of mucosal lesions. The generation of gastric mucosal prostaglandin-like activity increased with ethanol and was completely suppressed by acidified aspirin. Paracetamol or sodium salicylate given alone increased the generation of mucosal prostaglandin-like material. Indomethacin, the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, supp...

  3. Strongyloidiasis with gastric mucosal invasion presenting with acute interstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, Michael J; Sirait, Sontan; Purnomo; Maguire, Jason D

    2006-07-01

    We report an atypical occurrence of invasive Strongyloides stercoralis infection of the stomach mucosa in an elderly female patient from Bangka Island, northwestern Indonesia. The patient presented with severe epigastric pain, edema of the legs, proteinuria and severe hypoalbuminemia. Gastric and duodenal biopsies found eggs, larval and adult forms present in the superficial mucosa with mild inflammation. The Harada-Mori filter paper culture technique revealed S. stercoralis filariform larvae and free-living adult worms, corroborating the diagnosis. The infection was associated with acute interstitial nephritis. The patient showed rapid and dramatic improvement after treatment with mebendazole.

  4. Gastric mucosal smooth muscles may explain oscillations in glandular pressure: role of vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnerstad, I; Ekblad, E; Sundler, F; Holm, L

    1998-02-01

    Oscillating (3-7 cycles/min) high pressures in gastric glands during acid secretion suggest the existence of rhythmically contracting mucosal muscles. The aim of this study was to study vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract, in relation to mucosal muscles, glandular pressure, and blood flow. Rat, dog, and human mucosae were examined immunocytochemically for smooth muscle actin and VIP. Glandular pressure was measured using microelectrodes, red blood cell velocity (V[RBC]) was measured using a cross-correlation technique, and blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry in exposed gastric mucosa of thiobutabarbital sodium-anesthetized rats. Actin immunostaining showed muscle strands arising from muscularis mucosae, extending toward the gastric pits. VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found in close relation to these muscles. VIP, administered intra-arterially close to the stomach (2 microg/kg bolus, followed by 10 microg x kg[-1] x h[-1]), significantly decreased glandular pressure from 18.2 +/- 1.6 to 8.9 +/- 1.6 mm Hg and almost eliminated the pressure oscillations. VIP infusion also abolished the oscillations in V(RBC) and significantly increased blood flow by approximately 35%. Contracting mucosal muscles may be responsible for oscillations in glandular pressure and possibly also in V(RBC). VIP probably relaxes these muscles.

  5. Expression of HSP72 in the gastric mucosa is regulated by gastric acid in rats-Correlation of HSP72 expression with mucosal protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Isao; Otaka, Michiro; Jin, Mario; Odashima, Masaru; Komatsu, Koga; Konishi, Noriaki; Matsuhashi, Tamotsu; Horikawa, Youhei; Ohba, Reina; Itoh, Hideaki; Watanabe, Sumio

    2006-01-01

    Background and aim: The real mechanism of adaptive cytoprotection in the gastric mucosa is not well established. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acid suppressing agents on a 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72) expression, which is known as endogenous cytoprotective factor, in the gastric mucosa. Also, the association of gastric mucosal protective function against HCl-challenge was compared between HSP72-induced and -reduced group. Materials and methods: Expression of HSP72 was measured by Western blotting in the gastric mucosa before and after administration of famotidine or omeprazole. The gastric mucosal protective function against 0.6 N HCl was compared between control group and HSP72-reduced group. Also, the effect of increased expression of gastric HSP72 by additional administration of zinc sulfate or zinc L-carnosine, which is known as HSP72-inducer, on mucosal protective function was studied. Results: HSP72 expression in the gastric mucosa was reduced by acid suppressing agents. The lowest expression level of HSP72 was observed 12 h (famotidine, H2-receptor antagonist) or 48 h (omeprazole, proton pump inhibitor) after administration. The gastric mucosal protective ability against 0.6 N HCl was also reduced when HSP72 expression was decreased by famotidine or omeprazole. This phenomenon was reversed by HSP72 induction by additional administration of zinc derivatives. Conclusion: Our results might indicate that the expression of HSP72 in the gastric mucosa is physiologically regulated by gastric acid, and that HSP72 induction could be important in view of mucosal protection especially when HSP72 expression is reduced by administration of acid suppressing agents such as proton pump inhibitor or H2 receptor antagonist

  6. Gastric mucosal changes caused by Lugol's iodine solution spray: endoscopic features of 64 cases on screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Utsunomiya, Takashi; Matsuura, Shuji; Komori, Masahiro; Kawanami, Satoshi; Ishibashi, Tatsuyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the endoscopic mucosal change of the stomach caused by Lugol's iodine solution spray on screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Sixty-four consecutive patients who underwent EGD for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma screening were included in this study. The records for these patients included gastric mucosa findings before and after Lugol's iodine solution was sprayed. The endoscopic findings of the greater curvature of the gastric body were retrospectively analyzed based on the following findings: fold thickening, exudates, ulcers, and hemorrhage. Mucosal changes occurred after Lugol's solution spray totally in 51 patients (80%). Fold thickening was observed in all 51 patients (80%), and a reticular pattern of white lines was found on the surface of the thickened gastric folds found in 28 of the patients (44%). Exudates were observed in 6 patients (9%). The gastric mucosa could be affected by Lugol's iodine; the most frequent endoscopic finding of this effect is gastric fold thickening, which should not be misdiagnosed as a severe gastric disease.

  7. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory.

  8. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2001-01-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory

  9. [Protective effect of compound bismuth and magnesium granules on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, F H; Hu, F L; Wei, H; Zhang, Y Y; Yang, G B; Lei, X Y; Yang, Y P; Sun, W N; Cui, M H

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the protective effect of compound bismuth and magnesium granules on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats and its possible mechanism. Acute gastric mucosal injury model was developed with intraperitoneal injection of aspirin in Wistar rats. The rats were divided into normal control group, injury group, sucralfate protection group, compound bismuth and magnesium granules protection group and its herbal components protection group(each group 12 rats). In the protection groups, drugs as mentioned above were administered by gavage before treated with intraperitoneal injection of aspirin. To evaluate the extent of gastric mucosal injury and the protective effect of drugs, gastric mucosal lesion index, gastric mucosal blood flow, content of gastric mucosal hexosamine, prostaglandins (PG), nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin (IL) -1, 2, 8 were measured in each group, and histological changes were observed by gross as well as under microscope and electron microscope. Contents of hexosamine, NO, and PG in all the protection groups were significantly higher than those in the injury group (all Pbismuth and magnesium granules group was significantly higher than that in the sucralfate group ((11.29±0.51) vs(10.80±0.36)nmol/ml, Pbismuth and magnesium granules group were significantly lower than those in the sucralfate group ((328.17±6.56) vs(340.23±8.05)pg/ml, Pbismuth and magnesium granules and its herbal components may have significant protective effect on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury.

  10. Study of Clinical and Genetic Risk Factors for Aspirin-induced Gastric Mucosal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Hu, Ying; You, Peng; Chi, Yu-Jing; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-01-20

    Current knowledge about clinical and genetic risk factors for aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury is not sufficient to prevent these gastric mucosal lesions. We recruited aspirin takers as the exposed group and healthy volunteers as the control group. The exposed group was categorized into two subgroups such as subgroup A as gastric mucosal injury diagnosed by gastroscopy, including erosion, ulcer or bleeding of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum; subgroup B as no injury of the gastric mucosa was detected by gastroscopy. Clinical information was collected, and 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated. Among 385 participants, 234 were in the aspirin-exposed group. According to gastroscopy, 82 belonged to subgroup A, 91 belonged to subgroup B, and gastroscopic results of 61 participants were not available. Using the Chi-square test and logistic regression, we found that peptic ulcer history (odds ratio [OR] = 5.924, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.115-16.592), dual anti-platelet medication (OR = 3.443, 95% CI: 1.154-10.271), current Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 2.242, 95% CI: 1.032-4.870), male gender (OR = 2.211, 95% CI: 1.027-4.760), GG genotype of rs2243086 (OR = 4.516, 95% CI: 1.180-17.278), and AA genotype of rs1330344 (OR = 2.178, 95% CI: 1.016-4.669) were more frequent in subgroup A than subgroup B. In aspirin users who suffered from upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the frequency of the TT genotype of rs2238631 and TT genotype of rs2243100 was higher than in those without upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Peptic ulcer history, dual anti-platelet medication, H. pylori current infection, and male gender were possible clinical risk factors for aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. GG genotype of rs2243086 and AA genotype of rs1330344 were possible genetic risk factors. TT genotype of rs2238631 and TT genotype of rs2243100 may be risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in aspirin users.

  11. Study of Clinical and Genetic Risk Factors for Aspirin-induced Gastric Mucosal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current knowledge about clinical and genetic risk factors for aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury is not sufficient to prevent these gastric mucosal lesions. Methods: We recruited aspirin takers as the exposed group and healthy volunteers as the control group. The exposed group was categorized into two subgroups such as subgroup A as gastric mucosal injury diagnosed by gastroscopy, including erosion, ulcer or bleeding of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum; subgroup B as no injury of the gastric mucosa was detected by gastroscopy. Clinical information was collected, and 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated. Results: Among 385 participants, 234 were in the aspirin-exposed group. According to gastroscopy, 82 belonged to subgroup A, 91 belonged to subgroup B, and gastroscopic results of 61 participants were not available. Using the Chi-square test and logistic regression, we found that peptic ulcer history (odds ratio [OR] = 5.924, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.115-16.592, dual anti-platelet medication (OR = 3.443, 95% CI: 1.154-10.271, current Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 2.242, 95% CI: 1.032-4.870, male gender (OR = 2.211, 95% CI: 1.027-4.760, GG genotype of rs2243086 (OR = 4.516, 95% CI: 1.180-17.278, and AA genotype of rs1330344 (OR = 2.178, 95% CI: 1.016-4.669 were more frequent in subgroup A than subgroup B. In aspirin users who suffered from upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the frequency of the TT genotype of rs2238631 and TT genotype of rs2243100 was higher than in those without upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Conclusions: Peptic ulcer history, dual anti-platelet medication, H. pylori current infection, and male gender were possible clinical risk factors for aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. GG genotype of rs2243086 and AA genotype of rs1330344 were possible genetic risk factors. TT genotype of rs2238631 and TT genotype of rs2243100 may be risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in

  12. Gastric Mucosal Changes Caused by Lugol's Iodine Solution Spray: Endoscopic Features of 64 Cases on Screening Esophagogastroduodenoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Tsurumaru

    2010-01-01

    findings: fold thickening, exudates, ulcers, and hemorrhage. Results. Mucosal changes occurred after Lugol's solution spray totally in 51 patients (80%. Fold thickening was observed in all 51 patients (80%, and a reticular pattern of white lines was found on the surface of the thickened gastric folds found in 28 of the patients (44%. Exudates were observed in 6 patients (9%. Conclusion. The gastric mucosa could be affected by Lugol's iodine; the most frequent endoscopic finding of this effect is gastric fold thickening, which should not be misdiagnosed as a severe gastric disease.

  13. Influence of beta blockade on gastric acid secretion and changes in gastric mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy in dogs and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Bekker, C

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present study was, in paired experiments in dogs, to examine the effect of beta-receptor blockade on gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy (PCV). The secretory response to pentagastrin was reduced after vagotomy. beta-Adrenergic block......The aim of the present study was, in paired experiments in dogs, to examine the effect of beta-receptor blockade on gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy (PCV). The secretory response to pentagastrin was reduced after vagotomy. beta...

  14. Different effect of Helicobacter pylori on the human gastric antral and body mucosal intracellular mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, S; Tsujii, M; Nagano, K; Ogihara, T; Tanimura, H; Hayashi, N; Ito, T; Sato, N; Kamada, T; Tamura, K

    1990-10-01

    To elucidate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer, we investigated the intracellular mucin content by measuring the periodic acid-Schiff-Alcian blue (PAS-AB)-stained substances, by means of computer, in the biopsy sample of gastric mucosa from patients with and without H. pylori infection. In the antral mucosa the intracellular PAS-AB-stained mucin content was significantly smaller in patients with infection than in patients without infection, whereas in the oxyntic gland mucosa the intracellular mucin content showed no significant change between patients with and without infection. In an animal study we investigated the effect of ammonia, which might be produced by H. pylori in the presence of urea. The ammonia, administered orally, caused a greater decrease of intracellular PAS-AB-stained mucin content in the gastric antral mucosa than in the body mucosa, in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested that H. pylori infection had a different effect on the gastric mucosal intracellular PAS-AB-stained mucin and lowered specifically the antral intracellular PAS-AB-stained mucin content, possibly due to generation of ammonia by H. pylori.

  15. Apple polyphenol extracts protect against aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; McGhie, Tony K; Saleh, Zaid S; McLeod, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The protective role of two apple polyphenol extracts, Douglas-FB (FB) and Douglas-EF (EF), on gastric mucosal damage following aspirin ingestion was investigated in healthy rats. Polyphenol content of the apple extracts varied, with the EF extract having 20% w/w polyphenols and a high proportion of flavanols as epicatechin and procyanidin, whereas the FB extract comprised 12% w/w polyphenols, which were mostly flavonols as quercetin glycosides. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to control, FB and EF groups and fed the experimental diet during the 10-day trial. Control treatment rats received 1 mL of deionised water, whereas apple polyphenol treatment group rats, FB and EF received a concentration of 10(-2)  m polyphenols in 1 mL deionised water daily via oral gavage. At the end of 10-day feeding period, rats were fasted overnight, and the following morning, aspirin (200 mg/kg) was given by oral gavage. Four hours after aspirin administration, the animals were euthanised, and samples taken for analysis. Both apple polyphenol extracts significantly reduced the ulcer area, ulcer lesion index and gastric injury score. The glutathione in gastric mucosa was increased significantly in rats given FB apple extract. Despite their different polyphenol compositions, FB and EF apple extracts assisted in protecting the gastric mucosa following acute aspirin administration in rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Adrenergic mechanism responsible for pathological alteration in gastric mucosal blood flow in rats with ulcer bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I. A.; Gekalyuk, A. S.; Ulanova, M. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    The adrenergic system plays an important role in regulation of central and peripheral circulation in normal state and during hemorrhage. Because the impaired gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) is the major cause of gastroduodenal lesions, including ulcer bleeding (UB), we studied the adrenergic mechanism responsible for regulation of GMBF in rats with a model of stress-induced UB (SUB) using the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). First, we examined the effect of adrenaline on GMBF in rats under normal state and during UB. In all healthy animals the submucosal adrenaline injection caused a decrease in local GMBF. During UB the submucosal injection of adrenaline was accompanied by less pronounced GMBF suppression in 30,3% rats with SUB vs. healthy ones. In 69,7% rats with SUB we observed the increase in local GMBF after submucosal injection of adrenaline. Second, we studied the sensitivity of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors and the activity of two factors which are involved in β2-adrenomediated vasorelaxation-KATP -channels and NO. The effects of submucosal injection of isoproterenol, ICI118551 and glybenclamide on GMBF as well as NO levels in gastric tissue were significantly elevated in rats with SUB vs. healthy rats. Thus, our results indicate that high activation of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors associated with the increased vascular KATP -channels activity and elevated NO production is the important adrenergic mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of UB.

  17. Gastric mucosal electrical potential difference, pH, blood flow, and morphology during hypoxia and selective gastric ischaemia with and without allopurinol pretreatment in anaesthetized dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bülow, J B; Madsen, J

    1990-01-01

    Ischaemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal disorders. The aim of this investigation was to study the gastric mucosal electrical potential difference (PD), pH, blood flow and morphology during hypoxia, gastric ischaemia, and gastric ischaemia following inhibition of free...... radical formation with allopurinol. PD and pH were measured simultaneously with an intragastric microelectrode, and the PD values were corrected for the liquid junction potentials created by the intragastric pH variation. Blood flow was measured by the radiolabelled microsphere technique in 18...... anaesthetized dogs. Short general hypoxia and short ischaemia caused reversible declines in PD, increases in pH, and no morphological damage. Ischaemia for 1 h caused a significant decline in PD persistent after reperfusion, an increase in pH, and morphological PD, but after reperfusion PD was normalized. Gross...

  18. Gastric mucosal electrical potential difference and blood flow during high FFA/albumin ratios in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bülow, J B; Madsen, J

    1988-01-01

    The gastric blood flow and the gastric mucosal potential difference (p.d.) was studied in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs under normal conditions and during increased FFA/albumin ratios. The antrum mucosal p.d. was measured continuously with a newly developed intragastric microelectrode principle...

  19. Gastric mucosal electrical potential difference and blood flow during high FFA/albumin ratios in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bülow, J B; Madsen, J

    1988-01-01

    The gastric blood flow and the gastric mucosal potential difference (p.d.) was studied in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs under normal conditions and during increased FFA/albumin ratios. The antrum mucosal p.d. was measured continuously with a newly developed intragastric microelectrode princip...

  20. [Effects of the polysaccharides isolated from ganoderma applanatum (PGA) on the level of PGE2 and gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and gastric mucus secretion of rats with gastric mucosa injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Sun, Hong; Yu, De-Wei; Cui, Zhi-Yong; Tian, Jie

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the protective effects of the polysaccharides isolated from ganoderma applanatum (PGA) on gastric mucosal injury in rats and the underlying mechanism. Gastric ulcer was induced by either acetic acid or pylorus ligation in the rats. The level of PGE2 and GMBF, and gastric mucus secretion were examined respectively. After oral administration of PGA (250-1000 mg x kg(-1)) repeatedly, the level of PGE2 and GMBF were obviously increased in gastric mucosa of rats as compared with the model group. The secretions of both free mucus in stomach and mucus of gastric wall were enhanced apparently by PGA in a dose-dependent manner. PGA could strengthen gastric mucosa barrier by improving the level of PGE2, GMBF and the secretion of gastric mucus, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of PGA on the gastric mucosa during the gastric ulcer.

  1. Gastric mucosal lesions produced by intravenous infusion of aspirin in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugat, R; Thompson, M R; Aures, D; Grossman, M I

    1976-11-01

    Aspirin was given by continuous intravenous infusion to 35 intact cats for 7 days in doses ranging from 25 to 200 mg kg-1 day-1. Gastric mucosal lesions occurred in 50 to 70% of the animals in the various dosage groups, including deep ulcers in 20%. All of the ulcers were in antral mucosa near its border with oxyntic mucosa. The incidence of lesions, including ulcers, showed no apparent relation to the dose of aspirin. With all but the highest dose, plasma salicylate levels were within or below what is regarded as the therapeutic range for man. Asprin, 100 mg kg-1 day-1, was given for 7 days to 4 cats with pouches containing all of the antral mucosa plus some oxyntic mucosa. One or more deep ulcers occurred in the antral mucosa of the pouches in each of these 4 cats. The electrical potential difference across the mucosa did not decrease, and net fluxes of hydrogen ions out of the pouch and of sodium ions into the pouch did not increase during the 7 days of aspirin administration despite the occurrence of ulcers in the pouches. It is concluded that intravenous aspirin, in doses giving plasma levels within or below the therapeutic range for man, causes gastric mucosal lesions including deep ulcers within 7 days in cats. These lesions occur without the changes in electrical potential difference and hydrogen and sodium fluxes that are regarded as characteristic of the "broken barrier."

  2. Correlation between Gastric Mucosal Morphologic Patterns and Histopathological Severity of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis Using Conventional Narrow Band Imaging Gastroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Loyd, Ryan A.; Matrakool, Likit

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Identifying specific gastric mucosal morphologic patterns useful for detecting Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and correlation with histopathological severity. Methods. The endoscopists classified the C-NBI gastroscopic findings into 5 gastric mucosal morphologic patterns as follows: type 1: regular arrangement of collecting venules, type 2: cone-shaped gastric pits, type 3: rod-shaped gastric pits with prominent sulci, type 4: ground glass-like morphology, and type 5: dark brown patches with bluish margin and irregular border. Biopsies of all of the cases were then evaluated by 5 pathologists for definitive Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. Result. Type 1 and type 2 patterns were statistically significant in predicting Helicobacter pylori negative status (58/60, P < 0.01). Type 3, type 4, and type 5 patterns were statistically significant in predicting Helicobacter pylori positive status (132/140, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of type 3, 4, or 5 morphologies for predicting Helicobacter pylori positive were 94.28%, 96.66%, 98.50%, and 87.87%, respectively, correlated well with inflammation grading according to the Sydney classification (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Our study suggests that gastric mucosal morphologic patterns in the Helicobacter pylori infected gastric mucosa can be reliably identified using C-NBI gastroscopy with good correlation with inflammation grading. PMID:26120585

  3. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Zuojin Pill against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang QS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiang-Song Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Ning Zhu,1,* Heng-Li Jiang,1,* Gui-Fang Wang,3 Yuan-Lu Cui1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 3Pharmacy Department, Baokang Hospital, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Zuojin Pill (ZJP, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the

  4. The effects of E and A prostaglandins on gastric mucosal blood flow and acid secretion in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, I. H. M.; Whittle, B. J. R.

    1973-01-01

    1. The effects of prostaglandins E1, E2, A1 and A2 on gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow were studied by means of a [14C]-aniline clearance technique in the anaesthetized rat. 2. During intravenous administration of these prostaglandins, in doses which almost completely inhibited pentagastrin- and histamine-induced acid secretion, a fall in clearance was observed. 3. Clearance per unit acid secretion increased during prostaglandin administration, precluding a primary reduction in mucosal blood flow as the mechanism of the antisecretory action. 4. Prostaglandins increased clearance during basal secretion, indicating a direct vasodilator effect on the gastric mucosa. 5. The possibility that endogenous prostaglandins contribute to functional vasodilatation in the gastric mucosa and that exogenous prostaglandins may be of clinical value in the treatment of peptic ulcer is discussed. PMID:4149696

  5. Characteristics and changes of gastric mucosal blood flow in patients with duodenal ulcer following highly selective vagotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebroente, Zoltan; Kahan, Zsuzsanna; Baltas, Bela; Lang, Jenoe; Varro, Vince; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged

    1985-01-01

    In patients with duodenal ulcer, mucosal blood flow of pentagastrin-stimulated stomach was studied using sup(99m)Tc-methylaminophenazone clearance technique published previously by the authors. Comparative investigations were carried out in active and inactive phases of the disease and in operated patients before and after highly selective vagotomy. The relation between gastric mucosal blood flow and acid secretion proved to be different from that of the normacid controls: in duodenal ulcer patients the secretory capacity in relation to the blood supply proved to be increased. Both the mucosal blood flow and acid secretion values were elevated in the active stage as compared to the inactive phase, while the proportion between them remained unchanged. The relation of secretion to mucosal blood flow after highly selective vagotomy became similar to that of the normal controls. It is suggested that the sup(99m)Tc-methylaminophenazone clearance method is a suitable tool to evaluate the effectiveness of vagotomy. (author)

  6. Role of sulfhydryls and early vascular lesions in gastric mucosal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, S

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the recently discovered role of sulfhydryls and early vascular injury in the pathogenesis of acute gastric mucosal injury. In the rat ethanol caused a dose-dependent decrease in nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration in the gastric mucosa within 1-5 min following an intragastric dose. These biochemical changes were accompanied by increased vascular permeability in the glandular stomach as revealed by the measurement of extravasated Evans blue injected i.v. prior to the administration of ethanol. Morphologic evidence of vascular injury was provided by labelling of damaged blood vessels in the stomach following the i.v. administration of colloidal particles in the form of india ink or monastral blue. The functional and structural damage to capillaries and venules in the glandular stomach was also maximal within 1-6 min after 1 ml of 75 or 100% ethanol given orally. Pretreatment with sulfhydryl (SH) containing drugs (e.g., L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, cysteamine, dimercaprol) or prostaglandin (PG) F2 beta prevented the ethanol-induced increase in vascular permeability, the labelling of blood vessels with vascular tracers, and the subsequent haemorrhagic erosions. The desquamation of superficial epithelial cells, however, was not markedly modified by either SH or PG compounds. This organoprotective effect of SH and PG drugs was virtually counteracted in adrenalectomized rats that exhibited "vascular fragility". Glucocorticoid treatment restored the response of adrenalectomized animals. Thus, a SH- and glucocorticoid-sensitive early vascular injury seems to be of major significance in the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic gastric erosions and SH-containing compounds represent a new group of cytoprotective or organoprotective agents.

  7. Protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2017-09-01

    Radon therapy using radon (222Rn) gas is classified into two types of treatment: inhalation of radon gas and drinking water containing radon. Although short- or long-term intake of spa water is effective in increasing gastric mucosal blood flow, and spa water therapy is useful for treating chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer, the underlying mechanisms for and precise effects of radon protection against mucosal injury are unclear. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h or were provided with hot spring water for 2 weeks. The activity density of 222Rn ranged from 663 Bq/l (start point of supplying) to 100 Bq/l (end point of supplying). Mice were then orally administered ethanol at three concentrations. The ulcer index (UI), an indicator of mucosal injury, increased in response to the administration of ethanol; however, treatment with either radon inhalation or hot spring water inhibited the elevation in the UI due to ethanol. Although no significant differences in antioxidative enzymes were observed between the radon-treated groups and the non-treated control groups, lipid peroxide levels were significantly lower in the stomachs of mice pre-treated with radon or hot spring water. These results suggest that hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation inhibit ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  8. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...

  9. Correlation between Gastric Mucosal Morphologic Patterns and Histopathological Severity of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis Using Conventional Narrow Band Imaging Gastroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit

    2015-01-01

    Identifying specific gastric mucosal morphologic patterns useful for detecting Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and correlation with histopathological severity. The endoscopists classified the C-NBI gastroscopic findings into 5 gastric mucosal morphologic patterns as follows: type 1: regular arrangement of collecting venules, type 2: cone-shaped gastric pits, type 3: rod-shaped gastric pits with prominent sulci, type 4: ground glass-like morphology, and type 5: dark brown patches with bluish margin and irregular border. Biopsies of all of the cases were then evaluated by 5 pathologists for definitive Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. Type 1 and type 2 patterns were statistically significant in predicting Helicobacter pylori negative status (58/60, P Helicobacter pylori positive status (132/140, P Helicobacter pylori positive were 94.28%, 96.66%, 98.50%, and 87.87%, respectively, correlated well with inflammation grading according to the Sydney classification (P Helicobacter pylori infected gastric mucosa can be reliably identified using C-NBI gastroscopy with good correlation with inflammation grading.

  10. Suppressed Gastric Mucosal TGF-β1 Increases Susceptibility to H. pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation and Ulceration: A Stupid Host Defense Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yunjeong; Han, Sang Uk; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Shin Tae; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Loss of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) exhibits a similar pathology to that seen in a subset of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, including propagated gastric inflammation, oxidative stress, and autoimmune features. We thus hypothesized that gastric mucosal TGF-β1 levels could be used to determine the outcome after H. pylori infection. Methods Northern blot for the TGF-β1 transcript, staining of TGF-β1 expression, luciferase reporter assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TGF-β1 levels were performed at different times after H. pylori infection. Results The TGF-β1 level was markedly lower in patients with H. pylori-induced gastritis than in patients with a similar degree of gastritis induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. There was a significant negative correlation between the severity of inflammation and gastric mucosal TGF-β1 levels. SNU-16 cells showing intact TGF-β signaling exhibited a marked decrease in TGF-β1 expression, whereas SNU-638 cells defective in TGF-β signaling exhibited no such decrease after H. pylori infection. The decreased expressions of TGF-β1 in SNU-16 cells recovered to normal after 24 hr of H. pylori infection, but lasted very spatial times, suggesting that attenuated expression of TGF-β1 is a host defense mechanism to avoid attachment of H. pylori. Conclusions H. pylori infection was associated with depressed gastric mucosal TGF-β1 for up to 24 hr, but this apparent strategy for rescuing cells from H. pylori attachment exacerbated the gastric inflammation. PMID:20479912

  11. Suppressed Gastric Mucosal TGF-beta1 Increases Susceptibility to H. pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation and Ulceration: A Stupid Host Defense Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yunjeong; Han, Sang Uk; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Shin Tae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2010-03-01

    Loss of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) exhibits a similar pathology to that seen in a subset of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, including propagated gastric inflammation, oxidative stress, and autoimmune features. We thus hypothesized that gastric mucosal TGF-beta1 levels could be used to determine the outcome after H. pylori infection. Northern blot for the TGF-beta1 transcript, staining of TGF-beta1 expression, luciferase reporter assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TGF-beta1 levels were performed at different times after H. pylori infection. The TGF-beta1 level was markedly lower in patients with H. pylori-induced gastritis than in patients with a similar degree of gastritis induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. There was a significant negative correlation between the severity of inflammation and gastric mucosal TGF-beta1 levels. SNU-16 cells showing intact TGF-beta signaling exhibited a marked decrease in TGF-beta1 expression, whereas SNU-638 cells defective in TGF-beta signaling exhibited no such decrease after H. pylori infection. The decreased expressions of TGF-beta1 in SNU-16 cells recovered to normal after 24 hr of H. pylori infection, but lasted very spatial times, suggesting that attenuated expression of TGF-beta1 is a host defense mechanism to avoid attachment of H. pylori. H. pylori infection was associated with depressed gastric mucosal TGF-beta1 for up to 24 hr, but this apparent strategy for rescuing cells from H. pylori attachment exacerbated the gastric inflammation.

  12. Role of lipoxygenases and the lipoxin A(4)/annexin 1 receptor in ischemia-reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskar, Brigitta M; Ehrlich, Karlheinz; Schuligoi, Rufina; Peskar, Bernhard A

    2009-01-01

    Rat gastric mucosal damage was induced by ischemia-reperfusion. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors MK886 and A63162, the 12-lipoxygenase inhibitor baicalein, the 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor PD146176 and the lipoxin (LX) A(4)/annexin 1 antagonist Boc1 increased mucosal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Low doses of these compounds, which have no effects on mucosal integrity, cause severe damage when combined with low doses of indomethacin, celecoxib or dexamethasone. 16,16-Dimethylprostaglandin (PG) E(2) and LXA(4) can replace each other in preventing mucosal injury induced by either cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase inhibitors. The results suggest that not only cyclooxygenases, but also lipoxygenases have a role in limiting gastric mucosal damage during ischemia-reperfusion. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Antioxidant Properties and Gastroprotective Effects of 2-(EthylthioBenzohydrazones on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafal Nazarbahjat

    Full Text Available A series of new 2-(ethylthiobenzohydrazone derivatives (1-6 were prepared and characterised by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The newly prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activities using free radical scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Among them, most powerful antioxidant, compound 1 has been selected in order to illustrate anti-ulcer effect on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were respectively treated with 10% Tween 20 as ulcer control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole as reference group, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg compound 1 as experimental animals. Macroscopically, ulcer control group showed extensive hemorrhagic lesions of gastric mucosa compared with omeprazole or compound 1. Rats pre-treated with compound 1 showed increased in gastric pH and gastric mucus. Histologically, ulcer control group showed severe damage to gastric mucosa with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. In immunohistochemical analysis, rats which were pre-treated with compound 1 showed up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of compound 1 may be due to its antioxidant activity, and/or due to up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax protein in stained tissue section.

  14. Taurine Prevents Ibuprofen-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Influences Endogenous Antioxidant Status of Stomach in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, free radical–induced tissue damage is implicated in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs–involved gastric mucosal lesion. Administration of taurine, an endogenous antioxidant, is reported to be beneficial in various clinical conditions. Therefore, we decided to study the protective effect of taurine in ibuprofen-induced gastropathy and the effects of administration of taurine on the endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and reduced glutathione (GSH of stomach. In rats, administration of taurine orally for three consecutive days (250 mg/kg body weight protected the gastric mucosa from ibuprofen-induced, acute gastric mucosal lesion. In ibuprofen-treated rats, the lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker for free radical–induced tissue damage, is also significantly decreased by taurine. Ibuprofen treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of total SOD, manganese SOD (Mn-SOD, and GPX and reduced GSH. Taurine administration in ibuprofen-treated rats also showed a significant increase in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes namely total SOD, Mn-SOD, GPX, CAT, and the level of reduced GSH. The activity of copper-zinc SOD enzyme (Cu-Zn SOD is not affected by ibuprofen or taurine. There is no temporal relation between the antioxidant status of the stomach and the tissue damage following oral administration of ibuprofen or taurine.

  15. Effect of Cimetidine and Gastric Acidity on the Gastric Mucosal Retention of 99mTc-Pertechnetate in Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Woo; Baik, Yong Whee

    1989-01-01

    99m Tc-Pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) is concentrated by the stomach after intravenous injection, allowing the detection of ectopic gastric mucosa. It has been used to develop a noninvasive test of gastric secretion. However the cellular site of concentration is still controversial, that is whether mucin-secreting epithelial cell or acid-secreting parietal cell. This study is planned to investigate the effects of cimetidine and gastric acidity on the retention of TcO 4 - in the gastric wall of the rat. Also we further attempted to clarify the uptake and secreting cell of TcO 4 - in the gastric mucosa. One hundred rats were divided into two groups, preliminary (40 rats) and main examination group (60 rats). Preliminary examination group was composed of fasting group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching stable TcO 4 - retention ratio in gastric wall and post-prandial group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching the maximal gastric acidity. Main examination group was composed of fasting group (30 rats), which was subdivided into control group (10 rats), cimetidine group (10 rats), Mylanta group (10 rats) and post-prandial group (30 rats), which was subdivided into 90 min group (10 rats), 90 min cimetidine group (10 rats), and 120 min group (10 rats). Retention ratio (%) of TcO 4 - in the gastric wall and the pH of the gastric contents were measured in the extracted stomach of the six groups. Gastric wail retention ratio of TcO 4 - was calculated by the gastric wall radioactivity (cpm) divided by total gastric radioactivity (cpm) at 30 mins after intravenous injection of 0.4 mCi of TcO 4 - . The results were as follows: 1) The time required for reaching stable TcO 4 - retention ratio and the lowest gastric pH were 30 min and 90 min, respectively. 2) In the fasting group, the gastric wall retention ratio of TcO 4 - was significantly increased in the cimetidine group, compared with the control group (P 4 - retention ratio and gastric pH were well

  16. The gastroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Monolluma quadrangula against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim IAA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Abdel Aziz Ibrahim,1 Mahmood Ameen Abdulla,2 Maryam Hajrezaie,2 Ammar Bader,3 Naiyer Shahzad,1 Saeed S Al-Ghamdi,1 Ahmad S Gushash,4 Mohadeseh Hasanpourghadi5 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 4College of Arts and Science in Baljurashi, Albaha University, Baljurashi, Saudi Arabia; 5Cell Biology and Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk. Plowes is used in Saudi traditional medicines to treat gastric ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of M. quadrangula (MHAE was used in an in vivo model to investigate its gastroprotective effects against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. Five groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used. The first group was treated with 10% Tween 20 as a control. The other four groups included rats treated with absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg to induce an ulcer, rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole as a reference drug, and rats treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg MHAE. One hour later, the rats were administered absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg orally. Animals fed with MHAE exhibited a significantly increased pH, gastric wall mucus, and flattening of the gastric mucosa, as well as a decreased area of gastric mucosal damage. Histology confirmed the results; extensive destruction of the gastric mucosa was observed in the ulcer control group, and the lesions penetrated deep into the gastric mucosa with leukocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer and edema. However, gastric protection was observed in the rats pre-fed with plant extracts. Periodic acid–Schiff staining of the gastric wall revealed a remarkably intensive uptake of magenta color in the

  17. Protective effect of butyrate against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice by promoting the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and mucosal defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Fangyan; Luo, Haihua; Liu, Aihua; Li, Kangxin; Li, Cui; Jiang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcers (GUs) are a common type of peptic ulcer. Alcohol overdose is one of the main causes of GU, which is difficult to prevent. Although the protective effect of butyrate on inflammation-related diseases is well understood, its effect on GUs has not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of butyrate against ethanol-induced lesions to the gastric mucosa in mice and the underlying mechanisms. BALB/c mice were orally pretreated with butyrate for 30min prior to the establishment of the GU model by challenge with absolute ethanol. Ethanol administration produced apparent mucosal injuries with morphological and histological damage, whereas butyrate pretreatment reduced the gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner. Butyrate pretreatment also significantly ameliorated contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl proteins, and decreased levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. The Western blot results consistently demonstrated that butyrate pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK and ERKs in the gastric tissues. Additionally, gastric wall mucus (GWM), a parameter reflecting mucosal defense, was clearly increased by butyrate pretreatment. Butyrate pretreatment protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced lesions by strengthening the mucosal defense and anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. As a necessary substance for the body, butyrate may be applied to the prevention and treatment of GUs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Gastric Mucosal Hydrophobicity Does dot Decrease with Helicobacter Pylori Infection or Chronological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S Al-Marhoon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infection with cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe gastric diseases. Previous studies in humans have reported a decreased gastric hydrophobicity with H pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to differentiate between the effect of cagA+ and cagA- strains on gastric mucus hydrophobicity.

  19. Effect of Cimetidine and Gastric Acidity on the Gastric Mucosal Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetate in Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Woo; Baik, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-03-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) is concentrated by the stomach after intravenous injection, allowing the detection of ectopic gastric mucosa. It has been used to develop a noninvasive test of gastric secretion. However the cellular site of concentration is still controversial, that is whether mucin-secreting epithelial cell or acid-secreting parietal cell. This study is planned to investigate the effects of cimetidine and gastric acidity on the retention of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the gastric wall of the rat. Also we further attempted to clarify the uptake and secreting cell of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the gastric mucosa. One hundred rats were divided into two groups, preliminary (40 rats) and main examination group (60 rats). Preliminary examination group was composed of fasting group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching stable TcO{sub 4}{sup -} retention ratio in gastric wall and post-prandial group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching the maximal gastric acidity. Main examination group was composed of fasting group (30 rats), which was subdivided into control group (10 rats), cimetidine group (10 rats), Mylanta group (10 rats) and post-prandial group (30 rats), which was subdivided into 90 min group (10 rats), 90 min cimetidine group (10 rats), and 120 min group (10 rats). Retention ratio (%) of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the gastric wall and the pH of the gastric contents were measured in the extracted stomach of the six groups. Gastric wail retention ratio of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was calculated by the gastric wall radioactivity (cpm) divided by total gastric radioactivity (cpm) at 30 mins after intravenous injection of 0.4 mCi of TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. The results were as follows: 1) The time required for reaching stable TcO{sub 4}{sup -} retention ratio and the lowest gastric pH were 30 min and 90 min, respectively. 2) In the fasting group, the gastric wall retention ratio of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was significantly increased in the

  20. Corticotropin-releasing factor. Mechanisms to inhibit gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, H J; Hester, S E; Brown, M R

    1985-01-01

    Immunoreactivity similar to that of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is found in regions of the central nervous system that modulate autonomic responses, including gastrointestinal functions. We examined the central nervous system effects of ovine CRF on gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs. Male beagle dogs (11-13 kg) were fitted with chronic intracerebroventricular cannulae and gastric fistulae. Gastric acid secretion in response to intravenously administered gastric secretory stimu...

  1. A Novel Combination of Wheat Peptides and Fucoidan Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage through Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Pro-Survival Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Kan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis or peptic ulcer is believed to affect about half of people worldwide. Traditional medications can lead to adverse effects, therefore, alternative nutritional strategies are needed to prevent the development of gastric mucosal damage. A novel combination of two food-grade ingredients, wheat peptides and fucoidan (WPF, was prepared to treat male Sprague Dawley rats for 30 days before gastric mucosal damage was induced by oral administration of ethanol. The serum levels of biomarkers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biomarkers in stomach tissue were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1 was used to investigate protein expression by Western blot. WPF could attenuate ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in an inverse dose-dependent manner, with both ulcer index and pathological index improved. WPF increased superoxide dismutase level and decreased malondialdehyde level. WPF also decreased the levels of interleukin-8, platelet-activating factor, and Caspase 3, while increasing the levels of prostaglandin E-2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, and EGF receptor (EGFR. Furthermore, phosphorylation of EGFR and extracellular signal–regulated kinases was induced by WPF in GES-1 cells. In conclusion, the novel combination of wheat peptides and fucoidan attenuated ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-survival mechanisms.

  2. Simultaneous detection of gastric acid and histamine release to unravel the regulation of acid secretion from the guinea pig stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitziou, Eleni; Patel, Bhavik Anil

    2012-08-01

    Gastric acid secretion is regulated by three primary components that activate the parietal cell: histamine, gastrin, and acetylcholine (ACh). Although much is known about these regulatory components individually, little is known on the interplay of these multiple activators and the degree of regulation they pose on the gastric acid secretion mechanism. We utilized a novel dual-sensing approach, where an iridium oxide sensor was used to monitor pH and a boron-doped diamond electrode was used for the detection of histamine from in vitro guinea pig stomach mucosal sections. Under basal conditions, gastrin was shown to be the main regulatory component of the total acid secretion and directly activated the parietal cell rather than by mediating gastric acid secretion through the release of histamine from the enterochromaffin-like cell, although both pathways were active. Under stimulated conditions with ACh, the gastrin and histamine components of the total acid secretion were not altered compared with levels observed under basal conditions, suggestive that ACh had no direct effect on the enterochromaffin-like cell and G cell. These data identify a new unique approach to investigate the regulation pathways active during acid secretion and the degree that they are utilized to drive total gastric acid secretion. The findings of this study will enhance our understanding on how these signaling mechanisms vary under pathophysiology or therapeutic management.

  3. Biphasic effects of histamine on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions: Studies with betahistine, dimaprit, (R). alpha. -methylhistamine and nizatidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, R.E.; Palitzsch, K.D.; Szabo, S. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In elucidating further the role that histamine (H) may play in gastroprotection against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) induced by ethanol (E), fasted S-D rats were treated with subcutaneous (s.c.) H 10, 15, 20 and 30 min before intragastric (i.g.) 100% E or H-agonists betahistine (H1) or dimaprit (H2) i.g. 30 min. before 75% E. All animals were killed 1 hr after E, HML were measured with stereomicrosopic planimetry and expressed as % of glandular stomach. The H2 antagonist nizatidine did not influence the extent of HML. As a follow up to previously reported nizatidine blockade of H2-induced gastroprotection against 75% E, nizatidine + H1 or nizatidine + H3 agonist (R){alpha}-methylhistamine was also tested. The H2 antagonist nizatidine abolished the gastroprotection by H3 but did not influence the H1-induced reduction of HML. H injected s.c. showed a dose- and time-dependent biphasic effect on E-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Both H1- and H2-agonists injected s.c. reduced the E-induced damage. Nizatidine alone failed to influence mucosal lesions, blocked gastroprotection induced by H2 or H3, but not by H1 agonists.

  4. Acidic bile salts induces mucosal barrier dysfunction through let-7a reduction during gastric carcinogenesis after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasushi; Uno, Kaname; Iijima, Katsunori; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Asano, Naoki; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) after eradication for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) increases, but its carcinogenesis is not elucidated. It is mainly found in acid non-secretion areas (ANA), as mucosal regeneration in acid secretory areas (AA) after eradication changes the acidity and bile toxicity of gastric juice. We aimed to clarify the role of barrier dysfunction of ANA by the stimulation of pH3 bile acid cocktail (ABC) during carcinogenesis. We collected 18 patients after curative endoscopic resection for GC, identified later than 24 months after eradication, and took biopsies by Congo-red chromoendoscopy to distinguish AA and ANA (UMIN00018967). The mucosal barrier function was investigated using a mini-Ussing chamber system and molecular biological methods. The reduction in mucosal impedance in ANA after stimulation was significantly larger than that in AA, 79.6% vs. 87.9%, respectively. The decrease of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and let-7a and the increase of snail in ANA were significant compared to those in AA. In an in vitro study, the restoration of ZO-1 and let-7a as well as the induction of snail were observed after stimulation. High mobility group A2 (HMGA2)-snail activation, MTT proliferation, and cellular infiltration capacity were significantly increased in AGS transfected with let-7a inhibitor, and vice versa. Accordingly, using a mini-Ussing chamber system for human biopsy specimens followed by an in vitro study, we demonstrated for the first time that the exposure of acidic bile salts to ANA might cause serious barrier dysfunction through the let-7a reduction, promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition during inflammation-associated carcinogenesis even after eradication. PMID:29719591

  5. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-07-21

    To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5'-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5'-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage.

  6. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  7. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients, but not in Helicobacter pylori positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Mertz-Nielsen; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1996-01-01

    Background: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. Methods: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE(2) were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positivr). Results: In healthy...... volunteers the rates of gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and the release of PGE(2), were not influenced by H. pylori status. In inactive DU patients the rates of basal (704 +/- 84 versus 356 +/- 40 mu mol/h: mean +/- SEM) and vagally stimulated (modified sham feeding) (1724 +/- 376 versus 592 +/- 52 mu...

  8. The effect of betahistine on gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwain, B P; Holton, P; Spencer, J

    1972-10-01

    In 3 conscious dogs, betahistine (2-(2'-methyl aminoethyl pyridine)) (80 or 160mug kg(-1) min(-1)) increased acid secretion from Heidenhain pouches to 8.8% and 17.6% respectively of the maximal response to histamine. Betahistine also increased mucosal blood flow (radioactive aniline clearance). The ratio of mucosal blood flow to secretion was greater for betahistine than for histamine but the difference between betahistine and histamine was significant in only one of the dogs.

  9. Preparation and characterization of a novel aspirin derivative with anti-thrombotic and gastric mucosal protection properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-E Zhen

    Full Text Available The use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASP is limited by its adverse effects, especially the effect on the gastric mucosa. To address this problem, we synthesized a derivative form of ASP, prepared by modification of ASP with nano-hydroxyapatite (a kind of inorganic particle containing Ca(2+. The derivative was named Ca-ASP. Structural study showed that Ca-ASP was a kind of carboxylate containing intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Rats given a high dose of Ca-ASP (5 mmol per kg body weight showed similar anti-thrombotic activity as those given the same dose of ASP, but had much lower gastric mucosal damage than ASP (UI: 2 versus UI: 12.5. These rats also showed reduced expression of COX-2, but their COX-1 expression was similar to that of control rats, but significantly higher than that of ASP-administered rats. Furthermore, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 was up-regulated in Ca-ASP-administered rats compared to ASP-administered rats. Taken together, the results showed that Ca-ASP possessed similar antithrombotic activity as ASP but without the side effect associated with ASP, and the underlying mechanism may center on inhibiting COX-2 without inhibiting COX-1, and thus favouring the production of PGE2, the prostaglandin that plays a vital role in the suppression of platelet aggregation and thrombosis, as well as in the repair of gastric damage.

  10. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality was pres......BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...... volunteers the rates of gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and the release of PGE2 were not influenced by H. pylori status. In inactive DU patients the rates of basal (704 +/- 84 versus 356 +/- 40 mumol/h; mean +/- SEM) and vagally stimulated (modified sham feeding) (1724 +/- 376 versus 592 +/- 52 mumol...

  11. Early vascular injury and increased vascular permeability in gastric mucosal injury caused by ethanol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, S; Trier, J S; Brown, A; Schnoor, J

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that vascular injury contributes to the development of hemorrhagic erosions after intragastric administration of ethanol has been examined in the rat using vascular tracers. Extravasation of intravenously injected Evans blue into the gastric wall and into gastric contents was used as an indicator of vascular permeability. India ink and monastral blue, which label damaged blood vessels, were used to demonstrate vascular injury morphologically. Intragastric instillation of 75% and 100% ethanol induced increased vascular permeability within 1-3 min and resulted in monastral blue labeling of vessels in 13% and 17%, respectively, of the glandular mucosa within 1 min. After 1 h of 100% ethanol exposure, the areal density of monastral blue-stained blood vessels did not increase compared with that seen at 1 min, but the areal density of grossly visible hemorrhagic lesions increased strikingly and approximated that of vessel staining. The hemorrhagic erosions consistently occurred in regions of glandular mucosa where vessels were stained with monastral blue. Pretreatment with prostaglandin F2 beta or cysteamine reduced ethanol-induced Evans blue extravasation and monastral blue staining of mucosal blood vessels but did not reduce histologic evidence of gastric surface cell damage in the glandular mucosa. As increased vascular permeability and morphologically detectable vascular lesions consistently preceded the development of grossly visible hemorrhagic erosions in the glandular mucosa, we suggest that vascular injury is an early pathogenetic factor in the development of ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic erosions. The data also indicate that the degree of vascular damage, unlike the injury to surface epithelial cells, is reduced by pretreatment with prostaglandin F2 beta or the sulfhydryl cysteamine.

