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Sample records for gastric emptying satiety

  1. Relationship of gastric emptying or accommodation with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawi, Houssam; Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres; Vazquez-Roque, Maria; Oduyebo, Ibironke; Burton, Duane; Busciglio, Irene; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2017-11-01

    The contributions of gastric emptying (GE) and gastric accommodation (GA) to satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between GA or GE with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in healthy overweight or obese volunteers (total n = 285, 73% women, mean BMI 33.5 kg/m 2 ): 26 prospectively studied obese, otherwise healthy participants and 259 healthy subjects with previous similar GI testing. We assessed GE of solids, gastric volumes, calorie intake at buffet meal, and satiation by measuring volume to comfortable fullness (VTF) and maximum tolerated volume (MTV) by using Ensure nutrient drink test (30 ml/min) and symptoms 30 min after MTV. Relationships between GE or GA with satiety, satiation, and symptoms were analyzed using Spearman rank ( r s ) and Pearson ( R ) linear correlation coefficients. We found a higher VTF during satiation test correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal ( r s = 0.535, P symptom score ( R = 0.132, P = 0.026). There was no significant correlation between GA and satiation, satiety, postprandial symptoms, or GE. We concluded that GE of solids, rather than GA, is associated with postprandial symptoms, satiation, and satiety in healthy participants. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A higher volume to comfortable fullness postprandially correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying of solids is correlated to satiation (volume to fullness and maximum tolerated volume) and satiety (the calorie intake at buffet meal) and symptoms of nausea, pain, and aggregate symptom score after a fully satiating meal. There was no significant correlation between gastric accommodation and either satiation or satiety indices, postprandial symptoms, or gastric emptying. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Peripheral administration of GLP-2 to humans has no effect on gastric emptying or satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P

    2003-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are secreted in parallel to the circulation after a meal. Intravenous (IV) GLP-1 has an inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, hunger and food intake in man. In rodents, central administration of GLP-2 increases satiety similar...

  3. No influence of carbonation on glycemic response, gastric emptying, and satiety of sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn Rou Lin; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of carbonation of sweetened beverages on glycemic response, gastric emptying, and satiety. After an overnight fast, 15 healthy individuals (6 women, 9 men) consumed a 500 mL beverage containing 50 g glucose that was noncarbonated (NC), low carbonated (LC), or high carbonated (HC) at a standardized rate of consumption (100 mL/min). Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after beverage consumption. Antral cross-sectional area was measured using ultrasound at baseline, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, and 120 min; for the estimation of gastric volume and gastric emptying rate. Satiety was assessed using electronic visual analog scales at the same time points as the blood glucose measurement. There were no significant differences in glycemic response among the test beverages. Higher carbonation levels significantly increased antral cross-sectional area during the first 20 min after beverage consumption (P carbonation on satiety, but the area under the curve for thirst was significantly lower for HC compared with NC (P = 0.009). The carbonation of a simple glucose solution did not increase glycemic response nor alter gastric emptying and subjective feelings of satiety (with the exception of thirst). The present study suggests that carbonation does not alter glycemic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation.

  5. Empty calories and phantom fullness: a randomized trial studying the relative effects of energy density and viscosity on gastric emptying determined by MRI and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul Am

    2016-07-01

    Stomach fullness is a determinant of satiety. Although both the viscosity and energy content have been shown to delay gastric emptying, their relative importance is not well understood. We compared the relative effects of and interactions between the viscosity and energy density on gastric emptying and perceived satiety. A total of 15 healthy men [mean ± SD age: 22.6 ± 2.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.6 ± 1.8] participated in an experiment with a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design. Participants received dairy-based shakes (500 mL; 50% carbohydrate, 20% protein, and 30% fat) that differed in viscosity (thin and thick) and energy density [100 kcal (corresponding to 0.2 kcal/mL) compared with 500 kcal (corresponding to 1 kcal/mL)]. After ingestion, participants entered an MRI scanner where abdominal scans and oral appetite ratings on a 100-point scale were obtained every 10 min until 90 min after ingestion. From the scans, gastric content volumes were determined. Overall, the gastric emptying half-time (GE t50) was 54.7 ± 3.8 min. The thin 100-kcal shake had the lowest GE t50 of 26.5 ± 3.0 min, followed by the thick 100-kcal shake with a GE t50 of 41 ± 3.9 min and the thin 500-kcal shake with a GE t50 of 69.5 ± 5.9 min, and the thick 500-kcal shake had the highest GE t50 of 81.9 ± 8.3 min. With respect to appetite, the thick 100-kcal shake led to higher fullness (58 points at 40 min) than the thin 500-kcal shake (48 points at 40 min). Our results show that increasing the viscosity is less effective than increasing the energy density in slowing gastric emptying. However, the viscosity is more important to increase the perceived fullness. These results underscore the lack of the satiating efficiency of empty calories in quickly ingested drinks such as sodas. The increase in perceived fullness that is due solely to the increased viscosity, which is a phenomenon that we refer to as phantom fullness, may be useful in lowering energy intake. This trial was

  6. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, R.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide techniques appear to be the current method of choice for determining the rate and pattern of gastric emptying. Isotopic methods are quantitative, noninvasive in that they do not require intubation, may be used with solid meals for greater sensitivity, present a low radiation burden to the patient compared to the burden of radiographic techniques, and are suitable and acceptable to the patient for repetitive studies. By comparison, other methods are either invasive, nonquantitative, or nonphysiologic. Of the radionuclide methods currently available, the solid meals (either liver or egg) are best, and dual liquid-solid studies offer additional physiologic data. It is now known that gastric emptying abnormalities may result from common disorders such as diabetes mellitus or gastric or duodenal ulcer disease, may be caused by a variety of medications, may follow gastric surgery, or may result from less well understood disorders, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. By helping to clarify these gastric emptying abnormalities, the physician's ability to treat disorders of gastric emptying with diet, medication, and surgery is enhanced in accuracy and precision. Using these newer radionuclide techniques will permit both the clinician and the investigator a better understanding than was previously possible of gastric physiology in both health and disease

  7. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaz, B.; Hostein, J.; Caravel, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) of nutriments is a major function of the stomach. GE disorders are observed after gastric surgery and with various diseases, either of a strictly gastroenterologic kind or interesting other specialities (especially diabetes mellitus). Scintigraphy, which has allowed a better knowledge of GE physiological and pathological mechanisms, has now become the reference method for studying the emptying of solids and liquids. In a near future, it could well have two major applications: a diagnostic approach of functional digestive disorders and an assessment of the various effects of pharmacological drugs with digestive affinity [fr

  8. Relationship between postprandial changes in cardiac left ventricular function, glucose and insulin concentrations, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digestion of food is known to alter the hemodynamics of the body significantly. The purpose of this study was to study the postprandial changes in stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO and left ventricular (LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions measured with tissue Doppler imaging, in relation to gastric emptying rate (GER, satiety, and glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy subjects. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects were included in this study. The fasting and postprandial changes at 30 min and 110 min in CO, heart rate (HR and blood pressure were measured. Moreover, tissue Doppler imaging systolic (S', early (E' and late (A' mitral annular diastolic velocities were measured in the septal (s and lateral (l walls. Glucose and insulin concentrations, and satiety were measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the meal. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of the meal. Results This study show that both CO, systolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (S's and lateral wall (S'l, the early diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the lateral wall (E'l, the late diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (A's and lateral wall (A'l increase significantly, and were concomitant with increased satiety, antral area, glucose and insulin levels. The CO, HR and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting. The satiety was correlated to HR and diastolic blood pressure. The insulin level was correlated to HR. Conclusions This study shows that postprandial CO, HR, SV and LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions increase concomitantly with increased satiety, antral area, and glucose and insulin levels. Therefore, patients should not eat prior to, or during, cardiac evaluation as the effects of a meal may

  9. Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almér Lars-Olof

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibre food intake is related to a reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fibre cereals on the rate of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose response and satiety in healthy subjects. Methods Gastric emptying rate (GER was measured by standardized real time ultrasonography. Twelve healthy subjects were assessed using a randomized crossover blinded trial. The subjects were examined after an 8 hour fast and after assessment of normal fasting blood glucose level. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose measurements were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 min after ingestion of sour milk with corn flakes (GER1, cereal bran flakes (GER2 or wholemeal oat flakes (GER3. Results The median value was, respectively, 42% for GER1, 33 % for GER2 and 51% for GER3. The difference between the GER after ingestion of bran flakes compared to wholemeal oat flakes was statistically significant (p = 0.023. The postprandial delta blood glucose level was statistically significantly lower at 40 min (p = 0.045 and 120 min (p = 0.023 after the cereal bran flakes meal. There was no statistical significance between the areas under the curve (AUCs of the cereals as far as blood glucose and satiety were concerned. Conclusion The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of either bran flakes or wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. However, the study does show that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher fibre content. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy

  10. Gastric-emptying tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gastric emptying have been characterized through many decades of experimental work. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are important. Central mechanisms are related to the center of vomiting and are probably influenced by psychologic and emotional factors. Peripheral mechanisms are located at both sides of the pylorus. Gastric mechanisms are stimulatory and are triggered mainly by distention of the stomach, although hormonal mechanisms may also participate (gastrin). However, with complex, nutrient-containing meals, the intragastric volume is not the primary determinant of gastric emptying. Inhibitory mechanisms of the gut are more important. The key factors are the pH, osmolality, and nutrient content of the chyme being emptied into the duodenum. Osmotic and pH-sensitive receptors are thought to reside in the duodenum. On the other hand, receptors triggered by nutrients extend much more distally into the duodenum and are sensitive to nutrient composition and load. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids all inhibit gastric emptying, although the lipids are probably the most potent inhibitors. If the duodenal load or the characteristics of the emptying material are not adequate, inhibitory mechanisms will reduce gastric emptying at the expense of expanding the intragastric volume. It is therefore not possible to dissociate postprandial gastric emptying from postprandial gastric secretion

  11. Effects of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying, satiety, and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hlebowicz, Anna; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous study of healthy subjects showed that intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduced postprandial blood glucose and the gastric emptying rate (GER) without affecting satiety. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on GER, postprandial blood...... glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)], the ghrelin response, and satiety in healthy subjects. DESIGN: GER was measured by using real-time ultrasonography after ingestion of rice pudding...... with and without 1 or 3 g cinnamon. Fifteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. RESULTS: The addition of 1 or 3 g cinnamon had no significant effect on GER, satiety, glucose, GIP, or the ghrelin response. The insulin response at 60 min and the area under the curve (AUC) at 120 min were...

  12. Morbid obesity treated by gastroplasty: radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnstein, N.B.; Shapiro, B.; Eckhauser, F.E.; Dmuchowski, C.F.; Knol, J.A.; Strodel, W.E.; Nakajo, M.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanisms by which gastroplasty for morbid obesity causes weight loss are poorly understood. The authors studied the role of altered gastric emptying in 50 patients before surgery, 1-4 weeks after surgery, and 2-24 months after surgery using technetium-99m pentetate in water for liquid meals and a Tc-99m styrene divinylbenzene copolymer resin in oatmeal for semisolid meals. They determined the emptying half-times of the stomach before and after surgery in the proximal and distal compartments. The proximal compartment emptied promptly in the early and late postoperative periods. The distal compartment emptied liquid at rates similar to those before surgery, while the late postoperative emptying of semisolids was significantly faster. No correlation was seen between the emptying half-times or changes thereof and eventual weight loss. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore not the mechanism for satiety and weight loss after gastroplasty has been performed

  13. Scintigraphic study of gastric emptying with colloidal tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Paleo, Lester; Nuez Vilar, Maricela; Machado Lois, Marisel; López González, María Karla; Torres Leyva, Oscar; Izquierdo Izquierdo, Yimel; García González, Idelsy; Conesa Gonzalez, Ana Ibis

    2016-01-01

    Gastroparesis is defined as a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction, associated with symptoms such as nausea and / or vomiting, feeling of postprandial gastric fullness, early satiety or epigastric pain for more than 3 months. The gold standard in the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying scintigraphy is gastric emptying and radiopharmaceutical has been used more 99m Tc-sulfur colloid not available in the country. In order to evaluate the usefulness of colloidal tin in the scintigraphic gastric emptying study, a descriptive study was conducted in 64 patients over 18 years using as radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-Sn colloid. 31% of patients had symptoms. The emptying time was normal in 50 cases and the association of gastroparesis symptoms was observed in 20 (15 diabetic and 5 non-diabetic), 9 patients had a delayed emptying, but reported no symptoms. Gastroparesis was more frequent in women than in men (35% versus 21%). 21% of patients had a moderate delayed gastric emptying. Conclusions: The results obtained with 99m Tc-Sn colloid are comparable to those reported by other authors using 99m Tc-SC in the scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying. (author)

  14. Automated analysis of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abutaleb, A.; Frey, D.; Spicer, K.; Spivey, M.; Buckles, D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors devised a novel method to automate the analysis of nuclear gastric emptying studies. Many previous methods have been used to measure gastric emptying but, are cumbersome and require continuing interference by the operator to use. Two specific problems that occur are related to patient movement between images and changes in the location of the radioactive material within the stomach. Their method can be used with either dual or single phase studies. For dual phase studies the authors use In-111 labeled water and Tc-99MSC (Sulfur Colloid) labeled scrambled eggs. For single phase studies either the liquid or solid phase material is used

  15. Gastric emptying in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Qvist, N.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between meal ingestion and phase activity of the migrating motor complex and whether reproducibility is increased when meal ingestion takes place in relation to preselected...

  16. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, A.; Horowitz, M.; Wishart, J.; Collins, P.

    1989-01-01

    Gastric and oesophageal emptying were evaluated in 31 obese patients and 31 control subjects. A double-isotope techniques was used to measure gastric emptying of a mixed solid/liquid meal, and oesophageal emptying was measured as the time taken for a bolus of the solid meal to enter the stomach. Gastric emptying of the solid and the liquid meal and oesophageal emptying were delayed in the obese patients compared with the control subjects. There were no significant relationships among gastric emptying, oesophageal emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the obese patients alone. However, in the total group of 62 subjects there were significant correlations between body mass index and both gastric and oesophageal emptying. These results indicate that delayed gastric and oesophageal emptying occurs frequently in obesity and that these abnormalties relate to body weight

  17. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control

  18. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  19. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  20. Gastric emptying: a comparison of three methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Henning; Bluhme, Henrik; Villadsen, Gerda Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A better understanding of the clinical relevance of delayed gastric emptying (e.g. in diabetes) requires a simple, easily accessible and inexpensive method for measuring it. Two "new" methods for measuring gastric emptying of liquids (the paracetamol absorption test and the 13C......-acetate breath test) are compared with the gold standard (gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES)). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three techniques were used simultaneously in 10 healthy subjects. A gastric emptying time-retention curve was drawn for each technique and the results were compared at the 75%, 50% and 25...

  1. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  2. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.

    2003-01-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  3. Recent advances in gastric emptying scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.C.; Mayeur, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric emptying scintigraphy was introduced more than 25 years ago by Grittith and still remains the gold standard to assess gastric emptying. Test meals, radiopharmaceuticals and acquisition procedures have been refined and optimized over the years and the test procedure is now pretty well standardized. However, in its most common use, gastric emptying scintigraphy provides little information on gastric physiology. Over the last decade, modelling of the liquid and solid emptying curves have brought some insight in the complex gastric physiology. Compartmental analysis of the stomach has also provided information on the pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed gastric emptying. Over the past 5 years, the most dramatic development in gastric emptying scintigraphy has been the introduction of Digital Antral Scintigraphy (DAS). Digital Antral scintigraphy basically consists in dynamically imaging of the stomach and the use of a refined Fourier transform processing method. This new procedure allows for the visualization of antral contractions and, alike manometry, permits quantitative characterization on the frequency and amplitude of these contractions. Overall, this new procedure provides a unique, non invasive tool to characterize gastric motility, to define the pathophysiologic mechanisms of gastric motor disorders and to evaluate the effect of new gastro-kinetic compounds. (authors). 241 refs., 5 figs

  4. Gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Yang Xiaochuan; Kuang Anren; Li Lixia; Ouyang Qin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastric emptying rate was investigated. Results of endoscopy, 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring were also evaluated. Methods: 15 patients were evaluated with endoscopy, pH monitoring and radionuclide gastric emptying. The results were compared with that of 17 control subjects. Correlations of gastric emptying rate and esophagitis, 24-hour pH monitoring between GERD patients and control subjects were also analyzed. Results: Liquid gastric emptying rate of GERD patients was significantly lower than that of control subjects at 15 and 30 min (P 0.05), but there exhibited a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score (r=0.643, P<0.05). Conclusions: The results indicate a delayed liquid and solid gastric emptying in GERD patients. There is a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of GERD

  5. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals

  6. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of gastric emptying disorders. Clinical usefulness of radionuclide measurements of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Broderick, W.C.; Van Dyke, D.; Way, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    We studied 53 patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms thought to be due to a gastric motility disorder. Sixty-six percent had had a previous operation on the stomach, and 21 percent had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Based on clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings, 48 patients were thought to have gastroparesis, 3 were thought to have dumping, and 2 had no diagnosis. Measurement of gastric emptying of solids showed that gastric emptying was normal in 12 patients, rapid in 15 patients, and slow in 26 patients. Further evaluation showed that half of the patients with normal gastric emptying, and one third of those with rapid gastric emptying had other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that responded well to surgery. Of those patients with dumping, diet modification was effective in 40 percent, and half of those who did not respond to dietary manipulations did well after reoperation. Nineteen patients with delayed gastric emptying were treated with metoclopramide. Sixty percent of those without previous gastric surgery responded, whereas only 25 percent of those with previous gastric surgery had good results. The rate of gastric emptying improved following reoperation in 9 (90 percent) of 10 patients with delayed gastric emptying (4 who had not responded to metoclopramide). Gastric emptying was measured again in 15 patients after treatment. The changes after treatment paralleled the clinical response. These studies indicate that gastroparesis cannot be reliably diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings and standard tests. Gastric emptying studies are essential to diagnose and treat patients thought to have gastric motility disorders, and to evaluate the results of therapy

  8. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Ho; Lee, Man Koo

    1997-01-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with 99 mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T 1/2 emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 ∼ 18 min, 5∼31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately

  9. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets

  10. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    . Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA.......0, with GIP and placebo, respectively). The time pattern of gastric emptying was similar in the two groups (P = 0.98). Endogenous GIP secretion, as derived from the incremental area under the curve of plasma GIP concentrations in the placebo experiments, did not correlate to gastric half-emptying times (r(2...

  11. Assessment of Gastric Emptying in Patients with Autoimmune Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Soykan, Irfan; Soydal, Çiğdem; Özkan, Elgin; Kalkan, Emra

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of patients with autoimmune gastritis are not specific, and some patients may present symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying. This study aims to investigate whether any delay in gastric emptying of solid food exists in patients with autoimmune gastritis and, if so, to identify the factors that might affect delayed gastric emptying. A total of 165 patients (106 women) diagnosed as having autoimmune gastritis were analyzed by means of a gastric emptying test. All patients underwent a standardized scintigraphic gastric emptying study. Patients with delayed gastric emptying and normal gastric emptying tests were then compared by means of factors that might affect gastric emptying. Also 65 patients with functional dyspepsia who had a gastric emptying study constituted the control group. The median gastric emptying T ½ time was 127.43 min (min-max 50-953) for patients with AIG and 81 min (min-max 21-121.6) for functional dyspepsia patients (p gastritis, gastric emptying is generally delayed. Autoimmune gastritis is an important etiology to explain the finding of delayed gastric emptying on a radionuclide test. This new finding is likely to be relevant to clinicians when evaluating and initiating appropriate medical treatment for patients with autoimmune gastritis manifesting upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

  12. Delayed gastric emptying in children with chronic constipation and fecal impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, M.L.C.M.; Daher, S.F.; Brunetto, S.Q.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Santos, A.O.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Pinto, E.A.L.C.; Silva, J.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms such as nausea, fullness and early satiety in constipated children may be associated with delayed gastric emptying. Aim: To evaluate the gastric emptying in children with post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms. Materials and Methods: Gastric emptying studies were performed in 12 children with functional constipation (mean age 9 years; mean duration of symptoms: 5.5 years), fecal impaction and soiling. In 12 of them the studies were performed only before fecal impaction removal and in 7 of them the study was repeated after impaction removal and recovery from constipation. After an overnight fast, the patients received 300 ml/m 2 of water added to 37 MBq of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid. Images were acquired in a camera-computer system with a low energy all purpose collimator. Images were acquired at 1 minute per frame for 30 minutes. When gastric emptying was delayed for more than 30 minutes, additional static images with 500,000 counts were performed for no more than 1 hour until a T1/2 was obtained. Results: Gastric emptying was delayed (21.4 ± 7 minutes; normal 12 ± 3 minutes) in 10/12 patients studied prior to fecal impaction removal. In the group of seven patients who repeated the study after fecal impaction removal, gastric emptying remained prolonged (22 ±7.9 minutes). There was no statistically significant difference between the gastric emptying time before and after fecal impaction removal (p 0,612; Wilcoxon test). Conclusion: The gastric emptying time of a liquid test meal was delayed in constipated children before and after fecal impaction removal. Maintenance of prolonged emptying time after impaction removal and recovery from constipation may indicate an alteration in gastrointestinal motility

  13. Effects of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksoy, F N; Bulut, T; Köse, H; Soybir, G; Yalçin, O; Aker, Y

    1994-06-01

    In this prospective, clinical study, four groups, each consisting of 12 patients were established to determine how gastric emptying is influenced in cholelithiasis with accompanied flatulent dyspepsia and the relationship of symptoms and gastric emptying after cholecystectomy: group 1--healthy people; group 2--patients with dyspeptic cholelithiasis; group 3--patients with no dyspepsia after cholecystectomy; group 4--patients with dyspepsia after cholecystectomy. Groups are compared according to solid phase gastric emptying scintigraphies performed with Tc 99m sulphur colloid bound with scrambled eggs. Gastric emptying delayed in groups 2 (P 0.005). These results demonstrate that dyspepsia, in cholelithiasis and persisting after cholecystectomy, has a close relation with delay in gastric emptying.

  14. Normal range of gastric emptying in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Collins, C.; Francis, L.; Henry, R.; O'Loughlin, E.; John Hunter Children's Hospital, Newcastle, NSW

    1999-01-01

    Full text: As part of a larger study looking at gastric emptying times in cystic fibrosis, we assessed the normal range of gastric emptying in a control group of children. Thirteen children (8 girls, 5 boys) aged 4-15 years (mean 10) were studied. Excluded were children with a history of relevant gastrointestinal medical or surgical disease, egg allergy or medication affecting gastric emptying. Imaging was performed at 08.00 h after an overnight fast. The test meal was consumed in under 15 min and comprised one 50 g egg, 80 g commercial pancake mix, 10 ml of polyunsaturated oil, 40 ml of water and 30 g of jam. The meal was labelled with 99 Tc m -macroaggregates of albumin. Water (150 ml) was also consumed with the test meal. One minute images of 128 x 128 were acquired over the anterior and posterior projections every 5 min for 30 min, then every 15 min until 90 min with a final image at 120 min. Subjects remained supine for the first 60 min, after which they were allowed to walk around. A time-activity curve was generated using the geometric mean of anterior and posterior activity. The half emptying time ranged from 55 to 107 min (mean 79, ± 2 standard deviations 43-115). Lag time (time for 5% to leave stomach) ranged from 2 to 26 min (mean 10). The percent emptied at 60 min ranged from 47 to 73% (mean 63%). There was no correlation of half emptying time with age. The normal reference range for a test meal of pancakes has been established for 13 normal children

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may be defined as a dysfunction of the distal esophagus causing return of gastric contents into the esophagus. GER is a rather common problem during infancy, with an incidence estimated as 1 in 500 infants. Several methods are available to diagnose and quantitate GER. These include fluoroscopy after barium feedings, in conjunction with an upper gastrointestinal series; esophageal manometry; endoscopy; pH probe monitoring, in conjunction with a Tuttle Test; and extended pH probe evaluation for a 24-h period. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy has been advocated as an alternative noninvasive study requiring no sedation. Scintigraphy offers the advantages of prolonged observation, high sensitivity, and low radiation exposure

  16. National Survey of Radionuclide Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A House

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was mailed to all institutions in Canada licensed to use radiopharmaceuticals. Questions addressed meal type; mode of preparation; and means, ranges and SD of emptying times. Seventy-eight per cent of 222 facilities responded, including all 55 teaching centres. Eighty-five per cent of teaching and 56% of nonteaching centres perform solid phase gastric emptying studies (GES. The majority use 99mTc sulphur colloid (Tc-SC added to eggs before cooking as the standard meal. Twenty-five per cent of teaching and 21% of nonteaching centres perform liquid phase GES. Most use a watery solution of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Gastric emptying for solid phase GES, expressed as time for 50% emptying (mean t½, varied from 42 to 105 mins for centres using the Tc-SC egg meal. Twenty-eight per cent of teaching centres used ±2 SD to define their normal range, 26% used ±1 SD, 6% used ±1.5 SD, and 40% did not know the number of SD used. Twenty per cent of non-teaching centres used ±2 SD, 12% used ±1 SD and 68% did not know how many SD were used. For liquid phase GES, mean t½ varied from 20 to 60 mins. Eighteen per cent of centres used healthy volunteers to establish or validate normal ranges. There is substantial variability among the normal ranges for radionuclide solid and liquid phase GES in both teaching and nonteaching centres across Canada. A minority of facilities have established or validated their own normal ranges in healthy volunteers. There is a need for a more standardized protocol and range of normal, with internal validation by each institution.

  17. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with /sup 111/In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated.

  18. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with 111 In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated

  19. Measurement of gastric emptying by intragastric gamma scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbert, C H; Mathis, C; Bobillier, E; Laplace, J P; Horowitz, M

    1997-09-01

    Gastric emptying is usually measured in animals and humans by dilution/sampling or external scintigraphy. These methods are either time consuming or require expensive equipment. The capacity of a miniature gamma counter positioned in the stomach to measure emptying of liquid and solid meals was evaluated. In eight conscious pigs fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulae, gastric emptying of saline (500 mL), dextrose (20%, 500 mL), porridge (300 g) and scrambled eggs (300 g), all labelled with 3.5 MBq 99mTC, was evaluated. When positioned in the antrum the probe was unable to quantify gastric emptying. In contrast, measurements of the fractional emptying of saline over 4-min periods by the probe positioned in the corpus and quantification of radioactivity in the duodenal effluent correlated closely (r = 0.88, P < 0.05). Gastric emptying (50% emptying time) of saline and both solid meals measured by the probe was not significantly different from quantification of the duodenal effluent volume. No difference was observed also for the dextrose meal but only while gastric acid secretion was suppressed by omeprazole. We conclude that an intragastric gamma counter permits measurement of gastric emptying of homogeneous meals provided meal stimulation of gastric secretion was not extensive. This was possible probably by monitoring emptying from the proximal stomach.

  20. Erythromycin accelerates solid emptying at the expense of gastric sieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H C; Sanders, S L; Gu, Y G; Doty, J E

    1994-01-01

    Erythromycin accelerates gastric emptying by inducing antral contractions similar to phase III of interdigestive MMC. These powerful contractions are capable of forcing coin-sized indigestibles out of the stomach. In contrast, fed motility is associated with submaximal contractions that fragment (trituration) and propel solids while retaining large (> 0.5 mm) pieces for further size reduction (gastric sieving). In this study, using dogs with duodenal fistulas, we tested the hypothesis that erythromycin-induced acceleration of gastric emptying resulted in the passage of inadequately triturated (> 0.05 mm) chunks of solids into the duodenum. We found that gastric emptying was accelerated by erythromycin (vs 0.15 M NaCl control, P 0.5-mm fraction was much greater (P solids were emptied as large chunks virtually unchanged from the swallowed pieces. We conclude that erythromycin accelerates gastric emptying at the expense of gastric sieving.

  1. In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA, as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions.

  2. The effects of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksoy, F N; Bulut, T; Köse, H; Soybir, G; Yalçin, O; Aker, Y

    In this clinical study, four groups, each consisting of 12 patients are established to determine how gastric emptying is influenced in cholelithiasis with accompanied flatulent dyspepsia and the relationship of symptoms and gastric emptying after cholecystectomy. 1. group: healthy people, 2. group: patients with dyspeptic cholelithiasis, 3. group: patients who have no dyspepsia after cholecystectomy, 4. group: patients whose dyspepsia is continued after cholecystectomy. Groups are compared according to solid phase gastric emptying scintigraphies performed with Tc 99m sulfur colloid bound with scrambled eggs. Gastric emptying delayed in second (p 0.005). These results demonstrate that dyspepsia, in cholelithiasis and persisting after cholecystectomy have a close relation with delay in gastric emptying.

  3. Radionuclide study of gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Humphries, L.; Castellanos, F.X.; De Land, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying, 20 patients with anorexia nervosa were given 150 μCi of Tc-99m triethylene tetraamine polystyrene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5-minute intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The GET results were divided into three categories: prolonged (10 patients); rapid (eight); and normal (two). Although all patients had symptoms of gastric dysfunction, only 50% had prolonged GET. This study allows the objective documentation of gastric emptying and the separation of patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide

  4. Gastric Emptying in Patients with Diabetes: Gastric Emptying Time, Retention Rate and Effect of Cisapride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Chun; Choi, Chung Il; Gwak, Dong Suck; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Bo Wan; Chung, Jun Mo

    1992-01-01

    Gastic emptying scan in diabetic patients is widely used to assess the degree of motility disturbance and the symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain and early gastric fullness which we can't find anatomic lesion by fiberoscopic or barium study. In order to determine the relationship among diabetic gastropathy, neropathy, retinopathy and disease duration, gastric emptying scan using 99m Tc-tin colloid labeled scramble egg in hamburger was performed in 10 healthy male controls and 50 diabetic patients which were subdivided to no neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy groups according to the degree of diabetic neuropathy and no retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy groups according to the degree of diabetic retinopathy. After medication of cisapride for 2 weeks, we observed the presence of improvement of gastric motility in diabetics. The results were as following: 1) In controls, gastric emptying time (GET1/2) was 75 ± 13.6 min and 2 hour gastric retension rate(GRR2) was 32 ± 11.1%. 2) In diabetics, GET/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours and GRR2 was 58 ± 23.1%. According to degree of neuropathy, GET1/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours in all three groups and GRR2 was 54± 24.1% in no neuropathy group, 57 ± 24.3% in peripheral neuropathy group and 69 ± 24.6% in autonomic neuropathy group. According to degree of retinopathy, GET1/2 was 110 ± 23.4 min in no retinopathy group and prolonged more than 2 hours in other two groups and GRR2 was 45 ± 21.6% in no retinopathy group, 71 ± 19.7% in background retinopathy group and 73 ± 21.5% in proliferative retinopathy group. 3) After cisapride for 2 weeks, GET1/2 and GRR2 were improved as 90 ± 14.6 min and 40 ± 13.8% (initial GET1/2 and GRR2 were above 2 hours and 61 ± 15.4%). We can conclude from above findings that gastropathy in diabetic neuropathy suggesting main underlying factor in motility disorder. The degree of retinopathy and disease

  5. Effects of stimulation of the feeding and satiety centres on gastric motility after irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guozhi; Liu Zhihong

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the feeding and satiety centres on gastric motility were studied in anesthetized rats by electrically stimulating these centres and recording the intragastric pressure. The results were as follow: (1) There was no difference in the discharges of the feeding and satiety centres between 8 Gy irradiated rats and the controls. (2) Stimulation of the satiety centre elicited chiefly inhibition, whereas that of the feeding centre excitation of gastric motility in normal rats; (3) On the 2nd to 4th day after 8 Gy irradiation stimulation of both the feeding and satiety centres usually revealed inhibition of gastric motility. The above results indicate that the inhibition of gastric motility after irradiation is independent of the activities of feeding and satiety centres

  6. Malrotation discovered during routine radionuclide gastric emptying study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanlikaya, A.; Miller, J.H.; Williams, H.T.

    1996-01-01

    In infants with recurrent vomiting, and especially bilious vomiting, the algorithmic approaches is to perform conventional barium upper gastrointestinal radiography to rule out malrotation and midgut volvulus, which are surgical emergencies. However, children with protracted vomiting and failure to thrive are candidates for medical treatment. These children are often evaluated by radionuclide gastric emptying studies to assess gastric emptying. Three patients are presented in whom the radionclude gastric emptying study revealed the presence of a malrotation anomaly which had been undetected by antecedent barium gastrointestinal radiographic studies. (orig.)

  7. Traditional Malian Solid Foods Made from Sorghum and Millet Have Markedly Slower Gastric Emptying than Rice, Potato, or Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Fatimata; Erickson, Daniel P; Hayes, Anna M R; Opekun, Antone R; Nichols, Buford L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2018-01-26

    From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta). A human trial to study gastric emptying of staple foods eaten in Bamako, Mali was conducted using a carbon-13 ( 13 C)-labelled octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying, and subjective pre-test and satiety response questionnaires. Fourteen healthy volunteers in Bamako participated in a crossover design to test eight starchy staples. A second validation study was done one year later in Bamako with six volunteers to correct for endogenous 13 C differences in the starches from different sources. In both trials, traditional sorghum and millet foods (thick porridges and millet couscous) had gastric half-emptying times about twice as long as rice, potato, or pasta ( p Traditional African sorghum and millet foods, whether viscous in the form of a thick porridge or as non-viscous couscous, had distinctly slow gastric emptying, in contrast to the faster emptying of non-traditional starchy foods, which are popular among West African urban consumers.

  8. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf; Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet

    2002-01-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B 12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B 12 deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T 1/2 ). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B 12 deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B 12 levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B 12 replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T 1/2 in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83±48.80 min, 90.00±17.29 min and 74.55±8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T 1/2 between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P 12 treatment (P 1/2 was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T 1/2 and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B 12 level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T 1/2 was prolonged in patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B 12 replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B 12 deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon. The level of vitamin B 12 does not correlate with the degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction measured by radionuclide gastric emptying studies. (orig.)

  9. Gastric emptying and postprandial symptoms after Billroth II resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Roelofs, J. M.; Pasma, F. G.; Oei, H. Y.; Wittebol, P.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying was studied in 18 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic patients after Billroth II (BII) resection (without vagotomy) and the possible relationships between emptying and postprandial symptoms in these patients were assessed. The BII patients were compared with 20 nonoperated patients who

  10. Review article: gastric emptying in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Although delayed gastric emptying has been described in several functional gastrointestinal disorders, and appears to be especially common in functional dyspepsia, the relationship of this finding to symptoms and basic pathophysiology is difficult to define. The delineation of the interactions between delayed gastric emptying, on the one hand, and symptom pathogenesis, on the other, has been hampered by several factors. These include the limitations of the methodology itself, the extent of overlap between the various functional disorders and the sensitivity of gastric emptying to factors external to the stomach, be they elsewhere within the gastrointestinal tract, in the central nervous system or in the environment. In many instances, delayed gastric emptying is an epiphenomenon, reflecting the overlap between inadequately defined functional syndromes, shared pathophysiology or the activation of physiological interactions between the various organs of the gut. In others, it may imply a truly diffuse motor disorder. The disappointments attendant on attempts to alleviate symptoms through approaches designed to accelerate gastric emptying should therefore not come as a surprise. Pending the definition of the true significance of delayed gastric emptying in all functional gastrointestinal disorders, caution should be exerted in the interpretation of this finding in a patient with functional symptoms.

  11. Effect of cisapride on gastric emptying in dyspeptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Debie, N C; Pauwels, S P

    1988-07-01

    The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using 99mTc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and [111In]DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man.

  12. Effect of cisapride on gastric emptying in dyspeptic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Debie, N.C.; Pauwels, S.P.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and (/sup 111/In)DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man.

  13. Effect of cisapride on gastric emptying in dyspeptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Debie, N.C.; Pauwels, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and [ 111 In]DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man

  14. Delayed postoperative gastric emptying following intrathecal morphine and intrathecal bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A decrease in the rate of gastric emptying can delay resumption of enteral feeding, alter bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and result in larger residual gastric volumes, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting. We compared the effects of 1) intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) and 2) the combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) on the rate of gastric emptying in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty four fasting ASA 1-3 patients were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (17.5 mg), either alone (group 1), or followed by intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) (group 2). Gastric emptying was measured (using an acetaminophen absorption technique), twice in each patient; preoperatively, and approximately one hour postoperatively. Gastric emptying parameters are: AUC (area under the plasma acetaminophen concentration time curve), maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (tCmax), analyzed using paired Student\\'s t tests. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates were reduced in both group 1 (AUC = 14.98 (3.8) and 11.05 (4.6) pre- and postoperatively, respectively) and group 2 (AUC = 13.93 (3.59) and 6.4 (3.42) pre- and postoperatively, respectively); the magnitude of the reduction was greater in group 2 [AUC (P = 0.04), Cmax (P = 0.05), tCmax (P = 0.13)]. CONCLUSION: The combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) delays gastric emptying postoperatively.

  15. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guiastrennec, B; Sonne, David Peick; Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentr......Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma...... concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin...

  16. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results

  17. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results.

  18. A tale of gastric layering and sieving : Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    BACKGROUND: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more

  19. Fasting does not induce gastric emptying in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Houat, Abdallah de Paula; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Costa, Felipe Lobato da Silva

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of fasting on gastric emptying in mice.METHODS:Twenty-eight mice were distributed into three study groups: a normal group (N=4): normal standard animals; a total fasting group (N=12): subjected to food and water deprivation and a partial fasting group (N=12): subjected to food deprivation only. The fasting groups were subdivided into three subgroups of four animals each, according to the date of euthanasia: 24, 48 and 72 hours. Was analyzed: the gastric volume,...

  20. Gastric emptying of liquids in rats dehydrated by water deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baracat E.C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric emptying of liquids was investigated in male Wistar rats (8 to 10 weeks old, 210-300 g dehydrated by water deprivation. In this model of dehydration, weight loss, hematocrit and plasma density were significantly higher in the dehydrated animals than in the control groups after 48 and 72 h of water deprivation (P<0.05. Three test meals (saline (N = 10, water (N = 10 and a WHO rehydrating solution containing in one liter 90 mEq sodium, 20 mEq potassium, 80 mEq chloride and 30 mEq citrate (N = 10 were used to study gastric emptying following water deprivation for 24, 48 and 72 h. After 72 h, gastric emptying of the water (39.4% retention and rehydrating solution (49.2% retention test meals was significantly retarded compared to the corresponding control groups (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney test. The 72-h period of deprivation was used to study the recovery from dehydration, and water was supplied for 60 or 120 min after 67 h of deprivation. Body weight loss, hematocrit and plasma density tended to return to normal when water was offered for 120 min. In the animals supplied with water for 60 min, there was a recovery in the gastric emptying of water while the gastric emptying of the rehydrating solution was still retarded (53.1% retention; P<0.02, Kruskal-Wallis test. In the group supplied with water for 120 min, the gastric emptying of the rehydrating (51.7% retention and gluco-saline (46.0% retention solutions tended to be retarded (P = 0.04, Kruskal-Wallis test. In this model of dehydration caused by water deprivation, with little alteration in the body electrolyte content, gastric emptying of the rehydrating solution was retarded after rehydration with water. We conclude that the mechanisms whereby receptors in the duodenal mucosa can modify gastric motility are altered during dehydration caused by water deprivation

  1. Technetium-99m labelled bran: a new agent for measuring gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, S.; Grime, J.S.; Little, W.; Patten, M.; Gulliford, P.; Critchley, M.; Bennett, R.; Shields, R. (Royal Liverpool Hospital (UK))

    1983-05-01

    Bran was labelled with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, ingested as part of a normal meal and used to measure gastric emptying in 15 normal subjects and in 15 patients with ulcerative colitis. There was no significant difference between the gastric emptying curves of the normal subjects and the patients, suggesting that rapid gastric emptying does not contribute to diarrhoea in ulcerative colitis.

  2. Effects of curcumin on the gastric emptying of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Brijesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Arora, Neetu; Kumar, Anil; Saxena, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol, is an active principle of the perennial herb Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric. Turmeric (CURCUMA LONGA L.) is a medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicine as a home remedy for various diseases including biliary diseases, cough, hepatic diseases, wound healing. However studies on the effect of curcumin on the gastric emptying are nearly nonexistent. It is hypothesized that curcumin may have an effect on gastric emptying. For this reason the present study was aimed to study the effect of curcumin on gastric emptying. Rats were divided into 5 groups (Group I - Group V), based on the time interval between administration of curcumin/vehicular fluid to administration of barium sulphate (Group I - 1 hr, Group II - 8 hrs, Group III - 16 hrs, Group IV - 24 hrs, Group V - 48 hrs). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, Group A (control) and Group B (experimental), containing 6 rats each. Rats in experimental group were administered curcumin intragastrically, in the dose of 1 gm/kg body weight, suspended in normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The controls were given vehicular fluid intragastrically, in volume equal to the experimental animals. It was observed that there was a decrease in the gastric emptying in all the experimental groups.

  3. Association between postprandial symptoms and gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgerhart, Jan S.; van Rutte, Pim W. J.; Edelbroek, Michela A. L.; Wyndaele, Dirk N. J.; Smulders, Johannes F.; van de Meeberg, Paul C.; Siersema, Peter D.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric procedure. However, postprandial symptoms can compromise its beneficial effect. It is not known if a changed gastric emptying and these symptoms are related. This study aimed to assess the association between postprandial symptoms and

  4. Gastric emptying in adults treated for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jörgensen, E; Hansen, L P

    1989-01-01

    The gastric emptying rate was scintigraphically determined in 6 women and 26 men who had undergone medical or surgical treatment for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis a median of 29 years previously. Dyspeptic complaints were reported by four of the seven medically treated and nine of the 25...

  5. Gongronema Latifolium delays gastric emptying of semi-solid meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate sonographically the effect of Gongronema latifolium on gastric emptying of semi-solid meals in diabetic dogs. Twenty-five alloxan-induced diabetic dogs were randomly allotted into five groups of five dogs each in a randomised placebo-controlled study. These are placebo, prokinetic ...

  6. Rates of gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups I and II served as the control (non-pregnant rats)fed normal rat chow and essentially carbohydrate diet respectively, while Groups III and IV served as test animals(pregnant rats) fed essentially carbohydrate diet in early and late gestation periods respectively. Gastric emptying and small intestinal motility rates were ...

  7. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.H.; Elashoff, J.; Porter-Fink, V.; Dressman, J.; Amidon, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food

  8. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasbrenner, B; Pieramico, O; Brecht-Krauss, D; Baur, M; Malfertheiner, P

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese patients have different rates of solid and liquid gastric emptying compared to healthy controls. Twenty-four obese patients (7 males, 17 females) were investigated prior to dietary restriction. The patients had a weight excess above ideal weight ranging from 25% to 216% (mean weight 118.1 +/- 6.5 kg). The control group consisted of 8 healthy subjects (4 males, 4 females), within 10% of the ideal weight. The solid phase of the test meal consisted of 40 g bread, 30 g ham, 10 g margarine, and two scrambled eggs labeled with 99mTc. For the liquid phase, 200 ml orange juice was labeled with 201Tl. Three-minute counts of both tracers were taken for 106 min using a large field-of-view gamma camera. In obese patients, a significantly shortened lag phase for the emptying of solids was observed (27.0 +/- 3.3 versus 38.4 +/- 4.1 min; P < 0.05). Half-emptying time (105.9 +/- 6.7 versus 100.7 +/- 5.7 min), emptying rate (0.60 +/- 0.04 versus 0.71 +/- 0.07%/min), and total emptying of solids (49.4 +/- 3.6 versus 50.5 +/- 5.0%) were not different from controls. Obese subjects had a trend to slowed liquid emptying (half-time 82.7 +/- 4.8 versus 69.9 +/- 6.9 min; emptying rate 0.59 +/- 0.03 versus 0.65 +/- 0.03%/min; total emptying 59.8 +/- 2.9 versus 66.0 +/- 3.3%), but this was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between weight or body surface area and rate of solid or liquid gastric emptying.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Gastric emptying rate in the elderly: implications for drug therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.A.; Triggs, E.J.; Cheung, M.; Broe, G.A.; Creasey, H.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the aging process on gastric emptying was studied in 11 elderly subjects (mean age, 77) and in 7 young healthy volunteers (mean age, 26). Gastric emptying rates were assessed by a modified sequential scinti-scanning technique after administration of the nonabsorbable chelated radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-DTPA. The rate of emptying, expressed as half-time (T 1/2e) in minutes, was significantly longer (p less than 0.001) in the elderly subjects (mean apparent T 1/2e . 123.23 min) compared to the young healthy volunteers (mean apparent T 1/2e . 49.69 min). Clinical implications of these findings are discussed, particularly with respect to the rate and extent of drug absorption in elderly persons

  10. Variability of gastric emptying time using standardized radiolabeled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, P.E.; Brophy, C.M.; Egger, M.J.; Taylor, A.; Moore, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    To define the range of inter- and intra-subject variability on gastric emptying measurements, eight healthy male subjects (ages 19-40) received meals on four separate occasions. The meal consisted of 150 g of beef stew labeled with Tc-99m SC labeled liver (600 μCi) and 150 g of orange juice containing In-111 DTPA (100 μCi) as the solid- and liquid-phase markers respectively. Images of the solid and liquid phases were obtained at 20 min intervals immediately after meal ingestion. The stomach region was selected from digital images and data were corrected for radionuclide interference, radioactive decay and the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts. More absolute variability was seen with the solid than the liquid marker emptying for the group. The mean solid half-emptying time was 58 +- 17 min (range 29-92) while the mean liquid half-emptying time was 24 +- 8 min (range 12-37). A nested random effects analysis of variance showed moderate intra-subject variability for solid half-emptying times (rho = 0.4594), and high intra-subject variability was implied by a low correlation (rho = 0.2084) for liquid half-emptying. The average inter-subject differences were 58.3% of the total variance for solids (rho = 0.0017). For liquids, the inter-subject variability was 69.1% of the total variance, but was only suggestive of statistical significance (rho = 0.0666). The normal half emptying time for gastric emptying of liquids and solids is a variable phenomenon in healthy subjects and has great inter- and intra-individual day-to-day differences

  11. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers in healthy dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, F.J.; Guilford, W.G.; Robertson, I.D.; Jones, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    The gastric emptying of 1.5 mm diameter (small) and 5.0 mm diameter (large) radiopaque markers (BIPS) was assessed in 20 dogs. The markers were fed to the dogs in a test meal and abdominal radiographs were made hourly thereafter. Studies were repeated three times in each dog. The variation between two veterinarians interpreting the radiographs was low. The sex, age and day of the study did not have a significant effect on the lag phase or the time taken to empty 25%, 50% and 75% of the markers (T25, T50 and T75 respectively). There was a weak but significant positive correlation between the body weight and T50. There was no significant difference in gastric emptying parameters between the large and small markers.The mean gastric emptying versus time curve of the small markers on day one was chosen to represent the reference curve for healthy dogs. The lag phase of the small markers on day one was 2.45 ± 2.04 hours, the T25 was 4.85 ± 2.15 hours, the T50 was 6.05 ± 2.99 hours and the T75 was 8.32 ± 2.72 hours (mean ± SD)

  12. Association of preoperative symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction with delayed gastric emptying after pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, Jasper J.; Eshuis, Wietse J.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2013-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is among the most common complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and might demand postoperative nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preoperative symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction and DGE after PD in an

  13. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  14. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi [/sup 99m/Tc]triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET

  15. Lactobacillus reuteri accelerates gastric emptying and improves regurgitation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrio, Flavia; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Francesco; Bisceglia, Massimo; Filannino, Antonia; Cavallo, Luciano; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2011-04-01

    Young infants are frequently affected by uncomplicated regurgitation that may persist despite dietetic and conservative interventions. On this basis, we studied the putative effects of probiotics on the frequency of regurgitation and gastric emptying time in infants with functional gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Forty-two infants with regurgitation were randomized to assume Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 at a dose of 1 × 10(8) CFU per day and placebo for 30 days. The episodes of regurgitation were recorded by the parents each day. Gastric emptying time was recorded using real-time ultrasound at baseline and at the end of the study. Twenty-one infants without regurgitation were enroled to compare anthropometric and physiological parameters before the intervention diet. Thirty-four infants completed the study (19 infants receiving probiotics and 15 placebo).At baseline, the whole group of infants was similar to the control group as regards anthropometric and physiological data. The median fasting antral area was significantly reduced, (P = 0·01) the delta in gastric emptying rate was significantly increased (P = 0·01) and the median episodes per day of regurgitation was reduced (, P probiotic group compared to the placebo group. In the whole group, the frequency of regurgitation and the basal antral area showed a positive correlation (r = 0·53, P = 0·004). In infants with functional GER, L. reuteri DSM 17938 reduce gastric distension and accelerate gastric emptying. In addition, this probiotic strain seems to diminish the frequency of regurgitation. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  16. Fasting does not induce gastric emptying in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Houat, Abdallah de Paula; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Costa, Felipe Lobato da Silva

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of fasting on gastric emptying in mice. Twenty-eight mice were distributed into three study groups: a normal group (N=4): normal standard animals; a total fasting group (N=12): subjected to food and water deprivation and a partial fasting group (N=12): subjected to food deprivation only. The fasting groups were subdivided into three subgroups of four animals each, according to the date of euthanasia: 24, 48 and 72 hours. Was analyzed: the gastric volume, degree of the gastric wall distention and the presence of food debris in gastrointestinal tract. The mean gastric volume was 1601 mm3 in the normal group, 847 mm3 in total fasting group and 997 mm3 in partial fasting group. There was difference between the fasting groups in any analyzed period (pgastrointestinal tract and the degree of distension of the stomach, there was no difference between the groups that underwent total or partial fasting (p>0.05). Total fasting or only-solids deprivation does not induce gastric emptying in mice.

  17. The menstrual cycle influences the gastric emptying of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibara, Naoko; Kobori, Ayase; Sekime, Ayako; Miyasaka, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that ingestion of 60 mL of red wine or vodka prior to the ingestion of a pancake significantly inhibited the gastric emptying of the pancake in male subjects, but not in female subjects, and that the retention times of wine and vodka were significantly longer than those of the congener of red wine and mineral water in male subjects, whereas in female subjects the retention times of these four drinks did not differ significantly from one another. We hypothesized that the menstrual cycle may influence the gastric emptying of alcohol beverages. Here, we determined and compared the retention times of vodka and water in the stomach during the luteal phase and the follicular phase. Ten female healthy volunteers were studied. They recorded their basal body temperatures every day, and participated in the following experiments: each volunteer drank mineral water or vodka containing 14% alcohol (60 mL) during the low-temperature (follicular) phase as well as during the high-temperature (luteal) phase. The retention time of vodka was significantly longer than that of mineral water during the follicular phase, but no significant differences between the retention times of the two drinks were observed during the luteal phase. In conclusion, the menstrual cycle influences the gastric emptying rate of alcohol.

  18. Pulse Packet Stochastic Model for Gastric Emptying in the Fasted State: A Physiological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talattof, Arjang; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-03-05

    Fasted-state gastrointestinal (GI) fluid transit is typically represented as a first-order, deterministic process (averaged and viewed as a continuous approximation). It is, however, most likely a discrete process involving fluid packets interrupted by variable time periods of little to no fluid emptying. In this report we present a physiologically based pulsed-packet gastric fluid emptying model and evaluate it with respect to recent gastrointestinal fluid volume emptying results, published gastric emptying of various dosage forms, and gastric fluid emptying as a function of GI motility. We develop the mathematical model for gastric emptying of discrete volumes emptied during intermittent pulse times of variable lengths, defined as a function of gastric motility utilizing a Poisson point process with motility-dependent intensity. We compare the simulations with observed gastric emptying results. The discrete pulse-packet gastric volumetric emptying model is a more physiologically realistic mathematical model for gastric emptying and it accounts well for the average observed emptying rates and, importantly, encompasses the variability of of observed volume and dosage form emptying rates.

  19. Relationship between gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal symptoms and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspeptic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pallotta, N; Pezzotti, P; Calabrese, E; Baccini, F; Corazziari, E

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Delayed gastric emptying and an enlarged fasting gastric antrum are common findings in functional dyspepsia but their relationship with gastrointestinal (GI), and the frequently associated extra-GI symptoms remains unclear. This study evaluated the relationship between GI and extra-GI symptoms, fasting antral volume and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia.

  20. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying and hunger in normal-weight humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, F; Edholm, T; Schmidt, P T

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin is produced primarily by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and increases gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis. MAIN OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying, appetite, and postprandial hormone secretion i...

  1. Effect of alginate on satiation, appetite, gastric function, and selected gut satiety hormones in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunsi, Suwebatu T; Vázquez-Roque, María I; Camilleri, Michael; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Clark, Matthew M; Wodrich, Lynne; Lempke, Mary; McKinzie, Sanna; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2010-08-01

    Lack of control of food intake, excess size, and frequency of meals are critical to the development of obesity. The stomach signals satiation postprandially and may play an important role in control of calorie intake. Sodium alginate (based on brown seaweed Laminaria digitata) is currently marketed as a weight loss supplement, but its effects on gastric motor functions and satiation are unknown. We evaluated effects of 10 days treatment with alginate or placebo on gastric functions, satiation, appetite, and gut hormones associated with satiety in overweight or obese adults. We conducted a randomized, 1:1, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study in 48 overweight or obese participants with excluded psychiatric comorbidity and binge eating disorder. All underwent measurements of gastric emptying (GE), fasting, and postprandial gastric volumes (GVs), postprandial satiation, calorie intake at a free choice meal and selected gut hormones after 1 week of alginate (three capsules vs. matching placebo per day, ingested 30 min before the main meal). Six capsules were ingested with water 30 min before the GE, GV, and satiation tests on days 8-10. There were no treatment group effects on GE or volumes, gut hormones (ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY)), satiation, total and macronutrient calorie intake at a free choice meal. There was no difference detected in results between obese and overweight patients. Alginate treatment for a period of 10 days showed no effect on gastric motor functions, satiation, appetite, or gut hormones. These results question the use of short-term alginate treatment for weight loss.

  2. Gastric Emptying Time in Acute and Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Ho Jong; Choo, Kil Yeon; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Jae Myung; Won, Chong Hyun; Park, Gwun Taek; Kim, Seoung Wok

    1992-01-01

    Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting are one of the most frequent symptoms in viral hepatitis patients. These may be due to poorly detoxified substances by dysfunctioned hepatocytes or by gastritis, but the pathophysiology is not totally understood. The symptoms interfere with adequate nutrient intake and are managed by metaclopramide, which accelerates gastric emptying. Thus delayed gastric emptying may well be a contributing factor to such symptoms. To determine such a relationship, we measured gastric emptying time in 11 normal subjects, 9 acute (AVH), and 12 chronic B viral hepatitis (CVH) patients. All were males with a mean age of 23 years. An egg was labeled with 0.5 mCi of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid, fried, then eaten between 2 slices of bread with 100 cc of water. Anterior and posterior images were taken at 20 minute intervals over a 2 hour period. A geometric mean of activity pertaining to the gastric region was measured, and T 1 /2 was calculated from the time activity curve. T 1 /2 for normal the group was 57.8 ± 6.3 minutes while that for the AVH and CVH group was 58.2 ± 8.2 (p=0.40) and 64.1 ± 10.5 (p=0.09), respectively. There was 1 AVH patient and 4 CVH patients with prolonged T 1 /2. Anorexia and nausea was seen in 71% and 46% of the patients, respectively. 80% and 60% of the patients with prolonged T 1 /2 had anorexia and nausea, respectively.

  3. Obesity, overeating, and rapid gastric emptying in rats with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, J P; Booth, D A

    1986-02-07

    Measurements confirm the quantitative theoretical prediction that the autonomic nonendocrine abnormality of rapid daytime gastric emptying is the major primary cause of the obesity resulting from ventromedial hypothalamic lesions in rats. Therapy for obesity could include slowing of stomach emptying.

  4. Evaluation of gastric emptying function in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, P; Picard, M; Déry, R; Giguère, A; Picard, D; Morais, J; Plourde, V; Boivin, M

    1997-11-01

    In this retrospective analysis, we compared different methods to evaluate gastric emptying function, aiming to improve the sensitivity and the clinical availability of our diagnostic testing. In the first study, we compared, in 72 patients clinically suspected of gastroparesis, the emptying of a meal containing two solid nutrients with different disintegration rates: 111In-labeled scrambled eggs and 99Tc-labeled liver cubes. Gastric emptying of 111In-labeled egg was delayed in 12 of our patients and the evacuation of the 99Tc-labeled liver was prolonged in 19 patients. The choice of the nutrient was not important for the identification of diabetic gastroparesis (43% vs 57%; NS), but it was determinant in the case of patients suspected of idiopathic gastroparesis (12% were positive with the egg and 25% with the liver; P egg as a radiolabeled tracer in order to improve the sensitivity of the test for detection of gastroparesis; and (2) the radiological detection of radiopaque markers is a reliable and convenient method for the detection of gastroparesis in clinical practice. It is possibly more sensitive than scintigraphy.

  5. Validation of radioisotopic labelling techniques in gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinaldesi, R.; Stanghellini, V.; Raiti, C.; Calamelli, R.; Salgemini, R.; Barbara, L.; Zarabini, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several techniques are currently employed to label solid and liquid foods with gamma-emitting radioisotopes in order to carry out gamma-camera gastric emptying studies. The present study describes an in vitro technique for evaluating the labelling stability of some of the most commonly employed radiomarkers of both the solid and liquid phases. Technetium-99m-sulphur colloid ( 99m Tc-SC) in vivo and in vitro labelled liver of chickens and other animal species appears to be almost ideal marker of the solid phase (97% of radioactivity still bound to the solid phase after incubation in gastric juice for 90 minutes). On the contrary, 51 CrCl 3 -beef ground meat (81%) and 99m Tc-SC egg white (69%) are unsatisfactory markers of the solid phase. Likewise, 99m Tc-DTPA and 111 In-DTPA cannot be considered satisfactory fluid-phase agents, because of the high proportion of radioactivity that leaves the liquid phase to become bound to the solid phase (respectively 76% and 49% after 90 minutes of incubation). This validation technique appears to be simple, feasible and reprodicible, and can be applied in any Nuclear Medicine Department to evaluate the validity of the labelling procedures, in order to improve the accuracy of the results of radioisotopic gastric emptying studies

  6. Endoscopic Gastric Food Retention in Relation to Scintigraphic Gastric Emptying Delays and Clinical Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleski, Radoslav; Baker, Jason R; Hasler, William L

    2016-09-01

    Gastric food residue frequently is observed on endoscopy despite fasting. To delineate factors promoting endoscopic food retention in the stomach. Two series of analyses were performed. Magnitudes of retained food in 834 patients from an endoscopy database were related to obstructive versus non-obstructive etiologies and gastric emptying findings. Emptying delays in 619 patients from a scintigraphy database were associated with endoscopic food retention, gastroparesis etiologies, and medications that modify gastric transit. On endoscopy, 310 (37 %) had large, 338 (41 %) showed medium, and 103 (12 %) exhibited small amounts of retained food in the stomach. Of 433 patients with definable etiologies of food retention, 106 (24 %) had obstructive causes. One hundred three of 327 (31 %) with non-obstructive conditions underwent scintigraphy showing mean 52 ± 29 % 4-h retention. From the scintigraphy database, 164/619 patients (26 %) with delayed emptying exhibited food retention on endoscopy. Four-hour scintigraphic retention was greater with versus without retained food (41 ± 25 vs. 32 ± 22 %, P food occurred more frequently with postsurgical (28/69, 41 %) versus diabetic (33/139, 24 %) and idiopathic (65/294, 22 %) gastroparesis (P = 0.006). Opiate use was more prevalent with increasing food retention (P = 0.02), while other medications that delay or accelerate emptying did not relate to retained food. Gastric food retention has obstructive and non-obstructive causes, and is found in one-quarter of gastroparesis, especially postsurgical cases. Gastric emptying delays correlate with amounts of retained food on endoscopy. Retention is influenced by opiates, but not other medications. These analyses delineate pathogenic factors promoting gastric food retention.

  7. Gastric stimulation: influence of electrical parameters on gastric emptying in control and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songné Badjona

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background The aim of this study was to test the effect of different pulse frequencies and amplitudes during gastric stimulation (GS on gastric emptying in the rat. Methods GS was performed in 2 groups of laparotomized rats: healthy control animals, and rats with acute diabetes. The effects of four pulse frequencies (0.5, 1, 10, 20 Hz and three pulse amplitudes (5, 20, 40 mA were tested. The volumes emptied from the stomach after the oro-gastric instillation of a nutrient solution were compared to those obtained in animals without GS. Intragastric pH values were assessed under basal conditions and after GS. Results In both groups, GS increased emptied volumes compared to conditions without stimulation (p Conclusions Although both pulse frequency and amplitude should be considered during GS, frequency appears to be the most critical point. The possibility of increasing gastric emptying by electrical stimulation in diabetic rats suggests potential clinical applications for this method.

  8. Gastric emptying of solid food in patients with gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, S.; Eggli, D.; Van Nostrand, D.; Johnson, L.

    1985-01-01

    While delayed solid gastric emptying (GE) has been reported in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the relationship of GE to daytime and/or nighttime reflux patterns, and the severity of endoscopic esophagitis are unknown. The authors measured GE in a study population of symptomatic patients (n=33) with abnormal 24 hour pH monitoring (24 hr pH). The study population was divided into two groups by esophagoscopy; those with (E+=22); and 2) those without (E-=11) erosive esophagitis and/or Barrett's esophagus. GE was measured in all patients and in 15 normal volunteers (NL) by the in vivo labelling of chicken liver with Tc-99m-SC, which was in turn diced into 1 cm. cubes and given in 7 1/2 oz. of beef stew. Upright one minute anterior and posterior digital images were obtained every 15 min. for 2.5 hours. 24 hour pH was divided into daytime (upright) and nighttime (supine) segments, and acid exposure was defined as % time pH < 4 for that posture. There was no correlation between GE T 1/2 and acid exposure, daytime or nighttime, for the patient population as a whole. However, patients with the longest GE T1/2 tended to have severe daytime reflux. The authors rarely found delayed solid food gastric emptying in patients with reflux; moreover, they found no association between GE and either diurnal reflux patterns on 24 hr pH or the severity of endoscopic esophagitis

  9. Effect of bethanechol or erythromycin on gastric emptying in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringger, N C; Lester, G D; Neuwirth, L; Merritt, A M; Vetro, T; Harrison, J

    1996-12-01

    To investigate the prokinetic effect of bethanechol and erythromycin in the upper gastrointestinal tract of healthy horses by measuring the gastric emptying (GE) rate of a radioactive meal. 4 healthy adult horses. After food was withheld for 12 hours, horses were given 370 MBq of 99mTc-labeled sulfur colloid incorporated into egg albumen and 37 MBq of 111In-labeled diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid in 120 ml of water via nasogastric intubation. Intravenously administered treatments were 0.9% NaCl solution, erythromycin (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight), or bethanechol (0.25 mg/kg). All drugs were given in 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution. Dual-phase scintigraphic images were obtained by use of a gamma camera. The best-fit function was determined for each study, and the resultant curves were then analyzed by use of least squares nonlinear regression. Two variables, time to 50% emptying of the stomach (T-50) and slope of the emptying curve, were derived from the calculated power exponential equation. Treatment had a significant (P horses and may have value for use as prokinetic agents in certain gastrointestinal tract diseases.

  10. A Pilot Randomized Cross-Over Trial to Examine the Effect of Kiwifruit on Satiety and Measures of Gastric Comfort in Healthy Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alison; Eady, Sarah; Drummond, Lynley; Hedderley, Duncan; Ansell, Juliet; Gearry, Richard

    2017-06-22

    'Hayward' kiwifruit anecdotally are associated with improved gastrointestinal comfort following the consumption of high protein meals, possibly because of the presence of a protease enzyme, actinidin. The study aimed to use SmartPill™ technology to investigate the acute effect of kiwifruit with actinidin ( Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa 'Hayward') and kiwifruit without actinidin ( A. chinensis var. chinensis 'Hort16A') on digestion of a large protein meal. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited. The participants attended the clinic three times, having fasted overnight. They consumed a test meal consisting of 400 g lean steak and two 'Hort16A' or two 'Hayward kiwifruit'. Subjects completed visual analogue scales (VAS) by rating feelings of hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and comfort and swallowed a SmartPill™ before completing further VAS scales. After 5 h, participants consumed an ad libitum lunch to assess satiety. SmartPill™ transponders were worn for five days. There were no significant differences in gastric emptying time, small bowel, or colonic transit time between the two kiwifruit arms of the study measured by SmartPill™. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in VAS satiety measures or energy consumption at the ad libitum meal. However, the measurement of overall gastric comfort tended to be lower, and bloating was significantly reduced following the consumption of the steak meal with 'Hayward' kiwifruit ( p small pilot study suggests that it is less likely to measure gastric emptying effectively following a high protein meal, as it may be delayed because of the meal's physical consistency. However, green kiwifruit, containing actinidin, may reduce bloating and other measures of gastric discomfort in healthy males. Possible future studies could use repeated measures with more readily digested protein and larger numbers of participants.

  11. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to

  12. Definition of a gastric emptying abnormality in patients with anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R.W.; Grill, B.B.; Lange, R.; Planky, M.; Glass, E.E.; Greenfeld, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal symptoms may be prominent in anorexia nervosa. This study is an investigation of the gastric emptying of solid and liquid meal components in 16 female patients who met accepted psychiatric diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. The results were compared with those of gastric emptying studies in 10 normal females of ideal body weight, 13 normal persons (12 males), and six patients with weight loss secondary to Crohn's disease with no psychiatric symptoms. A dual-isotope technique using chicken liver intracellularly labeled with technetium-/sup 99m/ (/sup 99m/Tc) bound to sulfur colloid as the solid-phase marker, and indium- 111 ( 111 In) -labeled water as the liquid-phase marker was used. In 13 of the 16 anorexia nervosa patients (80%), gastric emptying of solids was slower than the range in the two groups of normal subjects, and mean gastric emptying was significantly slower than in the weight-loss patients. Liquid emptying (water) in anorexia nervosa was normal and similar to the control groups studied. In 11 of the anorexia nervosa patients with delayed gastric emptying, intramuscular metoclopramide, 10 mg, significantly accelerated the mean gastric emptying from 60 through 120 min after the meal. The authors conclude that these data are consistent with an antral motility disturbance, either primary or secondary; and metoclopramide, a gastric prokinetic agent, accelerates (delayed) gastric emptying

  13. Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; van Ierland-van Leeuwen, M. L.; Bennink, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accelerated gastric emptying of solids may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Orlistat, a potent lipase inhibitor, induces fat malabsorption and body weight loss but might accelerate gastric emptying as a result of suppressed CCK release. The aim was to investigate the role of

  14. Validation of gastric-emptying scintigraphy of solids and liquids in mice using dedicated animal pinhole scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Roelof J.; de Jonge, Wouter J.; Symonds, Erin L.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; Spijkerboer, Astrid L.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2003-01-01

    Gastric emptying in small laboratory animals is a useful parameter to assess gastrointestinal motility for physiologic, pharmacologic, or other research purposes. In mice, phenol red recovery is considered the gold standard for determination of gastric emptying. However, this method requires

  15. Intravenous erythromycin dramatically accelerates gastric emptying in gastroparesis diabeticorum and normals and abolishes the emptying discrimination between solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Vantrappen, G.; Janssens, J.; Van Cutsem, E.; Peeters, T.; De Roo, M.

    1990-01-01

    Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has recently been shown to have a motilin like effect on gastrointestinal muscle strips. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of erythromycin on patients with delayed gastric emptying and healthy subjects using the dual radionuclide technique. Twelve patients with gastroparesis diabeticorum and ten healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined using 99mTc-SC scrambled egg and 111In-DTPA in water. Following a baseline study and on a separate day, each patient and control received a 15-min i.v. perfusion of erythromycin starting at meal ingestion. Eleven out of the 12 patients were restudied after a 3-wk oral administration. In patients and controls, i.v. erythromycin dramatically accelerated gastric emptying of both solids and liquids which were emptied at the same rate. After chronic oral administration, solid and liquid emptying remained significantly accelerated. Erythromycin appears to be a very powerful gastrokinetic drug. Derived compounds with the gastrokinetic effect and without the antibiotic activity could be useful in dyspeptic patients with delayed gastric emptying

  16. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with 51 Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK

  17. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; Secher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the use of a NMU analog as drug candidate for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Finally mRNA expression of NMU and NMUR1 in the gut and NMUR2 in the hypothalamus was investigated using a novel chromogen-based in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. Effects on food intake (6 and 18h post dosing) were addressed......Neuromedin U (NMU) is a gut-brain peptide, implicated in energy and glucose homeostasis via the peripherally expressed NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and the central NMUR2. We investigated the effects of a lipidated NMU analog on gastric emptying (GE), glucose homeostasis and food intake to evaluate...... in both mice and rats. The effects on GE and glycaemic control were assessed in mice, immediately after the first dose and after seven days of bidaily (BID) dosing. The lipidated NMU analog exerted robust reductions in GE and food intake in mice and improved glycaemic control when measured immediately...

  18. Factors associated with delayed gastric emptying in patients with stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Kenji; Maetani, Iruru; Shigoka, Hiroaki; Omuta, Shigefumi; Sato, Koichiro; Ito, Sayo; Saigusa, Yoshinori; Gomi, Tatsuya; Kohda, Ehiichi

    2013-01-01

    Background and study aims: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is an important factor in determining the clinical outcome in patients with stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction but the factors associated with DGE remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinicopathologic data could be used to identify the factors for DGE in such patients. Patients and methods: A prospective, single-arm, observational clinical study was performed in a referral hospital in Japan. A total of 54 patients with stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction were enrolled. A gastric emptying scintigraphy test was performed 1 week after stent placement. The relationship between DGE and clinicopathologic factors was investigated, and also the relationship between DGE and stent patency time, eating period (when the patient was able to maintain oral intake), and survival time. Results: A total of 38.9 % (21 /54) of patients had DGE. The following were identified as independent predictive factors of DGE: opioid use (odds ratio, 5.32; 95 % confidence interval [95 %CI], 1.07 – 26.41; p = 0.04), chemotherapy before stent placement (odds ratio, 8.03; 95 %CI, 1.85 – 34.95; p = 0.006), and smaller stent diameter (odds ratio, 13.59; 95 %CI, 1.72 – 107.41; p = 0.01). No relationship was found between DGE and the level of oral intake, stent patency time, eating period, and survival time. Conclusions: The factors associated with DGE after stent placement include those associated with the patient’s tumor as well as factors relating to their treatment, including stenting. The clinical and functional results after stent placement appear to be unrelated to the gastric emptying findings. PMID:26135508

  19. [Gastric emptying after oral contrast for abdominal tomography: report of six cases.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fernando Antonio Nogueira da Cruz; Amaral, José Luiz Gomes do

    2004-06-01

    Pulmonary injury due to gastric contents aspiration is a complication related to airway protective reflexes loss. Tomography imaging with digestive tract contrast requires special care for children below five years of age requiring general anesthesia or sedation to assure immobility during the procedure. General anesthesia induction or sedation after contrast ingestion may pose substantial risk for gastric contents bronchoaspiration, so contrast administration by gastric tube is often used after tracheal intubation, since time elapsed for emptying gastric contrast is unknown. This practice means increased anesthesia duration and leads to issues about the possibility of gastric emptying in less than one hour. Six patients submitted to abdominal tomography were evaluated concerning gastric emptying by tomographic slices in stomach topography to establish whether residual liquid contents remain in that organ after contrast administration. Participated in this study 6 children undergoing abdominal tomography. Two conscious children presented expressive gastric liquid residual 50 and 45 minutes, respectively, after oral contrast ingestion. Four anesthetized children have also presented gastric liquid residual 40-50 minutes after contrast administration through gastric tube. In two of them remarkable gastric liquid content remained even after stomach aspiration. In all studied cases, forty to fifty minutes were not enough for gastric emptying after contrast administration and even stomach aspiration trough gastric tube has resulted in significant residual liquid.

  20. Tc-99m labeled triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin gastric emptying studies in bulimia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih Weijen; Castellanos, F.X.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Humphries, L.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with bulimia, 20 patients (all women, ranging in age from 12 to 49 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms ingested 150-200 ..mu..Ci/sup 99m/ Tc-triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and had scintigraphy in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The results showed that the gastric emptying time was prolonged in 12 patients and decreased in 8. All 12 patients with prolonged emptying time were given 10 mg metoclopramide intravenously; 9 of these had a good response and 3 had no response. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, the results indicate that about 60% had delayed and 40% had rapid gastric emptying. The findings of two extremes of gastric emptying time remain to be explained, however, this enables (Albibi and McCullum 1983) objective documentation of gastric emptying as this technique (American Psychiatric Association 1980) can separate those patients with rapid GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide.

  1. Tc-99m labeled triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin gastric emptying studies in bulimia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih Weijen; Castellanos, F.X.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Humphries, L.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with bulimia, 20 patients (all women, ranging in age from 12 to 49 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms ingested 150-200 μCi 99m Tc-triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and had scintigraphy in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The results showed that the gastric emptying time was prolonged in 12 patients and decreased in 8. All 12 patients with prolonged emptying time were given 10 mg metoclopramide intravenously; 9 of these had a good response and 3 had no response. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, the results indicate that about 60% had delayed and 40% had rapid gastric emptying. The findings of two extremes of gastric emptying time remain to be explained, however, this enables (Albibi and McCullum 1983) objective documentation of gastric emptying as this technique (American Psychiatric Association 1980) can separate those patients with rapid GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide. (orig.)

  2. Gastric emptying of 99mTc tagged solid food in gastric and duodenal ulceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler-Pinto Junior, Paulo; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Lopasso, Fabio P.; Cordeiro, Anoi C.; Pinotti, Henrique W.

    1995-01-01

    This study is to analyze gastric emptying (GE) of 99m Tc tagged solid meals in 43 gastric ulcer (GU), 16 duodenal ulcer (DU) patients, and 15 normal subjects. Diagnosis of active ulcers had been made through high gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients with GU were divided in three groups according to Johnson's classification. Gastric contents were measured at 15 minutes intervals over a period of 150 minutes, with the person standing in front of a gamma-counter. The ge curve was obtained from the mean percentile of radioactive of all the groups measured at 15 minutes intervals. results were submitted to statistical analysis. Significant delay in GE in DU patients compared to normals, type II and type III group. However, GE of type I GU was not statistically different from the DU group nor of types II and III, occupying an intermediate e position. (author)

  3. Enteral nutrition prolongs delayed gastric emptying in patients after Whipple resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignoni, M E; Friess, H; Sell, F; Ricken, L; Shrikhande, S; Kulli, C; Büchler, M W

    2000-07-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is one of the most frequent postoperative complications after Whipple resection. In the present study we evaluated the role of enteral nutrition in the development of delayed gastric emptying after Whipple resection. Between January 1996 and June 1998, 64 patients (30 female, 34 male) underwent a classic (n = 27) or pylorus-preserving (n = 37) Whipple resection. Two patients were excluded; 30 patients received enteral and 32 patients received no-enteral nutrition. Delayed gastric emptying occurred significantly more in patients with enteral (17 of 30, 57%) than in patients with no-enteral nutrition (5 of 32, 16%) (P nasogastric tube for a significantly (Pindications.

  4. Background does not significantly affect power-exponential fitting of gastric emptying curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonderko, K.

    1987-01-01

    Using a procedure enabling the assessment of background radiation, research was done to elucidate the course of changes in background activity during gastric emptying measurements. Attention was focused on the changes in the shape of power-exponential fitted gastric emptying curves after correction for background was performed. The observed pattern of background counts allowed to explain the shifts of the parameters characterizing power-exponential curves connected with background correction. It was concluded that background had a negligible effect on the power-exponential fitting of gastric emptying curves. (author)

  5. Study on confirmation of Solid-Meal Lag Phase of Gastric Emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Chang Guhn; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Won, Jong Jin; Nah, Yong Ho

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of a lag phase of gastric emptying of solid meals. We studied solid phase gastric emptying in 26 normal subject using continuous data acquisition for 30 minutes. Each ingested a 300 g meal containing 99m Tc-labeled scrambled egg (solid 150 g, milk 150 ml). Lag phase was determined by 1) inspection of the gastric emptying curve 2) time to a 2% decrease in stomach activity 3) the time of visual appearance of duodenal activity on computer image. We concluded that solid meal lag phase exist.

  6. Relationships between oesophageal transit and solid and liquid gastric emptying in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, M.; Maddox, A.F.; Wishart, J.M.; Harding, P.E.; Chatterton, B.E.; Shearman, D.J.C.

    1991-01-01

    In 87 randomly selected diabetic patients (67 type 1, 20 type 2) and 25 control subjects, gastric emptying of digestible solid and liquid meals and oesophageal transit of a solid bolus were measured with scintigraphic techniques. Gastrointestinal symptoms, autonomic nerve function and glycaemic control were evaluated in the diabetic patients. Gastric emptying and oesophageal transit were slower (P 15 mmol/l. These results indicate that gastric emptying in patients with diabetes mellitus should be assessed by liquid as well as by solid test meals and that oesophageal transit should not be used as a predictor of generalised diabetic gastroenteropathy. (orig.)

  7. A tale of gastric layering and sieving: Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-07-01

    The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n=15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m 2 , and n=19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m 2 ) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29±19%) than for SEPARATE (57±11%, psieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastric emptying of two radiolabelled antacids with simutaneous montoring of gastric pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mones, J.; Carrio, I.; Sainz, S.; Berna, L.; Clave, P.; Liszkay, M.; Roca, M.; Vilardell, F.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the gastric emptying rate of two antacids using an scintigraphic technique and simultaneous monitoring of gastric pH in 16 healthy male volunteers. Ten ml of Talcid (hydrotalcite 1 g) and Maalox (Mg-Al-hydroxide), with a similar neutralization capacity, were labelled with technetium-99m using a pyrophosphate bridge. Labelled antacids were given on separate days (within 2 weeks), 1 h after a standard meal. Intragastric pH was measured for at least 4 h, using ambulatory pH-metry with a dual-crystant antimony catheter. Continuous monitoring was started 1 h prior to the meal (baseline) and lasted 3 h (post-prandial, post-antacid and final periods). The antacid capacity of labelled and unlabelled antacids was similar. The mean percentages of antacids retained in the stomach fitted a linear model. The mean half-emptying time of Talcid was 63.9±27.9 min, while that of Maalox was 57.3±23.9 min (P = NS). The recordings of gastric pH (mean values of pH for each period) showed a similar profile for both antacids. The mean pH (Maalox vs Talcid) was 1.69 vs 2.07 in the baseline period, 1.95 vs 1.93 in the post-prandial period, 1.79 vs 1.15 in the post-antacid period (P = NS) and 0.4 vs 0.52 in the final period (P < 0.05 vs prior periods). In conclusion, the gastric emptying of Talcid and Maalox was similar and pH profiles were parallel and remained unchanged for the two antacids within the first hour of intake. A significant decrease in pH was observed 1 h after intake of the antacids, suggesting a possible rebound effect. (orig.)

  9. Gastric emptying of two radiolabelled antacids with simutaneous montoring of gastric pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mones, J. [Servicio de Patologia Digestiva, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Carrio, I. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Sainz, S. [Servicio de Patologia Digestiva, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Berna, L. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Clave, P. [Servicio de Patologia Digestiva, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Liszkay, M. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Roca, M. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Vilardell, F. [Servicio de Patologia Digestiva, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the gastric emptying rate of two antacids using an scintigraphic technique and simultaneous monitoring of gastric pH in 16 healthy male volunteers. Ten ml of Talcid (hydrotalcite 1 g) and Maalox (Mg-Al-hydroxide), with a similar neutralization capacity, were labelled with technetium-99m using a pyrophosphate bridge. Labelled antacids were given on separate days (within 2 weeks), 1 h after a standard meal. Intragastric pH was measured for at least 4 h, using ambulatory pH-metry with a dual-crystant antimony catheter. Continuous monitoring was started 1 h prior to the meal (baseline) and lasted 3 h (post-prandial, post-antacid and final periods). The antacid capacity of labelled and unlabelled antacids was similar. The mean percentages of antacids retained in the stomach fitted a linear model. The mean half-emptying time of Talcid was 63.9{+-}27.9 min, while that of Maalox was 57.3{+-}23.9 min (P = NS). The recordings of gastric pH (mean values of pH for each period) showed a similar profile for both antacids. The mean pH (Maalox vs Talcid) was 1.69 vs 2.07 in the baseline period, 1.95 vs 1.93 in the post-prandial period, 1.79 vs 1.15 in the post-antacid period (P = NS) and 0.4 vs 0.52 in the final period (P < 0.05 vs prior periods). In conclusion, the gastric emptying of Talcid and Maalox was similar and pH profiles were parallel and remained unchanged for the two antacids within the first hour of intake. A significant decrease in pH was observed 1 h after intake of the antacids, suggesting a possible rebound effect. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of gastric emptying using isotopic method in diabetes, simple obesity and anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomofuji, Yoshinobu

    1988-12-01

    Gastric emptying of technetium labeled liquid meal were studied in 46 non-insulin-dependent diabetics, 7 obese patients, 8 anorexia nervosa patients, and 21 normal subjects. All subjects underwent endoscopy and barium study, and none showed any lesion in upper gastrointestinal tract. T1/2, time at which 50% of meal remained, was used as an indicator of gastric emptying. Eight normal subjects have some epigastric discomforts, and have slightly slower gastric emptying than the remaining 13 subjects. But there was no significant difference in T1/2 between the both groups (53.2+-12.8 min vs 45.1+-10.9 min). Fourteen diabetics have some epigastric discomforts, and have significantly more slower gastric emptying than the remaining 32 diabetics (T1/2; 67.7+-24.6 vs 50.5+-17.4, p<0.02). The gastric emptying of 13 diabetics who have three major diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy), was significantly more slower than that of 15 diabetics without any complication (T1/2; 68.1+-24.6 vs 43.5+-14.8, p<0.005). The gastric emptying of simple obesity did not show a fixed pattern, but the emptying of anorexia nervosa was remarkably delayed. These findings indicate that diabetic gastroparesis is common in the presence of the three major complications, and the delayed gastric emptying is associated with post-prandial discomfort in diabetics and anorexia nervosa patients. The measurement of gastric emptying can be useful to evaluate the management and the treatment for diabetes and anorexia nervosa. (author).