  12. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of intravenously administered dopamine on dopamine receptors and adrenergic receptors in terms of its effect on gastric acid secretion, the kinetic mechanism, blood flow, and antral motility. Dopamine was used alone and in conjunction with sel......The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of intravenously administered dopamine on dopamine receptors and adrenergic receptors in terms of its effect on gastric acid secretion, the kinetic mechanism, blood flow, and antral motility. Dopamine was used alone and in conjunction...... with selective blockade of alpha-, beta-, and dopaminergic receptors. A significant inhibition of gastric acid secretion was found with the highest dose of dopamine used (40 micrograms/kg/min). The kinetic study showed characteristics of a non-competitive type. The anti-secretory effect dopamine......, but the ratio between blood flow and acid secretion was significantly elevated during dopamine infusion, indicating that the acid inhibition was not secondary to changes in blood flow. It is concluded that the dopamine inhibition of acid secretion is mediated by beta 1-receptors, unlike the effect on antral...

  13. Effect of mucolytic pretreatment on gastric mucosal coating with barium sulfate in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, I.; Nevalainen, T.; Maeki, J.; Soederstroem, K.-O.

    1980-01-01

    Freshly prepared isolated rat stomachs were used to examine the adherence of barium sulfate particles to the mucosal surface by scanning electron microscopy. The stomachs were pretreated with sodium bicarbonate alone or in connection with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and then treated with barium sulfate specially designed for double contrast examination of the stomach. The best adhesion of the contrast medium was obtained when the mucosa was pretreated with both the alkaline and mucolytic agent indicating that, for the optimum adherence of the contrast medium, the mucosal surface must be as clean as possible. (Auth.)

  14. The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Rebecca O; Roa, Camilo C

    2003-01-01

    The gastroprotective effect of quantified tannins (13.4%) from Syzygium cumini was determined. Gastric mucosal damage was induced in sixty eight rats by oral gavage administration of HCl/ethanol solution. For macroscopic and microscopic studies, 30 rats were divided into three groups consisting of a negative control, an Omeprazole group and a Tannins group. There was no significant difference in the number, size and surface area of macroscopic lesions between the three groups. Microscopic examination using Best's Ulcer Staging Index showed that Tannins had a very significant decrease in gastric mucosal damage with pTannins and Omeprazole group had fewer lymphocytes. Thirty-eight rats were studied for the amount of free radicals present after induction of gastric damage. A dose which consisted of 20.0 g tannins/kg rat weight showed significantly lower stomach free radical concentrations. These findings suggest that tannins extracted from S. cumini have gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects.

  15. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori in immune pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hwei-Fang; Hsu, Ping-Ning

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Apoptosis induced by microbial infections is implicated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Enhanced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis during H. pylori infection was suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and gastric pathology. In addition to directly triggering apoptosis, H. pylori induces sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. Human gastric epithelial cells sensitized to H. pylori confer susceptibility to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via modulation of death-receptor signaling. The induction of TRAIL sensitivity by H. pylori is dependent upon the activation of caspase-8 and its downstream pathway. H. pylori induces caspase-8 activation via enhanced assembly of the TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex through downregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein. Moreover, H. pylori infection induces infiltration of T lymphocytes and triggers inflammation to augment apoptosis. In H. pylori infection, significant increases in CCR6 + CD3 + T cell infiltration in the gastric mucosa was observed, and the CCR6 ligand, CCL20 chemokine, was selectively expressed in inflamed gastric tissues. These mechanisms initiate chemokine-mediated T lymphocyte trafficking into inflamed epithelium and induce mucosal injury during Helicobacter infection. This article will review recent findings on the interactions of H. pylori with host-epithelial signaling pathways and events involved in the initiation of gastric pathology, including gastric inflammation and mucosal damage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Lansoprazole prevents experimental gastric injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through a reduction of mucosal oxidative damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandizzi, Corrado; Fornai, Matteo; Colucci, Rocchina; Natale, Gianfranco; Lubrano, Valter; Vassalle, Cristina; Antonioli, Luca; Lazzeri, Gloria; Tacca, Mario Del

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated the mechanisms of protection afforded by the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole against gastric injury induced by different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with indomethacin (100 µmol/kg), diclofenac (60 µmol/kg), piroxicam (150 µmol/kg) or ketoprofen (150 µmol/kg). Thirty minutes before NSAIDs, animals were orally treated with lansoprazole 18 or 90 µmol/kg. Four hours after the end of treatments, the following parameters were assessed: gastric mucosal PGE2, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) or non-proteic sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) levels; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mucosal COX-2 mRNA; gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated animals; in vitro effects of lansoprazole (1-300 µmol/L) on the oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) induced by copper sulphate. RESULTS: All NSAIDs elicited mucosal necrotic lesions which were associated with neutrophil infiltration and reduction of PGE2 levels. Increments of MPO and MDA contents, as well as a decrease in GSH levels were detected in the gastric mucosa of indomethacin- or piroxicam-treated animals. Indomethacin enhanced mucosal cyclooxygenase-2 expression, while not affecting cyclooxygenase-1. At the oral dose of 18 µmol/kg lansoprazole partly counteracted diclofenac-induced mucosal damage, whereas at 90 µmol/kg it markedly prevented injuries evoked by all test NSAIDs. Lansoprazole at 90 µmol/kg reversed also the effects of NSAIDs on MPO, MDA and GSH mucosal contents, without interfering with the decrease in PGE2 levels or indomethacin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. However, both lansoprazole doses markedly inhibited acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. Lansoprazole concentration-dependently reduced the oxidation of LDLs in vitro. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, besides the inhibition of acid secretion, lansoprazole protection against NSAID

  17. Preventive effects of lansoprazole and famotidine on gastric mucosal injury induced by low-dose aspirin in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Masafumi; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Kodaira, Chise; Yamade, Mihoko; Uotani, Takahiro; Shirai, Naohito; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Tanaka, Tatsuo; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Hishida, Akira; Furuta, Takahisa

    2011-07-01

    The preventive effects of lansoprazole and famotidine on low-dose aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in relation to gastric acidity were compared in healthy Japanese volunteers. Fifteen Helicobacter pylori-negative volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes were randomly administered aspirin 100 mg, aspirin plus famotidine 20 mg twice daily, or aspirin plus lansoprazole 15 mg once daily for 7 days each in a crossover fashion. Gastroscopy for the evaluation of mucosal injury based on modified Lanza score (MLS) and 24-hour intragastric pH monitoring were performed on day 7 of each regimen. Aspirin induced gastric mucosal injury (median MLS = 3). Lansoprazole significantly decreased MLS to 0, which was significantly lower than that by famotidine (MLS = 1) (P lansoprazole regimen were significantly higher than those with famotidine (P lansoprazole appeared to be more protective than famotidine against low-dose aspirin-induced mucosal injury but a larger well-controlled study is necessary to establish a definitive clinical benefit.

  18. Helicobacter pylori Hp(2-20) promotes migration and proliferation of gastric epithelial cells by interacting with formyl peptide receptors in vitro and accelerates gastric mucosal healing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paulis, Amato; Prevete, Nella; Rossi, Francesca W; Rivellese, Felice; Salerno, Fiamma; Delfino, Gabriele; Liccardo, Bianca; Avilla, Elvira; Montuori, Nunzia; Mascolo, Massimo; Staibano, Stefania; Melillo, Rosa Marina; D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Ricci, Vittorio; Romano, Marco; Marone, Gianni

    2009-09-15

    Helicobacter pylori-derived peptide RpL1 aa 2-20 (Hp(2-20)) in addition to its antimicrobial action exerts several immunomodulatory effects in eukaryotic cells by interacting with formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). It has recently been shown that activation of FPRs facilitates intestinal epithelial cell restitution. We investigated whether Hp(2-20) induces healing of injured gastric mucosa and assessed the mechanisms underlying any such effect. We investigated the expression of FPRs in two gastric epithelial cell lines (MKN-28 and AGS) at mRNA and protein level. To determine whether FPRs were functional we performed chemotaxis experiments and proliferation assays and studied the Hp(2-20)-activated downstream signaling pathway. The effect of Hp(2-20) on mucosal healing was evaluated in rats after indomethacin-induced injury. Here we show that: (1) FPRs were expressed in both cell lines; (2) Hp(2-20) stimulated migration and proliferation of gastric epithelial cells; (3) this effect was specifically mediated by formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) and FPRL2 and was associated with activation of FPR-related downstream signaling pathways; (4) Hp(2-20) up-regulated the expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor; and (5) Hp(2-20) accelerated healing of rat gastric mucosa after injury brought about by indomethacin at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. In conclusion, by interacting with FRPL1 and FPRL2, H. pylori-derived Hp(2-20) induces cell migration and proliferation, as well as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby promoting gastric mucosal healing. This study provides further evidence of the complexity of the relationship between H. pylori and human gastric mucosa, and it suggests that a bacterial product may be used to heal gastric mucosal injury.

  19. Mechanisms of Selective Induction of Gastric Mucosal Eicosanoids in Response to Potentially Noxious Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-30

    gastric mucosa by ethanol, a consequence of the removal of the celiac -mediated (protective) effect. Mast Cells and Nerves As is Illustrated in...is also necessary to thank the members of the Digestive Diseases Division, Department of Medicine. Dr. Andre Dubois was the person who initially...involves signals from sensory endings in the intestinal mucosa which travel to celiac and mesenteric ganglia which, via efferent fibers to the

  20. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Demir, Halit; Karakaya, Cengiz; Ozbek, Hanefi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of acute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions and the effect of Nigella sativa L oil (NS) and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) in an exper-imental model. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were assigned into 4 groups. Control group was given physiologic saline orally (10 mL/kg body weight) as the vehicle (gavage); ethanol group was administrated 1 mL (per rat) absolute alcohol by gavage; the third and fourth groups were given NS (10 mL/kg body weight) and TQ (10 mg/kg body weight p.o) respectively 1 h prior to alcohol intake. One hour after ethanol administration, stomach tissues were excised for macroscopic examination and biochemical analysis. RESULTS: NS and TQ could protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of absolute alcohol and promote ulcer healing as evidenced from the ulcer index (UI) values. NS prevented alcohol-induced increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation. NS also increased gastric glutathione content (GSH), enzymatic activities of gastric superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Likewise, TQ protected against the ulcerating effect of alcohol and mitigated most of the biochemical adverse effects induced by alcohol in gastric mucosa, but to a lesser extent than NS. Neither NS nor TQ affected catalase activity in gastric tissue. CONCLUSION: Both NS and TQ, particularly NS can partly protect gastric mucosa from acute alcohol-induced mucosal injury, and these gastroprotective effects might be induced, at least partly by their radical scavenging activity. PMID:16425361

  1. A Case of Segmental Arterial Mediolysis Presenting as Mucosal Gastric Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Sakuraba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM has been increasingly recognized as arteriopathy and there are some case reports about SAM, it is still very rare. It is characterized clinically by aneurysm, dissection, stenosis, and occlusion within splanchnic arterial branches, causing intra-abdominal hemorrhage or bowel ischemia. Mortality is as high as 50% in acute events. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old man was referred to our hospital with hematemesis. Gastroscopy revealed a submucosal-like tumor on the posterior wall of gastric angle with ulceration. Computed tomography indicated a tumor measuring 65×50 mm in the stomach, which was suspected to have invaded into the pancreas. Significant hematemesis recurred; the patient developed shock and underwent emergency distal gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, and splenectomy. The pathology and the clinical course were compatible with SAM splenic artery rupture causing retroperitoneal hemorrhage that penetrated into the stomach. After that surgery, aneurysm of common hepatic artery ruptured and coil embolization was performed. Conclusion. SAM is an important cause of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal hemorrhage in patients without underlying disease. SAM typically presents as intra-abdominal hemorrhage, but, in this case, the retroperitoneal hemorrhage penetrated into the stomach and it looked like a submucosal tumor.

  2. Eosinophils express muscarinic receptors and corticotropin-releasing factor to disrupt the mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Persborn, Mats; Jönsson, Maria; Wang, Arthur; Phan, Van; Lampinen, Maria; Vicario, Maria; Santos, Javier; Sherman, Philip M; Carlson, Marie; Ericson, Ann-Charlott; McKay, Derek M; Söderholm, Johan D

    2011-05-01

    Altered intestinal barrier function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) in genetic, functional, and epidemiological studies. Mast cells and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulate the mucosal barrier in human colon. Because eosinophils are often increased in colon tissues of patients with UC, we assessed interactions among mast cells, CRF, and eosinophils in the mucosal barrier of these patients. Transmucosal fluxes of protein antigens (horseradish peroxidase) and paracellular markers ((51)Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000) were studied in noninflamed, colonic mucosal biopsy samples collected from 26 patients with UC and 53 healthy volunteers (controls); samples were mounted in Ussing chambers. We also performed fluorescence and electron microscopy of human tissue samples, assessed isolated eosinophils, and performed mechanistic studies using in vitro cocultured eosinophils (15HL-60), mast cells (HMC-1), and a colonic epithelial cell line (T84). Colon tissues from patients with UC had significant increases in permeability to protein antigens compared with controls. Permeability was blocked by atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), α-helical CRF(9-41) (a CRF receptor antagonist), and lodoxamide (a mast-cell stabilizer). Eosinophils were increased in number in UC tissues (compared with controls), expressed the most M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors of any mucosal cell type, and had immunoreactivity to CRF. In coculture studies, carbachol activation of eosinophils caused production of CRF and activation of mast cells, which increased permeability of T84 epithelial cells to macromolecules. We identified a neuroimmune intercellular circuit (from cholinergic nerves, via eosinophils to mast cells) that mediates colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction in patients with UC. This circuit might exacerbate mucosal inflammation. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulating Drug Release from Gastric-Floating Microcapsules through Spray-Coating Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoyang Nicholas; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Floating dosage forms with prolonged gastric residence time have garnered much interest in the field of oral delivery. However, studies had shown that slow and incomplete release of hydrophobic drugs during gastric residence period would reduce drug absorption and cause drug wastage. Herein, a spray-coated floating microcapsule system was developed to encapsulate fenofibrate and piroxicam, as model hydrophobic drugs, into the coating layers with the aim of enhancing and tuning drug release rates. Incorporating fenofibrate into rubbery poly(caprolactone) (PCL) coating layer resulted in a complete and sustained release for up to 8 h, with outermost non-drug-holding PCL coating layer serving as a rate-controlling membrane. To realize a multidrug-loaded system, both hydrophilic metformin HCl and hydrophobic fenofibrate were simultaneously incorporated into these spray-coated microcapsules, with metformin HCl and fenofibrate localized within the hollow cavity of the capsule and coating layer, respectively. Both drugs were observed to be completely released from these coated microcapsules in a sustained manner. Through specific tailoring of coating polymers and their configurations, piroxicam loaded in both the outer polyethylene glycol and inner PCL coating layers was released in a double-profile manner (i.e. an immediate burst release as the loading dose, followed by a sustained release as the maintenance dose). The fabricated microcapsules exhibited excellent buoyancy in simulated gastric fluid, and provided controlled and sustained release, thus revealing its potential as a rate-controlled oral drug delivery system. PMID:25470374

  4. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated......, implying that inhibition of fat absorption modifies determinants of gastric emptying of a meal. Orlistat administered similar to its use in obesity treatment accelerates gastric emptying of a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load and profoundly attenuates release of GIP without appreciably altering......), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and insulin. There was no peptide YY (PYY) response. Area under the curve of gastric emptying was positively correlated with integrated secretion of GIP (r=0.786) in orlistat and was negatively correlated with integrated plasma response of GLP-1 (r=-0.75) in control experiments...

  5. Unpolarized Release of Vaccinia Virus and HIV Antigen by Colchicine Treatment Enhances Intranasal HIV Antigen Expression and Mucosal Humoral Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jingyi; Bao, Rong; Chen, Yaoqing; Zhou, Dihan; He, Benxia; Zhong, Maohua; Li, Yaoming; Liu, Fang; Li, Qiaoli; Yang, Yi; Han, Chen; Sun, Ying; Cao, Yuan; Yan, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol) in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers) and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:21935396

  6. Unpolarized release of vaccinia virus and HIV antigen by colchicine treatment enhances intranasal HIV antigen expression and mucosal humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies.

  7. Persistent Helicobacter pylori specific Th17 responses in patients with past H. pylori infection are associated with elevated gastric mucosal IL-1β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Serelli-Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ongoing Helicobacter pylori (HP infection triggers a chronic active gastritis. Eradicating HP reduces gastric inflammation, but does not eliminate it. We sought to characterize this persistent gastritis, and demonstrate the persistence of HP-specific Th17 responses in individuals previously infected with HP but who no longer had evidence of ongoing infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study subjects were divided into 3 groups 55 individuals had active HP infection (group A, 41 were diagnosed with previous HP infection (group P, and 59 were naïve to HP (group N. Blood and gastric tissue were obtained with written informed consent from all subjects, and immune responses were evaluated using flow cytometry, semi-quantitative real time PCR, immunofluorescent staining, ELISA, and multiplex cytometric bead array for cytokine quantification. Elevated IL-17A responses were observed in patients from group A compared to group N. Interestingly, IL-17A responses remained persistently elevated in the blood and gastric mucosa of individuals from group P, despite the absence of ongoing HP infection. Using purified CD4(+ T cells as effectors and antibodies that blocked antigen presentation by MHC Class II, we showed that these persistent IL-17A responses were mediated primarily by HP-specific Th17 cells, rather than other immune cells that have also been described to secrete IL-17A. Gastric mucosal IL-1β levels were also persistently elevated in group P, and neutralisation of IL-1β reduced the HP-specific IL-17A response of purified CD4(+ T cells to autologous HP-pulsed antigen presenting cells in vitro, suggesting a functional association between IL-1β and the persistent Th17 response in group P patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite lack of ongoing HP infection, HP-specific Th17 cells persist in the blood and gastric mucosa of individuals with past HP infection. We speculate that this persistent inflammation might contribute to

  8. Mucosal injury and γ-irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and γ-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. γ-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment

  9. Gastroprotective Activity of Ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) Amino]benzoate against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulcer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Shakir, Raied Mustafa; Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Norazit, Anwar; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Background The study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic, antioxidant and gastro-protective effect of ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylid ene)amino] benzoate (ETHAB) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of ETHAB was assessed using a MTT cleavage assay on a WRL68 cell line, while its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. In the anti-ulcer study, rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 and group 2 received 10% Tween 20 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg Omeprazole. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received ETHAB at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. After an hour, group 1 received the vehicle. Groups 2–6 received absolute ethanol to induce gastric mucosal lesions. In the WRL68 cell line, an IC50 of more than 100 µg/mL was observed. ETHAB results showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH, FRAP, nitric oxide and metal chelating assays. There was no acute toxicity even at the highest dosage (1000 mg/kg). Microscopy showed that rats pretreated with ETHAB revealed protection of gastric mucosa as ascertained by significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), pH level, mucus secretion, reduced gastric lesions, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and remarkable flattened gastric mucosa. Histologically, pretreatment with ETHAB resulted in comparatively better gastric protection, due to reduction of submucosal edema with leucocyte infiltration. PAS staining showed increased intensity in uptake of Alcian blue. In terms of immunohistochemistry, ETHAB showed down-expression of Bax proteins and over-expression of Hsp70 proteins. Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of ETHAB may be attributed to antioxidant activity, increased gastric wall mucus, pH level of gastric contents, SOD activity, decrease in MDA level, ulcer area, flattening of gastric mucosa, reduction of edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer, increased PAS staining, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and suppressed expression of Bax. Key words

  10. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and mast cells in the regulation of mucosal barrier function in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Söderholm, Johan D

    2009-05-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an important neuro-endocrine mediator of the stress response. Local effects of CRH in the intestinal mucosa have become evident in recent years. We showed that CRH activates CRH receptor subtypes R1 and R2 on subepithelial mast cells, thereby inducing increased transcellular uptake of protein antigens in human colonic biopsies in Ussing chambers. Ongoing studies also implicate local cholinergic signaling in regulation of macromolecular permeability in the human colon. Since increased uptake of antigenic molecules is associated with mucosal inflammation, our findings may have implications for understanding stress-related intestinal disorders.

  11. Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori vacA increase markedly gastric mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in gastritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Sanei, Mohammad Hosein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Taghikhani, Afshin; Salimzadeh, Loghman; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Bagheri, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main cause of gastric inflammation. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) suppress the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells and mediate immunologic tolerance. TGF-β1 was shown to be secreted in a subset of Treg cells known as 'Th3 cells'. These cells have not been sufficiently studied in context to H. pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric mucosa. In this study we therefore, aimed to investigate the expression of TGF-β1 in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, to examine the relationship between it and histopathologic findings and to compare it with virulence factors. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 48 H. pylori-infected patients and 38 H. pylori-negative patients with gastritis. Mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time PCR. Presence of vacA, cagA, iceA, babA2 and oipA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. TGF-β1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori-uninfected patients. There was association between virulence factors and TGF-β1 mRNA expression. TGF-β1 mRNA expression in mucosa was significantly higher in patients with vacA s1 and s1m1. TGF-β1 may play an important role in the inflammatory response and promote the chronic and persistent inflammatory changes in the gastric. This may ultimately influence the outcome of H. pylori-associated diseases that arise within the context of gastritis and vacA may suffice to induce expression of TGF-β1 mRNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acetylsalicylic acid-tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane reduces colon mucosal damage without causing gastric side effects in a rat model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Gabriella; Ugocsai, Melinda; Hartmann, Petra; Lajkó, Norbert; Molnár, Réka; Szűcs, Szilárd; Jász, Dávid Kurszán; Érces, Dániel; Ghyczy, Miklós; Tóth, Gábor; Boros, Mihály

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a novel compound from acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris) precursors with ASA-like anti-inflammatory efficacy and reduced the mucosa-damaging side-effects. Our aim was to examine local and remote consequences of ASA-Tris administration in 2-,4-,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis as compared to ASA or mesalamine (5-aminosalicylate) treatment. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to five groups (n = 6, each), and TNBS enemas were performed. Group 1 was the negative control; group 2 was the untreated colitis group. 12 hour after colitis induction repeated doses of ASA, ASA-Tris (both 0.55 mmol/kg) and mesalamine (0.77 mmol/kg) were given 3 times daily for 3 days to groups 3-5. On day 3 of colitis, the in vivo histology of the colon and stomach was investigated. Tissue xanthine-oxidoreductase, myeloperoxidase, nitrite/nitrate changes, and circulating TNF-alpha levels were measured. In addition, liver mitochondria were examined with high-resolution respirometry to analyze alterations in the electron transport chain. TNBS enema significantly elevated inflammatory enzyme activities, NO production, TNF-alpha concentration, and induced morphological damage in the colon. ASA-treatment reduced the inflammatory marker levels and mucosal injury in the colon, but gastric tissue damage was present. ASA-Tris- and mesalamine-treatments significantly reduced the cytokine levels, inflammatory enzyme activities, and colonic mucosal damage without inducing gastric injury. Also, ASA significantly reduced the Complex IV-linked respiration of liver mitochondria, which was not observed after ASA-Tris-treatment. As compared to ASA, ASA-Tris conjugation provides significant protection against the colonic injury and cytokine-mediated progression of inflammatory events in experimental colitis without influencing the gastric epithelial structure.

  13. Antidiabetic and antiulcer effects of extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in mild diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Aditi; Bhawani, G; Agarwal, P K; Goel, Shalini; Singh, A; Goel, R K

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes has been reported to increase propensity to peptic ulceration through its effect both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors. Seeds of Eugenia jambolana (EJ) have been reported to have both antidiabetic as well as ulcer protective effects. The present study evaluates the antidiabetic effects of ethanolic extract of dried seed kernel of Eugenia jambolana (EJE) and its comparative effect on gastric ulceration and acid-pepsin secretion with standard antisecretory FL-blocker. Ranitidine and antidiabetic glibenclamide with a premise that Eugenia jambolana may show better ulcer healing effects by promoting defensive or reducing offensive mucosal factors in mild diabetes (MD) rats. MD was produced in adult rats by administration of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, ip). EJE was given orally in the doses of 100-400 mg/kg for 10 days and in the dose of 200 mg/kg for 30 days respectively to study its dose- and time-dependent effects on various diabetic parameters like blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, insulin level and glycosylated hemoglobin. For ulcer protective and gastric secretion studies, EJE (200 mg/kg) was given orally for 10 days against 2 h cold restraint stress (CRS)-, 4 h pylorus ligation (PL), aspirin (ASP, 200 mg/kg, 4 h)--and 95% ethanol (EtOH, 1 ml/200 g, 1 h)-induced gastric ulcers and offensive acid-pepsin secretion after 4 h PL with co-occurring MD in rats. EJE showed dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose level in MD rats. Blood glucose level remained stable in mild diabetic rats from 3rd day onwards after streptozotocin administration (taken as 1st day for treatment) and EJE (200 mg/kg) showed anti-hyperglycemic effect on 10th day of its administration. Further, EJE in the above dose also decreased cholesterol level with little or no effect on triglycerides level and reversed the decrease and increase in insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin level near to the normal level as observed alter 30 days treatment in MD rats. MD rats

  14. Gastric thumbprinting: diffuse gastric wall mucosal and submucosal thickening in infants with ductal-dependent cyanotic congenital heart disease maintained on long-term prostaglandin therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Aparna; Berdon, Walter E.; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie; Brudnicki, Adele; LeQuesne, Gary; Hayes, Constance

    2002-01-01

    Seven infants with ductal dependent cyanotic congenital heart disease are reported. All were on prostaglandin E1 therapy to maintain ductus patency. All showed chest radiographic evidence of multiple masses indenting the stomach lumen (gastric thumbprinting). Other than feeding intolerance in two patients, the findings were incidental and disappeared with cessation of PGE1 therapy. ''Gastric thumbprinting'' appears to be a more common consequence of PGE1 therapy than actual obstructing antral masses (antral foveolar hyperplasia). (orig.)

  15. Gastric thumbprinting: diffuse gastric wall mucosal and submucosal thickening in infants with ductal-dependent cyanotic congenital heart disease maintained on long-term prostaglandin therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Aparna [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Berdon, Walter E.; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie [Children' s Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Brudnicki, Adele [Westchester County Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Valhalla, NY (United States); LeQuesne, Gary [Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Ultrasound, North Adelaide, SA (Australia); Hayes, Constance [Children' s Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Seven infants with ductal dependent cyanotic congenital heart disease are reported. All were on prostaglandin E1 therapy to maintain ductus patency. All showed chest radiographic evidence of multiple masses indenting the stomach lumen (gastric thumbprinting). Other than feeding intolerance in two patients, the findings were incidental and disappeared with cessation of PGE1 therapy. ''Gastric thumbprinting'' appears to be a more common consequence of PGE1 therapy than actual obstructing antral masses (antral foveolar hyperplasia). (orig.)

  16. Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.F.; Woisard, K.K.; Cooper, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction can be a devastating complication of invasion of the gastric wall and vessels by fungi colonizing the gastric mucosa. Even in the presence of extensive transmural necrosis, however, the radiographs do not necessarily show evidence of gastric mucosal abnormality. Instead, plain films and positive contrast studies may erroneously suggest a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. Ancillary evidence of a devitalized viscus in a baby who appears to have complete gastric outlet obstruction should suggest the diagnosis of gastric infarction. (orig.)

  17. Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.F.; Woisard, K.K.; Cooper, G.L.

    1988-02-01

    Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction can be a devastating complication of invasion of the gastric wall and vessels by fungi colonizing the gastric mucosa. Even in the presence of extensive transmural necrosis, however, the radiographs do not necessarily show evidence of gastric mucosal abnormality. Instead, plain films and positive contrast studies may erroneously suggest a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. Ancillary evidence of a devitalized viscus in a baby who appears to have complete gastric outlet obstruction should suggest the diagnosis of gastric infarction.

  18. Binding of Helocobacter pyori to Human Gastric Mucose: Identification and Characterization of a Lewis b Bingind Protein

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biegel, Susan

    1995-01-01

    .... With the isolation of a Gram-negative, spiral shaped bacterium from human gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori, came the answers to many questions concerning peptic ulcer disease, including this one. Recently...

  19. Sevoflurane and propofol anaesthesia differentially modulate the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on microcirculatory gastric mucosal oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, L. A.; Schwartges, I.; Schober, P.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Fournell, A.; Picker, O.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adequate gastrointestinal mucosal oxygenation is regarded to be crucial in the prevention and therapy of critical illness. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are used for perioperative haemodynamic support. However, their per se effects on gastromucosal haemoglobin oxygenation (mu HbO(2))

  20. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  1. Successful application of laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) for a lateral-spreading mucosal gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunobe, Souya; Hiki, Naoki; Gotoda, Takuji; Murao, Takahisa; Haruma, Ken; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hirai, Toshihiro; Tanimura, Shinya; Sano, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2012-07-01

    In the current era of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer, which carries a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis, local resection of the stomach remains an option for these lesions. This is particularly so for a large intramucosal lesion or a lesion with a strong ulcer scar, for which ESD becomes a difficult option. Here, we describe a case of lateral-spreading intramucosal gastric cancer of 6-cm diameter located at the fornix of the stomach, which was successfully treated by laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) because of the expected risk of complications during ESD. In the LECS procedure, the resection margin was appropriately determined by the endoscopic evaluation in detail and by the ESD technique. If early gastric cancer fits the criteria for endoscopic resection but would present difficulty if performing ESD, this is a good indication for the LECS procedure.

  2. Endoscopic and histological gastric lesions in children with celiac disease: mucosal involvement is not only confined to the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenna, Raffaella; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Tiberti, Claudio; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Petrarca, Laura; Mennini, Maurizio; Lucantoni, Federica; Luparia, Rita Pia Lara; Bonamico, Margherita

    2012-12-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis (LG) has been reported in patients with celiac disease (CD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate gastric mucosa involvement in celiac children and gastroenterological controls (GC). In a retrospective study on 226 patients with CD (82  M; median age: 5.7 years) at diagnosis and 154 GC (66  M; median age: 7.4 years), the evaluation of gastric and duodenal mucosa was performed. CD was diagnosed according to the North America Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition criteria. Gastric lesions were classified according to Updated Sydney System. Anti-gastric parietal cell antibodies (GPCA) were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 21.2% and 7% of patients with CD showed chronic superficial gastritis (CSG) and LG, respectively. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection was found in 6 (2.7%) children with CD (66.7% had CSG, 16.7% LG, and 16.7% interstitial gastritis). CSG was present in 21.4% of controls. No control subject showed LG. Hp infection was found in 24 (15.6%) children with GC (91.7% had CSG). Among patients with CSG, Hp infection was more frequent in controls than in celiac children (P Gastritis is a common finding in children with CD and adolescents. In celiac subjects, CSG is the most frequently detected. Our data suggest the hypothesis that LG may be related to a longer exposure to gluten. The presence of GPCA may suggest the presence of an underlying autoimmune process.

  3. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... healthy volunteers. Bicarbonate and PGE2 were measured in the gastroduodenal effluents by back-titration and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Vagal stimulation and duodenal luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 20 ml; 5 min) increased gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion (p ... markedly inhibited both basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, and this reduction was similar to the degree of cyclooxygenase inhibition estimated by the luminal release of PGE2 (p

  4. Enteric glia promote intestinal mucosal healing via activation of focal adhesion kinase and release of proEGF

    OpenAIRE

    Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Chevalier, Julien; Mahé, Maxime M.; Wedel, Thilo; Urvil, Petri; Derkinderen, Pascal; Savidge, Tor; Neunlist, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Wound healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa is essential for the maintenance of gut homeostasis and integrity. Enteric glial cells play a major role in regulating intestinal barrier function, but their role in mucosal barrier repair remains unknown. The impact of conditional ablation of enteric glia on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mucosal damage and on healing of diclofenac-induced mucosal ulcerations was evaluated in vivo in GFAP-HSVtk transgenic mice. A mechanically induced model o...

  5. Histologic Evaluation of Gastric Biopsies According to Sydney Classification and Comparison of Chronic Gastritis Mucosal Histological Findings by Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Ugras

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the materials of gastric biopsies in cases diagnosed as chronic gastritis according to the Sydney system and to compare the parameters according to age groups. The Sydney system of gastritis has five main histological features of changes in gastric mucosa graded (chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori density In our study, we evaluated 63 patients under 31 years, 177 patients between the ages of 31-60 and 187 patients over 61 years, who were diagnosed as having chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy. In 31-60 age group, the localization of Helicobacter pylori was often the antrum. In contrast, in the under 31 years of age group, Helicobacter pylori infection were found to be in the form of the distribution pangastrit. Acute inflammation in the under31 years group was found to be significantly higher than other age groups. In over 61years group, high incidence of atrophy was found. In our study, we detected the rate in atrophy and intestinal metaplasia with Helicobacter pylori is independently increased with age. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(3.000: 173-178

  6. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J

    2004-01-01

    and gastroduodenal motility after a meal. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Each subject ingested 40 mg isosorbide dinitrate orally as a sustained-release formulation or oral placebo, in random order. Gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility were...... measured using scintigraphic and manometric techniques. Isosorbide dinitrate did not change the area under the curve of gastric retention versus time, and did not influence the frequency of antral contractions as assessed at 15-min intervals or the integrated duodenal motility index, as recorded over...... consecutive 15-min periods. A 40 mg single dose of sustained-released isosorbide dinitrate does not seem to alter gastric emptying or gastroduodenal motility after a meal....

  7. Oral bioavailability, efficacy and gastric tolerability of P2026, a novel nitric oxide-releasing diclofenac in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Asif R; Karwa, Manoj; Pamidiboina, Venu; Deshattiwar, Jagannath J; Deshmukh, Nitin J; Gaikwad, Parikshit P; Mali, Sunil V; Desai, Dattatraya C; Dhiman, Mini; Thanga Mariappan, T; Sharma, Somesh D; Satyam, Apparao; Nemmani, Kumar V S

    2010-08-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate, P2026 [(2-((2-(nitrooxy)ethyl)disulfanyl)ethyl 2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)phenyl)acetate)], a novel NO (nitric oxide) donor prodrug of diclofenac for its ability to release NO and diclofenac, and whether P2026 provides advantage of improved activity/gastric tolerability over diclofenac. Oral bioavailability of P2026 was estimated from plasma concentration of diclofenac and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in three different models of inflammation: acute (carrageenan-induced paw oedema), chronic (adjuvant-induced arthritis), and systemic (lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock). Gastric tolerability was evaluated from compound's propensity to cause gastric ulcers. P2026 exhibited dose-dependent diclofenac and NOx release. Similar to diclofenac, P2026 showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic model, whereas it improved activity in systemic model. Both diclofenac and P2026 inhibited gastric prostaglandin, but only diclofenac produced dose-dependent haemorrhagic ulcers. Thus, the results suggest that coupling of NO and diclofenac contribute to improved gastric tolerability while retaining the anti-inflammatory properties of diclofenac.

  8. Action of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M V; Leffmann, C; Eysselein, V E; Calden, H; Goebell, H

    1987-12-01

    The action of intragastric ethanol in various concentrations (1.4%-40% vol/vol) and of beer, white wine, cognac, and whisky on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin was studied in healthy humans. Ethanol concentrations of 1.4% and 4% (vol/vol), but not higher, significantly (p less than 0.05) increased gastric acid secretion to 23% and 22%, respectively, of incremental maximal acid output [i.e., observed response to pentagastrin (6 micrograms/kg s.c.) minus basal acid output]. The 1-h incremental gastric acid responses to beer and wine were 96% and 61%, respectively, of incremental maximal acid output. Neither cognac nor whisky had any stimulatory effect. The 1-h incremental gastric acid response to an 8% peptone meal was 40% of incremental maximal acid output, and to peptone plus white wine 77%. Plasma gastrin levels were not altered by ethanol, cognac, and whisky. The 1-h integrated plasma gastrin responses to beer and white wine were 119% and 77%, respectively, of the response to the peptone meal. We conclude that (a) the action of pure ethanol on gastric acid secretion is related to its concentration: concentrations of 1.4% and 4% are moderate stimulants; concentrations of 5%-40% have no effect, or rather an inhibitory effect; (b) beer and white wine, but not whisky and cognac, are potent stimulants of gastric acid secretion; (c) the stimulatory mechanism of low ethanol concentrations is unknown; and (d) nonalcoholic constituents of beer and wine are most likely responsible for the stimulatory actions of both beverages on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin.

  9. Predicting the Progress of Caustic Injury to Complicated Gastric Outlet Obstruction and Esophageal Stricture, Using Modified Endoscopic Mucosal Injury Grading Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lung-Sheng; Tai, Wei-Chen; Hu, Ming-Luen; Wu, Keng-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Severe caustic injury to the gastrointestinal tract carries a high risk of luminal strictures. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify predicting factors for progress of caustic injury to gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and esophageal strictures (ES), using modified endoscopic mucosal injury grading scale. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with caustic injuries to the gastrointestinal tract in our hospital in the past 7 years. We enrolled 108 patients (49 male, 59 female, mean age 50.1 years, range 18–86) after applying strict exclusion criteria. All patients received early upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 hours of ingestion. Grade III stomach injuries were found in 58 patients (53.7%); 43 (39.8%) esophageal, and 13 (12%) duodenal. Of the 108 patients, 10 (9.3%) died during the acute stage. Age over 60 years (OR 4.725, P = 0.029) was an independent risk factor of mortality for patients after corrosive injury. Among the 98 survivors, 36 developed luminal strictures (37.1%): ES in 18 patients (18.6%), GOO in 7 (7.2%), and both ES and GOO in 11 (11.3%). Grade III esophageal (OR 3.079, P = 0.039) or stomach (OR 18.972, P = 0.007) injuries were independent risk factors for obstructions. Age ≥60 years was the independent risk factor for mortality after corrosive injury of GI tract. Grade III injury of esophagus was the independent risk factor for development of ES. Grade III injury of stomach was the independent risk factor for development of GOO. PMID:25162035

  10. Distal gastrectomy in pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with accelerated gastric emptying, enhanced postprandial release of GLP-1, and improved insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmuth, Stefan; Wewalka, Marlene; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    resistance (HOMA-IR) and oral glucose insulin sensitivity were calculated from glucose and insulin concentrations. RESULTS: Patients with Whipple procedure as compared to PPPD had accelerated gastric emptying (p = 0.01) which correlated with early (0-30 min) integrated GLP-1 (AUC30; r (2) = 0.61; p = 0......OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between gastric emptying, postprandial GLP-1 and insulin sensitivity after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). BACKGROUND: Abnormal glucose regulation is highly prevalent in patients with pancreatic neoplasm and resolves in some after PD......, the cause of which is unclear. The procedure is carried out with pylorus preservation (PPPD) or with distal gastrectomy (Whipple procedure). Accelerated gastric emptying and ensuing enhanced release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) conceivably play a role in glucose metabolism after PD. It was the purpose...

  11. A new method for measurement of the electrical potential difference across the stomach wall. Clinical evaluation of the gastric mucosal integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Andersen, J R; Krag, E

    1987-01-01

    PD, the electrical potential difference across the gastric mucosa, is a variable used frequently in experimental studies. Existing methods for PD measurements are, however, unstable, and variations in the pH of the gastric juice causes liquid junction potentials between gastric juice and the PD m...

  12. Release of prostaglandin E2 into gastric juice during stimulation of muscarinic- and gastrin receptors in dogs and in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Rask; Bukhave, K; Hovendal, C P

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the causal relationship, if any, between gastric PG formation and gastric acid output, the release of PGE2 into gastric juice has been studied in eight beagle dogs with a gastric fistula, using sustained half-maximal stimulation by bethanechol and pentagastrin, and in eight duodenal...... ulcer patients, using the combined sham feeding/pentagastrin test. Immunoreactive PGE2 was determined by a method validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and PGE2 values were normalized by expressing them as ng PGE2 released per meq H+ secreted. In the dogs "steady state" PGE2 output (0...... minutes significantly (p less than 0.01) higher (3.9-46 ng/meq H+) than in pentagastrin experiments (0.8-20 ng/meq H+). In humans the peak PGE2 output during sham feeding (3.4-41 ng/meq H+) was significantly (p less than 0.02) larger than following bolus stimulation (6/micrograms/kg) by pentagastrin (2...

  13. The Effects of Combined Adiponectin-Metformin on Glucose and Lipids Levels in Mice and Acute Toxicity and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity of Adiponectin Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alshawsh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted entirely by abdominal fat tissue. It exhibits various biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of metformin alone or in combination with adiponectin on blood glucose, TG (triglyceride, CHOL (Total cholesterol, LDL (Low density lipoprotein and HDL (High density lipoprotein levels in mice and also to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of adiponectin against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Three groups of mice were gavaged with 1% volume/body weight high fat-sucrose. Metformin at a dosage of 250 mg/kg was added to the feed and a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg adiponectin was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. Blood glucose was measured at one hour intervals for five hours. Blood concentrations of TG, CHOL, LDL and HDL were also measured at the end of the fifth hour of the experiment. On the other hand, four groups of adult healthy rats were i.p. injected with distilled water, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg adiponectin one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour the rats were sacrificed and the ulcer areas of the gastric walls were determined. Furthermore, an acute toxicity study has indicated no mortality with 5 mg/kg dose of adiponectin injected i.p in rats and no major clinical signs of toxicity were observed. The results indicate that the effect of a combination of metformin and adiponectin on blood glucose and HDL is quite effective. Histology of the gastric wall of negative control rats revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either omeprazole or adiponectin extract where there was marked gastric protection along with reduction or inhibition of edema and leucocytes infiltration. The results suggest that combination of metfomin and adiponectin give a promising antidiabetic

  14. Activated charcoal significantly reduces the amount of colchicine released from Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawahir, Shukry; Gawarammana, Indika; Dargan, Paul I; Abdulghni, Mahfoudh; Dawson, Andrew H

    2017-09-01

    Poisoning with Gloriosa superba, a plant containing colchicine, is common in Sri Lanka. This study was to estimate release of colchicine from 5 g of different parts of Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media, and examine the binding efficacy of activated charcoal (AC) to colchicine within this model. A USP dissolution apparatus-II was used to prepare samples for analysis of colchicine using HPLC. Cumulative colchicine release from tuber in gastric media at 120 minutes was significantly higher (2883 μg/g) than in intestinal media (1015 μg/g) (p colchicine concentration over 2 hours from tuber, leaves and trunk in gastric medium was 2883.15 ± 1295.63, 578.25 ± 366.26 and 345.60 ± 200.08 μg/g respectively and the release in intestinal media was 1014.75 ± 268.16, 347.40 ± 262.61 and 251.55 ± 285.72 μg/g respectively. Introduction of 50 g of AC into both media made colchicine undetectable (colchicine. The colchicine release and elapse time to achieve saturated, equilibrium dissolution mainly depends on physicochemical properties of plant part. Significant in vitro binding of colchicine to AC suggests that AC has a role in decontamination of patients presenting to hospital after ingestion of Gloriosa superba.

  15. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Ab. Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg.

  16. Antiulcer effects of aqueous extract and a fraction of phyllanthus embelic fruit on gastric acid secretion and mucosal defence factors in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Zaman, R.U.; Khan, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Phyllanthus emblica (Euphorbiaceae) fruit has been empirically used since centuries in folkloric medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders including the gastric ulcers. In the present study, anti-ulcerogenic properties of the fruit, its aqueous extract and a purified fraction were determined in albino rats. Aqueous extract of the fruit protected rats against gastric ulcers induced by indomethacin. Partition of the water extract yielded fractions for which anti-ulcerogenic activity evaluation studies were conducted to find out the most effective fraction. Thin layer chromatography yielded the most purified active fraction, which was found to exert anti-ulcerogenic activity in the chemically induced and stress-induced gastric ulcers in albino rats. In addition, effect of the purified fraction on gastric secretion volume, pH, acid output, ulcer index, mucus secretion and peptic activity revealed it to be the most potent anti-ulcer fraction with efficacy comparable to the reference drug, famotidine. It may be suggested that anti-ulcerogenic activities of P. emblica fruit, Its aqueous extract and the purified fraction could be due to elevation of gastric mucus secretion and inhibition of gastric acid secretion. (author)

  17. Changes in the gastric potential difference during chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrin, B; Højgaard, L; Mouridsen, H T

    1991-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are frequent side-effects of intravenous cancer chemotherapy. How these complications were related to the gastric mucosal function was investigated by measuring the gastric mucosal potential difference (PD). Eight patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy...

  18. Effects of histamine and activators of the cyclic AMP system on protein synthesis in and release of high molecular weight glycoproteins from isolated gastric non-parietal cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Heim, H. K.; Oestmann, A.; Sewing, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    1. Glycoprotein and protein synthesis in and release from pig isolated, enriched gastric mucous cells were measured by the incorporation of N-acetyl-[14C]-D-glucosamine and [3H]-L-leucine, respectively, into cellular and released acid precipitable material. 2. Histamine and activators of the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) system maximally stimulated total protein and glycoprotein synthesis in and release from the cells at concentrations of histamine (10 microM), forskolin (...

  19. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  20. Exaggerated release and preserved insulinotropic action of glucagon-like peptide-1 underlie insulin hypersecretion in glucose-tolerant individuals after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves glycaemic control in part by increasing postprandial insulin secretion through exaggerated glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 release. However, it is unknown whether islet cell responsiveness to i.v. glucose, non-glucose (arginine) and incretin hormones......, including GLP-1, is altered....

  1. Fast Dissolving Sublingual Films Containing Sumatriptan Alone and Combined with Methoclopramide: Evaluation in Vitro Drug Release and Mucosal Permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi, Mahdieh Rahmani, Hamed Ghavimi, Seyed Hassan Montazam, Saieede Soltani, Mitra Alami, Sara Salatin, Mitra Jelvehgari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ackground: Sumatriptan succinate is a 5-HT1 receptor agonist which is used in the treatment of migraine. It shows low bioavailability (15% due to high hepatic first pass metabolism. The present work intended to formulate mucoadhesive sublingual films of sumatriptan combined with metoclopramide and sumatriptan alone with the objective of improving the therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance, and bioavailability. Methods: The sublingual films were formulated by solvent casting technique using mucoadhesive polymer of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and propylene glycol as plasticizers. This study was also designed to evaluate the physicochemical and mucoadhesive characteristics of the films. The films were evaluated for their mechanical strength, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, swelling, in vitro residence time, in vitro release, in vitro bioadhesion, and in vivo mucoadhesion. Results: They showed good appearance and elasticity. The best drugs of polymer ratio were S3 (1:2 and SM2 (2.7:1:8. The film of S3 and SM2 showed 10.6 and 11.01 mg weight, 2.2 and 22.5 µm thickness, 300 folding endurance, 55.9 and 100% content uniformity, respectively. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC showed no stable sample of sumatriptan and metoclopramide in the drug loaded films and revealed amorphous form and transition of hydrate to anhydrous form for metoclopramide. The results showed that the films prepared were fast dissolving. The films (sumatriptan combined with metoclopramide and sumatriptan alone exhibited very good mucoadhesive properties and shorter retention time (15-30 s. Conclusion: The formulations were found to be suitable candidates for the development of sublingual films for therapeutic uses.

  2. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using 3 H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined

  3. Acute Gastric Necrosis Due to Gastric Outlet Obstruction Accompanied with Gastric Cancer and Trichophytobezoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dosang; Sung, Kiyoung

    2011-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to gastric outlet obstruction is a very rare condition, but it might be fatal if missed or if diagnosis is delayed. Our patient was a 73-year-old male complaining of abdominal pain, distension and dyspnea for 1 day. In plain radiography and computed tomography, a markedly distended stomach and decreased enhancement at the gastric wall were noted. He underwent explo-laparotomy, and near-total gastric mucosal necrosis accompanied by sludge from the soaked laver was noted. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed, and he recovered without sequelae. Final pathologic examination revealed advanced gastric cancer at the antrum with near-total gastric mucosal necrosis. PMID:22076225

  4. The gastric acid secretagogue gastrin-releasing peptide and the inhibitor oxyntomodulin do not exert their effect directly on the parietal cell in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that gastrin-releasing peptide (a neuropeptide found in rat oxyntic mucosa) and oxyntomodulin (a glucagon-containing peptide of mammalian gut) could directly affect the acid secretion of the parietal cells. We therefore studied their effect on gastric acid production...... in vitro by measuring [14C]-aminopyrine accumulation, a reliable index of H+ generation, in isolated rat parietal cells. However, neither gastrin-releasing peptide nor oxyntomodulin influenced basal acid secretion or histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Electron-microscopic studies of unstimulated...... and histamine-stimulated parietal cells confirmed that the cells retained the normal morphology of intracellular organelles and that the cells responded to physiological stimulation by marked expansion of the intracellular canaliculi....

  5. Mast cell gastritis: Children complaining of chronic abdominal pain with histologically normal gastric mucosal biopsies except for increase in mast cells, proposing a new entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourpak Zahra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells reside within the connective tissue of a variety of tissues and all vascularized organs. Since 1996, few studies have been performed on mast cell density in gastrointestinal biopsies, mainly in adult age group. We recently studied mast cell density in pediatric age group on rather larger number of cases in a referral children hospital. Mast cell density was 12.6 ± 0.87 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-81 in our study. Since we frequently encounter cases with rather normal gastric biopsies with no H.pylori, which mainly complain of chronic abdominal pain, we gathered those cases with mast cell density more than 30/0.25 mm2. from 895 gastric biopsies and wanted to study their clinical and endoscopic findings and propose a new entity. Methods Between April 2005 and May 2008, 895 children (2, were chosen and a questionnaire was filled for each patient including clinical, endoscopic and pathologic findings. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 13 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results Over a 3 year period of study, of 895 selected children, 86 patients fulfilled the entrance criteria. The major complaint of patients was recurrent abdominal pain. The mean mast cell density was 45.59 ± 13.81 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 30-93. Among our cases, about 67.4% (n = 58 had 30 to 49, 23.3% (n = 20 had 50 to 69, 8.1% (n = 7 had 70 to 89 and 1.2% (n = 1 had 93 mast cells/0.25 mm2 in their specimens Discussion In 29% of our cases, neither endoscopic nor pathologic change was detected and only increase in mast cell number was reported and in others endoscopic and histopathological findings were negligible except increase in mast cells. In updated Sydney system (classification and grading of gastritis, no term is introduced which is in concordance with this group but we think that increased density of mast cells in these cases should not be overlooked and it may contribute to clinical manifestations in some way. We hope that

  6. Ethyl nitrite is produced in the human stomach from dietary nitrate and ethanol, releasing nitric oxide at physiological pH: potential impact on gastric motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Gago, Bruno; Barbosa, Rui M; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Laranjinha, João

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide ((∙)NO), a ubiquitous molecule involved in a plethora of signaling pathways, is produced from dietary nitrate in the gut through the so-called nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. In the stomach, nitrite derived from dietary nitrate triggers a network of chemical reactions targeting endogenous and exogenous biomolecules, thereby producing new compounds with physiological activity. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether compounds with physiological relevance are produced in the stomach upon consumption of nitrate- and ethanol-rich foods. Human volunteers consumed a serving of lettuce (source of nitrate) and alcoholic beverages (source of ethanol). After 15 min, samples of the gastric headspace were collected and ethyl nitrite was identified by GC-MS. Wistar rats were used to study the impact of ethyl nitrite on gastric smooth muscle relaxation at physiological pH. Nitrogen oxides, produced from nitrite in the stomach, induce nitrosation of ethanol from alcoholic beverages in the human stomach yielding ethyl nitrite. Ethyl nitrite, a potent vasodilator, is produced in vivo upon the consumption of lettuce with either red wine or whisky. Moreover, at physiological pH, ethyl nitrite induces gastric smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-dependent pathway. Overall, these results suggest that ethyl nitrite is produced in the gastric lumen and releases (∙)NO at physiological pH, which ultimately may have an impact on gastric motility. Systemic effects may also be expected if ethyl nitrite diffuses through the gastric mucosa reaching blood vessels, therefore operating as a (∙)NO carrier throughout the body. These data pinpoint posttranslational modifications as an underappreciated mechanism for the production of novel molecules with physiological impact locally in the gut and highlight the notion that diet may fuel compounds with the potential to modulate gastrointestinal welfare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term follow-up of pepsinogen I/II ratio after eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients who underwent endoscopic mucosal resection for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su Youn; Jeon, Seong Woo; Lee, Hyun Seok; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Park, Haeyoon; Choi, Jin Woo

    2017-05-01

    Although the pepsinogen I/II (PGI/II) ratio after Helicobacter pylori eradication is recovered at short-term follow-up, long-term follow-up studies of PGI/II are rare. A total of 773 patients with gastric cancer who underwent endoscopic resection and pepsinogen and H. pylori tests were enrolled. H. pylori was eradicated in these patients. Endoscopic and pepsinogen tests were performed every year. A low PGI/II ratio was defined as ≤3. The PGI/II ratio was higher in non-infected patients (n=275, 4.99) than infected patients (n=498, 3.53). After H. pylori eradication, the PGI/II ratio increased to 5.81 and 5.63 after 1 and 2 years (each ppylori eradication group became similar to that of the H. pylori-negative group at 3 (4.48 vs. 4.34), 4 (4.88 vs. 4.34), and 5 years (4.89 vs. 4.23). The adjusted odds ratios for a lower PG I/II ratio in the non-eradication group compared to the eradication group were 4.78 (95% CI 2.15-10.67) after 1year and 8.13 (95% CI 2.56-25.83) after 2 years. After H. pylori eradication, the PGI/II ratio increased and was similar to that of H. pylori-negative controls for up to 5 years of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of release of bound anthocyanins and phenolic acids from carrot plant cell walls and model composites during simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, Anneline; Netzel, Gabriele; Netzel, Michael; Day, Li; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Separately, polyphenols and plant cell walls (PCW) are important contributors to the health benefits associated with fruits and vegetables. However, interactions with PCW which occur either during food preparation or mastication may affect bioaccessibility and hence bioavailability of polyphenols. Binding interactions between anthocyanins, phenolic acids (PAs) and PCW components, were evaluated using both a bacterial cellulose-pectin model system and a black carrot puree system. The majority of available polyphenols bound to PCW material with 60-70% of available anthocyanins and PAs respectively binding to black carrot puree PCW matter. Once bound, release of polyphenols using acidified methanol is low with only ∼20% of total anthocyanins to ∼30% of PAs being released. Less than 2% of bound polyphenol was released after in vitro gastric and small intestinal (S.I.) digestion for both the model system and the black carrot puree PCW matter. Confocal laser scanning microscopy shows localised binding of anthocyanins to PCW. Very similar patterns of binding for anthocyanins and PAs suggest that PAs form complexes with anthocyanins and polysaccharides. Time dependent changes in extractability with acidified methanol but not the total bound fraction suggests that initial non-specific deposition on cellulose surfaces is followed by rearrangement of the bound molecules. Minimal release of anthocyanins and PAs after simulated gastric and S.I. digestion indicates that polyphenols in fruits and vegetables which bind to the PCW will be transported to the colon where they would be expected to be released by the action of cell wall degrading bacteria.

  9. Nutrition and Gut Mucositis in Pediatric Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    . Unfortunately, effective treatment strategies against mucositis are not in general available. The overall aim of the present PhD was to study interactions between mucositis, inflammation and nutrition. We hypothesized that toxic reactions in the alimentary tract, induced by chemotherapy, followed by release...

  10. [X-ray endoscopic semiotics and diagnostic algorithm of radiation studies of preneoplastic gastric mucosa changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akberov, R F; Gorshkov, A N

    1997-01-01

    The X-ray endoscopic semiotics of precancerous gastric mucosal changes (epithelial dysplasia, intestinal epithelial rearrangement) was examined by the results of 1574 gastric examination. A diagnostic algorithm was developed for radiation studies in the diagnosis of the above pathology.

  11. A Possible Role for Gastroprotectives on Aspirin-Induced Gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastric ulcer is a discontinuity in the gastric mucosa that occurs due to imbalance between gastric mucosal protective factors and aggressive factors. The Aim of the present work was to test and compare the protective effects of an antisecretory H2 receptor blocker; ranitidine and other recently suggested ...

  12. Gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities using videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Antonietti, M; Houivet, E; Hachulla, E; Maunoury, V; Bienvenu, B; Viennot, S; Smail, A; Duhaut, P; Dupas, J-L; Dominique, S; Hatron, P-Y; Levesque, H; Benichou, J; Ducrotté, P

    2014-07-01

    To date, there are no large studies on videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Consequently, the prevalence and features of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in SSc have not been determined. To determine both prevalence and characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in unselected patients with SSc, using videocapsule endoscopy. To predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal abnormalities. Videocapsule endoscopy was performed on 50 patients with SSc. Prevalence of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities was 52%. Potentially bleeding vascular mucosal lesions were predominant, including: watermelon stomach (34.6%), gastric and/or small intestinal telangiectasia (26.9%) and gastric and/or small intestinal angiodysplasia (38.5%). SSc patients with gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions more often exhibited: limited cutaneous SSc (P = 0.06), digital ulcers (P = 0.05), higher score of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (P = 0.0009), anaemia (P = 0.02), lower levels of ferritin (P correlation between gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions and presence of severe extra-digestive vasculopathy (digital ulcers and higher nailfold videocapillaroscopy scores). This latter supports the theory that SSc-related diffuse vasculopathy is responsible for both cutaneous and digestive vascular lesions. Therefore, we suggest that nailfold videocapillaroscopy may be a helpful test for managing SSc patients. In fact, nailfold videocapillaroscopy score should be calculated routinely, as it may result in identification of SSc patients at higher risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  14. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  15. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  16. Mucin-mediated nanocarrier disassembly for triggered uptake of oligonucleotides as a delivery strategy for the potential treatment of mucosal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, A.; Olesen, M. J.; Fenton, R. A.; Kjems, J.; Howard, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work demonstrates gastric mucin-triggered nanocarrier disassembly for release of antisense oligonucleotides and consequent unassisted cellular entry as a novel oral delivery strategy. A fluorescence activation-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction and mucin-mediated disassembly of chitosan-based nanocarriers containing a 13-mer DNA oligonucleotide with a flanked locked RNA nucleic acid gapmer design. Gastric mucins were shown to trigger gapmer release from nanocarriers that was dependent on the interaction time, mucin concentration and N : P ratio with a maximal release at N : P 10. In contrast to siRNA, naked gapmers exhibited uptake into mucus producing HT-MTX mono-cultures and HT-MTX co-cultured with the carcinoma epithelial cell line Caco-2. Importantly, in vivo gapmer uptake was observed in epithelial tissue 30 min post-injection in murine intestinal loops. The findings present a mucosal design-based system tailored for local delivery of oligonucleotides that may maximize the effectiveness of gene silencing therapeutics within tumours at mucosal sites.This work demonstrates gastric mucin-triggered nanocarrier disassembly for release of antisense oligonucleotides and consequent unassisted cellular entry as a novel oral delivery strategy. A fluorescence activation-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction and mucin-mediated disassembly of chitosan-based nanocarriers containing a 13-mer DNA oligonucleotide with a flanked locked RNA nucleic acid gapmer design. Gastric mucins were shown to trigger gapmer release from nanocarriers that was dependent on the interaction time, mucin concentration and N : P ratio with a maximal release at N : P 10. In contrast to siRNA, naked gapmers exhibited uptake into mucus producing HT-MTX mono-cultures and HT-MTX co-cultured with the carcinoma epithelial cell line Caco-2. Importantly, in vivo gapmer uptake was observed in epithelial tissue 30 min post-injection in murine intestinal

  17. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A; Rune, S J

    1996-01-01

    , studies have been unable to demonstrate increased acidity in the duodenal bulb in patients with duodenal ulcer, and consequently more emphasis has been given to the mucosal protecting mechanisms. The existence of an active gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion creates a pH gradient from...... the luminal acid to near neutrality at the surface of the epithelial cells, thereby acting as an important mucosal defence mechanism. The regulation of bicarbonate secretion is a complex process related to motility and neural activity. Stimulation is by acid, PGE2, NO, VIP, cAMP, and mucosal protective agents....... Bicarbonate secretion is inhibited by atropine, muscarinic antagonists, alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, indomethacin, bile acids, tobacco smoking, and probably also by infection by Helicobacter pylori. Apart from mucus and bicarbonate, the mucosal defence is supported by a hydrophobic epithelial lining, rapid...

  18. Rapid glucocorticoid-induced activation of TRP and CB1 receptors causes biphasic modulation of glutamate release in gastric-related hypothalamic preautonomic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carie R. Boychuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids rapidly regulate synaptic input to neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN by inducing the retrograde release of endogenous messengers. Here we investigated the rapid effects of dexamethasone (DEX on excitatory synaptic input to feeding-related, preautonomic PVN neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. In ~50% of identified gastric-related preautonomic PVN neurons, DEX elicited a biphasic synaptic response characterized by an initial rapid and transient increase in the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs, followed by a decrease in mEPSC frequency within 9 min; remaining cells displayed only a decrease in mEPSC frequency. The late-phase decrease in mEPSC frequency was mimicked by the cannabinoid receptor agonists anandamide and WIN 55,212-2, and it was blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. The biphasic DEX effect was mimicked by anandamide (AEA. The early increase in mEPSCs was mimicked by activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 receptors with capsaicin and by activation of TRPV4 receptors with 4-α-PDD. The increase was reduced, but not blocked, by selective TRPV1 antagonists and in TRPV1-knockout mice; it was blocked completely by the broad-spectrum TRPV antagonist ruthenium red and by combined application of selective TRPV1 and TRPV4 antagonists. The DEX effects were prevented entirely by intracellular infusion of the G-protein inhibitor, GDPβS. Thus, DEX biphasically modulates synaptic glutamate onto a subset of gastric-related PVN neurons, which is likely mediated by induction of a retrograde messenger. The effect includes a TRPV1/4 receptor-mediated transient increase and subsequent CB1 receptor-mediated suppression of glutamate release. Multiphasic modulation of glutamate input to PVN neurons represents a previously unappreciated complexity of control of autonomic output by glucocorticoids and eCBs.

  19. Endoscopic mucosal resection with a multiband ligator for the treatment of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia and early gastric cancer Resección endoscópica de la mucosa con un ligador multibanda para el tratamiento de la displasia de Barret de alto grado y el cáncer gástrico precoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Espinel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: due to surgery's high mortality and morbidity, local therapeutic techniques are required for Barrett's high-grade dysplasia (BHGD and early gastric cancer (EGC. Various techniques are available for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR in the GI tract. The "suck and cut" technique, which uses a transparent cap or modified multiband variceal ligator, is usually the most practiced method. A multiband ligator (ML allows sequential resection without the need for submucosal injection and endoscope withdrawal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EMR with a ML device in the treatment of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia and early gastric cancer. Patients and methods: prospective study. Eight consecutive patients (4 men; median age, 62 years; range 38-89 years with BHGD (4 or EGC (4 were treated. EMR was performed with a multiband ligator in order to create a pseudopolyp and then permit snare polypectomy of flat mucosal lesions. The pseudopolyp was resected by using pure coagulating current. No submucosal saline injection was administered before resection. Results: a total of 8 consecutive patients were treated with the multiband ligator (ML technique. Barrett's esophagus (BE: one patient with long BE received 3 EMR sessions. Three patients presented with short BE and received 1 EMR session each. The histology of the EMR specimens confirmed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration (1 patient and BHGD (3 patients. Early gastric cancer (EGC: 3 patients had EGC (type IIa and 1 patient had high-grade dysplasia. EMR was accomplished in 1 session for each patient. The histology of EMR specimens confirmed a mucinous adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration (1 patient, EGC (2 patients, and HGD (1 patient. Complications (mild esophageal stenosis, minor bleeding occurred in 2 patients. Conclusions: EMR has diagnostic and therapeutic implications, and represents a superior diagnostic modality as

  20. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  1. Helicobacter, Inflammation, and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Antonia R

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection leads to long-lasting chronic inflammation and represents the most common risk factor underlying gastric cancer. Recently, new insights into the mechanisms through which H. pylori and mucosal inflammation lead to cancer development have emerged. H. pylori virulence factors, in particular specific CagA genotypes, represent main factors in gastric cancer, inducing altered intracellular signaling in epithelial cells. The chronic nature of H. pylori infection appears to relate to the VacA virulence factor and Th17/Treg mechanisms. A role of H. pylori infection in epigenetic and microRNA deregulation has been shown. Mutation of the epithelial cell genome, a hallmark of cancer, was demonstrated to accumulate in H. pylori infected stomach partly due to inadequate DNA repair. Gastric stem cells were shown to be targets of oxidative injury in the Helicobacter-inflammatory milieu. Recent advances emphasizing the contribution of bacterial factors, inflammatory mediators, and the host epithelial response in gastric carcinogenesis are reviewed.

  2. Intragastric inulin as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmers, L.E. Jr.; Anderson, L.A.; Fall, M.M.; Alich, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to find a method of gastric mucosal damage assessment that yields consistent results, the experiments presented here employed the measurement of the movement of inulin out of the gastric contents into the stomach wall and vascular compartment as an estimate of mucosal damage. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were functionally nephrectomized and were administered a control or test solution containing 3H-inulin. The test solutions contained one of three doses of aspirin. Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals over a 90-min exposure period. The stomach was removed from the animal and full-thickness tissue samples taken for measurement of 3H-inulin content. When the gastric mucosa was exposed to the test agents, there was a significantly greater accumulation of inulin in the body and antrum as well as in the plasma when compared to controls. We conclude that intragastric inulin can be employed to estimate gastric mucosal damage

  3. Disturbances of microhemocirculation of gastric mucus in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Solov’yova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with comparison data about disturbances of microcirculation in the antral part of the stomach and gastric body in three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, gastric erosions and duodenal ulcer disease and chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by more pronounced disturbances of microhemocirculation in stomach body as for such indexes – stase (dysdiemorrhysis in venules, cappilares, thrombosis in venules, cappilares, edema of the walls of microvessels and perivascular structures; thickening of vessels' walls, fibrous changes of native mucose membrane in the antral part of the stomach.

  4. The story so far: Helicobacter pylori and gastric autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, Mathijs P.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Appelmelk, Ben J.; D'Elios, Mario M.; Amedei, Amedeo; Azzurri, Annalisa; Benagiano, Marisa; del Prete, Gianfranco

    2005-01-01

    The gastric mucosal pathogen Helicobacter pylori induces autoantibodies directed against the gastric proton pump H+,K+-ATPase in 20-30% of infected patients. The presence of these autoantibodies is associated with severity of gastritis, increased atrophy, and apoptosis in the corpus mucosa, and

  5. THE EFFECT OF ALOE VERA ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe ...

  6. Do the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and food intake involve release of amylin in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Bache, Michael; Knop, Filip K

    2010-01-01

    Amylin, cosecreted with insulin, has like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) been reported to inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, and reduce appetite and food intake. We investigated whether the effects of GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and food intake are mediated directly or ...

  7. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal...

  8. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether...... this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n = 17) and after pretreatment...... with high dose omeprazole (n = 17) and ranitidine (n = 9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid...

  9. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H-2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether...... this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after pretreatment with high...... dose omeprazole (n=17) and ranitidine (n=9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid secretion (p...

  10. Innate Immunity to Mucosal Candida Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal epithelial tissues are exposed to high numbers of microbes, including commensal fungi, and are able to distinguish between those that are avirulent and those that cause disease. Epithelial cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to defend against colonization and invasion by Candida species. The interplay between mucosal epithelial tissues and immune cells is key for control and clearance of fungal infections. Our understanding of the mucosal innate host defense system has expanded recently with new studies bringing to light the importance of epithelial cell responses, innate T cells, neutrophils, and other phagocytes during Candida infections. Epithelial tissues release cytokines, host defense peptides, and alarmins during Candida invasion that act in concert to limit fungal proliferation and recruit immune effector cells. The innate T cell/IL-17 axis and recruitment of neutrophils are of central importance in controlling mucosal fungal infections. Here, we review current knowledge of the innate immunity at sites of mucosal Candida infection, with a focus on infections caused by C. albicans.

  11. Gastric ulceration in dog: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Parrah

    Full Text Available The common acid related diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract could be considered as primarily due to the defect in barrier function either of the gastric mucosal or duodenal epithelium leading to the formation of gastric or duodenal ulcers. An attempt was made in this review to discuss the classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of gastric ulcer in dogs. Early surgical advances in the management of peptic ulcers are emphasized that were then subsequently replaced by pharmacological treatment (histamine H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors and considered as the major strategy against the acid disorders. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 449-454

  12. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O

    1995-01-01

    The selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, considerably stimulates duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat and increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. This study, therefore, looked at the effect of pirenzepine on bicarbonate secretion...... and luminal output of PGE2 into the stomach and the duodenum of nine healthy volunteers using a new technique permitting simultaneous measurements. In the stomach modified sham feeding increased bicarbonate secretion from 382 (62) mumol/h (mean (SEM)) to 959 (224) mumol/h (p ... sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p

  13. Gastric polyps: a retrospective analysis of 26,000 digestive endoscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Drausio Jefferson; Yamanaka, Ademar; Zeitune, José Murilo Robilotta; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric polyps are small gastric lesions, asymptomatic in most cases and are generally discovered inadvertently during upper digestive endoscopy. AIM: To retrospectively review the characteristics and frequency of gastric polyps, derived from the gastric mucosal epithelium in a large series of endoscopies. METHODS: One hundred and fifty three patients in a series of 26,000 consecutive upper digestive endoscopies done over a 5-year period, being that each patient had only one exami...

  14. Gastric Autoantigenic Proteins in Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Sook; Lee, Su-Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo; Yeom, Jeongsuk; Park, Eun-Sil; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Jun, Jin-Su; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Ko, Gyung-Hyuck; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study tried to identify novel gastric autoimmune antigens that might be involved in aggravating the atrophic gastritis among patients with Helicobacter pylori infection using two-dimensional immunoblotting analysis. Materials and Methods Proteins from gastric mucosal antrectomy specimens and AGS cells (gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from a Caucasian patient who had received no prior therapy) were 2-dimensionally immunoblotted separately with a pool of 300 sera from H. pylroi-infected patients at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Results Thirty-eight autoantigenic proteins including alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP+], alpha enolase, gastrokine-1, gastric triacylglycerol lipase, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, and peroxiredoxin-2 were identified in the gastric mucosal tissue. Fourteen autoantigenic proteins including programmed cell death 6-interacting protein, serum albumin and T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma were identified in the AGS cells. Albumin, alpha-enolase, annexin A3, cytoplasmic actin 1, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein and leukocyte elastase inhibitor were commonly observed autoantigenic proteins in both gastric mucosal tissue and AGS cells. Alpha-enolase, glutathione S-transferase P, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, human mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATP) subunit beta, mitochondrial 60 kDa heat shock protein, peroxiredoxin-2, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor, tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11 and Tryptophan-Aspartic acid (WD) repeat-containing protein 1 showed 60% or higher amino acid positivity. Conclusion These newly identified gastric autoimmune antigens might be useful in the control and prevention of gastroduodenal disorders, and might be valuable in breaking the vicious circle that exists in gastroduodenal disorders if their pathophysiological roles could be understood in the progress of chronic atrophic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, intestinal

  15. Mucosal malignant melanoma - a clinical, oncological, pathological and genetic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lauge H; Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal melanomas constitute 1.3% of all melanomas and they may develop in any mucosal membrane. Conjunctival melanomas (0.5/million/year) and melanomas in the sinonasal cavity (0.5/million/year) are the most common, followed by anorectal melanomas (0.4/million/year) and melanomas in the oral...... cavity (0.2/million/year). Anorectal melanoma occurs slightly more often in females, whereas oral melanoma has a male predilection. Mucosal melanoma most commonly develops in a patient's sixth or seventh decade of life, and no differences between races have been found except for sinonasal melanoma...... is the treatment of choice. The prognosis is poor, with the 5-year survival rate ranging from 0% (gastric melanoma) to 80% (conjunctival melanoma)....

  16. In vivo gastric residence and gastroprotective effect of floating gastroretentive tablet of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, in beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jeong Soo Kim,1 Kwang Ho Cha,1 Seung Yeob Kang,1 Donghan Won,1 Sun Woo Jang,1 Miwon Son,1 Moon Ho Son,1 Ho Jung Choi,2 Young Won Lee,2 Myung Joo Kang3 1Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi, 2College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 3College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan, Chungnam, South Korea Objective: DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica containing eupatilin and jaceosidin as active compounds, has been prescribed to treat gastritis in Asia. In recent times, sustained-release, floating gastroretentive (GR tablets of DA-9601 are available on the market. In the present study, the physical properties and in vitro drug release profile, in vivo gastric residence time, and gastroprotective effect of GR tablet were compared to those of immediate release (IR tablets of DA-9601.Method: In vitro buoyancy behavior (floating lag time and duration and release profile of eupatilin were assessed in acidic medium. The in vivo intragastric behaviors of the barium sulfate-loaded IR and GR tablets were evaluated in beagle dogs by radiographic studies. Local gastroprotective effect was compared in an experimentally induced gastric lesion in beagle dogs after oral administration of IR (three times per day or GR (twice daily tablets for 15 days.Results: Upon contact with gastric juice, a low-density floating tablet (apparent density of 0.93 g/cm3 was buoyant on the medium and was upheld for 14 hours, providing sustained drug release profile, whereas the IR tablet disintegrated within 10 minutes, showing complete drug release within 2 hours. In vivo radiographic studies showed that the GR tablet was retained for >4 hours in the stomach. Both DA-9601 formulations remarkably alleviated gastric mucosal injury compared to placebo group, when observed by gastric endoscopy.Conclusion: Twice-daily GR tablets exhibited a prolonged gastric residence

  17. Clinical consequences of oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlton G; Wingard, John

    2004-02-01

    To identify the clinical manifestations, risk factors, secondary complications, and assessment and management of oral mucositis. Professional journals, websites, and books. Secondary consequences of oral mucositis include infection, xerostomia, hemorrhage, and nutritional deficits. Nurses should have an extensive knowledge base about the appropriate interventions that can be used to alleviate or lessen the consequences often associated with oral mucositis.

  18. Quantitative assessment of gastric antrum atrophy shows restitution to normal histology after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Kale, Ilse; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Lindeman, Jan; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Meuwissen, Stefan G. M.; Baak, Jan P. A.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: Grading gastric mucosal atrophy in antrum biopsy specimens remains a controversial subject because of limitations in interobserver agreement. We previously described a reliable, quantitative method for grading atrophy of the corpus mucosa with excellent reproducibility and good

  19. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Surmiak, Marcin; Adamski, Juliusz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pajdo, Robert; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g.)), RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g.), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)), hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g.) and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p.), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p.), indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p.), SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g.), and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g.) affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). Gastric blood flow (GBF), the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO) contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g.) significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO. PMID:27023525

  20. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Magierowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO produced by heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II dimer (CORM-2 causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g., RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g., zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p., hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g. and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p., 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p., indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p., SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g., and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g. affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS. Gastric blood flow (GBF, the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g. significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO.

  1. Evaluation of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal lesions associated with gastrointestinal bleeding in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davignon, D L; Lee, A C Y; Johnston, A N; Bowman, D D; Simpson, K W

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the utility of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal abnormalities in dogs with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Capsules were administered to 2 healthy controls and 8 patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Images were evaluated for quality, gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time and presence of lesions. There were no adverse effects of capsule endoscopy in dogs weighing from 7·7 to 58 kg. The capsule traversed the entire gastrointestinal tract in 5 of 8 patients, with high quality images obtained in the stomach and small intestine. Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time ranged from 1 to 270 and 15 to 180 minutes, respectively. In 3 of 8 patients, the capsule remained in the stomach despite pro-kinetics. Gastric lesions included mild haemorrhage and pinpoint erosion (4 of 8), a mass (1) and thickened bleeding pyloric mucosa (2). Two of 3 dogs with capsule retention had gastric lesions. Intestinal lesions included a healing duodenal ulcer, abnormal villi, ileal ulceration and colonic bleeding. Lesions identified by capsule endoscopy were considered a significant source of haemorrhage in 4 of 7 dogs with active bleeding. The relevance of pinpoint gastric mucosal erosions to blood loss is unclear. Capsule endoscopy can enable the non-invasive detection of gastric and small intestinal mucosal lesions in dogs presenting for evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Varella Frazão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

  3. β-Casein nanoparticle-based oral drug delivery system for potential treatment of gastric carcinoma: stability, target-activated release and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Alina; Davidson, Irit; Avni, Noa; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Livney, Yoav D

    2012-02-01

    We studied a potential drug delivery system comprising the hydrophobic anticancer drug paclitaxel entrapped within β-casein (β-CN) nanoparticles and its cytotoxicity to human gastric carcinoma cells. Paclitaxel was entrapped by stirring its dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution into PBS containing β-CN. Cryo-TEM analysis revealed drug nanocrystals, the growth of which was blocked by β-CN. Entrapment efficiency was nearly 100%, and the nanovehicles formed were colloidally stable. Following encapsulation and simulated digestion with pepsin (2 hours at pH=2, 37 °C), paclitaxel retained its cytotoxic activity to human N-87 gastric cancer cells; the IC(50) value (32.5 ± 6.2 nM) was similar to that of non-encapsulated paclitaxel (25.4 ± 2.6 nM). Without prior simulated gastric digestion, β-CN-paclitaxel nanoparticles were non-cytotoxic, suggesting the lack of untoward toxicity to bucal and esophageal epithelia. We conclude that β-CN shows promise to be useful for target-activated oral delivery of hydrophobic chemotherapeutics in the treatment of gastric carcinoma, one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Low hematocrit impairs gastric mucosal CO2 removal during experimental severe normovolemic hemodilution Hematócrito baixo compromete a remoção de CO2 da mucosa gástrica na hemodiluição normovolêmica intensa experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The net effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution with different hemoglobin levels on splanchnic perfusion have not been elucidated. The hypothesis that during moderate and severe normovolemic hemodilution, systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic parameters, oxygen-derived variables, and biochemical markers of anaerobic metabolism do not reflect the adequacy of gastric mucosa, was tested in this study. METHODS: Twenty one anesthetized mongrel dogs (16 ± 1 kg were randomized to controls (CT, n = 7, no hemodilution, moderate hemodilution (hematocrit 2 5% ± 3%, n = 7 or severe hemodilution (severe hemodilution, hematocrit 15% ± 3%, n = 7, through an isovolemic exchange of whole blood and 6% hydroxyethyl starch, at a 20 mL/min rate, to the target hematocrit. The animals were followed for 120 min after hemodilution. Cardiac output (CO, L/min, portal vein blood flow (PVF, mL/min, portal vein-arterial and gastric mucosa-arterial CO2 gradients (PV-artCO2 and PCO2 gap, mm Hg, respectively were measured throughout the experiment. RESULTS: Exchange blood volumes were 33.9 ± 3.3 and 61.5 ± 5.8 mL/kg for moderate hemodilution and severe hemodilution, respectively. Arterial pressure and systemic and regional lactate levels remained stable in all groups. There were initial increases in cardiac output and portal vein blood flow in both moderate hemodilution and severe hemodilution; systemic and regional oxygen consumption remained stable largely due to increases in oxygen extraction rate. There was a significant increase in the PCO2-gap value only in severe hemodilution animals. CONCLUSION: Global and regional hemodynamic stability were maintained after moderate and severe hemodilution. However, a very low hematocrit induced gastric mucosal acidosis, suggesting that gastric mucosal CO2 monitoring may be useful during major surgery or following trauma.OBJETIVO: Os efeitos da hemodiluição normovolêmica com diferentes níveis de hemoglobina na

  5. Mechanism of prevention of aspirin-induced gastric lesions by bile duct legation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, P H; Paulsen, G; Lynn, D; Aures, D

    1976-11-01

    Gastric reflux of bile has been reported to be essential for the production of acute gastric mucosal lesions by intragastric aspirin in the rat. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether bile duct legation of pylorus ligation in the rat inhibits asprin-induced gastric lesions, and, if so, what the protective mechanisms are. Operations were performed under ether anesthesia. Asprin, 200 mg per kg, was instilled into the stomach 1/2 hr postsurgery (bile duct ligation or pylorus ligation). Four hours later the rats were killed, the stomachs were examined, and mucosal lesions were scored. Bile duct ligation, but not pylorus ligation, significantly protected against aspirin-induced gastric-lesions. Bile duct ligation, in pylorus-ligated rats, inhibited gastric acid output by 78%. Instilling HCl + aspirin in bile duct-ligated rats restored lesion formation. Shunting bile to the colon (to prevent bile reflux) did not prevent aspirin lesions. Salicylate determination, to ascertain whether bile duct ligation altered asprin absorption, revealed no significant differences between bile duct ligation and aspirin, shunt + aspirin, and sham shunt + aspirin in plasma and gastric tissue salicylate concentrations. (1) Bile duct legation protects against aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions by inhibiting gastric HCl secretion. As a corollary, a certain amount of acid in the stomach is necessary for aspirin-induced gastric lesions to form. (2) Bile reflux is not necessary for aspirn-induced gastric lesions in the rat.

  6. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, R.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide techniques appear to be the current method of choice for determining the rate and pattern of gastric emptying. Isotopic methods are quantitative, noninvasive in that they do not require intubation, may be used with solid meals for greater sensitivity, present a low radiation burden to the patient compared to the burden of radiographic techniques, and are suitable and acceptable to the patient for repetitive studies. By comparison, other methods are either invasive, nonquantitative, or nonphysiologic. Of the radionuclide methods currently available, the solid meals (either liver or egg) are best, and dual liquid-solid studies offer additional physiologic data. It is now known that gastric emptying abnormalities may result from common disorders such as diabetes mellitus or gastric or duodenal ulcer disease, may be caused by a variety of medications, may follow gastric surgery, or may result from less well understood disorders, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. By helping to clarify these gastric emptying abnormalities, the physician's ability to treat disorders of gastric emptying with diet, medication, and surgery is enhanced in accuracy and precision. Using these newer radionuclide techniques will permit both the clinician and the investigator a better understanding than was previously possible of gastric physiology in both health and disease

  7. Mucosal melanosis associated with chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal lesions due to underlying disease or drug toxicity, are important part of oncology practice. Patient with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was treated with chemoembolisation. She presented with new onset of mucosal hyperpigmented lesion all through her oral cavity. Biopsy was consistent with mucosal melanosis, which was associated with the chemotherapeutics used in the chemoembolisation procedure. Lesion progressively improved without any treatment. Here we present an mucosal melanosis experience after chemoembolisation. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 189-191

  8. Mucosal immunology and virology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyring, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    .... A third chapter focuses on the proximal end of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. the oral cavity). The mucosal immunology and virology of the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract is covered in the chapter on the anogenital mucosa. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) plays a role in protection against all viral (and other) infections except those that enter the body via a bite (e.g. yellow fever or dengue from a mosquito or rabies from a dog) or an injection or transfusion (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B). ...

  9. Gastritis and Gastric Ulcers in Working Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael S; Williamson, Katherine K

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors, such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies.

  10. Mortality from gastric cancer following gastric surgery for peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, C P; Hill, M J; Kirkham, J S; Northfield, T C

    1986-04-26

    When compared with a matched population group, 4466 ulcer patients who had had gastric surgery between 1940 and 1960 showed no difference in the risk of death from gastric cancer in the first 20 years of follow-up but a 4.5-fold increase thereafter. In duodenal ulcer patients there was an initial decrease in risk followed by a 3.7-fold increase after 20 or more years. Since the initial decrease was seen only in the gastrectomy patients and not in those who had truncal vagotomy and drainage, it may have been due to the reduction in mucosal surface. The increased risk 20 years after duodenal ulcer surgery was greater in vagotomy patients than in gastrectomy patients. In gastric ulcer patients a 3.0-fold increase in risk for the first 20 years rose to a 5.5-fold increase thereafter. After 20 years, patients treated with the Bilroth II operation were at higher risk than those treated with Bilroth I, consistent with a role for bile reflux in gastric carcinogenesis. The finding that the risk differs according to original pathology and type of operation may explain the discrepancies between previous studies.

  11. Gastric schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Sung; Hsu, Han-Shui; Tsai, Chien-Ho; Li, Wing-Yin; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2004-11-01

    Gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors are a group of tumors originated from the mesenchymal stem cells of the gastrointestinal tract, consisting of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), leiomyomas or leiomyosarcomas or schwannomas. Gastric schwannoma is a very rare gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumor, which represents only 0.2% of all gastric tumors and 4% of all benign gastric neoplasms. We report a 24-year-old girl who suffered from an episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The endoscopic examination showed a round submucosal tumor with a central ulceration and bleeding over the high body of the stomach. Surgical resection of the tumor was performed. The pathological examination revealed a picture of spindle cell tumor that was strongly positive for S-100 protein stain, and non-reactive for CD34, CD117, actin, HHF-35, desmin, melan-A and HMB-45, consistent with gastric schwannoma. The literature is reviewed.

  12. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  13. Large gastric folds arising in polyposis syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Wangz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Large gastric folds (LGF can be caused by benign conditions as well as malignancies. Unfortunately, endoscopic features and biopsy results are often equivocal, making the diagnosis and management of large gastric folds difficult. Polyposis syndromes encompass a group of conditions in which multiple gastrointestinal polyps occur in the lumen of the gut. Large gastric folds are extremely rare in these syndromes. We present the case of a patient with polyposis who was found to have large gastric folds in the entire gastric fundus and body, mimicking malignancy. The patient's medical history and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS with mucosal resection confirmed the diagnosis of a pre-malignant disease. The lesion was monitored by serial endoscopic ultrasonography and biopsy, abdominal computed tomography (CT, and positron emission and computed tomography (PET-CT for 6 years. The lesion remained stable, with the exception of abnormal fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on PET-CT in the gastric folds, which was determined to be a false-positive sign. To date, the patient remains healthy. We further discuss the mechanisms underlying the formation of large gastric folds caused by polyposis syndromes. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori or cytomegalovirus (CMV is unnecessary for this progression. Immunohistochemistry (IHC staining suggested that overexpression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α and down-regulation of myocyte enhancer-binding factor 2 (MEF2 may be involved in this case.

  14. Salicylate effects on a monolayer culture of gastric mucous cells from adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, S; Razandi, M; Sekhon, S; Krause, W J; Terano, A; Hiraishi, H; Ivey, K J

    1988-01-01

    Aspirin, acetyl salicylic acid, damages gastric mucosal cells. This effect is considered related to its inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. On the other hand, sodium salicylate has been reported to be cytoprotective against drug damage to gastric mucosa in vivo. One reason for this difference is that salicylic acid, unlike acetyl salicylic acid does not inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by gastric mucosa in vivo. Previous studies on tissue culture cells from our laboratory have required gast...

  15. Endoscopic Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has been accepted as a curative modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). Since conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been introduced, many improvements in endoscopic accessories and techniques have been achieved. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using various electrosurgical knives has been performed for complete resection of EGC and enables complete resection of EGC, which is difficult to completely resect in the era of conventional EMR. Cur...

  16. Mechanisms of gastroprotection by lansoprazole pretreatment against experimentally induced injury in rats: role of mucosal oxidative damage and sulfhydryl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Lazzeri, Gloria; Lubrano, Valter; Colucci, Rocchina; Vassalle, Cristina; Fornai, Matteo; Blandizzi, Corrado; Del Tacca, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms involved in the protective actions exerted by lansoprazole against experimental gastric injury. Following the intraluminal injection of ethanol-HCl, the histomorphometric analysis of rat gastric sections demonstrated a pattern of mucosal lesions associated with a significant increase in the mucosal contents of malondialdehyde and 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (indices of lipid peroxidation), as well as a decrease in the levels of mucosal sulfhydryl compounds, assayed as reduced glutathione (GSH). Pretreatment with lansoprazole 90 μmol/kg, given intraduodenally as single dose or once daily by intragastric route for 8 days, significantly prevented ethanol-HCl-induced gastric damage. The concomitant changes in the mucosal levels of malondialdehyde, 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α and GSH elicited by ethanol-HCl were also counteracted by lansoprazole. In separate experiments, performed on animals undergoing 2-h pylorus ligation, lansoprazole did not enhance the concentration of prostaglandin E 2 , bicyclo-prostaglandin E 2 , or nitric oxide (NO) metabolites into gastric juice. Western blot analysis revealed the expression of both type 1 and 2 cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms in the gastric mucosa of pylorus-ligated rats. These expression patterns were not significantly modified by single-dose or repeated treatment with lansoprazole. Lansoprazole also exhibited direct antioxidant properties by reducing 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α generation in an in vitro system where human native low-density lipoproteins were subjected to oxidation upon exposure to CuSO 4 . The present results suggest that the protective effects of lansoprazole can be ascribed to a reduction of gastric oxidative injury, resulting in an increased bioavailability of mucosal sulfhydryl compounds. It is also proposed that lansoprazole does not exert modulator effects on the gastric expression of COX isoforms as well as on the activity of NO pathways

  17. Postvagotomy acid secretion and mucosal blood flow during beta-adrenoceptor stimulation and universal chemical sympathectomy in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation, alpha blockade, and elimination of the adrenergic nerve function on mucosal blood flow and acid secretion in parietal-cell-vagotomized (PCV) gastric fistula dogs. Isoprenaline inhibited pentagastrin-stimulate......The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation, alpha blockade, and elimination of the adrenergic nerve function on mucosal blood flow and acid secretion in parietal-cell-vagotomized (PCV) gastric fistula dogs. Isoprenaline inhibited pentagastrin...

  18. Microelectrode studies of dog's gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canosa, C A; Rehm, W S

    1968-04-01

    In anesthetized dogs, the potentials in the mucous coat and gastic cells were measured with microelectrodes. In the secreting stomach, with isotonic saline in contact with the mucosal surface, the orientation of the initial change in potential difference (PD) was often the same as that of the liquid junction potential between gastric juice and saline (the microelectrode became negative to a reference electrode in the saline) but the magnitude of the change was never more than 11 mv. On the basis of this finding an explanation is offered for the observation that in the secreting stomach replacing isotonic saline with isotonic HCl as the bathing fluid on the mucosal surface, results in a change in the serosal to mucosal PD of only 19 mv, which is 40% less than the liquid junction potential between gastric juice and saline. In the surface epithelial cells of both resting and secreting stomach, multiple levels of potentials were found. For the secreting stomach, the resistance between the interstitial fluid of the pit region and the fluid on the mucosal surface was 55 ohm cm(2), determined as the change in PD per unit of applied current across stomach. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the separate site theory of HCl formation.

  19. A comparative study of digital GI and CT in diagnosis of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xiangrong; Chen Guoqin; Ding Xinmin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the digital GI and CT in the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. Methods: Total 42 patients with gastric carcinoma received digital GI and CT examination. The digital GI and CT findings were analyzed comparatively. Results: 42 cases of patients with gastric carcinoma were examined with digital GI and CT. Digital GI demonstrated mucosal erosion in 40 cases, narrowed gastric lumen in 12, malignant ulceration in 10, filling defect in 12 and abnormal peristalsis in 36. CT revealed gastric wall thickening in 30 cases, intra-gastric masses in 36, narrowed gastric lumen in 36, regional lymphadenopathy and/or distant metastases in 19 and pyloristenosis in 4. Conclusion: The lesions in stomach could be demonstrated on digital GI, the imaging is clear and precise. CT is valuable for assessing the extra-gastric involvement, lymphadenopathy and distant metastases, which is an important pre-operative examination

  20. Rapid quantitative assessment of gastric corpus atrophy in tissue sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grieken, N. C.; Weiss, M. M.; Meijer, G. A.; Bloemena, E.; Lindeman, J.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Meuwissen, S. G.; Baak, J. P.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Grading of Helicobacter pylori induced atrophic gastritis using the updated Sydney system is severely limited by high interobserver variability. The aim of this study was to set up a quantitative test of gastric corpus mucosal atrophy in tissue sections and test its reproducibility and correlation

  1. NOD1-Mediated Mucosal Host Defense against Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Watanabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Although it has been well established that persistent colonization by H. pylori is associated with adaptive Th1 responses, the innate immune responses leading to these Th1 responses are poorly defined. Recent studies have shown that the activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1 in gastric epithelial cells plays an important role in innate immune responses against H. pylori. The detection of H. pylori-derived ligands by cytosolic NOD1 induces several host defense factors, including antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and chemokines. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanisms by which NOD1 contributes to mucosal host defense against H. pylori infection of the stomach.

  2. Image processings of radiographs in the gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Yamashita, Kazuya; Morikawa, Kaoru; Takigawa, Atsushi

    1987-01-01

    For improving detectability of the gastric lesions in the X-ray examinations, the computer image processing methods were studied in radiographs of a stomach phantom and gastric cancer lesions by the A/D conversion. After several kinds of the basic processing methods were examined in the artificially made lesions in the stomach phantom and true gastric cancer lesions in 26 X-ray pictures of the 8 gastric cancer cases, we concluded that pathological changes on the edge or mucosal folds in the stomach were stressed by the image processing method using negative to positive conversion, density gradient control, edge enhancement (Sobel operation) and subtraction of the Sobel image from the original image. These methods contributed to interpretation of the gastric cancer by enhancement of the contour and mucosal pattern inside the lesion. The results were applied for follow up studies of the gastric cancer. Tumor expansions could be clarified, but it was yet difficult to catch a precancer lesion by retrospective studies. However, these methods would be expected in future application in the mass survey examination of the gastric cancer detection. (author)

  3. Potential role of probiotics in the management of gastric ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHODER, GHALIA; AL-MENHALI, ASMA A.; AL-YASSIR, FARAH; KARAM, SHERIF M.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases characterized by a significant defect in the mucosal barrier. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the frequent long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are major factors involved in gastric ulcer development. Acid inhibitors and antibiotics are commonly used to treat gastric ulcer. However, in the last few decades, the accumulating evidence for resistance to antibiotics and the side effects of antibiotics and acid inhibitors have drawn attention to the possible use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcer. Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Currently, the available experimental and clinical studies indicate that probiotics are promising for future applications in the management of gastric ulcers. This review aims to provide an overview of the general health benefits of probiotics on various systemic and gastrointestinal disorders with a special focus on gastric ulcer and the involved cellular and molecular mechanisms: i) Protection of gastric mucosal barrier; ii) upregulation of prostaglandins, mucus, growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines; iii) increased cell proliferation to apoptosis ratio; and iv) induction of angiogenesis. Finally, some of the available data on the possible use of probiotics in H. pylori eradication are discussed. PMID:27347010

  4. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaz, B.; Hostein, J.; Caravel, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) of nutriments is a major function of the stomach. GE disorders are observed after gastric surgery and with various diseases, either of a strictly gastroenterologic kind or interesting other specialities (especially diabetes mellitus). Scintigraphy, which has allowed a better knowledge of GE physiological and pathological mechanisms, has now become the reference method for studying the emptying of solids and liquids. In a near future, it could well have two major applications: a diagnostic approach of functional digestive disorders and an assessment of the various effects of pharmacological drugs with digestive affinity [fr

  5. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  6. [Gastric tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E; Oliveira, A; Costa, A; Sa, L; Vieira, A; Oliveira, A

    1994-12-01

    A 37 year old woman with duodenal ulcer not responsive to medical treatment was operated. Antrectomy, truncal vagotomy and Bilroth II gastrojejunostomy were performed. The histopathology revealed epithelioid cell granulomas with multinucleated cells and central ceseation, in the gastric side of the pylorus and in three isolated lymph nodes. With Ziehl-Neelsen staining there were multiple acid-fast bacilli. There was no evidence or previous history, personal or familial, or tuberculosis in an other localization. Epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of gastric tuberculosis are discussed according to the literature.