  11. Measurement of gastric emptying using isotopic method in diabetes, simple obesity and anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomofuji, Yoshinobu

    1988-01-01

    Gastric emptying of technetium labeled liquid meal were studied in 46 non-insulin-dependent diabetics, 7 obese patients, 8 anorexia nervosa patients, and 21 normal subjects. All subjects underwent endoscopy and barium study, and none showed any lesion in upper gastrointestinal tract. T1/2, time at which 50% of meal remained, was used as an indicator of gastric emptying. Eight normal subjects have some epigastric discomforts, and have slightly slower gastric emptying than the remaining 13 subjects. But there was no significant difference in T1/2 between the both groups (53.2±12.8 min vs 45.1±10.9 min). Fourteen diabetics have some epigastric discomforts, and have significantly more slower gastric emptying than the remaining 32 diabetics (T1/2; 67.7±24.6 vs 50.5±17.4, p<0.02). The gastric emptying of 13 diabetics who have three major diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy), was significantly more slower than that of 15 diabetics without any complication (T1/2; 68.1±24.6 vs 43.5±14.8, p<0.005). The gastric emptying of simple obesity did not show a fixed pattern, but the emptying of anorexia nervosa was remarkably delayed. These findings indicate that diabetic gastroparesis is common in the presence of the three major complications, and the delayed gastric emptying is associated with post-prandial discomfort in diabetics and anorexia nervosa patients. The measurement of gastric emptying can be useful to evaluate the management and the treatment for diabetes and anorexia nervosa. (author)

  12. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sildenafil is known to block phosphodiesterase type 5, which degrades nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. The effect of sildenafil on gastric motor function after a meal was investigated in healthy humans...... gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: The area under the curve of gastric retention versus time of liquid or solid radiolabelled marker was not changed by sildenafil intake, nor was the postprandial frequency of antral contractions affected by sildenafil. CONCLUSION......: A single dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not change gastric emptying or postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy volunteers....

  13. Radionuclide gastric emptying time study for patients with cervical and thoracic esophageal cancer after resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Tang Jin; Wang Yonggang; Li Jiaxiu

    1994-01-01

    Semi-solid meal was mixed with 99m Tc-DTPA and used as test meal given to patients orally. Gastric emptying time was measured in 70 patients after resection of esophageal cancer and 24 normal subjects. 70 patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) 14 cases with cervical esophageal cancer operated by using colon to replace the esophagus (CRE group). (2) 28 cases with cervical esophageal cancer operated by using stomach to replace the esophagus (SRE group). (3) 28 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer after resection only (TE group). The range of gastric emptying time of normal subjects was 53.9 +- 10.5%/60 minutes. The results showed that SRE group (28 pts) had a more rapid gastric emptying time than that of normal subjects. CRE group (14 pts) and TE group (28 pts) had slower gastric emptying time than that of normal subjects

  14. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated......, implying that inhibition of fat absorption modifies determinants of gastric emptying of a meal. Orlistat administered similar to its use in obesity treatment accelerates gastric emptying of a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load and profoundly attenuates release of GIP without appreciably altering......), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and insulin. There was no peptide YY (PYY) response. Area under the curve of gastric emptying was positively correlated with integrated secretion of GIP (r=0.786) in orlistat and was negatively correlated with integrated plasma response of GLP-1 (r=-0.75) in control experiments...

  15. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids.

  16. Application of gastric emptying imaging in the therapy of functional dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qingxiang; Shi Jin; Rong Rong; Wang Hongbing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of gastric emptying imaging in the therapy of functional dyspepsia (FD) of Spleen deficiency and qi stagnation. Methods: 78 cases of patients with FD were divide into Chinese herbal medicine group (40 cases treated with Chinese herbal medicine of Decoction of invigorating spleen) and Western medicine group (38 cases treated with regulating qi and Domperidone). The gastric emptying imagings were carried out before and after treatment. Results: The gastric emptying imaging results showed that both traditional Chinese Medicine and Western medicine treatments had good curative effects (P<0.01), and the traditional Chinese Medicine was better than that of Wester medicine (P<0.05). Conclusion: Gastric emptying imaging is very useful in observation curative effect of FD treatment. (authors)

  17. Gastric emptying rate and chyme characteristics for cooked brown and white rice meals in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Chang, Lucy Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    Rice structure is important to rice grain and starch breakdown during digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the gastric emptying and rice composition during gastric digestion of cooked brown and white medium-grain (Calrose variety) rice using the growing pig as a model for the adult human. Brown and white rice did not show significantly different gastric emptying rates of dry matter or starch, but brown rice had slower protein emptying (P pH was lower in the distal stomach compared to the proximal stomach (P gastric secretions observed after a brown or white rice meal may be related to the meal buffering capacity, and are accumulated in the distal stomach. The delayed rate of protein emptying in brown rice compared to white rice was most likely due to the accumulation of bran layers in the stomach. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying presenting in adults with post-prandial diarrhea and reactive hypoglycemia: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We have previously reported the association of gastrointestinal and hypoglycemic symptoms, with idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying. We now report the first series of six similar cases. Case presentations Patient 1: A 24-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility with a six-month history of post-prandial nausea, flatulence, bloating, abdominal discomfort and associated diarrhea. He had associated episodes of fatigue, sweating, anxiety, confusion and craving for sweet foods. Patient 2: A 52-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 15-year history of post-prandial bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhea, often associated with nausea, severe sweating, and fatigue. Patient 3: An 18-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a nine-year history of post-prandial diarrhea, abdominal bloating and pain. There was associated nausea, tremor, lethargy, and craving for sweet foods. Patient 4: A 77-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a four-month history of epigastric distension, pain after eating and a change in bowel habit. She experienced intermittent severe diarrhea and marked fatigue, nausea and sweating. Patient 5: A 23-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a two-year history of early satiety, and diarrhea after eating. She also complained of feeling faint and weak between meals, when she became cold and clammy, and on several occasions lost consciousness during these episodes. Patient 6: A 64-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 10-year history of nausea, early satiety and profound bloating followed by diarrhea. All symptoms predominantly occurred in the first three hours after eating, when she felt faint, lethargic, and had a craving for sweet foods. In all cases, symptoms were alleviated or resolved by taking sweet food or drink and response to treatment was 90% or greater in all cases. Conclusions This series extends our description

  19. Comparison of total and compartmental gastric emptying and antral motility between healthy men and women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, R.; Van den Maegdenbergh, V.; Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium); Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P. [Department of Gastroenterology, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of gender-related differences in gastric emptying. The purpose of this study was first, to confirm the difference in gastric emptying for both solid and liquid test meals between healthy men and women, and secondly, to investigate the origin of this difference by studying regional gastric emptying and antral motility. A standard gastric emptying test with additional compartmental (proximal and distal) evaluation and dynamic imaging of the antrum was performed in 20 healthy women studied during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle, and in 31 healthy age-matched men. In concordance with previous reports, women had a longer half-emptying time for solids as compared to men (86.2{+-}5.1 vs 52.2{+-}2.9 min, P<0.05). In our observations this seemed to be related to a significantly prolonged lag phase and a significant decrease in terminal slope. Dynamical antral scintigraphy did not show a significant difference. The distribution of the test meal within the stomach (proximal vs distal) showed more early proximal retention in women as compared to men. The terminal slope of the distal somach was significantly lower in women. We did not observe a significant difference in gastric emptying of the liquid test meal between men and women. Gastric emptying of solids is significantly slower in healthy women as compared to men. These findings emphasise the importance of using different normal values for clinical and research purposes in gastric emptying scintigraphy in men and women. The difference could not be explained by antral motility alone. Increased proximal retention and a lower terminal emptying rate in women are observations to be further investigated. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  20. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  1. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  2. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M.; Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M.; Esteban-Carretero, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.)

  3. Influences of breast milk composition on gastric emptying in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Simmer, Karen N; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific biochemical and energy concentrations influence gastric emptying of unfortified and fortified mother's own milk (MOM) in stable preterm infants, and whether gastric emptying differs between feeds of unfortified MOM and feeds fortified with S-26 or FM 85 human milk fortifier (HMF) when infants are fed the same volume under similar conditions. Influences of infant gestation, age, and weight, and feed characteristics were also explored. Stomach volumes of 25 paired unfortified and fortified MOM feeds were monitored prefeed and postfeed delivery and at 30-minute intervals thereafter. For each feed, MOM samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of total protein, casein, whey, carbohydrate, lactose, fat, and energy. Fortified feed compositions were calculated by adding fortifier biochemical and energy concentrations to unfortified MOM concentrations. Ultrasound images were used to calculate infant stomach volumes. Statistical comparisons were made of paired stomach volume measurements. Higher feed concentrations of casein were associated with faster gastric emptying during feed delivery (P = 0.007). When compared with unfortified MOM, S-26 fortified feeds emptied similarly, whereas FM 85 fortified feeds emptied more slowly both during feed delivery and during the postprandial period (P = 0.002, position compared with that in prone (P = 0.001). Breast milk composition influences gastric emptying in stable preterm infants, with feeds of higher casein concentration emptying faster during feeding than otherwise equivalent feeds, and FM 85 fortified MOM emptying more slowly than unfortified MOM.

  4. Effect of anxiety on the rate of gastric emptying of liquids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    The efficacy of preoperative fasting is reduced in the presence of any factor which delays gastric emptying. We examined the association between anxiety and gastric emptying in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Immediately before operation, 21 patients completed both a Spielberger state trait inventory (used to quantify current anxiety state (STAIs) and anxiety predisposition (STAIt)), and the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (used to quantify anxiety and need for information). Gastric emptying was measured using the paracetamol absorption technique. Four to 10 weeks later, gastric emptying and STAI were measured again. Patients were more anxious before than after operation (STAIs = mean 35.4 (SD 10.9) and 25 (4.1), respectively; P = 0.0004). Neither anxiety state (P = 0.40) nor measures of anxiety relative to anxiety predisposition (P = 0.86) influenced gastric emptying (as measured by area under the paracetamol absorption-time curve). This contrasts with previous findings that anxiety in patients with low anxiety predisposition scores delays gastric emptying.

  5. Gastric emptying 16 to 26 years after treatment of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, F E; Bertus, M; Voth, E; Michalski, S; Lepsien, G

    1994-04-01

    Long-term follow-up was performed 16 to 26 years after conservative (group I, n = 18) and operative (group II, n = 38) treatment of 56 patients who had infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). The study encompassed the scintigraphic determination of gastric emptying rates for solids and liquids, an interview to obtain medical history and ascertain whether a current disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract was present, and a clinical examination. Gastric emptying rates were measured on two different days for solids and liquids. The standard solid meal consisted of two scrambled eggs, two slices of toast, and 20 g of margarine. The gastric emptying rate for liquids was measured using 300 mL of apple juice. The scrambled eggs and apple juice were each marked with 2.2 MBq technetium 99m-sulphur-colloid. Two control collectives were used in this study; one group (physicians) served to create a reference curve for gastric emptying, and the other group, with the same age and gender distributions as those of the patients, served to evaluate the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints, by means of a questionnaire. There was no significant rate difference for gastric emptying between the patients treated conservatively or surgically and the controls. No association could be construed between the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms or disorders and the gastric emptying rates for solids and liquids. The results presented here substantiate that clinically relevant disturbances of stomach motility after IHPS appear to be rare.

  6. Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E M H; van Ierland-van Leeuwen, M L; Bennink, R J

    2006-08-01

    Accelerated gastric emptying of solids may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Orlistat, a potent lipase inhibitor, induces fat malabsorption and body weight loss but might accelerate gastric emptying as a result of suppressed CCK release. The aim was to investigate the role of fat restriction and lipase inhibition in CCK release and gastric emptying. A total of 28 patients (three male (M)/25 female (F); mean (s.d.) BMI 37.4(3.9) kg/m2) entering a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. CCK release and gastric emptying by scintigraphy at the start (T0), after 1 month of an energy- and fat-restricted diet and placebo (T1), and after 1 month (T2) and 1 year (T3) of randomization to placebo or 120 mg orlistat three times a day. One month of dieting and a weight loss of 2.3 kg (2.1% of initial weight) did not affect gastric emptying of liquids and solids. Basal and meal-stimulated CCK levels remained unaltered. Placebo-treated subjects who continued the diet for 1 month demonstrated a borderline significant suppressed CCK secretion and a weight loss of 1.2 kg (1.0%) without an effect on gastric emptying. After 1 year, the CCK secretion recovered to or beyond values at the start. A significantly slower emptying of solids (17.6 (T3) versus 25.9 (T1)%/h) and a weight loss of 10.4 kg (9.9%) was observed. Subjects on 120 mg orlistat lost 2.5 kg (2.5%) after 1 month, and 9.8 kg (9.9%) after 1 year. Basal and postprandial CCK release decreased significantly after the first month of orlistat treatment but normalized after 1 year. Diet and lipase inhibition did not have any influence on gastric emptying. Energy and fat restriction of 1 month did not alter gastric emptying in the whole group. Continuation of the diet for 1 year resulted in a delayed gastric emptying of solids. Lipase inhibition did not result in a sustained depressed CCK release and the anticipated acceleration of gastric emptying did not occur.

  7. Link Between Increased Satiety Gut Hormones and Reduced Food Reward After Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras, Alexander D.; Scholtz, Samantha; Jackson, Sabrina; Neff, Karl J.; Pénicaud, Luc; Geoghegan, Justin; Chhina, Navpreet; Durighel, Giuliana; Bell, Jimmy D.; Meillon, Sophie; le Roux, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is an effective long-term intervention for weight loss maintenance, reducing appetite, and also food reward, via unclear mechanisms. Objective: To investigate the role of elevated satiety gut hormones after RYGB, we examined food hedonic-reward responses after their acute post-prandial suppression. Design: These were randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experimental medicine studies. Patients: Two groups, more than 5 months after RYGB for obesity (n = 7–11), compared with nonobese controls (n = 10), or patients after gastric banding (BAND) surgery (n = 9) participated in the studies. Intervention: Studies were performed after acute administration of the somatostatin analog octreotide or saline. In one study, patients after RYGB, and nonobese controls, performed a behavioral progressive ratio task for chocolate sweets. In another study, patients after RYGB, and controls after BAND surgery, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging food picture evaluation task. Main Outcome Measures: Octreotide increased both appetitive food reward (breakpoint) in the progressive ratio task (n = 9), and food appeal (n = 9) and reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal (n = 7) in the functional magnetic resonance imaging task, in the RYGB group, but not in the control groups. Results: Octreotide suppressed postprandial plasma peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, and fibroblast growth factor-19 after RYGB. The reduction in plasma peptide YY with octreotide positively correlated with the increase in brain reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal in RYGB/BAND subjects, with a similar trend for glucagon-like peptide-1. Conclusions: Enhanced satiety gut hormone responses after RYGB may be a causative mechanism by which anatomical alterations of the gut in obesity surgery modify behavioral and brain reward responses to food. PMID:26580235

  8. Link Between Increased Satiety Gut Hormones and Reduced Food Reward After Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Miras, Alexander D; Scholtz, Samantha; Jackson, Sabrina; Neff, Karl J; Pénicaud, Luc; Geoghegan, Justin; Chhina, Navpreet; Durighel, Giuliana; Bell, Jimmy D; Meillon, Sophie; le Roux, Carel W

    2016-02-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is an effective long-term intervention for weight loss maintenance, reducing appetite, and also food reward, via unclear mechanisms. To investigate the role of elevated satiety gut hormones after RYGB, we examined food hedonic-reward responses after their acute post-prandial suppression. These were randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experimental medicine studies. Two groups, more than 5 months after RYGB for obesity (n = 7-11), compared with nonobese controls (n = 10), or patients after gastric banding (BAND) surgery (n = 9) participated in the studies. Studies were performed after acute administration of the somatostatin analog octreotide or saline. In one study, patients after RYGB, and nonobese controls, performed a behavioral progressive ratio task for chocolate sweets. In another study, patients after RYGB, and controls after BAND surgery, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging food picture evaluation task. Octreotide increased both appetitive food reward (breakpoint) in the progressive ratio task (n = 9), and food appeal (n = 9) and reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal (n = 7) in the functional magnetic resonance imaging task, in the RYGB group, but not in the control groups. Octreotide suppressed postprandial plasma peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, and fibroblast growth factor-19 after RYGB. The reduction in plasma peptide YY with octreotide positively correlated with the increase in brain reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal in RYGB/BAND subjects, with a similar trend for glucagon-like peptide-1. Enhanced satiety gut hormone responses after RYGB may be a causative mechanism by which anatomical alterations of the gut in obesity surgery modify behavioral and brain reward responses to food.

  9. Fate of oral neutralizing antacid and its effect on postprandial gastric secretion and emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, T B; Carlson, G L; Malagelada, J R; Duenes, J A; McCall, J T

    1979-11-01

    The fate and neutralizing efficiency of oral antacids (aluminum and magnesium hydroxides) as well as their effect on postprandial gastric function were quantified in 6 patients with duodenal ulcer disease. We employed a double-marker technique for measurement of gastric secretion and emptying and combined this with back-titration of the gastric samples and analysis of aluminum to trace the fate of antacid in the stomach and duodenum. These studies show that: (a) antacid therapy with aluminum and magnesium hydroxides significantly increases gastric secretion; (b) intragastric neutralization of gastric acid produces a significant and substantial decrease in net acid output (acid secreted minus acid neutralized), but the beneficial effects of neutralization are partially offset by incomplete intragastric formation of aluminum trichloride; (c) most but not all of the ingested antacid is utilized in acid neutralization in the stomach (average 78.6% in our 6 patients); and (d) antacid therapy does not modify the absolute rate of postprandial gastric emptying, but increases dilution of gastric contents, expanding the intragastric volume. Thus, the fractional gastric emptying rate declines, and this, in turn, should enhance antacid utilization by delaying its emptying.

  10. Prucalopride decreases esophageal acid exposure and accelerates gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, B. F.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bennink, R. J.; Kraaijpoel, N.; Oors, J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT4 receptor agonist prucalopride is a prokinetic drug which improves colonic motility. Animal data and in vitro studies suggest that prucalopride also affects gastric and esophageal motor function. We aimed to assess the effect of prucalopride on gastric emptying, esophageal motility, and

  11. Effect of chyme viscosity and nutrient feedback mechanism on gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, Thomas E; Nimmegeers, Philippe; Telen, Dries; Fryer, Peter J; Van Impe, Jan; Bakalis, Serafim

    2017-11-02

    A comprehensive mathematical model of the digestive processes in humans could allow for better design of functional foods which may play a role in stemming the prevalence of food related diseases around the world. This work presents a mathematical model for a nutrient based feedback mechanism controlling gastric emptying, which has been identified in vivo by numerous researchers. The model also takes into account the viscosity of nutrient meals upon gastric secretions and emptying. The results show that modelling the nutrient feedback mechanism as an on/off system, with an initial emptying rate dependent upon the secretion rate (which is a function of the gastric chyme viscosity) provides a good fit to the trends of emptying rate for liquid meals of low and high nutrient content with varying viscosity.

  12. A Pilot Randomized Cross-Over Trial to Examine the Effect of Kiwifruit on Satiety and Measures of Gastric Comfort in Healthy Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wallace

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit anecdotally are associated with improved gastrointestinal comfort following the consumption of high protein meals, possibly because of the presence of a protease enzyme, actinidin. The study aimed to use SmartPill™ technology to investigate the acute effect of kiwifruit with actinidin (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa ‘Hayward’ and kiwifruit without actinidin (A. chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ on digestion of a large protein meal. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited. The participants attended the clinic three times, having fasted overnight. They consumed a test meal consisting of 400 g lean steak and two ‘Hort16A’ or two ‘Hayward kiwifruit’. Subjects completed visual analogue scales (VAS by rating feelings of hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and comfort and swallowed a SmartPill™ before completing further VAS scales. After 5 h, participants consumed an ad libitum lunch to assess satiety. SmartPill™ transponders were worn for five days. There were no significant differences in gastric emptying time, small bowel, or colonic transit time between the two kiwifruit arms of the study measured by SmartPill™. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in VAS satiety measures or energy consumption at the ad libitum meal. However, the measurement of overall gastric comfort tended to be lower, and bloating was significantly reduced following the consumption of the steak meal with ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit (p < 0.028. Conclusions: The SmartPill™ is marketed as a diagnostic tool for patients presenting with gastrointestinal disorders and is usually used with a standard ‘SmartBar’. This small pilot study suggests that it is less likely to measure gastric emptying effectively following a high protein meal, as it may be delayed because of the meal’s physical consistency. However, green kiwifruit, containing actinidin, may reduce bloating and other measures of gastric discomfort in healthy

  13. A comparison of the effects of tramadol and morphine on gastric emptying in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D B; Sutton, A; Prescott, L F; Murphy, M B

    1997-12-01

    In a previous study using an electrical bioimpedance technique and the paracetamol absorption test, we demonstrated that 0.09 mg.kg-1 of morphine delayed gastric emptying in healthy human volunteers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether analgesic doses of tramadol would cause a delay in gastric emptying similar to conventional opioids. Using the same volunteers and techniques as in our previous study, placebo or tramadol (1 mg.kg-1) was given in a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over placebo-controlled study. Gastric emptying was measured concurrently by a noninvasive epigastric bioimpedance technique and by the paracetamol absorption test. After the ingestion of 500 ml of deionised water plus paracetamol 1.5 g, the mean (SEM) time taken for gastric volume to decrease to 50% (t0.5) was recorded. No difference in gastric emptying rates (t0.5) between placebo, 7.7 (1 min), and tramadol, 9.5 (2 min), was noted. In our previous study, morphine prolonged t0.5 to 21 (3) min (p < 0.03). The maximum concentration and area under the curve of serum paracetamol concentrations following morphine were significantly different from placebo (p < 0.05) and tramadol (p < 0.05). We conclude that tramadol at a dose of 1 mg.kg-1 does not delay gastric emptying in humans.

  14. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1 expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR, a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  15. Pre- and post-operative gastric emptying studies in gastroplasty patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Dual isotope gastric emptying studies were performed pre- and post-operatively on 16 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty. Pre-operative 50 g and 900 g meals of beef stew contained Tc-99m labeled liver to monitor the solid-phase of emptying and orange juice with In-111 DTPA to follow the liquid phase. Identical 50 g meals were given post-operatively at 3 months to 12 patients and at 12 months to 9 patients for comparison of gastric emptying and evaluation of the surgical intervention. Total stomach emptying studies at 3 and 12 months did not significantly differ from pre-operative studies, however, the 50 g pouch emptied solids (21 min) and liquids (18 min) significantly faster (p<0.05) than the post-operative total stomach and pre-operative studies. In summary, pre-operative gastric emptying in the obese patients was not different from a control group. Post-op there was no difference in total stomach emptying compared to pre-op studies, however, pouch emptying was significantly more rapid as compared to the pre-operative studies

  16. Gastric emptying after a new, more physiological anti-obesity operation: the Magenstrasse and Mill procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, A.R.; Johnston, D.; Barker, M.C.J.; Bury, R.F.; Boyce, J.; Sue-Ling, H. [Leeds General Infirmary (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The Magenstrasse and Mill (M and M) procedure for obesity is designed to preserve normal gastric emptying mechanisms. The hypothesis investigated in this study was that gastric emptying would be normal after the M and M gastroplasty. Gastric emptying studies were performed using both liquid and solid test meals, in ten morbidly obese patients (MO group) and in 13 patients after the M and M procedure (MM group). Seven people of normal weight served as controls and were matched for age, sex and height to the M and M and MO groups. Three years after the M and M procedure, mean (SD) weight loss was 42 (19) kg, with a mean loss of excess weight of 58% (20%). Gastric emptying half-times (t{sub 1/2}) are expressed in minutes, as median values (25th and 75th percentiles). The t{sub 1/2} for solids was 97 (85-110) min in the control group, 140 (86-220) min in the MO group and 79 (46-150) min in the MM group. Median gastric emptying for solids was 0.7% (0.6%-0.8%) per minute in the control group, 0.5% (0.3%-0.8%) in the MO group and 0.9% (0.4%-1.4%) in the M and M group. There were no statistically significant differences in the emptying times of the three groups. It is concluded that the M and M procedure achieves acceptable weight loss, while preserving gastric emptying mechanisms and thus minimising possible side-effects such as vomiting, dumping and diarrhoea, which are common complications of gastric bypass procedures. (orig.)

  17. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.; Smith, H.J.; Simon, T.R.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 . 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 . 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of indigestible solids; the method may be a more sensitive indicator of gastric motor dysfunction than radionuclide scintigraphy.

  18. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.; Smith, H.J.; Simon, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 . 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 . 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of indigestible solids; the method may be a more sensitive indicator of gastric motor dysfunction than radionuclide scintigraphy

  19. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M; Smith, H J; Simon, T R

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. Although most of the liquid component of the meal, labeled with 111In, emptied during the first hour (as assessed simultaneously by radionuclide scintigraphy), few radiopaque markers emptied from the stomach during the first 2 h after the meal. Most markers emptied during the fourth postprandial hour, and all 10 markers had emptied by 6 h in 45 of 46 experiments. In contrast, not all of the solid radiopaque markers emptied from the stomach by 6 h in 16 of 26 experiments in patients with diabetes mellitus (p less than 0.001 vs. healthy controls). In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 = 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 = 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of

  20. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf [Department of Hematology, Gazi Medical School (Turkey); Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi Medical School (Turkey)

    2002-09-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T{sub 1/2}). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B{sub 12} levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83{+-}48.80 min, 90.00{+-}17.29 min and 74.55{+-}8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P<0.01). The statistically significant difference persisted after vitamin B{sub 12} treatment (P<0.05), though mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B{sub 12} level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was prolonged in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon

  1. Effects of viscosity and fluid outflow on postcibal gastric emptying of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J H; Gu, Y; Elashoff, J; Reedy, T; Dressman, J; Amidon, G

    1986-02-01

    It is known that the food-filled stomach retains large spheres or pieces of food, allowing the passage of food particles or of plastic spheres with diameters mainly below 2 mm. We have recently shown that spheres having densities greater or less than water emptied from the food-filled canine stomach more slowly than spheres of the same diameter with a density of 1. Thus, hydrodynamics seem to govern gastric emptying of spheres. The present studies were undertaken to determine how altering other hydrodynamic factors, viscosity and velocity of fluid outflow, might affect gastric sieving. Ten mongrel dogs were prepared with chronic duodenal fistulas, which allowed collecting and measuring of emptied spheres and food. The dogs were fed a standard meal of 75 g of steak plus 25 g of 99mTc-labeled chicken liver. Immediately afterward, 50 3.2-mm Teflon spheres were instilled into the stomachs along with 200- or 800-ml volumes of saline or saline plus guar (a viscous polysaccharide). Whether 200- or 800-ml volumes were instilled, the guar significantly sped the emptying of the spheres. Fluid outflow was twice as fast after the 800-ml instillates, but the faster outflow with the 800 ml of saline did not speed emptying of spheres. With the guar instillates, the faster outflow slightly sped the emptying of the spheres and significantly increased the diameter of emptied particles of 99mTc-labeled chicken liver. We conclude that meal viscosity significantly affects gastric sieving.

  2. Use of technegas as a radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L.; Burch, W.M.; Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Many radiopharmaceuticals and test meals that are used to measure gastric emptying are less than optimal. A vegetable-based solid meal, such as rice, labelled with a radiopharmaceutical that also has the capacity to measure gastric emptying of liquids, is likely to be ideal. The role of Technegas as a radioisotopic marker to measure gastric emptying of rice and liquids was evaluated. Technegas-labelled rice was incubated in 0.9% saline, 1 M HCl and simulated gastric fluid (3.2 g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-3) to assess stability of the label. In eight healthy volunteers gastric emptying of two meals - 200 g rice (370 kcal) and 75 g dextrose dissolved in 300 ml water (300 kcal), both labelled with 20 MBq of Technegas - was measured scintigraphically. Over 4 h, the average label stability was 93.7%±0.5% in 0.9% saline, 91.0%±0.4% in 1 M HCl and 93.6%±0.7% in simulated gastric juice. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25±7 min vs 4±2 min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post-lag emptying rate (2.1±0.3 kcal/min vs 1.7±0.2 kcal/min; P=0.2) between the two meals. We conclude that Technegas is a suitable radiopharmaceutical for measurement of gastric emptying of rice and nutrient-containing liquids. (orig.)

  3. Effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on gastric emptying in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucaretchi

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the gastric emptying of liquids was studied in 176 young adult male Wistar rats (2-3 months of age divided into subgroups of 8 animals each. Toxin-g was injected iv at doses of 25, 37.5, 50 or 100 µg/kg and the effect on gastric emptying was assessed 30 min and 8 h later. A time-course study was also performed by injecting 50 µg of toxin-g /kg and measuring the effect on gastric emptying at times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-venom. Each envenomed animal was paired with its saline control and all received a saline test meal solution containing phenol red (60 µg/ml as a marker. Ten minutes after administering the test meal by gavage the animals were sacrificed and gastric retention was determined by measuring the residual marker concentration of the test meal. A significant delay in gastric emptying, at 30 min and 8 h post-venom, was observed only after 50 and 100 µg of toxin-g /kg compared to control values. The responses to these two doses were significantly different after 8 h post-venom. Toxin-g (50 µg/kg significantly delayed the gastric emptying of liquids at all times studied, with a peak response at 4 h after toxin administration compared to control values. These results indicate that the iv injection of toxin-g may induce a rapid, intense and sustained inhibition of gastric emptying 0.25 to 48 h after envenomation.

  4. Use of technegas as a radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, M.A. [School of Medical Radiation, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Jones, K.L. [School of Medical Radiation, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia)]|[Department of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Burch, W.M. [John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Australian Capital Territory (Australia); Horowitz, M. [Department of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Bartholomeusz, F.D.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    1999-08-01

    Many radiopharmaceuticals and test meals that are used to measure gastric emptying are less than optimal. A vegetable-based solid meal, such as rice, labelled with a radiopharmaceutical that also has the capacity to measure gastric emptying of liquids, is likely to be ideal. The role of Technegas as a radioisotopic marker to measure gastric emptying of rice and liquids was evaluated. Technegas-labelled rice was incubated in 0.9% saline, 1 M HCl and simulated gastric fluid (3.2 g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-3) to assess stability of the label. In eight healthy volunteers gastric emptying of two meals - 200 g rice (370 kcal) and 75 g dextrose dissolved in 300 ml water (300 kcal), both labelled with 20 MBq of Technegas - was measured scintigraphically. Over 4 h, the average label stability was 93.7%{+-}0.5% in 0.9% saline, 91.0%{+-}0.4% in 1 M HCl and 93.6%{+-}0.7% in simulated gastric juice. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25{+-}7 min vs 4{+-}2 min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post-lag emptying rate (2.1{+-}0.3 kcal/min vs 1.7{+-}0.2 kcal/min; P=0.2) between the two meals. We conclude that Technegas is a suitable radiopharmaceutical for measurement of gastric emptying of rice and nutrient-containing liquids. (orig.) With 2 figs., 16 refs.

  5. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, J.L.; Penninckx, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Vandenborre, P.; Van Cutsem, E.; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V.; De Roo, M. (Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium))

    1990-10-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying.

  6. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Penninckx, F; Siegel, J A; Vandenborre, P; Van Cutsem, E; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V; De Roo, M

    1990-10-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying.

  7. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Penninckx, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Vandenborre, P.; Van Cutsem, E.; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V.; De Roo, M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying

  8. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, T. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Mueller-Schauenburg, W. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Goeke, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Luebeck, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Gratz, K.F. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meier, P. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Manns, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hundeshagen, H. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  9. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, T.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.; Goeke, M.; Luebeck, M.; Gratz, K.F.; Meier, P.; Manns, M.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1995-01-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  10. Opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying: a peripheral mechanism in humans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, D B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Opioids delay gastric emptying, which in turn may increase the risk of vomiting and pulmonary aspiration. Naloxone reverses this opiate action on gastric emptying, but it is not known whether this effect in humans is mediated by central or peripheral opiate antagonism. The importance of peripheral opioid receptor antagonism in modulating opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying was evaluated using methylnaltrexone, a quaternary derivative of the opiate antagonist naltrexone, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover placebo-controlled study, 11 healthy volunteers were given either placebo (saline), 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine, or 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine plus 0.3 mg\\/kg methylnaltrexone on three separate occasions before ingesting 500 ml deionized water. The rate of gastric emptying was measured by two methods: a noninvasive epigastric bioimpedance technique and the acetaminophen absorption test. RESULTS: The epigastric bioimpedance technique was sufficiently sensitive to detect opioid-induced changes in the rate of gastric emptying. The mean +\\/- SD time taken for the gastric volume to decrease to 50% (t0.5) after placebo was 5.5 +\\/- 2.1 min. Morphine prolonged gastric emptying to (t0.5) of 21 +\\/- 9.0 min (P < 0.03). Methylnaltrexone given concomitantly with morphine reversed the morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying to a t0.5 of 7.4 +\\/- 3.0 (P < 0.04). Maximum concentrations and area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min of serum acetaminophen concentrations after morphine were significantly different from placebo and morphine administered concomitantly with methylnaltrexone (P < 0.05). No difference in maximum concentration or area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min was noted between placebo and methylnaltrexone coadministered with morphine. CONCLUSIONS: The attenuation of morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying by methylnaltrexone suggests that the opioid effect is

  11. Effect of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric emptying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A; Teyssen, S; Harder, H; Singer, M V

    2004-07-01

    There is a paucity of detailed and controlled studies on the action of ethanol and alcoholic beverages on gastric emptying in humans. This study was designed to compare the effect of beer, red wine, whisky and their comparable pure ethanol solutions on gastric emptying in a controlled and randomized investigation. On separate days, 10 healthy, fasted subjects received the following solutions, in random order, through a gastric tube: 500 mL beer, red wine, comparable pure ethanol solutions (4% and 10% v/v), glucose (5.5% and 11.4% w/v) and water, 125 mL whisky and 40% (v/v) ethanol (both followed by 125 mL water) and 250 mL water. Gastric emptying of the test solutions was assessed using ultrasonography of the antrum. As measured by ultrasonography of the antrum, half emptying times of the ethanol solutions (4%, 10% and 40% v/v) were significantly (P beer (39.3 +/- 4.3 min) and red wine (72.6 +/- 7.6 min) were significantly longer than those of the corresponding ethanol concentrations, whereas whisky was emptied at nearly the same rate (26.4 +/- 5.9 min) as 40% (v/v) ethanol. Emptying of glucose 5.5% and 11.4% (w/v) was significantly and dose dependently slower (29.7 +/- 4.5 and 64.8 +/- 8.9 min) than water. 1) Pure ethanol in concentrations of 4%, 10% and 40% (v/v) inhibits gastric emptying. 2) The inhibitory effect of beer and red wine, but not of whisky, is stronger than that of their comparable ethanol concentrations. 3) Caloric content and non-alcoholic ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (beer and wine), but not in those produced by distillation (whisky), are most likely responsible for this effect.

  12. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility; Nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik der Magenmotilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [German] Proximaler und distaler Magen haben funktionell unterschiedliche Aufgaben. Waehrend der proximale Magen die Nahrung voruebergehend speichert und ueber die Generierung eines gastroduodenalen Druckgefaelles eine fraktionierte Entleerung in den Duenndarm bewirkt, dient die Peristaltik des distalen Magens der Durchmischung und Zerkleinerung des Speisebreis. Eine komplexe hormonelle, humorale und nervale Regulation dieser ineinandergreifenden Funktionen

  13. Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibition of gastric emptying outweighs its insulinotropic effects in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, M A; Niedereichholz, U; Ettler, R

    1997-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying of liquid meals in type 2 diabetic patients. It was the aim of the present study to compare the action of physiological and pharmacological doses of intravenous GLP-1-(7-36) amide and GLP-1-(7-37) on gastric emptying...... a significant effect, 3) despite the known insulinotropic actions of GLP-1-(7-36) amide and -(7-37), the net effect of administering GLP-1 with a meal is no change or a reduction in meal-related insulin responses. These findings suggest a primarily inhibitory function for GLP-1 (ileal brake mechanisms)....

  14. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grybaeck, P.; Naeslund, E.; Hellstroem, P.M.; Jacobsson, H.; Backman, L.

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L.; Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25±7min vs 4±2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1±0.3kca/min vs 1.7±0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3±13% rice and 6.7±1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  17. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medical Radiation; Burch, W. [Tetley Medical, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25{+-}7min vs 4{+-}2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1{+-}0.3kca/min vs 1.7{+-}0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3{+-}13% rice and 6.7{+-}1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  18. Effect of size and density on canine gastric emptying of nondigestible solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.H.; Dressman, J.; Fink, A.; Amidon, G.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the food-containing canine stomach retains large, nondigestible spheres until all food has emptied; but it is not known whether there is a threshold size or a gradation of sizes that will empty along with food. Further, nothing is known of the effects of such parameters as density, shape, and surface energy on the emptying of nondigestible particles of any given size. To answer these questions 6 dogs with chronic duodenal fistulas were studied. Radiolabeled food and spheres were collected from the fistulas to compare the rate of gastric emptying of the spheres with that of the food. After a standard test meal of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled liver, steak, and water, diverted chyme was collected over a stack of sieves in 30-min fractions over 5 postcibal hours. The percent of fed spheres and fed /sup 99m/Tc-labeled liver in each collection was counted, and liquid chyme was returned to the distal duodenum. Spheres with a density of 1 emptied progressively faster as sphere diameters were decreased from 5 to 1 mm; but 0.015-mm spheres emptied at about the same rate as those with diameters of 1 mm. Emptying of the spheres became similar to emptying of the /sup 99m/Tc-labeled liver at about 1.6 mm. Spheres with densities less than 1 or greater than 1 emptied more slowly than spheres of the same size with a density of 1, whereas paper squares emptied the same way as spheres of comparable size and density. Surface energy did not affect emptying. The findings indicated that both sphere size and density affect their emptying in the presence of food

  19. The Effect on Moderate Altitude UPON Human Gastric Emptying Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-03-01

    physiological aliment . The emptying time, therefore, of a mixture of barium and food may perhaps differ somewhat from that of food alone. Determination of the...eliminated; they are more valuable in exposing the film and, also, less dangerous bio - logically. Only absorbed rays are harmful. By these means it

  20. Comments on: The effects of sitagliptin on gastric emptying in healthy humans - a randomised, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A Pigarova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Stevens JE, Horowitz M, Deacon CF, Nauck M, Rayner CK, Jones KL. The effects of sitagliptin on gastric emptying in healthy humans - a randomised, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jun 28. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2012.05198.x

  1. Supplementing glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying rate in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature infants frequently present with gastroduodenal motor dysfunction, which is manifest clinically as feeding intolerance resulting from slow gastric emptying. Glutamate (GLU) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the body and multiple GLU receptors and transporters have been found in th...

  2. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    . Thirteen healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, CCK, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured periodically...

  3. Impact of the reconstruction method on delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamandl, Dietmar; Sahora, Klaus; Prucker, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is of considerable concern in patients undergoing pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). Prolonged hospital stay, increased cost, and decreased quality of life add on to interventions needed to treat DGE. This study was conducted to determine...

  4. The effect of coffee on gastric emptying and oro-caecal transit time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Lo, B.; Samsom, M.; Akkermans, L. M.; Smout, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of coffee allegedly induces or aggravates gastrointestinal symptoms. In order to investigate the effect of coffee on gastrointestinal motility we studied the effect of coffee on gastric emptying and oro-caecal transit time. METHODS: In a randomised, controlled, cross-over

  5. rates of gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in pregnant rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-30

    Sep 30, 2016 ... This study investigated the effect of essentially carbohydrate diet (cooked mashed yam) on gastric emptying and small intestinal motility rates in pregnancy. It involved 24 female Wistar rats weighing between 180 to 200gand randomly assigned to four groups. Groups I and II served as the control ...