  7. Interaction between fed and gastric media (ensure Plus) and different hypromellose based caffeine controlled release tablets; comparison and mechanistic study of caffeine release in fed and fasted media versus water using USP dissolution apparatus 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Frans; Holm, Per; Larsen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    . Using fasted media instead of water slightly decreases caffeine release from 100 and 4000 mPa s HPMC viscosity tablets as well as erosion rates, while 15,000 mPa s tablets remain unaffected. Fed compared to fasted media decreases caffeine release rate, and the food effect is greater for the 100 mPa s......The aim of the study was to investigate caffeine release in fed and fasted state media from three controlled release matrix tablets containing different HPMC viscosity grades. The biorelevant in vitro dissolution methods utilize the USP 3 dissolution apparatus and biorelevant media to simulate fed...... and fasted gastro-intestinal dissolution conditions. The effect of tablet reciprocation rate (dip speed) in dissolution media (10 and 15 dips per minute) and media (water, fed and fasted) on caffeine release rate from – and erosion rate of – 100, 4000 and 15,000 mPa s HPMC viscosity tablets was investigated...

  8. CT differentiation of poorly-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumours from well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours and gastric adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-A [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the differential CT features of gastric poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (PD-NETs) from well-differentiated NETs (WD-NETs) and gastric adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and to suggest differential features of hepatic metastases from gastric NETs and ADCs. Our study population was comprised of 36 patients with gastric NETs (18 WD-NETs, 18 PD-NETs) and 38 patients with gastric ADCs who served as our control group. Multiple CT features were assessed to identify significant differential CT findings of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs. In addition, CT features of hepatic metastases including the metastasis-to-liver ratio were analyzed to differentiate metastatic NETs from ADCs. The presence of metastatic lymph nodes was the sole differentiator of PD-NETs from WD-NETs (P =.001, odds ratio = 56.67), while the presence of intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting was the sole significant CT feature differentiating PD-NETs from ADCs (P =.047, odds ratio = 15.3) For hepatic metastases, metastases from NETs were more hyper-attenuated than those from ADCs. The presence of metastatic LNs and intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting are useful CT discriminators of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs, respectively. In addition, a higher metastasis-to-liver ratio may help differentiate hepatic metastases of gastric NETs from those of gastric ADCs with high accuracy. (orig.)

  9. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunji, Opeyemi; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activit...

  10. Gastric polyps: a retrospective analysis of 26,000 digestive endoscopies Pólipos gástricos: análise retrospectiva de 26 000 endoscopias digestivas

    OpenAIRE

    Drausio Jefferson Morais; Ademar Yamanaka; José Murilo Robilotta Zeitune; Nelson Adami Andreollo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric polyps are small gastric lesions, asymptomatic in most cases and are generally discovered inadvertently during upper digestive endoscopy. AIM: To retrospectively review the characteristics and frequency of gastric polyps, derived from the gastric mucosal epithelium in a large series of endoscopies. METHODS: One hundred and fifty three patients in a series of 26,000 consecutive upper digestive endoscopies done over a 5-year period, being that each patient had only one exami...

  11. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  12. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. (2) Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3) Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4) Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  13. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    . With the introduction of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors for the treatment of UC, it has become increasingly evident that the disease course is influenced by whether or not the patient achieves mucosal healing. Thus, patients with mucosal healing have fewer flare-ups, a decreased risk of colectomy......, and a lower probability of developing colorectal cancer. Understanding the mechanisms of mucosal wound formation and wound healing in UC, and how they are affected therapeutically is therefore of importance for obtaining efficient treatment strategies holding the potential of changing the disease course of UC....... This review is focused on the pathophysiological mechanism of mucosal wound formation in UC as well as the known mechanisms of intestinal wound healing. Regarding the latter topic, pathways of both wound healing intrinsic to epithelial cells and the wound-healing mechanisms involving interaction between...

  14. Cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes are characterized by pain, burning sensation, numbness or paraesthesia of a particular part of the skin or mucosal surface without any visible signs. They are usually sensory disorders, sometimes with a great deal of psychologic overlay. In this article various conditions have been listed and are described. The possible causative mechanisms are discussed when they are applicable and the outline of their management is described.

  15. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  16. Alcohol and gastric acid secretion in humans: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M V; Leffmann, C

    1988-01-01

    The action of ethanol and alcoholic beverages on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin in healthy, nonalcoholic humans is reviewed. Intravenous ethanol causes a dose-dependent stimulation of gastric acid output without releasing gastrin. The action of intragastric instillation of pure ethanol on gastric acid secretion is related to its concentration: concentrations of 1.4% and 4% (v/v) are moderate stimulants; concentrations of 5% to 40% (w/v) have no or rather an inhibitory effect. Oral, intragastric, and intraduodenal administrations of ethanol do not release gastrin, whereas beer and white and red wine but not whisky and cognac are potent stimulants of gastric acid secretion and release gastrin in humans. The stimulatory mechanism of low ethanol concentrations is unknown. Nonalcoholic constituents of beer and wine are most likely responsible for the strong stimulatory action of both beverages on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin.

  17. NO-NSAIDs. Part 3: nitric oxide-releasing prodrugs of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhade, Namdev; Pathan, Asif Rahimkhan; Halder, Somnath; Karwa, Manoj; Dhiman, Mini; Pamidiboina, Venu; Gund, Machhindra; Deshattiwar, Jagannath Janardhan; Mali, Sunil Vasantrao; Deshmukh, Nitin Janardanrao; Senthilkumar, Subrayan Palanisamy; Gaikwad, Parikshit; Tipparam, Santhosh Goud; Mudgal, Jayesh; Dutta, Milan Chandra; Burhan, Aslam Usmangani; Thakre, Gajanan; Sharma, Ankur; Deshpande, Shubhada; Desai, Dattatraya Chandrakant; Dubash, Nauzer Pervez; Jain, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Somesh; Nemmani, Kumar Venkata Subrahmanya; Satyam, Apparao

    2012-01-01

    In continuation of our efforts to discover novel nitric oxide-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) as potentially "Safe NSAIDs," we report herein the design, synthesis and evaluation of 21 new NO-NSAIDs of commonly used NSAIDs such as aspirin, diclofenac, naproxen, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, sulindac, ibuprofen and indomethacin. These prodrugs have NO-releasing disulfide linker attached to a parent NSAID via linkages such as an ester (compounds 9-16), a double ester (compounds 17-24), an imide (compounds 25-30) or an amide (compounds 31-33). Among these NO-NSAIDs, the ester-containing NO-aspirin (9), NO-diclofenac (10), NO-naproxen (11), and the imide-containing NO-aspirin (25), NO-flurbiprofen (27) and NO-ketoprofen (28) have shown promising oral absorption, anti-inflammatory activity and NO-releasing property, and also protected rats from NSAID-induced gastric damage. NO-aspirin compound 25, on further co-evaluation with aspirin at equimolar doses, exhibited comparable dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, inhibition of gastric mucosal prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis and analgesic properties to those of aspirin, but retained its gastric-sparing properties even after doubling its oral dose. These promising NO-NSAIDs could therefore represent a new class of potentially "Safe NSAIDs" for the treatment of arthritic pain and inflammation.

  18. Effect of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist and a proton pump inhibitor association in an animal model of gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronilho, Fabricia; Araújo, João H; Steckert, Amanda V; Rezin, Gislaine T; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio L

    2009-08-01

    It has been proposed that reactive oxygen species play a causative role of gastric mucosal damage induced by increased gastric secretion. Gastrin-releasing peptide is a typical neuropeptide that stimulates acid secretion by release of gastrin. In the present work we have investigated the mechanism of indomethacin (IDM)-induced gastric ulcer caused by ROS and determined the effects of a selective gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist, RC-3095, alone and in association with omeprazole (OM) and compared it with an established antioxidant compound N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Adult male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 7 days with OM, RC-3095, NAC, both drugs and water (control). The animals were then submitted to fasting for 24h; IDM was administered. Rats were killed 6h after that and the stomachs were used for evaluation of macroscopic damage and oxidative stress parameters. Our results showed that IDM increased mitochondrial superoxide production; OM and RC-3095 alone did not prevent such effect, but the combination of these drugs was effective. TBARS assay revealed that IDM-induced lipid peroxidation in gastric tissue and that OM and RC-3095, alone or in combination, prevented this effect with superior action that NAC. Finally, we verified that IDM increased protein carbonyl content and that this effect was prevented RC-3095, alone or in combination with OM, being similar to standard antioxidant. The present results support the view that, besides the inhibition of acid secretion, the protective effects exerted by OM and RC-3095 against IDM-induced gastric damage can be ascribed to a reduction of gastric oxidative injury.

  19. Mucosal adenosine stimulates chloride secretion in canine tracheal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, A.D.; Clancy, G.; Welsh, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    Adenosine is a local regulator of a variety of physiological functions in many tissues and has been observed to stimulate secretion in several Cl-secreting epithelia. In canine tracheal epithelium the authors found that adenosine stimulates Cl secretion from both the mucosal and submucosal surfaces. Addition of adenosine, or its analogue 2-chloroadenosine, to the mucosal surface potently stimulated Cl secretion with no effect on the rate of Na absorption. Stimulation resulted from an interaction of adenosine with adenosine receptors, because it was blocked by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. The adenosine receptor was a stimulatory receptor as judged by the rank-order potency of adenosine and its analogues and by the increase in cellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels produced by 2-chloroadenosine. Adenosine also stimulated Cl secretion when it was added to the submucosal surface, although the maximal increase in secretion was less and it was much less potent. The observation that mucosal 8-phenyletheophylline blocked the effect of submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, whereas submucosal 8-phenyltheophylline did not prevent a response to mucosal or submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, suggests that adenosine receptors are located on the mucosal surface. Thus submucosal adenosine may stimulate secretion by crossing the epithelium and interacting with receptors located on the mucosal surface. Because adenosine can be released from mast cells located in the airway lumen in response to inhaled material, and because adenosine stimulated secretion from the mucosal surface, it may be in a unique position to control the epithelium on a regional level.

  20. Contribution of prostanoids to gastric circulatory and metabolic actions of solcoseryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, W W; Gustaw, P; Sendur, R; Czarnobilski, K; Konturek, S J

    1990-01-01

    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract of calf blood has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic properties remain elusive. The present study was designed to determine the effects of solcoseryl on gastric total (GBF) and mucosal (MBF) blood flow, gastric oxygen consumption (GVO2) and mucosal formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in anesthetized dogs. Soloseryl given iv or ia into the oxyntic gland area of canine stomach caused a dose-dependent increase in the GBF, MBF and GVO2, PGE2 and LTC4 contents in the ethanol-treated gastric mucosa showed a 5-12 fold increase over the values in the intact mucosa. The generation of LTC4, but not PGE2, was significantly diminished by solcoseryl. Pre-treatment with indomethacin completely prevented the effects of solcoseryl on mucosal PGE2, but not LTC4 levels, and significantly reduced its circulatory and metabolic actions on the stomach. The results of these studies indicate that solcoseryl causes dilatation of gastric arterioles and precapillary sphincters thereby improving mucosal blood flow and oxygen supply. The results also suggest that endogenous prostaglandins serve as mediators of the vascular and possibly metabolic effects of the drug on the stomach. The observed reduction by solcoseryl in gastric biosynthesis of LTC4 during mucosal injury may be an important factor in the gastroprotective and anti-ulcer effects of solcoseryl.

  1. Ethanol-induced cell damage in cultured rat antral mucosa assessed by chromium-51 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.B.; Ling, T.S.; Yeomans, N.D.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro method for studying ethanol-induced injury to gastric mucosa using organ culture of rat antrum. Cell damage was assessed by measurement of the release of [ 51 Cr]sodium chromate from preloaded cells, a method adapted from a standard immunologic technique. This system provided rapid and highly reproducible quantitation of tissue injury as assessed by 51 Cr release into the culture medium. The threshold concentration for ethanol-induced damage was between 10 and 15% v/v, similar to in vivo thresholds observed by others. 51 Cr release could also be induced by very short exposure to ethanol (5-15 min), and then continued despite ethanol removal. Interestingly, after continuous ethanol exposure, a plateau of maximum 51 Cr release was reached 60 min after exposure to ethanol over the concentration range 20-50%, suggesting tissue adaptation to ethanol damage. This organ culture system, which allows precise control of experimental conditions, may be useful for studying mechanisms of gastric mucosal injury and protection

  2. Diosmin protects against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats: novel anti-ulcer actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany H Arab

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has been commonly associated with gastric mucosal lesions including gastric ulcer. Diosmin (DIO is a natural citrus flavone with remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features that underlay its protection against cardiac, hepatic and renal injuries. However, its impact on gastric ulcer has not yet been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of DIO against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats. Pretreatment with DIO (100 mg/kg p.o. attenuated the severity of ethanol gastric mucosal damage as evidenced by lowering of ulcer index (UI scores, area of gastric lesions, histopathologic aberrations and leukocyte invasion. These actions were analogous to those exerted by the reference antiulcer sucralfate. DIO suppressed gastric inflammation by curbing of myeloperoxidase (MPO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels along with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65 expression. It also augmented the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels. Meanwhile, DIO halted gastric oxidative stress via inhibition of lipid peroxides with concomitant enhancement of glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC. With respect to gastric mucosal apoptosis, DIO suppressed caspase-3 activity and cytochrome C (Cyt C with enhancement of the anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 in favor of cell survival. These favorable actions were associated with upregulation of the gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO. Together, these findings accentuate the gastroprotective actions of DIO in ethanol gastric injury which were mediated via concerted multi-pronged actions, including suppression of gastric inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis besides boosting of the antioxidant and the cytoprotective defenses.

  3. Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al Asmari

    Full Text Available Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65, and histopathological changes were determined in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Pre treatment with vanillin significantly reduced gastric secretion (P < 0.001 and acidity (P < 0.0001 and gastric ulcer index scores (P < 0.001. and augmented the gastric mucosal defense. Vanillin significantly restored the depleted gastric wall mucus levels (P < 0.0001 induced by ethanol and also significantly attenuated ethanol induced inflammation and oxidative stress by the suppression of gastric MPO activity (P < 0.001, reducing the expression of NF-κB p65 and the increased MDA levels (P < 0.001. Vanillin was also effective in alleviating the damage to the histological architecture and the activation of mast cells induced by ethanol.Together the results of this study highlight the gastroprotective activity of vanillin in gastric ulcers of rats through multiple actions that include inhibition of gastric secretion and acidity, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, suppression of expression of NF-κB, and restoration of the histological architecture. Keywords: Gastric ulcers, Pylorus ligation, Ethanol, Vanillin, Inflammation, Oxidative stress

  4. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiulcer Potential of Manuka Honey against Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad B. Almasaudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcers are among the most common diseases affecting humans. This study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effects of manuka honey against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The mechanism by which honey exerts its antiulcer potential was elucidated. Four groups of rats were used: control, ethanol (ulcer, omeprazole, and manuka honey. Stomachs were examined macroscopically for hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa, histopathological changes, and glycoprotein detection. The effects of oxidative stress were investigated using the following indicators: gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO, reduced glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxide (MDA, measured as malondialdehyde glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase. Plasma tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and IL-6 were also measured. Manuka honey significantly decreased the ulcer index, completely protected the mucosa from lesions, and preserved gastric mucosal glycoprotein. It significantly increased gastric mucosal levels of NO, GSH, GPx, and SOD. Manuka honey also decreased gastric mucosal MDA and plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations. In conclusion, manuka honey likely exerted its antiulcer, effect by keeping enzymatic (GPx and SOD and nonenzymatic (GSH and NO antioxidants as well as inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a reduced form, inhibited lipid peroxidation (MDA, and preserved mucous glycoproteins levels.

  5. Experimental production of peptic ulcer, gastric damage and cancer models and their use in pathophysiological studies and pharmacological treatment--Polish achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, T

    2003-12-01

    The common acid related diseases of the upper GI tract could be considered as primarily due to the defect in barrier function either of the gastric mucosal or duodenal epithelium leading to the formation of gastric or duodenal ulcers. An attempt was made in this chapter to discuss the history of peptic ulcer disease in humans and methods for the production of acute gastric lesions and ulcers in experimental animals with the special attention focused to the contribution of Polish scientists and investigators into this field. Early surgical advances in the management of peptic ulcers were emphasized that were then subsequently replaced by pharmacological treatment (histamine H(2)-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors) and considered as the major strategy against the acid disorders. This included the immense body of work performed by numerous group of investigators, including Polish researchers, to identify the effects of acid, bile salts, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), stress, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, prostaglandins (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) on the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which all were discussed in this chapter. The concept of major defensive mechanism in the stomach called "cytoprotection", originally proposed by Andre Robert is recalled in the relevance to the great contribution of Polish scientist working at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow. These experimental studies gave a new insight into the mechanism of action of arachidonate cascade products such as PGs, tromboxanes and leukotrienes and had opened the new therapeutic avenues for the gastroprotective treatment of the acute gastric mucosal damage. Detailed studies revealed, however, that PG-induced cytoprotection offers a short-term protection against gastric lesions induced by corrosive agents but unfortunately this phenomenon gives a little, if any, impact to the process of ulcer healing. The experimental studies on healing

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase 7 restrains Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation and premalignant lesions in the stomach by altering macrophage polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Krakowiak, MS; Noto, JM; Piazuelo, MB; Hardbower, DM; Romero-Gallo, J; Delgado, A; Chaturvedi, R; Correa, P; Wilson, KT; Peek, RM

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Although the specific mechanisms by which this pathogen induces carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated, high-expression interleukin (IL)-1β alleles are associated with increased gastric cancer risk among H. pylori-infected persons. In addition, loss of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) increases mucosal inflammation in mouse models of epithelial injury, and we have shown that gastric inflammation is...

  7. [Action mechanism of electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongbao; Wang, Yadong; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Mi; Chen, Huijuan; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-06-12

    To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at stomach meridian acupoints on expression of oxidation damage factors in serum and gastric mucosal cells in rats with gastric ulcer, and to explore the mechanism of EA at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer. Forty clean-grade SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a stomach meridian group and a gallbladder meridian group, ten rats in each one. Except the normal group, rats in the remaining groups were applied the restraint-cold stress method to establish the model of gastric ulcer. Rats in the normal group and model group received no treatment; rats in the stomach meridian group were treated with EA at "Liangmen" (ST 21) and "Zusanli" (ST 36); rats in the gallbladder meridian group were treated with EA at "Riyue" (GB 24) and "Yanglingquan" (GB 34). The EA was given for 30 min, once a day for 7 days totally. The change of gastric mucosal morphology was observed by routine light microscope; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expressions of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2(IL-2), interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum and gastric mucosal cells of rats. After treatment, compared with the model group, the gastric mucosal damage index was decreased in the stomach meridian group and gallbladder meridian group (both P stomach meridian group (all P stomach meridian group rats ( P stomach meridian acupoints is likely to inhibit the expressions of oxidative damage factors to promote the repair of gastric mucosal injury, which indicates the correlation between meridians and zang-fu .

  8. Alcohol and gastric acid secretion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, S; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1993-06-01

    The secretory response of gastric acid to pure ethanol and alcoholic beverages may be different because the action of the non-ethanolic contents of the beverage may overwhelm that of ethanol. Pure ethanol in low concentrations (cognac) do not stimulate gastric acid secretion or release of gastrin. The powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion present in beer, which are yet to be identified, are thermostable and anionic polar substances. The effect of chronic alcohol abuse on gastric acid secretion is not as predictable. Chronic alcoholic patients may have normal, enhanced, or diminished acid secretory capacity; hypochlorhydria being associated histologically with atrophic gastritis. There are no studies on the acute effect of alcohol intake on gastric acid secretion in chronic alcoholic patients. The acid stimulatory component of beer and wine needs to be characterised and its possible role in the causation of alcohol induced gastrointestinal diseases needs to be investigated.

  9. Gastric Bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 12-year-old female with no past medical history presented with abdominal pain for 3 months. The pain was intermittent, located at the epigastric region, non-radiating, fluctuating intensity up to 8/10, and had worsened over the past month. She did not have fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or blood in her stool. The patient also endorsed hair loss over the same time period and noted that her previously long hair was now short and thin. On exam, patient was noted to have shoulder-length hair, a soft, non-distended abdomen with mild tenderness to the epigastric region, and a 5cm hard mass palpated at the epigastrium. Significant findings: In the abdominal radiograph, a nonspecific and non-obstructive bowel gas pattern with no air-fluid level was noted, however the stomach was distended with soft tissue. The CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a distended stomach with undigested heterogeneous contents (presumed bezoar. Discussion: A bezoar is a mass of incompletely digested material typically originating in the stomach and consisting of vegetable fibers, hair, or drugs.1 Bezoars develop after ingested foreign material accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract due to indigestibility, gastric outlet obstruction, or intestinal stasis. Trichobezoars are comprised of hair and classically form in young females with an underlying psychiatric disorder resulting in the urge to pull one’s hair out (trichotillomania and swallow it (trichophagia.2,3 Gastric bezoars are rare with an approximate incidence of 0.3 percent of patients undergoing upper endoscopy.4 Patients tend to remain asymptomatic for long periods, but may develop abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, and weight loss.5 Complications may include gastrointestinal ulcerations, perforations, intussusception, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and death.6-8 The diagnosis of a gastric bezoar can be made using plain films, ultrasound, or CT, and

  10. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Jan C.; Grosser, Nina; Waltke, Christian; Schulz, Stephanie; Erdmann, Kati; Domschke, Wolfram; Schroeder, Henning; Pohle, Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection

  11. Histamine and duodenal ulcer: effect of omeprazole on gastric histamine in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Man, W K; Thompson, J N; Baron, J H; Spencer, J

    1986-01-01

    Gastric mucosal concentrations of histamine and of its metabolic enzyme, histamine methyltransferase activity, were measured in patients with duodenal ulcer disease and patients with an apparently normal stomach and duodenum. Patients with duodenal ulcer had significantly less (p less than 0.05) mucosal histamine (median 204 nmol/g) than control subjects (median 252 nmol/g). There was no significant difference between the two groups in their histamine methyltransferase activity values. Omepra...

  12. Solitary polypoid lesion in gastric cardia; a case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Imanzadeh; Aliakbar Sayyari; Amirhossein Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction: Hyperplastic polyps of the esophago-gastric junction are seen during endoscopic evaluation of upper gastrointestinal tract. They are usually asymptomatic and discovered accidentally during endoscopic evaluation for other problems. These protrusions are mucosal regenerative response to surrounding mucosal injury. Case: Here we present a 9-year-old boy presenting with abdominal pain and vomiting since about one year ago. Recently, he was suffering from retrosternal chest p...

  13. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  14. Immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Isolation and identification of Helicobacter spp, from canine and feline gastric mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalava, K.; On, Stephen L.W.; VanDamme, P.A.R.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that virtually all healthy adult dogs and cats harbor spiral helicobacters in their gastric mucosa, Three species, Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, and Helicobacter salomonis have been isolated in vitro from the gastric mucosa of these animals. The aims of this study were...... conventional phenotypic tests, whole-cell protein profiling, and ultrastructural analysis in identifying the different species isolated from canine and feline gastric mucose. We cultured 95 and 22 gastric mucosal biopsies from dogs and cats, respectively. Twenty-one H. bizzozeronii strains, 8 H. felis strains......, 8 H. salomonis strains, 3 mixed cultures, 2 "Flexispira rappini"-like organisms, and 3 as get uncharacterized strains were isolated from the dogs, and 3 H. felis strains were isolated from the cats. The methods used here yielded Helicobacter isolation rates of 51% from dogs and 13.6% from cats...

  16. Results of Endoscopic Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer by Nd-YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tani

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We have introduced two endoscopic treatments for early gastric cancer: endoscopic mucosal resection using a cap-fitted panendoscope (EMRC, and endoscopic laser therapy using a Nd-YAG laser. Thirty-two patients (34 lesions with gastric cancer were treated by Nd-YAG laser; including 23 initial-therapy cases (25 lesions and 9 second-therapy cases representing failures of endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic ethanol injection. Endoscopic laser therapy was performed safely without complication in all patients. Three patients had residual cancer, and 2 of these required surgery. Six patients died from other disease. Endoscopic laser therapy can remove early gastric cancer even when the lesion has ulceration or submucosal invasion, and has a powerful hemostatic effect. It is a safe and effective treatment for early gastric cancer.

  17. Mechanistic Studies of the Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity and Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Dichlorido-Copper(II-4-(2-5-Bromo-benzylideneaminoethyl Piperazin-1-ium Phenolate Complex against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The compound dichlorido-copper(II-4-(2-5-bromobenzylideneaminoethyl piperazin-1-ium phenolate (CuLBS was synthesized, characterized and screened for acute toxicity and protective activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Gross microscopic lesions, biochemical and immunological parameters and histochemcial staining of glycogen storage were taken into consideration. Oral administration of CuLBS (30 and 60 mg/Kg for two weeks dose-dependently flattened gastric mucosa, significantly increased gastric mucus and total acidity, compared with control group (P < 0.01. Serum levels of liver enzymes aspartate (AST and alanine transaminases (ALT, pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNF-α and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines in the rats exposed to ethanol induced ulceration have been altered. Administration of CuLBS showed considerable (P < 0.05 protection against ulceration by modulating the acute alterations of cytokines AST, ALT and stomach glycogen. Interestingly, CuLBS did not interfere with the natural release of nitric oxide. CuLBS alone (60 mg/Kg did not exhibit any ulcerogenic effect as assessed using Adami’s scoring scale. An acute toxicity study showed that rats treated with CuLBS (1,000 and 2,000 mg/Kg manifested no abnormal signs. These findings therefore, suggested that the gastroprotective activity of CuLBS might contribute in modulating the inflammatory cytokine-mediated oxidative damage to gastric mucosa.

  18. Resveratrol: A potential challenger against gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta, Aida; Caretti, Anna; Signorelli, Paola; Ghidoni, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Late diagnosis and classical therapeutic approaches such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy make this disease a still threatening tumor. Genetic asset, environmental stress, dietary habit and infections caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are the major causes concurring to GC initiation. A common mechanism is induction of radicals resulting in gastric mucosal injury. A regular food intake of antioxidant and radical scavenging agents has been proposed to exert protection against tumorigenesis. Resveratrol belongs to the polyphenol flavonoids class of antioxidants produced by a restricted number of plants. Resveratrol exerts bactericidal activity against H. pylori and is a powerful antioxidant, thus acting as a tumor preventive agent. Resveratrol intracellular signaling results in growth arrest and apoptosis, so that it can be directed against tumor progression. Resveratrol therapeutic potential against GC initiation and progression are reviewed here. PMID:26457023

  19. Gastritis and gastric ulcers in working dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eDavis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies.

  20. The Mucosal Immune System of Teleost Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Salinas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess an adaptive immune system associated with each of their mucosal body surfaces. Evidence obtained from mucosal vaccination and mucosal infection studies reveal that adaptive immune responses take place at the different mucosal surfaces of teleost. The main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of teleosts are the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT, the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT and the recently discovered nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT. Teleost MALT includes diffuse B cells and T cells with specific phenotypes different from their systemic counterparts that have co-evolved to defend the microbe-rich mucosal environment. Both B and T cells respond to mucosal infection or vaccination. Specific antibody responses can be measured in the gills, gut and skin mucosal secretions of teleost fish following mucosal infection or vaccination. Rainbow trout studies have shown that IgT antibodies and IgT+ B cells are the predominant B cell subset in all MALT and respond in a compartmentalized manner to mucosal infection. Our current knowledge on adaptive immunity in teleosts is limited compared to the mammalian literature. New research tools and in vivo models are currently being developed in order to help reveal the great intricacy of teleost mucosal adaptive immunity and help improve mucosal vaccination protocols for use in aquaculture.

  1. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    , and a lower probability of developing colorectal cancer. Understanding the mechanisms of mucosal wound formation and wound healing in UC, and how they are affected therapeutically is therefore of importance for obtaining efficient treatment strategies holding the potential of changing the disease course of UC....... This review is focused on the pathophysiological mechanism of mucosal wound formation in UC as well as the known mechanisms of intestinal wound healing. Regarding the latter topic, pathways of both wound healing intrinsic to epithelial cells and the wound-healing mechanisms involving interaction between...... epithelial cells and other cells of the mucosa are discussed. The biochemistry of wound healing in UC provides the basis for the subsequent description of how these pathways are affected by the current medications, and what can be learnt on how to design future treatment regimens for UC based on targeting...

  2. Enzymatic sulfation of mucus glycoprotein in gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liau, Y.H.; Carter, S.R.; Gwozdzinski, K.; Nadziejko, C.; Slomiany, A.; Slomiany, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Among the posttranslational modifications that mucus glycoprotein undergo prior to secretion into the gastric lumen is the process of sulfation of the carbohydrate chains. These sulfate groups impart strongly negative charge to nucus glycoprotein and are thought to play a major role in the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. The authors report here the presence and some properties of an enzyme involved in the sulfation of gastric mucus glycoprotein. The sulfotransferase activity which catalyzes the transfer of sulfate ester group from PAPS to mucus glycoprotein was located in the detergent extracts of the microsomal fraction of rat gastric mucosa. Optimum enzymatic activity for sulfation of gastric mucin was obtained using 0.5% Triton X-100 and 25mM NaF at a pH of 6.8. ATP, ADP, MgCl 2 and MnCl 2 at concentrations examined were inhibitory. Under optimal conditions, the rate of sulfate incorporation was proportional to the microsomal enzyme protein concentration up to 50μg and remained constant with time of incubation for at least 1h. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for gastric mucus glycoprotein was 8.3 x 10 -6 M. The 35 S-labeled product of the enzyme reaction cochromatographed on Bio-Gel A-50 with gastric mucin, and gave on CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation a band at the density of 1.48 in which the 35 S label coincided with the glycoprotein

  3. Food intolerance and mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Most infants are immunologically active and are able to develop a tolerance to oligoclonal antigens by producing IgA, along with activation of regulatory T cells, in early infancy. Cytokines and their signaling molecules are important mediators in the intestine, regulating both oral tolerance and mucosal inflammation. This system works efficiently in most individuals, but for an as yet undefined reason, some people react to food and other proteins as though they were pathogens, with induction of chronic inflammation in the mucosa. The adverse reaction caused by ingested foods is defined as food intolerance. The clinical features of food intolerance include vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, eczema, failure to thrive, and a protean range of other symptoms. Intolerance can be divided into two categories depending on whether or not they are immunologically mediated. Food intolerance and mucosal inflammation are deeply related because tolerance cannot be established when there is an inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Mast cells, eosinophils, mucosal lymphocytes, and epithelial cells are deeply involved and related to each other in the development of mucosal inflammation. Meanwhile, rectal bleeding in infancy is related to lymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophil infiltration into the colonic mucosa facilitated by C-C motif ligand 11 (CCL11, known as eotaxin-1) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13). Rectal bleeding in infancy may not be simply caused by allergic reactions against specific antigens, but may be due to migrated lymphocytes developing immunological tolerance; including IgA synthesizing, in the intestinal mucosa. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  5. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  6. The effect of intravenous omeprazole on the gastric and duodenal potential difference and pH in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinstein, E; Højgaard, L

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intravenous omeprazole (40 and 80 mg) on the gastric and duodenal potential difference (PD) and pH was investigated in 9 healthy volunteers. Gastric PD and pH increased significantly (p omeprazole, and the increases were equal following the two doses. No changes were...... found in duodenal PD or pH. It has been claimed that gastric PD changes following acid secretion inhibition with cimetidine and glucagon might be due to changes in the parietal cell surface area. Omeprazole causes no changes in the parietal cell structure, and the changes in gastric PD following...... omeprazole might therefore be ascribed to changes in mucosal electrophysiologic transport or resistance....

  7. DNA Methylation as Surrogate Marker For Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jung-Hwan; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Seung-Jin; Rhyu, Mun-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer remains, stubbornly, highly prevalent in East Asia. Still, stomach cancer has few biomarkers by which it can be predicted. Helicobacter pylori infection, a known carcinogen of stomach cancer, usually goes undetected prior to cancer diagnosis, due to the poor mucosal environments that its related gastric atrophy causes. We propose, herein, an endoscopic-biopsy-based cancer-predicting DNA methylation marker. We semi-quantitatively examined the methylation-variable sites near the ...

  8. Estimation by Gross Findings in Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has been accepted as both minimally invasive and curative treatment modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). The widely accepted indication of endoscopic resection for EGC is small sized, differentiated mucosal cancer in which the risk of lymph node metastasis is negligible. Tumor size can be measured by conventional endoscopy, and chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, narrow band imaging, autofluorescence imaging can also be helpful for accurate estimation of tumor size...

  9. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  10. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bizzaro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms.

  11. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelsbrunner, Martin E; Nakano, Motoko; Holzer, Peter

    2009-06-02

    Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg) modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 - 30 mg/kg) or cimetidine (10 mg/kg), and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M). During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect the gastric mucosa from acid injury independently of their

  12. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect

  13. Interaction between endogenous carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in the mechanism of gastroprotection against acute aspirin-induced gastric damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierowski, Marcin; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Adamski, Juliusz; Bakalarz, Dominik; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is mainly recognized as painkiller or anti-inflammatory drug. However, ASA causes serious side effects towards gastrointestinal (GI) tract which limits its usefulness. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) have been described to act as important endogenous messengers and mediators of gastroprotection but whether they can interact in gastroprotection against acute ASA-induced gastric damage remains unknown. In this study male Wistar rats were pretreated with 1) vehicle (saline, i.g.), 2) tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2, 5mg/kg i.g.), 3) sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 5mg/kg i.g.), 4) zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 10mg/kg i.p.), 5) D,L-propargylglycine (PAG, 30mg/kg i.g.), 6) ZnPP combined with NaHS, 7) PAG combined with CORM-2 or 8) 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10mg/kg i.p.) combined with CORM-2 or NaHS and 30min later ASA was administered i.g. in a single dose of 125mg/kg. After 1h, gastric blood flow (GBF) was determined by H 2 gas clearance technique and gastric lesions were assessed by planimetry and histology. CO content in gastric mucosa and COHb concentration in blood were determined by gas chromatography and H 2 S production was assessed in gastric mucosa using methylene blue method. Protein and/or mRNA expression for cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), heme oxygenase (HO)-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor-alpha (HIF)-1α, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin (IL)-1β were determined by Western blot or real-time PCR, respectively. ASA caused hemorrhagic gastric mucosal damage and significantly decreased GBF, H 2 S production, CO content, mRNA or protein expression for CSE, 3-MST, HO-2 and increased mRNA and/or protein expression for CBS, HO-1, Nrf-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, IL-1β, COX-2 in gastric mucosa and COHb

  14. Gastric anti-ulcer and cytoprotective effect of selenium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, N.S.; Tariq, M.; Ageel, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element, in the form of sodium selenite has been studied for its ability to protect the gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by hypothermic restraint stress, aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, dimaprit, and various other gastric mucosal-damaging (necrotizing) agents in rats. The results demonstrate that oral administration of sodium selenite produces a significant inhibition of the gastric mucosal damage induced by all the procedures used in this study. Selenium, in a nonantisecretory dose, produced a marked cytoprotective effect against all the necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective effect of selenium against the effects of 80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl was significantly reversed by prior treatment with a dose of indomethacin that inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis. These data indicate that sodium selenite inhibits the formation of these lesions by the mucosal generation of prostaglandins. The concentrations of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) were significantly decreased in the gastric mucosa following the administration of necrotizing agents--80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl. Treatment with sodium selenite, which significantly reduced the intensity of gastric lesions, did not replenish the reduced levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH, thus ruling out the mediation of its protective effect through sulfhydryls. The antisecretory effect of sodium selenite, which becomes evident only in the high dose of 20 mumol/kg, may be responsible for the inhibition of gastric lesions induced by aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, and dimaprit. Our findings show that selenium possesses significant anti-ulcer and adaptive cytoprotective effects. However, further detailed studies are required to confirm these effects, to establish its mechanism(s) of action, and to determine its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  15. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain chronic conditions increase the risk of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about stomach cancer: Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach cancer ...

  16. Modulation of gastric pH by a buffered soluble effervescent formulation: A possible means of improving gastric tolerability of alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, L A; Connolly, S M; Winter, J; Schmidt, T; Stevens, H N E; Hayward, M; Wilson, C G

    2012-08-01

    Gastrointestinal side-effects of alendronate (ALN) are believed to be associated with oesophageal lodging of tablets and perhaps reflux of gastric contents with alendronate under strongly acidic pH conditions. This leads to unfavourable posture restrictions when dosing. This clinical study evaluated gastric emptying and gastric pH after administration of Fosamax(®) tablets and a novel effervescent ALN formulation with a high buffering capacity. This novel formulation, EX101, was developed to potentially improve gastric tolerance. Gastric pH was monitored by nasogastric probes. Gastric emptying was determined simultaneously by scintigraphic imaging of (99m)Tc-DTPA labelled formulations. Both formulations tested rapidly cleared the oesophagus and there were no statistically significant or physiologically relevant differences in gastric emptying times. Mean pH at time to 50% gastric emptying of the radiolabel was significantly higher in EX101-treated subjects compared to those treated with Fosamax(®). At time to 90% gastric emptying of the radiolabel, mean pH values were comparable. Mucosal exposure to ALN at pH less than 3 is irritating to gastro-oesophageal tissue. Ingestion of Fosamax(®) resulted in ALN being present in the stomach at a pH below 3 within minutes. EX101 minimised the possibility of exposing the oesophagus (in case of reflux) to acidified ALN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  18. Co-lyophilized Aspirin with Trehalose Causes Less Injury to Human Gastric Cells and Gastric Mucosa of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lee-Shuan; Kayasuga-Kariya, Yuko; Nakamura, Shugo; Shimohata, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Takamasa; Fujisawa, Ayano; Akagi, Yuki; Suzuki, Shigeki; Chung, Ung-Il; Sasaki, Nobuo; Mochizuki, Manabu

    2016-08-01

    Aspirin is one of the most popular NSAIDs worldwide because of its anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant effects, and however, gastrointestinal injury remains a major complication. We previously reported co-lyophilized aspirin/trehalose (Lyo A/T) decreased the aspirin-induced gastric lesions in dogs. This study investigated the mechanism of gastroprotective effects of trehalose in vitro and in vivo. The apoptotic assays were performed in a human gastric carcinoma cell line, which was treated with aspirin, mixed aspirin/trehalose (Mix A/T) or Lyo A/T. Gastric ulcer severity was examined after oral administration of drugs in rats. In addition, the mucosal tissue apoptotic status in drug-treated rats was evaluated. Molecular dynamics simulations and laser Raman spectroscopy were performed in order to examine the molecular properties of Lyo A/T. DNA fragmentation was detected in AGS cells that were treated with aspirin and Mix A/T, but not in the Lyo A/T-treated cells. There were fewer apoptotic cells in the Lyo A/T-treated cells than in the other cells. Gastric injury was reduced in rats that received oral Lyo A/T compared with the others, while PGE2 synthesis was equally decreased in all groups. TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry of cleaved caspase-3 in the mucosal tissues also revealed that Lyo A/T treatment induced less apoptosis than the others. The Lyo A/T spectrum showed clear differences in several Raman bands compared with that of Mix A/T. Our data showed that co-lyophilization of aspirin with trehalose reduced gastric injury, potentially through suppression of aspirin-induced mucosal cell apoptosis while retaining its anti-inflammatory effects.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinases in gastric inflammation and cancer : clinical relevance and prognostic impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubben, Francois Jozef Gerard Marie

    2007-01-01

    The studies in this thesis describe the clinical impact of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in H. pylori-induced gastritis and gastric cancer. In patients with H. pylori-induced gastritis, significantly increased mucosal MMP-9 levels were

  20. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  1. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    . This review is focused on the pathophysiological mechanism of mucosal wound formation in UC as well as the known mechanisms of intestinal wound healing. Regarding the latter topic, pathways of both wound healing intrinsic to epithelial cells and the wound-healing mechanisms involving interaction between...... epithelial cells and other cells of the mucosa are discussed. The biochemistry of wound healing in UC provides the basis for the subsequent description of how these pathways are affected by the current medications, and what can be learnt on how to design future treatment regimens for UC based on targeting...

  2. Curcumin-induced histone acetylation inhibition improves stress-induced gastric ulcer disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Zhou, Renmin; Hu, Guorui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jin, Yu; Yang, Guang; Li, Mei; Lin, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin is known to possess anti‑inflammatory properties. Despite the fact that curcumin is known to be a strong inhibitor of H+, K+‑ATPase activity, the mechanism underlying the curcumin‑induced inhibition of the transcription of the H+, K+‑ATPase α subunit in gastric mucosal parietal cells remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible mechanism by which curcumin inhibits stomach H+, K+‑ATPase activity during the acute phase of gastric ulcer disease. A rat model of stress‑induced gastric ulcers was produced, in which the anti‑ulcer effects of curcumin were examined. Curcumin‑induced inhibition of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter via histone acetylation, was verified using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that curcumin improved stress‑induced gastric ulcer disease in rats, as demonstrated by increased pH values and reduced gastric mucosal hemorrhage and ulcer index. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the level of histone H3 acetylation at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter and in the expression of the gastric H+,K+‑ATPase α subunit gene and protein. In conclusion, curcumin downregulated the acetylation of histone H3 at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter gene, thereby inhibiting the transcription and expression of the H+, K+‑ATPase gene. Curcumin was shown to have a preventive and therapeutic effect in gastric ulcer disease.

  3. Evaluation of radiological findings of complete gastric erosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Sub; Choi, See Sung; Lim, Yeo Sub; Kim, Byung Chan; Chung, Young Sun; Kim, Chang Guhn; Won, Jong Jin

    1987-01-01

    The double-contrast upper gastrointestinal (UGI) examination is an effective means of clearly demonstrating complete gastric erosions. The main radiographic feature of the complete gastric erosion is a small barium fleck surrounded by a radiolucent halo in the gastric mucosa. From Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 a total of 48 cases of complete gastric erosions was diagnosed by double-contrast UGI examinations, and then 12 cases among them underwent endoscopy within 6 days of UGI examination. For evaluation of the relationship of the diameters of radiolucent halos to the central barium flecks, the radiographic findings were reviewed. 1. 1) The male to female ratio was 20:28. The age of patients ranged from 15 to 76 years, and the most common age group was 6th decade. 2) The clinical symptoms included epigastralgia (63%), indigestion, hunger pain, and vomiting. 2. Thirteen coexistent diseases were found in 11 patients (22.9%): gastric ulcer in 4 patients, duodenal ulcer in 3, gastric cancer in 3, liver cirrhosis in 2, and hepatoma in one. 3. The gastric antrum was involved in all cases. The gastric body was also involved in 8 case, and duodenal bulb in 2 cases. 4. In all cases there were multiple complete erosions. The number of the erosions were 2 to 10 in 83.4% of cases. The radiographic findings of 330 complete erosions in the 48 cases were analyzed. 1) The diameters of surrounding halos varied from 3 to 11mm, and the sized of the central barium flecks from 0(No central barium fleck) to 5mm. The shapes of central barium flecks were round in 70.6% of complete erosions. 2) In general, the small central barium flecks had small surrounding halos, and the large ones large halos (correlation coefficient r=0.97). But with the enlargement of central barium flecks, the ratios of the diameters of surrounding halos to the size of central barium flecks tended to decrease by degrees. It appears that in the formation of a surrounding mucosal elevation (radiolucent halo) of a complete

  4. Solitary polypoid lesion in gastric cardia; a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Imanzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Hyperplastic polyps of the esophago-gastric junction are seen during endoscopic evaluation of upper gastrointestinal tract. They are usually asymptomatic and discovered accidentally during endoscopic evaluation for other problems. These protrusions are mucosal regenerative response to surrounding mucosal injury. Case: Here we present a 9-year-old boy presenting with abdominal pain and vomiting since about one year ago. Recently, he was suffering from retrosternal chest pain. So after thorough clinical and paraclinical evaluations, upper endoscopy was done and, a small polypoid lesion in esophago-gastric junction was seen. Its surface seems normal and the polyp has no true stalk. Polypectomy was performed without any complication.Discussion: These lesions usually are regenerative response to surrounding mucosal injury. So, a thorough clinical evaluation and obtaining the sufficient biopsy specimen of the nonpolypoid mucosa are necessary for determining the clinicopathologic context in which the polyps have developed.

  5. Gastric and colonic mantle cell lymphoma - incidental discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi, Dan; Stoica, Victor; Stoia, Razvan; Dobrea, Camelia; Becheanu, Gabriel; Diculescu, Mircea

    2009-03-01

    A 65-year old patient, with no medical history, was admitted for lower gastrointestinal bleeding. On clinical examination the patient seemed to be in good health. However the examination was completed with a rectosigmoidoscopy revealing the presence of mucosal erosions, ulcerations, multiple papulae. The histopathological examination raised the suspicion of a colonic lymphoma. Gastric biopsies suggested a gastric MALT type lymphoma associated to the colonic lymphoma, but the immunohistochemical profile corresponded to a mantle cell lymphoma. In spite of the general poor prognosis of mantle cell lymphoma, our patient had a good clinical and endoscopic response to the standard cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone (CVP) therapy. The cases of gastric and colonic mantle lymphoma are rare, the response to therapy is poor; fortunately, our patient had a complete resolution after completion of the six cycles of chemotherapy.

  6. Gastric potential difference and pH in ulcer patients and normal volunteers during Stroop's colour word conflict test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bendtsen, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    mucosal electrical potential difference (PD). In 13 healthy volunteers and 12 duodenal ulcer patients gastric PD, pH, and heart rate were measured continuously during basal conditions, during mental stress evoked by the Stroop's colour word conflict test, and after return to basal conditions....... The volunteers fell into two groups: In seven no sympathetic activation was elicited as no changes in heart rate were demonstrated. Gastric pH was unchanged, and PD increased slightly. Sympathetic activation was elicited in the other six with increased heart rate by 18 (6) beats per min. Potential difference...... declined significantly during sympathetic activation (delta PD = -5 (2)mV, p less than 0.05). Gastric pH increased. Eleven of 12 ulcer patients had sympathetic activation accompanied by a decline in PD, and an increased pH. Sympathetic activation in ulcer patients and volunteers impaired gastric mucosal...