  6. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  7. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Mortelmans, L.; Cutsem, E. van; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; Roo, M. de

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111 In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99m Tc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Mortelmans, L; van Cutsem, E; van den Maegdenbergh, V; de Roo, M

    1989-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  9. Evolution of gastric electrical features and gastric emptying in children with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Osvaldo; Salvia, Gennaro; Mancini, Valentina; Santoro, Lucio; Tagliente, Francesca; Romeo, Erminia Francesca; Cucchiara, Salvatore

    2005-03-01

    Although muscular dystrophy (MD) affects primarily striated muscles, smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract may also be involved. We recorded gastric electrical activity and gastric emptying time (GET) in children with MD at initial presentation and at 3-yr follow-up in order to detect gastric motor abnormalities and study their evolution along the clinical course. Twenty children with MD (median age: 4.6 yr; range age: 3-7 yr) were investigated by means of ultrasonography, for measuring GET, and by electrogastrography (EGG); 70 children served as controls. Ten patients had Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and 10 Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). GET was significantly more delayed in MD patients (DMD, median: 195 min; range 150-260 min; BMD, median: 197 min; range: 150-250 min) than in controls (median: 150 min; 110-180 min; p < 0.05); it markedly worsened at the follow-up in DMD (median: 270 min; range 170-310 min; p < 0.001 vs controls) but not in BMD patients (median: 205 min; 155-275 min; p < 0.05 vs DMD). Baseline EGG showed a significantly lower prevalence of normal rhythm and significantly higher prevalence of dysrhythmias in both groups of patients as compared to controls (% of normal rhythm: DMD 66.7 +/- 8.2, BMB 67.2 +/- 11.5, controls 85.3 +/- 7.2, p < 0.001; % of tachygastria: DMD 28.4 +/- 8.0, BMB 29.8 +/- 12.3, controls 10.6 +/- 5.1, p < 0.001; % of dominant frequency instability coefficient: DMD 36.1 +/- 6.0, BMB 33.2 +/- 2.9, controls 17.9 +/- 7.1, p < 0.001); furthermore, no difference in fed-to-fasting ratio of the dominant EGG power was found between the two groups and controls (DMD 2.84 +/- 1.27, BMB 2.82 +/- 0.98, controls 3.04 +/- 0.85, ns). However, at the follow-up no significant change in the prevalence of normal rhythm and dysrhythmias occurred in both groups (ns vs baseline values), whereas only DMD patients showed a marked reduction in fed-to-fasting power ratio (0.78 +/- 0.59; p < 0.001 vs controls and BMD; p < 0.05 vs

  10. Post-prandial reactive hypoglycaemia and diarrhea caused by idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Kottekkattu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The majority of cases of post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia are considered idiopathic. Abnormalities of B-cell function and glucose regulation by insulin and glucagon have been postulated as causes but associated gastrointestinal dysfunction has not been reported. We report the first case of accelerated gastric emptying associated with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia, abdominal bloating and diarrhea. We consider that gastric dysmotility is an important cause of this condition as treatment of the underlying abnormal gastric emptying allows effective control of symptoms. Case presentation A 20-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-prandial fatigue, sweating, nausea, faintness and intermittent confusion, which had led to pre-syncope and syncope on occasions. She also experienced marked abdominal bloating and diarrhea over the same period. These episodes responded to oral administration of sweet drinks. Her symptoms were ameliorated by modification of her diet. Conclusion This is an original case report of the association of idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia and diarrhea. Family physicians, endocrinologists and gastroenterologists often consult patients with a constellation of post-prandial symptoms, which are considered to be idiopathic in most cases. This case indicates that gastric dysmotility might be the primary cause of these symptoms in some patients and, if found, offers a therapeutic target which in our case was successful.

  11. An Alternate, Egg-Free Radiolabeled Meal Formulation for Gastric-Emptying Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigue, Philippe; Bodin-Hullin, Aurore; Gonzalez, Sandra; Sala, Quentin; Guillet, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    Tc-radiolabeled scrambled eggs (SEs) are most often used as the ingested solid phase for gastric-emptying scintigraphy, leading egg-reluctant patients to avoid the examination. We formulated and validated 2 egg-free alternate meals, in the absence of any commercialized formulation: chocolate mug cake (MC) and scrambled tofu (ST). Six healthy volunteers underwent gastric-emptying scintigraphy after ingesting Tc-radiolabeled MC, ST, or SE. Gastric retention indexes did not change significantly between formulations (% of overtime variation to SE: MC 7.75% ± 7.1%, ST 7.17% ± 5.8%; P = 0.6618, not statistically significant), suggesting MC and ST as interesting egg-free alternatives.

  12. Delayed gastric emptying of both the liquid and solid components of a meal in chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, J S; Holdeman, K P; Dalrymple, G V; Harrison, K A; Quigley, E M

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with chronic liver disease and portal hypertension. We measured gastric emptying of both the liquid and solid components of a meal in 10 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease and portal hypertension, but free of ascites, and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In the patients with liver disease, relationships between emptying and liver function were examined. To measure gastric emptying, subjects consumed a test meal that consisted of scrambled eggs labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid and 4 oz of water labeled with 111In-diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (DTPA). Patients with liver disease and portal hypertension demonstrated delayed emptying of both the liquid (t1/2, min, mean +/- SE, patients vs. 69.4 +/- 19.4 vs. 31.4 +/- 1.8, p < 0.01) and solid (post-lag phase solid emptying: 141 +/- 32.9 vs. 69.8 +/- 4.6, p < 0.006) components of the meal. We could not identify any correlation between gastric emptying and tests of liver function. Gastric emptying is delayed in patients with liver disease and portal hypertension; this abnormal gastric motor function may contribute to the pathophysiology of foregut complaints in this patient population.

  13. Nationwide standardisation and evaluation of scintigraphic gastric emptying: reference values and comparisons between subgroups in a multicentre trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermansson, G. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Oestra Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Lyrenaes, E. [Department of Medicine, Blekinge Hospital, Karlskrona (Sweden); Beckman, K.-W. [Hospital Physics, Oerebro Hospital (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    By means of a standardised procedure, reference values for scintigraphic gastric emptying were established. The influence of gender, age, menstrual cycle, body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits was also evaluated. Eight centres recruited 20 healthy subjects each. The meal consisted of a technetium-99m labelled omelet (1300 kJ) and of 150 ml unlabelled soft drink. Geometric means of frontal and dorsal acquisitions were utilised in a linear fit model for determination of the linear emptying rate, and by using the intercepts of the regression line with the 90% and 50% levels, the lag phase and half-emptying time, respectively, were defined. All individuals showed an initial lag phase and subsequent linear emptying. Because of a longer lag phase and a slower linear emptying rate, premenopausal women had a slower gastric emptying than postmenopausal women and men of all ages. The gastric emptying rate increased with age in the women, mainly due to a shortened lag phase, while the emptying rate remained almost unchanged with age in the males. There were no significant differences in results between the centres. The menstrual cycle, BMI and smoking habits did not affect emptying. In conclusion, the fact that the results showed a slower gastric emptying rate in younger women compared with older women and men indicates that it is necessary to use separate reference values for fertile females. (orig.)

  14. [Effects of nonnutritive sucking on gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux in premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui-xia; Yue, Xiao-hong; Lu, Hui; Xue, Xin-dong

    2004-10-01

    Although nonnutritive sucking (NNS) during tube feeding has some benefits on the physiology and development of premature infants, the effect on gastrointestinal function remains controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of NNS on the gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in premature infants. Thirty eight healthy appropriate-for-gestational-age premature infants (birth weight ranged from 1050 g to 1790 g, gestational age ranged from 28 weeks to 35 weeks) accepting intermittent nasogastric feeding (INGF) were randomized into NNS group and N-NNS group according to INGF with and without NNS and fed with the same milk formula. Group NNS (n = 18) received oral stimulation by means of a pacifier immediately before feeding, during feeding and then after feeding for 5 min. Group N-NNS (n = 20) served as control and received INGF alone. The following data were collected and recorded, the fluid intake (including both intravenous and oral), milk intake, caloric intake, time of caloric intake reaching 418.4 kJ/(kg x d) by enteral feeding and relevant condition to feeding. Gastric emptying was measured when oral intake reaching above 8 ml/kg while concurrently measuring 24 hour esophageal pH. Real time ultrasonic images of the gastric antrum were obtained and the antral cross sectional area (ACSA) was measured and the half emptying time (50% DeltaACSA) was calculated. Using 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring for evaluation of GER, the five parameters of esophageal pH were recorded: number of reflux episodes during 24 hours, reflux index, number of episodes lasting > 5 min, the duration of longest episode and the total time of pH 0.05). Gastric emptying was measured on day 13.26, milk intake had no difference between the two groups and there was no difference in prefeed ACSA. The half gastric emptying time in NNS group was significantly shorter than that in N-NNS group [(58.33 +/- 22.94) min vs. (73.75 +/- 17.76) min, P 0.05). However, the

  15. Chronic lactose intake modifies the gastric emptying of monosaccharides but not of disaccharides in weanling rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.L. da-Costa-Pinto

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six weanling male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks one of two different chows: a normal rat chow containing 55.5% (w/w starch (control group, N = 48 or a rat chow in which starch was partially replaced by lactose, in such a way that the experimental group (N = 48 received 35.5% (w/w starch and 20% (w/w lactose. The gastric emptying of fluid was then studied by measuring the gastric retention of four test meals containing lactose (5% or 10%, w/v or glucose + galactose (5% or 10%, w/v. Homogenates of the small intestine were assayed for lactase activity. The gastric retention values were obtained 15 min after orogastric infusion of the liquid meals. The median values for gastric retention of the 5% lactose solutions were 37.7% for the control group and 37.0% for the experimental group (P>0.02. For the 10% lactose solution the median values were 51.2% and 47.9% (P>0.02 for the control and experimental groups, respectively. However, for the 2.5% glucose + 2.5% galactose meal the median gastric retention was lower (P0.05. These results suggest that the prolonged ingestion of lactose by young adult rats changes the gastric emptying of a solution containing 5% monosaccharides. This adaptation may reflect the desensitization of intestinal nutrient receptors, possibly by an osmotic effect of lactose present in the chow.

  16. Biologic gastric emptying time using Tc-99m TETA polystyrene resin in various clinical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.E.; Choy, Y.C.; Domstad, P.A.; Beihn, R.; Coupal, J.; Yonts, S.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-04-01

    In 82 subjects 82 gastric emptying studies using Tc-99m triethylene tetramine polystyrene resin were retrospectively evaluated. All six patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy (GE) had delayed biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) that responded well to metoclopramide (MP) injection. In 11 diabetics without GE, only two had prolonged BGET with good response to MP. All 11 patients with gastric outlet obstruction also had prolonged BGET, but no significant response to MP was found in 6 studies. Five of 7 patients with active gastric ulcer had delayed BGET. Three of ten patients with previous Billroth I or II operation had accelerated BGET, and 3 of 9 patients with previous vagotomy had delayed BGET with good response to MP. Markedly prolonged BGET with significant response to MP was also observed in 3 patients with disordered gastric motility. Delayed BGET was found in one patient with bile reflux gastritis and in 2 of 6 patients with reflux esophagitis. No prolongation of BGET was observed in 7 symptomatic patients whose radiographic and endoscopic examinations were negative. BGET studies with this agent appear to be reliable and very helpful in the management of patients with gastric symptoms and for obtaining an objective measurement of the response to therapy.

  17. Biologic gastric emptying time using Tc-99m TETA polystyrene resin in various clinical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Choy, Y.C.; Domstad, P.A.; Beihn, R.; Coupal, J.; Yonts, S.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    In 82 subjects 82 gastric emptying studies using Tc-99m triethylene tetramine polystyrene resin were retrospectively evaluated. All six patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy (GE) had delayed biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) that responded well to metoclopramide (MP) injection. In 11 diabetics without GE, only two had prolonged BGET with good response to MP. All 11 patients with gastric outlet obstruction also had prolonged BGET, but no significant response to MP was found in 6 studies. Five of 7 patients with active gastric ulcer had delayed BGET. Three of ten patients with previous Billroth I or II operation had accelerated BGET, and 3 of 9 patients with previous vagotomy had delayed BGET with good response to MP. Markedly prolonged BGET with significant response to MP was also observed in 3 patients with disordered gastric motility. Delayed BGET was found in one patient with bile reflux gastritis and in 2 of 6 patients with reflux esophagitis. No prolongation of BGET was observed in 7 symptomatic patients whose radiographic and endoscopic examinations were negative. BGET studies with this agent appear to be reliable and very helpful in the management of patients with gastric symptoms and for obtaining an objective measurement of the response to therapy. (orig.)

  18. Gastric emptying time (GET) with Tc-99m-labeled semisolid meal in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Akira; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Bunko, Hisashi; Tonami, Norihisa

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of gastric emptying in diabetic gastroenteropathy is of interest because of the gastric atony that may produce signs and symptoms of visceral neuropathy. The purpose of this study is to present the result of GET measurements in diabetic patients. The correlation between GET and complications, fasting blood sugar (FBS), duration of disease, age, sex, and HbAlc was evaluated. Included in this study were 21 diabetic patients. Fourteen patients had diabetic complications such as peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. Following an overnight fast, semisolid test meal mixed with 200 uCi of Tc-99m Sn-colloid was ingested by the patients. In nine normal volunteers, the GET range previously established by this method in our institution was from 47 to 78 minutes (mean 62.5 +- 7.7). In the patients with diabetic complication, particulary with triopathy, GET was significantly prolonged compared to those of normal subjects and diabetic patients without complication. On the contrary, four out of seven patients without complications, showed rapid emptying than normal subjects. This rapid emptying may reveal the early stage of pathophysiological change in diabetics. No correlation between GET and FBS, duration of disease, age, sex and HbAlc was seen. This test of radiolabeled semisolid meal was found to provide a convenient, safe and effective diagnostic tool to examine gastric emptying function in diabetic patients. (author)

  19. Application of dual nuclide standardized meal in gastric emptying dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wuhe; Zheng Pude; Zeng Jinzhang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the application of dual nuclide standardized meal in gastric emptying imaging and its clinical value. Methods: A standardized meal labelled with dual nuclide [ 131 I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the solid phase], 99m Tc-DTPA as the liquid phase) was employed to measure gastric emptying (GE) by dynamic imaging in 35 patients with chronic gastritis and 10 healthy controls. A second solid phase, 99m Tc-Sc (Sulphur colloid), was used as an agent control. Both solid meals underwent delabelling test, being incubated in human gastric juice (pH 2.0) for more than 2 hours. Only two of the participants had another test using dual nuclide meal with 99m Tc-Sc instead of 131 I-BSA. Results: The delabelling rates of 131 I and 99m Tc from the solid meal in the in vitro test were 3.00% and 5.16%, respectively. The half-solid-emptying time (HSET) and half-liquid-emptying-time (HLET) for the control group were 58.2 +- 17.7 min and 23.5 +- 9.4 min; the HSET and HLET for the patient group were 92.5 +- 29.6 min and 37.2 +- 16.6 min. The differences between the results of two groups, for both solid and liquid phase, were significant (t = 3.474, 2.485; P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study shows that putting both solid and liquid phase in one meal is a simpler, more convenient and economical way to do gastric emptying dynamic imaging, and is of good repeatability

  20. Gastric emptying effects of dietary fiber during 8 hours at two simulated cabin altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinninghofen, Heidemarie; Musial, Frauke; Kowalski, Axel; Enck, Paul

    2006-02-01

    In a questionnaire survey, long-distance flying staff of a charter airline reported significantly more dyspeptic symptoms than did short-haul crewmember and ground personnel (belching: 57% vs. 37%, bloating: 51% vs. 36%). To elucidate the reason for increased frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during long-distance flights, we investigated the effects of altitude and diet on gastric emptying, cardiovascular function, and bodily complaints. In a 2 x 2 repeated measurement design we simulated an 8-h flight in a hypobaric chamber in 16 healthy men subjected to 2 meal conditions (high fiber vs. low fiber) on separate days, and assigned to either a flight altitude of 2500 m (8200 ft) or 1000 m (3280 ft). The subjects were blinded toward altitude. Heart rate and gastrointestinal symptoms were taken every hour, and gastric emptying was assessed by 13C-octanoic acid breath-test. In a separate experiment, we examined the effect of the two test meals (2 g vs. 20 g of fiber) in 30 healthy men under conventional laboratory conditions and found no significant differences. At an altitude of 2500 m, heart rate was significantly increased independent of the dietary condition. Gastric emptying (T1/2) was significantly delayed at 2500 m (8200 ft) when a high-fiber meal was given (146.3 +/- 58.4 min low fiber vs. 193.9 +/- 54.3 min high fiber). The symptom score for gastric distension (mean: 1.33 +/- 0.3 vs. mean: 1.07 +/- 0.15) and bloating (mean: 1.82 +/- 0.47 vs. mean: 1.34 +/- 0.35) were also significantly increased at 2500 m for the high-fiber meal compared with the low-fiber meal. Flight altitude is a physiological load. In combination with a high-fiber diet, this induces significant delays in gastric emptying that may explain symptoms of cabin and cockpit crew and passengers on long-distance flights.

  1. Practical solid and liquid phase markers for studying gastric emptying in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomforde, G.M.; Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a method used to evaluate solid and liquid phase markers for radionuclide gastric emptying studies. The authors conducted in vitro and in vivo comparative experiments employing several radiolabeled markers. Among the solid phase markers tested, Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in vivo-labeled liver and I-131-fiber performed optimally. However, Tc-99M sulfur colloid in scrambled egg showed very acceptable performance and it is significantly easier to prepare. Among liquid phase markers, they found In-111-DTPA stabilized with 1% albumin to be a good agent and appropriate for dual isotope emptying studies

  2. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, Jose A L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    peptide hydrolysate (WHY) or casein hydrolysate (CAHY). All solutions were matched for volume (600 mL), nitrogen content (9.3 g/L), energy density (1069-1092 kJ/L), osmolality (288-306 mosmol/kg), pH (6.9-7.0) and temperature (37 degrees C). RESULTS: Solutions were emptied at similar rates, with mean half......BACKGROUND: The influence of protein fractionation on gastric emptying and rate of appearance of their constituent amino acids in peripheral blood remains unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the influence of the degree of protein fractionation on gastric emptying, gastric secretion, amino acid......-times of (mean +/- SEM) 21.4 +/- 1.3, 19.3 +/- 2.2, 18.0 +/- 2.5 and 19.4 +/- 2.8 min, for the WHY, CAHY, C and W, respectively. The rates of intestinal absorption of water and amino acids were similar with the exception of the casein protein solution, for which the speed of intestinal amino acid absorption...

  3. Peripheral administration of GLP-2 to humans has no effect on gastric emptying or satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P

    2003-01-01

    ) and plasma concentrations of GLP-2 were studied during infusion of saline or GLP-2 (0.75 and 2.25 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) for a total of 180 min. Concentrations of GLP-2 were elevated to a maximum of 50 and 110 pmol l(-1) for 0.75 and 2.25 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) infusion of GLP-2, respectively. There was no effect...... rating after the meal to 180 min was also unaffected by infusion of GLP-2. GLP-2 does not seem to mediate the ileal brake mechanism....

  4. Effects of the neurokinin-1 antagonist maropitant on canine gastric emptying assessed by radioscintigraphy and breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Silke; Fink, Tamara; Failing, Klaus; Borsch, Christian; Kunz, Clemens; Clemence, Richard; Savary-Bataille, Karine; Neiger, Reto

    2016-06-16

    Delayed gastric emptying is a well-recognised phenomenon in a number of canine disease conditions. Only a limited number of drugs have been reported to have some gastrokinetic effect in the dog. The aim of this study was to investigate prokinetic effects of maropitant. In a cross-over study 24 healthy adult Beagle dogs were randomised to receive either maropitant (2 mg/kg q24 h PO), cisapride (1 mg/kg q12 h PO) or placebo (vitamin-B12, 10 µg/dog q24 h PO) for 7 days with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Gastric emptying was measured simultaneously via 99mTechnetium radioscintigraphy and 13C-sodium acetate breath testing for 6 hours post-feeding. The decrease in radioactive counts in the stomach and the increase in 13CO2 concentration in exhaled breath (measured via gas chromatography) were plotted against time. The area under the curve was determined for each test and the time to 25%, 50% and 75% gastric emptying was calculated for each method. Friedman test was used to compare gastric emptying times. With both methods, no difference for gastric emptying times was observed for any treatment. Neither maropitant nor cisapride were shown to have an effect on gastric emptying in healthy beagles using radioscintigraphy or breath test when compared to placebo. Consequently, neither drug can be recommended as a gastric prokinetic in dogs.

  5. Technetium-99m triethylene tetramine polystyrene resin gastric emptying studies in patients with various upper gastrointestinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The gastric emptying study using Tc-99m triethylene tetramine polystyrene resin with or without metoclopramide hydrochloride was used in six patients with different disease entities: achalasia, gastric lymphoma, primary amyloidosis, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, duodenal diverticulum, and short bowel syndrome. All patients had abnormally prolonged gastric emptying times. The patient with gastric lymphoma and the patient with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome had virtually no effect from metoclopramide. The patient with a duodenal diverticulum and the patient with short bowel syndrome had partial and good response to metoclopramide, respectively. Endoscopic and/or autopsy examinations in patients with achalasia, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, primary amyloidosis, and duodenal diverticulum proved the patency of the pyloric canal. The patient with gastric lymphoma had a mass associated with marked pyloric narrowing and lymphoma cell infiltration of the gastric wall, to explain the abnormal gastric emptying. The gastric emptying study with or without metoclopramide may be used noninvasively to measure gastric function, to determine the nature of gastric outlet obstruction, and to evaluate therapy with metoclopramide

  6. The value of determining the level of serum gastrin and time of gastric emptying in children with simple anorexia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dexi; Ma Lixia; Lu Junzheng; Liu Ningjia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the level of serum gastrin and gastric emptying time for the liquid and solid foods in children with simple anorexia, so that it will benefit etiological diagnosis and pertinence therapy of the disease. Methods: 34 children with anorexia were recruited. 22 patients had simple anorexia (11 boys, 11 girls, median age 4.9 years). The other 12 patients had gastritis and/or gastric ulcer at the same time (3 boys, 9 girls, median age 7.3 years). 10 normal children (4 boys, 6 girls, median age 5.6 years) were compared with the patients. Serum gastrin was determined by radioimmunoassay. Gastric emptying times of the liquid and solid foods that were labelled with 113m In-DTPA were measured by nuclear multifunction instrument and nuclear imaging equipment. The gastric emptying curve for the liquid food was drawn for 15 minutes after drinking the tracer. Then, abdominal scintigraphy was performed at 1.5 hours after eating solid food containing the trace. Results: (1) Gastrin level: The level of serum gastrin was 133.7 ± 27 pg/ml in the control group, 209.7 ± 81 pg/ml in the simple anorexia group and 187.4 ± 44 pg/ml in the gastritis and/or gastric ulcer group. There was significant difference between simple anorexia group and control group (P 0.05). (2) Gastric emptying time: 8 of 14 patients with simple anorexia had prolonged gastric emptying of liquid food (57%), 6 patients (43%) had duodenogastric reflux. 5 of 12 patients (42%) with simple anorexia had delayed gastric emptying of solid food. Conclusion: Results show that simple anorexia in children may be the prophase symptom of functional indigestion. Therefore, to determine the level of serum gastrin and time of gastric emptying in children with simple anorexia may benefit etiological diagnosis and pertinence therapy. This may help to prevent chronic gastritis or gastric ulcer

  7. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders in such patients...... and correlated with GE parameters. Results were given in means +/- SD. Compared with CON, GE half time (T) was prolonged by 50% in CD (115 +/- 55 vs. 182 +/- 95 min, P = 0.037). Six CD, 2 DIV, and 2 UC patients had pathological T (>200 min). Postprandial plasma glucose was increased in all patients...

  8. Gastric Emptying of Elemental Liquid Diets Versus Semisolid Diets in Bedridden Gastrostomy-fed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Akira; Sakai, Ryosei; Tamaki, Michio; Kajiyama, Masashi; Tanaka, Naoki; Morikawa, Akio

    2018-03-21

    Aspiration is a common problem in bedridden gastrostomy-fed patients. We compared gastric emptying of an elemental liquid diet and a commercial semisolid diet in bedridden gastrostomy-fed patients. Study 1: from January 2013 to December 2016, consecutive bedridden patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) semisolid feeding hospitalized due to aspiration pneumonia were switched to elemental liquid diet feedings. The frequency of defecation, tube feed contents aspirated from the trachea, and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed. Study 2 was a randomized, crossover trial comparing C sodium acetate gastric emptying of a commercial elemental liquid or a commercial semisolid diet in bedridden PEG patients and controls. Study 1: 18 patients were enrolled. Elemental liquid diet was aspirated from the trachea in 1 (5.6%) (once in 24 observations); neither aspiration pneumonia nor diarrhea developed during elemental liquid diet feeding over 2 weeks observation. Study 2: 8 PEG patients and 8 healthy subjects were separately randomized to assess gastric emptying of the commercial elemental and semisolid diets. The elemental liquid diet was associated with a significant decrease of the 10%, 30%, or 50% emptying (excretion) time (Pdiet (Pdiets. Elemental liquid diets emptied more rapidly from the stomach than semisolid diets in bedridden PEG patients. They may prevent or reduce aspiration pneumonia compared with semisolid diets.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  9. Paracetamol as a Post Prandial Marker for Gastric Emptying, A Food-Drug Interaction on Absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bartholomé

    Full Text Available The use of paracetamol as tool to determine gastric emptying was evaluated in a cross over study. Twelve healthy volunteers were included and each of them consumed two low and two high caloric meals. Paracetamol was mixed with a liquid meal and administered by a nasogastric feeding tube. The post prandial paracetamol plasma concentration time curve in all participants and the paracetamol concentration in the stomach content in six participants were determined. It was found that after paracetamol has left the stomach, based on analysis of the stomach content, there was still a substantial rise in the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Moreover, the difference in gastric emptying between high and low caloric meals was missed using the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. The latter curves indicate that (i part of the paracetamol may leave the stomach much quicker than the meal and (ii part of the paracetamol may be relatively slowly absorbed in the duodenum. This can be explained by the partition of the homogenous paracetamol-meal mixture in the stomach in an aqueous phase and a solid bolus. The aqueous phase leaves the stomach quickly and the paracetamol in this phase is quickly absorbed in the duodenum, giving rise to the relatively steep increase of the paracetamol concentration in the plasma. The bolus leaves the stomach relatively slowly, and encapsulation by the bolus results in relatively slow uptake of paracetamol from the bolus in the duodenum. These findings implicate that paracetamol is not an accurate post prandial marker for gastric emptying. The paracetamol concentration time curve rather illustrates the food-drug interaction on absorption, which is not only governed by gastric emptying.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335503 Nederlands Trial Register NTR2780.

  10. Gastric emptying patterns of a liquid meal in newborn infants, measured by epigastric impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Aksel; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Thommesen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    .A periodic change of the impedance signal, the phasic 3 CPM signal, was observed after a meal in 24 of the infants. The median frequency was 3.03 CPM in 20 mature and 2.93 CPM in 4 preterminfants. In 9 infants a phasic 3 CPM signal was observed during fasting state. The median frequency was 2.9 CPM......  Epigastric impedance was used to measure patterns of the gastric emptying of a liquid non-caloric meal (5 ml water/kg) in newborn infants. The emptying patterns consisted of two components, theemptying signal - the DC component - and a phasic 3 cycle per minutes (CPM) signal - the AC component...... time (T50) was calculated. For mature infants it was found to be 6.9 mins. For a second meal given within an hour after the first meal the half emptying time was 5.5 mins (p

  11. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  12. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  13. Relationship between severity of clinical symptoms and delay in gastric emptying in chronic gastritis; studied with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Zuccaro, A.M.; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The gastric emptying time is studied with sup(99m)TC-DTPA-labeled mixed meal in 18 patients with chronic gastritis, all confirmed by endoscopic examination and biopsy. Emptying was slow in all such patients, but the intensity of symptomatology showed no correlation with gastric emptying half time. (orig.)

  14. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    an indirect measure of gastric emptying. Emulsified fats with added acetaminophen were fed by gavage to rats, and the plasma concentration of acetaminophen was followed for 3 h by repeated blood sampling from the carotid artery. The fats administered included rapeseed, corn, and fish oils, lard, and cocoa...... in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p

  15. Gastric emptying after artificial ulceration in rats: differences due to the site of the ulcer and the effects of prokinetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Orie; Shimizu, Kimiko

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the position of an acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer and the effects of prokinetic drugs on gastric emptying. Materials and Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Acetic acid ulcers were induced either in the region between the fundus and pylorus on the anterior wall of the stomach or in the glandular region on the greater curvature of the stomach to determine whether there were regional differences in the effect of the ulcers. Gastric emptying was evaluated with a breath test using [1- 13 C] acetic acid. In addition, the effects of the prokinetic drugs, metoclopramide and mosapride, on gastric emptying were also evaluated. Results Acetic acid induced ulcers in the region between the fundus and pylorus on the anterior wall of the stomach significantly delayed gastric emptying as compared with control rats, but not the acetic acid induced ulcers in the glandular region on the greater curvature of the stomach. Metoclopramide and mosapride did not improve the delayed gastric emptying even at doses that enhanced gastric emptying in normal rats. Conclusion These findings show that gastric emptying is influenced by the position of the ulcer and the region between the fundus and pylorus on the anterior wall plays an important role in gastric emptying. Moreover, it was found that metoclopramide and mosapride do not improve the delayed gastric emptying caused by acetic acid ulcers induced on the anterior wall in the region between the fundus and pylorus.

  16. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver pate as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, P.E.; Moore, J.G.; Datz, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. The stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled pureed meat (liver pate) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice have been compared. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver pate were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. In vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver pate. The pate labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its prepartion was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver pate. Labeled liver pate is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying

  17. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Overduin

    2015-04-01

    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  18. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on satiety and food likes: the role of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirlby, Richard C; Bahiraei, Frohar; Randall, Jim; Drewnoski, Adam

    2006-02-01

    Among factors influencing the outcome of bariatric surgery may be genetics and familial risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the etiology of obesity and its impact on hunger, satiety, and food likes in obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This study was based on 76 patients undergoing RYGB procedures performed by a single surgeon. A previously described 100-point obesity risk index (ORI) was used to assess familial obesity risk. Hunger and satiety were assessed using a standardized Visual Analog Scale "Snickers" test, and food preferences for regular vs. low-fat potato chips were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients were stratified preoperatively into high ORI (n = 34) and low ORI (n = 42) groups. Before operation, high-ORI patients preferred high-fat (regular) potato chips to low-fat (baked) potato chips, whereas the low-ORI patients liked both food types equivalently (P food and a significantly prolonged drop in hunger ratings after a fast and after a standard 282 kcal meal. The success of bariatric surgery may be influenced by the etiology of obesity.

  19. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1996-01-01

    a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  20. Determination of solid- and liquid-phase gastric emptying half times in cats by use of nuclear scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, M; Papasouliotis, K; Barr, F J; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Caney, S M

    1999-10-01

    To use nuclear scintigraphy to establish a range of gastric emptying half times (t1/2) following a liquid or solid meal in nonsedated cats. 12 clinically normal 3-year-old domestic shorthair cats. A test meal of 75 g of scrambled eggs labeled with technetium Tc 99m tin colloid was fed to 10 of the cats, and solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were determined by use of nuclear scintigraphy. In a separate experiment, 8 of these cats plus an additional 2 cats were fed 18 ml (n = 5) or 36 ml (n = 5) of a nutrient liquid meal labeled with technetium Tc 99m pentetate. Liquid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 then were determined by use of scintigraphy. Solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were between 210 and 769 minutes (median, 330 minutes). Median liquid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 after ingestion of 18 or 36 ml of the test meal were 67 minutes (range, 60 to 96 minutes) and 117 minutes (range, 101 to 170 minutes), respectively. The median t1/2 determined for cats receiving 18 ml of the radiolabeled liquid was significantly less than that determined for cats receiving 36 ml of the test meal. The protocol was tolerated by nonsedated cats. Solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were prolonged, compared with liquid-phase t1/2, and a major factor governing the emptying rate of liquids was the volume consumed. Nuclear scintigraphy may prove useful in assessing gastric motility disorders in cats.

  1. Correlation between solid gastric emptying and endoscopy after silastic ring vertical gastroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, P.C.; Brunetto, S.Q.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Sansana, C.R.; Santos, A.O.; Lima, M.C.L.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Pareja, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Bariatric surgeries have been used in the treatment of obese patients. Silastic ring vertical gastroplasty (SRVG) consists of creating a gastric pouch which will lead to changes in the mechanism of digestion and to weight loss Aim: To determine the solid gastric emptying T1/2 in patients who underwent SRVG, and to correlate these findings with endoscopy, body mass index (BMI) and percent loss of excess body weight (PLEBW). Materials and Methods: Thirty six obese patients (30 women and 6 men, mean age 40.3 years) were submitted to SRVG. Endoscopy was performed 6 to 12 months after SRVG to classify the ring introduced into the neo stomach as tight, medium and large. Twelve to 18 months after SRVG the patients were submitted to scintigraphy and evaluation of BMI and PLEBW. Gastric emptying was performed with a solid meal which consisted of a cooked egg labeled with 99m Tc-microcolloid. Patients were placed in the upright position and acquisition was begun after ingestion of the radioactive meal. The gastric emptying T1/2 was calculated. Results: The T1/2 was 53.44 ± 40.26 minutes for patients with a tight ring (47.2% of the patient population); 68.03 ± 43.06 minutes for patients with a medium ring (22.2% of the patient population); and 23.06 ± 25.15 minutes for patients with a large ring (30.6% of the patient population). There was a significant correlation between T1/2 and endoscopic findings (p = 0.0482; ANOVA). Within 18 months after SRVG, patients showed BMI = 32.48 ± 7.51 and PLEBW = 77.41 ± 21.22 %. Statistical analyses showed that there was a tendency towards a direct correlation between T1/2 and PLEBW (r = 0.46; p 0.0045) and a tendency towards an inverse correlation with the BMI (r -0.48; p=0.0028). Conclusions: Despite the significant correlation between T1/2 and the endoscopic, BMI and PLEBW findings, this method was unable to differentiate the ring sizes, probably because endoscopy was performed at least 6 months prior to the gastric emptying study

  2. Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willms, B; Werner, J; Holst, J J

    1996-01-01

    yr; body mass index, 30.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 10.5 +/- 1.2%) were studied in the fasting state (plasma glucose, 11.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/L). A liquid meal of 400 mL containing 8% amino acids and 50 g sucrose (327 Kcal) was administered at time zero by a nasogastric tube. Gastric volume......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhibition of gastric emptying of meals plays a role in the mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering action of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide [GLP-1-(7-36) amide] in type 2 diabetes. Eight poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (age, 58 +/- 6...... to normal fasting values (5.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) within 3-4 h, whereas insulin was stimulated in most, but not all, patients, and glucagon remained at the basal level or was slightly suppressed. In conclusion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide inhibits gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients. Together...

  3. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation can improve gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Eiji; Arai, Makoto; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Aoyagi, Kyoko; Yamanaka, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Nagano, Osamu; Shiina, Akihiro; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Imazeki, Fumio; Saeki, Naokatsu; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2012-05-01

    It is established that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves motor function in advanced Parkinson's disease, but its effects on autonomic function remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gastric emptying. A total of 16 patients with Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation were enrolled. Gastric emptying was expressed as the peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) in the (13)C-acetate breath test and was assessed in patients with and without administration of 100-150 mg levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor before surgery, and with and without subthalamic deep brain stimulation at 3 months post-surgery. The pattern of (13)CO(2) excretion curve was analysed. To evaluate potential factors related to the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gastric emptying, we also examined the association between gastric emptying, clinical characteristics, the equivalent dose of levodopa and serum ghrelin levels. The peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) values for gastric emptying in patients without and with levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor treatment were 45.6 ± 22.7 min and 42.5 ± 13.6 min, respectively (P = not significant), thus demonstrating levodopa resistance. The peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) values without and with subthalamic deep brain stimulation after surgery were 44.0 ± 17.5 min and 30.0 ± 12.5 min (P deep brain stimulation was effective. Simultaneously, the pattern of the (13)CO(2) excretion curve was also significantly improved relative to surgery with no stimulation (P = 0.002), although the difference with and without levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor was not significant. The difference in peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) values without levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor before surgery and without levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor and subthalamic deep

  4. The effect of gluten on intestinal fermentation, gastric and gallbladder emptying in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Michele; Carnevale Maffè, Gabriella; Bergonzi, Manuela; Mengoli, Caterina; Formagnana, Pietro; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between gluten ingestion and gastrointestinal tract function is a matter of debate. We analysed the effect of gluten on gastric and gallbladder emptying and intestinal fermentation in healthy volunteers. Ultrasound measurement of gastric and gallbladder emptying after both gluten-containing and gluten-free meals was performed in 18 volunteers (8 women, age 25.0±2.5 years; BMI 22±1.9). Breath hydrogen excretion after a gluten-containing meal, a gluten-free meal and a gluten-free meal with added gluten powder was measured in 16 volunteers (10 women, age 25.2±2.7 years; BMI 22±1.8). The severity of symptoms was monitored. Gluten presence in the meals was not recognised. Gastric emptying time was 81.6±13.8min after gluten-containing and 73.9±21.6min after gluten-free meals (p=0.11). Percentage ejection fraction after gluten-containing meals was 60±9% and 60.6±6% after gluten-free meals (p=0.68). Peak and cumulative hydrogen excretion were significantly higher after gluten-containing than after gluten-free meals (peak: 12.5±7.3 vs 6.5±5.1 parts-per-million, p<0.01; and cumulative: 2319±1720 vs 989±680 parts-per-million/minute, respectively; p<0.01). Adding gluten powder to the gluten-free meal did not modify fermentation. Symptoms were mild and not different after the meals. In healthy volunteers, gluten may induce gastrointestinal alterations. Further studies are needed to clarify which patients could benefit from dietary modification. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  6. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  7. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper

  8. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs(1-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchart-Thevret, Caroline; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy M; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Lazar, David; Burrin, Douglas G

    2013-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs received partial enteral nutrition (25%) as milk-based formula supplemented with MSG at 0, 1.7, 3.0, and 4.3 times the basal protein-bound glutamate intake (468 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) from d 4 to 8 of life (n = 5-8). Whole-body respiratory calorimetry and (13)C-octanoic acid breath tests were performed on d 4, 6, and 8. Body weight gain, stomach and intestinal weights, and arterial plasma glutamate and glutamine concentrations were not different among the MSG groups. Arterial plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher at birth than after 8 d of partial enteral nutrition. Also at d 8, the significant portal-arterial concentration difference in plasma glutamate was substantial (∼500 μmol/L) among all treatment groups, suggesting that there was substantial net intestinal glutamate absorption in preterm pigs. MSG supplementation dose-dependently increased gastric emptying time and decreased breath (13)CO2 enrichments, (13)CO2 production, percentage of (13)CO2 recovery/h, and cumulative percentage recovery of (13)C-octanoic acid. Circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration was significantly increased by MSG but was not associated with an increase in intestinal mucosal growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results suggest that adding MSG to partial enteral nutrition slows the gastric emptying rate, which may be associated with an inhibitory effect of increased circulating GLP-2.

  9. Supplementing Monosodium Glutamate to Partial Enteral Nutrition Slows Gastric Emptying in Preterm Pigs123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchart-Thevret, Caroline; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy M.; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Lazar, David; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs received partial enteral nutrition (25%) as milk-based formula supplemented with MSG at 0, 1.7, 3.0, and 4.3 times the basal protein-bound glutamate intake (468 mg·kg−1·d−1) from d 4 to 8 of life (n = 5–8). Whole-body respiratory calorimetry and 13C-octanoic acid breath tests were performed on d 4, 6, and 8. Body weight gain, stomach and intestinal weights, and arterial plasma glutamate and glutamine concentrations were not different among the MSG groups. Arterial plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher at birth than after 8 d of partial enteral nutrition. Also at d 8, the significant portal-arterial concentration difference in plasma glutamate was substantial (∼500 μmol/L) among all treatment groups, suggesting that there was substantial net intestinal glutamate absorption in preterm pigs. MSG supplementation dose-dependently increased gastric emptying time and decreased breath 13CO2 enrichments, 13CO2 production, percentage of 13CO2 recovery/h, and cumulative percentage recovery of 13C-octanoic acid. Circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration was significantly increased by MSG but was not associated with an increase in intestinal mucosal growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results suggest that adding MSG to partial enteral nutrition slows the gastric emptying rate, which may be associated with an inhibitory effect of increased circulating GLP-2. PMID:23446960

  10. Short-term dietary supplementation with fructose accelerates gastric emptying of a fructose but not a glucose solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Adora M W; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H

    2014-01-01

    Short-term dietary glucose supplementation has been shown to accelerate the gastric emptying rate of both glucose and fructose solutions. The aim of this study was to examine gastric emptying rate responses to monosaccharide ingestion following short-term dietary fructose supplementation. The gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution containing 36 g of fructose and an equicaloric glucose solution containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate were measured in 10 healthy non-smoking men with and without prior fructose supplementation (water control) using a randomized crossover design. Gastric emptying rate was assessed for a period of 1 h using the [(13)C]breath test with sample collections at baseline and 10-min intervals following drink ingestion. Additionally, appetite ratings of hunger, fullness, and prospective food consumption were recorded at baseline and every 10 min using visual analog scales. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in significantly accelerated half-emptying time of a fructose solution (mean = 48, SD = 6 versus 58, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.037), whereas the emptying of a glucose solution remained unchanged (mean = 85, SD = 31 versus 78, SD = 27 min control; P = 0.273). Time of maximal emptying rate of fructose was also significantly accelerated following increased dietary fructose intake (mean = 33, SD = 6 versus 38, SD = 9 min control; P = 0.042), while it remained unchanged for glucose (mean = 45, SD = 14 versus 44, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.757). No effects of supplementation were observed for appetite measures. Three d of supplementation with 120 g/d of fructose resulted in an acceleration of gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Erythromycin for Gastric Emptying in Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia for Emergency Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnetzki, Christoph; Elia, Nadia; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Giostra, Emiliano; Spahr, Laurent; Waeber, Jean-Luc; Pavlovic, Gordana; Lysakowski, Christopher; Tramèr, Martin R

    2015-08-01

    Patients undergoing emergency procedures under general anesthesia have impaired gastric emptying and are at high risk for aspiration of gastric contents. Erythromycin has strong gastric prokinetic properties. To evaluate the efficacy of erythromycin lactobionate in gastric emptying in patients undergoing emergency surgery. The Erythro-Emerge trial was a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients undergoing emergency surgery under general anesthesia at Geneva University Hospitals. We included 132 patients from March 25, 2009, through April 10, 2013, and all patients completed the study. Randomization was stratified for trauma and nontrauma procedures. The randomization code was opened on April 23, 2013, and analyses were performed through July 26, 2013. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis. Patients were randomized to intravenous erythromycin lactobionate, 3 mg/kg, or placebo 15 minutes before tracheal intubation. Patients were followed up for 24 hours. The primary outcome was a clear stomach, defined as less than 40 mL of liquids and no solids and identified through endoscopy immediately after intubation. The secondary outcome was the pH level of residual gastric content. A clear stomach was diagnosed in 42 of 66 patients (64%) receiving placebo compared with 53 of 66 patients (80%) receiving erythromycin (risk ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.01-1.57]). In the population undergoing surgery for nontrauma, the association between receipt of erythromycin and having a clear stomach (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]) was statistically significant (13.4 [1.49-120]; P = .02); in the population undergoing surgery for trauma, it was not (1.81 [0.64-5.16]; P = .26). Median (interquartile range) pH of the residual gastric liquid was 2 (1-4) in 36 patients receiving placebo and 6 (3-7) in 16 receiving erythromycin (P = .002). Patients receiving erythromycin had nausea (20 [30%] vs 4 [6%]) and stomach cramps (15 [23%] vs 2 [3

  12. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABA{sub B} receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABA{sub B} receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABA{sub B} receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  13. Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troncon L.E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a fraction (T1 of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals were sacrificed and the radioactivity remaining in the stomach was determined. Intestinal transit was evaluated by instillation of a technetium-labeled saline bolus (1.0 ml through a cannula previously implanted in the duodenum. After 60 min, the progression of the marker throughout 7 consecutive gut segments was estimated by the geometric center method. Gastric retention of the liquid test meal in rats injected with scorpion toxin (median: 88%; range: 52-95% was significantly higher (P<0.02 than in controls (54%; 21-76%, an effect which was not modified by gastric secretion blockade with ranitidine. The progression of the isotope marker throughout the small intestine was significantly slower (P<0.05 in rats treated with toxin (1.2; 1.0-2.5 than in control animals (2.3; 1.0-3.2. Inhibition of both gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats injected with scorpion toxin suggests an increased resistance to aboral flow, which might be caused by abnormal neurotransmitter release or by the local effects of venom on smooth muscle cells.

  14. Role of delayed gastric emptying in the pathogenesis of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1982-01-01

    and measurements of gastric acid secretions after cysteamine. Vagotomy augmented the inhibitory effect of cysteamine on gastric motility. The relaxation was even more pronounced, and contrast medium was not discharged from the stomach within 24 h. In these rats cysteamine induced ulcerations in the stomach.......Cysteamine is a potent duodenal ulcerogen in rats. It has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric empyting, whose role in ulcer formation is unknown. In the present study the effect of cysteamine on gastric motility and emptying rate in rats was studied by direct fluoroscopic observation. The delayed...... gastric empyting was due to a pronounced relaxation of the stomach and a complete blocking of gastric peristalsis. These effects have their maximum within the first 4 h after administration of cysteamine. Thereafter peristalsis and gastric empyting slowly return. In controls contrast medium administered...

  15. Role of peptide YY(3–36) in the satiety produced by gastric delivery of macronutrients in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Alvin; Chelikani, Prasanth K.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide YY(3–36) [PYY(3–36)] is postulated to act as a hormonal signal from gut to brain to inhibit food intake. PYY(3–36) potently reduces food intake when administered systemically or into the brain. If action of endogenous PYY(3–36) is necessary for normal satiation to occur, then pharmacological blockade of its receptors should increase food intake. Here, we determined the effects of iv infusion of Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptor antagonists (BIBP 3226, BIIE 0246, CGP 71683) during the first 3 h of the dark period on food intake in non-food-deprived rats. Our results showed that 1) Y2 receptor blockade reversed the anorexic response to iv infusion of PYY(3–36) but did not increase food intake when administered alone; 2) Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists neither attenuated PYY(3–36)-induced anorexia nor altered food intake when given alone; and 3) Y2 receptor blockade attenuated anorexic responses to gastric infusions of casein hydrolysate and long-chain triglycerides, but not maltodextrin. Previous work showed that Y2 antagonist BIIE 0246 does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Together, these results support the hypothesis that gut PYY(3–36) action at Y2 receptors peripheral to the blood brain barrier plays an essential role in mediating satiety responses to gastric delivery of protein and long-chain triglycerides, but not polysaccharide. PMID:23482449

  16. Distal gastrectomy in pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with accelerated gastric emptying, enhanced postprandial release of GLP-1, and improved insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmuth, Stefan; Wewalka, Marlene; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    resistance (HOMA-IR) and oral glucose insulin sensitivity were calculated from glucose and insulin concentrations. RESULTS: Patients with Whipple procedure as compared to PPPD had accelerated gastric emptying (p = 0.01) which correlated with early (0-30 min) integrated GLP-1 (AUC30; r (2) = 0.61; p = 0......OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between gastric emptying, postprandial GLP-1 and insulin sensitivity after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). BACKGROUND: Abnormal glucose regulation is highly prevalent in patients with pancreatic neoplasm and resolves in some after PD......, the cause of which is unclear. The procedure is carried out with pylorus preservation (PPPD) or with distal gastrectomy (Whipple procedure). Accelerated gastric emptying and ensuing enhanced release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) conceivably play a role in glucose metabolism after PD. It was the purpose...

  17. Evaluation of gastric emptying by means of scintigraphy using different test meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, V.; Quintao, M.F.; Marino, V.S.P.; Coelho, L.G.V.; Mota, Luciene G.; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Universidade Federal de Minas Ferais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Gastroparesis is a disorder characterized by symptoms and evidence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Scintigraphy has been considered a 'gold standard' for measuring Gastric Emptying Time (GET) and retention percentage of radio-labeled food, after four hours of ingestion. To obtain the images, it is recommended, worldwide, the use of the Tougas diet (227 kcal) as a standard meal. The objective of this study was to compare the GET and the percentage of retention in the time of 4h, obtained by scintigraphy using the Tougas diet and the proposed diet (319 kcal). We selected 30 patients, both genders, aged between 23 and 76 years, presenting clinical symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. These parameters were measured for the same patient, but on different days. The results showed that the fat content of the diet used to obtain EG scintigraphy of solid foods did not influence retention percentage results after 4 hours of ingestion of the radiolabeled food. However, the time of two hours is an important parameter to be observed in the result of this examination. In addition, the data suggest that the proposed diet may be more efficient for the classification of the severity of EG delay in patients with clinical signs suggestive of gastroparesis. (author)

  18. Evaluation of gastric emptying by means of scintigraphy using different test meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, V.; Quintao, M.F.; Marino, V.S.P.; Coelho, L.G.V.; Mota, Luciene G.; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata

    2017-01-01

    Gastroparesis is a disorder characterized by symptoms and evidence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Scintigraphy has been considered a 'gold standard' for measuring Gastric Emptying Time (GET) and retention percentage of radio-labeled food, after four hours of ingestion. To obtain the images, it is recommended, worldwide, the use of the Tougas diet (227 kcal) as a standard meal. The objective of this study was to compare the GET and the percentage of retention in the time of 4h, obtained by scintigraphy using the Tougas diet and the proposed diet (319 kcal). We selected 30 patients, both genders, aged between 23 and 76 years, presenting clinical symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. These parameters were measured for the same patient, but on different days. The results showed that the fat content of the diet used to obtain EG scintigraphy of solid foods did not influence retention percentage results after 4 hours of ingestion of the radiolabeled food. However, the time of two hours is an important parameter to be observed in the result of this examination. In addition, the data suggest that the proposed diet may be more efficient for the classification of the severity of EG delay in patients with clinical signs suggestive of gastroparesis. (author)

  19. Dose-dependent effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying in rats and the related mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Guang Cao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying in rats and the related mechanism of action. Sixty Wistar rats were randomized into control and test groups, which respectively received intraperitoneal injection of normal saline and ghrelin at different doses (0.5 nmol/kg, 1.0 nmol/kg, 1.5 nmol/kg, 2.0 nmol/kg, and 2.5 nmol/kg. After 45 minutes, all rats were gavaged with semisolid paste. The gastric emptying rate was determined 30 minutes later, and the plasma cholecystokinin level was tested by radioimmunoassay. The mean gastric emptying rate in the test groups was significantly higher than in the control group (38.24 ± 7.15% and 27.18 ± 2.37%, respectively, p < 0.05. Medium and high doses of ghrelin (1.0 nmol/kg, 1.5 nmol/kg, 2.0 nmol/kg, and 2.5 nmol/kg, but not low dose (0.5 nmol/kg, accelerated the gastric emptying. In addition, the plasma cholecystokinin level in the test groups was significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.01. The gastric emptying rate was positively correlated with the plasma cholecystokinin level (p < 0.01. Intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin at medium and high doses significantly accelerated gastric emptying in rats.

  20. Do the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and food intake involve release of amylin in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Bache, Michael; Knop, Filip K

    2010-01-01

    Amylin, cosecreted with insulin, has like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) been reported to inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, and reduce appetite and food intake. We investigated whether the effects of GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and food intake are mediated directly or ...

  1. Natural sweetener agave inhibits gastric emptying in rats by a cholecystokinin-2- and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihter Gürler, E; Özbeyli, Dilek; Buzcu, Hülya; Bayraktar, Sezin; Carus, İrem; Dağ, Beyza; Geriş, Yasemin; Jeral, Seda; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2017-02-22

    Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12.5%, 15% or 50% concentrations were measured and compared with that of saline. GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin fragment 9-39 (30 μg kg -1 ), CCK-1 receptor antagonist devazepide (1 mg kg -1 ) or gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YM022 (1 mg kg -1 ) was injected subcutaneously 1 min before the emptying of glucose, fructose or agave at their 50% concentrations. When compared with saline emptying, gastric emptying of glucose was significantly delayed at its 25% and 50% concentrations, but the emptying of 12.5% glucose was not different from that of saline. Agave emptying, which was delayed with respect to saline emptying, was not altered by CCK-1 receptor blockade; but agave emptied from the stomach as rapidly as saline following the blockade of either CCK-2 or GLP-1 receptors. The findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of agave on gastric emptying is mediated by both CCK-2 and GLP-1 receptors, suggesting that natural sweeteners including agave may have satiating effects through the inhibition of gastric motility via enteroendocrine mechanisms.

  2. Comparison of technetium-99m sulfur colloid and technetium-99m albumin colloid labeled solid meals for gastric emptying studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, R; Douesnard, J M; Beauchamp, G; Guimond, J

    1987-08-01

    A Tc-99m albumin colloid (Tc-AC) kit has been introduced as an alternative to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) for liver-spleen imaging. Since there is no need for boiling, the use of Tc-AC reduces preparation time and manipulation. Tc-SC is one of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for the labeling of solid-phase markers in gastric emptying studies. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the labeling efficiency and stability in hydrochloric acid and in human gastric juice of intracellularly labeled chicken liver and scrambled eggs labeled with Tc-SC and Tc-AC. Gastric emptying studies also were performed on 20 healthy volunteers with both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled egg sandwiches. There was no significant difference between Tc-SC and Tc-AC in the labeling efficiency of chicken liver (98% +/- 1% for Tc-SC, 96% +/- 2% for Tc-AC) and scrambled eggs (92% +/- 2% for Tc-SC, 91% +/- 3% for Tc-AC). However, both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled eggs showed a lower stability than chicken liver, particularly in human gastric juice. Gastric emptying curves from both meals in 20 normal subjects were also similar, with a mean half-emptying time of 85 +/- 13 minutes and 87 +/- 16 minutes for the meals containing Tc-SC and Tc-AC respectively. Tc-AC is a reliable alternative to Tc-SC as a radiotracer for solid-phase gastric emptying studies.

  3. Influence of the menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids in female volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mones, J. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Carrio, I. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Calabuig, R. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Estorch, M. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Sainz, S. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Berna, L. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Vilardell, F. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain))

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the normal menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids. Gastric emptying was studied in 15 premenopausal and ten postmenopausal women with an isotopic technique after the ingestion of a radiolabelled test meal. Premenopausal women were studied twice: Within 1 week prior to menses and again 1 week after onset of menses. Postmenopausal women were studied only once. The emptying curves of the solid component of the meal fitted a linear model. The half-emptying time was 78[+-]5 min during the follicular phase, 75[+-]7 min during the luteal phase and 76[+-]6 min in postmenopausal women (differences not statistically significant). The mean percentages of the meal retained in the stomach at different time intervals were also similar in the three groups. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not influence the gastric emptying rate of solids, which remains unchanged in relation to the follicular phase or after menopause. (orig.)

  4. Influence of the menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids in female volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mones, J.; Carrio, I.; Calabuig, R.; Estorch, M.; Sainz, S.; Berna, L.; Vilardell, F.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the normal menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids. Gastric emptying was studied in 15 premenopausal and ten postmenopausal women with an isotopic technique after the ingestion of a radiolabelled test meal. Premenopausal women were studied twice: Within 1 week prior to menses and again 1 week after onset of menses. Postmenopausal women were studied only once. The emptying curves of the solid component of the meal fitted a linear model. The half-emptying time was 78±5 min during the follicular phase, 75±7 min during the luteal phase and 76±6 min in postmenopausal women (differences not statistically significant). The mean percentages of the meal retained in the stomach at different time intervals were also similar in the three groups. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not influence the gastric emptying rate of solids, which remains unchanged in relation to the follicular phase or after menopause. (orig.)

  5. [Association of gastric emptying with ghrelin, obestatin and receptor (GHSR, GPR-39) in hypothalamus of diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-yan; Wang, Li-hua; Wei, Liang-zhou; Wu, Jun; Wei, Ning; Kong, Xin-juan; Tian, Zi-bin

    2010-04-27

    To investigate the association of gastric emptying with ghrelin, obestatin and GHSR, GPR-39 in hypothalamus of diabetic rats. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a normal control group (NC, n = 20), a diabetes mellitus group (DM, n = 20) induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and an insulin treated group (INS, n = 20). After two and six weeks of STZ injection, gastric emptying was measured by intragastric administration of phenol red, ghrelin and obestatin in hypothalamus measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and GHSR and GPR-39 by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). After two weeks of STZ injection, gastric emptying (%) (74 +/- 8, 40 +/- 5), ghrelin level(ng/g) (52 +/- 9, 51 +/- 7) and ratio of ghrelin/obestatin (3.8 +/- 1.0, 2.8 +/- 1.0) increased significantly in DM and INS groups compared to those in NC group [32% +/- 7%, (39 +/- 11) ng/g, 2.1 +/- 0.8, all P GPR-39 in hypothalamus. The rapid gastric emptying may be due to the rising levels of ghrelin and GHSR in hypothalamus during early hyperglycemia. And the duration of hyperglycemia is affected by the rising ratio of ghrelin/obestatin.

  6. Effect of body position changes on postprandial gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in the healthy premature neonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Michiel P.; Benninga, Marc A.; Dent, John; Lontis, Ros; Goodchild, Louise; McCall, Lisa M.; Haslam, Ross; Davidson, Geoffrey P.; Omari, Taher

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify a body-positioning regimen that promotes gastric emptying (GE) and reduces gastroesophageal reflux (GER) by changing body position 1 hour after feeding. Study design Ten healthy preterm infants (7 male; mean postmenstrual age, 36 weeks [range, 33 to 38 weeks]) were monitored

  7. Pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: influence of a Billroth I versus a Billroth II type of reconstruction on gastric emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goei, T. H.; van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.; Slooff, M. J.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gouma, D. J.; Eddes, E. H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a frequent problem after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Important risk factors are the presence of intra-abdominal complications. Searching for other causes, this study evaluates the influence of the type of reconstruction after a

  8. Pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy : Influence of a Billroth I versus a Billroth II type of reconstruction on gastric emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goei, TH; Henegouwen, MIV; Slooff, MJH; van Gulik, TM; Gouma, DJ; Eddes, EH

    2001-01-01

    Background/Aim: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a frequent problem after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Important risk factors are the presence of intra-abdominal complications. Searching for other causes, this study evaluates the influence of the type of reconstruction after a

  9. Differential incretin effects of GIP and GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and insulin-glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edholm, T; Degerblad, M; Grybäck, P

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are major incretins with important effects on glucoregulatory functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of GIP and GLP-1 on gastric emptying and appetite after a mixed meal, and effects on ins...

  10. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs.

  11. Simultaneous estimation of liquid and solid gastric emptying using radiolabelled egg and water in supine normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris, M G; Yeh, S D; Gralla, R J; Young, C W

    1986-01-01

    To develop an additional method for the measurement of gastric emptying in supine subjects, 10 normal subjects were given a test meal containing 99Tc-labelled scrambled egg as the "solid" phase marker and 111In in tapwater as the marker for the "liquid" phase. The mean time for emptying 50% of the "solid" phase (t1/2) was 85 min and 29 min for the "liquid" phase. Three individuals were restudied with a mean difference between the two determinations of 10.8% for the "solid" phase and 6.5% for the "liquid" phase. Twenty-six additional studies attempted have been successfully completed in symptomatic patients with advanced cancer. This method provides a simple and reproducible procedure for the determination of gastric emptying that yields results similar to those reported for other test meals and can be used in debilitated patients.

  12. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Wang Shyhjen (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Chen Granhum (Div. of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Yeh Shinhwa (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1994-03-01

    Forty-five patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis or ulcer disease were included in this study. Radionuclide-labelled solid meals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs) and carbon-14 urea breath tests ([sup 14]C UBTs) were used to measure the HP colonies quantitatively. The patients were assessed according to the following two criteria: (a) the HP colony number (i.e. high or low) and (b) the recorded duration of the GET (i.e. long or short). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of abnormal GET between high and low [sup 14]C UBT patients or in the incidence of abnormal [sup 14]C UBT between long and short GET cases. In conclusion, no significant relationship between HP-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and GET was found in this study. (orig.)

  13. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Shyhjen; Chen Granhum; Yeh Shinhwa

    1994-01-01

    Forty-five patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis or ulcer disease were included in this study. Radionuclide-labelled solid meals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs) and carbon-14 urea breath tests ( 14 C UBTs) were used to measure the HP colonies quantitatively. The patients were assessed according to the following two criteria: (a) the HP colony number (i.e. high or low) and (b) the recorded duration of the GET (i.e. long or short). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of abnormal GET between high and low 14 C UBT patients or in the incidence of abnormal 14 C UBT between long and short GET cases. In conclusion, no significant relationship between HP-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and GET was found in this study. (orig.)

  14. Gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and fecal output in dystrophic (mdx) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulè, Flavia; Amato, Antonella; Serio, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which results from deficiency in dystrophin, a sarcolemma protein of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, is characterized by progressive striated muscle degeneration, but various gastrointestinal clinical manifestations have been observed. The aim was to evaluate the possible impact of the dystrophin loss on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mdx mice (animal model for DMD). The gastric emptying of a carboxymethyl cellulose/phenol red dye non-nutrient meal was not significantly different at 20 min from gavaging between wild-type and mdx mice. The intestinal transit and the fecal output were significantly decreased in mdx versus normal animals, although the length of the intestine was similar in both animals. The present results provide evidence for motor intestinal alterations in mdx mice in in vivo conditions.

  15. The role of the evaluation of gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa and bulimia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, J.M.; Humphries, L.; Shih, W.J.; Donohoe, K.J.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are common eating disorders that are frequently associated with symptoms of bloating, belching, nausea, and vomiting. The authors currently studying this population with Tc-99m TETA to determine the gastric emptying time (ET) and response to metoclopramide. The authors' findings to date show that the majority (80%) of anorexics have a normal ET; the remainder are delayed. The bulimics demonstrate a normal ET in 34%, delayed in 45%, and rapid in 21%. The response to metoclopramide was good in the delayed anorexic patients and in 71% of bulimic patients treated. The extent of rapidity or delay in ET is being compared with the clinical data including age, weight/height, length and degree of disorder, diet, degree of symptoms, and response to drug and diet therapy. This correlation will help determine the incidence and severity of ET abnormality, the relation of disease and symptom severity to ET, and the effect of different treatments based on the ET

  16. The effect of pylorus removal on delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a meta-analysis of 2,599 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying is a serious complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. The effect of pylorus removal on delayed gastric emptying has not been well evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus and Web of Science up to July 2014. The meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate any factors accountable for the heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by Egger's test, and corrected by Duval's trim and fill method. Subgroup analyses were conducted for different surgical techniques of pyloric removal. Other intraoperative and postoperative parameters were compared between two groups. RESULTS: We included 27 studies involving 2,599 patients, with a moderate-high heterogeneity for primary outcome (I(2 = 63%. Meta-regression analysis showed that four variables primarily contributed to the heterogeneity, namely nasogastric tube intubation time, solid food start time, preoperative diabetes percentage and the number of patients in pylorus-preserving group. After excluding four studies, the remaining twenty-three studies showed reduced heterogeneity (I(2 = 51%. Then we used Duval's trim and fill method to correct publication bias. The corrected MH odds ratio was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.52-1.17. A subgroup analysis showed that pylorus removal tends to reduce delayed gastric emptying incidence for subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy or pylorus-resecting pancreaticoduodenectomy, compared with pylorus-preserving group. However, standard Whipple procedure failed to show any significant reduction of DGE compared with pylorus-removal group. No significant differences were observed in terms of length of hospital stay, infection and pancreatic fistula; however, pylorus removal resulted in longer operation time, more blood loss and higher mortality. CONCLUSION: The pylorus removal does not significantly reduce the overall incidence of delayed

  17. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J

    2004-01-01

    and gastroduodenal motility after a meal. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Each subject ingested 40 mg isosorbide dinitrate orally as a sustained-release formulation or oral placebo, in random order. Gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility were...... measured using scintigraphic and manometric techniques. Isosorbide dinitrate did not change the area under the curve of gastric retention versus time, and did not influence the frequency of antral contractions as assessed at 15-min intervals or the integrated duodenal motility index, as recorded over...... consecutive 15-min periods. A 40 mg single dose of sustained-released isosorbide dinitrate does not seem to alter gastric emptying or gastroduodenal motility after a meal....

  18. Visceral perceptions and gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy women and in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K L; Bingaman, S; Tan, L; Stern, R M

    1998-02-01

    Bulimia nervosa remains a common eating disorder in young women. Little is known about upper gastrointestinal symptoms or gastric motility in patients with bulimia nervosa. The aim of this study was to measure gastric myoelectrical activity and hunger/satiety and stomach emptiness/fullness before and after a non-nutrient water load and solid-phase gastric emptying in hospitalized patients with bulimia nervosa (n = 12) and in healthy women (n = 13). Gastric myoelectrical activity was measured by means of cutaneous electrodes; visual analogue scales were used to measure perceptions of hunger/satiety and stomach emptiness/fullness. Before and after a standard water load the bulimia patients reported significantly greater stomach fullness and satiety compared with control subjects (P scrambled eggs showed the lag phase was shortened in the bulimic patients (16 +/- 4 min vs 31 +/- 4 min in controls, P < 0.01), but the percentage of meal emptied at 2 h was similar to control values. bulimia patients had exaggerated perceptions of stomach fullness and satiety in response to water; and abnormal gastric myoelectrical activity and accelerated lag phase of gastric emptying were objective stomach abnormalities detected in hospitalized patients with bulimia nervosa.

  19. Taste hedonics influence the disposition of fat by modulating gastric emptying in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyoshi Saitou

    Full Text Available We investigated how preferred and nonpreferred tastes influence the disposition of fat. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with 5 ml of 20% intralipid through an intragastric catheter and with 0.3 ml of a taste solution through an intraoral catheter. At 120 min postinfusion, plasma concentrations of fat fuels (triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids were either unchanged or slightly higher after rats tasted a preferred sweet taste solution (0.125% saccharin +3% glucose than after they tasted water. They were markedly lower after rats tasted a non-preferred solution-either a bitter solution (0.15% quinine hydrochloride or a sweet solution that had previously been the conditioned stimulus for lithium-induced taste aversion. The distribution of 14C-triolein mixed with the gastric load was determined at 4 h postinfusion. Rats that received a non-preferred bitter taste had significantly more 14C remaining in the stomach than did those that received a preferred sweet taste. These results suggest that taste hedonics--either unconditioned or conditioned aversive tastes--influence fat disposition by altering gastric emptying.

  20. The relationship of human milk leptin and macronutrients with gastric emptying in term breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Anna M; Gridneva, Zoya; Hepworth, Anna R; Lai, Ching T; Tie, Wan J; Khan, Sadaf; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundInfants breastfed on demand exhibit a variety of feeding patterns and self-regulate their nutrient intake, but factors influencing their gastric emptying (GE) are poorly understood. Despite research into appetite regulation properties of leptin, there is limited information about relationships between human milk leptin and infant GE.MethodsGastric volumes were calculated from ultrasound scans of infants' stomachs (n=20) taken before and after breastfeeding, and then every 12.5 min (median; range: 3-45 min) until the next feed. Skim milk leptin and macronutrient concentrations were measured and doses were calculated.ResultsThe leptin concentration was (mean±SD) 0.51±0.16 ng/ml; the leptin dose was 45.5±20.5 ng per feed. No relationships between both concentration and dose of leptin and time between the feeds (P=0.57; P=1, respectively) or residual stomach volumes before the subsequent feed (P=0.20; P=0.050) were found. Post-feed stomach volumes (GE rate) were not associated with leptin concentration (P=0.77) or dose (P=0.85).ConclusionGE in term breastfed infants was not associated with either skim milk leptin concentration or dose. Further investigation with inclusion of whole-milk leptin and other hormones that affect gastrointestinal activity is warranted.

  1. The effect of Taraxacum officinale on gastric emptying and smooth muscle motility in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y-R; Jin, J; Piao, X-X; Jin, N G

    2011-08-01

    Taraxacum officinale (TO) is a traditional herbal medicine that has been widely used for abdominal illnesses. However, the efficacy and the mechanism of TO on gastric emptying (GE) and smooth muscle motility are unknown. Ethyl acetate fraction (EA), n-butanol fraction (BF), and aqueous fraction (AF) were prepared in succession from 70% ethanol extract (EE) of TO using solvent polarity chromatography. Phenol red meal was adopted to estimate GE in mice. A polygraph was used to measure the smooth muscle motility in rats. The percentage of GE was 48.8 ± 6.1% (vehicle control), 75.3 ± 6.5% (cisapride positive control), 68.0±6.7% (EE), 53.3±6.0% (EA), 54.1±6.3% (AF), and 86.0±6.5% (BF). Thus, BF was determined to be most effective in accelerating GE. This stimulatory effect of BF on GE was also supported by the observation that BF increased spontaneous contraction of gastric fundus and antrum and decreased the spontaneous motility of pyloric sphincter in vitro. Atropine blocked the stimulatory effect of BF on GE, whereas phentolamine and propranolol had no effect. BF seems to be a promising prokinetic agent. BF-induced increase in the contraction of fundus and antrum contributes to an increase in the intra-gastric pressure. BF-induced decrease in the motility of pyloric sphincter contributes to a decrease in the resistance of food from the stomach to the small intestine. The acceleration of GE by BF is likely to be exerted through cholinergic stimulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Use of a new In-111-labeled solid meal for confirmation of the lag phase of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.H.; Knight, L.S.; Siegel, J.A.; Scopinaro, F.; Perri, J.A.; Krevsky, B.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been argued that the appearance of a lag phase in Tc-99m (140 keV) anterior gastric emptying (GE) studies may be artifactual. Since gastric emptying with In-111 (247 keV) is less dependent on attenuation, we have developed a new In-111 meal. Two eggs are mixed with In-111 oxine, cooked thoroughly, and eaten between two pieces of toast. In vitro stability was studied by incubating the In-111 egg in human gastric juice at 37 0 C for 3 hours (97.0% +- 0.6% was bound). In five normal volunteers the mean t1/2 for gastric emptying was 87 +- 12 minutes. This was not significantly different from the Tc-99m normal value (77 +- 10 minutes) we have measured. A lag phase for the In-111-containing egg was present in each case (mean, 40 +- 8 minutes). The authors conclude that an In-111 meal can confirm the presence of a physiologic lag phase

  3. Risk factors for delayed gastric emptying in patients undergoing esophagectomy without pyloric drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hou, Sheng-Cai; Miao, Jin-Bai; Lee, Hui

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after esophagectomy is 10%-50%, which can interfere with postoperative recovery in the short-term and result in poor quality of life in the long term. Pyloric drainage is routinely performed to prevent DGE, but its role is highly controversial. The aim of this study was to report the rate of DGE after esophagectomy without pyloric drainage and to investigate its risk factors and the potential effect on recovery. Between January 2010 and January 2015, we analyzed 285 consecutive patients who received an esophagectomy without pyloric drainage. Possible correlations between the incidence of DGE and its potential risk factors were examined in univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. The outcomes of DGE were reviewed with a follow-up of 3 mo. The overall rate of DGE after esophagectomy was 18.2% (52/285). Among perioperative factors, gastric size (gastric tube versus the whole stomach) was the only significant factor affecting the incidence of DGE in the univariate analysis. The patients who received a whole stomach as an esophageal substitute were more likely to develop DGE than were patients with a gastric tube (13.2% versus 22.4%; P = 0.05). No independent risk factor for DGE was found in the multivariate analysis. The incidence of major postoperative complications, including anastomotic leak, respiratory complications, and cardiac complications, was also not significantly different between both groups, with or without DGE. Within 3 mo of follow-up, most patients could effectively manage their DGE through medication (39/52) or endoscopic pyloric dilation (12/52), with only one patient requiring surgical intervention. In our study, the overall incidence of DGE is about 20% for patients undergoing esophagectomy without pyloric drainage. Compared with prior findings, this does not result in a significantly increased incidence of DGE. In patients with symptoms of DGE after esophagectomy, prokinetic agents and

  4. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  5. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J.; Gupta, Nili; Case, R. Maynard; Thompson, David G.; McLaughlin, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of “equisweet” (Study A) or “equibitter” (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH2O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH2O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [13C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions. PMID:19535679

  6. Upregulation of bile acid receptor TGR5 and nNOS in gastric myenteric plexus is responsible for delayed gastric emptying after chronic high-fat feeding in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Shiyi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Guanpo; Lu, Yuanxu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic high-fat feeding is associated with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. We hypothesize that high-fat feeding upregulates gastric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, resulting in delayed gastric emptying. We propose this is mediated by increased bile acid action on bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) located on nNOS gastric neurons. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet for 2 wk. Rats fed the high-fat diet were subjected to concurrent feeding with oral cholestyramine or terminal ileum resection. TGR5 and nNOS expression in gastric tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and Western blot. Gastric motility was assessed by organ bath and solid-phase gastric emptying studies. The 2-wk high-fat diet caused a significant increase in neurons coexpressing nNOS and TGR5 in the gastric myenteric plexus and an increase in nNOS and TGR5 gene expression, 67 and 111%, respectively. Enhanced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inhibition in fundic tissue, and a 26% delay in gastric emptying accompanied these changes. A 24-h incubation of whole-mount gastric fundus with DCA resulted in increased nNOS and TGR5 protein expression, 41 and 37%, respectively. Oral cholestyramine and terminal ileum resection restored the enhanced gastric relaxation, as well as the elevated nNOS and TGR5 expression evoked by high-fat feeding. Cholestyramine also prevented the delay in gastric emptying. We conclude that increased levels of circulatory bile acids induced by high-fat feeding upregulate nNOS and TGR5 expression in the gastric myenteric plexus, resulting in enhanced NANC relaxation and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:25540233

  7. Xenin-25 delays gastric emptying and reduces postprandial glucose levels in humans with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sara; Reeds, Dominic N; Crimmins, Dan L; Patterson, Bruce W; Laciny, Erin; Wang, Songyan; Tran, Hung D; Griest, Terry A; Rometo, David A; Dunai, Judit; Wallendorf, Michael J; Ladenson, Jack H; Polonsky, Kenneth S; Wice, Burton M

    2014-02-15

    Xenin-25 (Xen) is a neurotensin-related peptide secreted by a subset of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing enteroendocrine cells. In animals, Xen regulates gastrointestinal function and glucose homeostasis, typically by initiating neural relays. However, little is known about Xen action in humans. This study determines whether exogenously administered Xen modulates gastric emptying and/or insulin secretion rates (ISRs) following meal ingestion. Fasted subjects with normal (NGT) or impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 10-14 per group) ingested a liquid mixed meal plus acetaminophen (ACM; to assess gastric emptying) at time zero. On separate occasions, a primed-constant intravenous infusion of vehicle or Xen at 4 (Lo-Xen) or 12 (Hi-Xen) pmol · kg(-1) · min(-1) was administered from zero until 300 min. Some subjects with NGT received 30- and 90-min Hi-Xen infusions. Plasma ACM, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, Xen, GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured and ISRs calculated. Areas under the curves were compared for treatment effects. Infusion with Hi-Xen, but not Lo-Xen, similarly delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial glucose levels in all groups. Infusions for 90 or 300 min, but not 30 min, were equally effective. Hi-Xen reduced plasma GLP-1, but not GIP, levels without altering the insulin secretory response to glucose. Intense staining for Xen receptors was detected on PGP9.5-positive nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle of the human stomach. Thus Xen reduces gastric emptying in humans with and without T2DM, probably via a neural relay. Moreover, endogenous GLP-1 may not be a major enhancer of insulin secretion in healthy humans under physiological conditions.

  8. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  9. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284 PMID:21899741

  10. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  11. Effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract on cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, Ambreena; Nazir, Shahid; Khushtar, Mohammad; Mishra, Anuradha; Jahan, Yasmeen; Ahmad, Asad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract against cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying, in a rat model. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups as follows: Group I or control group, Group II (cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p at day 5), Group III (N. sativa L. 250 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5), Group IV (N. sativa L. 500 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5) and Group V (ondansetron 3 mg/kg/day, per os + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5). Phenol red meal was adopted to estimate gastric emptying in different groups of the rats. Gastric emptying was significantly increased (p < 0.01) in N. sativa L. seed extract-pretreated rats (Group III and Group IV) when compared to cisplatin treatment alone (Group II). However, ondansetron produced significantly (p < 0.01) better reversal than N. sativa L. seed extract.

  12. Delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy is strongly related to other postoperative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Hartwig; Makowiec, Frank; Schareck, Wolfgang D; Hopt, Ulrich T; Adam, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Patients undergoing pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenenectomy (PPPD) have a risk of up to 50% for developing delayed gastric emptying (DGE) in the early postoperative course. From 1994 to August 2002, a total of 204 patients underwent PPPD for pancreatic or periampullary cancer (50%), chronic pancreatitis (42%), and other indications (8%). Retrocolic end-to-side duodenojejunostomy was performed below the mesocolon. DGE was defined by the inability to tolerate a regular diet after day 10 (DGE10) or day 14 (DGE14) postoperatively, as well as the need for a nasogastric tube at or beyond day 10 (DGE10GT). Postoperative morbidity was 38%, 30-day mortality was 2.9%, and median postoperative length of stay was 15 days. DGE occurred in 14.7% (DGE10), 5.9% (DGE14), and 6.4% (DGE10GT), respectively. After further exclusion of 21 patients (10.3%) with major complications and no possible oral intake (because of death, reoperation, or mechanical ventilation), the frequencies of DGE10, DGE14, and DGE10GT in the remaining group of 183 patients were 9%, 2%, and 2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed postoperative complications (Pindications for surgery (P<0.01) as independent risk factors for DGE10. The overall incidence of DGE was low after PPPD. In those patients experiencing DGE, however, other postoperative complications were the most important factor associated with its occurrence.

  13. Effects of salinity on gastric emptying time in hybrid grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x E. lanceolattus juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Noorashikin Md.; Das, Simon Kumar; Cob, Zaidi Che; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2018-04-01

    The newly developed hybrid grouper: tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) × giant grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) (TG×GG), has a high resistance towards different environmental condition (eg. in euryhaline environment) due to its genetic improvement. This study aims to investigate the effects of different salinities (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 ppt) on the gastric emptying time (GET) of the TG×GG hybrid grouper juveniles. The fish were fed with commercial pellet over a 30 days experimental period under controlled laboratory conditions. The GET was determined by X-radiographic method, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as an inert food marker. The X-radiography images showed that the shortest GET (12 h) was observed in the 15 ppt group, whereas the longest GET (18 h) in 30 ppt group. The results suggests to culture TG×GG hybrid grouper juveniles in 15 ppt with commercial pellet diet as this salinity proliferates faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this important fish species. Overall, these findings would be useful for the betterment of TG×GG hybrid grouper aquaculture which will eventually boost up the production of this newly developed hybrid grouper species.

  14. Acute Effect of Metformin on Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia through Delayed Gastric Emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Morino, Katsutaro; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Murata, Koichiro; Sekine, Osamu; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-16

    Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a potential target for cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia. Metformin has been reported to reduce plasma triglyceride concentrations in the postprandial states. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the triglyceride-lowering effect of metformin. Here, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid metabolism after olive oil-loading in 129S mice fed a high fat diet for three weeks. Metformin administration (250 mg/kg) for one week decreased postprandial plasma triglycerides. Pre-administration (250 mg/kg) of metformin resulted in a stronger triglyceride-lowering effect (approximately 45% lower area under the curve) than post-administration. A single administration (250 mg/kg) of metformin lowered plasma postprandial triglycerides comparably to administration for one week, suggesting an acute effect of metformin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. To explore whole body lipid metabolism after fat-loading, stomach size, fat absorption in the intestine, and fat oxidation ( 13 C/ 12 C ratio in expired CO₂ after administration of glyceryl-1- 13 C tripalmitate) were measured with and without metformin (250 mg/kg) pre-treatment. In metformin-treated mice, larger stomach size, lower fat oxidation, and no change in lipid absorption were observed. In conclusion, metformin administration before fat loading reduced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, most likely by delaying gastric emptying.

  15. Delayed gastric emptying accelerates pancreatic anastomotic stricture formation after pancreaticogastrostomy for soft pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oida, Takatsugu; Kano, Hisao; Mimatsu, Kenji; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Kuboi, Youichi; Fukino, Nobutada; Kida, Kazutoshi; Amano, Sadao

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic duct dilatation induced anastomotic stenosis of the pancreatic duct is frequently observed in patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with pancreaticogastrostomy (PG). Patency of the pancreaticoenteric anastomosis is one of the most important factors affecting the function of the remnant pancreas and quality of life. Anastomotic stenosis after PG is observed in some patients after approximately 1 to 2 postoperative weeks and is attributed to acute inflammation and fibrosis around the anastomosis. We therefore evaluated the early postoperative changes in remnant pancreatic duct diameter after PG in patients with soft pancreas in terms of delayed gastric emptying (DGE). We retrospectively studied 42 patients with soft pancreas who underwent PD with PG. They were divided into 2 groups depending on the grade of DGE; without or slightly DGE group (WS group) and moderate or severe DGE group (MS group). The mean diameter of the pancreatic duct of the remnant pancreas was significantly smaller in the WS group than in the MS group. DGE accelerates pancreatic anastomotic stricture development after PG in patients having soft pancreas with a pancreatic duct with a small diameter. Hence, to maintain the pancreatic duct patency, preventing DGE is important.