  7. An endoscopic study of upper-GI mucosal changes in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Kaiser; Kochhar, Rakesh; Sethy, Pradeepta K; Dutta, Usha; Bali, Harinder K; Varma, Jagmohan S

    2004-12-01

    Congestive heart failure results in an increase in systemic venous pressure that is transmitted to the inferior vena cava and to the hepatic veins. This can cause GI vascular and mucosal congestion. The aim of this study was to define upper-GI mucosal changes in patients with congestive heart failure. A total of 57 patients with congestive heart failure presenting with GI symptoms underwent upper endoscopy. Echocardiography was performed in all patients to determine the ejection fraction and the degree of tricuspid regurgitation. Transabdominal US was performed to measure the diameters of the hepatic veins, the inferior vena cava, and the portal vein. The presence and the severity of gastropathy and duodenopathy were compared with the parameters relating to severity of cardiac failure. Of the 57 patients studied, gastric mucosal changes were observed in 50 (88%), duodenal mucosal changes in 31 (54%), and esophageal mucosal changes in none. Gastric mucosal changes were the following: mosaic-like pattern (n = 50), punctate spots (n = 34), thickened folds (n = 5), watermelon stomach (n = 3), and telangiectasia (n = 10). Duodenal mucosal changes were the following: mosaic-like pattern (n = 29), thickened folds (n = 8), and telangiectasia (n = 2). Upper-GI symptoms were associated with gastropathy ( p = 0.027) and duodenopathy ( p = 0.003). The presence and the severity of duodenopathy showed a high degree of positive correlation with the presence and the severity of gastropathy (gamma value 0.690; p value <0.001). Patients with gastropathy and duodenopathy had higher mean inferior vena cava and hepatic vein diameters than those without gastropathy and duodenopathy. The severity of duodenopathy but not that of gastropathy was significantly associated with increasing severity of tricuspid regurgitation ( p = 0.001), larger portal vein diameter ( p = 0.02), and lower ejection fraction ( p = 0.008). Among patients with congestive cardiac failure with GI symptoms, changes

  8. Gastric antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties of celery (Apium graveolens) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Alsheikh, Abdulmalik; Alqasoumi, Saleh; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; ElTahir, Kamal; Rafatullah, Syed

    2010-07-01

    In the present investigation, an ethanol extract of celery [Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae/Umbelliferae)], at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, was evaluated for antigastric ulcer activity using various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Ulcers were induced by indomethacin, cytodestructive agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) and cold restraint stress. Gastric secretory studies were undertaken by using pylorus ligation (Shay rat model). In addition to gastric wall mucus (GWM), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also estimated in gastric tissues after 80% ethanol treatment. Pretreatment of celery extract produced dose-dependent reduction in all experimentally induced gastric lesions. Ethanol (80%) decreased the levels of GWM, NP-SH and increase in MDA concentration in gastric tissue. Celery extract showed the ability to significantly replenish the ethanol-induced depleted levels of GWM and gastric mucosal NP-SH. The gastric mucosal MDA level was also significantly lowered in extract pretreated rats. The celery extract showed stomach protection against the models used for ulcerogenesis. Results were further confirmed by using histopathological assessment. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of various chemical constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils, alkaloids, sterols and/or triterpenes. Acute toxicity test revealed no deleterious or toxic symptoms or mortality over a period of 14 days. However, the LD(50) was found to be 7.55 g/kg, and showed a large margin of safety. The results suggest that Apium graveolens extract significantly protects the gastric mucosa and suppresses the basal gastric secretion in rats, possibly through its antioxidant potential.

  9. Mucosal vaccines: a paradigm shift in the development of mucosal adjuvants and delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul; Gowda, Devegowda Vishakante; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Shinde, Chetan G; Iyer, Meenakshi

    2015-04-01

    Mucosal immune responses are the first-line defensive mechanisms against a variety of infections. Therefore, immunizations of mucosal surfaces from which majority of infectious agents make their entry, helps to protect the body against infections. Hence, vaccinization of mucosal surfaces by using mucosal vaccines provides the basis for generating protective immunity both in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments. Mucosal vaccines offer several advantages over parenteral immunization. For example, (i) ease of administration; (ii) non-invasiveness; (iii) high-patient compliance; and (iv) suitability for mass vaccination. Despite these benefits, to date, only very few mucosal vaccines have been developed using whole microorganisms and approved for use in humans. This is due to various challenges associated with the development of an effective mucosal vaccine that can work against a variety of infections, and various problems concerned with the safe delivery of developed vaccine. For instance, protein antigen alone is not just sufficient enough for the optimal delivery of antigen(s) mucosally. Hence, efforts have been made to develop better prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for improved mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses using an efficient and safe immunostimulatory molecule and novel delivery carriers. Therefore, in this review, we have made an attempt to cover the recent advancements in the development of adjuvants and delivery carriers for safe and effective mucosal vaccine production. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. BISPHOSPHONATE - RELATED MUCOSITIS (BRM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Stanimirov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates (BPs are the most widely used and effective antiresorptive agents for the treatment of diseases in which there is an increase in osteoclastic resorption, including post-menopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, and tumor-associated osteolysis. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are well aware of the side effects of bisphosphonates and mainly with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ. Less known are the mucosal lesions associated with the use of these agents. In the scientific literature, there are only few reports of mucosal lesions due to the direct contact of the oral form of BPs with the mucosa (bisphosphonate-related mucositis. They are mostly related to improper use of bisphosphonate tablets that are chewed, sucked or allowed to melt in the mouth before swallowing. Lesions are atypical and need to be differentiated from other mucosal erosions. We present a case of bisphosphonate-related mucositis due to the improper use of alendronate.

  11. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

  12. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  13. The expression of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall of prehepatic portal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Liu, Yanzhang; Lin, Nan; Xu, Ruiyun

    2011-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding of portal hypertension cases may result from gastric mucosal lesions due to portal hypertensive gastropathy. The pathological changes in the vessels of the gastric wall are very important in the pathogenesis of portal hypertensive gastropathy. However, the mechanisms of these pathological changes are not completely understood. In this study, we examined the expression levels of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension. Eighteen healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups A and B. Group A was used to establish the prehepatic portal hypertensive model and group B to evaluate a sham surgery. The VEGF and PEDF expression in the rat gastric wall were detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. VEGF and PEDF were mainly expressed in the basal layer of the mucosal glands. The expression levels of VEGF and PEDF in group A were higher than that in group B at 7, 10 and 14 days after surgery. The expression levels of VEFG and PEDF in group B did not show significant changes. The results from the present study showed a significantly elevated expression of both VEGF and PEDF in the gastric walls during the development of portal hypertension. The expression of these proteins was mainly located in the basal layer of the gastric mucosa.

  14. A pursuit of significance of the coarsened gastric rugae in radiologic examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Dong [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The radiologic upper G.I. series and gastroscopic examination with gastric biopsies of 230 cases were carried out in Korea General Hospital for the purpose of pursuit of significance of coarsened gastric rugae. Out of the above series the 26 cases showing mere radiologic finding of coarsening of the gastric mucosal rugae were selected, excluding the cases with definite evidence of ulceration, malignancies and others. The correlativity of the coarsened gastric rugae was investigated with clinical pictures, gastroscopic features and biopsy findings. The following results were obtained: 1. There were 24 cases of gastritis, 5 of stomach ulcer and 2 of stomach cancer in the 26 cases with mere finding of mucosal coarsening. 2. There was 5 cases of stomach ulcer disease revealing no radiologic evidence, but there were found tiny ulcers in 4 cases and a large ulcer crater of 1.0 cm by 1.5 cm in diameter in the other case under the gastroscopic study. 3. Two cases of stomach cancer were not detected in neither radiologic nor gastroscopic examination, however, they were found by gastric biopsy. 4. It should be strongly emphasized that the biopsy under the gastroscopic control must be followed when a radiologic evidence of coarsened gastric rugae is demonstrated.

  15. A pursuit of significance of the coarsened gastric rugae in radiologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Dong

    1979-01-01

    The radiologic upper G.I. series and gastroscopic examination with gastric biopsies of 230 cases were carried out in Korea General Hospital for the purpose of pursuit of significance of coarsened gastric rugae. Out of the above series the 26 cases showing mere radiologic finding of coarsening of the gastric mucosal rugae were selected, excluding the cases with definite evidence of ulceration, malignancies and others. The correlativity of the coarsened gastric rugae was investigated with clinical pictures, gastroscopic features and biopsy findings. The following results were obtained: 1. There were 24 cases of gastritis, 5 of stomach ulcer and 2 of stomach cancer in the 26 cases with mere finding of mucosal coarsening. 2. There was 5 cases of stomach ulcer disease revealing no radiologic evidence, but there were found tiny ulcers in 4 cases and a large ulcer crater of 1.0 cm by 1.5 cm in diameter in the other case under the gastroscopic study. 3. Two cases of stomach cancer were not detected in neither radiologic nor gastroscopic examination, however, they were found by gastric biopsy. 4. It should be strongly emphasized that the biopsy under the gastroscopic control must be followed when a radiologic evidence of coarsened gastric rugae is demonstrated.

  16. Acute effects of high-dose intragastric nicotine on mucosal defense mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, G; Bukhave, Klaus; Lilja, I

    1997-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is overrepresented among smokers; they also heal slowly and relapse frequently. Data are accumulating that smoking is detrimental to gastroduodenal mucosal cytoprotection. This study was designed to assess acute effects of high-dose intragastric nicotine, as it has been shown...... that nicotine is accumulated in gastric juice when smoking, Seven healthy smokers were given nicotine base (6 mg) as tablets, which yielded very high intragastric concentrations and plasma levels comparable to those seen when smoking. In addition to nicotine analysis, concentration levels of prostaglandin E(2......) (PGE(2)), phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), and phospholipid classes were measured before and after nicotine administration, Nicotine inhibited PGE(2) levels by 27-81%, whereas PLA(2) and total phospholipids were unaffected. Lysolecithin, a degradation product of the main constituent of gastric surfactant...

  17. Selective scavenging of intra-mitochondrial superoxide corrects diclofenac-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and gastric injury: A novel gastroprotective mechanism independent of gastric acid suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Somnath; De, Rudranil; Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Saha, Shubhra Jyoti; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Nag, Shiladitya; Debsharma, Subhashis; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat multiple inflammatory diseases and pain but severe gastric mucosal damage is the worst outcome of NSAID-therapy. Here we report that mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrially targeted superoxide (O 2 - ) scavenger protected as well as healed gastric injury induced by diclofenac (DCF), the most commonly used NSAID. Common existing therapy against gastric injury involves suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists; however, dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric microfloral dysbalance are the major drawbacks of acid suppression. Interestingly, mitoTEMPO did not inhibit gastric acid secretion but offered gastroprotection by preventing DCF-induced generation of O 2 - due to mitochondrial respiratory chain failure and by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)-mediated mitopathology. MitoTEMPO even restored DCF-stimulated reduced fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and bioenergetic crisis in gastric mucosa. MitoTEMPO also prevented the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and MOS-mediated proinflammatory signaling through NF-κB by DCF. Furthermore, mitoTEMPO when administered in rats with preformed gastric lesions expedited the healing of gastric injury and the healed stomach exhibited its normal physiology as evident from gastric acid and pepsin secretions under basal or stimulated conditions. Thus, in contrast to the existing antiulcer drugs, mitochondrially targeted O 2 - scavengers like mitoTEMPO may represent a novel class of gastroprotective molecules that does not affect gastric acid secretion and may be used in combination with DCF, keeping its anti-inflammatory action intact, while reducing its gastrodamaging effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Postprandial diabetic glucose tolerance is normalized by gastric bypass feeding as opposed to gastric feeding and is associated with exaggerated GLP-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Dorte L; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine after gastric bypass the effect of peroral versus gastroduodenal feeding on glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A type 2 diabetic patient was examined on 2 consecutive days 5 weeks after gastric bypass. A standard liquid meal was given on the first day into the ...... metabolism after gastric bypass is an immediate and direct consequence of the gastrointestinal rearrangement, associated with exaggerated GLP-1 release and independent of changes in insulin sensitivity, weight loss, and caloric restriction....

  19. Effect of antrectomy on Capsicum annuum induced gastric acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The induction of gastric acid secretion by Capsicum annuum is attributed to its active principle, capsaicin, whose effect on the parietal cell is indirect. Capsaicin acutely stimulates sensory neurons to liberate acetylcholine which can release histamine from the enterochromaffin like cells. It also releases gastrin ...

  20. Predictive computational modeling of the mucosal immune responses during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adria Carbo

    Full Text Available T helper (Th cells play a major role in the immune response and pathology at the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection. There is a limited mechanistic understanding regarding the contributions of CD4+ T cell subsets to gastritis development during H. pylori colonization. We used two computational approaches: ordinary differential equation (ODE-based and agent-based modeling (ABM to study the mechanisms underlying cellular immune responses to H. pylori and how CD4+ T cell subsets influenced initiation, progression and outcome of disease. To calibrate the model, in vivo experimentation was performed by infecting C57BL/6 mice intragastrically with H. pylori and assaying immune cell subsets in the stomach and gastric lymph nodes (GLN on days 0, 7, 14, 30 and 60 post-infection. Our computational model reproduced the dynamics of effector and regulatory pathways in the gastric lamina propria (LP in silico. Simulation results show the induction of a Th17 response and a dominant Th1 response, together with a regulatory response characterized by high levels of mucosal Treg cells. We also investigated the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ activation on the modulation of host responses to H. pylori by using loss-of-function approaches. Specifically, in silico results showed a predominance of Th1 and Th17 cells in the stomach of the cell-specific PPARγ knockout system when compared to the wild-type simulation. Spatio-temporal, object-oriented ABM approaches suggested similar dynamics in induction of host responses showing analogous T cell distributions to ODE modeling and facilitated tracking lesion formation. In addition, sensitivity analysis predicted a crucial contribution of Th1 and Th17 effector responses as mediators of histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa during chronic stages of infection, which were experimentally validated in mice. These integrated immunoinformatics approaches

  1. Effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairam, K; Rao, C V; Goel, R K

    2001-04-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient system of Indian medicine, as a rasayana which is mainly advocated for use in rejuvenation therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential anti-ulcerogenic effect of juice of fresh whole plants of C. pluricaulis (CPJ) against various experimental gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol, aspirin, 2 hr cold restraint stress and 4 hr pyloric ligation in rats. The drug was given orally twice daily for five days in the doses of 375 and 750 mg/kg body weight. CPJ showed anti-ulcerogenic effect at both doses in all the experimental gastric ulcer models and was comparable to the reference drug sucralfate (250 mg/kg). Gastric juice secretion and mucosal studies were undertaken to find out the possible mechanism of action of antiulcer effect by studying its effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors. The antiulcerogenic effect of CPJ was found to be due to augmentation of mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, lifespan of mucosal cells and glycoprotiens rather than on the offensive factors like acid-pepsin.

  2. Helicobacter suis causes severe gastric pathology in mouse and mongolian gerbil models of human gastric disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Flahou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: "Helicobacter (H. heilmannii" type 1 is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans suffering from gastric disease. It has been shown to be identical to H. suis, a bacterium which is mainly associated with pigs. To obtain better insights into the long-term pathogenesis of infections with this micro-organism, experimental infections were carried out in different rodent models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mongolian gerbils and mice of two strains (BALB/c and C57BL/6 were infected with H. suis and sacrificed at 3 weeks, 9 weeks and 8 months after infection. Gastric tissue samples were collected for PCR analysis, histological and ultrastructural examination. In gerbils, bacteria mainly colonized the antrum and a narrow zone in the fundus near the forestomach/stomach transition zone. In both mice strains, bacteria colonized the entire glandular stomach. Colonization with H. suis was associated with necrosis of parietal cells in all three animal strains. From 9 weeks after infection onwards, an increased proliferation rate of mucosal epithelial cells was detected in the stomach regions colonized with H. suis. Most gerbils showed a marked lymphocytic infiltration in the antrum and in the forestomach/stomach transition zone, becoming more pronounced in the course of time. At 8 months post infection, severe destruction of the normal antral architecture at the inflamed sites and development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma-like lesions were observed in some gerbils. In mice, the inflammatory response was less pronounced than in gerbils, consisting mainly of mononuclear cell infiltration and being most severe in the fundus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: H. suis causes death of parietal cells, epithelial cell hyperproliferation and severe inflammation in mice and Mongolian gerbil models of human gastric disease. Moreover, MALT lymphoma-like lesions were induced in H. suis-infected Mongolian gerbils

  3. Helicobacter suis causes severe gastric pathology in mouse and mongolian gerbil models of human gastric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahou, Bram; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; D'Herde, Katharina; Driessen, Ann; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard

    2010-11-22

    "Helicobacter (H.) heilmannii" type 1 is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans suffering from gastric disease. It has been shown to be identical to H. suis, a bacterium which is mainly associated with pigs. To obtain better insights into the long-term pathogenesis of infections with this micro-organism, experimental infections were carried out in different rodent models. Mongolian gerbils and mice of two strains (BALB/c and C57BL/6) were infected with H. suis and sacrificed at 3 weeks, 9 weeks and 8 months after infection. Gastric tissue samples were collected for PCR analysis, histological and ultrastructural examination. In gerbils, bacteria mainly colonized the antrum and a narrow zone in the fundus near the forestomach/stomach transition zone. In both mice strains, bacteria colonized the entire glandular stomach. Colonization with H. suis was associated with necrosis of parietal cells in all three animal strains. From 9 weeks after infection onwards, an increased proliferation rate of mucosal epithelial cells was detected in the stomach regions colonized with H. suis. Most gerbils showed a marked lymphocytic infiltration in the antrum and in the forestomach/stomach transition zone, becoming more pronounced in the course of time. At 8 months post infection, severe destruction of the normal antral architecture at the inflamed sites and development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma-like lesions were observed in some gerbils. In mice, the inflammatory response was less pronounced than in gerbils, consisting mainly of mononuclear cell infiltration and being most severe in the fundus. H. suis causes death of parietal cells, epithelial cell hyperproliferation and severe inflammation in mice and Mongolian gerbil models of human gastric disease. Moreover, MALT lymphoma-like lesions were induced in H. suis-infected Mongolian gerbils. Therefore, the possible involvement of this micro-organism in human gastric disease

  4. Postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket and gastric pressure in patients after gastric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Herbella, F. A. M. [UNIFESP; Vicentine, F. P. P. [UNIFESP; Del Grande, J. C. [UNIFESP; Patti, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAn unbuffered postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket (PPGAP) has been demonstrated in normal individuals (NI) and patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). the role of gastric anatomy and gastric motility in the physiology of the PPGAP remains elusive. This study aims to analyze the correlation of PPGAP with proximal gastric pressure after gastric surgery.MethodsA total of 26 individuals were studied: eight patients after open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for morb...

  5. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  6. Transgenic Killer Commensal Bacteria as Mucosal Protectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As first line of defense against the majority of infections and primary site for their transmission, mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts represent the most suitable sites to deliver protective agents for the prevention of infectious diseases. Mucosal protection is important not only for life threatening diseases but also for opportunistic infections which currently represent a serious burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost of cures. Candida albicans is among the most prevalent causes of mucosal infections not only in immuno- compromised patients, such as HIV-infected subjects who are frequently affected by oral and esophageal candidiasis, but also in otherwise healthy individuals, as in the case of acute vaginitis. Unfortunately, current strategies for mucosal protection against candidiasis are severely limited by the lack of effective vaccines and the relative paucity and toxicity of commercially available antifungal drugs. An additional option has been reported in a recent

  7. Bile Gastritis Following Laparoscopic Single Anastomosis Gastric Bypass: Pilot Study to Assess Significance of Bilirubin Level in Gastric Aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenouda, Michael M; Harb, Shady ElGhazaly; Mikhail, Sameh A A; Mokhtar, Sherif M; Osman, Ayman M A; Wassef, Arsany T S; Rizkallah, Nayer N H; Milad, Nader M; Anis, Shady E; Nabil, Tamer Mohamed; Zaki, Nader Sh; Halepian, Antoine

    2018-02-01

    Laparoscopic single anastomosis gastric bypass (SAGB) is increasingly performed for morbidly obese patients. This pilot study aims primarily at evaluating the incidence of bile gastritis after SAGB. The occurrence of reflux oesophagitis and reflux symptoms were also assessed. This study included 20 patients having no reflux symptoms. All patients underwent a SAGB as a primary bariatric procedure by a single surgeon. Patients included consented to have an upper GI endoscopy done at 6 months postoperatively. Gastric aspirate was sent for bilirubin level assessment. Gastric and esophageal biopsies were submitted for histopathology and campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test. In our study, the rate of bile gastritis was 30%. In 18 patients, the level of bilirubin in gastric aspirate seems to be related to the degree of mucosal inflammation. The remaining two patients had microscopic moderate to severe gastritis with normal aspirate bilirubin level. Two patients with bilirubin level in aspirate more than 20 mg/dl had severe oesophagitis, gastritis with erosions, and metaplasia. Relationship between bilirubin level and histopathological findings of gastric biopsy examination was statistically significant with a P value of 0.001. The incidence of bile gastritis in this cohort is higher than reported in the literature, and this may be worrying. The correlation between endoscopic findings and patients' symptoms is poor. Bilirubin level and pH in aspirate might be useful tools to confirm alkaline reflux. Its level might help to choose candidates for revision surgery after SAGB. This needs further validation with larger sample size.

  8. Deoxycholic Acid Could Induce Apoptosis and Trigger Gastric Carcinogenesis on Gastric Epithelial Cells by Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pathologic duodenogastric reflux can induce or aggravate gastritis because of the presence of bile acids. Bile reflux has been generally considered to be associated with intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of the effects of bile acids on gastric mucosa are still unknown. Methods. To explore the mechanisms by which bile acids induce gastric mucosal lesions, we examined cell apoptosis in the gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 and investigated the changes in protein profiles of GES-1 cells in response to a bile acid deoxycholic acid using a proteomics approach. Changes in the profiles of the differently expressed proteins were analyzed using the DAVID and STRING programs. Results. We found apoptosis was significantly induced in GES-1 cells by deoxycholic acid. Using liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS methods, 134 upregulated proteins and 214 downregulated proteins were identified in the bile acid treated GES-1 cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the interactions and signaling networks of these differentially expressed proteins. Conclusion. These findings may improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of bile acids on gastric mucosa.

  9. Protective effects of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Zhao, Shanshan; Wang, Yucun; Yang, Yujiao; Yao, Le; Chu, Liuxiang; Du, Hanhan; Fu, Fenghua

    2014-12-01

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is reported to have a potent antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. This study investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Gastric ulceration was induced by a single intragastric administration of indomethacin (18 mg/kg). The mice underwent intragastric treatment with escin at doses of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.8 mg/kg. Gastric lesion was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 6 h after the indomethacin administration. The antioxidative parameters in gastric mucosa were measured. Moreover, the activity of myeloperoxidase and the contents of TNF-α, P-selectin and VCAM-1 in gastric tissues were determined. The results showed that escin protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from a reduction in the ulcer index and an attenuation of histopathologic changes. Escin caused significant reductions of the contents of malondialdehyde, TNF-α, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and myeloperoxidase activity. The altered activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the stomach tissues were also ameliorated by escin treatment. The present study demonstrated that escin had a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, not only by virtue of its antioxidant potential, but also due to its anti-inflammatory effect.

  10. Fasting gastric pH of Japanese subjects stratified by IgG concentration against Helicobacter pylori and pepsinogen status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Nishida, Jiro; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Kaida, Shogo; Takarabe, Sakiko; Matsukubo, Takashi; Miura, Soichiro; Morishita, Tetsuo; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2011-12-01

    The clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori antibody titer has been controversial, and the association between the extent of gastric atrophy or acid secretion and H. pylori antibody concentration has not been elucidated. Serum pepsinogen, H. pylori antibody concentration, and fasting gastric pH (as an indicator of acid secretion) were measured in 231 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. "Atrophic" pepsinogen was defined as pepsinogen-I Fasting gastric pH was analyzed in subjects stratified by pepsinogen level and by H. pylori antibody concentration. Helicobacter pylori antibody concentration showed no significant relationship with fasting gastric pH when all subjects were analyzed together. In H. pylori-seronegative subjects, fasting gastric pH was within the normal range, irrespective of the extent of mucosal atrophy. In H. pylori-seropositive subjects, H. pylori antibody concentration was positively correlated with fasting gastric pH in subjects with "normal" pepsinogen, but inversely correlated in those with "atrophic" pepsinogen. Particularly in subjects with low H. pylori antibody concentration and atrophic mucosa, a group reportedly at high risk of noncardia cancer, the most impaired acid secretion was shown among subjects with atrophic mucosa.   The relationship between acid secretion and H. pylori antibody concentration differs depending on the presence of mucosal atrophy. Our findings provide a possible rationalization for measuring both serum pepsinogen levels and H. pylori antibody concentration in gastric cancer screening. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Riepl, R L; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined ...

  12. [Assesing the effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites Goñi, Harold Eduardo; Cok García, Jaime; Bussalleu Cavero, Alejandra; Bustamente Robles, Katherine Yelenia; Zegarra Chang, Arturo; Bravo, Eduar; Bussalleu Rivera, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the histological effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia. This study consists of a clinical case series, in which the effect of Maca on the gastric histopathology of 29 Peruvian patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia was examined. The presence of H. pylori, as well as the degree and depth of the gastric mucosa inflammation was evaluated from biopsies obtained before and after the treatment based solely of Maca 3 grams per day for four weeks. Average values of the degree and depth of mucosal inflammation before and after the treatment were compared showing no statistical difference among the samples. Sixteen patients were infected with H. pylori, and they remained infected after the treatment with Maca. A four week long treatment with Maca does not produce significant changes on gastric mucosa of patients with functional dyspepsia, neither on H. pylori eradication.

  13. A rare case of cystic subepithelial tumor in the stomach: Gastric adenomyoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Seok; Jang, Yun Jin; Heo, Jun [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Gastric adenomyoma is a rare benign subepithelial tumor, characteristically composed of mucosal structures and a prominent smooth muscle stroma. Because of rarity and the nonspecific computed tomography (CT) features, it is difficult to diagnose gastric adenomyoma before operation. In our case, gastric adenomyoma showed a well-circumscribed cystic subepithelial mass with uneven wall thickness on a CT scan, similar to the findings of former reports. The radiologic differential diagnosis can be narrowed down to several diseases, including duplication cysts, gastritis cystica profunda, brunner's gland hyperplasia and solid tumors with cystic degeneration. Also, adenomyoma could be included in the differential diagnosis of gastric cystic subepithelial masses, especially in the distal part of the stomach.

  14. [The Influence of Glucocorticoids on the Healing Processes in the Gastric Mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvigina, T T; Filaretova, L P

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we analyzed the data of literature about the glucocorticoid influences on the gastric erosion and ulcer healing. The data show that multiple injections of glucocorticoids at pharmacological doses delay gastric erosion and ulcer healing. However, according to experimental results endogenic glucocorticoids, on the contrary, play significant role in maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. Thus, glucocorticoids may have dual effect on healing of gastric injury: contribute to healing process or delay them. The initial glucocorticoid action is physiological and consists in a participation in healing processes what is considered as component gastroprotective action of these hormones. During a long-lasting action of glucocorticoids, the physiological effect can be transformed into pathological one, delaying erosion and ulcer healing, and this contributes to the ulcerogenic action of glucocorticods.

  15. Inside the mucosal immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R McGhee

    Full Text Available An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI and upper respiratory (UR tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. This mucosal immune system (MIS in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, given by the intravenous route. This article reveals a previously unknown pathway in which several cell types and their secreted mediators work in unison to prevent epithelial cell death in the mouse small intestine. The results of this interesting study illustrate how in vivo systems biology approaches can be used to unravel the complex mechanisms used to protect the host from its environment.

  16. Lymphocyte Trafficking to Mucosal Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikhak, Zamaneh; Agace, William Winston; Luster, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes are the key cells of the adaptive immune system that provide antigen-specific responses tailored to the context of antigen exposure. Through cytokine release and antibody production, lymphocytes orchestrate and amplify the recruitment and function of other immune cells and contribute...... with various homing molecules and respond to tightly regulated navigational cues....

  17. gastric pneumatosis of emphysematous gastritis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gastric pneumatosis (also known as gastric emphysema) or emphysematous gastritis. We present the case of a 27-year-old white female patient with a history of thoracic and abdominal surgery who presented with intractable vomiting, clinically suspected to be as a result of gastric outlet obstruction. Intramural gastric air was ...

  18. Gastric epithelium in the duodenum: its association with Helicobacter pylori and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, J I; Rathbone, B J; Sobala, G M; Shallcross, T; Heatley, R V; Axon, A T; Dixon, M F

    1990-12-01

    Duodenal biopsy specimens from 471 adults and 47 children were examined to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastric epithelium in the duodenal bulb in relation to age, gender, gastroduodenal inflammation, smoking, alcohol and consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Gastric metaplasia was present in the anterior wall duodenal biopsy specimen in 31%, was significantly less common in patients under 17 than in adults, and was more common in males than females. In sixty two adults who underwent multiple radial duodenal biopsy gastric metaplasia was randomly distributed around the duodenal circumference; sixty three per cent of the patients with gastric metaplasia found on multiple biopsy were detected by just the anterior biopsy. Gastric metaplasia was not obviously associated with alcohol, cigarette, or NSAID consumption. While the presence of gastric metaplasia was associated with adulthood, male sex, and low fasting gastric juice pH, its extent was associated with active duodenitis and Helicobacter-associated gastritis. On logistic regression, gastric metaplasia in the duodenum and gastric Helicobacter pylori were independent predictors of active duodenitis, but were not significantly associated with inactive duodenal inflammation. H pylori was observed in duodenal biopsy specimens from 32 patients, all with active duodenitis; bacteria were present only on foci of gastric metaplasia, and were more likely to be seen when the metaplasia was extensive. It is proposed that inflammatory injury to the duodenal mucosa by H pylori may stimulate the development of further gastric metaplasia, and that the area of duodenum susceptible to colonisation with H pylori may therefore increase progressively until mucosal integrity is compromised and ulceration supervenes.

  19. Ketoprofen-loaded Eudragit electrospun nanofibers for the treatment of oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda RI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rana Ihab Reda,1 Ming Ming Wen,2 Amal Hassan El-Kamel1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Manufacturing, Pharos University in Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt Purpose: The purpose of this study was to formulate ketoprofen (KET-loaded Eudragit L and Eudragit S nanofibers (NFs by the electrospinning technique for buccal administration to treat oral mucositis as a safe alternative to orally administered KET, which causes gastrointestinal tract (GIT side effects. Materials and methods: NFs were prepared by electrospinning using Eudragit L and Eudragit S. Several variables were evaluated to optimize NF formulation, such as polymer types and concentrations, applied voltage, flow rate and drug concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and analyses of drug contents, hydration capacity, surface pH, drug release and ex vivo permeation were performed to evaluate the NFs. The selected formulation (F1 was evaluated in vivo on induced oral mucositis in rabbits. Results: SEM revealed that 20% polymer formed smooth and bead-free NFs. DSC results confirmed the amorphous nature of KET in the NFs. FTIR confirmed hydrogen bond formation between the drug and polymer, which stabilized the NFs. Both formulations (F1 and F2 had an acceptable surface pH. The drug loading was >90%. The amount of KET released from NF formulations was statistically significantly higher (P≤0.001 than that released from the corresponding solvent-casted films. The complete release of KET from F1 occurred within 2 hours. Ex vivo permeation study revealed that only a small fraction of drug permeated from F1, which was a better candidate than F2 for local buccal delivery. In vivo evaluation of F1 on oral mucositis induced in rabbits demonstrated that F1 reduced the clinical severity of mucositis in

  20. Gastric-emptying tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gastric emptying have been characterized through many decades of experimental work. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are important. Central mechanisms are related to the center of vomiting and are probably influenced by psychologic and emotional factors. Peripheral mechanisms are located at both sides of the pylorus. Gastric mechanisms are stimulatory and are triggered mainly by distention of the stomach, although hormonal mechanisms may also participate (gastrin). However, with complex, nutrient-containing meals, the intragastric volume is not the primary determinant of gastric emptying. Inhibitory mechanisms of the gut are more important. The key factors are the pH, osmolality, and nutrient content of the chyme being emptied into the duodenum. Osmotic and pH-sensitive receptors are thought to reside in the duodenum. On the other hand, receptors triggered by nutrients extend much more distally into the duodenum and are sensitive to nutrient composition and load. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids all inhibit gastric emptying, although the lipids are probably the most potent inhibitors. If the duodenal load or the characteristics of the emptying material are not adequate, inhibitory mechanisms will reduce gastric emptying at the expense of expanding the intragastric volume. It is therefore not possible to dissociate postprandial gastric emptying from postprandial gastric secretion

  1. Functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mitchell L

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion, discussing both basic and clinical aspects. Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High acidity kills ingested microorganisms and limits bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral gastrin cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons. Ghrelin and coffee also stimulate acid secretion whereas somatostatin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and atrial natriuretic peptide inhibit acid secretion. Although 95% of parietal cells are contained within the oxyntic mucosa (fundus and body), 50% of human antral glands contain parietal cells. Proton pump inhibitors are considered well tolerated drugs, but concerns have been raised regarding dysbiosis, atrophic gastritis, hypergastrinemia, hypomagnesemia, and enteritis/colitis. Our understanding of the functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion continues to advance. Such knowledge is crucial for improved management of acid-peptic disorders, prevention and management of neoplasia, and the development of novel medications.

  2. Mucosal Immunity and the Onset of Allergic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusei Ohshima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal barriers encounter an environment that is rich in pathogens that possess mechanisms for invading mucosal tissues. These barriers also encounter innocuous antigens, such as foods, airborne antigens, and microbiota. The mucosa has developed a sophisticated immune system that can mount robust immune responses against pathogenic antigens, while maintaining mucosal tolerance against non-pathogenic antigens. Accumulating evidence indicates that the mucosal epithelium, dendritic cells, and a subtype of T cells with regulatory properties play important roles in the development and maintenance of mucosal tolerance. Moreover, the micribiota also contribute to regulating the mucosal immune system. A failure to develop or the breakdown of mucosal tolerance can result in allergic diseases, such as food allergy and asthma. By taking advantage of the unique characteristics of the mucosal immune system, strategies that induce regulatory cells in vivo and, thereby, reconstitute mucosal tolerance may be used to develop novel therapies that are suitable for treating or preventing of allergic diseases.

  3. Proximal gastric vagotomy with carbon dioxide laser: Experimental studies in animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadota, T.; Mimura, K.; Kanabe, S.; Ohsaki, Y.; Tamakuma, S. (National Defense Medical College, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy has been widely used as a surgical treatment for peptic ulcer disease. However, it is technically complex and time-consuming. Moreover, it may cause circulatory problems in the gastric mucosa. We have reported a new method of blood flow-preserving vagotomy with a carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser vagotomy) developed in our laboratory. To assess its efficacy, we used cysteamine-induced ulcer and measured gastric mucosal blood flow in rats. The incidence of cysteamine-induced ulcer formation was reduced significantly in the group that underwent CO{sub 2} laser vagotomy compared with a group treated with proximal gastric vagotomy. Gastric mucosal blood flow was significantly better in the CO{sub 2} laser vagotomy group. Long-term follow-up of acid reduction was evaluated in dogs by the pentagastrin-stimulation test. Acid reduction in dogs was satisfactory during the 12 months of this study. CO{sub 2} laser vagotomy is a new, easy, time-saving, and circulatory-preserving technique for peptic ulcer disease.

  4. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group: supplementation with water (vehicle and low-dose (AG-1X, medium-dose (AG-2X and high-dose (AG-5X AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg. Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  5. Novel method to prevent gastric antral strictures after endoscopic submucosal dissection: using triamcinolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Noriko; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Oryu, Makoto; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-09-07

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of large gastric lesions often leads to severe gastric strictures, especially in cases of large ESD in the antrum of the stomach. It has recently been reported that balloon dilation, mucosal incision, and local steroid injections can successfully treat gastric strictures. However, there are some complications with existing methods and decreasing the quality of life. We have developed a novel method to prevent severe gastric strictures that does not involve balloon dilation, mucosal incision, or steroid injections after circumferential ESD. Our original method involves the submucosal injection of a mixed solution composed of triamcinolone acetonide and a general solution of glycerol, hyaluronic acid, and a small amount of indigo carmine and epinephrine during the ESD procedure; this mixture is called a mixed solution of triamcinolone (MST). According to standard ESD procedures, several milliliters of MST are injected into the submucosal layer for the purpose of elevating the submucosa during ESD resulting in prevention of severe strictures. Our method using MST take several advantages such as MST method suppress inflammation in ulcer from initial phase, prevention of stricture without obstructive symptoms, and does not require several ballooning. Therefore, MST method is safe and gentle, shorten the hospitalization duration. Here, we described two cases in which we prevented severe strictures of the gastric antrum after completing a circumferential ESD using MST without any complications.

  6. Acute esophageal and gastric injury: complication of Lugol's solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Myung; Seok Lee, In; Young Kang, Ji; Nyol Paik, Chang; Kyung Cho, Yu; Woo Kim, Sang; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Chung, In-Sik

    2007-01-01

    Several new technologies have been developed to improve the diagnostic capability of conventional endoscopic techniques. One of these most frequently used methods is chromoendoscopy with Lugol's solution in the esophagus to detect malignant lesions. This method has been used for several decades and is generally considered as a safe method, only a few cases of side effects having been reported. We describe a case of acute esophageal and gastric mucosal damage after application of Lugol's solution during endoscopy in an 84-year-old woman. Endoscopists should be aware of the potential for adverse reactions to iodine staining.

  7. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Causes Inflammation, Intracellular Oxphos-Independent ROS Production, and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A. B; Desler, Claus; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and ...... in gastric cell culture. Finally the bacteria induced an NF-κB inflammatory response as well as impaired DNA damage response and cell cycle control gene expression....

  8. "DUPLICATION CYST OF THE STOMACH: A RARE CAUSE OF GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN THE CHILDREN"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kargar F. Moghaddasi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Duplications of gastrointestinal tract are congenital anomalies found in about 0.2% of all children. These include the rare gastric duplication. We present such a cyst in a 14 years old girl with gastric outlet obstruction. She was found to have a noncommunicating antral duplication cyst .The cyst was managed by cystectomy and marsupialization. Microscopically the duplication cyst contained a mucosal, submucosal and muscularis layers. There was no evidence of ulceration or malignant cells. Her recovery was smooth. Etiology, presentation and management of duplication cyst of the stomach is discussed together with a review of literature.

  9. [Bleeding gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp (Vanek's tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guţu, E; Ghidirim, Gh; Mişin, I; Iakovleva, Iraida; Vozian, M

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp's (IFP) or Vanek tumor of the gastrointestinal tract represents a relatively unusual entity. IFP is an extremely rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report herein a case of a 30-year-old woman who had a gastric IFP complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive symptoms. The lesion was mistaken on endoscopic, radiologic examination and in the operating room for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Preoperative endoscopic examination revealed a protruding oval-shaped submucosal lesion (approximately 7 cm in size) of the gastric antrum, with ulceration of the mucosal surface. Multiple endoscopic biopsies were negative for neoplastic changes. Barium meal study disclosed a large tumor in the prepyloric area of the stomach. Presumptive preoperative diagnosis was GIST. Subtotal Bilroth II gastrectomy en bloc with the mass and lymphadenectomy was performed. Surprisingly, the final histological diagnosis was IFP. Postoperative course was uneventful and no recurrences were observed during 4 years follow-up. With reference to case report, the etiology, diagnosis and treatment strategy of IFP will be discussed. This case highlights an unusual presentation of IFP. Although bleeding may represent a rare complication due IFP, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage of uncertain etiology.

  10. Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; van Ierland-van Leeuwen, M. L.; Bennink, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accelerated gastric emptying of solids may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Orlistat, a potent lipase inhibitor, induces fat malabsorption and body weight loss but might accelerate gastric emptying as a result of suppressed CCK release. The aim was to investigate the role of

  11. The Effect of Psychological Stress on Mucosal IL-6 and Helicobacter pylori Activity in Functional Dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin, Eryati; Murni, Arina Widya; Nurdin, Adnil E

    2017-04-01

    pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia remains poorly understood. Many factors such as gastric motility disorder, visceral hypersensitivity, Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, psychological stress and excessive gastric acid secretion play roles in this symptom. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and has an effect on ulcers-associated Hp. This study aimed to determine Helicobacter pylori activity and expression of mucosal IL-6 and their association with psychological stress. a cross-sectional study was done among 40 outpatients with dyspeptic syndromes in M. Djamil General Hospital and two-community health centers in Padang. The subjects were divided into two groups, with and without psychological stress, which were identified using DASS 42. Gastric biopsy specimens and peripheral blood samples were taken while performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Immunohistochemistry methods was used to determine the expression of IL-6 and Hp in gastric mucosa. The correlation of each variable in the group experiencing psychological stress and non-stress was analyzed using Chi-square test. there were 40 patients with functional dyspepsia with average age of 37.58(SD 11.82) years old. The cortisol levels were significantly different between both groups (non-stress vs. stress groups); moreover, morning cortisol level in psychological stress group was higher beyond normal limit. Inter-Leukin-6 expression, as the evidence of inflammatory activity, seemed higher in non-stress group than the group with psychological stress (8.25% vs. 7.25%). Helicobacter pylori activity was seemed to be increased in the stress group as characterized by higher numbers of invasion to the sub mucosa epithelium compared to the non-stress group (11 vs. 7 subjects). psychological stress seems to have no correlation with IL-6 in gastric mucous of patients with functional dyspepsia; however, there is an evidence of increasing activity of Helicobacter pylori.

  12. Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Thiago Mello; Rozza, Ariane Leite; Kushima, Hélio; Pellizzon, Claudia Helena; Rocha, Lucia Regina Machado; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have described the gastroprotective effects of essential oils that are derived from Citrus aurantium (OEC) and its main compound d-limonene (LIM) in a model of chemically induced ulcers in rats. However, these studies do not address the compound's healing effects on the gastric mucosa. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the healing activity of OEC and LIM in acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats, a model that reproduces human chronic ulcers. The obtained results demonstrated that lower effective doses of OEC (250 mg/kg) and LIM (245 mg/kg) induced gastric mucosal healing with a cure rate of 44% and 56%, respectively, compared with the control group (P<.05). During the 14 days of OEC or LIM treatment, none of the groups demonstrated toxicity in terms of body and organ weight or serum biochemical parameters. Both OEC and LIM treatment promoted an increase in epithelial healing, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which was greater in the animals that were treated with the positive control. In addition, both treatments increased cellular proliferation as measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclooxygenase 2 expression in the gastric mucosa, vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated blood vessel formation in the margin of the ulcer, and production of gastric mucus, which fortifies the gastric protective barrier. We concluded that OEC and LIM, two common flavoring agents, promote gastric mucosal healing without any apparent toxic effect, resulting in better gastric epithelial organization in the treated rats.

  13. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regular exercise has family members who will provide emotional and practical support (like driving to every doctor's visit or buying healthy food ) Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this ...

  14. Stages of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following: Having any of the following medical conditions : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Chronic gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach). Pernicious anemia . Intestinal metaplasia ( ...

  15. Uncommon mucosal metastases to the stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastases to the stomach from an extra-gastric neoplasm are an unusual event, identified in less than 2% of cancer patients at autopsy. The stomach may be involved by hematogenous spread from a distant primary (most commonly breast, melanoma or lung, or by contiguous spread from an adjacent malignancy, such as the pancreas, esophagus and gallbladder. These latter sites may also involve the stomach via lymphatic or haematogenous spread. We present three cases of secondary gastric malignancy. Methods/Results The first is a 19-year-old male who received a diagnosis of testicular choriocarcinoma in September 2004. Metastatic malignancy was demonstrated in the stomach after partial gastrectomy was performed to control gastric hemorrhage. The second is a 75-year-old male, generally well, who was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung in September 2005. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung was demonstrated in a subsequent biopsy of "gastric polyps". The third is an 85-year-old man with no known history of malignancy who presented for evaluation of iron deficiency anemia by endoscopy in February 2006. Biopsies of the colonic and gastric mucosa demonstrated moderately differentiated invasive colonic adenocarcinoma with metastatic deposits in the stomach. Conclusion While the accurate recognition of these lesions at endoscopy is fraught with difficulty, pathological awareness of such uncommon metastases in the gastric mucosa is essential for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management.

  16. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric carcinogenesis: Current knowledge and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokic-Milutinovic, Aleksandra; Alempijevic, Tamara; Milosavljevic, Tomica

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The outcome of the infection depends on environmental factors and bacterial and host characteristics. Gastric carcinogenesis is a multistep process that is reversible in the early phase of mucosal damage, but the exact point of no return has not been identified. Therefore, two main therapeutic strategies could reduce gastric cancer incidence: (1) eradication of the already present infection; and (2) immunization (prior to or during the course of the infection). The success of a gastric cancer prevention strategy depends on timing because the prevention strategy must be introduced before the point of no return in gastric carcinogenesis. Although the exact point of no return has not been identified, infection should be eradicated before severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa develops. Eradication therapy rates remain suboptimal due to increasing H. pylori resistance to antibiotics and patient noncompliance. Vaccination against H. pylori would reduce the cost of eradication therapies and lower gastric cancer incidence. A vaccine against H. pylori is still a research challenge. An effective vaccine should have an adequate route of delivery, appropriate bacterial antigens and effective and safe adjuvants. Future research should focus on the development of rescue eradication therapy protocols until an efficacious vaccine against the bacterium becomes available. PMID:26556993

  17. Diagnostic potential of endoscopic ultrasonography-elastography for gastric submucosal tumors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yuichiro; Kusano, Chika; Gotoda, Takuji; Itokawa, Fumihide; Fukuzawa, Masakatsu; Sofuni, Atsushi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Nagao, Toshitaka; Itoi, Takao; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2016-03-01

    Qualitative diagnosis for gastric submucosal tumors (SMT) is not easy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in combination with EUS-elastography (EUS-EG) is reported useful for qualitatively diagnosing pancreatic tissues. We prospectively studied whether EUS-EG could be useful in qualitative diagnosis of gastric SMT. We prospectively registered 25 consecutive patients with gastric SMT diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and carried out qualitative evaluations using EUS-EG (May 2013 to March 2015) followed by histopathological diagnosis using EUS-FNA or endoscopic mucosal cutting biopsy. Elastic scores of gastric SMT were compared to the cytological diagnosis. Of 25 patients, 22 had a confirmed cytological diagnosis. Regarding the Giovannini elastic score, of three patients with aberrant pancreas, one was score 1 and two were score 2; of eight patients with leiomyoma, seven were score 2 and one was score 3. Both of two patients with schwannoma were score 4. Of nine patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor, six were score 4 and three were score 5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is harder than other types of gastric SMT, and our study's findings suggested the usefulness of EUS-EG, which can also assess tumor hardness of gastric SMT. EUS-EG might be helpful for the differential diagnosis of gastric SMT, especially to differentiate GIST from other SMT. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  18. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.

  19. Lingual and gastric lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamosh, M

    1990-01-01

    The 1973 discovery of lingual lipase, which is secreted by lingual serous glands and hydrolyzes medium- and long-chain triglycerides in the stomach, has renewed interest in the gastric phase of fat digestion. In humans, lipase is present in the serous (von Ebner) glands of the tongue, where it is localized in zymogen granules. In the stomach, the highest lipase activity is in the body. By immunocytochemistry, gastric lipase is confined to the chief cells of the fundic mucosa and is colocalized with pepsin. Human lipase purified from lingual serous glands or gastric juice has a MW of 45k to 51K but tends to aggregate (MW 270-300K and 500K) and is highly hydrophobic. Secretion of gastric lipase appears to be stimulated by at least two receptor mechanisms. It has been suggested that the products of gastric lipolysis maintain the sterility of the gastrointestinal tract. These enzymes are essential for the digestion of milk fat in the newborn because, contrary to other digestive lipases (pancreatic or milk digestive lipase), lingual and gastric lipases can penetrate into the milk fat globule and initiate the digestive process. Lingual and gastric lipase activity has been found in subjects with cystic fibrosis and appears to continue in the upper small intestine in these patients, perhaps replacing some of the missing pancreatic lipase. It is possible that lingual and gastric lipase supplements would be more effective in preventing steatorrhea in these patients than are the pancreatic enzyme supplements now given. The same therapeutic utility might be obtained in patients with alcoholic pancreatic insufficiency.

  20. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Bizzaro; Antonio Antico; Danilo Villalta

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastri...

  1. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  2. Endoscopic Management of Gastric Polyp with Outlet Obstruction without Polypectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk-Kay Sun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although gastric polyp is usually an incidental endoscopic finding, large-sized polyps can cause symptoms ranging from epigastralgia to bleeding from ulcerated polyps and gastric outlet obstruction. Although the gold standard of treatment is removal of the polyp either through endoscopic polypectomy or surgical excision, complications associated with these procedures cannot be ignored. The risk becomes a major concern for patients at high risk for surgery when complications arise. We describe a debilitated 74-year-old woman who presented with early satiety, intermittent postprandial nausea and vomiting for three months. Upper endoscopy revealed a 2.5 cm pedunculated polyp over the gastric antrum causing intermittent obstruction. Considering her high risk for polypectomy, detachable snaring was performed without polypectomy in an outpatient setting. The patient was complication-free with complete relief of obstructive symptoms one week after the procedure. Subsequent follow-ups showed satisfactory healing without signs of mucosal disruption or recurrence. The results suggest that detachable snaring without polypectomy may be a therapeutic option for high-risk patients with benign symptomatic gastric polyps.

  3. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years.

  4. Techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Leon M G; Gralnek, Ian M; Siersema, Peter D

    2015-04-01

    Performing high-quality colonoscopy is one of the important goals of gastroenterology practices and requires achieving a high level of bowel cleansing, performing good and safe polypectomy, and detecting all polyps present in the colon. This article summarizes currently available techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal visualization. Several maneuvers can be applied during insertion and withdrawal of the colonoscope to optimize mucosal visualization and decrease the number of missed polyps. Newly developed technologies support the endoscopist in the detection of polyps. Each technique is reviewed, with emphasis on the impact on colorectal polyp detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of microbial phytases for gastric inositol phosphate degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial phytases catalyze dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thereby potentially releasing chelated iron and improving human iron absorption from cereal-based diets. For this catalysis to take place in vivo, the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. This study...... compares the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability, activity retention, and extent of dephosphorylation of phytic acid in a simulated low-pH/pepsin gastric environment and examines secondary protein structural changes at low pH via circular dichroism. The Peniophora...... lycii phytase was found to be the most thermostable, but the least robust enzyme in gastric conditions, whereas the Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli phytases proved to be most resistant to gastric conditions. The phytase from Citrobacter braakii showed intermediate robustness. The extent of loss...

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection associates with a mucosal downregulation of ghrelin, negative regulator of Th1-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoluzi, Omero Alessandro; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Caruso, Roberta; Monteleone, Ivan; Caprioli, Flavio; Tesauro, Manfredi; Turriziani, Mario; Monteleone, Giovanni; Pallone, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-related gastritis is characterized by a predominant T helper (Th)1/Th17 cell immunity. Ghrelin (GR) has immunoregulatory properties and inhibits experimental Th cell-dependent pathology. To evaluate whether Hp infection associates with changes in GR expression and whether GR negatively regulates Th1/Th17 cytokines during Hp infection. GR expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in gastric biopsies taken from Hp-infected and Hp-uninfected patients and in gastric biopsies of Hp-negative subjects cultured with or without H. pylori culture supernatant. To examine whether GR regulates Hp-induced cytokine production, H. pylori-infected gastric biopsies were stimulated with GR, and interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-4 transcripts were evaluated by real-time PCR. IL-12 and IFN-γ were also analyzed in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) extracted from Hp-infected gastric biopsies and cultured with GR. GR RNA transcripts were reduced in biopsies from Hp-infected patients. Treatment of Hp-negative gastric biopsies with Hp culture supernatant reduced GR RNA expression. GR dose-dependently inhibited RNA expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ but not IL-4 in ex vivo cultures of mucosal explants and in cultures of gastric LPMCs from Hp-positive patients. GR is downregulated in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients. Such a defect could contribute to sustain the ongoing Th1-cell response. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Gastroprotective effect of Byrsonima sericea DC leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric injury and its possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Patrícia A; Morais, Selene M; Souza, Carolina M; Magalhães, Davi V; Vieira, Icaro G P; Andrade, Geanne M; Rao, Vietla S; Santos, Flávia A

    2012-03-01

    Byrsonima sericea leaves are extensively used in folk medicine in Brazil against gastric disorders. This study investigated the chemical constituents of B. sericea leaf ethanolic extract (BSLE) and its potential gastroprotective activity, with its possible mechanism of the action using ethanol to induce gastric mucosal damage in mice. The phytochemical analysis was carried out to identify the active constituents present in the extract, and the HPLC analysis was performed for the identification of flavonoids. BSLE at oral doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg markedly attenuated the ethanol-evoked gastric lesions by 53.2, 84.9 and 87.6 %, respectively. The BSLE (250 mg/kg) prevented the depletion of gastric mucus and gastric mucosal nonproteic-sulfhydryl groups, SOD and CAT, as well as the increase in the MDA content promoted by absolute ethanol. Moreover, the effect of BSLE against ethanol damage was found to be significantly reduced in mice pretreated with Capsazepine (i.p.), L-NAME (i.p.) or glibenclamide (i.p.), the respective blockers/inhibitors of TRPV1, NO synthase and K+ATP channel. The phytochemical investigation on BSLE revealed the presence of flavonoids rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and quercetin, which are compounds well known for their antioxidant and gastroprotective properties. These results suggest that BSLE affords gastroprotection through multiple mechanisms, which may be helpful in the treatment of pathologies associated with gastric dysfunctions.

  8. Lactic dehydrogenase levels in patients with duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastric polys and gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniola, D; Ayoola, E A; Arigbabu, A O

    1986-01-01

    LDH is found in many body fluids and tissues. Its level is elevated in many diseases. Thus the levels of LDH in serum and gastric juice were determined in both benign and malignant disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract using the spectrophotometric techniques. 45 patients were included in the study (duodenal ulcer 19; gastric ulcer 6; gastric polyps 5; and gastric carcinoma 15). Serum LDH levels were not significantly elevated. However, the gastric juice LDH levels were significantly elevated in gastric polyps and gastric carcinoma. The mean levels were 96.81 +/- 14.31 and 443.2 +/- 58.1 i.u./L respectively. Serial estimation of gastric juice LDH in patients with gastric polyps showed a remarkable elevation at the time of malignant transformation.

  9. Helicobacter pylori coinfection is a confounder, modulating mucosal inflammation in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity has been considered a potential reservoir for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori , from where the organism causes recurrent gastric infections. Aim: With this case-control study we tried to evaluate the role of H pylori in the etiology of mucosal inflammation, a condition that compounds the morbid state associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. Materials and Methods : Subjects ( n = 150 were selected following institutional regulations on sample collection and grouped into test cases and positive and negative controls based on the presence of mucosal fibrosis and inflammation. The negative controls had none of the clinical signs. All patients underwent an oral examination as well as tests to assess oral hygiene/periodontal disease status; a rapid urease test (RUT of plaque samples was also done to estimate the H pylori bacterial load. We used univariate and mutivariate logistic regression for statistical analysis of the data and calculated the odds ratios to assess the risk posed by the different variables. Results : The RUT results differed significantly between the groups, reflecting the variations in the bacterial loads in each category. The test was positive in 52% in the positive controls (where nonspecific inflammation of oral mucosa was seen unassociated with fibrosis, in 46% of the test cases, and in 18% of the negative controls (healthy volunteers (χ2 = 13.887; P < 0.01. A positive correlation was seen between the oral hygiene/periodontal disease indices and RUT reactivity in all the three groups. Conclusions: The contribution of the H pylori in dental plaque to mucosal inflammation and periodontal disease was significant. Logistic regression analysis showed gastrointestinal disease and poor oral hygiene as being the greatest risk factors for bacterial colonization, irrespective of the subject groups. A positive correlation exists between RUT reactivity and the frequency of mucosal inflammation.

  10. The Realization of the Brain-Gut Interactions with Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Glucocorticoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaretova, Ludmila; Bagaeva, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background The brain and the gut interact bi-directionally through the brain-gut axis. The interaction is mediated by the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. The first brilliant demonstration of the brain-gut interactions was the cephalic phase of gastric and pancreatic secretion discovered by Ivan Pavlov, the first physiologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904. This review aims to identify the HPA system as a key hormonal branch of the brain-gut axis in stress. Methods We first outlined main components of the brain-gut axis and then focused on the HPA system as a key hormonal branch of the brain-gut axis in stress. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature using a focused review question. Results Seventy-one articles were included in the review, the eleventh of them were articles of Filaretova L. and co-authors. We will discuss in our articles how an endocrinological approach to gastroenterological field can advance our understanding of the HPA axis role in regulation of gastric mucosal integrity and uncover new findings. According to these findings activation of the HPA system is gastroprotective component of the brain-gut axis in stress but not ulcerogenic one as it was generally accepted. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoids are important natural players provided gastroprotection. The results suggest that an initial action of endogenous glucocorticoids, including stress- and CRF-produced ones, as well as exogenous glucocorticoids, even used at pharmacological doses, is physiological gastroprotective. Prolongation of the hormonal action may lead to the transformation of gastroprotective hormonal effect to proulcerogenic one. Conclusion The findings of this review demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids contribute to the realization of the brain-gut interactions and that

  11. Mucosal vaccines: recent progress in understanding the natural barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Olga; Lebre, Filipa; Bento, Dulce; Borchard, Gerrit; Junginger, Hans E

    2010-02-01

    It has long been known that protection against pathogens invading the organism via mucosal surfaces correlates better with the presence of specific antibodies in local secretions than with serum antibodies. The most effective way to induce mucosal immunity is to administer antigens directly to the mucosal surface. The development of vaccines for mucosal application requires antigen delivery systems and immunopotentiators that efficiently facilitate the presentation of the antigen to the mucosal immune system. This review provides an overview of the events within mucosal tissues that lead to protective mucosal immune responses. The understanding of those biological mechanisms, together with knowledge of the technology of vaccines and adjuvants, provides guidance on important technical aspects of mucosal vaccine design. Not being exhaustive, this review also provides information related to modern adjuvants, including polymeric delivery systems and immunopotentiators.

  12. MicroRNA-3178 ameliorates inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis promoted by Helicobacter pylori new toxin, Tip-α, by targeting TRAF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Meijuan; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Aiqin; Xia, Anliang; Kong, Siya; Gong, Chun; Zhu, Mingxia; Zhou, Xin; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Cheng, Wenfang

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Tip-α is a newly identified carcinogenic factor present in H. pylori. TRAF3 can activate NF-κB by both canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. In this study, we found that the expression of TRAF3 and NF-κB was upregulated, while microRNA-3178 (miR-3178) was decreased in H. pylori-positive gastric tissues but not in H. pylori-negative tissues. GES-1 cells were incubated with 12.5 μg/mL recombinant Tip-α (rTip-α) in RPMI1640 for 2 hours. After another 24 hours, the supernatant medium was designed as inflammatory-conditioned medium (ICM) and that from the untreated control cells was designed as untreated control medium. The release of proinflammatory cytokines from GES-1 cells and proliferation of gastric cancer cells was determined by ELISA and CCK-8 kits. Cells were transfected with the mimic, inhibitor, negative control of miR-3178, or TRAF3 siRNA control siRNA. The medium was then replaced with RPMI1640, 12.5 μg/mL rTip-α, and collected, and the total cellular RNA and protein were extracted for the following detection. MiR-3178 mimic prevented the increasement of TRAF3 and hence decreased activation of NF-κB signals, whereas miR-3178 inhibitor could not, in GES-1 cells with Tip-α treatment. The condition medium from miR-3178 mimic transfected GES-1 cells could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of inflammation-related gastric cancer cells SGC7901 and MGC803 by decreasing the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, which were secreted by GES-1 cells. Taken all together, Tip-α might activate NF-κB to promote inflammation and carcinogenesis by inhibiting miR-3178 expression, which directly targeting TRAF3, during H. pylori infection in gastric mucosal epithelial cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  14. Defensin carriers for better mucosal immunity in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froy, Oren; Chapnik, Nava; Nussinovitch, Amos

    2010-06-30

    The innate immunity utilizes a battery of broad-spectrum antibacterial cationic polypeptides named defensins. In humans, defensins are the first line of defense against pathogens, and their expression has been implicated in several diseases. In addition to exerting direct antimicrobial effects, defensins facilitate and amplify innate and adaptive immune responses. HD-5 is a polypeptide that plays a pivotal role in combating bacteria in the digestive system. Our results show that HD-5 can be entrapped within alginate carriers and strengthen their structure without changing their brittleness. In addition, carrier-entrapped HD-5 is released when incubated in buffer and/or stomach-simulating solution and still retains its activity after the release. This incubation also led to a decrease in carrier strength as well as an increase in their brittleness. Nevertheless the carriers did not disintegrate and remained intact throughout the diffusion process. The release of the defensin exhibited a bimodal behavior, suggesting that it was found both in a cross-linked and non-cross-linked form within the carrier. These results indicate that defensins encapsulated within alginate carriers could possibly be used for better mucosal immunity in the digestive system. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    KIYONO, Hiroshi; AZEGAMI, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interc...

  16. Development of sustained release tablets containing solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sustained release of baclofen from the solid dispersion containing tablet was achieved for 2 h in gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and for up to 10 h in intestinal fluid (pH 6.8). A combination of solid dispersion techniques using adsorption and sustained release concepts is a promising approach to control the release rate of poorly ...

  17. Nutrition and Gut Mucositis in Pediatric Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    Childhood malignancies are the second most common cause of death in children. A major limitation of current therapies is the high toxicity. Alimentary tract toxicity (mucositis) is associated with increased risk of complication such as infections that may lead to death. In relation to HSCT, mucos...

  18. Mucosal biofilm detection in chronic otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Marcus; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine middle ear biopsies from Greenlandic patients with chronic otitis media (COM) for the presence of mucosal biofilms and the bacteria within the biofilms. Thirty-five middle ear biopsies were obtained from 32 Greenlandic COM patients admitted to ear...

  19. Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Understanding the complex factors that can lead ... Related content ... on women's paid work. Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  20. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feber, T. [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author).

  1. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feber, T.

    1996-01-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author)

  2. Immunology: The Neuronal Pathway to Mucosal Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Stephan; Maizels, Rick M

    2018-01-08

    Type 2 immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be initiated by type 2 innate lymphoid cells. New studies report that these cells are themselves activated by the neuropeptide neuromedin U, produced by cholinergic neurons in the gut and in airways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunology: the neuronal pathway to mucosal immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Löser, Stephan; Maizels, Rick M.

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be initiated by type 2 innate lymphoid cells. New studies report that these cells are themselves activated by the neuropeptide neuromedin U, produced by cholinergic neurons in the gut and in airways.

  4. Topical morphine for oral mucositis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Aagaard, Gitte; Henneberg, Steen W

    2012-01-01

    Systemic opioids for painful chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in children often result in unsatisfactory pain relief and a high frequency of side effects. Opioids applied topically can produce analgesia by binding to opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. These receptors...

  5. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) silencing in Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Muhammad, Jibran Sualeh; Nanjo, Sohachi; Ando, Takayuki; Fujinami, Haruka; Kajiura, Shinya; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection induces methylation silencing of specific genes in gastric epithelium. Various stimuli activate the nonselective cation channel TRPV4, which is expressed in gastric epithelium where it detects mechanical stimuli and promotes ATP release. As CpG islands in TRPV4 are methylated in HP-infected gastric epithelium, we evaluated HP infection-dependent changes in TRPV4 expression in gastric epithelium. Human gastric biopsy samples, a human gastric cancer cell line (AGS), and a normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) were used to detect TRPV4 mRNA and protein expression by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Ca 2+ imaging was used to evaluate TRPV4 ion channel activity. TRPV4 methylation status was assessed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). ATP release was measured by a luciferin-luciferase assay. TRPV4 mRNA and protein were detected in human gastric biopsy samples and in GES-1 cells. MSP and demethylation assays showed TRPV4 methylation silencing in AGS cells. HP coculture directly induced methylation silencing of TRPV4 in GES-1 cells. In human samples, HP infection was associated with TRPV4 methylation silencing that recovered after HP eradication in a time-dependent manner. HP infection-dependent DNA methylation suppressed TRPV4 expression in human gastric epithelia, suggesting that TRPV4 methylation may be involved in HP-associated dyspepsia. © 2016 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mucosal Vaccination and Therapy with Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vehicles that overcome the problem of delivering functional proteins to the mucosal tissues. By the intranasal route, both live and killed LAB vaccine strains have been shown to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses that

  7. Can the oral microflora affect oral ulcerative mucositis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.; de Soet, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review: Oral mucositis is one of the most prevalent toxicities after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Mucositis is initiated by the chemotherapy or radiotherapy preceding the transplantation. It is commonly accepted that microorganisms play a role in the process of oral mucositis.

  8. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  9. Dietary salt and gastric ulcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, A

    1986-01-01

    Statistically significant linear correlations between geographic variations in salt consumption and mortality from gastric, but not duodenal ulcer, are reported. It is suggested that dietary consumption of salt is a risk factor in mortality from gastric ulcer.

  10. [Gastric stump cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinescu, C; Dragomir, C; Pleşa, C; Kreisler, S; Răileanu, R; Stoian, M; Frunzăreanu, N; Diaconu, C; Vasile, V

    1982-01-01

    The cases of gastric stump cancer recorded at the III-rd Surgical Clinic of Iaoi during the last 5 years are analysed. Based upon the personal experience and data in the literature 7 cases are discussed. Out of the 7 cases, in 3 an initial resection for gastric ulcer and in 4 for duodenal ulcer was performed 17-40 years previously (with an average of 26 years). All the patients presented Bilroth II anastomoses. The diagnosis was determined by radiological, endoscopic and endobioptic examinations after a mean interval of 10 month since the occurence of the clinical symptoms. The site of the lesion was the following: in 3 cases on the anastomosis line and in 4 on the reminder of the stump. Out of the 7 cases, 5 were operable and in 4 the resection was completed. Two days post-operatively a death was recorded. The conclusions of this paper insist upon the fact that the occurance of the tumor on the gastric resection stump mainly depends on the initial lesion (gastric lesion) and less on the type of anastomosis. The long-term surveillance of the gastric resection patients is thus essential.

  11. The need for using fluoroscopic guidance to obtain gastric biopsies when in search of Helicobacter pylori with a nonendoscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Greg N.; Mullins, Daniel J.; Makuch, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Nonendoscopic, fluoroscopic biopsy of the gastric mucosa, following barium examination of the stomach, has gained attention with its ease of performance and cost savings potential over endoscopy. Endoscopic research concerning the efficacy of biopsy sites has revealed an increased sensitivity of antral biopsies over greater curvature biopsies for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. Fluoroscopically guided biopsies of the gastric mucosal are studied to determine whether such a difference between site sensitivity held true. If not, blind biopsy through a nasogastric tube, which traditionally samples only the greater curvature, might prove an even less expensive alternative. Materials and methods: Seventy-two patients underwent nonendoscopic, fluoroscopically guided, mucosal biopsy of both the gastric antrum and the greater curvature of the stomach. Pathologic reports from both sites, using each patient as their own control, are compared to assess site sensitivity in the diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis. Results: The sensitivity for the detection of H. pylori gastritis by antral biopsy is 89% whereas the sensitivity of greater curvature biopsy is 62%. The difference is considered clinically significant at P≤0.05. Conclusions: This study confirms the need for antral biopsies when desiring a nonendoscopic approach to gastric mucosal sampling, in order to obtain a reasonable yield of data in dyspeptic patients with H. pylori gastritis. Blind techniques cannot reliably reach the antrum. Fluoroscopy can, and remains a less expensive alternative to endoscopy

  12. The need for using fluoroscopic guidance to obtain gastric biopsies when in search of Helicobacter pylori with a nonendoscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Greg N.; Mullins, Daniel J.; Makuch, Richard S

    1999-12-01

    Purpose: Nonendoscopic, fluoroscopic biopsy of the gastric mucosa, following barium examination of the stomach, has gained attention with its ease of performance and cost savings potential over endoscopy. Endoscopic research concerning the efficacy of biopsy sites has revealed an increased sensitivity of antral biopsies over greater curvature biopsies for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. Fluoroscopically guided biopsies of the gastric mucosal are studied to determine whether such a difference between site sensitivity held true. If not, blind biopsy through a nasogastric tube, which traditionally samples only the greater curvature, might prove an even less expensive alternative. Materials and methods: Seventy-two patients underwent nonendoscopic, fluoroscopically guided, mucosal biopsy of both the gastric antrum and the greater curvature of the stomach. Pathologic reports from both sites, using each patient as their own control, are compared to assess site sensitivity in the diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis. Results: The sensitivity for the detection of H. pylori gastritis by antral biopsy is 89% whereas the sensitivity of greater curvature biopsy is 62%. The difference is considered clinically significant at P{<=}0.05. Conclusions: This study confirms the need for antral biopsies when desiring a nonendoscopic approach to gastric mucosal sampling, in order to obtain a reasonable yield of data in dyspeptic patients with H. pylori gastritis. Blind techniques cannot reliably reach the antrum. Fluoroscopy can, and remains a less expensive alternative to endoscopy.

  13. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) Modelling of Severe Acute Mucositis using a Novel Oral Mucosal Surface Organ at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J A; Welsh, L C; Wong, K H; Aleksic, A; Dunne, E; Islam, M R; Patel, A; Patel, P; Petkar, I; Phillips, I; Sham, J; Schick, U; Newbold, K L; Bhide, S A; Harrington, K J; Nutting, C M; Gulliford, S L

    2017-04-01

    A normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of severe acute mucositis would be highly useful to guide clinical decision making and inform radiotherapy planning. We aimed to improve upon our previous model by using a novel oral mucosal surface organ at risk (OAR) in place of an oral cavity OAR. Predictive models of severe acute mucositis were generated using radiotherapy dose to the oral cavity OAR or mucosal surface OAR and clinical data. Penalised logistic regression and random forest classification (RFC) models were generated for both OARs and compared. Internal validation was carried out with 100-iteration stratified shuffle split cross-validation, using multiple metrics to assess different aspects of model performance. Associations between treatment covariates and severe mucositis were explored using RFC feature importance. Penalised logistic regression and RFC models using the oral cavity OAR performed at least as well as the models using mucosal surface OAR. Associations between dose metrics and severe mucositis were similar between the mucosal surface and oral cavity models. The volumes of oral cavity or mucosal surface receiving intermediate and high doses were most strongly associated with severe mucositis. The simpler oral cavity OAR should be preferred over the mucosal surface OAR for NTCP modelling of severe mucositis. We recommend minimising the volume of mucosa receiving intermediate and high doses, where possible. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin C transporter gene (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2) polymorphisms, plasma vitamin C levels, and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duell, E.J.; Lujan-Barroso, L.; Llivina, C.; Munoz, X.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Racine, A.; Boeing, H; Buijsse, B.; Canzian, F.; Johnson, T.; Dalgard, C.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Sanchez, S.C.; Sanchez-Cantalejo, E.; Huerta, J.M.; Ardanaz, E.; Dorronsoro, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Travis, R.C.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Rafnsson, S.; Palli, D.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S; Grioni, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Numans, M.E.; Peeters, P.H.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Johansson, M.; Johansson, I.; Skeie, G.; Weiderpass, E; Duarte-Salles, T.; Stenling, R.; Riboli, E.; Sala, N.; Gonzalez, CA

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C is known to protect mucosal tissues from oxidative stress and inhibit nitrosamine formation in the stomach. High consumption of fruits, particularly citrus, and higher circulating vitamin C concentrations may be inversely associated with gastric cancer (GC) risk. We investigated 20

  16. Mucosal vaccine delivery by non-recombinant spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Ezio; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Cangiano, Giuseppina; De Felice, Maurilio; Isticato, Rachele

    2014-08-12

    Development of mucosal vaccines strongly relies on an efficient delivery system and, over the years, a variety of approaches based on phages, bacteria or synthetic nanoparticles have been proposed to display and deliver antigens. The spore of Bacillus subtilis displaying heterologous antigens has also been considered as a mucosal vaccine vehicle, and shown able to conjugate some advantages of live microrganisms with some of synthetic nanoparticles. Here we review the use of non-recombinant spores of B. subtilis as a delivery system for mucosal immunizations. The non-recombinant display is based on the adsorption of heterologous molecules on the spore surface without the need of genetic manipulations, thus avoiding all concerns about the use and environmental release of genetically modified microorganisms. In addition, adsorbed molecules are stabilized and protected by the interaction with the spore, suggesting that this system could reduce the rapid degradation of the antigen, often observed with other delivery systems and identified as a major drawback of mucosal vaccines.

  17. Western Validation of a Novel Gastric Cancer Prognosis Prediction Model in US Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Yanghee; Goldner, Bryan; Son, Taeil; Song, Kijun; Noh, Sung Hoon; Fong, Yuman; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2018-03-01

    A novel prediction model for accurate determination of 5-year overall survival of gastric cancer patients was developed by an international collaborative group (G6+). This prediction model was created using a single institution's database of 11,851 Korean patients and included readily available and clinically relevant factors. Already validated using external East Asian cohorts, its applicability in the American population was yet to be determined. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) dataset, 2014 release, all patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection between 2002 and 2012, were selected. Characteristics for analysis included: age, sex, depth of tumor invasion, number of positive lymph nodes, total lymph nodes retrieved, presence of distant metastasis, extent of resection, and histology. Concordance index (C-statistic) was assessed using the novel prediction model and compared with the prognostic index, the seventh edition of the TNM staging system. Of the 26,019 gastric cancer patients identified from the SEER database, 15,483 had complete datasets. Validation of the novel prediction tool revealed a C-statistic of 0.762 (95% CI 0.754 to 0.769) compared with the seventh TNM staging model, C-statistic 0.683 (95% CI 0.677 to 0.689), (p prediction model for gastric cancer in the American patient population. Its superior prediction of the 5-year survival of gastric cancer patients in a large Western cohort strongly supports its global applicability. Importantly, this model allows for accurate prognosis for an increasing number of gastric cancer patients worldwide, including those who received inadequate lymphadenectomy or underwent a noncurative resection. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design Optimization and Evaluation of Gastric Floating Matrix Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    CP934P polymers for floating and release rate control. Sodium bicarbonate was added as a gas-generating agent (CO2) in the presence of gastric fluid. Glipizide was mixed with the required quantities of HPMC K4M, CP 934P and. Sodium bicarbonate by geometric mixing then mixture was blended with microcrystalline.

  19. Design Optimization and Evaluation of Gastric Floating Matrix Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: CCD demonstrated the role of the derived equations, contour plots and response surface plots in predicting the values of independent variables for the preparation and optimization of glipizide gastric floating matrix tablet. Keywords: Effervescent, Floating tablet, Design of Experiment, Release kinetics, Central ...

  20. Esomeprazole inhibits the pentagastrin-stimulated secretion of gastric acid in healthy Japanese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Koike, Tomoyuki; Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-03-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease, in which the reflux of gastric acid causes mucosal damage of the esophagus and/or troublesome symptoms. Esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, has been used for treatment of GERD in Japan since 2011; namely, only little is known about its effect on gastric acid secretion in Japanese. We, therefore, assessed the relationship between dose and timing of esomeprazole administration and gastric acid inhibition in 11 healthy male Japanese volunteers by directly examining gastric acid secretion capacity. In this randomized, open-label, three-way crossover study, the subjects were dosed with esomeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg once a day (q.d.), or 20 mg twice a day (b.i.d.) for 14 days, and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion was measured by endoscopic gastrin test. At steady states, gastric acid inhibition rates were significantly higher in esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. (median 100.0%, interquartile range [IQR] 99.4-100%, P = 0.027) or 20 mg q.d. (100.0%, IQR 99.7-100%, P = 0.016), compared with 10 mg q.d. (98.4%, IQR 84.4-100%). At trough states, esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. showed significantly higher gastric acid inhibition (99.6%, IQR 99.0-100%) than did 20 mg q.d. (84.2%, IQR 76.4-88.8%, P = 0.002) or 10 mg q.d. (64.9%, IQR 59.1-76.7%, P = 0.001). Thus, esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. was sufficient to inhibit > 99% gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects. We propose that esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. is effective for treating Japanese patients with refractory GERD who require long-lasting gastric acid inhibition.

  1. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Abdullah, Rasedee; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2016-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a natural herb with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used for decades in folkloric practice for the amelioration of various ailments. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of C. excavata leaves (MECE) was determined in the Sprague Dawley rat ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Rats were pretreated with a single dose of vehicle (5% Tween 20), 20 mg/mL omeprazole, 400 and 200 mg/mL of MECE dissolved in 5% Tween 20. Ulcer was induced with 5 mL/kg of ethanol and stomach tissue was obtained after 1 hour. Histological examination was done on hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunochemically stained gastric mucosal tissues. Prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation levels of the gastric tissue homogenates were also determined. Significantly (P<0.05) smaller ulcer areas, less intense edema, and fewer leukocytes’ infiltration were observed in MECE- and omeprazole-treated than in untreated gastric mucosa with ulcer. The gastric pH, mucus production, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase contents increased, while the lipid peroxidation content decreased as a result of MECE treatment. Bcl-2-associated X protein was underexpressed, while heat shock protein 70 and transforming growth factor-beta protein were overexpressed in the ulcerated gastric mucosa tissues treated with omeprazole and MECE. Similarly, there was a reduction in the levels of tumor necrotic factor-alpha and interleukin-6, while the level of interleukin-10 was increased. This study showed that the gastroprotective effect of MECE is achieved through inhibition of gastric juice secretion and ulcer lesion development, stimulation of mucus secretion, elevation of gastric pH, reduction of reactive oxygen species production, inhibition of apoptosis in the gastric mucosa, and modulation of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27366052

  2. Effect of aqueous extract of Satureja hortensis on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalantari Mianaji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric ulcer includes benign mucosal and sub-mucosal lesions in the stomach wall. Gastrointestinal ulcers particularly stomach ulcer can be due to increased acid secretion. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Satureja hortensis on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid in rats. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 60 female wistar rats weighing 200-250 g in the Biology Research Center of Zanjan, 2014. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, sham, 50mg/kg Satureja extract, and 80 mg/kg Satureja extract. Rats were operated after 24 hours fasting and gastric ulcers were induced by luminal application of 0.12 ml acetic acid solution (60%. On the first, fourth, seventh, tenth, and fourteenth days after oral administration of the Satureja hortensis extract, the stomach was excised (the rats related to any special day had received the extract separately and the ulcer size was measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Findings: Using the aqueous extract of Satureja hortensis resulted in significant ulcer healing in both intervention groups. Mean neutrophil, macrophage, and fibroblast count on the seventh, tenth and 14th day of intervention was significantly decreased in the intervention groups compared to the fourth day and compared to the control and sham groups. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that the aqueous extract of Satureja hortensisis has significant healing effect on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid.

  3. Omeprazole Inhibits Acetylsalicylic Acid-Modified Histamine Stimulation of Acid Secretion in Rabbit Gastric Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Brosseuk

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of misoprostol and omeprazole on basal-, histamine- and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-induced gastric acid secretion by isolated rabbit gastric glands were studied. The authors found that ASA at a concentration of 2.4×10-3 M significantly inhibited acid secretion in the isolated gastric glands to 65% of basal levels, and that ASA at a concentration of 2.4×l0-2 M significantly inhibited the histamine stimulation of acid secretion to 78% of maximal. Misoprostol inhibited acid secretion to 76% of basal acid secretion, while omeprazole inhibited secretion to 58% of basal values. Misoprostol inhibited the ASA-modified histamine stimulation to 82% of maximal stimulation. In contrast, omeprazole was able to inhibit the ASA-modified histamine stimulation to 48% of maximal. This omeprazole inhibition of secretagogue-induced acid production reduced acid secretion to levels below basal secretion, indicating that neither histamine nor ASA (at the concentrations used, alone or in combination, had any stimulatory effect in the presence of omeprazole. Misoprostol is the recommended drug of choice for prevention and treatment of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury. In vitro results suggest that omeprazole appears to treat this condition more effectively if gastric acid secretion is a necessary prerequisite for NSAID-induced mucosal injury.

  4. [Primary gastric lymphoma: incidence, prognostic factors and effect of treatment with chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato-Mendizábal, E; Ruiz Argüelles, G J; Labardini-Méndez, R; Rodríguez-Mejorada, M

    1990-08-01

    This paper deals with the prevalence, clinical features and therapeutic response of 19 patients with primary gastric lymphoma studied and treated at Centro de Hematologia y Medicina Interna de Puebla, Mexico and Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico, in a 10 year period (1979-1989). The main findings were as follows: 1) The prevalence of gastric lymphoma has increased in Mexico: Between 1950 and 1980 the prevalence was found at 4.5% of all gastric tumors, whereas between 1980 and 1990 it was found at the 7.6% level (chi square = .0001). 2) The significant prognostic factors for survival were in this series the clinico-pathologic stage and the degree of infiltration of the gastric wall: 80-month disease free survival was 80% and 44% respectively for stages I and III (p less than 0.02); 10-year disease free survival was 100% and 23% respectively for mucosal/submucosal infiltration VS mucosal/serosal infiltration (p less than 0.01). 3) The 10-year disease free survival was 68% for patients treated with chemotherapy and surgery; this figure is similar to those obtained using radiotherapy and surgery, but with a lower relapse rate. Two patients with lymphomatous lesion less than 3 cm. and invading only mucosae/submucosae were treated solely with chemotherapy and both of them remain disease free after 20 months of follow-up.

  5. New generation of oral mucosal vaccines targeting dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jennifer L; Sahay, Bikash; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2013-12-01

    As most infectious organisms gain entry at mucosal surfaces, there is a great deal of interest in developing vaccines that elicit effective mucosal immune responses against pathogen challenge. Targeted vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent and control infectious diseases. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessibility, needle free delivery, and a higher capacity for mass immunizations during pandemics. Both local mucosal immunity and robust systemic responses can be achieved through mucosal vaccination. Recent progress in understanding the molecular and cellular components of the mucosal immune system have allowed for the development of a novel mucosal vaccine platform utilizing specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides and orally administered lactobacilli to elicit efficient antigen specific immune responses against infections, including Bacillus anthracis in experimental models of disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Secondary prevention of epidemic gastric cancer in the model of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Marco; Saraggi, Deborah; Fassan, Matteo; Megraud, Francis; Di Mario, Francesco; Rugge, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of its etiology, long-standing, non-self-limiting gastric inflammation (mostly in Helicobacter pylori-associated cases) is the cancerization ground on which epidemic (intestinal-type) gastric carcinoma (GC) can develop. The natural history of invasive gastric adenocarcinoma encompasses gastritis, atrophic mucosal changes, and intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). The topography, the extent and the severity of the atrophic changes significantly correlate with the risk of developing both IEN and GC. In recent years, both noninvasive (serological) tests and invasive (endoscopy/biopsy) procedures have been proposed to stratify patients according to different classes of GC risk. As a consequence, different patient-tailored GC secondary prevention strategies have been put forward. This review summarizes the histological features of H. pylori-related gastritis and the natural history of the disease. Histological and serological strategies to assess GC risk as well as the clinical management of atrophic gastritis patients are also discussed. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Effect of gastrointestinal hormones on the pertechnetate imaging of ectopic gastric mucosa in experimental Meckel's diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfakianakis, G.N.; Anderson, G.F.; King, D.R.; Boles, E.T. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Meckel's diverticula were simulated in 12 dogs by implanting vascularized patches of gastric wall onto Roux-en-Y loops of distal ileum. All animals had camera imaging studies every 10 min for 60 min, with computer acquisition following intravenous injection of 2 mCi of pertechnetate. The scintigrams were repeated following (a) subcutaneous injection of pentagastrin 15 min before injection of pertechnetate; (b) intravenous injection of glucagon 10 min after the tracer injection; (c) pretreatment with pentagastrin plus glucagon as above; and (d) pretreatment with pentagastrin plus secretin. Pentagastrin alone accelerated accumulation of the tracer but resulted in a decrease in the target-to-background ratio. Glucagon alone enhanced late gastric mucosal activity by preventing washout of the intraluminal activity. The combination of pentagastrin and glucagon enhanced visualization and kept background activity lowest. These findgings indicate a potential role for glucagon in the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa in humans

  8. Gastric microbiome of Indian patients with Helicobacter pylori infection, and their interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anubhav; Pereira, Verima; Saxena, Shruti; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Anbumani, D; Bag, Satyabrata; Das, Bhabatosh; Nair, G Balakrish; Abraham, Philip; Mande, Sharmila S

    2017-11-13

    The gastric microbiome is suspected to have a role in the causation of diseases by Helicobacter pylori. Reports on their relative abundance vis-à-vis H. pylori are available from various ethnic and geographic groups, but little is known about their interaction patterns. Endoscopic mucosal biopsy samples from the gastric antrum and corpus of 39 patients with suspected H. pylori infection were collected and microbiomes were analyzed by 16S rDNA profiling. Four groups of samples were identified, which harbored Helicobacter as well as a diverse group of bacteria including Lactobacillus, Halomonas and Prevotella. There was a negative association between the microbiome diversity and Helicobacter abundance. Network analyses showed that Helicobacter had negative interactions with members of the gastric microbiome, while other microbes interacted positively with each other, showing a higher tendency towards intra-cluster co-occurrence/co-operation. Cross-geographic comparisons suggested the presence of region-specific microbial abundance profiles. We report the microbial diversity, abundance variation and interaction patterns of the gastric microbiota of Indian patients with H. pylori infection and present a comparison of the same with the gastric microbial ecology in samples from different geographic regions. Such microbial abundance profiles and microbial interactions can help in understanding the pathophysiology of gastric ailments and can thus help in development of new strategies to curb it.

  9. Exfoliation of Helicobacter pylori from gastric mucin by glycopolypeptides from buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M; Hara, K; Kimata, H; Benno, Y; Shimamoto, C

    2005-01-01

    In the human stomach, Helicobacter pylori, an ulcer pathogenic bacterium, colonizes the gastric mucosal layer primarily. The ability of glycopolypeptides (GPP) prepared from buttermilk to exfoliate H. pylori bound to gastric mucin was investigated. The GPP were prepared from buttermilk by digestion with trypsin, papain, pancreatin, bromelain, or pepsin. Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504T and 43579 adhered more strongly to all of the GPP tested than to whole buttermilk, the soluble fraction of buttermilk, gastric mucin prepared from mouse stomach, or commercial pig gastric mucin. The GPP digested with trypsin, papain, or pancreatin were significantly more adherent. When the GPP concentration was 10 mg/mL, bound H. pylori ATCC 43504T, 43579, and 5 clinical isolates were exfoliated markedly from immobilized porcine gastric mucin following treatment with GPP digested with trypsin or pancreatin. This ability of GPP did not correlate with sialic acid content, indicating that sialic acid content is not important in the exfoliation of this microorganism. Such an ability may depend on the structure or number of sugar chains, or the position of sialic acid. We conclude that GPP promote the exfoliation of H. pylori bound to gastric mucin and prevent the de novo adherence of this microorganism. As such, GPP are a promising food material for preventing H. pylori infection.

  10. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Oral presentation of an oesophageal mucosal tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, S.; De P, R

    1999-01-01

    Tears of the oesophageal wall following sudden forceful vomiting are well documented in literature. In Boerhaave's syndrome there is transmural rupture associated with complications including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, surgical emphysema and shock. In Mallory-Weiss syndrome mucosal tears are associated with haematemesis and shock. In neither of these conditions has intraluminal obstruction been described as an aetiological factor. We present a case with similar pathophysiology where oesophageal obstruction by a meat bolus followed by forceful vomiting led to an oesophageal mucosal tear and presentation of a band of oesophageal mucosa in the oral cavity. The patient did not develop any complications and made an uneventful recovery following conservative management.


Keywords: Boerhaave's syndrome; oesophageal wall rupture; vomiting; Mallory-Weiss syndrome PMID:10621906

  12. Role of GP82 in the selective binding to gastric mucin during oral infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Staquicini

    Full Text Available Oral infection by Trypanosoma cruzi has been the primary cause of recent outbreaks of acute Chagas' diseases. This route of infection may involve selective binding of the metacyclic trypomastigote surface molecule gp82 to gastric mucin as a first step towards invasion of the gastric mucosal epithelium and subsequent systemic infection. Here we addressed that question by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments. A recombinant protein containing the complete gp82 sequence (J18, a construct lacking the gp82 central domain (J18*, and 20-mer synthetic peptides based on the gp82 central domain, were used for gastric mucin binding and HeLa cell invasion assays, or for in vivo experiments. Metacyclic trypomastigotes and J18 bound to gastric mucin whereas J18* failed to bind. Parasite or J18 binding to submaxillary mucin was negligible. HeLa cell invasion by metacyclic forms was not affected by gastric mucin but was inhibited in the presence of submaxillary mucin. Of peptides tested for inhibition of J18 binding to gastric mucin, the inhibitory peptide p7 markedly reduced parasite invasion of HeLa cells in the presence of gastric mucin. Peptide p7*, with the same composition as p7 but with a scrambled sequence, had no effect. Mice fed with peptide p7 before oral infection with metacyclic forms developed lower parasitemias than mice fed with peptide p7*. Our results indicate that selective binding of gp82 to gastric mucin may direct T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes to stomach mucosal epithelium in oral infection.

  13. Induction of specific immunoglobulin A in the small intestine, colon-rectum, and vagina measured by a new method for collection of secretions from local mucosal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneberg, B; Kendall, D; Amerongen, H M; Apter, F M; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Neutra, M R

    1994-01-01

    In order study patterns of local antibody responses following mucosal immunization of mice via different routes, a method for collection of secretions directly from mucosal surfaces was developed. Mice were immunized on days 0, 10, 17, and 24 by administration of cholera toxin into the oral cavity, stomach, colon-rectum, or vagina. At sacrifice on day 32, absorbent wicks were placed in the oral cavity and, via an applicator tube, into the vagina and distal colon-rectum and along the entire small intestine after flushing of luminal contents. Protein was quantitatively extracted from wicks, and specific anti-cholera toxin immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Concentrations of specific IgA in secretions at various mucosal sites were dramatically influenced by the route of immunization. Oral immunization effectively induced IgA in saliva, and the intragastric route was optimal for induction of IgA in the small intestine. High levels of specific IgA appeared on the colonic-rectal mucosal surface only after rectal delivery of antigen. Oral, gastric, and rectal immunizations also produced distant responses in the vagina. Following vaginal immunization, however, neither local nor distant IgA responses were detected. These results suggest that vaccines intended for protection of colonic-rectal and vaginal mucosal surfaces might best be administered by the rectal route.

  14. Inhibition by prostaglandin E1 of gastric secretion in the dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezamis, James E.; Robert, André; Stowe, David F.

    1971-01-01

    1. The effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on gastric secretion was studied in dogs equipped with gastric fundic pouches, either innervated (Pavlov) or denervated (Heidenhain). 2. PGE1 inhibited gastric secretion (volume, acid concentration, acid output, pepsin output) when given either by constant intravenous infusion or by single intravenous injection. The degree of inhibition was dose dependent. 3. The antisecretory effect of PGE1 was demonstrated against gastric stimulants which operate through different mechanisms. Thus, PGE1 counteracted the secretogogue effect of: (a) histamine dihydrochloride; the ED50 was 0·5-1·0 μg/kg. min for a submaximal dose, and 1·0-1·5 μg/kg. min for a maximal dose; (b) pentagastrin; the ED50 was around 0·25 μg/kg. min; (c) food; the ED50 was 0·5 to 0·75 μg/kg. min; (d) 2-deoxyglucose; the ED50 was less than 0·1 μg/kg. min. 4. Although in some experiments, nausea and vomiting were observed during administration of PGE1, the antisecretory property of the substance is not related to a vomiting reflex, since (a) an antiemetic, such as atropine, prevented vomiting without interfering with the effect of PGE1, and (b) profuse vomiting elicited by apomorphine did not reduce gastric secretion stimulated by either histamine or pentagastrin. 5. The mechanism by which PGE1 inhibits gastric secretion is unknown. Studies by others have shown that the compound reduces gastric mucosal blood flow, inhibits acid formation from gastric mucosa when applied in vitro and may change the rate of formation of gastric cyclic AMP. It is likely that PGE1 interferes with biochemical processes, within parietal and chief cells, which lead to elaboration of gastric juice. 6. Unlike most gastric inhibitors, PGE1 appears to act as a protective shield against most, if not all, gastric stimulants. Since prostaglandins of the E series are naturally occurring substances and are normally present in the stomach, they may play a role in the regulation of gastric

  15. In vivo antioxidant and antiulcer activity of Parkia speciosa ethanolic leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Al Batran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1-2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4-7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2-7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4-7. Groups 3-7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. CONCLUSION: Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2.

  16. Stricture Occurring after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Esophageal and Gastric Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Ha; Jang, Jae Young; Shin, Sung Kwan; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Sang Gyun; Sung, Jae Kyu; Choi, Suck Chei; Jeon, Seong Woo; Jang, Byung Ik; Huh, Kyu Chan; Chang, Dong Kyung; Jung, Sung-Ae; Keum, Bora; Cho, Jin Woong; Choi, Il Ju; Jung, Hwoon-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a widely accepted treatment for early gastric and esophageal cancer. Compared to endoscopic mucosal resection, ESD has the advantage of enabling en bloc removal of tumors regardless of their size. However, ESD can result in a large artificial ulcer, which may lead to a considerable deformity. Circumferential mucosal defects of more than three-fourths the esophageal circumference, long longitudinal mucosal defects (>30 mm), and lesions in the upper esophagus are significant risk factors for the development of post-ESD strictures of the esophagus. In the stomach, a circumferential mucosal defects more than three-fourths in extent and longitudinal mucosal defects >5 cm are risk factors of post-ESD stricture. If scheduled early, regular endoscopic balloon dilation is effective in controlling and preventing post-ESD stricture. Moreover, intralesional steroid injections or oral steroids can achieve remission of dysphagia or reduce the need for repeated endoscopic balloon dilation. However, further study is needed to improve the prevention of stricture formation. PMID:25505717

  17. Brain-gut axis and mucosal immunity: a perspective on mucosal psychoneuroimmunology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    The role of the brain-gut axis has traditionally been investigated in relation to intestinal motility, secretion, and vascularity. More recently, the concept of brain-gut dialogue has extended to the relationship between the nervous system and mucosal immune function. There is compelling evidence for a reciprocal or bi-directional communication between the immune system and the neuroendocrine system. This is mediated, in part, by shared ligands (chemical messengers) and receptors that are common to the immune and nervous systems. Although the concept of psychoneuroimmunology and neuroimmune cross-talk has been studied primarily in the context of the systemic immune system, it is likely to have special significance in the gut. The mucosal immune system is anatomically, functionally, and operationally distinct from the systemic immune system and is subject to independent regulatory signals. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosal immune system operates in a local milieu that depends on a dense innervation for its integrity, with juxtaposition of neuroendocrine cells and mucosal immune cells. An overview of evidence for the biologic plausibility of a brain-gut-immune axis is presented and its potential relevance to mucosal inflammatory disorders is discussed.

  18. Helicobacter pyloriand gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... persists indefinitely unless treated. The means by which H. pylori is transmitted is a major question in this field. However, seminal work conducted in our laboratory has given insight into its transmission in developing countries.10 Countries with high H. pylori infection rates normally have higher gastric ...

  19. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Buchwald H, ed. Buchwald's Atlas of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgical Techniques and Procedures . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 5. Halperin F, Ding SA, Simonson DC, et al. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery or lifestyle with intensive medical management in patients ...

  20. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  1. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP, also called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are peptide hormones from the gut that enhance nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion (the 'incretin' effect). Judging from experiments in mice with targeted deletions...

  2. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Riepl, R L; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined by the method of intragastric titration. Plasma gastrin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay. None of the alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation had any significant effect on gastric acid output and release of gastrin compared with control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation significantly (p beer, wine, and sherry were distilled, only their remaining parts increased gastric acid output by 53% to 76% of MAO and increased release of gastrin up to 4.3-fold compared with control. (1) Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and release of gastrin; (2) the alcoholic beverage constituents that stimulate gastric acid output and release of gastrin are most probably produced during the process of fermentation and removed during the following process of distillation.