  16. The effects of fasting duration on gastric emptying in man, an exploration of the role of the endocannabinoid system and inter-individual responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R B; Dockray, G J; Thompson, D G

    2012-10-01

    In animal studies, gut vagal afferent neurons express cannabinoid (CB1) receptors, whose expression is increased by fasting. We aimed to explore the possibility that similar effects might be relevant in man in controlling gastric emptying. Fourteen healthy volunteers underwent measurements of gastric emptying using the (13) C acetate breath test, after either a nutrient (skimmed milk) or non-nutrient (water) meal following both a 12 and 24 h fast. Further gastric emptying studies were performed with and without the CB1 receptor antagonist Rimonabant (20 mg or 80 mg). Because of the inter-individual variations observed, two subjects underwent additional studies with and without Rimonabant to determine intra-individual consistency. Gastric emptying was evaluated as cumulative C13 : C12 ratio values, measured at 5 min intervals for 30 min. In the group as a whole, fasting duration slowed gastric emptying for both the nutrient [120 ± 30 (mean ± SD) vs 101 ± 34, P fasting and in one of whom, Rimonabant consistently reversed the fasting effect on the non-nutrient meal. Extended fasting alters the gastric emptying of liquid meals but there are consistent differences between individuals. Where there is an accelerated response to fasting, Rimonabant appears to reverse the effect. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Sex difference in the effects of alcohol on gastric emptying in healthy volunteers: a study using the (13)C breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Miyuki; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Miyasaka, Kyoko; Sekime, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    Several studies on alcohol and gastric emptying using the (13)C breath test showed that alcohol consumption delayed gastric emptying of meals in healthy male subjects. However, they did not employ female subjects, and the retention time of alcoholic beverages in the stomach has not been examined, yet. We examined the retention time (= gastric emptying rate) of alcoholic beverages in the stomach in healthy male and female subjects. We also examined whether the congeners (nonalcoholic components) of red wine have any effect on gastric emptying. The retention time of 60 mL of red wine, vodka, congeners of red wine, or mineral water, was measured using a (13)C labeled acetic acid breath test. In male subjects, the retention time of wine and vodka was significantly longer than that of congeners and mineral water. In female subjects, although the (13)C content in the breath was slightly but significantly decreased by wine and congeners, but not by vodka, and the parameters for gastric emptying did not differ significantly among the 4 drinks. That is, alcohol hardly influenced the retention time in female subjects. In conclusion, there are sex differences in the gastric emptying rate of alcohol.

  18. Semaglutide improves postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism, and delays first-hour gastric emptying in subjects with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpsted, Julie B; Flint, Anne; Brooks, Ashley; Axelsen, Mads B; Kvist, Trine; Blundell, John

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of semaglutide on fasting and postprandial glucose and lipid responses, and on gastric emptying. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period, crossover trial. Subjects with obesity (N = 30) received once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose-escalated to 1.0 mg, or placebo. After each 12-week treatment period, glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed before and after standardized meals. Gastric emptying (paracetamol absorption test) and peptide YY (PYY) response were also assessed. Semaglutide treatment significantly lowered fasting concentrations of glucose and glucagon, and increased insulin vs placebo (estimated treatment ratio: 0.95 [95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.98]; 0.86 [0.75, 0.98]; 1.45 [1.20, 1.75], respectively). Postprandial glucose metabolism significantly improved with semaglutide vs placebo (incremental area under the curve 0 to 5 hours [iAUC 0-5h ]; estimated treatment difference: glucose -1.34 mmol h/L [-2.42, -0.27]; insulin -921 pmol h/L [-1461, -381]; C-peptide -1.42 nmol h/L [-2.33, -0.51]). Fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism improved with semaglutide vs placebo. First-hour gastric emptying after the meal was delayed with semaglutide vs placebo (AUC 0-1h ; estimated treatment ratio: 0.73 [0.61, 0.87]); this may have contributed to the lower postprandial glucose increase in semaglutide-treated subjects. Overall gastric emptying (AUC 0-5h ) was not statistically different between treatments. Fasting and postprandial PYY responses were significantly lower with semaglutide vs placebo (P = .0397 and P = .0097, respectively). Semaglutide improved fasting and postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism. Overall gastric emptying was similar to that with placebo; however, the observed first-hour delay with semaglutide may contribute to a slower entry of glucose into the circulation. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oester-Joergensen, E.; Quist, N. [Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); and others

    1996-05-01

    No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying characteristics and whether different hormone secretion patterns are associated with specific alteration in emptying rate. 12 healthy men were examined on two occasion: one with meal ingestion in phase I and the other with meal ingestion in phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled with {sup 99m}Tc followed by 150 ml water labelled with {sup 111}In. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin, motilin, and peptide YY were measured in the fasting state, immediately after food ingestion, and at 15 min-min intervals in the postprandial period. New findings from the present study include a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II, and a linear relationship between median total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I. Furthermore, in phase I a linear relationship between total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated. The findings from the present investigation have to be considered in the future design of studies that focus on postprandial release of gastrointestinal hormones. The transition from phase III to phase I is a reproducible and easily recognized pressure event. Therefore, the authors recommend the use of food ingestion immediately after termination of duodenal phase III. 14 refs.

  20. Optimizing the diagnostic power with gastric emptying scintigraphy at multiple time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy (GES at intervals over 4 hours after a standardized radio-labeled meal is commonly regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing gastroparesis. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the best time point and the best combination of multiple time points for diagnosing gastroparesis with repeated GES measures, and 2 to contrast and cross-validate Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, a rank based Distribution Free (DF approach, and the Classification And Regression Tree (CART model. Methods A total of 320 patients with GES measures at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hour (h after a standard meal using a standardized method were retrospectively collected. Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve and the rate of false classification through jackknife cross-validation were used for model comparison. Results Due to strong correlation and an abnormality in data distribution, no substantial improvement in diagnostic power was found with the best linear combination by LDA approach even with data transformation. With DF method, the linear combination of 4-h and 3-h increased the Area Under the Curve (AUC and decreased the number of false classifications (0.87; 15.0% over individual time points (0.83, 0.82; 15.6%, 25.3%, for 4-h and 3-h, respectively at a higher sensitivity level (sensitivity = 0.9. The CART model using 4 hourly GES measurements along with patient's age was the most accurate diagnostic tool (AUC = 0.88, false classification = 13.8%. Patients having a 4-h gastric retention value >10% were 5 times more likely to have gastroparesis (179/207 = 86.5% than those with ≤10% (18/113 = 15.9%. Conclusions With a mixed group of patients either referred with suspected gastroparesis or investigated for other reasons, the CART model is more robust than the LDA and DF approaches, capable of accommodating covariate effects and can be generalized for cross institutional applications, but

  1. Erythromycin antagonizes the deceleration of gastric emptying by glucagon-like peptide 1 and unmasks its insulinotropic effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Kemmeries, Guido; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    ) was administered at 0 min. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn for the determination of glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and pancreatic polypeptide (specific immunoassays). Gastric emptying was assessed by the phenol red dilution...... caused by GLP-1, probably by interacting with the parasympathetic nervous system (pancreatic polypeptide responses). Despite augmented rises in insulin secretion, the glucose-lowering effect of GLP-1 is markedly reduced when the deceleration of gastric emptying is antagonized, illustrating the importance...

  2. Vincristine delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Peixoto Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of vincristine on the gastrointestinal (GI motility of awake rats and correlated them with the course of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Vincristine or saline was injected into the tail vein of male Wistar rats (180-250 g on alternate days: 50 µg/kg (5 doses, N = 10, 100 µg/kg (2, 3, 4 and 5 doses, N = 49 or 150 µg/kg (1, 2, or 5 doses, N = 37. Weight and stool output were measured daily for each animal. One day after completing the vincristine treatment, the animals were fasted for 24 h, gavage-fed with a test meal and sacrificed 10 min later to measure gastric emptying (GE, GI transit and colon weight. Sensory peripheral neuropathy was evaluated by hot plate testing. Chronic vincristine treatments with total cumulative doses of at least 250 µg/kg significantly decreased GE by 31-59% and GI transit by 55-93%. The effect of 5 doses of vincristine (150 µg/kg on GE did not persist for more than 1 week. Colon weight increased after 2 and 5 doses of vincristine (150 µg/kg. Fecal output decreased up to 48 h after the fifth dose of vincristine (150 µg/kg. Vincristine decreased the heat pain threshold 1 day after 5 doses of 50-100 µg/kg or after 3-5 doses of 150 µg/kg. This effect lasted for at least 2 weeks after the fifth dose. Chronic intravenous vincristine treatment delayed GE and GI transit of liquid. This effect correlated with the peak increase in colon weight but not with the pain threshold changes.

  3. Reducing the scan time in gastric emptying scintigraphy by using mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Min Ki; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Byeong Il; Lee, Jae Sung

    2005-01-01

    Gastric emptying scan (GES) is usually acquired up to 2 hours. Our study investigated whether a fraction of meal-retention in the stomach at 120 minutes (FR120) was predicted from the data measured for 90 minutes by using non-linear curve fitting. We aimed at saving the delayed imaging by utilizing mathematical models. Ninety-six patients underwent GES immediately after taking a boiled egg with 74 MBq (2 mCi) Tc-99m DTPA. The patients were divided into Group I (T 1/2 ≤ 90 min) and Group II (90 min 1/2 ≤ 120 min). Group I (n=51) had 21 men and 30 women, and Group II (n=45) 15 men and 30 women. There was no significant difference in age and sex between the two groups. Simple exponential, power exponential, and modified power exponential curves were acquired from the measured fraction of meal-retention at each time (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min) by non-linear curve fitting (MATLAB 5.3) and another simple exponential fitting was performed on the fractions at late times (60,75, and 90 min). A predicted FR120 was calculated from the acquired functional formulas. A correlation coefficient between the measured FR120 and the predicted FR120 was computed (MedCalc 6.0). Correlation coefficients(r) between the measured FR120 and the predicted FRA120 of each mathematical functions were as follows: simple exponential function (Group I: 0.8858, Group II: 0.5982, ρ 1/2 ≤ 90 min, the predicted FR120 is significantly correlated with the measured FR120. Therefore, FR120 can be predicted from the data measured for 90 minutes by using non-linear curve fitting, saving the delayed imaging after 90 minutes when T 1/2 ≤ 90 min is ascertained

  4. Intrauterine growth-restricted piglets have similar gastric emptying rates but lower rectal temperatures and altered blood values when compared with normal-weight piglets at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Klarlund, M. V.; Pedersen, Janni Hales

    2016-01-01

    that the gastric emptying rate and blood glucose would be lower in IUGR piglets. We investigated gastric emptying rates in normal and IUGR piglets and blood glucose and rectal temperatures at birth and after 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. In addition, blood parameters relevant for metabolism were studied. Forty...... for poor immunization and glucose absorption in IUGR piglets. It is estimated that IUGR piglets consume less colostrum per kilogram BW than normal-weight piglets within the first 24 h, which could be due to a slower gastric emptying rate and a compromised energy metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized...... normal and IUGR piglets were similar, but gastric DM residuals tended to be greater in IUGR piglets. Differences were observed in blood values and rectal temperatures, with lower values in IUGR piglets. Therefore, it is likely that factors like hypothermia and possibly reduced metabolic function are more...

  5. 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measurement of solid gastric emptying: reproducibility in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bo; Dan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine the intra-individual reproducibility of the octanoic acid breath test in normal subjects and diabetics and to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying influence the intra-individual reproducibility. Methods: Nine normal subjects (six men, three women,mean age 38 years) and 15 diabetics with insulin treatment [nine men, six women; mean age 47 years; six had cardiovascular autonomic diabetic neuropathy (CADN) and/or delayed gastric emptying time] were, after a nocturnal fasting period, given a standard test meal (labelled with 13 C-octanoic acid, 1 046 kJ). Breath samples were taken at ten minute intervals over first one hour and at fifteen minute intervals over the following three hours and examined for 13 CO 2 by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. Using a regression method gastric emptying half times (t 1/2 ) and lag phase (t lag ) were determined. Results: There was not a significant difference of t 1/2 and t lag between two measurements in normal subjects and diabetics. The coefficients of variation of day-to-day reproducibility were 11.7% for t 1/2 , 19.4% for t lag in normal subjects and 17.8% for t 1/2 , 28.2% for t lag in diabetics, but there was not significant difference between normal subjects and diabetics. There was not significant difference of intra-individual coefficient of variation of t 1/2 and t lag between diabetics with/without CADN and between diabetics with normal gastric emptying time and diabetics with delayed gastric emptying time. Conclusions: The 13 C-octanoic acid breath test has a high intra-individual reproducibility which is not affected by the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying. It can be recommended as a non-invasive test for assessing gastric emptying time after a solid test meal in diabetics

  6. A gluten-free vegan meal for gastric emptying scintigraphy: establishment of reference values and its utilization in the evaluation of diabetic gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Vijay Harish; Subramanyam, Padma; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the preparation of radiolabeled idli (savory cake) meal for use as an alternate to the egg white sandwich (EWS) meal in gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES). Furthermore, the aim of this study was to establish normal emptying rates for this meal and present our experience in using it in the evaluation of diabetic gastroparesis. The meal was prepared using a universally available packaged mix labeled with 1 mCi 99mTc sulfur colloid, and the stability of labeling was tested up to 4 hours in simulated gastric fluid. One hundred thirteen healthy volunteers (aged 20-78 years; 54 women, 59 men) underwent GES study using the idli meal. Gastric retention at one-half, 1, 2, and 4 hours after ingestion of the meal was estimated, and the normal limits were set using the fifth and 95th percentile values at each period. Having established its normal emptying rates, the idli meal was further used to evaluate 70 patients suspected with diabetic gastroparesis. The idli meal, with a calorific value ≈282 kcal, has a relatively higher fat content (8% of total mass) than EWS. More than 96% of 99mTc sulfur colloid remained bound to the meal after 4 hours suspension in simulated gastric fluid. Gastric retention greater than 30% and greater than 6% at 2 hours and 4 hours, respectively, indicated delayed gastric emptying, whereas retention less than 30% at 1 hour suggested rapid emptying. Among patients suspected with diabetic gastroparesis, delayed gastric emptying was identified in 76%, and rapid emptying was seen in 4.2%. Radiolabeled idli meal is a good alternative to EWS meal for routine GES, especially among patients with specific dietary restrictions.

  7. The Physiology and pathophysiology of laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Paul Robert

    2017-01-01

    The laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) has rapidly emerged as one of the most powerful medical interventions available. Originally a physically restrictive operation, evolution of the technique has resulted in what is now hypothesised to be a satiety inducing procedure. There is limited understanding of associated physiological processes; including oesophageal motility, transit and gastric emptying. Intraluminal pressure effects of the LAGB have not been identified. Recently, a ...

  8. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... with 99mTc followed by 150 ml water labelled with 111In. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin, motilin, and peptide YY were measured in the fasting state, immediately after food ingestion, and at 15-min intervals in the postprandial period. RESULTS: New findings from the present study include...... on postprandial release of gastrointestinal hormones. The transition from phase III to phase I is a reproducible and easily recognized pressure event. Therefore, we recommend the use of food ingestion immediately after termination of duodenal phase III....

  9. Impact of preloading either dairy or soy milk on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia and gastric emptying in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Tan, Kevin Wei Jie; Han, Cathy Mok Sook; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-02-01

    Milk protein ingestion reduces post-meal glycemia when consumed either before or together with carbohydrate foods. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dairy and soy milk consumed either before (preload) or together with (co-ingestion) a carbohydrate (bread), on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and gastric emptying in healthy participants. Twelve healthy Chinese male participants were studied on five separate occasions using a randomized crossover design. White wheat bread consumed with water was used as a reference meal. Capillary and venous bloods were sampled pretest and 3.5 h post-test meal for glucose and insulin measurement. Gastric emptying was measured using real-time ultrasonography. Co-ingestion of dairy milk or soy milk with bread lowered postprandial blood glucose response and glycemic index. Co-ingesting soy milk with bread increased insulin response and insulinemic index significantly compared to co-ingestion of dairy milk and preload treatments. Preloads (30 min prior to bread) significantly lowered postprandial glycemia and insulinemia compared to co-ingestion. Gastric emptying was slower after co-ingesting dairy milk with bread than after reference meal. Preloading either soy milk or dairy milk results in greater reduction in glycemic response compared to co-ingestion alone. This dietary practice may have therapeutic advantage in communities consuming high GI diets. Optimal glucose control may have the potential for increasing the time of transition from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes in Asian communities. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 02151188.

  10. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  11. Biologic gastric emptying time in diabetic patients, using Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal with and without metoclopramide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domstad, P.A.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.J.; Beihn, R.; Yonts, S.; Choy, Y.C.; Mandelstam, P.; DeLand, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) was measured in 24 patients with severe diabetes mellitus complicated by vascular damage and peripheral or sensory neuropathy. This population had a BGET of 192 +- 32.9 min (mean +- s.e.m. normal 40 to 85 min). Patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy had prolongation of BGET to 295 +- 45 (p < 0.05). Metoclopramide significantly shortened BGET in this subgroup to 101 +- 40 min, with return to normal values in eight of the 12 patients given the drug. The Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal test meal used as described in this study provides a reliable measure of BGET and of the response to metoclopramide

  12. Evaluation of gastric emptying in patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis using 99mTc-solid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubalewska, A.; Placzkiewicz, E.; Staszczak, A.; Huszno, B.; Szybinski, Z.; Stompor, T.; Sulowicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is an alternative to the hemodialysis mode of terminal renal failure treatment. Nutritional status impairment is common among patients with end-stage renal disease, and its laboratory surrogates predict increased morbidity and mortality risk in patients on chronic haemodialysis or peritoneal dialyses. The aetiology of malnutrition is multifactorial and delayed gastric emptying is also considered to be a significant factor. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct influence of indwelled dialysate in the peritoneal cavity on gastric emptying in patients treated with CAPD. The study group included 20 patients (9 males, 11 females) aged 50,1 ± 11 years (range: 39-75 years) with chronic renal failure treated with CAPD for 18.4 ± 14.7 months. All patients were non-diabetic and had no other than chronic uraemia co-morbidity known to influence autonomic nervous system function and gastric motility. The control group included 15 healthy volunteers matched by age, sex and body weight. Dialysis adequacy parameters were calculated based on 24-hour urine and dialysate collections. Gastric emptying was estimated with dynamic abdominal scintigraphy. We compared the results of gastric emptying tests performed in dialysed patients with and without dialysate liquid in the peritoneal cavity and related the values to those of the control subjects. In the study group, weekly values of dialysis parameters were within the ranges considered satisfactory in terms of uraemia control. All parameters of gastric emptying were significantly delayed and prolonged in terminal renal failure patients, but the results have shown no significant differences between those with and without indwelling dialysate. Based on the results we conclude that gastric emptying in subjects with chronic renal failure treated with CAPD is markedly delayed compared to healthy subjects. There was no significant effect of indwelling dialysate in the peritoneal

  13. Evaluation of standard haemodynamic tests of autonomic function and HbA1c as predictors of delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    We examined the relation between chronic glycaemic control (using glycosylated haemoglobin), haemodynamic autonomic function and rate of gastric emptying in 16 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying was measured using a paracetamol absorption technique. Parameters of gastric emptying include area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Patients were classified as diabetic autonomic neuropathy positive or negative using five standardized haemodynamic reflex tests. Area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve in the neuropathy positive (10.36 (4.5) mmol.-1. min) and negative (9.84 (3.0) mmol.-1. min) groups were similar (.P.=0.42) using unpaired Student\\'s.t. -tests. Glycosylated haemoglobin concentration and area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve (.n.=16) demonstrated a Pearson\\'s correlation co-efficient of 0.24. Neither tests of haemodynamic autonomic function, nor concentration of glycosylated haemoglobin, are predictive of diabetic gastroparesis.

  14. Gastric emptying of orally administered glucose solutions and incretin hormone responses are unaffected by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Hansen, Katrine B; Kristiansen, Viggo B

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) provides weight loss in obese individuals and is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and resolution of type 2 diabetes. However, in most available reports, potentially inappropriate methodology has been applied when measuring the impact...

  15. Importance of Second-look Endoscopy on an Empty Stomach for Finding Gastric Bezoars in Patients with Gastric Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Tanaka, Shouichi; Moritou, Yuki; Inaba, Tomoki; Higashi, Reiji; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Yunoki, Naoko; Ishikawa, Shin; Okamoto, Yuko; Kawai, Yoshinari; Kitada, Ken-Ichi; Takenaka, Ryuta; Toyokawa, Tatsuya; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

     Most gastric bezoars can be treated with endoscopic fragmentation combined with or without cola dissolution, whereas laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery is generally inevitable for small intestinal bezoars because they cause small bowel obstruction. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of gastric bezoars are necessary to prevent bezoar-induced ileus. To investigate the incidence of overlooked gastric bezoars during the initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy, we retrospectively reviewed the cases of 27 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal bezoars. The bezoars were diagnosed using esophagogastroduodenoscopy (n=25), abdominal ultrasonography (n=1), and barium follow-through examination (n=1). Bezoars were overlooked in 9/25 patients (36.0%) during the initial endoscopy examination because the bezoars were covered with debris in the stomach. Of the 9 patients, 8 had concomitant gastric ulcers, and the other patient had gastric lymphoma. Although a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed before the second-look endoscopy in 8 of the 9 patients, the bezoars were mistaken as food debris on CT findings and were overlooked in these patients. In conclusion, gastric bezoars may not be discovered during the initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy and CT scan. In cases with debris in the stomach, second-look endoscopy is essential to detect bezoars.

  16. Normalization of glucose concentrations and deceleration of gastric emptying after solid meals during intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Gallwitz, Baptist; Salmen, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    in the fasting state and after a solid test meal (containing [(13)C]octanoic acid). Blood was drawn for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1 determinations. The gastric emptying rate was calculated from the (13)CO(2) excretion rates in breath samples. Statistics were determined using repeated...... measures ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test. Plasma glucose concentrations were equally normalized with all GLP-1 doses (P fasting state (P ... ingestion (P = 0.0031 and 0.0074, respectively). Glucagon secretion was suppressed with GLP-1. Gastric emptying was decelerated by GLP-1 in a dose-dependent fashion (P

  17. Meal size can be decreased in obese subjects through pharmacological acceleration of gastric emptying (The OBERYTH trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torra, S; Ilzarbe, L; Malagelada, J R; Negre, M; Mestre-Fusco, A; Aguadé-Bruix, S; Florensa, E; Suñé, P; Gras, B; Hernandez, J J; Casamitjana, R; Garcia, M Andreu; Ros, F Bory; Delgado-Aros, S

    2011-06-01

    Entry of nutrients into the small intestine activates neuro-hormonal signals that regulate food intake through induction of satiation. To evaluate whether caloric intake can be decreased by pharmacologically accelerating gastric emptying (GE) of nutrients into the small intestine. Subjects were tested in 2 days, at baseline (day1) and after randomly receiving, in a double-blind manner, a 1 h infusion of erythromycin (3 mg Kg(-1), to accelerate GE) or placebo (day 2). Ad libitum caloric intake and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated using a validated nutrient drink test, simultaneously measuring gastric emptying [corrected] by scintigraphy. Plasma levels of satiation factors were also measured to evaluate their role in the modification of caloric intake and postprandial symptoms. Acceleration of GE was assessed as the difference in percentage emptied between day 2 and day 1 (DGE). The effects of DGE on caloric intake and symptoms were evaluated using multiple (lineal) regression. Among 30 overweight/obese subjects (24F and 6 M), 15 received erythromycin and 15 placebo. The overall median age was 36 years (IQR: 30-42) and body mass index was 30 Kg m(-2) (IQR: 27-36). Subjects receiving erythromycin on day 2 presented accelerated GE as compared with placebo (P = 0.0002). DGE at 15 min after initiating eating had a significant effect on prospective caloric intake (P = 0.004). From the best-fitted regression model (R (2) = 81%, P Acceleration of GE at 60 min after initiating eating increased postprandial symptom scores measured 30 min after the completion of food consumption (P = 0.01). Postprandial increase in CCK (P = 0.002) and PP (P = 0.02) was associated with postprandial symptoms. Meal size can be reduced in overweight/obese subjects by pharmacologically accelerating GE. This may be a reasonable target in obesity management.

  18. Preventing gastric sieving by blending a solid/water meal enhances satiation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Luca; Hall, Nicholas; Pritchard, Susan E; Cox, Eleanor F; Totman, John J; Lad, Mita; Hoad, Caroline L; Foster, Tim J; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2012-07-01

    Separation of solids and liquids within the stomach allows faster gastric emptying of liquids compared with solids, a phenomenon known as sieving. We tested the hypothesis that blending a solid and water meal would abolish sieving, preventing the early rapid decrease in gastric volume and thereby enhancing satiety. We carried out 2 separate studies. Study 1 was a 2-way, crossover, satiety study of 22 healthy volunteers who consumed roasted chicken and vegetables with a glass of water (1008 kJ) or the same blended to a soup. They completed satiety visual analogue scales at intervals for 3 h. Study 2 was a 2-way, crossover, mechanistic study of 18 volunteers who consumed the same meals and underwent an MRI to assess gastric emptying, gallbladder contraction, and small bowel water content (SBWC) at intervals for 3 h. In Study 1, the soup meal was associated with reduced hunger (P = 0.02). In Study 2, the volume of the gastric contents after the soup meal decreased more slowly than after the solid/liquid meal (P = 0.0003). The soup meal caused greater gallbladder contraction (P solid/liquid meal was consumed (P solid/liquid meal to a soup delayed gastric emptying and increased the hormonal response to feeding, which may contribute to enhanced postprandial satiety.

  19. Satiating properties of diets rich in dietary fibre fed to sows asevaluated by physico-chemical properties, gastric emptying rate and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out using 4 diets to evaluate satiating properties of sow diets: a barley/wheat control diet (Con) and three diets with added dietary fibre (DF) from potato pulp (PP), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and pectin residue (PR). Diets PP and SBP were characterized by having a high content...... of soluble DF, whereas PR was characterized by a high content of insoluble DF. Swelling and water binding capacity were highest in PP, followed by SBP, PR and lowest in the Con diet. Four dry sows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design and gastric emptying parameters as lag phase and gastric emptying half...... and these satiating properties could be attributed to increased swelling and WBC in the stomach, which in turn delayed the gastric emptying rate of the liquid phase of gastric content. Measurements of gastric emptying turned out to be a practical tool for ranking of the ability of DF sources to reduce activity...

  20. Effects of Posture and Meal Volume on Gastric Emptying, Intestinal Transit, Oral Glucose Tolerance, Blood Pressure and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Debreceni, Tamara L; Burgstad, Carly M; Wishart, Judith M; Bellon, Max; Rayner, Chris K; Wittert, Gary A; Horowitz, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of posture and drink volume on gastric/pouch emptying (G/PE), intestinal transit, hormones, absorption, glycaemia, blood pressure and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms after gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)). Ten RYGB subjects were studied on four occasions in randomized order (sitting vs. supine posture; 50 vs. 150 ml of labelled water mixed with 3 g 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) and 50 g glucose). G/PE, caecal arrival time (CAT), blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY), 3-OMG, blood pressure, heart rate and GI symptoms were assessed over 240 min. Controls were ten volunteers with no medical condition or previous abdominal surgery, who were studied with the 150-ml drink in the sitting position. Compared to controls, PE (P < 0.001) and CAT (P < 0.001) were substantially more rapid in RYGB subjects. In RYGB, PE was more rapid in the sitting position (2.5 ± 0.7 vs. 16.6 ± 5.3 min, P = 0.02) and tends to be faster after 150 ml than the 50-ml drinks (9.5 ± 2.9 vs. 14.0 ± 3.5 min, P = 0.16). The sitting position and larger volume drinks were associated with greater releases of insulin, GLP-1 and PYY, as well as more hypotension (P < 0.01), tachycardia (P < 0.01) and postprandial symptoms (P < 0.001). Pouch emptying, blood pressure and GI symptoms after RYGB are dependent on both posture and meal volume.

  1. Evaluation of the gastric absorption and emptying of drugs under various pH conditions using a simple intubation method: application to diclofenac.

    OpenAIRE

    Vidon, N; Pfeiffer, A; Godbillon, J; Rongier, M; Gauron, S; Hirtz, J; Bernier, J J; Dubois, J P

    1989-01-01

    Sodium diclofenac (50 mg) together with [14 C]-PEG as a non-absorbable marker were dissolved in 400 ml of water (A), phosphate buffer pH 7.5 (B) or a homogenized meal (C). Each of these was ingested in random order by six volunteers on 3 consecutive days. Some gastric absorption of the drug was established with C but the plasma drug concentration-time profiles mainly reflected the process of gastric emptying.

  2. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2010-01-01

    to feeding (15.5 h after the previous meal) on the day when the 5 h sample was taken. In the breath test four pregnant sows were placed in respiration chambers and the 13C marker was added in the morning meal and air samples were collected up to 18 h at the outlet from the chambers and detected on an infra......A study was carried out to validate gastric emptying using non-invasive 13C breath test against total evacuation of the stomach content through a gastric cannulae. Three different diets were used; a high soluble fibre diet based on sugar beet pulp, a high insoluble fibre diet based on wheat bran...... and a low dietary fibre diet. Six gastric cannulated pregnant sows used in the total evacuation study were fed each of the diets for one week and the stomach content were evacuated in a randomized order 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 h after feeding on 5 subsequent days. In addition, a sample was taken 0.5 h prior...

  3. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-02-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis.

  4. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-01-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (sup(99m)Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gasritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis. (J.P.N.)

  5. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p  0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance over longer periods of time warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of L-Tryptophan and L-Leucine on Gut Hormone Secretion, Appetite Feelings and Gastric Emptying Rates in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Häfliger, Simon; Meili, Julian

    2016-01-01

    in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: The study was conducted...

  7. Role of lipase in the regulation of postprandial gastric acid secretion and emptying of fat in humans: a study with orlistat, a highly specific lipase inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Borovicka, J; Schwizer, W; Guttmann, G; Hartmann, D; Kosinski, M; Wastiel, C; Bischof-Delaloye, A; Fried, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—To investigate the importance of lipase on gastric functions, we studied the effects of orlistat, a potent and specific inhibitor of lipase, on postprandial gastric acidity and gastric emptying of fat.
METHODS—Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study. In a two way cross over study with two test periods of five days, separated by at least 14 days, orlistat 120 mg three times daily or placebo was given with standardised...

  8. The antagonistic metabolite of GLP-1, GLP-1 (9-36)amide, does not influence gastric emptying and hunger sensations in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, Carl Frederic; Pedersen, Jan F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 (7-36)amide) is an intestinal hormone that is released in response to meal ingestion. GLP-1 reduces postprandial gastric and exocrine pancreatic secretion and is believed to inhibit gastric emptying. Furthermore, GLP-1 may play a role in hunger and thirst...... regulation. In vivo, GLP-1 is rapidly (within minutes) converted into a metabolite, GLP-1 (9-36)amide, which has been shown to act as a GLP-1 receptor antagonist in vitro and in anaesthetized pigs. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of infusion of GLP-1 (9-36)amide on hunger ratings...... and antral emptying of a meal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scale scoring during infusions of saline or GLP-1 (9...

  9. A double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of omeprazole on gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate whether an effect of omeprazole on gastric emptying is related to changes in the secretion of selected gut hormones. METHODS: The studies were performed in healthy men after 10 days' treatment with 40 mg omeprazole daily/placebo. Food...... ingestion took place in a duodenal phase, I and the meal consisted of an omelette labelled with technetium Tc 99m, followed by 150 ml water labelled with indium In 111. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and motilin were measured. RESULTS: Pretreatment with omeprazole reduced gastric...... emptying rates. This applied to all variables and was most pronounced with regard to amounts of solid (median (95% confidence interval)) emptied at 180 min (71% (48 - 86) for omeprazole versus 96% (87 - 100) for placebo; P omeprazole...

  10. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol...... have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote...... compared with placebo. In conclusion, acute ingestion of erythritol and xylitol stimulates gut hormone release and slows down gastric emptying, whereas there is no or only little effect on insulin release....

  11. Simultaneous dynamic study of gastric emptying and changes of serum levels of gut hormones in patients after peptic ulcer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradovic, V. B.; Artiko, V.; Petrovic, N.S.; Petrovic, M. N.; Stefanovic, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to examine the influence of different modalities of peptic ulcer surgery on the gastric emptying (GE) pattern and related serum level changes of selected gut hormones. Fifty eight subjects were examined. In 48 of them peptic ulcer surgery was performed at least six months before the examination: Billroth I (B1) in 11, Billroth II (B2) in 16, B1 with the selective vagotomy - Harkins 1 (H1) in 9 and B2 with the selective vagotomy - Harkins 2 (H2) in 12. Ten healthy volunteers (C) were also examined. The results of gastric emptying showed that the lag phase duration was inversely related to the GE rates, and the GE pattern was linear in both controls (C) and in operated patients, except in B2 group, in which the GE pattern was exponential. In comparison with C group, GE was slower in B1, H1 and H2 groups, and faster in B2 group. The plasma gastrin values in C group, showing two peaks, were higher in relation to other groups. In relation to C group, higher values of motilyn were obtained in patients after the selective vagotomy. The plasma somatostatin values recorded in B1 and H1 groups, showing the marked peaks, were higher in relation to C group. In relation to C group the highest plasma neurotensin values were obtained in B2 group. In order to understand entirely the influence of peptic ulcer surgery on the GI function, further research of the role of specific hormones and neuropeptides is needed, which would enable more precise selection of the therapy in order to prevent postvagotomy and postgastrectomy syndromes. (author)

  12. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Juergen; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers were given 75 g of glucose, 50 g of xylitol, or 75 g of erythritol in 300 ml of water or placebo (water) by a nasogastric tube. We examined plasma glucose, insulin, active GLP-1, CCK, and GE with a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test and assessed subjective feelings of satiation. Xylitol and erythritol led to a marked increase in CCK and GLP-1, whereas insulin and plasma glucose were not (erythritol) or only slightly (xylitol) affected. Both xylitol and erythritol induced a significant retardation in GE. Subjective feelings of appetite were not significantly different after carbohydrate intake compared with placebo. In conclusion, acute ingestion of erythritol and xylitol stimulates gut hormone release and slows down gastric emptying, whereas there is no or only little effect on insulin release. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Accuracy of localizing radiopaque markers by abdominal radiography and correlation between their gastric emptying rate and that of a canned food in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilford, W.G.; Lawoko, C.R.O.; Allen, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To determine accuracy of abdominal radiography in locating radiopaque markers in the gastrointestinal tract and to assess correlation between gastric emptying rate of radiopaque markers and that of canned food. Animals: 17 healthy dogs. Procedure: Dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm markers and ten 5-mm markers mixed in sufficient food to meet 25% of their daily caloric intake. They were then euthanatized by administration of an overdose of barbiturate at 1, 2, 5, 8, or 12 hours after eating and the abdomen was radiographed. The stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were then separated and radiographed in isolation. The wet and dry weights of the stomach contents were determined. The apparent and actual locations of the markers and the gastric emptying rates of markers, wet matter, and dry matter were compared, using rank correlation. Results: All comparisons indicated significant (P 0.92). The mean difference between the apparent and actual locations of the markers was < 3% for all comparisons. The mean difference between the percentage of small markers and large markers retained in the stomach and that of dry matter was 7.8 (SD, 6.2; range, 0 to 18)% and 11.9 (SD, 12.5; range, 0 to 44)%, respectively. Conclusions: The gastric emptying and orocolic transit rates of the markers were accurately predicted by abdominal radiography. The gastric emptying rate of the diet and the small markers and, to a lesser extent, the large markers was closely correlated. Clinical Relevance: When fed with a special canned food diet, radiopaque markers can be used to assess the gastric emptying rate of food with sufficient accuracy for clinical purposes

  14. Systematic review of the impact of feed protein type and degree of hydrolysis on gastric emptying in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan; Foong, Ru-Xin Melanie; Thapar, Nikhil; Kritas, Stamatiki; Shah, Neil

    2015-10-15

    The choice of infant formula is thought to play an important role on gastric emptying (GE) in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. It is known that many ingredients impact on GE, including the type of protein and level of hydrolysis. In clinical practice, feeds are often recommended due to putative improved GE related to the type of protein and level of hydrolysis, however whether this is scientifically justified still needs to be established. A systematic review comparing the impact of protein type and hydrolysis on GE in children was therefore performed. The Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome system was used. A structured literature search was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines, searching PubMed, Cochrane databases and Google Scholar from 1990 to 2014. We only included articles published in full text English language using specific search terms, including both scintigraphy and C13-octanoic acid breath test. We identified 126 publications of which 20 were eligible for inclusion but only 8 were included. Studies reviewed GE in both healthy children as well as those with neurodevelopmental delay and reflux. Two studies investigating GE of breast milk versus formula indicated a faster GE for breast milk. Four studies found that feeds containing whole whey in varying amounts emptied faster than predominant whole casein feeds and one study found no difference in GE. Five studies investigated a mix of whole versus hydrolysed protein and found conflicting results related to study population and hydrolysis. Breast milk has a faster GE than formula milk. Although there seems to be a trend towards whey feeds emptying faster, different methodologies, feed compositions and patient groups makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Future studies should be performed with comparable feeds in populations where increased GE may be of clinical benefit.

  15. A model for treating post-irradiation nausea and vomiting in man: the action of insulin in abolishing radiation-induced delay in gastric emptying in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, E.V.; Patrick, G.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats, which may be comparable to radiation-induced nausea and vomiting in man, can be successfully treated with insulin. Biphasic insulin, given in the appropriate dose for the radiation exposure, restored the rate of emptying to normal and was used instead of soluble insulin which made the stomach empty quicker than normal. Some of the evidence suggests that this effect of insulin is related in its action on carbohydrate metabolism, but there was no simple correlation between the hypoglycaemic action of insulin and its effect on stomach emptying. A complete explanation for this action of insulin cannot be given at this stage but the possible involvement of intestinal hormones, such as enterogluagon is discussed. It is suggested that the use of insulin to treat radiation-induced nausea and vomiting in man should be considered. (author)

  16. The effects of convenient vagorrhaphy on the early recovery of gastric secretion and emptying: an experimental study on function-preserving gastric cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, M; Arakawa, A; Ito, M; Koyama, K

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted using a canine model to elucidate whether the once transected vagal nerve can be conveniently anastomosed, and to determine when and to what degree the vagorrhaphy retains its functions. In the vagorrhaphy group (n = 5), the anterior and posterior vagal trunks were transected 1.5 cm above the diaphragma and the cut ends were anastomosed using two stitches of 8-0 nylon and fibria glue adhesive without microsurgery. In the nonvagorrhaphy group (n = 5), a 1-cm length of the nerve segment was resected to prevent reinnervation. A microscopic study of the anastomotic site performed on postoperative day (POD) 10 indicated the intervention of nerve fibers between the cut ends. No differences were found in the gastric secretory function, as assessed by the Hollander insulin test, or in the emptying function, as assessed by the acetaminophen test, between the vagorrhaphy group and the control preoperative values. However, both of these functions were superior in the vagorrhaphy group compared to the nonvagorrhaphy group. These results indicate that the technique of convenient vagal anastomosis could be put to practical use in gastric cancer operations to avoid postvagotomy syndrome.

  17. Effects of randomized whey-protein loads on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and plasma gut-hormone concentrations in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Standfield, Scott; Jones, Karen L; Lange, Kylie; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-09-01

    Background: Protein- and energy-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. Information about the effects of protein on energy intake and related gastrointestinal mechanisms and whether these differ between men and women is limited. Objective: We determined the effects of whey protein on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and gut hormones in healthy older men and women. Design: Eight older women and 8 older men [mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25 ± 1] were studied on 3 occasions in which they received protein loads of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) or a flavored water control drink (0 kcal). At regular intervals over 180 min, appetite (visual analog scales), gastric emptying (3-dimensional ultrasonography), and blood glucose and plasma gut-hormone concentrations [insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)] were measured, and ad libitum energy intake was quantified from a buffet meal (180-210 min; energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying in the men have been published previously). Results: Energy intake at the buffet meal was ∼80% higher in older men than in older women ( P protein compared with the control in men or women ( P > 0.05). There was no effect of sex on gastric emptying, appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, glucose, or gut hormones ( P > 0.05). There was a protein load-dependent slowing of gastric emptying, an increase in concentrations of insulin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, GIP, GLP-1, and PYY, and an increase in total energy intake (drink plus meal: 12% increase with 30 g and 32% increase with 70 g; P whey-protein drinks load-dependently slow gastric emptying and alter gut hormone secretion compared with a control but have no suppressive effect on subsequent ad libitum energy intake. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000941864. © 2017

  18. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycholis, Tanya J; Cant, John P; Osborne, Vern R; Shoveller, Anna K

    2014-08-12

    Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats.