  3. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in the rat gastric mucosa: immunolocalization and facilitation of pepsin/pepsinogen secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawao, Naoyuki; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Tagome, Ai; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Nishida, Shozo; Irimajiri, Kiyohiro; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kenzo; Hollenberg, Morley D; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2002-01-01

    Agonists of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) trigger neurally mediated mucus secretion accompanied by mucosal cytoprotection in the stomach. The present study immunolocalized PAR-2 in the rat gastric mucosa and examined if PAR-2 could modulate pepsin/pepsinogen secretion in rats. PAR-2-like immunoreactivity was abundant in the deep regions of gastric mucosa, especially in chief cells. The PAR-2 agonist SLIGRL-NH2, but not the control peptide LSIGRL-NH2, administered i.v. repeatedly at 0.3 – 1 μmol kg−1, four times in total, significantly facilitated gastric pepsin secretion, although a single dose produced no significant effect. The PAR-2-mediated gastric pepsin secretion was resistant to omeprazole, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or atropine, and also to ablation of sensory neurons by capsaicin. Our study thus provides novel evidence that PAR-2 is localized in mucosal chief cells and facilitates gastric pepsin secretion in the rats, most probably by a direct mechanism. PMID:11877338

  4. Systemic and Mucosal Antibody Responses to Soluble and Nanoparticle-Conjugated Antigens Administered Intranasally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah E. Howe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs are increasingly being used for drug delivery, as well as antigen carriers and immunostimulants for the purpose of developing vaccines. In this work, we examined how intranasal (i.n. priming followed by i.n. or subcutaneous (s.c. boosting immunization affects the humoral immune response to chicken ovalbumin (Ova and Ova conjugated to 20 nm NPs (NP-Ova. We show that i.n. priming with 20 mg of soluble Ova, a dose known to trigger oral tolerance when administered via gastric gavage, induced substantial systemic IgG1 and IgG2c, as well as mucosal antibodies. These responses were further boosted following a s.c. immunization with Ova and complete Freund’s adjuvant (Ova+CFA. In contrast, 100 µg of Ova delivered via NPs induced an IgG1-dominated systemic response, and primed the intestinal mucosa for secretion of IgA. Following a secondary s.c. or i.n. immunization with Ova+CFA or NP-Ova, systemic IgG1 titers significantly increased, and serum IgG2c and intestinal antibodies were induced in mice primed nasally with NP-Ova. Only Ova- and NP-Ova-primed mice that were s.c.-boosted exhibited substantial systemic and mucosal titers for up to 6 months after priming, whereas the antibodies of i.n.-boosted mice declined over time. Our results indicate that although the amount of Ova delivered by NPs was 1000-fold less than Ova delivered in soluble form, the antigen-specific antibody responses, both systemic and mucosal, are essentially identical by 6 months following the initial priming immunization. Additionally, both i.n.- and s.c.-boosting strategies for NP-Ova-primed mice were capable of inducing a polarized Th1/Th2 immune response, as well as intestinal antibodies; however, it is only by using a heterogeneous prime-boost strategy that long-lasting antibody responses were initiated. These results provide valuable insight for future mucosal vaccine development, as well as furthering our understanding of mucosal antibody responses.

  5. Mucosal delivery of vaccines: role of mucoadhesive/biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neeraj K; Mangal, Sharad; Khambete, Hemant; Sharma, Pradeep K; Tyagi, Rajeev K

    2010-06-01

    Majority of infectious microorganism make their gateway to the host through mucosal surfaces, such as gastrointestinal tract, nasal and vaginal tract. Mucosal immune response structured as sIgA can effectively prevent the attachment and invasion of the microorganism from mucosal surface and thereby serves as an efficient tool against infectious disease. There has been an increased demand for the development of novel vaccine that leads to the induction of immune response in systemic circulation as well as at mucosal surfaces against infectious disease. Mucosal delivery of vaccine provides basis for induction of both mucosal as well as systemic immune responses against the infectious organisms. However, a variety of factors such as mucociliary clearance, presence of deteriorating enzymes, pH extremes (GIT), low permeation and metabolic degradation limit the mucosal delivery of vaccine. Numerous strategies have been explored in the meadow of mucosal vaccination for the purpose of efficient antigen delivery through mucosal route(s). Polymeric carrier(s) such as nanoparticles and microparticles loaded with the antigen can serve as the basis for creation of important formulations for improved vaccine. Biodegradable and mucoadhesive polymeric carrier(s) seems to be most promising candidate for mucosal vaccine delivery. Several polymers from natural and synthetic origin, such as polylactide-co-glycolide, chitosan, alginate, carbopol, gelatin etc., have been explored for the efficient mucosal vaccine delivery and significant results have been obtained. This review outlines the polymers used in mucosal vaccine delivery with special reference to mucoadhesive/biodegradable polymers. This article also covers the recent patent granted in the field on polymeric carrier mediated mucosal vaccination.

  6. Altered mucosal DNA methylation in parallel with highly active Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Maekita, Takao; Yamashita, Satoshi; Enomoto, Shotaro; Ando, Takayuki; Niwa, Tohru; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2013-10-01

    Chronic inflammation triggered by Helicobacter pylori causes altered DNA methylation in stomach mucosae, which is deeply involved in gastric carcinogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between altered mucosal DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis, because inflammatory activity shows particular correlations with the development of diffuse-type cancer. Methylation levels in stomach mucosae of 78 healthy volunteers were determined by real-time methylation-specific PCR or bisulfite pyrosequencing. Examined loci were the promoter CpG islands of six genes (FLNc, HAND1, THBD, p41ARC, HRASLS, and LOX) and the CpG sites of non-coding repetitive elements (Alu and Satα) that are reportedly altered by H. pylori infection. Activity of H. pylori-related gastritis was evaluated using two serum markers: H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen II. Methylation levels of the six CpG islands were consistently increased, and those of the two repetitive elements were consistently decreased in a stepwise manner with the activity of gastric inflammation as represented by serum marker levels. Each serum marker level was well correlated with the overall DNA methylation status of stomach mucosa, and these two serologic markers were additive in the detection of the mucosa with severely altered DNA methylation. Alteration in mucosal DNA methylation level was closely correlated with activity of H. pylori-related gastritis as evaluated by serum markers. The observed correlation between altered DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis appears to be one of the relevant molecular mechanisms underlying the development of diffuse-type cancer.

  7. CCR2 mediates Helicobacter pylori-induced immune tolerance and contributes to mucosal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Zhang, Min; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Huffnagle, Gray B; Kao, John Y

    2017-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that H. pylori infection leads to increased induction of regulatory T cells in local and systemic immune compartments. Here, we investigate the role of CCR2 in the tolerogenic programing of dendritic cells in a mouse model of H. pylori infection. CCR2 deficient (CCR2KO) mice and wild-type (Wt) mice infected with H. pylori SS1 strain were analyzed by qPCR and FACS analysis. In vitro, bone marrow-derived DC on day 6 from CCR2KO and Wt mice cocultured with or without H. pylori were examined to determine the impact of CCR2 signaling on dendritic cells function by qPCR, ELISA, and FACS analyses. Acute H. pylori infection was associated with a threefold increase in CCR2 mRNA expression in the gastric mucosa. H. pylori-infected CCR2KO mice exhibited a higher degree of mucosal inflammation, that is, increased gastritis scores and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, but lower degree of H. pylori gastric colonization compared to infected Wt mice. Peripheral H. pylori-specific immune response measured in the CCR2KO spleen was characterized by a higher Th17 response and a lower Treg response. In vitro, CCR2KO bone marrow-derived DC was less mature and shown a lower Treg/Th17 ratio. Moreover, blockade of CCR2 signaling by MCP-1 neutralizing antibody inhibited H. pylori-stimulated bone marrow-derived DC maturation. Our results indicate that CCR2 plays an essential role in H. pylori-induced immune tolerance and shed light on a novel mechanism of CCR2-dependent DC Treg induction, which appears to be important in maintaining mucosal homeostasis during H. pylori infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Gastric secretion, proinflammatory cytokines and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the delayed healing of lingual and gastric ulcerations by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machowska, A; Brzozowski, T; Sliwowski, Z; Pawlik, M; Konturek, P C; Pajdo, R; Szlachcic, A; Drozdowicz, D; Schwarz, M; Stachura, J; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, W W

    2008-02-01

    Hormonal fluctuations are known to predispose ulceration of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but to date no comparative study of their effects on the healing of pre-existing ulcers in the oral cavity and stomach has been made. We studied the effects of depletion of testosterone and of EGF on the healing of acetic acid-induced ulcers using rats having undergone bilateral orchidectomy and/or salivectomy respectively. We measured alterations in gastric acid secretion and blood flow at ulcer margins, as well as plasma levels of testosterone, gastrin and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. Testosterone (0.01-10 mg/kg/day i. m.) dose-dependently delayed oral and gastric ulcer healing. When applied in an optimal dose of 1 mg/kg/day, this hormone significantly raised gastric acid secretion and plasma IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha levels. Attenuation of plasma testosterone levels via bilateral orchidectomy inhibited gastric acid secretion and accelerated the healing of oral and gastric ulcers, while increasing plasma gastrin levels and these effects were reversed by testosterone. Salivectomy raised plasma testosterone levels, and delayed oral and gastric ulcer healing. Treatment of salivectomised animals with testosterone further inhibited ulcer healing, and this effect was counteracted by EGF. We propose that testosterone delays ulcer healing via a fall in blood flow at the ulcer margin, a rise in plasma levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha and, in the case of gastric ulcers, an increase in gastric acid secretion. EGF released from the salivary glands plays an important role in limitation of the deleterious effects of testosterone on ulcer healing.

  9. Gastric stump mucosa: is there a risk for carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFATLE-RIBEIRO Adriana Vaz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Patients who underwent partial gastric resections are at an increased risk for the development of cancer in the gastric remnant. Aim - To assess the long-term patients who underwent surgical treatment for peptic ulcer disease through endoscopic and pathologic evaluation of the gastric stump mucosal alterations. Patients and Methods - Between 1987 and 1990, 154 patients (mean = 20.4 years after gastrectomy were evaluated by upper digestive endoscopy with multiple biopsies and pathological examination. Results - Endoscopic alterations were present in 111 patients (72.1%. The commonest pathologic alterations were foveolar hyperplasia, intestinal metaplasia and cystic dilation. Severe dysplasia was noted in two (1.25% and carcinoma in 13 (8.4% of the cases. In four patients (3.8% the endoscopic findings did not show any evidence of tumors, however they were detected due to multiple biopsies and histologic studies. Conclusions - Surveillance of these patients with endoscopy and multiple biopsies may provide the means to diagnose tumors at an early stage, but the cost benefit ratio of surveillance requires further study.

  10. Case Report - Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eventration of the diaphragm with gastric volvulus is uncommon. Gastric perforation in these cases is rare and usually associated with acute gastric volvulus with strangulation. We describe a case of diaphragmatic eventration with chronic gastric volvulus with gastric perforation without strangulation in an elderly man.

  11. Gastric explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, John Saul; Hampe, Toni

    2014-12-01

    We describe the occurrence of an iatrogenic explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation in a 70-year-old man undergoing gastroscopy. Combustible gases in the stomach may have been released by bacterial overgrowth as a result of partial gastric outlet obstruction (caused by a gastric tumor) and reduced acidity (from proton pump inhibitor therapy). We propose a stepwise process during upper endoscopy to prevent this devastating complication, comprising aspiration, preinsufflation with CO2, and then coagulation. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Histopathological confirmation of similar intramucosal distribution of fluorescein in both intravenous administration and local mucosal application for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the normal stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ohata, Ken; Ban, Shinichi; Ichihara, Shin; Takasugi, Rumi; Minato, Yohei; Tashima, Tomoaki; Matsuyama, Yasushi; Takita, Maiko; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-12-16

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is capable of acquiring in vivo magnified cross-section images of the gastric mucosa. Intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium is used for confocal imaging. However, it is still under debate if local administration of the dye to the mucosa is also effective for confocal imaging as it is not yet clear if topical application also reveals the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein sodium after topical application and to compare the distribution to the conventional intravenous injection used for confocal imaging. pCLE of the stomach uninfected with Helicobacter pylori was performed in a healthy male employing intravenous administration and local mucosal application of fluorescein. The mucosa of the lower gastric body was biopsied 1 min and 5 min after intravenous administration or local mucosal application of fluorescein, and the distribution of fluorescein in the biopsy samples was examined histologically. Green fluorescence was already observed in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells in the biopsied deep mucosa 1 min after local mucosal application of fluorescein. It was also observed in the foveolar lumen and inter-foveolar lamina propria, although it was noted at only a few sites. In the tissue biopsied 5 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, green fluorescence was more frequently noted in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells than in that 1 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, although obvious green fluorescence was not identified in the foveolar lumen or inter-foveolar lamina propria. The distribution of intravenously administered fluorescein in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells was also clearly observed similarly to that after local mucosal application of fluorescein. Green fluorescence in more cells was observed in many cells 5 min after intravenous administration compared

  13. Sacral nerve stimulation enhances early intestinal mucosal repair following mucosal injury in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brégeon, Jérémy; Coron, Emmanuel; Da Silva, Anna Christina Cordeiro; Jaulin, Julie; Aubert, Philippe; Chevalier, Julien; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Meurette, Guillaume; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Reducing intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions is recognized as being of major therapeutic interest for various intestinal disorders. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability. Here, we report in a pig model that SNS enhances morphological and functional recovery of IEB following mucosal injury induced via 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. These effects are associated with an increased expression of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1 and FAK. These results establish that SNS enhances intestinal barrier repair in acute mucosal injury. They further set the scientific basis for future use of SNS as a complementary or alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of gut disorders with IEB dysfunctions such as inflammatory bowel diseases or irritable bowel syndrome. Intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions, such as increased permeability or altered healing, are central to intestinal disorders. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability, but its ability to modulate IEB repair remains unknown. This study aimed to characterize the impact of SNS on mucosal repair following 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced lesions. Six pigs were stimulated by SNS 3 h prior to and 3 h after TNBS enema, while sham animals (n = 8) were not stimulated. The impact of SNS on mucosal changes was evaluated by combining in vivo imaging, histological and functional methods. Biochemical and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the IEB and mucosal inflammatory response. We observed that SNS enhanced the recovery from TNBS-induced increase in transcellular permeability. At 24 h, TNBS-induced alterations of mucosal morphology were significantly less in SNS compared with sham animals. SNS reduced TNBS-induced changes in ZO-1 expression and its epithelial pericellular distribution, and also increased pFAK/FAK expression compared with sham. Interestingly, SNS increased the mucosal density of neutrophils

  14. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis, gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer by magnifying endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Nei

    2016-10-01

    Evaluating the prevalence and severity of gastritis by endoscopy is useful for estimating the risk of gastric cancer (GC). Moreover, understanding the endoscopic appearances of gastritis is important for diagnosing GC due to the fact that superficial mucosal lesions mimicing gastritis (gastritis-like lesions) are quite difficult to be detected even with optimum preparation and the best technique, and in such cases tissue biopsy is often not very accurate for the diagnosis of gastric epithelial neoplasia. Magnifying endoscopy is a highly accurate technique for the detection of early gastric cancer (EGC). Recent reports have described that various novel endoscopic markers which, visualized by magnifying endoscopy with image-enhanced system (ME-IEE), can predict specific histopathological findings. Using ME-IEE with vessels and surface classification system (VSCS) may represent an excellent diagnostic performance with high confidence and good reproducibility to the endoscopists if performed under consistent conditions, including observation under maximal magnification. The aim of this review was to discuss how to identify high-risk groups for GC by endoscopy, and how to detect effectively signs of suspicious lesions by conventional white light imaging (C-WLI) or chromoendoscopy (CE). Furthermore, to characterize suspicious lesions using ME-IEE using the criteria and classification of EGC based upon VSCS. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Induction of endogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha: suppression of centrally stimulated gastric motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, G E; Tovar, C A; Rogers, R C

    1999-01-01

    Gastric stasis is frequently seen in conjunction with critical infectious illness, chronic inflammatory disorders, radiation sickness, and carcinogenesis. These conditions are associated with elevated circulating levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The present studies examined the relationship between endogenously produced TNF-alpha and the central neural mechanisms that augment gastric motility. Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was employed to induce TNF-alpha production in thiobutabarbital-anesthetized rats. Sixty minutes after intravenous LPS injection, gastric motility could not be stimulated by a potent centrally acting gastrokinetic stimulant, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This failure to elicit gastric motility via central mechanisms coincided with high circulating levels of TNF-alpha. However, intravenous injections of bethanecol, a peripherally acting cholinergic agonist with direct gastrokinetic effects, were still able to elicit normal increases in gastric motility in the presence of TNF-alpha and LPS. Therefore, the inability to stimulate gastric motility via central TRH could not be attributed to the direct inhibitory effects of either LPS or TNF-alpha on the stomach. If the production of endogenous TNF-alpha was suppressed via the use of urethan as the anesthetic agent, then intravenous injections of LPS were no longer effective in suppressing gastric motility. Thus these effects on gastric motility are not directly attributable to LPS nor are they due to direct effects on the gastric smooth muscle. Our previous study demonstrated that microinjection of femtomole quantities of TNF-alpha in the brain stem dorsal vagal complex (DVC) can modulate gastric motility. This central TNF-alpha effect on gastric motility was dose dependent and required an intact vagal efferent pathway. The results from these two studies suggest that systemically produced TNF-alpha may gain access to the DVC to modulate gastric function.

  16. Sublingual Delivery of Vaccines for the Induction of Mucosal Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Byoung-Shik; Choi, Youngjoo; Cheon, In Su

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to incoming pathogens which can cause infections that result in severe morbidity and/or mortality. Studies have reported that mucosal immunity is important for providing protection against these pathogens and that mucosal vaccination is effective in preventing local infections. For many years, the sublingual mucosa has been targeted to deliver immunotherapy to treat allergic hypersensitivities. However, the potential of vaccine delivery via sublingual mucosal has received little attention until recently. Recent studies exploring such potential have documented the safety and effectiveness of sublingual immunization, demonstrating the ability of sublingual immunization to induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses against a variety of antigens, including soluble proteins, inter particulate antigens, and live-attenuated viruses. This review will summarize the recent findings that address the promising potential of sublingual immunization in proving protection against various mucosal pathogens. PMID:23885221

  17. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  18. -765 G>C POLYMORPHISM OF THE COX-2 GENE AND GASTRIC CANCER RISK IN BRAZILIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Maria de Lima Pazine CAMPANHOLO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Genomic alterations play important roles in gastric cancer carcinogenesis. Cyclooxygenases (COX are important enzymes in the maintenance of mucosal integrity and in pathological processes, mainly in inflammation and cancer. The -765G>C COX-2 polymorphism has been implicated in gastric cancer risk. Objectives To evaluate the COX-2 gene polymorphism as a predictor of gastric cancer risk. Methods One hundred gastric cancer patients and 150 controls were enrolled from a Brazilian centre. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption and smoking behavior, were collected via questionnaire. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the genotypes were analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results G/G, G/C and C/C genotypes frequencies was 42.7%, 50% and 7.3%, respectively in controls and 59.0%, 34.0% and 7.0% in gastric cancer. The frequency of the genotypes differed between the groups (P = 0.033. A higher risk of gastric cancer was associated with COX-2 -765G/G genotype (P = 0.048; OR:1.98, 95% CI = 1.01-3.90. Alcohol consumption and smoking in patients with -765G/G genotype also increased the risk of gastric cancer. Conclusions The -765G/G genotype and the -765G allele had been associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. The presence of smoking and alcohol consumption increased the risk for gastric cancer in subjects with -765G/G genotype compared with the control group. Polymorphism of COX-2 gene and gastric cancer risk.

  19. Probiotic supplements and debridement of peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, Hadar; Lindgren, Susann; Widén, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplements in adjunct to conventional management of peri-implant mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine adult patients with peri-implant mucositis were consecutively recruited...... debridement and oral hygiene reinforcement resulted in clinical improvement of peri-implant mucositis and a reduction in cytokine levels. Probiotic supplements did not provide added benefit to placebo....

  20. Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Mucosal Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties...... of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA....

  1. Characterization of fasted human gastric fluid for relevant rheological parameters and gastric lipase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Barbre; Vilmann, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    characterization of the aspirates was conducted on a TA AR-G2 rheometer, using cone and plate geometry. Lipase activity was measured by continuous titration of released free fatty acid from tributyrate. Further, pH, osmolality, buffer capacity, and surface tension were measured and the total protein content.......8 and 5.4, respectively. pH, surface tension, buffer capacity, bile salt concentration, and osmolality were measured and compared with literature data. CONCLUSION: The rheological behavior and the mean apparent viscosity of HGA are significantly different from that of water and should therefore...... be considered important during development of gastric simulated media. Further, the activity of the HGL is active even under fasted gastric conditions and might contribute to the digestion and emulsification of lipid-based drug delivery systems in the entire gastrointestinal tract. HGL should therefore...

  2. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  3. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3...... the high mortality associated with invasive disease, prophylactic total gastrectomy at a centre of expertise is advised for individuals with pathogenic CDH1 mutations. Breast cancer surveillance with annual breast MRI starting at age 30 for women with a CDH1 mutation is recommended. Standardised endoscopic...

  4. Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph M.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Collier, Martha L.; Richmond, Erin M. B.; Davis, Nancy L.; Staats, Herman F.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2006-03-01

    Vaccination represents the most effective control measure in the fight against infectious diseases. Local mucosal immune responses are critical for protection from, and resolution of, infection by numerous mucosal pathogens. Antigen processing across mucosal surfaces is the natural route by which mucosal immunity is generated, as peripheral antigen delivery typically fails to induce mucosal immune responses. However, we demonstrate in this article that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP). Moreover, coinoculation of null VRP (not expressing any transgene) with inactivated influenza virions, or ovalbumin, resulted in a significant increase in antigen-specific systemic IgG and fecal IgA antibodies, compared with antigen alone. Pretreatment of VRP with UV light largely abrogated this adjuvant effect. These results demonstrate that alphavirus replicon particles possess intrinsic systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity and suggest that VRP RNA replication is the trigger for this activity. We feel that these observations and the continued experimentation they stimulate will ultimately define the specific components of an alternative pathway for the induction of mucosal immunity, and if the activity is evident in humans, will enable new possibilities for safe and inexpensive subunit and inactivated vaccines. vaccine vector | Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus | viral immunology | RNA virus

  5. Scoring irradiation mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Panders, A.K. (Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Saene, H.K.F. van (Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool (UK)); Vermey, A. (Department of Surgery Oncology Division, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Mehta, D.M. (Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands))

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation mucositis is defined as an inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucosa following therapeutic irradiation of patients who have head and neck cancer. Clinically, it is a serious side effect because severe mucositis can cause generalized problems (weight loss, nasogastic tube feedings) and interferes with the well-being of the patient seriously. Grading mucositis is important for the evaluation of preventive and therapeutic measures. The object of this study was to develop a scoring method based on local mucositis signs only. Four clinical local signs of mucositis were used in this score: white discoloration, erythema, pseudomembranes and ulceration. Mucositis of the oral cavity was calcualted during conventional irradiation protocol for 8 distinguishable areas using the 4 signs and their extent. A prospective evaluation of this method in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients displayed an S-curve reflecting a symptomless first irradiation week, followed by a rapid and steady increase of white discoloration, erythema and pseudomembranes during the second and third week. Oral candidiasis, generalized symptoms such as weight loss and the highest mucositis scores were seen after 3 weeks irradiation. The novel mucositis scoring method may be of value in studying the effect of hygiene programs, topical application of disinfectans or antibiotics on oral mucositis. (author).

  6. Scoring irradiation mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Panders, A.K.; Saene, H.K.F. van; Vermey, A.; Mehta, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation mucositis is defined as an inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucosa following therapeutic irradiation of patients who have head and neck cancer. Clinically, it is a serious side effect because severe mucositis can cause generalized problems (weight loss, nasogastic tube feedings) and interferes with the well-being of the patient seriously. Grading mucositis is important for the evaluation of preventive and therapeutic measures. The object of this study was to develop a scoring method based on local mucositis signs only. Four clinical local signs of mucositis were used in this score: white discoloration, erythema, pseudomembranes and ulceration. Mucositis of the oral cavity was calcualted during conventional irradiation protocol for 8 distinguishable areas using the 4 signs and their extent. A prospective evaluation of this method in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients displayed an S-curve reflecting a symptomless first irradiation week, followed by a rapid and steady increase of white discoloration, erythema and pseudomembranes during the second and third week. Oral candidiasis, generalized symptoms such as weight loss and the highest mucositis scores were seen after 3 weeks irradiation. The novel mucositis scoring method may be of value in studying the effect of hygiene programs, topical application of disinfectans or antibiotics on oral mucositis. (author)

  7. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  8. Tricholithobezoar Causing Gastric Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Valenciano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoar is a rare condition seen almost exclusively in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia. When not recognized, the trichobezoar continues to grow, which increases the risk of severe complications such as gastric ulceration and even perforation. Formation of a gallstone within the trichobezoar (tricholithobezoar is an event that has not yet been described. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room with signals and symptoms of an epigastric mass and perforative acute abdomen. Radiological study revealed bilateral pneumoperitoneum. Personal history revealed depressive syndrome, trichotillomania and trichophagia. With a diagnosis of visceral perforation, an urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed. This confirmed the diagnosis of gastric perforation due to a large trichobezoar with the formation of a gastrolith that was removed by anterior gastrotomy. Biochemical study of the gastric stone revealed that it was composed of bile salts. There were no complications. The patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day and was referred for psychiatric treatment.

  9. Restrictive techniques: gastric banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina da Cunha

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery for the treatment of severe obesity has a definite role onthe therapeutic armamentarium all over the world. Initiated 40years ago, bariatric surgery has already a long way thanks tohundred of surgeons, who had constantly searched for the besttechnique for the adequate control of severe obesity. Among theimportant breakthroughs in obesity surgery there is theadjustable gastric band. It is a sylastic band, inflatable andadjustable, which is placed on the top of the stomach in order tocreate a 15-20 cc pouch, with an outlet of 1.3cm. The adjustablegastric band has also a subcutaneous reservoir through whichadjustments can be made, according to the patient evolution.The main feature of the adjustable gastric band is the fact thatis minimal invasive, reversible, adjustable and placedlaparoscopically. Then greatly diminishing the surgical traumato the severe obese patient. Belachew and Favretti’s techniqueof laparoscopic application of the adjustable gastric band isdescribed and the evolution of the technique during this years,as we has been practiced since 1998. The perioperative care ofthe patient is also described, as well as the follow-up and shortand long term controls.

  10. and Gastric Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013. As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022. Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  11. Gastric Schwannoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Ho; Jee, Keum Nahn [Dankook University Cellege of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Gastric Schwannoma is a rare benign intramural tumor arising from the stomach, and it accounts for only 0.1% of all the different kinds of gastric neoplasms, and it's less than 4% of all the benign gastric tumors. This tumor is very difficult to differentiate from the other mesenchymal tumors by the clinical, endoscopic and radiologic findings. In this study, we demonstrate the appearance of this tumor on endoscopic ultrasound and contrast-enhanced abdomen CT. We also show the histopathologic findings of a surgically confirmed gastric Schwannoma that was located in the proper muscle layer.

  12. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH in healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, red wine, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, E; Hauge, C; Sommer, P; Mortensen, T

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol causes gastroesophageal reflux and mucosal damage in the oesophagus and the stomach. The transmucosal electrical potential difference gives information on gastric mucosal integrity and function, while the validity of oesophageal measurements have been discussed. Baseline oesophageal potential difference measurements were performed three times with an interval of at least one week. We found oesophageal potential difference measurements reliable with an acceptable reproducibility. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH were measured by use of a new microelectrode principle in 10 healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, wine and alcohol. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml coca-cola, 250 ml 11 vol% red wine and 60 ml 43 vol% whisky. Gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml ethanol 11 vol% and 60 ml ethanol 43 vol%. Intake of red wine and whisky resulted in a significant greater gastric potential difference decrease compared to similar concentrations and volumes of ethanol. The time until the potential difference had regained baseline level was longer after intake of red wine compared to coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. Oesophageal pH decreased after intake of coca-cola and red wine, but was unchanged after whisky. Gastric pH was unchanged after intake of all the drinks. In conclusion, the gastric potential difference reduction was not correlated to alcohol concentration. Red wine seems to affect the gastric potential difference more than coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. The observed changes in oesophageal and gastric potential difference might be due to changes in Cl- secretion and/or due to a damaging effect of the additives of the beverages.

  13. Measuring Oral Mucositis of Pediatric Patients with Cancer: A Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese Version of the Oral Mucositis Daily Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Karis Kin Fong; Ip, Wan Yim; Lee, Vincent; Li, Chak Ho; Yuen, Hui Leung; Epstein, Joel B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Oral mucositis is a frequent clinical condition that has been shown to affect pediatric cancer patients. Oral Mucositis Daily Questionnaire (OMDQ) is one of the few available patient-reported outcome measures to assess the extent and impact of oral mucositis. The objectives of the study were to translate the Mouth and Throat Soreness-Related Questions of the OMDQ into Chinese (OMDQ MTS-Ch) for children and adolescents aged 6–18 years receiving chemotherapy and to evaluate its psych...

  14. Digestive physiology of the pig symposium: involvement of gut chemosensing in the regulation of mucosal barrier function and defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, I; Akiba, Y; Kaunitz, J D

    2013-05-01

    Meal ingestion is followed by release of numerous hormones from enteroendocrine cells interspersed among the epithelial cells lining the intestine. Recently, the de-orphanization of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-type nutrient receptors, expressed on the apical membranes of enteroendocrine cells, has suggested a plausible mechanism whereby luminal nutrients trigger the release of gut hormones. Activation of nutrient receptors triggers intracellular signaling mechanisms that promote exocytosis of hormone-containing granules into the submucosal space. Hormones released by foregut enteroendocrine cells include the glucagon-like peptides (GLP) affecting glycemic control (GLP-1) and releasing pro-proliferative, hypertrophy-inducing growth factors (GLP-2). The foregut mucosa, being exposed to pulses of concentrated HCl, is protected by a system of defense mechanisms, which includes epithelial bicarbonate and mucus secretion and augmentation of mucosal blood flow. We have reported that luminal co-perfusion of AA with nucleotides in anesthetized rats releases GLP-2 into the portal vein, associated with increased bicarbonate and mucus secretion and mucosal blood flow. The GLP-2 increases bicarbonate secretion via release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) from myenteric nerves. Luminal bile acids also release gut hormones due to activation of the bile-acid receptor known as G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPR) 131, G Protein Bile Acid Receptor (GPBAR) 1, or Takeda G Protein-Coupled Receptor (TGR) 5, also expressed on enteroendocrine cells. The GLP are metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme of particular interest to pharmaceutical, because its inhibition increases plasma concentrations of GLP-1 to treat diabetes. We have also reported that DPPIV inhibition enhances the secretory effects of nutrient-evoked GLP-2. Understanding the release mechanism and the metabolic pathways of gut hormones is of potential utility to the formulation of feedstuff

  15. Fast pouch emptying, delayed small intestinal transit, and exaggerated gut hormone responses after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, C; Damgaard, M; Bojsen-Møller, K N

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes extensive changes in gastrointestinal anatomy and leads to reduced appetite and large weight loss, which partly is due to an exaggerated release of anorexigenic gut hormones.......Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes extensive changes in gastrointestinal anatomy and leads to reduced appetite and large weight loss, which partly is due to an exaggerated release of anorexigenic gut hormones....

  16. Evaluation of the gastric antiulcerogenic effect of large cardamom (fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, M A; Farah; Javed, K; Singh, S

    2001-05-01

    Large cardamom (fruit of Amomum subulatum Roxb, N.O. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as 'Heel kalan' or 'Bari Ilaichi' is used in Unani system of medicine in gastrointestinal disorders. A crude methanolic extract and its different fractions, viz. essential oil, petroleum ether (60-80 degrees ), ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions, were studied in rats for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced by aspirin, ethanol and pylorus ligature. In addition their effects on wall mucus, output of gastric acid and pepsin concentration were recorded. The crude methanolic extract of A. subulatum and its fractions, viz. essential oil, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, inhibited gastric lesions induced by ethanol significantly, but not those which were induced by pylorus ligation and aspirin. However, ethyl acetate fraction increased the wall mucus in pylorus ligated rats. The results suggest a direct protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on gastric mucosal barrier. While the observation of decrease in gastric motility by essential oil and petroleum ether fractions suggests the gastroprotective action of the test drug. These investigations validate the use of 'Heel kalan' in gastrointestinal disorders by Unani physicians.

  17. Solcoseryl in prevention of stress-induced gastric lesions and healing of chronic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Pytko-Polonczyk, J; Brzozowski, T; Bielański, W

    1991-03-01

    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract of calf blood, protects the gastric mucosa against various topical irritants and enhances the healing of chronic gastric ulcerations but the mechanisms of these effects have been little studied. This study was designed to elucidate the active principle in Solcoseryl and to determine the role of prostaglandins (PG) and polyamines in the antiulcer properties of this agent. Using both, the radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay, EGF-like material was detected in Solcoseryl preparation. Solcoseryl given s.c. prevented the formation of stress-induced gastric lesions and this was accompanied by an increase in the generation of PGE2 in the gastric mucosa. Similar effects were obtained with EGF. Pretreatment with indomethacin, to suppress mucosal generation of prostaglandins (PG), greatly augmented stress-induced gastric ulcerations and antagonized the protection exerted by both Solcoseryl and EGF. Solcoseryl, like EGF, enhanced the healing of chronic gastro-duodenal ulcerations. This effect was abolished by the pretreatment with difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines. The healing effects of Solcoseryl and EGF was also reduced by prednisolone which decreased the angiogenesis in the granulation tissue in the ulcer area. These results indicate that Solcoseryl 1. contains EGF-like material, 2. displays the protective and ulcer healing effects similar to those of EGF and involving both PG and polyamines and 3. acts via similar mechanism as does EGF.

  18. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Primary Closure versus Gastric Resection for Perforated Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 Nigerian Journal of Surgery | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Perforated gastric ulcer is one of the most ... Review Article. Abstract. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: ... Figure 1: Destructive defect in the mesocolon. Figure 2: Giant perforated gastric ulcer of the posterior wall of the antrum.

  20. Formulation and Release Characteristics of Zidovudine-Loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro release kinetics and mechanism of release were assessed sequentially in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2)and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.2). Results: The ratio 1: 1 formulation was the most stable in terms of physical observation.. Particle size analysis indicated that the particles were irregular in shape ...

  1. Manuka Honey Exerts Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities That Promote Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasaudi, Saad B.; Al-Hindi, Rashad R.; Abdel-dayem, Umama A.; Ali, Soad S.; Saleh, Rasha M.; Al Jaouni, Soad K.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric ulcers are a major problem worldwide with no effective treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of manuka honey in the treatment of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers in rats. Different groups of rats were treated with three different concentrations of honey. Stomachs were checked macroscopically for ulcerative lesions in the glandular mucosa and microscopically for histopathological alterations. Treatment with manuka honey significantly reduced the ulcer index and maintained the glycoprotein content. It also reduced the mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) as compared to untreated control group. In addition, honey-treated groups showed significant increase in enzymatic (GPx and SOD) and nonenzymatic (GSH) antioxidants besides levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Flow cytometry studies showed that treatment of animals with manuka honey has normalized cell cycle distribution and significantly lowered apoptosis in gastric mucosa. In conclusion, the results indicated that manuka honey is effective in the treatment of chronic ulcer and preservation of mucosal glycoproteins. Its effects are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that resulted in a significant reduction of the gastric mucosal MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and caused an elevation in IL-10 levels. PMID:28250794

  2. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Liposomes for pH-Responsive Gastric Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Fu, Victoria; Zhu, Jingying; Lu, Diannan; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel pH-responsive gold nanoparticle-stabilized liposome system for gastric antimicrobial delivery. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (diameter ~ 10 nm) onto the outer surface of negatively charged phospholipid liposomes (diameter ~ 75 nm), we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have excellent stability with limited fusion ability and negligible cargo releases. However when the stabilized liposomes are present in an environment with neutral pH, the gold st...

  3. Taurine zinc solid dispersions protect against cold-restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration by upregulating HSP70 and exerting an anxiolytic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2015-09-05

    Pharmacological effects of solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on gastric ulceration and anxiety were investigated. Pretreatment with taurine zinc (50, 100 or 200mg/kg) SDs dose-dependently protected rat gastric mucosa against cold-restraint stress (CRS)-induced gastric injury, and significantly attenuated increases in gastric mucosal H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation and enhanced SOD activity. Taurine zinc also inhibited CRS-induced elevation of the serum stress hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone and upregulated HSP70 expression in the gastric mucosa. Moreover, taurine zinc (200mg/kg) SDs more potently protected the gastric mucosa from ulceration than the same dose of taurine, which may be attributed to a synergistic effect between taurine and zinc. Behavioral experiments in mice showed that taurine zinc SDs significantly increased the number of entries and time spent on the open arms in the elevated plus-maze test, time spent in the central area and total distance traveled in the open field test, and time spent and number of entries into the light compartment in the light/dark box test, indicative of reduced anxiety-like behaviors. This study demonstrates taurine zinc protected the gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric damage by decreasing oxidative stress, promoting endogenous HSP70 expression and attenuating psychological stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Receptor 1, (TRPV1)-Expressing Vagal Nerve in the Inhibitory Effect of Gastric Acidification on Exogenous Motilin-Induced Gastric Phase III Contractions in Suncus murinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Makoto; Mikami, Takashi; Kuroda, Kayuri; Nishida, Maki; Ito, Kazuma; Mondal, Anupom; Koyama, Kouhei; Jogahara, Takamichi; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi

    2016-06-01

    Gastric acidification inhibits motilin-induced gastric phase III contractions. However, the underlying mechanism has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we studied the inhibitory mechanism by gastric acidification on motilin-induced contraction in Suncus murinus (S. murinus). We measured interdigestive gastric phase III contractions in conscious, freely moving S. murinus, and examined the inhibitory effect of gastric acidification on motilin action and the involvement of the vagus nerve and transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) in the inhibitory mechanism. A bolus injection of motilin evoked phase III-like contractions during intravenous infusion of saline. Intragastric acidification (pH 1.5-2.5) inhibited motilin-induced phase III contractions in a pH-dependent manner and significantly decreased the motility index at a pH below 2.0. In contrast, intraduodenal acidification (pH 2.0) failed to inhibit motilin-induced contractions. Vagotomy significantly alleviated the suppression of motilin-induced gastric contractions under acidic conditions (pH 2.0), suggesting vagus nerve involvement. Moreover, intragastric acidification (pH 2.0) significantly increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the nucleus tractus solitarii. In vagotomized S. murinus, the number of c-Fos-positive cells did not change, even under gastric acidification conditions. TRPV1 mRNA was highly expressed in the muscle and mucosal regions of the antrum and the nodose ganglion, whereas was not detected in the upper small intestine. Capsazepin, a TRPV1 antagonist, completely rescued the inhibitory effect of gastric acidification. Gastric acidification in S. murinus inhibits motilin-induced contractions, a finding similar to results observed in humans, while TRPV1-expressing vagus nerves play a role in the inhibitory mechanism.

  5. A Study on Oral Mucosal Lesions in 3500 Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence rate of oral mucosal lesions in patients with dermatological diseases was relatively low. However, predominant oral mucosal lesions observed in the study were autoimmune in origin with a high morbidity and mortality index. Hence, multidisciplinary approach will definitely help in the prognosis ...

  6. Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis; from bench to bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.E. Koning, de (Barbara)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 focuses primarily on the pathophysiology of mucositis, in order to gain more insight different experimental mouse models were used. Chapter 2 describes mucositis induced by high dose doxorubicin (DOX)- treatment. DOX is a frequently used cytostatic drug in childhood cancer,

  7. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Early Infancy: Monitoring and Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hol (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe mucosal immune system of infants is dependent on the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Homeostasis results from the interaction between the mucosa and exogenous factors such as dietar and microbial agents. Induction and maintenance of homeostasis is a highly regluated system that

  8. Antimicrobial therapy to prevent or treat oral mucositis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, J.P.; Bellm, L.A.; Epstein, J.B.; Sonis, S.T.; Symonds, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Oral mucositis represents a significant source of morbidity after chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Since infection may have an important role in the pathophysiology of oral mucositis, several antimicrobial agents have been investigated for their efficacy in preventing and treating this disease.

  9. Gastric polyps and nodules in children receiving long-term omeprazole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashankar, Dinesh S; Israel, David M

    2002-11-01

    Multiple gastric polyps have been reported to occur in adults receiving omeprazole therapy. There are little published data in children. We report our experience in monitoring the gross and histologic appearance of the stomach in children receiving long-term omeprazole therapy. This was a retrospective review of the charts of children who received omeprazole for more than 6 months for reflux esophagitis between 1989 and 1998. All patients had repeated endoscopic examinations until healing of the esophagitis was confirmed and then annually thereafter. At endoscopy, gastric mucosal swellings were classified as polyps or nodules based on histology. Thirty-one children had long-term endoscopic follow-up while receiving omeprazole. Seven of 31 children had gastric polyps and/or nodules, noted between 10 and 48 months (mean = 28 months) of omeprazole therapy. Four had nodules only, one had a sessile hyperplastic polyp, and two had both a polyp (one hyperplastic and one fundic gland polyp) and nodules. All lesions were found in the gastric body. Nodules in four of the six children disappeared spontaneously while the children continued to receive omeprazole. The polyps persisted. There were no dysplastic changes in the gastric mucosa or polyps in any of the patients. There were no significant differences between the 7 children with and the 24 without polyps/nodules with respect to age, gastrin concentrations, or dose and duration of omeprazole therapy. Gastric polyps and nodules may be found in children receiving long-term omeprazole therapy. The gastric changes in our patients were benign during the mean observation period of 31 months.

  10. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  11. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric adenomas using the clutch cutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Kazuya; Kubokawa, Masaru; Gibo, Junya; Osada, Shigeki; Tokumaru, Kayo; Yamaguchi, Eriko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Sato, Takao; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kimura, Yusuke; Shiratsuchi, Yuki; Akahoshi, Kazuaki; Oya, Masafumi; Koga, Hidenobu; Ihara, Eikichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-16

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using the clutch cutter (CC) (ESD-CC) for gastric adenoma (GA). From June 2007 to August 2015, 122 consecutive patients with histological diagnoses of GA from specimens resected by ESD-CC were enrolled in this prospective study. The CC was used for all ESD steps (marking, mucosal incision, submucosal dissection, and hemostatic treatment), and its therapeutic efficacy and safety were assessed. Both the en-bloc resection rate and the R0 resection rate were 100% (122/122). The mean surgical time was 77.4 min, but the time varied significantly according to tumor size and location. No patients suffered perforation. Post-ESD-CC bleeding occurred in six cases (4.9%) that were successfully resolved by endoscopic hemostatic treatment. ESD-CC is a technically efficient, safe, and easy method for resecting GA.

  12. The analysis of bacterial culture in radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zunbei; Su Deqing; Liang Yuxue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate pathogen dose existing or not in patients with radiation mucositis. Methods: From Juanary 2004 to August 2005, from 46 patients with radiation mucositis some pharynx secretion were taken for culture. Then they were treated with antibiotics selected by the cultured results and gargle. Results: 5 patients with grade 0 of radiation mucositis were with no cultured pathogen, and the results of some other patients with radiation mucositis include 8 cases of epiphyte, 1 cases of p. vulgaris and 3 cases of Staphylococcus. the positive rate is 29.2% (12/41); Conclusion: Some patients with radiation mucositis do exist pathogen, and we must slect antibiotics by the bacterial cultured results. (authors)

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  14. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, D.P.; Epstein, J.B.; Elad, S.; Allemano, J.; Bossi, P.; Wetering, M.D. van de; Rao, N.G.; Potting, C.M.J.; Cheng, K.K.; Freidank, A.; Brennan, M.T.; Bowen, J.; Dennis, K.; Lalla, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was

  15. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, Deborah P.; Epstein, Joel B.; Elad, Sharon; Allemano, Justin; Bossi, Paolo; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; Rao, Nikhil G.; Potting, Carin; Cheng, Karis K.; Freidank, Annette; Brennan, Michael T.; Bowen, Joanne; Dennis, Kristopher; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted. The body

  16. Animal Models of Chemotherapy-induced Mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per T; Shen, René Liang; Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    2018-01-01

    of CIM, and how to prevent it. Animal models allow highly controlled experimental conditions, detailed organ (e.g. GIT) insights, standardized, clinically-relevant treatment regimens and discovery of new biomarkers. Still, surprisingly few results from animal models have been translated into clinical CIM......Chemotherapy for cancer patients induces damaging tissue reactions along the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a serious side effect of cytotoxic drugs and several animal models of CIM have been developed to help understand the progression...... mangement and treatments. The results obtained from specific animal models can be difficult to translate to the diverse range of CIM manifestations in patients that vary according to the antineoplastic drugs, dose, underlying (cancer) disease and patient characteristics (e.g. age, genetics, body...

  17. Oral mucosal melanoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlal Gantala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is most deadly of all primary skin cancers. Over 90% of melanomas occur on the skin. Half of such melanomas occur in the oral cavity, followed by nasal cavity (44% and sinuses (8%. In the oral cavity, the most frequent sites of occurrence are hard palate and maxillary gingiva. Mucosal melanomas represent a diagnostic challenge than the more common cutaneous melanomas because oral melanomas demonstrate significant heterogeneity in morphological features, developmental process, and biological behaviour. This case report highlights an exophytic, lobulated oral malignant melanoma involving maxillary gingiva and is presented to reemphasize the fact that any pigmented lesion in the oral cavity should be examined with suspicion; proper investigation should be carried out to rule out any untoward experiences later.

  18. Sex hormones and mucosal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Christopher G; Sabzehei, Bahareh; Marucha, Phillip T

    2009-07-01

    Wound healing studies, which have chiefly examined dermal tissues, have reported a female advantage in healing rates. In contrast, our laboratory recently demonstrated women heal mucosal wounds more slowly than men. We hypothesized sex hormones influence wound healing rates, possibly through their modulating effects on inflammation. This study involved 329 younger subjects aged 18-43 (165 women, 164 men) and 93 older subjects aged 50-88 (60 women, 33 men). A 3.5mm diameter wound was created on the hard oral palate and videographed daily to assess wound closure. Blood collected at the time of wounding was used to assess circulating testosterone, progesterone and estradiol levels, and in vitro cytokine production in response to LPS. No strong associations were observed between healing times and estradiol or progesterone levels. However, in younger subjects, lower testosterone levels related to faster wound closure. Conversely, in older women higher testosterone levels related to (1) lower inflammatory responses; and (2) faster healing times. No such relationships were seen in older men, or in women taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy [HRT]. Older women (50-54 years) not yet experiencing menopause healed similarly to younger women and dissimilarly from age-matched post-menopausal women. This suggests that the deleterious effects of aging on wound healing occur secondary to the effects of menopause. Supporting this, there was evidence in post-menopausal women that HRT augmented wound closure. Overall, this study suggests that human mucosal healing rates are modulated by testosterone levels. Based upon when between-group differences were observed, testosterone may impact upon the proliferative phase of healing which involves immune processes such as re-epithelialization and angiogenesis.