  19. Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondim F. de-A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT on gastric emptying (GE and on gastrointestinal (GI and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65 weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P<0.05 by 34.3, 23.4 and 22.7%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. GI transit was inhibited (P<0.05 by 42.5, 19.8 and 18.4%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Intestinal transit was also inhibited (P<0.05 by 48.8, 47.2 and 40.1%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Mean arterial pressure was significantly decreased (P<0.05 by 48.5, 46.8 and 41.5%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. In summary, our report describes a decreased GE and GI and intestinal transits in awake rats within the first 24 h after high SCT.

  20. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  1. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-01-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group

  2. Evaluation of gastric emptying time, gastrointestinal transit time, sedation score, and nausea score associated with intravenous constant rate infusion of lidocaine hydrochloride in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Kierski, Katharine R; Jones, Brian G

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify nausea and sedation scores, gastric emptying time, and gastrointestinal transit time after IV administration of a lidocaine hydrochloride bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) in clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS 6 Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm barium-impregnated spheres (BIPS) and received a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution bolus (0.05 mL/kg) IV (time 0) followed by a CRI at 10 mL/h, a lidocaine bolus (1 mg/kg) IV followed by a CRI at 25 μg/kg/min, or a lidocaine bolus (1 mg/kg) IV followed by a CRI at 50 μg/kg/min; CRIs were for 12 hours. Nausea and sedation scores were assessed and abdominal radiographs obtained immediately after feeding of BIPS and every hour for 12 hours and again 16 hours after CRI start. Percentage of BIPSs in the small and large intestines, gastric emptying time, and gastrointestinal transit time were assessed. RESULTS Gastric emptying time did not differ significantly among treatments. Significantly more BIPS were in the large intestine 4 to 7 hours after treatment start for the 50-μg/kg/min treatment than for the other 2 treatments. Six hours after treatment start, significantly more BIPS were in the large intestine for the 25-μg/kg/min treatment than for the saline solution treatment. Higher sedation and nausea scores were associated with the 50-μg/kg/min CRI. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In clinically normal dogs, lidocaine CRI did not significantly affect gastric emptying. However, gastrointestinal transit time was mildly decreased and sedation and nausea scores increased in dogs administered a lidocaine CRI at clinically used doses.

  3. Effect of surfactants, gastric emptying, and dosage form on supersaturation of dipyridamole in an in vitro model simulating the stomach and duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A; Fadda, H M

    2014-08-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gastric emptying patterns, surfactants, and dosage form on the supersaturation of a poorly soluble weakly basic drug, dipyridamole, using an in vitro model mimicking the dynamic environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and, furthermore, to evaluate the usefulness of this model in establishing correlations to in vivo bioavailability for drugs with solubility/dissolution limited absorption. A simulated stomach duodenum model comprising four compartments was used to assess supersaturation and precipitation kinetics as a function of time. It integrates physiologically relevant fluid volumes, fluid transfer rates, and pH changes of the upper GI tract. Monoexponential gastric emptying patterns simulating the fasted state were compared to linear gastric emptying patterns simulating the fed state. The effect of different surfactants commonly used in oral preparations, specifically, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), poloxamer-188, and polysorbate-80, on dipyridamole supersaturation was investigated while maintaining surface tension of the simulated gastric fluids at physiological levels and without obtaining artificial micellar solubilization of the drug. The supersaturation behavior of different dose strengths of dipyridamole was explored. Significant levels of dipyridamole supersaturation were observed in the duodenal compartment under all the different in vivo relevant conditions explored. Dipyridamole supersaturation ratios of up to 11-fold have been observed, and supersaturation has been maintained for up to 120 min. Lower duodenal concentrations of dipyridamole were observed under linear gastric emptying patterns compared to mononexponential gastric emptying. The mean duodenal area under concentration-time curves (AUC60min) for the dipyridamole concentration profile in the duodenal compartment is significantly different for all the surfactants explored (P < 0.05). Our investigations with the different

  4. Gastric emptying scintigraphy: choice by in vitro test, of a new 99mTc marker to label solid phase and further analysis with the better radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, F.

    2005-05-01

    The study of gastric emptying by isotopic method occurs regularly in Brest nuclear medicine department. It consists in eating radiolabelled omelette with rhenium sulphide macro-colloid and in drinking radiolabelled water with 111 In-DTPA. The two phases are followed in stomach with gamma-camera. Rhenium sulphide macro-colloid have been taken off the market in january 2004 and no radiopharmaceutical has replaced them. in vitro test permitted us to test solid phase radiolabeling stability with 5 99m Tc-vectors used in nuclear medicine. Two of them are suitable for gastric emptying solid phase labelling: the tin fluoride colloids and the sodium phytate but tin fluoride colloids give better labelling stability than sodium phytate. In order to define solid phase marker properties, studies of medium composition by X fluorescence, size by laser granulometry, structure by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), TLC (thin layer chromatography) and by centrifugation are done either with the two vectors or only with sodium phytate. Structural properties of tin fluoride colloids are known. Results of this study indicate that phytates can be colloids. Finally, the good gastric emptying solid phase marker must be a colloid with a size of about 200 nm. (author)

  5. Long-term effects of lipase inhibition by orlistat on gastric emptying and orocecal transit time of a solid meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocełak, Piotr; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Zak-Gołab, Agnieszka; Holecki, Michał; Kamińska, Magdalena; Szymszal, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the impact of a prolonged lipase inhibition upon gastric emptying (GE) and orocecal transit time (OCTT) of a 355-kcal low-fat solid meal. In double-blind manner, 40 obese women BMI > 30 kg/m2, randomly allocated into two equal groups, took orally t.i.d. 120 mg orlistat or placebo during 8 weeks of a weight-reducing management. At randomization and after 2 months, GE was measured simultaneously with OCTT by means of a 13C-octanoic acid and a hydrogen breath test, respectively. Lipolytic activity was evaluated with a 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test (13C-MTGBT). A profound lipase inhibition by orlistat was confirmed by a 79.5% +/- 16.9% reduction of the cumulative 6-h 13C recovery with 13CMTGBT. GE remained unchanged either in the orlistat (T1/2, 188 +/- 35 min start versus 198 +/- 36 min end) or the placebo (T1/2, 191 +/- 35 min start versus 180 +/- 39 min end) group. OCTT increased from 208 +/- 54 min to 271 +/- 64 min (P orlistat treatment and did not change significantly (216 +/- 76 vs. 234 +/- 72 min) in the placebo group. No adverse effect on the GE and a moderate prolongation of the OCTT of a low-fat solid meal is to be expected under a prolonged treatment with orlistat at a typical dosage regimen.

  6. The impact of gastric pH, volume, and emptying on the food effect of ziprasidone oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Steven C; Nause, Richard; Gandelman, Kuan

    2017-07-01

    In a recent food effect clinical study, the authors concluded that a meal consisting of ≥500 kcal, regardless of fat content, produced the maximal bioavailability for ziprasidone. Using GastroPlus™, a commercially available pharmacokinetic simulation software, a semiphysiological model-a kind of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model-was developed that could predict the concentration-time profiles when ziprasidone was administered with any one of the five test meals or fasting. Ziprasidone intravenous pharmacokinetics and oral absorption permeability were determined from clinical studies following the intravenous and duodenal infusion of ziprasidone to volunteers. From the detailed dietary information of each meal provided in the previously published food effect study, the stomach pH, volume, and gastric emptying could be predicted. Incorporating these meal-specific parameters into the model improved the predictions beyond the default fed/fasted parameters commonly used in the software. Compared to the default models, the improved models resulted in an improved prediction of the average ziprasidone concentration-time profile for each meal. Using this type of semiphysiological absorption model, we have shown that the dietary contents of the meals should be taken into account to predict food effects for ziprasidone and perhaps other BCS class I or II compounds.

  7. Associations between meal size, gastric emptying and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in meal-fed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Filippich, L J; Morton, J M; O'Leary, C A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are increased for 12-24 h in healthy cats following moderate- to high-carbohydrate meals. This study investigated associations between gastric emptying time and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in cats fed an extruded dry, high-carbohydrate, moderate-fat, low-protein diet (51, 28, 21% metabolizable energy, respectively) once daily by varying meal volume. Eleven healthy, non-obese, neutered adult cats were enrolled in a prospective study and fed to maintain body weight. Ultrasound examinations were performed for up to 26 h, and blood collections over 24 h after eating meals containing approximately 100% and 50% of the cats' daily caloric intake (209 and 105 kJ/kg BW, respectively). Gastric emptying time was increased after a meal of 209 kJ/kg BW compared with 105 kJ/kg BW (median gastric emptying times 24 and 14 h, respectively; p = 0.03). Time for glucose to return to fasting was longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal (median 20 h; 25th and 75th percentiles 15 and 23 h, respectively) than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (13, 12 and 14 h; p glucose was not higher after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal compared with the 105 kJ/kg BW meal [(mean ± SD) 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.8 ± 1.2 mmol/l, respectively, p = 0.07]. Times for insulin to return to fasting were not significantly longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (p = 0.29). d- and l-lactate concentrations were not associated with gastric emptying time or post-prandial blood glucose and insulin. Based on results obtained, prolonged gastric emptying contributes to prolonged post-prandial hyperglycemia in cats meal fed a high-carbohydrate, low-protein, dry diet and fasting times for cats' meal-fed diets of similar composition should be 14-26 h, depending on meal size. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Itopride hydrochloride efficacy in the management of delayed gastric emptying in type 1 diabetis mellitus patients in the presence of autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yur’evna Budennaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AimEvaluation of the itopride (Ganaton®, Abbot therapy efficacy in the management of gastrointestinal (GI symptoms and gastric motor function (GMF in type 1 diabetis mellitus (T1DM patients (pts in the presence of GMF dysfunction and other forms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN.Materials and MethodsThe total of 34 patients with T1DM, GMF dysfunction and DAN were selected for randomized, prospective, open-label, comparative study. The duration of the study was 6 weeks. The study group (17 pts received itopride 150 mg total daily. The control group (17 pts did not receive any treatment for GMF. А questionnaire was used for the assessment of gastrointestinal (GI symptoms. Gastric emptying velocity was evaluated with 13C-octanoate breath test.ResultsAs a result of itopride therapy there was a statistically significant decrease in the amount of time (T1/2 needed for the gastric emptying. The median amount of time decreased from 89.0 [82.3; 101.0] min to 53.0 [82.3; 101.0] min (p<0.001; decrease of the incidents of gastroesophageal reflux (p=0.013 and symptoms of intestinal dyspepsia (p=0.005. In control group there was no change in parameters. There was no positive dynamics of glycaemic control parameters (fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, fructosamine, and no reduction in the frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes during the test in any of the groups.ConclusionsItopride therapy in T1DM patients with GMF dysfunction and DAN in the total daily dose of 150 mg improves gastric emptying velocity. This therapy also improves symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and intestinal dyspepsia. Improvement GMF doesn’t lead to positive dynamics of glycaemic control parameters.

  9. Possible involvement of dopamine and dopamine2 receptors in the inhibitions of gastric emptying by escin Ib in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Yoshikawa, M

    2000-11-03

    It was previously reported that escin Ib isolated from horse chestnut inhibited gastric emptying (GE) in mice, in which the capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves (CPSN), the central nervous system and endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) were involved. In the present study, the possible involvement of dopamine and dopamine receptors in the inhibition of GE by escin Ib were investigated in mice. GE inhibition by escin Ib (25 mg/kg, p.o.) was attenuated after pretreatment with a single bolus of DL-alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester (400 mg/kg, s.c., an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase), reserpine (5 mg/kg, p.o., a catecholamine depletor), 6-hydroxydopamine (80 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine depletor). Furthermore, pretreatment with spiperone (0.5-5 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine2 receptor antagonist), haloperidol (0.5-10 mg/kg, s.c.) and metoclopramide (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) (centrally acting dopamine2 receptor antagonists) attenuated the effect of escin Ib. Domperidone (0.1-5 mg/kg, s.c., a peripheral-acting dopamine2 antagonist) showed a weak attenuation, but SCH 23390 (1-5 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine, receptor antagonist) did not. It is postulated that escin Ib inhibits GE, at least in part, mediated by CPSN, to stimulate the synthesis and/or release of dopamine, to act through central dopamine2 receptor, which in turn causes the release of PGs.

  10. Gastric Emptying and Gastrointestinal Transit Compared among Native and Hydrolyzed Whey and Casein Milk Proteins in an Aged Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Julie E; Young, Wayne; McKenzie, Catherine M; Haggarty, Neill W; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-12-13

    Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is accentuated with hydrolysates, similar to soy. Adult male rats (18 months old) were fed native whey or casein, hydrolyzed whey (WPH) or casein (CPH), hydrolyzed blend (HB; 60% whey:40% casein), or hydrolyzed soy for 14 days then treated with loperamide, prucalopride, or vehicle-control for 7 days. X-ray imaging tracked bead-transit for: gastric emptying (GE; 4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine (LI) transit (12 h). GE for whey was 33 ± 12% faster than that for either casein or CPH. SI transit was decreased by 37 ± 9% for casein and 24 ± 6% for whey compared with hydrolyzed soy, and persisted for casein at 12 h. Although CPH and WPH did not alter transit compared with their respective intact counterparts, fecal output was increased by WPH. Slowed transit by casein was reversed by prucalopride (9-h), but not loperamide. However, rapid GE and slower SI transit for the HB compared with intact forms were inhibited by loperamide. The expected slower GI transit for casein relative to soy provided a comparative benchmark, and opioid receptor involvement was corroborated. Our findings provide new evidence that whey slowed SI transit compared with soy, independent of GE. Increased GI transit from stomach to colon for the HB compared with casein suggests that including hydrolyzed milk proteins in foods may benefit those with slowed intestinal transit.

  11. Gastric Emptying Time, Esophageal pH-Impedance Parameters, Quality of Life, and Gastrointestinal Comorbidity in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Paolo; Zenzeri, Letizia; Mozzillo, Enza; Cuccurullo, Irene; Rocco, Alba; Franzese, Adriana; Nardone, Gerardo; Staiano, Annamaria

    2018-03-01

    To provide further evidence regarding the relationship between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children, through the use of 13C-octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying time (GET) assessment and esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance pH-testing (MII-pH). Obese children aged 4-17 years completed a questionnaire investigating reflux symptoms, the presence of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and quality of life. A subgroup of obese patients with and without GERD symptoms were asked to undergo 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Symptomatic patients were also required to undergo MII-pH. Age- and sex- matched asymptomatic nonobese children were enrolled as a comparison group. Of 113 enrolled patients, 44 (38.9%) reported reflux symptoms; 22 of the 44 underwent MII-pH. Their mean reflux index was 14.6%, and their mean number of daily reflux episodes was 51.8. The mean T½ GET of symptomatic was 107.6 minutes vs 116.5 minutes in asymptomatic obese children. Healthy nonobese children had a mean T½ GET of 100.1 minutes. The mean GET of symptomatic obese patients having >70 daily reflux events was 121.8 vs 87.6 minutes of patients with <70 daily reflux events (P <.05). Both symptomatic and asymptomatic obese patients had a worse quality of life than nonobese (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0002, respectively); a narrow waist circumference was directly related to GET (P = 0.01). A high percentage of obese children and adolescents experience GERD symptoms. GET was directly related to the narrow waist circumference of obese children with GERD and was significantly delayed in obese children with increased reflux events. Both symptomatic and asymptomatic obese patients had a worse quality of life compared with nonobese healthy patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.C.; Ostman, E.M.; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  13. Synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation improves gastric emptying and activates enteric glial cells via upregulation of GFAP and S100B with different courses of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Song, Shuangning; Chen, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Previous research and clinical practice have indicated that damage to the vagal nerve may seriously affect gastrointestinal physiological movement behavior. The aim of the current study was to observe the change of gastric motility, as well as enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the stomach with different courses of vagal nerve transection in rats prior to and following synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation. The gastric emptying rates were measured to assess the gastric motility. The glial markers, containing calcium binding protein (S100B) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double‑labeling immunofluorescence analysis. Ultrastructural changes of EGCs were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Gastric emptying was delayed in the terminal vagotomy group, compared with the terminal control group. The effect of long‑term synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) was superior to short‑term SGES in terminal groups. The expression levels of S100B/GFAP were markedly decreased in the terminal vagotomy group compared with the terminal control group. Following short‑term or long‑term SGES, S100B/GFAP gene and protein expression increased in terminal groups. However, long‑term SGES was more effective than short‑term SGES and the difference was statistically significant. Vagal nerve damage leads to gastric motility disorder and weakens the function of EGCs. Therefore, SGES may improve stomach movement behavior and restore the impaired EGCs. The underlying mechanism of the effect remains elusive, but maybe associated with activation of EGCs.

  14. Selective proximal vagotomy with and without pyloroplasty. A clinical follow-up study in connection with radiopharmaceutical measurements to monitor gastric emptying. Die selektiv proximale Vagotomie mit und ohne Pyloroplastik. Eine klinische Nachuntersuchung und nuklearmedizinische Magenentleerungsmessung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodersen, E.

    1984-03-30

    It was the aim of the study described here to gain information relevant to the well-being of patients subjected to selective proximal vagotomy with or without pyroloplasty as soon as possible after surgery. For this purpose, particular care was taken to ascertain the frequency of recidivation and the post-operative occurrence of disturbances in the emptying of gastric contents. In 35 patients solely undergoing SPV and a further 12 individuals, where both SPV and pyroloplasty had been performed, gastric emptying was monitored using a gamma camera and computer system. All patients were given a standardised test meal consisting of 500 ml ready-made milk labeled with 2 mCi 99mTc-HSA. After the patients had been assigned to different study groups according to the gastric emptying rates established in the individual cases, it became evident that there was a correlation between gastric emptying time (T/2) and the occurrence of post-operative discomfort. In the majority of patients the gastric emptying rate was found to be increased as compared to individuals with a healthy stomach. Among a total of 8 patients showing delayed gastric emptying only one, who solely underwent SPV, reported post-operative discomfort. Markedly increased rates of gastric emptying (T/2 less than or equal to 5 min) were predominantly determined in patients subjected to SPV in conjunction with pyroloplasty. A dumping syndrome and diarrhea were diagnosed in every third patient. Clinical follow-up studies and questionnaires distributed among the study patients showed relapses to occur with a frequency of 6.7%, the recidivation of ulcera being confined to the group of patients merely undergoing SPV. (TRV).

  15. The Effect of Specific Oral Nutritional Supplements Compared to Tea with Sugar on Gastric Emptying Time, Blood Glucose Level, and Hunger Response in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Evangeline Bela

    2017-09-01

    Methods: This study was a clinical, parallel, random allocation, and single-blind trial. This study was conducted at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The subjects were 12 healthy adults divided into 2 groups: intervention group (n = 6 and control group (n = 6. Patients in the intervention group received 200 mL S-ONS (200 kcal, 18% protein, 20% fat and 62% carbohydrate and control group received 200 mL of tea with 10 grams of sugar (40 kcal. Gastric volume was measured using 2D-sonography every 30 minutes. Blood glucose level was measured using blood peripheral sample. Hunger response was measured using visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Gastric emptying time in the intervention group was <90 minutes, and in the control group <60 minutes. Blood glucose level was increased in the intervention group and decreased in control group. Hunger response was decreased in intervention group and increased in control group. Conclusion: Gastric emptying time after either drinking S-ONS and drinking tea with sugar in healthy adults subjects were less than 2 hours. Patients receiving S-ONS had significantly higher blood glucose level and were less hungry than the control group.

  16. Impact of sleep disorders in Japanese patients with functional dyspepsia (FD): nizatidine improves clinical symptoms, gastric emptying and sleep disorders in FD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Seiji; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Izumi, Nikki; Shimpuku, Mayumi; Kodaka, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Taiga; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Shindo, Tomotaka; Kawagoe, Tetsuro; Gudis, Katya; Itoh, Takashi; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2013-08-01

    The association between functional dyspepsia (FD) and sleep disorders has yet to be studied in detail. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk factors associated with sleep disorders and the clinical response to nizatidine therapy for sleep disorders in Rome III-based FD patients. We enrolled 94 FD patients and 52 healthy volunteers. We used Rome III criteria to evaluate upper abdominal symptoms, and the Self-Rating Questionnaire for Depression scores to determine depression status. Sleep disorder was evaluated using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores, and degree of anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Gastric motility was evaluated. Thirty-four FD patients were treated with nizatidine (300 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks in a crossover trial. The primary end point of this study was to determine whether nizatidine could improve clinical symptoms and sleep disorders in FD patients. The global PSQI score for FD patients was significantly (P FD patients than in healthy volunteers. We found significant relationships between subjective sleep quality and both Tmax and T1/2 values in FD patients. Nizatidine significantly improved certain clinical symptoms, gastric emptying, and global PSQI score compared with placebo treatment. Sleep disorders in FD patients correlated significantly with both clinical symptoms of dyspepsia and depression compared with healthy volunteers. Nizatidine significantly improved gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, gastric emptying, and sleep disorders in FD patients. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Jordaan, J.H.; Jacobs, D.J.; Plessis, M. du; Pilloy, W.

    1984-01-01

    The transit of 111 In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with molk, pure milk, and finally a metal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated 111 In +3 from an aqueous solution of InCl 3 . These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (Tsub(1/2)) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the metal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results. (orig.)

  18. Role of delayed gastric emptying in the pathogenesis of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1982-01-01

    and approached normal values again after 12 h. Because of complete gastric retention the acid gastric secretions provoked by cysteamine probably accumulate in the stomach during the first 4 h after cysteamine administration, and because of the absence of peristalsis they are not mixed with gastric contents...... and measurements of gastric acid secretions after cysteamine. Vagotomy augmented the inhibitory effect of cysteamine on gastric motility. The relaxation was even more pronounced, and contrast medium was not discharged from the stomach within 24 h. In these rats cysteamine induced ulcerations in the stomach....... gastric empyting was due to a pronounced relaxation of the stomach and a complete blocking of gastric peristalsis. These effects have their maximum within the first 4 h after administration of cysteamine. Thereafter peristalsis and gastric empyting slowly return. In controls contrast medium administered...

  19. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  20. FGF 21 deficiency slows gastric emptying and reduces initial blood alcohol concentration in mice exposed to acute alcohol in fasting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guicheng; Liu, Yanlong; Liu, Yunhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Zhao, Haiyang; Liu, Liming; Zhao, Cuiqing; Feng, Wenke

    2018-02-26

    Excess alcohol consumption can lead to alcoholic liver disease. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple physiologic functions. Previous study demonstrated that FGF21 deficiency exacerbated alcohol-induced liver injury and exogenous FGF21 administration protected liver from chronic alcohol-induced injury. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of FGF21 in alcohol metabolism in mice. FGF21 knockout (KO) mice and the wild type(WT) control mice were divided into two groups and fasted for 24 h followed by a bonus of alcohol treatment at a dose of 5 g/kg body weight via gavage. Serum alcohol concentration was measured after gavage at 0.5, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h, respectively. At the end, gastric and liver tissues were collected. Serum alcohol concentration of KO mice was significantly lower than that of WT at 0.5 h after alcohol expose. There were no significant differences in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) activity in gastric and liver tissues between WT and the KO mice. However, gastric emptying time of KO mice was much longer than that of WT mice. In addition, the intestinal permeability and serum GLP-1 level of KO mice were significantly higher than that of WT mice. These results suggest that FGF21 deficiency slow gastric emptying rate and indirectly influence initial alcohol metabolism in mice exposed to acute alcohol. Our findings provide additional information for understanding the gastrointestinal mechanism of alcoholic liver disease and other alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. alpha-Glucosidase inhibition (acarbose) fails to enhance secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) and to delay gastric emptying in Type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hücking, K; Kostic, Z; Pox, C

    2005-01-01

    and gastric emptying in Type 2 diabetic patients after a mixed test meal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten Type 2 diabetic patients were tested with 100 mg acarbose or placebo served with a mixed meal that was labelled with 100 mg 13C-octanoic acid. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP......-1 and GIP were determined over 6 h. Gastric emptying was measured by determining breath 13CO2 using infrared absorptiometry. Statistics repeated-measures anova. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates (t1/2: 162 +/- 45 vs. 163 +/- 62 min, P = 0.65) and plasma concentrations (increasing from approximately 12...... to approximately 25 pmol/l, P = 0.37) and integrated responses of GLP-1 (P = 0.37) were not changed significantly by acarbose treatment. Postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (P concentrations of insulin and C...

  2. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti, E-mail: sabujsau@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd., E-mail: magfish05@yahoo.com [Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, University of Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Das, Simon Kumar, E-mail: skdas-maa@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, parallel-group clinical trial to assess the effects of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jolene Kay; Kim, Eric H; Li, Benjamin; Joelsson, Bo; Youssef, Nader N

    2014-02-12

    Teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2, is a novel therapy recently approved for the treatment of adult patients with short bowel syndrome who are dependent on parenteral support. Previous studies assessing the effect of GLP-2 on gastric emptying in humans have yielded inconsistent results, with some studies showing no effect and others documenting a GLP-2-dependent delay in gastric emptying. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects, as measured by the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. This double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study enrolled and randomized 36 healthy subjects (22 men, 14 women) to receive subcutaneous doses of teduglutide 4 mg or placebo (2:1 ratio; 23:13) once daily on Days 1 through 10 in the morning. Gastric emptying of a mixed nutrient liquid meal was assessed by measuring acetaminophen levels predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after administration of 1000 mg acetaminophen on Days 0 and 10. The primary study endpoint was a pharmacokinetic analysis of acetaminophen absorption in subjects receiving teduglutide or placebo. No significant differences in gastric emptying of liquids (acetaminophen area under the concentration [AUC] vs time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, AUC extrapolated to infinity, maximum concentration [Cmax], and time to Cmax) were observed on Day 10 in subjects receiving teduglutide 4 mg versus subjects receiving placebo. There were no serious adverse events (AEs), deaths, or discontinuations due to an AE reported during the study. Teduglutide 4 mg/day for 10 days does not affect gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects as measured by acetaminophen pharmacokinetics. No unexpected safety signals were observed. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01209351.

  4. The Dynamics of Gastric Emptying and Self-Reported Feelings of Satiation Are Better Predictors Than Gastrointestinal Hormones of the Effects of Lipid Emulsion Structure on Fat Digestion in Healthy Adults-A Bayesian Inference Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingoetter, Andreas; Buetikofer, Simon; Curcic, Jelena; Menne, Dieter; Rehfeld, Jens F; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Wooster, Tim J

    2017-04-01

    Background: Limited information exists on the relation between fat emulsion structure and its effect on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and feelings of satiation. Objective: We investigated the impact of fat emulsion droplet size, gravitational and acid stability, and redispersibility on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation. Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions. Iterative Bayesian model averaging variable selection was used to investigate the influence of hormone profiles in controlling fat emulsion emptying and satiation. Results: The emulsion structure had a distinct effect on the gastric emptying (primary outcome), gastrointestinal hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation (secondary outcomes). Gravitational and acid stability were stronger modulators of fat emptying and hormone profiles than were emulsion droplet size or redispersibility. Cholecystokinin and PYY were most strongly affected by fat emulsion instability and droplet size. Although both hormones were relevant predictors of gastric emptying, only PYY was identified as a relevant predictor of satiation. Conclusions: This work indicates that evenly dispersed, stable, small-emulsion droplets within the stomach lead to prolonged gastric distension, longer ghrelin suppression, and accelerated fat sensing (cholecystokinin and PPY), triggering prolonged feelings of satiation. It suggests that the effects of emulsion instability and droplet size on energy consumption are best studied by assessing changes in gastric

  5. Low dose caffeine as a salivary tracer for the determination of gastric water emptying in fed and fasted state: A MRI validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Maximilian; Jedamzik, Philipp; Merdivan, Simon; Grimm, Michael; Schneider, Felix; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Hasan, Mahmoud; Oswald, Stefan; Kühn, Jens; Koziolek, Mirko; Weitschies, Werner

    2018-03-27

    Improving our knowledge about human gastrointestinal physiology and its impact on oral drug delivery is crucial for the development of new therapies and effective drug delivery systems. The aim of this study was to develop an in vivo tool to determine gastric emptying of water by administration of a caffeine as a tracer substance followed by subsequent saliva caffeine analysis. For this purpose, 35mg of caffeine were given to six healthy volunteers after a 10h overnight together with 240mL of tap water either on a fasted stomach or 30min after the high-caloric, high-fat breakfast recommended for bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. Caffeine was administered in form of an ice capsule in order to omit the contamination of the oral cavity with caffeine. Parallel to saliva sampling, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied in order to validate this novel approach. After administration of the ice capsule, MRI measurements were performed every 2min for the first 20min followed by further measurements after 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 and 60min. Saliva samples were collected always 1min after the MRI measurement in supine position in the MRI scanner and continued for further 240 min. The caffeine concentration in saliva was quantified after liquid-liquid extraction by a validated HPLC/MS-MS method. The obtained MRI data revealed a fast emptying of the co-administered water within 10to50min in the fasted state and likewise in the fed state. Salivary caffeine kinetics showed a C max from 150to400ng/mL with a t max from 20to90min. MRI data were normalized by setting the maximum emptied volume to 100% and the salivary caffeine kinetics were normalized by setting C max to 100%. In order to compare the results obtained by the MRI and the saliva method, the normalized data for each volunteer was correlated based on a linear regression. In the fasted state the mean slope for six comparisons was 0.9114±0.1500 and the mean correlation coefficient was 0.912±0.055. In the fed

  6. Fast pouch emptying, delayed small intestinal transit, and exaggerated gut hormone responses after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, C; Damgaard, M; Bojsen-Møller, K N

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes extensive changes in gastrointestinal anatomy and leads to reduced appetite and large weight loss, which partly is due to an exaggerated release of anorexigenic gut hormones.......Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes extensive changes in gastrointestinal anatomy and leads to reduced appetite and large weight loss, which partly is due to an exaggerated release of anorexigenic gut hormones....

  7. Efeito do tratamento da depressão sobre o esvaziamento gástrico Treatment of depression effect on the gastric emptying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Navas Demetrio

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O esvaziamento gástrico foi medido por meio de refeição sólida marcada com 99mTc em 11 pacientes que atendiam os critérios de "depressão maior" do DSM-III-R antes e após o tratamento com fluoxetina (20 a 40mg por dia durante nove semanas. Após o tratamento não se observou redução no tempo para o esvaziamento gástrico de metade da refeição de prova (T1/2 em relação a antes do tratamento. Pode-se, no entanto, separar os pacientes em dois subgrupos: 1 Os que exibiram resposta ao antidepressivo (redução do escore da Escala de Depressão de Hamilton >50% e apresentaram redução significativa do T1/2 (p0,10. Concluímos que a alteração da velocidade do esvaziamento gástrico pode estar correlacionada à resposta ao tratamento antidepressivo e que sua redução ou aumento não pode ser atribuída à ação farmacológica da fluoxetina sobre o estômago, mas antes ao efeito da melhoria da depressão sobre a motilidade gástrica.The gastric emptying was evaluated with 99mTc-labeled solidphase meal in 11 patients who met DSM-III-R criteria for Major Depression, before and after treatment with fluoxetine (20 to 40mg/day for nine weeks. After teatment the patients did not show increased velocity to reduction of half probe meal radioactivity in gastric area (T1/2. On the other hand, we observed two groups of patients: 1 The group that responded to antidepressant (Hamilton Depression Scale score reduction >50%, that showed a significant decrease of T1/2 (p0,10. We conclude that the modification in the gastric emptying velocity is related to the degree of response to antidepressant teatment, and velocity reduction or increase cannot be attributed to fluoxetine pharmachological activity over stomach but in fact to the impact of depression relief on gastric motility.

  8. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  9. Liraglutide as adjunct to insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes does not interfere with glycaemic recovery or gastric emptying rate during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Christian S.; Dejgaard, Thomas F.; Andersen, Henrik U.

    2017-01-01

    significantly between groups (P =.96), with no significant changes from baseline, whether evaluated from AUCs or time to peak. The secondary endpoints, glycaemic recovery, counter-regulatory hormone responses, systolic blood pressure and GLP-1 and PP responses, were also similar. Heart rate increased......). Secondary endpoints included changes in glycaemic recovery, counter-regulatory hormones, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), GLP-1, blood pressure and heart rate. Results: During the period June 2013 to October 2014, 20 patients were enrolled. After 12 weeks of treatment, changes in GE rates did not differ......Aim: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) therapy is a potential treatment as adjunct to insulin in type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, GLP-1RAs inhibit glucagon secretion and delay the gastric emptying (GE) rate and may impair recovery from hypoglycaemia. We evaluated the effect...

  10. Effect of temperature and diet on growth and gastric emptying time of the hybrid, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita De

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperatures (22, 26, 30 and 34 °C and diets (commercial pellet and shrimp on the growth properties and gastric emptying time (GET of the tiger grouper × giant grouper (TGGG hybrid were analyzed over a 30 day experimental period under controlled laboratory conditions. Food consumption (FC, food conversion rate (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR and GET were significantly influenced by temperature and diet type. The highest mean SGR (1.00% BM day−1, p  0.05 were observed between any of the groups at 22 and 34 °C fed on either the shrimp or the pellet diet. The lowest statistically significant (p < 0.05 FC was observed at 22 °C on both diets. The highest FCR (1.208, p < 0.05 was observed in the 22 °C + shrimp and 22 °C + pellet groups. The fastest GETs were observed at 30 °C, 12 h for fish on the shrimp diet and 13 h for fish on the pellet diet. A significant delay in gastric emptying (16 h was observed at 22 °C in the group fed the commercial pellet diet (16 h. The best growth performances and digestion rates were observed at 30 °C followed by 26, 34 and 22 °C regardless of diet. The results suggest that 26 and 30 °C are optimum water temperatures for the aquaculture of this newly developed fish species fed on either a shrimp or pellet diet.

  11. Different effects of whole milk and a fermented milk with the same fat and lactose content on gastric emptying and postprandial lipaemia, but not on glycaemic response and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, K M; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Sandström, B; Raben, A; Tholstrup, T

    2004-09-01

    Longitudinal studies indicate that milk and fermented milk products lower basal plasma cholesterol concentrations, despite their high content of saturated fat, and therefore have favourable health effects. However, there have been few studies on the postprandial effects of milk products. The present study compared the effect of whole milk with a fermented milk, A-38, on postprandial carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gastric emptying and appetite. Eight healthy young men participated. On the two test days, they arrived fasting for collection of baseline values before consuming the meals, which for a 75 kg subject consisted of 1.4 litre milk or fermented milk, plus 165 mg [13C]acetate (for later determination of gastric emptying by a [13C]acetate breath test). Lactose (15 g) was added to the A-38 meal to equalize the lactose content. Postprandially the A-38 meal resulted in a slower gastric emptying rate than milk (P0.10). The slower emptying rate of the liquid phase after the A-38 meal is probably due to the higher viscosity of A-38. The lower and more prolonged triacylglycerol response after the milk meal might be caused by coagulation of milk in the stomach.

  12. Whey Protein Delays Gastric Emptying and Suppresses Plasma Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites Compared to Casein, Gluten, and Fish Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Whey protein has been demonstrated to improve fasting lipid and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. To establish new hypotheses for this effect and to investigate the impact of stomach emptying, we compared plasma profiles after intake of whey isolate (WI), casein, gluten (GLU......), and cod (COD). Obese, nondiabetic subjects were included in the randomized, blinded, crossover meal study. Subjects ingested a high fat meal containing one of the four protein sources. Plasma samples were collected at five time points and metabolites analyzed using LC-Q-TOF-MS. In contrast to previous...

  13. Duodeno gastric reflux in peptic ulcer disease: gall bladder emptying provoked by cholecystokinin or a fatty meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Donovan, I.A.; Mosimann, F.; Drumm, J.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1986-01-01

    A wide range of incidence of diodeno-gastric bile reflux has been reported in patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) or gastric ulcer (GU). Using either 100 units of CCK i/v or a fatty meal of 320 Cal containing 20 g fat to contract the gall bladder, we have investigated the incidence of reflux in 170 subjects: CCK (Control: 20; DU: 60; GU: 19), Meal (Control: 19; DU: 37; GU: 15). The CCK or meal was given in the supine subject 30 minutes after injection of 75 MBq sup(99m)Tc diethyl Hida. Reflux was considered present if labelled bile was seen in the stomach on 3 successive 2 minute gamma camera pictures. The percentage of patients showing reflux was as follows: CCK (Control: 45%; DU: 53%; GU: 58%), Meal (Control: 11%; DU: 24%; GU: 40%). These results have been compared using the Chi-squared test. There was no significant difference in the incidence of reflux between control, DU or GU patients either in the group of patients given CCK or a meal. However, reflux was more common after CCK than the meal in control subjects (p<0.05) and in those with DU (p<0.01) but not in those with GU. We conclude that the stimulus given to contract the gall bladder affects the incidence of reflux, and that any significant difference in reflux incidence of DU or GU patients may become apparent when more patients are studied. (Author)

  14. Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, A.M. [Núcleo de Medicina e Cirurgia Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Collares, E.F. [Departamento de Pediatria, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Núcleo de Medicina e Cirurgia Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-27

    Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7±1.6 vs 47.1±2.3%) and of At (33.2±2.3 vs 54.7±3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1±3.2 vs 67.2±3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1±1.7 vs 46.9±2.7%) and At (30.5±1.7 vs 49±3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4±2.6 vs 59.5±3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives.

  15. Liraglutide as adjunct to insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes does not interfere with glycaemic recovery or gastric emptying rate during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Christian Seerup; Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) therapy is a potential treatment as adjunct to insulin in type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, GLP-1RAs inhibit glucagon secretion and delay gastric emptying (GE) rate and may impair recovery from hypoglycaemia. We evaluated the effect of the GLP-1......RA liraglutide on counterregulatory responses and GE rate during hypoglycaemia in persons with T1D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 12-week, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 20 patients aged >18 years with T1D and HbA1c ≥8% (64 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned (1:1) to liraglutide 1.......2 mg once daily or placebo as add-on to insulin treatment. Before and at end of treatment a hypoglycaemic clamp (plasma glucose target 2.5 mmol/l) was carried out followed by a liquid meal. Primary endpoint was change in GE rate (evaluated by area under the paracetamol curve and time to peak...

  16. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel...... based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P breakfast...

  17. Esvaziamento gástrico nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica submetidos à hemodiálise Gastric emptying study in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Sizue Hirata

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Queixas dispépticas são comuns em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica. As mais frequentemente relatadas são anorexia, náusea, vômito, sensação de plenitude gástrica e dor epigástrica. A possibilidade destes sinais e sintomas estarem associadas ao retardo no esvaziamento gástrico é atraente. OBJETIVO: Estudar o esvaziamento gástrico de uma refeição sólida padronizada, em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em tratamento dialítico. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 31 pessoas de ambos os sexos com idade variável de 18 à 60 anos, sendo 14 com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise há mais de 6 meses e 17 sadios. Foram excluídos pacientes com diabetes mellitus, amiloidose, doenças do colágeno, doenças dispépticas e/ou submetidos à operação gástrica, pacientes em uso de drogas pró-cinéticas gástricas e grávidas. O método do esvaziamento gástrico foi a cintilografia, através de câmara de cintilação de dois cabeçotes. A refeição teste padronizada consistiu de omelete de três ovos de galinha preparado com mistura de enxofre coloidal marcado com 185 MBq de tecnécio-99m. Foram estudados a curva de retenção gástrica total e o T½ do esvaziamento gástrico. Os testes estatísticos utilizados foram o de c2 e o de Kruskal Wallis. RESULTADOS: Os resultados confirmaram a homogeneidade dos grupos quanto à idade e o sexo. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação às curvas de retenção gástrica total e o T½, semelhantes nos dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O esvaziamento gástrico de pacientes urêmicos em tratamento hemodialítico há mais de seis meses é igual ao de indivíduos sadios.BACKGROUND: Dyspeptic symptoms are frequent in renal patients. They are anorexia, nausea, vomit, pain and epigastric distension. These symptoms can be related to the delay in gastric emptying. AIM: To investigate gastric emptying in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis

  18. Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gridneva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE, a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants (n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo. Stomach volumes (SV were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (−0.07 [−0.10, −0.03], p < 0.001 GE rate, higher post-feed SVs (0.82 [0.53, 1.12], p < 0.001, and longer GE times (0.24 [0.03, 0.46], p = 0.033. Higher whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023. Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002 and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005, and lower casein:whey ratio (−65.89 [−107.13, −2.66], p = 0.003. FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants.