  19. Oncostatin M promotes mucosal epithelial barrier dysfunction and is elevated in eosinophilic mucosal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Kathryn L.; Norton, James E.; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Suh, Lydia A.; Carter, Roderick G.; Rocci, Erin; Harris, Kathleen E.; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie; Conley, David B.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Liu, Mark C.; Kato, Atsushi; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Grammer, Leslie C.; Peters, Anju T.; Kern, Robert C.; Bryce, Paul J.; Tan, Bruce K.; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epithelial barrier dysfunction is thought to play a role in many mucosal diseases including asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the role of OSM in epithelial barrier dysfunction in human mucosal disease. Methods OSM expression was measured in tissue extracts, nasal secretions, and BAL. Effects of OSM stimulation on barrier function of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and nasal epithelial cells (NEC) cultured at air liquid interface (ALI) were assessed using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and FITC dextran flux. Dual color immunofluorescence was used to evaluate integrity of tight junction structures in cultured epithelial cells. Results Analysis of CRS samples showed that OSM mRNA and protein were highly increased in nasal polyps compared to control uncinate tissue (p<0.05). OSM was also elevated in BAL of allergic asthmatics following segmental allergen challenge and in esophageal biopsies from EoE patients. OSM stimulation of ALI cultures resulted in reduced barrier function measured by decreased TEER and increased FITC dextran flux (p<0.05). Alterations in barrier function by OSM were reversible, and the viability of epithelial cells was unaffected. OSM levels in lysates of nasal polyps and UT positively correlated with α2-macroglobulin, a marker of epithelial leak, in localized nasal secretions (r=0.4855, p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that OSM may play a role in epithelial barrier dysfunction in CRS and other mucosal diseases. PMID:25840724

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer.

  1. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    . Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA.......0, with GIP and placebo, respectively). The time pattern of gastric emptying was similar in the two groups (P = 0.98). Endogenous GIP secretion, as derived from the incremental area under the curve of plasma GIP concentrations in the placebo experiments, did not correlate to gastric half-emptying times (r(2...

  2. [Gastric preneoplastic changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni

    2004-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. The 5-year relative survival rate ranges from 10 to 20% of cases. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnose gastric non invasive neoplasia (formerly dysplasia). Correa suggested more than 20 years ago that there was a histological cascade leading to GC: chronic active gastritis --> atrophy (AG) --> achlorydria with nitrocompounds increase --> intestinal metaplasia (IM) type I --> IM type III --> low grade dysplasia (LGD) --> high grade dysplasia (HGD) --> GC. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori infection has imposed a revision of the various pathogenetic stages: 1) GC may arise in the same context as IM and dysplasia, but without any documentable precursor. GC can develop in a context of normochloridria; 2) there are not sufficient data to support endoscopic surveillance for patients with AG; 3) there are doubts about the real necessity to operate histologically a subdivision of IM in subtypes: probably it is more important the extent of IM; 4) dysplasia is the only true histological marker of CG. In fact, LGD is associate or progressed to GC in the 9% of cases, HGD is associated or progressed to GC in the 74% of cases. It emerges the real oncologic risk of dysplasia. Such data are confirmed by immunohistochemical study of the dysplastic lesions. Therefore, an appropriate follow-up of non invasive neoplasia increases the likelihood of CG being detected in its potentially curable stage.

  3. Endoscopic mucosal incision by diode laser for early cancer treatment in the alimentary tract: effect of submucosal indocyanine green solution injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuya; Arai, Tsunenori; Nakamura, Naoko; Tajiri, Hisao; Miura, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1999-06-01

    Mucosal incision technique by diode laser ablation was studied to ensure the operation of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), which is gold standard method for early gastric cancer with little/no risk of lymphnode metastasis. Our method was designed to facilitate grasping a large lesion by hitching the snaring wire on the incised mucosal groove around the lesion. We employed local submucosal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) solution. ICG solution was used to prevent direct laser light penetration to the muscularis propriae owing to strong absorption of 805nm light (absorption coefficent at 805 nm is about 200cm-1). We used diode laser radiation with an output of 25W by contact (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 kg/cm2) and non-contact irradiation methods. In the preliminary experiment with resected porcine stomach, muscularis propriae was intact by the 60s non-contact irradiation or the 8s contact irradiation with contact pressure of 1kg/cm2. In the endoscopic experiment we used 3 dogs. Using conical contact probe, we successfully demonstrated 3cm diameter circular incision with sharp groove in 10 minutes. We could place the snaring wire on the incised groove. Histology of the endoscopically incised canine stomach revealed that the submucosal layer welled up to 6mm in thickness and the bottom of the incision groove reached 1.9mm at deepest below the mucosal muscle. The thickness of the coagulation layer around the incised groove was up to 1.8mm. No damage was seen a the muscularis propriae. We demonstrate easy as well as sure snaring by using our laser incision technique. We think our technique may be available to enhance the efficacy of EMR for early gastric cancer including the lesion over 2cm in diameter.

  4. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  5. Surgical outcome in headache due to mucosal contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Yabe, Haruna; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    Headaches is classified as primary and secondary, with secondary originating in head and neck conditions, the most important etiology being acute sinusitis. Headache due to mucosal contact, rarely encountered by otorhinolaryngologists, is an important secondary headache, whose criteria are defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders to include intermittent pain localized in the periorbital and medial canthal or temporozygomatic regions, evidence that pain is attributable to mucosal contact and the presence of mucosal contact in the absence of acute rhinosinusitis, obtained using clinical examinations, nasal endoscopy, and/or computed tomography (CT). After mucosal contact is surgically corrected pain usually disappears permanently within 7 days. We reviewed mucosal contact headaches in 63 subjects undergoing nasal or paranasal surgery from April 2007 to March 2008. Of those 7 were diagnosed with headaches due to contact points in nasal mucosa, ranging from canthal to the temporozygomatic. The most common contact, between the middle turbinate and nasal septum, was seen in 6 of the 7. Surgery eliminated symptoms in 4 and ameliorated them in 3 indicating effective headache management. Subjects with severe headaches or localized periorbital and medial canthal pain regions, mucosal contact involvement is ruled out when CT allows no lesions. When mucosal contact headache is suspected, however surgery should be considered as a last resort. (author)

  6. Roles of Mucosal Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, is one of the world's leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. As a mucosal-transmitted pathogen, Mtb infects humans and animals mainly through the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Apart from providing a physical barrier against the invasion of pathogen, the major function of the respiratory mucosa may be to serve as the inductive sites to initiate mucosal immune responses and sequentially provide the first line of defense for the host to defend against this pathogen. A large body of studies in the animals and humans have demonstrated that the mucosal immune system, rather than the systemic immune system, plays fundamental roles in the host’s defense against Mtb infection. Therefore, the development of new vaccines and novel delivery routes capable of directly inducing respiratory mucosal immunity is emphasized for achieving enhanced protection from Mtb infection. In this paper, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding the mucosal immunity against Mtb infection, including the development of TB vaccines, and respiratory delivery routes to enhance mucosal immunity are discussed.

  7. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  8. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyono, Hiroshi; Azegami, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer's patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases.

  9. Base-metal dental casting alloy biocompatibility assessment using a human-derived three-dimensional oral mucosal model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, E L

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys used in fixed prosthodontics have been associated with type IV Ni-induced hypersensitivity. We hypothesised that the full-thickness human-derived oral mucosa model employed for biocompatibility testing of base-metal dental alloys would provide insights into the mechanisms of Ni-induced toxicity. Primary oral keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts were seeded onto Alloderm™ and maintained until full thickness was achieved prior to Ni-Cr and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy disc exposure (2-72 h). Biocompatibility assessment involved histological analyses with cell viability measurements, oxidative stress responses, inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular toxicity analyses. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis determined elemental ion release levels. We detected adverse morphology with significant reductions in cell viability, significant increases in oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular toxicity for the Ni-Cr alloy-treated oral mucosal models compared with untreated oral mucosal models, and adverse effects were increased for the Ni-Cr alloy that leached the most Ni. Co-Cr demonstrated significantly enhanced biocompatibility compared with Ni-Cr alloy-treated oral mucosal models. The human-derived full-thickness oral mucosal model discriminated between dental alloys and provided insights into the mechanisms of Ni-induced toxicity, highlighting potential clinical relevance.

  10. Effect of antrectomy on the nervous phase of gastric secretion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, J L; Wolfe, M M; Hocking, M P; McGuigan, J E; Woodward, E R

    1981-09-01

    A method is described for complete isolation of the stomach in the dog with vagal innervation intact. This involves esophagostomy, double mucosal closure of the pylorus and a Maydl gastric fistula combined with gastrojejunostomy. The latter is occluded during periods of study. In this preparation the responses to sham feeding and to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were reduced approximately 10-fold, reiterating the significant synergistic effect of gastrin on vagal stimulation of the parietal cell mass. However, significant acid secretion could still be induced in this preparation by both sham feeding and insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

  11. Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E M H; van Ierland-van Leeuwen, M L; Bennink, R J

    2006-08-01

    Accelerated gastric emptying of solids may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Orlistat, a potent lipase inhibitor, induces fat malabsorption and body weight loss but might accelerate gastric emptying as a result of suppressed CCK release. The aim was to investigate the role of fat restriction and lipase inhibition in CCK release and gastric emptying. A total of 28 patients (three male (M)/25 female (F); mean (s.d.) BMI 37.4(3.9) kg/m2) entering a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. CCK release and gastric emptying by scintigraphy at the start (T0), after 1 month of an energy- and fat-restricted diet and placebo (T1), and after 1 month (T2) and 1 year (T3) of randomization to placebo or 120 mg orlistat three times a day. One month of dieting and a weight loss of 2.3 kg (2.1% of initial weight) did not affect gastric emptying of liquids and solids. Basal and meal-stimulated CCK levels remained unaltered. Placebo-treated subjects who continued the diet for 1 month demonstrated a borderline significant suppressed CCK secretion and a weight loss of 1.2 kg (1.0%) without an effect on gastric emptying. After 1 year, the CCK secretion recovered to or beyond values at the start. A significantly slower emptying of solids (17.6 (T3) versus 25.9 (T1)%/h) and a weight loss of 10.4 kg (9.9%) was observed. Subjects on 120 mg orlistat lost 2.5 kg (2.5%) after 1 month, and 9.8 kg (9.9%) after 1 year. Basal and postprandial CCK release decreased significantly after the first month of orlistat treatment but normalized after 1 year. Diet and lipase inhibition did not have any influence on gastric emptying. Energy and fat restriction of 1 month did not alter gastric emptying in the whole group. Continuation of the diet for 1 year resulted in a delayed gastric emptying of solids. Lipase inhibition did not result in a sustained depressed CCK release and the anticipated acceleration of gastric emptying did not occur.

  12. The correlation between histological gastritis staging- 'OLGA/OLGIM' and serum pepsinogen test in assessment of gastric atrophy/intestinal metaplasia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoteng; Lu, Bin; Meng, Lina; Fan, Yihong; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Meng

    2017-08-01

    Serum pepsinogen (PG) test, as an indicator of gastric mucosal atrophy, reflects the functional and morphologic status of gastric mucosal and it is suggested to serve as a useful predictive marker for patients with gastric cancer (GC). The available classifications of gastritis, known as the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastritis Intestinal Metaplasia (OLGIM), integrating the severity and topography of atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM), have been gradually accepted and used in screening for GC in recent years. To assess whether serum pepsinogen test, including PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII and gastrin-17 (G-17) could reflect the extent and topography of gastric mucosal atrophy/IM. Furthermore, to discuss the relationship between OLGA/OLGIM staging system and serum pepsinogen test in assessment of gastric atrophy/IM. The OLGA/OLGIM ranks the gastric staging according to both the topography and the severity of gastric atrophy/IM. A retrospective study was conducted with 331 patients who underwent endoscopy with consecutive biopsy sampling and reassessed according to OLGA/OLGIM staging system. Serum pepsinogen test, including PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII and G-17, as well as serological Helicobacter pylori (Hp) antibody were also measured. Results were presented as gastritis stage, serum pepsinogen level and Hp status. Baseline characteristics were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for continuous data and Pearson's χ 2 test for categorical data. A logistic regression model was used for the correlation analysis between OLGA/OLGIM and serological pepsinogen test. A total of 177 non-atrophic gastritis and 154 atrophic gastritis were analyzed, among which 40 were antrum atrophy, 32 were corpus atrophy and 82 were pan-atrophy. All patients were assessed applying the OLGA/OLGIM criteria with a mean age of 54.7 ± 10.8 years. Patients among OLGA/OLGIM Stage III-IV were presented with a lower level of serum PGI and PGI/PGII (p  15

  13. Effect of O-acetylsalicylic acid on lipid synthesis by guinea pig gastric mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohn, M.; McColl, I.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the involvement of lipids as possible components of the gastric mucosal barrier by studying the synthesis and secretion of lipids by the epithelial cell lining of gastric mucosa and the effect of salicylate on these processes. O-Acetylsalicylic acid reversibly reduced in vitro incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C) and of DL-(2-/sup 14/C) mevalonic acid into lipids by isolated epithelial cells and by intact mucosa of guinea pig stomach, indicating reversible inhibition of lipid synthesis by the tissue in the presence of the drug. Inhibition of incorporation of both precursors into total lipids, into their fatty acid components, and into cholesterol is demonstrated. 19 refs.

  14. Intragastric laparoscopic surgery: An option for gastric lesions not resectable by endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Vázquez, Alba; Hernández Matías, Alberto; Bertomeu García, Agustín; Ruiz de Adana Belbel, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Gastric mucosal and submucosal lesions can be resected by endoscopy, laparoscopy or open surgery. Operative methods have varied depending on the location, endophytic growth and size of the lesion. Interest in minimally invasive surgery has increased and many surgeons are attempting laparoscopic approaches, especially in lesions of the stomach near the esophagogastric junction not amendable to endoscopic removal, because conventional surgery can produce stenosis and distort the postoperative anatomy, and increase morbimortality. We report our experience with laparoscopic intragastric surgery in 3 consecutive patients, with no complications. Laparoscopic intragastric surgery extends the surgeons' armamentarium to resect complex gastric lesions, while offering patients the benefits of minimal access surgery. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Kwangil; Ro, Sang Mi; Lee, Jieun

    2017-03-28

    Breast cancer with stomach metastasis rare with an incidence of 1% or less among metastatic breast cancer patients. We experienced a case of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach in 65-year-old female patient. She experienced dyspepsia and poor oral intake before visiting the clinic. Diffuse infiltration with nodular mucosal thickening of the stomach wall was observed, suggesting advanced gastric cancer based on gross endoscopic finding. Spread of poorly cohesive tumor cells in the gastric mucosa observed upon hematoxylin and eosin stain resembled signet ring cell carcinoma, but diffuse positive staining for GATA3 in immunohistochemical stain allowed for a conclusive diagnosis of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach. Based on the final diagnosis, systemic chemotherapy was administered instead of primary surgical resection. After 2 cycles of docetaxel administration, she showed a partial response based on abdominal computed tomography scan. This case is an unusual presentation of breast cancer metastasizing to the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accelerate gastric cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masato; Matsui, Hirofumi; Tomita, Tsutomu; Sadakata, Hisato; Indo, Hiroko P; Majima, Hideyuki J; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-01-01

    Tumor invasion is the most important factor to decide patient's prognosis. The relation between reactive oxygen species and tumor invasion is mainly reported that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the cell membrane is a reactive oxygen species producer for formulating an invadopodia. On the other hand, mitochondrion was known as one of the most important reactive oxygen species-producer in the cell via an energy transfer system. However, the relation between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and the tumor invasion was not well clarified. In this study, we evaluated the relation between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and tumor invasion using a normal gastric mucosal cell-line (RGM-1) and a cancerous mutant RGM-1 cell-line (RGK-1). Manganese superoxide dismutase-expressing RGK-1 cell-lines were used for a scavenging mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. The cells have been evaluated their movement ability as follows; cellular ruffling frequencies, wound healing assay to evaluate horizontal cellular migration, and invasion assay using matrigel to analyze vertical cellular migration. All cellular movement abilities were inhibited by scavenging mitochondrial reactive oxygen species with manganese superoxide dismutase. Therefore mitochondrial reactive oxygen species was one of factors enhancing the tumor invasion in gastric cancer.

  17. BIOCHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS OF GASTRIC MUCOSA IN OXIDATIV STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA DINU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the participation of ROS in cronic gastric mucosal damage by drinking water with pH 4 and by undergoing 30 minutes for three times per day of water immersion. After four weeks the animals which were exposed at two damaging factors were sacrificed and gastric mucosa was collected for analyzing lipid peroxydation and superoxide dismutase activity. The levels of MDA and 4-HNE used as indicators of lipid peroxidation, increased from 5.85 ± 0.04 nmol/g to 12.25±0.95 nmol/g for acid group and from 5.85 ± 0.04 nmol/g to14.06 ± 1.20 nmol/g for water immersion group. In the acid group the level of total glutathione decresed to 200.10±19.10 mg/100g and 145.56±13.85 mg/100g reduced glutathione. In water immersion group the level of total glutathione decresed to 180.70 ±16.82 mg/100g and 130.60±10.64 mg/100g reduced glutathione. In acid group Superoxide dismutase decreased to 255.18 ± 22.84 U/g and in water immersion group decreased to 215.73 ± 20.60 U/g.

  18. Superpixel-based classification of gastric chromoendoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetto, Davide; Grisan, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    Chromoendoscopy (CH) is a gastroenterology imaging modality that involves the staining of tissues with methylene blue, which reacts with the internal walls of the gastrointestinal tract, improving the visual contrast in mucosal surfaces and thus enhancing a doctor's ability to screen precancerous lesions or early cancer. This technique helps identify areas that can be targeted for biopsy or treatment and in this work we will focus on gastric cancer detection. Gastric chromoendoscopy for cancer detection has several taxonomies available, one of which classifies CH images into three classes (normal, metaplasia, dysplasia) based on color, shape and regularity of pit patterns. Computer-assisted diagnosis is desirable to help us improve the reliability of the tissue classification and abnormalities detection. However, traditional computer vision methodologies, mainly segmentation, do not translate well to the specific visual characteristics of a gastroenterology imaging scenario. We propose the exploitation of a first unsupervised segmentation via superpixel, which groups pixels into perceptually meaningful atomic regions, used to replace the rigid structure of the pixel grid. For each superpixel, a set of features is extracted and then fed to a random forest based classifier, which computes a model used to predict the class of each superpixel. The average general accuracy of our model is 92.05% in the pixel domain (86.62% in the superpixel domain), while detection accuracies on the normal and abnormal class are respectively 85.71% and 95%. Eventually, the whole image class can be predicted image through a majority vote on each superpixel's predicted class.

  19. Gastric retention and gastric ileus in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Senot, P.; Champigneulle, B.; Drouin, P.

    1980-01-01

    Report of 2 cases of paralytic ileus of the stomach (gastric atony) and of 14 cases of gastric retention, diagnosed from the radiographs obtained from a group of 1500 diabetic patients within seven years. These disorders occur in diabetes mellitus present for many years and associated with peripheral neuropathy. The above findings often present diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Conservative drug therapy is usually sufficient management. (orig.) [de

  20. Inhibition of gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion by medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides in healthy young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.I.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Katan, M.B.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Long-chain triglycerides inhibit gastric acid secretion, but the effect of medium-chain triglycerides in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of intraduodenally perfused saline, medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and cholecystokinin release.

  1. Prior mucosal exposure to heterologous cells alters the pathogenesis of cell-associated mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavell Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of research suggest that exposure to cellular material can alter the susceptibility to infection by HIV-1. Because sexual contact often includes exposure to cellular material, we hypothesized that repeated mucosal exposure to heterologous cells would induce an immune response that would alter the susceptibility to mucosal infection. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV model of HIV-1 mucosal transmission, the cervicovaginal mucosa was exposed once weekly for 12 weeks to 5,000 heterologous cells or media (control and then cats were vaginally challenged with cell-associated or cell-free FIV. Results Exposure to heterologous cells decreased the percentage of lymphocytes in the mucosal and systemic lymph nodes (LN expressing L-selectin as well as the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ T cells. These shifts were associated with enhanced ex-vivo proliferative responses to heterologous cells. Following mucosal challenge with cell-associated, but not cell-free, FIV, proviral burden was reduced by 64% in cats previously exposed to heterologous cells as compared to media exposed controls. Conclusions The pathogenesis and/or the threshold for mucosal infection by infected cells (but not cell-free virus can be modulated by mucosal exposure to uninfected heterologous cells.

  2. Cancer in the gastric remnant after gastric bypass: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitin, Lev; Roses, Robert E; Birkett, Desmond H

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer in the gastric stump after a Bilroth II subtotal gastrectomy is a well-recognized entity. However, gastric cancer in the bypassed gastric remnant after a gastric bypass operation for morbid obesity has not been well described, and only 2 such cases have been reported in the English literature. This case report presents a patient who developed gastric cancer in the defunctionalized, bypassed stomach 22 years after undergoing an open gastric bypass with a Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy for morbid obesity. The problems of monitoring the defunctionalized bypassed stomach after gastric stapling and gastro-jejunostomy are discussed.

  3. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  4. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following: Having any of the following medical conditions : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Chronic gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach). Pernicious anemia . Intestinal metaplasia ( ...

  6. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following: Having any of the following medical conditions : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Chronic gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach). Pernicious anemia . Intestinal metaplasia ( ...

  7. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal results may be due to: Stomach (gastric) cancer Gastritis , when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed ... Feldman M, Lee EL. Gastritis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ... Liver Pathology . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  8. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young

    1985-01-01

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen

  9. [Unpleasant Journey from Helicobacter pylori-associated Gastritis to Gastric Cancer: Cancer Prevention by Taking a Detour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hwan; Park, Jong Min; Han, Young Min; Ko, Weon Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    As a commensal or a pathogen, Helicobacter pylori can change the balance of a complex interaction that exists among gastric epithelial cells, microbes, and their environment. Therefore, unraveling this complex relationship of these mixtures can be expected to help prevent cancer as well as troublesome unmet medical needs of H. pylori infection. Though gastric carcinogenesis is a multi-step process, precancerous lesion can be reversible in the early phase of mucosal damage before reaching the stage of no return. However, biomarkers to predict rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis have not been identified yet and gastric cancer prevention is still regarded as an impregnable fortress. However, when we take the journey from H. pylori-associated gastritis to gastric cancer, it provides us with the clue for prevention since there are two main preventive strategies: eradication and anti-inflammation. The evidence supporting the former strategy is now ongoing in Japan through a nation-wide effort to eradicate H. pylori in patients with chronic gastritis, but suboptimal apprehension to increasing H. pylori resistance to antibiotics and patient non-compliance still exists. The latter strategy has been continued in the author'sresearch center under siTRP (short-term intervention to revert premalignant lesion) strategy. By focusing on the role of inflammation in the development of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis, this review is intended to explain the connection between inflammation and gastric cancer. Strategies on H. pylori eradication, removal of inflammation, and reverting preneoplastic lesion will also be introduced. In the end, we expect to be able to prevent gastric cancer by take a detour from the unpleasant journey, i.e. from H. pylori-associated gastritis to gastric cancer.

  10. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection Angiogénesis gástrica e infección por Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  11. Effect of gastric anacidity on the intestinal absorption of liver bound 57Co-labelled cobalamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittang, E.

    1987-01-01

    57 Co-labelled cyanocobalamin injected in rabbit was transformed within the liver to 57 Co-labelled desoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcovalamin. The absorption of 57 Co-labelled liver bound cobalamins could be determined with acceptable accuracy by the double isotope fecal excretion method. Treatment with the H 2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, did not result in decreased absorption of 57 Co-labelled liver bound cobalamins in healthy individuals. R-protein and the R-proteincobalamin complex were determined by the FPLC Mono S chromatography method with a high degree of correlation to the charcoal method in saliva, gastric and duodenal juice, and with a high degree of reproducibility. Omeprazole markedly inhibited the gastric acid and pepsin secretion, but did nor inhibit the IF secretion. Omeprazole treatment resulted in anacidity in 14 of 17 individuals, but did not reduce the absorption of liver bound 57 Co-labelled cobalamins. The intrinsic factor concentration in gastric aspirates measured during the study was unchanged during omeprazole treatment. The release of cobalamins from liver homogenate was markedly inhibited by neutralized gastric juice in vitro, probably due to decreased pepsin mediated proteolysis. In vivo the cobalamin release from liver homogenate was modestly inhibited in the stomach but was unaffected in jejunum during omeprazole treatment. The major part of 57 Co-labelled liver cobalamins bound to R-protein in acid and neutral gastric juice in vitro, and omeprazole induced anacidity, did not influence the cobalamin binding either in gastric or jejunal juice in vivo

  12. Risk analysis, diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal mucositis in pediatric cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Nicoline S. S.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    Mucositis is a complex inflammatory reaction of the mucous membranes of the alimentary tract upon chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment in oncology patients. Mucositis can be subdivided in oral and gastrointestinal mucositis (GI mucositis). The damage to the gastrointestinal tract compromises the

  13. Neurogenic mucosal bicarbonate secretion in guinea pig duodenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, G; Fang, X; Wang, GD; Liu, S; Wang, XY; Xia, Y; Wood, JD

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To test a hypothesis that: (i) duodenal pH and osmolarity are individually controlled at constant set points by negative feedback control centred in the enteric nervous system (ENS); (ii) the purinergic P2Y1 receptor subtype is expressed by non-cholinergic secretomotor/vasodilator neurons, which represent the final common excitatory pathway from the ENS to the bicarbonate secretory glands. Experimental Approach Ussing chamber and pH-stat methods investigated involvement of the P2Y1 receptor in neurogenic stimulation of mucosal bicarbonate (HCO3−) secretion in guinea pig duodenum. Key Results ATP increased HCO3− secretion with an EC50 of 160 nM. MRS2179, a selective P2Y1 purinergic receptor antagonist, suppressed ATP-evoked HCO3− secretion by 47% and Cl− secretion by 63%. Enteric neuronal blockade by tetrodotoxin or exposure to a selective vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, VPAC1) receptor antagonist suppressed ATP-evoked HCO3− secretion by 61 and 41%, respectively, and Cl- by 97 and 70% respectively. Pretreatment with the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine did not alter ATP-evoked HCO3− or Cl− secretion. Conclusion and Implications Whereas acid directly stimulates the mucosa to release ATP and stimulate HCO3− secretion in a cytoprotective manner, neurogenically evoked HCO3− secretion accounts for feedback control of optimal luminal pH for digestion. ATP stimulates duodenal HCO3− secretion through an excitatory action at purinergic P2Y1 receptors on neurons in the submucosal division of the ENS. Stimulation of the VIPergic non-cholinergic secretomotor/vasodilator neurons, which are one of three classes of secretomotor neurons, accounts for most, if not all, of the neurogenic secretory response evoked by ATP. PMID:22994306

  14. Neurogenic mucosal bicarbonate secretion in guinea pig duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, G; Fang, X; Wang, G D; Liu, S; Wang, X Y; Xia, Y; Wood, J D

    2013-02-01

    To test a hypothesis that: (i) duodenal pH and osmolarity are individually controlled at constant set points by negative feedback control centred in the enteric nervous system (ENS); (ii) the purinergic P2Y(1) receptor subtype is expressed by non-cholinergic secretomotor/vasodilator neurons, which represent the final common excitatory pathway from the ENS to the bicarbonate secretory glands. Ussing chamber and pH-stat methods investigated involvement of the P2Y(1) receptor in neurogenic stimulation of mucosal bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) secretion in guinea pig duodenum. ATP increased HCO(3)(-) secretion with an EC(50) of 160 nM. MRS2179, a selective P2Y(1) purinergic receptor antagonist, suppressed ATP-evoked HCO(3)(-) secretion by 47% and Cl(-) secretion by 63%. Enteric neuronal blockade by tetrodotoxin or exposure to a selective vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, VPAC(1)) receptor antagonist suppressed ATP-evoked HCO(3)(-) secretion by 61 and 41%, respectively, and Cl- by 97 and 70% respectively. Pretreatment with the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine did not alter ATP-evoked HCO3(-) or Cl(-) secretion. Whereas acid directly stimulates the mucosa to release ATP and stimulate HCO(3)(-) secretion in a cytoprotective manner, neurogenically evoked HCO(3)(-) secretion accounts for feedback control of optimal luminal pH for digestion. ATP stimulates duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion through an excitatory action at purinergic P2Y(1) receptors on neurons in the submucosal division of the ENS. Stimulation of the VIPergic non-cholinergic secretomotor/vasodilator neurons, which are one of three classes of secretomotor neurons, accounts for most, if not all, of the neurogenic secretory response evoked by ATP. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Clinicopathologic Features of Gastric Schwannoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Kaixiong; Chang, Weilong; Zhao, Ende; Deng, Rui; Gao, Jinbo; Cai, Kailin; Wang, Guobin; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To explore the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of gastric schwannoma in the imatinib era. The clinicopathologic characteristics and postoperative outcomes of patients diagnosed with gastric schwannoma at our institution between January 2007 and February 2015 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The main patient complaint was epigastric pain or discomfort. Tumor sizes ranged from 15 to 80?mm (mean, 57.1?mm). In 17 patients, the tumors wer...

  16. Application of artificial intelligence using a convolutional neural network for detecting gastric cancer in endoscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Aoyama, Kazuharu; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Ishihara, Soichiro; Shichijo, Satoki; Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Tatsuya; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Keigo; Fujisaki, Junko; Tada, Tomohiro

    2018-01-15

    Image recognition using artificial intelligence with deep learning through convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has dramatically improved and been increasingly applied to medical fields for diagnostic imaging. We developed a CNN that can automatically detect gastric cancer in endoscopic images. A CNN-based diagnostic system was constructed based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector architecture and trained using 13,584 endoscopic images of gastric cancer. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, an independent test set of 2296 stomach images collected from 69 consecutive patients with 77 gastric cancer lesions was applied to the constructed CNN. The CNN required 47 s to analyze 2296 test images. The CNN correctly diagnosed 71 of 77 gastric cancer lesions with an overall sensitivity of 92.2%, and 161 non-cancerous lesions were detected as gastric cancer, resulting in a positive predictive value of 30.6%. Seventy of the 71 lesions (98.6%) with a diameter of 6 mm or more as well as all invasive cancers were correctly detected. All missed lesions were superficially depressed and differentiated-type intramucosal cancers that were difficult to distinguish from gastritis even for experienced endoscopists. Nearly half of the false-positive lesions were gastritis with changes in color tone or an irregular mucosal surface. The constructed CNN system for detecting gastric cancer could process numerous stored endoscopic images in a very short time with a clinically relevant diagnostic ability. It may be well applicable to daily clinical practice to reduce the burden of endoscopists.

  17. Gastroprotective effect of andrographolide sodium bisulfite against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ming; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Su, Zu-Qing; Feng, Xue-Xuan; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Su, Zi-Ren

    2015-06-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfite (ASB), a water-soluble sulfonate of andrographolide has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. However, there is no report on the gastroprotective effect of ASB against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Here we investigated the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of ASB and the underlying mechanism against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The ulcer area, histopathological assessment, contents of gastric mucosal glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined. In addition, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression and immunohistochemical evaluation of HSP70, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were also investigated. Results indicated that ASB pre-treatment significantly reduced the ulcer areas induced by indomethacin compared with the vehicle group. The gastric levels of GSH, CAT and SOD were markedly increased by ASB while the level of MDA was decreased. In addition, ASB pretreatment significantly promoted the gastric PGE2 levels and up-regulated the COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression in comparison with the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed obvious up-regulation of HSP70 and Bcl-2 protein expression while suppression of Bax protein in the gastric tissue of ASB-pretreated group. Taken together, these findings indicated that the gastroprotective effect of ASB might be associated with the improvement of antioxidative status, activation of COX-mediated PGE2 synthesis, down-regulation of Bax proteins and up-regulation of Bcl-2 and HSP70 proteins. ASB might have the potential for further development as a promising alternative for antiulcer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. TFF1 expression suppresses H. pylori-induced inflammation in gastric carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutto, Mohammed; Chen, Zheng; Katsha, Ahmed; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Krishna, Uma; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Washington, M. Kay; Peek, Richard M.; Belkhiri, Abbes; El-Rifai, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a high-risk factor for gastric cancer, is frequently associated with chronic inflammation through activation of NFκB. TFF1 is a constitutively expressed protein in the stomach that has tumor suppressor functions and plays a critical role in maintaining mucosal integrity. In this study, we investigated the role of TFF1 in regulating the proinflammatory response to H. pylori infection. Methods For in vitro studies, we performed immunofluorescence, luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to investigate activation of NFκB and its target genes in response to infection with H. pylori strains J166 and 7.13. In addition, we utilized the Tff1 knockout (KO) and Tff1 wild-type (WT) mice for infection with PMSS1 H. pylori strain. Results The reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cells significantly suppressed an H. pylori-mediated increase of NFκB-p65 nuclear staining, transcriptional activity and expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (TNFα, IL1β, CXCL5, and IL4R) that were associated with reduction in expression and phosphorylation of NFκB-p65 and IKKα/β proteins. The in vivo studies using the Tff1-KO mouse model of gastric neoplasia confirmed the in vitro findings. Furthermore, they demonstrated an increase in chronic inflammation scores and frequency of invasive gastric adenocarcinoma in the Tff1-KO mice infected with H. pylori, as compared to uninfected Tff1-KO mice. Conclusion These findings underscore an important protective role of TFF1 in abrogating H. pylori-mediated inflammation, a crucial hallmark of gastric tumorigenesis. Therefore, loss of TFF1 expression could be an important step in the H. pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26372254

  19. PET/CT manifestation of the meniscus sign of ulcerating gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee

    2007-01-01

    Meniscus-like presentation of ulcerating gastric carcinoma on upper gastrointestinal series radiograph was first described in 1921 by Carman and has since been known as a useful differential diagnostic sign in radiology. In 1982 using then newly introduced computed tomography (CT) Widder and Mueller revisited the meniscus sign. Their study was primarily focused on a dynamic assessment of the demonstrability of the meniscus sign that largely depends on the judgment and technical skill of examiner, especially graded compression and patient positioning. One year earlier Balfe et al. assessed the diagnostic reliability of gastric wall thickening as observed on CT scan in adenocarcinoma, lymphoma and leiomyosarcoma and concluded that it is not a reliable finding. In contrast, however, Lee et al. recently emphasized that the wall thickness measurement on CT of exophytic carcinoma, myoma and ulcers was a useful diagnostic means. Thus, it appears that gastric wall thickening or mucosal heave-up is by itself not as reliable as the meniscus sign. The electronic search of world literature failed to disclose earlier report of this sign demonstrated by 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT). The present communication documents 18 F-FDG PET/CT finding of the meniscus sign as encountered in a case of ulcerating gastric carcinoma, the histological diagnosis of which was moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Unlike most gastric tumors without ulceration that tend to unimpressively accumulate 18 F-FDG the present case of Borrmann type III gastric carcinoma demonstrated markedly increased 18 F-FDG uptake

  20. Managing obstructive gastric volvulus: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Garcia HA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hector Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia,1 Andrew S Wright,2–4 Robert B Yates1–3 1Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, 2Center for Videoendoscopic Surgery, 3Hernia Center, 4Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies, UWMC, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: Gastric volvulus is the abnormal torsion of the stomach along its short or long axis. Most patients who experience gastric volvulus present with mild or intermittent gastric obstructive symptoms. However, severe acute gastric volvulus can result in complete gastric outlet obstruction and ischemia. Consequently, acute gastric volvulus warrants immediate evaluation and management. The goals of management are to relieve the obstruction and prevent recurrent volvulus. Techniques to manage gastric volvulus depend on patient characteristics and the presence of gastric ischemia. In the absence of gastric ischemia, gastric volvulus can be managed with anterior abdominal wall gastropexy or paraesophageal hernia repair. If gastric ischemia is present, operative resection of the affected portion of the stomach is indicated. When operative management is indicated, many patients with gastric volvulus can be managed with minimally invasive (laparoscopic, endoscopic, or laparoendoscopic techniques. Keywords: gastric volvulus, paraesophageal hernia, hiatal hernia

  1. Preoperative nutritional deficiencies in severely obese bariatric candidates are not linked to gastric Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerig, Rahel; Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    Severely obese subjects have been found to show a high prevalence of distinct nutritional deficiencies even without any bariatric intervention but the underlying reasons remain obscure. We tested the hypothesis that gastric Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with increased nutritional deficiency rates. Taking advantage of our large database, we identified 404 patients who had undergone a gastroscopy--as a standard diagnostic assessment before bariatric surgery--along with a histological examination of gastric mucosal biopsies with concurrent nutritional blood measurements. Eighty-five (21 %) of the obese patients included in the study displayed a gastric H. pylori infection. Sex distribution, age and body mass index did not differ between H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients (P > 0.29). Referring to nutritional markers, neither serum levels of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, ferritin, zinc, copper, vitamin B12, folate and 25-OH vitamin D3 nor respective deficiency rates differed between the H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients group (all P > 0.13). Overall, 49.5 % of the bariatric candidates displayed at least one nutritional deficiency. Our data confirm previous reports on high prevalences of nutritional deficiencies in severely obese subjects. However, they do not provide evidence for a contributing role of gastric H. pylori infection to these nutritional alterations.

  2. Immunoglobulin gene repertoire diversification and selection in the stomach – from gastritis to gastric lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri eMichaeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is characterized by gastric mucosal inflammation due to autoimmune responses or infection, frequently with Helicobacter pylori. Gastritis with H. pylori background can cause gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L, which sometimes further transforms into diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. However, gastric DLBCL can also be initiated de novo. The mechanisms underlying transformation into DLBCL are not completely understood. We analyzed immunoglobulin repertoires and clonal trees to investigate whether and how immunoglobulin gene repertoires, clonal diversification and selection in gastritis, gastric MALT-L and DLBCL differ from each other and from normal responses. The two gastritis types (positive or negative for H. pylori had similarly diverse repertoires. MALT-L dominant clones presented higher diversification and longer mutational histories compared with all other conditions. DLBCL dominant clones displayed lower clonal diversification, suggesting the transforming events are triggered by similar responses in different patients. These results are surprising, as we expected to find similarities between the dominant clones of gastritis and MALT-L and between those of MALT-L and DLBCL.

  3. Wavelet-analysis of gastric microcirculation in rats with ulcer bleedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Pavlova, O. N.; Bibikova, O. A.; Kurths, J.

    2013-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in regulation of central and peripheral circulation in normal state and during hemorrhagic stress. Because the impaired gastric mucosal blood flow is the major cause of gastroduodenal lesions including ulcer bleeding (UB), we study in this work the NO-ergic mechanism responsible for regulation of this blood flow. Our study is performed in rats with a model of stress-induced UB using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) that characterizes the rate of blood flow by measuring a Doppler shift of the laser beam scattered by the moving red blood cells. Numerical analysis of LDF-data is based on the discrete wavelet-transform (DWT) using Daubechies wavelets aiming to quantify influences of NO on the gastric microcirculation. We show that the stress-induced UB is associated with an increased level of NO in the gastric tissue and a stronger vascular sensitivity to pharmacological modulation of NO-production by L-NAME. We demonstrate that wavelet-based analyses of NO-dependent regulation of gastric microcirculation can provide an effective endoscopic diagnostics of a risk of UB.

  4. 1,8-cineol, a food flavoring agent, prevents ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F A; Rao, V S

    2001-02-01

    This study investigated the gastroptrotective effect of 1,8-cineole (cineole) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats and the possible mechanisms involved. 1,8-Cineole (50-200 mg/kg), given orally 1 hr before administration of 1 ml of absolute ethanol significantly attenuated the ethanol-induced gastric injury in a manner similar to nordihydroguairetic acid, a known lipoxygenase inhibitor. 1,8-Cineole showed a tendency to restore the ethanol-associated decreases in nonprotein sulfhydryls, suggesting a possible antioxidant effect. In gastric secretion studies, 1,8-cineole, similar to cimetidine, a known histamine-2 receptor antagonist, demonstrated significant inhibitions of both gastric juice volume as well as total acid output. The protection offered by 1,8-cineole was found to be unaltered by 8-phenyltheophylline or L-NAME, indicating that its effect is not mediated by endogenous adenosine or nitric oxide. These results, taken together with the earlier reports, suggest that the antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory actions of 1,8-cineole are of prime importance in affording gastroprotection against ethanol injury in the rat.

  5. Gastroprotective Effects of Sulphated Polysaccharides from the Alga Caulerpa mexicana Reducing Ethanol-Induced Gastric Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gerardo Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the gastric lesion is complex and the result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors, involving the generation of free radicals and disturbance in nitric oxide (NO production. Sulphated polysaccharides (SP, from marine algae, are widely used in biotechnological and pharmaceutical areas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SP from the green marine alga Caulerpa mexicana (Cm-SP in ethanol-induced gastric damage models in mice. Cm-SP (2, 20, or 200 mg/kg, administered p.o., significantly reduced gastric damage, and these effects were inhibited through pretreatment with indomethacin. Cm-SP (200 mg/kg prevented the ethanol-induced decline in glutathione and restored its normal level. Moreover, it was able to normalize the elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. However, Cm-SP did not show any significant effects on NO2/NO3 level, when compared to the ethanol group. The pretreatment with L- NAME induced gastric mucosal damage and did not inhibit the gastroprotective effect of Cm-SP (200 mg/kg. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effects of Cm-SP in mice involve prostaglandins and reduction in the oxidative stress and are independent of NO.

  6. Gastroprotective Effects of Sulphated Polysaccharides from the Alga Caulerpa mexicana Reducing Ethanol-Induced Gastric Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, José Gerardo; Holanda, Ticiana de Brito Lima; Quinderé, Ana Luíza Gomes; Frota, Annyta Fernandes; Soares, Vitória Virgínia Magalhães; Sousa, Rayane Siqueira de; Carneiro, Manuela Araújo; Martins, Dainesy Santos; Gomes Duarte, Antoniella Souza; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

    2018-01-20

    The development of the gastric lesion is complex and the result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors, involving the generation of free radicals and disturbance in nitric oxide (NO) production. Sulphated polysaccharides (SP), from marine algae, are widely used in biotechnological and pharmaceutical areas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SP from the green marine alga Caulerpa mexicana (Cm-SP) in ethanol-induced gastric damage models in mice. Cm-SP (2, 20, or 200 mg/kg), administered p.o., significantly reduced gastric damage, and these effects were inhibited through pretreatment with indomethacin. Cm-SP (200 mg/kg) prevented the ethanol-induced decline in glutathione and restored its normal level. Moreover, it was able to normalize the elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. However, Cm-SP did not show any significant effects on NO₂/NO₃ level, when compared to the ethanol group. The pretreatment with L- NAME induced gastric mucosal damage and did not inhibit the gastroprotective effect of Cm-SP (200 mg/kg). In conclusion, the gastroprotective effects of Cm-SP in mice involve prostaglandins and reduction in the oxidative stress and are independent of NO.

  7. Protective effects of astaxanthin from Paracoccus carotinifaciens on murine gastric ulcer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenta; Oyagi, Atsushi; Takahira, Dai; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ishibashi, Takashi; Hara, Hideaki

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin extracted from Paracoccus carotinifaciens on gastric mucosal damage in murine gastric ulcer models. Mice were pretreated with astaxanthin for 1 h before ulcer induction. Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by oral administration of hydrochloride (HCl)/ethanol or acidified aspirin. The effect of astaxanthin on lipid peroxidation in murine stomach homogenates was also evaluated by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The free radical scavenging activities of astaxanthin were also measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Astaxanthin significantly decreased the extent of HCl/ethanol- and acidified aspirin-induced gastric ulcers. Astaxanthin also decreased the level of TBARS. The ESR measurement showed that astaxanthin had radical scavenging activities against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and the superoxide anion radical. These results suggest that astaxanthin has antioxidant properties and exerts a protective effect against ulcer formation in murine models. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  9. Chamomile Mouth Rinse Effects on Mucositis Reduction After Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaipour AR

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many patients have been received radiotherapy for head and neck tumors and"na large number of them have been survived for some years."nThe side effects of radiotherapy in oral region are mucositis, ulcers, fungal and viral infections and"nsalivary glands dysfunction. Among these, mucositis is the most important one."nA randomized double blind clinical trial was performed in radiotherapy department of Tehran Imam"nKhomeini Hospital to determine chamomile mouth rinse effects on mucositis after radiotherapy."nThe patients are selected randomly from those with oral oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal cancers."nData showed that chamomile administration could decrease mucositis rate significantly,

  10. Radiation-induced mucositis pain in mesopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Atsuhito; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Mizuta, Masanobu; Matsubara, Mami; Iki, Takehiro

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy in head and neck malignancy often triggers painful mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To better understand how radiation-induced pain develops over time, we studied numerical rating scale (NRS 0-5) pain scores in 27 subjects undergoing 60-72 Gy radiation therapy for newly diagnosed cancer- 13 with mesopharynx and 14 with hypopharynx. Mucositis severity was evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0) based on mucositis pain, analgesic administration, and oral feedings of our subjects, with 8 mesopharyngeal and 10 with hypopharyngeal cancer had been pain-free before radiation therapy. The mucositis and pain course was severer in mesopharyngeal than in hypopharyngeal cancer. NSAIDs and opioid use was similar in both cancer types, which also required tube feeding in 7 subjects (38.9%). (author)

  11. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with 51 Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK

  12. Mucosal effects of tenofovir 1% gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Florian; Burgener, Adam; Ballweber, Lamar; Gottardo, Raphael; Vojtech, Lucia; Fourati, Slim; Dai, James Y; Cameron, Mark J; Strobl, Johanna; Hughes, Sean M; Hoesley, Craig; Andrew, Philip; Johnson, Sherri; Piper, Jeanna; Friend, David R; Ball, T Blake; Cranston, Ross D; Mayer, Kenneth H; McElrath, M Juliana; McGowan, Ian

    2015-02-03

    Tenofovir gel is being evaluated for vaginal and rectal pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV transmission. Because this is a new prevention strategy, we broadly assessed its effects on the mucosa. In MTN-007, a phase-1, randomized, double-blinded rectal microbicide trial, we used systems genomics/proteomics to determine the effect of tenofovir 1% gel, nonoxynol-9 2% gel, placebo gel or no treatment on rectal biopsies (15 subjects/arm). We also treated primary vaginal epithelial cells from four healthy women with tenofovir in vitro. After seven days of administration, tenofovir 1% gel had broad-ranging effects on the rectal mucosa, which were more pronounced than, but different from, those of the detergent nonoxynol-9. Tenofovir suppressed anti-inflammatory mediators, increased T cell densities, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, altered regulatory pathways of cell differentiation and survival, and stimulated epithelial cell proliferation. The breadth of mucosal changes induced by tenofovir indicates that its safety over longer-term topical use should be carefully monitored.

  13. Cystic fibrosis: a mucosal immunodeficiency syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor Sitarik; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a channel that regulates the transport of ions and the movement of water across the epithelial barrier. Mutations in CFTR, which form the basis for the clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis, affect the epithelial innate immune function in the lung, resulting in exaggerated and ineffective airway inflammation that fails to eradicate pulmonary pathogens. Compounding the effects of excessive neutrophil recruitment, the mutant CFTR channel does not transport antioxidants to counteract neutrophil-associated oxidative stress. Whereas mutant CFTR expression in leukocytes outside of the lung does not markedly impair their function, the expected regulation of inflammation in the airways is clearly deficient in cystic fibrosis. The resulting bacterial infections, which are caused by organisms that have substantial genetic and metabolic flexibility, can resist multiple classes of antibiotics and evade phagocytic clearance. The development of animal models that approximate the human pulmonary phenotypes—airway inflammation and spontaneous infection—may provide the much-needed tools to establish how CFTR regulates mucosal immunity and to test directly the effect of pharmacologic potentiation and correction of mutant CFTR function on bacterial clearance. PMID:22481418

  14. Vaccination against Salmonella Infection: the Mucosal Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Rémi; Bioley, Gilles; Rochereau, Nicolas; Paul, Stéphane; Corthésy, Blaise

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains. Having studied host-pathogen interactions, microbiologists and immunologists argue in favor of topical gastrointestinal administration for improvement in vaccine efficacy. Here, recent advances in this field are summarized, including mechanisms of bacterial uptake at the intestinal epithelium, the assessment of protective host immunity, and improved animal models that closely mimic infection in humans. The pros and cons of existing vaccines are presented, along with recent progress made with novel formulations. Finally, new candidate antigens and their relevance in the refined design of anti- Salmonella vaccines are discussed, along with antigen vectorization strategies such as nanoparticles or secretory immunoglobulins, with a focus on potentiating mucosal vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.