  19. Reconsideration of postoperative oral intake tolerance after pancreaticoduodenectomy: prospective consecutive analysis of delayed gastric emptying according to the ISGPS definition and the amount of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Emi; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Nobuoka, Takayuki; Imamura, Masafumi; Nagayama, Minoru; Sonoda, Tomoko; Hirata, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    A prospective consecutive study was planned to evaluate the postpancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) oral intake tolerance. The occurrence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE), as defined by the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS), and the amount of dietary intake were analyzed. The risk factors for low oral intake tolerance were additionally determined. The causation of DGE after PD is still unclear. Several possible factors have been discussed, such as reconstruction methods and other complications. However, none of them has followed the definition of ISGPS. Between 2003 and 2007, 101 consecutive patients underwent PD-related surgery, and standard operative procedure was performed on 85 patients. Perioperative data were prospectively collected in all patients, and the patient's postoperative dietary intake was recorded for all meals until discharge. As an indicator of early postoperative oral intake tolerance, we added up the dietary intake from postoperative day 1 to 21 and called this value the total amount of dietary intake (TDI). The postoperative outcomes were compared between non-DGE and DGE. The high-low of TDI values was also analyzed. Multivariate analysis for factors associated with the occurrence of DGE and TDI was performed. The occurrence of DGE as defined by ISGPS was 42%. The postoperative outcomes of DGE patients were significantly poor compared with those of non-DGE patients. TDI values were significantly low in DGE patients, and non-DGE patients with low TDI values showed a significantly extended duration of parenteral nutrition and postoperative hospitalization. Operative bleeding (>1,000 mL) and pancreatic fistulas were likely to be associated with DGE occurrence. Gender (women), BMI (>25 kg/m), postoperative intraabdominal infection, and DGE were significantly associated with low TDI values. The ISGPS definition of DGE seemed feasible for patient management. TDI values provided additional information for analyzing postoperative oral

  20. Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridneva, Zoya; Kugananthan, Sambavi; Hepworth, Anna R; Tie, Wan J; Lai, Ching T; Ward, Leigh C; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2016-12-28

    Human milk (HM) components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE), a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants ( n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo). Stomach volumes (SV) were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV) was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (-0.07 [-0.10, -0.03], p < 0.001) GE rate, higher post-feed SVs (0.82 [0.53, 1.12], p < 0.001), and longer GE times (0.24 [0.03, 0.46], p = 0.033). Higher whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023). Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002) and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005), and lower casein:whey ratio (-65.89 [-107.13, -2.66], p = 0.003). FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants.

  1. Dietary green-plant thylakoids decrease gastric emptying and gut transit, promote changes in the gut microbial flora, but does not cause steatorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Weström, Björn R.; Linninge, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects......, and specifically the Bacteriodes fragilis group, were increased by thylakoid treatment versus placebo, while thylakoids did not cause steatorrhea. Dietary supplementation with thylakoids thus affects satiety both via appetite hormones and GI fullness, and affects the microbial composition without causing GI...... adverse effects such as steatorrhea. This suggests thylakoids as a novel agent in prevention and treatment of obesity....

  2. A tale of gastric layering and sieving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; Graaf, de Kees; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more

  3. Sweetness, satiation, and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; Drewnowski, Adam; Anderson, G Harvey; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Martin, Corby K

    2012-06-01

    Satiation and satiety are central concepts in the understanding of appetite control and both have to do with the inhibition of eating. Satiation occurs during an eating episode and brings it to an end. Satiety starts after the end of eating and prevents further eating before the return of hunger. Enhancing satiation and satiety derived from foodstuffs was perceived as a means to facilitate weight control. Many studies have examined the various sensory, cognitive, postingestive, and postabsorptive factors that can potentially contribute to the inhibition of eating. In such studies, careful attention to study design is crucial for correct interpretation of the results. Although sweetness is a potent sensory stimulus of intake, sweet-tasting products produce satiation and satiety as a result of their volume as well as their nutrient and energy content. The particular case of energy intake from fluids has generated much research and it is still debated whether energy from fluids is as satiating as energy ingested from solid foods. This review discusses the satiating power of foods and drinks containing nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. The brain mechanisms of food reward (in terms of "liking" and "wanting") are also addressed. Finally, we highlight the importance of reward homeostasis, which can help prevent eating in the absence of hunger, for the control of intake.

  4. Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180–210 min, gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography, plasma gut hormone concentrations (0–180 min and appetite (visual analogue scales, in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years ingested drinks (~450 mL containing: (i 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; ‘P280’; (ii 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; ‘M280’; (iii 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; ‘M504’; or (iv control (~2 kcal. The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05, which was increased most by the M504-drink. P280- and M504-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9, lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 than M280 (p < 0.05. Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05. In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses.

  5. The Dynamics of Gastric Emptying and Self-Reported Feelings of Satiation Are Better Predictors Than Gastrointestinal Hormones of the Effects of Lipid Emulsion Structure on Fat Digestion in Healthy Adults-A Bayesian Inference Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingoetter, Andreas; Buetikofer, Simon; Curcic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation.Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated...... by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions. Iterative Bayesian model averaging variable selection...

  6. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety. PMID:26724486

  7. O esvaziamento gástrico e a insuficiência renal crônica Vaciamiento gástrico y la insuficiencia renal crónica Gastric emptying and chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Sizue Hirata

    2007-08-01

    confirmando esa observación. La importancia del EG en anestesia puede ser resumida un uno de sus aspectos principales, el ayuno preoperatorio. El retardo en el vaciamiento puede causar estasis y aumentar el riesgo de vómito y aspiración pulmonar. La posibilidad de existir retardo del vaciamiento en urémicos nos atrae. Quejas dispépticas son comunes en estos pacientes y podrían ser explicadas por la dificultad de vaciamiento gástrico. A pesar de las evidencias, la literatura es muy controvertida en este aspecto. No existe un consenso en cuanto a los resultados obtenidos. Diferencias en el método de estudio utilizado podrían explicar esos resultados, observados en estudios clínicos y experimentales. El objetivo de este estudio fue ver nuevamente algunos aspectos importantes del síndrome dispéptico en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC terminal, con énfasis en el retardo del EG. CONTENIDO: Se abordarán los aspectos básicos relacionados a la fisiología del EG, los métodos más empleados para el estudio del EG, el síndrome dispéptico y la uremia y el vaciamiento gástrico en la insuficiencia renal crónica. CONCLUSIONES: El EG es un proceso fisiológico complejo de transferencia del alimento del estómago para el duodeno, cuyos mecanismos todavía no se conocen bien. La cintilografía, utilizando comidas con radio fármacos, es el examen más utilizado para el estudio del EG. Un porcentaje expresivo de pacientes con IRC terminal presenta retardo en el EG. Posiblemente otros mecanismos, además de la uremia, involucrando la función motora gástrica, están involucrados en esta disfunción.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The first reference to delayed gastric emptying (GE was made by Grodstein in 1979. Other studies have since been published, not always confirming his work. The importance of GE in anesthesia can be resumed by one of its main aspects, preoperative fasting. Delayed gastric emptying can lead to stasis and increase the risk of vomiting and

  8. Relating gastric scintigraphy and symptoms to motility capsule transit and pressure findings in suspected gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, W L; May, K P; Wilson, L A; Van Natta, M; Parkman, H P; Pasricha, P J; Koch, K L; Abell, T L; McCallum, R W; Nguyen, L A; Snape, W J; Sarosiek, I; Clarke, J O; Farrugia, G; Calles-Escandon, J; Grover, M; Tonascia, J; Lee, L A; Miriel, L; Hamilton, F A

    2018-02-01

    Wireless motility capsule (WMC) findings are incompletely defined in suspected gastroparesis. We aimed to characterize regional WMC transit and contractility in relation to scintigraphy, etiology, and symptoms in patients undergoing gastric emptying testing. A total of 209 patients with gastroparesis symptoms at NIDDK Gastroparesis Consortium centers underwent gastric scintigraphy and WMCs on separate days to measure regional transit and contractility. Validated questionnaires quantified symptoms. Solid scintigraphy and liquid scintigraphy were delayed in 68.8% and 34.8% of patients; WMC gastric emptying times (GET) were delayed in 40.3% and showed 52.8% agreement with scintigraphy; 15.5% and 33.5% had delayed small bowel (SBTT) and colon transit (CTT) times. Transit was delayed in ≥2 regions in 23.3%. Rapid transit was rarely observed. Diabetics had slower GET but more rapid SBTT versus idiopathics (P ≤ .02). GET delays related to greater scintigraphic retention, slower SBTT, and fewer gastric contractions (P ≤ .04). Overall gastroparesis symptoms and nausea/vomiting, early satiety/fullness, bloating/distention, and upper abdominal pain subscores showed no relation to WMC transit. Upper and lower abdominal pain scores (P ≤ .03) were greater with increased colon contractions. Constipation correlated with slower CTT and higher colon contractions (P = .03). Diarrhea scores were higher with delayed SBTT and CTT (P ≤ .04). Wireless motility capsules define gastric emptying delays similar but not identical to scintigraphy that are more severe in diabetics and relate to reduced gastric contractility. Extragastric transit delays occur in >40% with suspected gastroparesis. Gastroparesis symptoms show little association with WMC profiles, although lower symptoms relate to small bowel or colon abnormalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  10. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Candida J; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2016-02-01

    This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    In today's society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Serotonin controlling feeding and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jörg-Peter; Fink, Heidrun

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin has been implicated in the control of satiety for almost four decades. Historically, the insight that the appetite suppressant effect of fenfluramine is linked to serotonin has stimulated interest in and research into the role of this neurotransmitter in satiety. Various rodent models, including transgenic models, have been developed to identify the involved 5-HT receptor subtypes. This approach also required the availability of receptor ligands of different selectivity, and behavioural techniques had to be developed simultaneously which allow differentiating between unspecific pharmacological effects of these ligands and 'true' satiation and satiety. Currently, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2C and 5-HT6 receptors have been identified to mediate serotonergic satiety in different ways. The recently approved anti-obesity drug lorcaserin is a 5-HT2C receptor agonist. In brain, both hypothalamic (arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus) and extrahypothalamic sites (parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract) have been identified to mediate the serotonergic control of satiety. Serotonin interacts within the hypothalamus with endogenous orexigenic (Neuropeptide Y/Agouti related protein) and anorectic (α-melanocyte stimulating hormone) peptides. In the nucleus of the solitary tract serotonin integrates peripheral satiety signals. Here, the 5-HT3, but possibly also the 5-HT2C receptor play a role. It has been found that 5-HT acts in concert with such peripheral signals as cholecystokinin and leptin. Despite the recent advances of our knowledge, many of the complex interactions between 5-HT and other satiety factors are not fully understood yet. Further progress in research will also advance the development of new serotonergic anti-obesity drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of gastric motility by Fourier analysis of condensed images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Muenzing, W.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K.

    2000-01-01

    In this study Fourier analysis was applied to condensed images of gastric emptying with the aim of evaluating the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions as well as gastric emptying in patients with various well-defined disorders. In 15 controls, 65 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 41 patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 12 patients with pyloric stenosis and 9 patients who had undergone gastric surgery, gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of a semi-solid test meal. In addition, condensed images were generated to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions by means of Fourier analysis. In PSS and DM patients, gastric emptying and contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Patients with pyloric stenosis displayed regular peristalsis but significantly delayed emptying (P<0.01). Patients who had undergone gastric surgery showed normal or rapid gastric emptying associated with decreased amplitudes (P<0.01). The frequency of gastric contractions in the patient groups was not different from that in controls. This study showed Fourier analysis of condensed images to be a rapid and feasible approach for the evaluation of gastric contractions. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Data on gastric contractions provided additional information compared with results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of gastric motility by Fourier analysis of condensed images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R.; Muenzing, W.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    In this study Fourier analysis was applied to condensed images of gastric emptying with the aim of evaluating the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions as well as gastric emptying in patients with various well-defined disorders. In 15 controls, 65 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 41 patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 12 patients with pyloric stenosis and 9 patients who had undergone gastric surgery, gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of a semi-solid test meal. In addition, condensed images were generated to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions by means of Fourier analysis. In PSS and DM patients, gastric emptying and contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Patients with pyloric stenosis displayed regular peristalsis but significantly delayed emptying (P<0.01). Patients who had undergone gastric surgery showed normal or rapid gastric emptying associated with decreased amplitudes (P<0.01). The frequency of gastric contractions in the patient groups was not different from that in controls. This study showed Fourier analysis of condensed images to be a rapid and feasible approach for the evaluation of gastric contractions. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Data on gastric contractions provided additional information compared with results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  15. Gastric emptying scintigraphy: choice by in vitro test, of a new {sup 99m}Tc marker to label solid phase and further analysis with the better radiopharmaceuticals; Radiomarquage au {sup 99m}Tc de la phase solide pour la vidange gastrique: stabilite de 5 radiopharmaceutiques par test in vitro et analyse complementaire sur les 2 plus stables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, F

    2005-05-15

    The study of gastric emptying by isotopic method occurs regularly in Brest nuclear medicine department. It consists in eating radiolabelled omelette with rhenium sulphide macro-colloid and in drinking radiolabelled water with {sup 111}In-DTPA. The two phases are followed in stomach with gamma-camera. Rhenium sulphide macro-colloid have been taken off the market in january 2004 and no radiopharmaceutical has replaced them. in vitro test permitted us to test solid phase radiolabeling stability with 5 {sup 99m}Tc-vectors used in nuclear medicine. Two of them are suitable for gastric emptying solid phase labelling: the tin fluoride colloids and the sodium phytate but tin fluoride colloids give better labelling stability than sodium phytate. In order to define solid phase marker properties, studies of medium composition by X fluorescence, size by laser granulometry, structure by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), TLC (thin layer chromatography) and by centrifugation are done either with the two vectors or only with sodium phytate. Structural properties of tin fluoride colloids are known. Results of this study indicate that phytates can be colloids. Finally, the good gastric emptying solid phase marker must be a colloid with a size of about 200 nm. (author)

  16. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, C. de; Blom, W.A.M.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This review's objective is to give a critical summary of studies that focused on physiologic measures relating to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety may be used as a tool for assessing the satiating efficiency of foods and for understanding

  17. Effect of baclofen on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats Efeito do baclofen no esvaziamento gástrico de líquido e de sólidos em rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a potent inhibitory neurotransmitter. There is evidence that GABA B receptors located in the dorsal complex and in afferent fibers of the vagus nerve participate in the control of gastrointestinal motility. OBJECTIVE: To assess the intracerebroventricularly (ICV and intravenously (IV effect of baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n = 6-8 animals were used. Gastric emptying of liquid test meals labeled with phenol red was evaluated by the determination of percent gastric retention (%GR 10 and 15 min after orogastric administration of saline and 10% glucose meals, respectively. Baclofen was injected ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal through a tube implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain and was injected IV (1 and 2 mg/kg into a tail vein. The gastric emptying of liquid was determined 10 or 30 min after ICV and IV baclofen administration, respectively. The gastric emptying of the solid meal was assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention 2 h after the beginning of the ingestion of the habitual ratio by the animal, consumed over a period of 30 min. Baclofen was administered ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal or IV (1 and 2 mg/kg immediately after the end of the ingestion of the solid meal. The control groups received vehicle (sterile saline solution ICV or IV. RESULTS: The group of animals receiving baclofen ICV (2 mg/animal presented a significantly lower (PCONTEXTO: O ácido gama-aminobutírico (GABA é um potente neurotransmissor inibitório. Há evidências que receptores GABA>B localizados no complexo dorsal do vago e em fibras aferentes do nervo vago participam no controle da motricidade gastrointestinal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito intracerebroventricular (ICV e intravenoso (IV do baclofen, um agonista para receptores GABA B, sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de líquidos e de sólidos em ratos. M

  18. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion. Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers. Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake. Results: Women ( n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus ( P = 0.005) than men ( n = 26). In women ( n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum ( P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings ( P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men ( n = 10). In women ( n = 12), motilin ( P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger ( P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings ( P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women. Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Trustworthy satiety claims are good for science and society. Comment on 'Satiety. No way to slim'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    In their short communication against satiety claims, Booth and Nouwen (2010) neglect dozens of well designed studies that show consistent relations between satiety, energy intake and body weight. Satiety, intake and weight are separate concepts, that need different claims and evidence to support

  20. Prospective, randomized trial on the effect of cyclic versus continuous enteral nutrition on postoperative gastric function after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.; Akkermans, L. M.; van Gulik, T. M.; Masclee, A. A.; Moojen, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of a cyclic versus a continuous enteral feeding protocol on postoperative delayed gastric emptying, start of normal diet, and hospital stay was assessed in patients undergoing pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Delayed gastric emptying

  1. Cholecystokinin and satiety in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anika, S M; Houpt, T R; Houpt, K A

    1981-05-01

    Twenty-three pigs, 1-3 mo of age, were fitted variously with intraperitoneal, intrajugular, intraportal, and intraduodenal catheters. After a 4-h fast, porcine cholecystokinin (CCK), 5-40 Ivy dog units/kg body wt (IDU/kg); caerulein, 0.25-2 micrograms/kg; or the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-OP), 5-40 IDU/kg, was given parenterally; or 2-5% sodium oleate or 5% protein hydrolysate (5 ml/kg) was injected intraduodenally. Pelleted feed intake was then measured for 10 min. Food intake was depressed in a dose-related fashion in all instances as compared to after 0.9% NaCl control injections. For example, feed consumption following 5 and 40 IDU/kg of CCK intrajugularly was 84 +/- 2 and 6 +/- 4 (SE) %, respectively, of control intake. Intraportal infusion produced a greater depression of feeding. A conditioned taste aversion could not be formed to CCK, caerulein, or CCK-OP. Sodium oleate or protein hydrolysate, releasers of endogenous CCK, depressed feeding, and this satiety effect was attenuated when given with 0.5% tetracaine. The results support the hypothesis that CCK participates in rapid, presumably preabsorptive, satiety.

  2. Gastric Bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 12-year-old female with no past medical history presented with abdominal pain for 3 months. The pain was intermittent, located at the epigastric region, non-radiating, fluctuating intensity up to 8/10, and had worsened over the past month. She did not have fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or blood in her stool. The patient also endorsed hair loss over the same time period and noted that her previously long hair was now short and thin. On exam, patient was noted to have shoulder-length hair, a soft, non-distended abdomen with mild tenderness to the epigastric region, and a 5cm hard mass palpated at the epigastrium. Significant findings: In the abdominal radiograph, a nonspecific and non-obstructive bowel gas pattern with no air-fluid level was noted, however the stomach was distended with soft tissue. The CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a distended stomach with undigested heterogeneous contents (presumed bezoar. Discussion: A bezoar is a mass of incompletely digested material typically originating in the stomach and consisting of vegetable fibers, hair, or drugs.1 Bezoars develop after ingested foreign material accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract due to indigestibility, gastric outlet obstruction, or intestinal stasis. Trichobezoars are comprised of hair and classically form in young females with an underlying psychiatric disorder resulting in the urge to pull one’s hair out (trichotillomania and swallow it (trichophagia.2,3 Gastric bezoars are rare with an approximate incidence of 0.3 percent of patients undergoing upper endoscopy.4 Patients tend to remain asymptomatic for long periods, but may develop abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, and weight loss.5 Complications may include gastrointestinal ulcerations, perforations, intussusception, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and death.6-8 The diagnosis of a gastric bezoar can be made using plain films, ultrasound, or CT, and

  3. Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avaliação do pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the gastric emptying of rats: a pretreatment evaluation using Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2006-09-01

    é-tratados com as mesmas doses do inibidor das óxido nítrico-sintetases e tratados com veículo (40,5% e 38,7%, respectivamente e àqueles pré-tratados com veículo e tratados com a mesma toxina. CONCLUSÃO: O pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester numa dose baixa (1 mg/kg determinou redução discreta no efeito de retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio in vivo e aumento significativo do retardo com doses mais elevadas (2,5 e 5 mg/kg, doses estas que, per se, não interferem no esvaziamento.BACKGROUND: There is evidence that nitric oxide plays a role in the decrease in gastric emptying induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. AIM: To evaluate the effect of pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester, one competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide syntases, on the gastric emptying delay induced by lipopolysaccharide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats, SPF, were used after 24 h fast and 1 h-water withdrawn. The pretreatment was done intravenously with vehicle (saline or Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester in the doses of 0.5, 1, 2.5 e 5 mg/kg. After 10 min, the animals were treated iv with lipopolysaccharide (50 mg/kg or received vehicle (saline. The gastric emptying was evaluated 1 h after the lipopolysaccharide administration. A saline solution containing phenol red was used as the test meal. The gastric emptying was indirectly assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention of the test meal 10 min after orogastric administration. RESULTS: The animals pretreated with vehicle and treatment with lipopolysaccharide have significant rise of the gastric retention (average = 57% in comparison with the controls receiving only vehicle (38.1%. The pretreatment with the different doses of Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester did not modify per se the gastric retention in comparison with the animals pretreated with vehicle. Pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester with the dose of 1 mg/kg determined a

  4. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    In today’s society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. PMID:27633103

  5. Gastric per-oral endoscopic myotomy with antropyloromyotomy in the treatment of refractory gastroparesis: clinical experience with follow-up and scintigraphic evaluation (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jean-Michel; Lestelle, Valentin; Benezech, Alban; Cohen, Jonah; Vitton, Véronique; Grimaud, Jean-Charles; Barthet, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Gastroparesis is a chronic, debilitating condition. We report an experience conducting gastric per-oral endoscopic pyloromyotomy (G-POEM) with objectives to assess clinical efficacy, gastric emptying evolution, and procedural adverse events. This was a clinical pilot series on 12 consecutive patients who underwent G-POEM for refractory gastroparesis in our tertiary center between February 2014 and August 2015. Patients included had severe disease as defined by elevated Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptoms Index (GCSI) score and delayed gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES). G-POEM was performed by mucosal incision upstream the pylorus followed by submucosal tunnel and antropyloromyotomy with subsequent access closure. Efficacy was assessed at 5 days, 1 month, and 3 months, based on GCSI score, and individualizing (Likert scale) the main symptoms (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, early satiety, and anorexia). GES was performed 2 months after the procedure. G-POEM was successfully performed in all 12 patients, yielding a technical success rate of 100%. Significant improvements in GCSI were observed: 3.5 ± .8 versus .9 ± .9 (1 month) and 1.1 ± 1.5 (3 months), respectively (P < .001), as well as the severity of main symptoms at 3 months. Clinical efficacy was 85% (10/12). GES normalized in 75% of cases, with improvement of half emptying time (222 ± 90 minutes vs 133 ± 90 minutes; P = .03) and retention at 2 hours (76% ± 20% vs 44% ± 26%; P = .009). There were no adverse events related to the procedure. We report a single-center study evaluating G-POEM for refractory gastroparesis, demonstrating its feasibility, reproducibility, and safety with promising clinical and scintigraphic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relevância da temperatura e do esvaziamento gástrico de líquidos consumidos por praticantes de atividade física Relevance of temperature and gastric emptying of liquids consumed by individuals who practice physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires da Silva

    2009-10-01

    effects on performance and possibly on health if the body liquids lost by sweating are not completely replaced. Hydration efficiency also depends on gastric emptying, which is affected by several factors, including the temperature of the ingested liquid. The objective of this study was to critically assess the fluid replacement practices used by individuals who practice physical activities and discuss how the effect of liquid temperature on gastric emptying influences this hydrating behavior. Studies on the theme have found contradicting results, probably due to the different methods used. The studies that investigate liquid temperature in the gastrointestinal tract during exercise are limited. Considering the total gastric emptying time during rest, extreme liquid temperatures have no significant effect on the total gastric emptying time, since the temperature inside the stomach normalizes quickly after ingestion of the liquid. However, there are clear scientific evidences that the ingestion of ice-cold liquids increases gastric emptying in the first minutes after ingestion. This fact needs to be better investigated when it is associated with other pre-competition factors, such as the psychological state of the athlete. However, low temperatures improve the palatability of the drink, implying in greater consumption by the athletes and reducing the risk of dehydration. The effects of low temperature on gastric emptying are not decisive, since fluid replacement has intervention factors that are more relevant than temperature.

  7. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

  8. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery

  9. Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetherington, M.M.; Cunningham, K.; Dye, L.; Gibson, E.L.; Gregersen, N.T.; Halford, J.C.G.; Lawton, C.L.; Lluch, A.; Mela, D.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake

  10. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  11. CASE REPORT Gastric trichobezoar: Food for thought

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with focal alopecia.[2] Bezoars may occur following gastric surgery such as pyloroplasty or partial gastrectomy in association with vagotomy.[3]. They may occur too in cases of delayed gastric emptying secondary to diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism or mixed connective tissue diseases. The clinical spectrum in GI bezoars ...

  12. Gastric Outlet Obstruction from Duodenal Lipoma in an Adult

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with resultant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). The duodenum was not demonstrated. An abdominal ultrasound scan showed a large and prominent stomach, with the gastric lumen harboring large food debris with near absence of gastric emptying. An area of fusiform bowel thickening was noted near the duodenal bulb.

  13. Delayed absorption of many (paracetamol, aspirin, other NSAIDs and zolmitriptan) but not all (sumatriptan, rizatriptan) drugs during migraine attacks and most likely normal gastric emptying outside attacks. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer Carsten

    2017-01-01

    . Results In seven studies, mainly investigating NSAIDs and analgesics, the early absorption of the drugs during 112 migraine attacks was delayed. The absorption of sumatriptan is usual in therapeutic doses, and rizatriptan was normal during 131 migraine attacks. The interictal gastric stasis observed using...

  14. Investigating satiety for healthy weight : Appetite control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgering, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulating feelings of hunger and satiety could be a promising approach in weight management. TNO Food & Nutrition offers advanced assessment tools to support the development of food products that help address issues of overweight and underweight. This can reduce time, cost, and time-to-market.

  15. Claiming satiety: consumer perception, interpretation & subsequent food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    For many people, food intake management is a challenging process, as food is always in abundance and the appetite control system is challenged and potentially overpowered by habits, routines and cues in the external environment. The present thesis focuses on satiation and satiety expectations

  16. Emptiness and Fullness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne; Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    examines how diagnoses of emptiness operate in a range of very different domains in contemporary China: In the ostensibly meritocratic exam system and the rhetoric of officials, in underground churches, housing bubbles, and nationalist fantasies, in bodies possessed by spirits and evaluations of jade...

  17. Effect of charge density of polysaccharides on self-assembled intragastric gelation of whey protein/polysaccharide under simulated gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Zhang, Zhong; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on the behavior of mixed protein and polysaccharides with different charge densities under simulated gastric conditions. Three types of polysaccharides, namely, guar gum, xanthan gum and carrageenan (neutral, medium negatively, and highly negatively charged, respectively) were selected for heating together with whey protein isolate (WPI) at a biopolymer ratio ranging from 0.01 to 0.1. Upon mixing with simulated gastric fluid (SGF), all WPI-guar gum samples remained soluble, whereas WPI-xanthan gum and WPI-carrageenan at biopolymer ratio higher than 0.01 led to self-assembled intragastric gelation immediately after mixing with SGF. The mechanism behind the intragastric gelation is believed to be the cross-linking between oppositely charged protein and polysaccharides when pH was reduced to below the pI of the protein. Higher biopolymer ratio led to a higher degree of intermolecular interaction, which tends to form stronger gel. More negatively charged carrageenan also formed a stronger gel than xanthan gum. SDS-PAGE results show that the digestibility of protein was not affected by the presence of guar gum as well as xanthan gum and carrageenan at biopolymer ratio lower than 0.02. However, intragastric gel formed by WPI-xanthan gum and WPI-carrageenan at biopolymer ratio higher than 0.02 significantly slows down the digestion rate of protein, which could potentially be used to delay gastric emptying and promote satiety.

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, E.D.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total-body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total-body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive Beta endorphin.

  20. Impact of Sleeve Gastrectomy on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Gastric Emptying Time, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), Ghrelin and Leptin in Non-morbidly Obese Subjects with BMI 30-35.0 kg/m2: a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, B; Wahal, Akshat; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Priyadarshini, Pratyusha; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Yadav, Rajkumar

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 30.0-35.0 kg/m 2 . Possible mechanisms, including alterations in gastric emptying time (GET), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and leptin, were evaluated. Twenty obese patients with T2DM and with a BMI of 30.0-35.0 kg/m 2 underwent LSG during March 2012 to February 2015. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and GET were measured at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after surgery. Fasting and post-prandial levels of serum GLP-1, ghrelin and leptin were measured pre-operatively and after 3 and 6 months. The average duration of follow-up was 17.6 months, and 10 patients had completed 2 years of follow-up. After 2 years, the average BMI decreased from 33.4 ± 1.2 to 26.7 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 . The mean HbA1c decreased from 8.7 ± 1.6 to 6.7 ± 1.5 %, respectively. Ten patients achieved complete remission. Insulin could be stopped in all six patients who were on it pre-operatively. Meal-stimulated GLP-1 response and serum insulin at 30 min showed a significant increase following surgery. There was a significant decrease in GET. This prospective study confirms the positive impact of LSG on diabetic status of non-morbidly obese patients. The possible mechanisms include the rise in post-prandial GLP-1 level induced by accelerated gastric emptying, leading to an increase in insulin secretion. LSG also leads to decreased ghrelin and leptin levels which may have a role in improving glucose homeostasis after surgery.

  1. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  2. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Cooper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control.

  3. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  4. Effects of gastric filling and vagotomy on ingestion, nipple attachment, and weight gain by suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, D N

    1983-11-01

    The importance of gut signals for the short-term and long-term control of ingestion was investigated using rat pups in the natural suckling situation. Pups at 10 days of age were deprived of milk and their dam for 9 hr. Pyloric ligation, vagotomy, and preloading procedures were performed on the pups shortly before testing began. The initial latency to attach to a nipple and the incidence of attachment were recorded during the 2-hr suckling period. Milk intake and the weight of gastric contents were measured following the test. Pregastric stimulation together with natural or artificial gastric filling suppressed ingestion. Acute subdiaphragmatic truncal vagotomy enhanced ingestion under these conditions, and vagotomy alone resulted in controlled hyperphagia concomitant with exaggerated gastric filling. The data suggest that the stomach is one site where milk activates a suppression mechanism for ingestion. This mechanism is mediated primarily by the vagus nerve. The importance of nipple-attachment behavior is discussed in relation to ingestive behavior, and the question of satiety in suckling rats is raised. The chronic effects of truncal vagotomy on rat pups were also investigated, beginning with denervation at 10 days of age. The pups were challenged with deprivation and tested in the natural suckling situation on Day 20. Weaning occurred on Day 22, and the pups were sacrificed on Day 41, followed by measurements of body weight, body length, and gastric contents. The physical and behavioral changes that developed during the chronic phase of vagotomy included (1) permanent gastric distension following the first postsurgical bout of ingestion; (2) reduced intake of milk when the availability of milk was greatest during the suckling test; (3) increased resting behavior regardless of milk letdown conditions during the suckling test; (4) failure to gain weight at a normal rate; and (5) failure to grow at a normal rate. The data indicate that the vagus nerve is

  5. Intermittent gastric outlet obstruction caused by a prolapsing antral gastric polyp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Mehul; Kelley, Brian; Rendon, Gabriel; Abraham, Bincy

    2010-01-01

    Most gastric polyps have an asymptomatic presentation and are an incidental finding on upper endoscopy. Symptomatic presentations can range from an ulcerated polyp leading to anemia and occult bleed to complete gastric outlet obstruction. We report a case of an 89-year-old woman who presented with postprandial nausea and early satiety. Her upper endoscopy revealed a 2 cm pedunculated hyperplastic polyp arising from the antrum of the stomach which was seen prolapsing into the pylorus causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. In the present report, we statistically analyzed 39 prolapsing gastric polyps previously reported in the English literature and demonstrate the current utility of monopolar snare polypectomy in establishing a histological diagnosis while offering simultaneous treatment. Additionally, we review the literature for the management of all hyperplastic gastric polyps in relation to advancements in digestive endoscopy. PMID:21160624

  6. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, Flora Margarida Barra; Pansani, Patrícia Luísa; Silveira, Luciano Alves Matias da; Naves, Aline de Araújo; Peixoto, Ana Cristina Abdu; Lima, Hellen Moreira de; Martins, Laura Bisinotto

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  7. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight123

    OpenAIRE

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    In today’s society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in s...

  8. Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Renes, R.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers’ perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate

  9. Hunger and Satiety Gauge Reward Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Michael Cassidy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the neurocircuits and hormones known to underlie the sensations of hunger and satiety also substantially alter the activity of the dopaminergic reward system. Much interest lies in the ways that hunger, satiety, and reward tie together, as the epidemic of obesity seems tied to the recent development and mass availability of highly palatable foods. In this review, we will first discuss the basic neurocircuitry of the midbrain and basal forebrain reward system. We will elaborate how several important mediators of hunger—the agouti-related protein neurons of the arcuate nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, and ghrelin—enhance the sensitivity of the dopaminergic reward system. Then, we will elaborate how mediators of satiety—the nucleus tractus solitarius, pro-opiomelanocortin neurons of the arcuate nucleus, and its peripheral hormonal influences such as leptin—reduce the reward system sensitivity. We hope to provide a template by which future research may identify the ways in which highly rewarding foods bypass this balanced system to produce excessive food consumption.

  10. Involvement of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 in regulation of gastric motility and pancreatic endocrine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; Grybäck, Per; Jacobsson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on gastric emptying rates of a solid meal as well as postprandial hormone secretion and glucose disposal. Material and methods. In nine healthy subjects, gastric emptying of a 310-kcal radio-labelled solid meal and plasma ...

  11. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to paraesophageal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Selcuk; Soylu, Lutfi; Sahin, Mahir; Demiray, Taylan

    2015-04-01

    The most common causes of acute gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) are duodenal and type 3 gastric ulcers. However, mechanical or functional causes may also lead to this pathology. Acute GOO is characterized by delayed gastric emptying, anorexia, or nausea accompanied by vomiting. Herein we report a 56-year-old man diagnosed with GOO secondary to paraesophageal hiatal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication. Because of the rarity of this disease, common gastrointestinal complaints may mislead the emergency physician to diagnose a nonsurgical gastrointestinal disease if a detailed history and physical examinations are not obtained. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to paraesophageal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Coskun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common causes of acute gastric outlet obstruction (GOO are duodenal and type 3 gastric ulcers. However, mechanical or functional causes may also lead to this pathology. Acute GOO is characterized by delayed gastric emptying, anorexia, or nausea accompanied by vomiting. Herein we report a 56-year-old man diagnosed with GOO secondary to paraesophageal hiatal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication. Because of the rarity of this disease, common gastrointestinal complaints may mislead the emergency physician to diagnose a nonsurgical gastrointestinal disease if a detailed history and physical examinations are not obtained.

  13. Mechanistic understanding of time-dependent oral absorption based on gastric motor activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Kazutaka; Choe, Sally Y; Löbenberg, Raimar; Welage, Lynda S; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-09-01

    The relationship of gastric motor activity and gastric emptying of 0.7 mm caffeine pellets with their absorption was investigated in the fed state in healthy human subjects by simultaneous monitoring of antral motility and plasma concentrations. A kinetic model for gastric emptying-dependent absorption yielded multiple phases of gastric emptying and rate constants (k(g)) with large inter-individual differences and large variability in onset of gastric emptying (50-175 min). The model suggests that 50% of the dose is emptied in 1-2h and over 90% emptied by 3.5h following dosing, in all subjects. The maximum values of k(g) (k(g)(max)) were much greater than those reported for emptying of liquids in the fasted state and were comparable to k(g) values in the late Phase II/III of the migrating motor complex (MMC). The model described the observed irregular absorption rate-time and plasma concentration-time profiles adequately but not in detail. The model was more successful at simulating double-peak phenomena in absorption rate profiles and onset of caffeine absorption. The results suggest that gastric emptying regulates drug absorption of small particles in the fed state. Further, estimates of k(a) derived using the time-dependent absorption model were closer to the intrinsic absorption rate constant for caffeine.

  14. Modulation of gastric pH by a buffered soluble effervescent formulation: A possible means of improving gastric tolerability of alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, L A; Connolly, S M; Winter, J; Schmidt, T; Stevens, H N E; Hayward, M; Wilson, C G

    2012-08-01

    Gastrointestinal side-effects of alendronate (ALN) are believed to be associated with oesophageal lodging of tablets and perhaps reflux of gastric contents with alendronate under strongly acidic pH conditions. This leads to unfavourable posture restrictions when dosing. This clinical study evaluated gastric emptying and gastric pH after administration of Fosamax(®) tablets and a novel effervescent ALN formulation with a high buffering capacity. This novel formulation, EX101, was developed to potentially improve gastric tolerance. Gastric pH was monitored by nasogastric probes. Gastric emptying was determined simultaneously by scintigraphic imaging of (99m)Tc-DTPA labelled formulations. Both formulations tested rapidly cleared the oesophagus and there were no statistically significant or physiologically relevant differences in gastric emptying times. Mean pH at time to 50% gastric emptying of the radiolabel was significantly higher in EX101-treated subjects compared to those treated with Fosamax(®). At time to 90% gastric emptying of the radiolabel, mean pH values were comparable. Mucosal exposure to ALN at pH less than 3 is irritating to gastro-oesophageal tissue. Ingestion of Fosamax(®) resulted in ALN being present in the stomach at a pH below 3 within minutes. EX101 minimised the possibility of exposing the oesophagus (in case of reflux) to acidified ALN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional foods to promote weight loss and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Candida; Greenway, Frank L; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2014-11-01

    Diets that induce negative energy balance continue to be the cornerstone of obesity management. However, long-term volitional reduction in energy intake is challenging. Functional foods that enhance satiety may have an important practical application in increasing compliance to weight loss diets and thereby promoting sustained weight loss. Here, we present recent advances in identifying common foods that increase satiety. Protein induces satiety in the short term. There is no clear evidence to indicate superiority of a specific protein source over the other. Low-fat dairy products, eggs, and legumes enhance satiety. Although energy dense, nuts have some satiety-inducing effect, when included in the diet by isocaloric replacement of usual foods. Satiety induced by dietary fiber sources, such as oats and rye, are well documented, but these sensations do not always translate into reductions in energy intake or body weight. Several foods and food groups show promising potential in inducing satiety. However, it is important to recognize that the short-term effect of a food may not always translate into greater weight loss in the long term. Long-term clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the utility of a food in promoting weight loss.

  16. [Evaluation of stomach emptying under extreme obstruction of gastrointestinal transit treated with gastro-intestinal or duodenal-intestinal anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, S; Górka, Z; Jonderko, K; Nalewajka-Kołodziejczak, J; Gruszka, Z; Kuśnierz, K; Leidgens, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare gastric emptying in two groups of dogs in which a gastrojejunal or duodenojejunal Roux-en-Y anastomosis was performed over the site of an experimental obstruction in the distal duodenum. The experiment was carried out on 10 mongrel dogs. Gastric emptying was assessed twice in each dog before the experiment (control examination); the solid phase of the test meal was labelled with 99mTc. Following a control examination, the dogs were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, and subjected to the above mentioned surgical procedures. Postoperative gastric emptying was carried out 3 weeks after the operation, and then at 3 and 6 months following the procedure. The following parameters describing quantitatively gastric emptying were determined: mean transit time MTT0-60. MTT0-120 and total mean transit time MTT0-180. The comparison of these parameters revealed statistically significant differences confirming delay of gastric emptying in dogs with a gastrojejunal anastomosis.

  17. Prostaglandin regulation of gastric slow waves and peristalsis

    OpenAIRE

    Forrest, Abigail S.; Hennig, Grant W.; Jokela-Willis, Sari; Park, Chong Doo; Sanders, Kenton M.

    2009-01-01

    Gastric emptying depends on functional coupling of slow waves between the corpus and antrum, to allow slow waves initiated in the gastric corpus to propagate to the pyloric sphincter and generate gastric peristalsis. Functional coupling depends on a frequency gradient where slow waves are generated at higher frequency in the corpus and drive the activity of distal pacemakers. Simultaneous intracellular recording from corpus and antrum was used to characterize the effects of PGE2 on slow waves...

  18. Potent inhibitory effect of alcoholic beverages upon gastrointestinal passage of food and gallbladder emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Bożek, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Magdalena; Mgłosiek, Patrycja

    2013-12-01

    Current knowledge about the effect of alcoholic beverages on postprandial functioning of the digestive system is scarce and inconsistent. This study addresses their influence upon meal movement along the gut and meal-induced gallbladder emptying. Three examination blocks involved each 12 healthy volunteers. Ingestion of a solid 1485 kJ meal was followed by intake of 400 ml beer (4.7%vol), 200 ml red wine (13.7%vol) or 100 ml whisky (43.5%vol) or matching volumes of control fluids. Gastric myoelectrical activity and emptying, orocecal transit and gallbladder emptying was monitored noninvasively. Alcoholic beverages (beer, red wine, whisky) caused a significant slowdown of the gastric evacuation of the solid meal, the delay being the more potent, the greater was the concentration of ethanol. This inhibitory effect was not caused by interference with the gastric myoelectric activity. Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation (beer, red wine), at odds with the effect of their counterpartying aqueous ethanol solutions, did not elongate the orocecal transit of the solid food. Products of distillation-whisky and high proof ethanol solution--elicited a profound delay of the orocecal transit. Alcoholic beverages exerted an inhibitory effect upon the meal-stimulated gallbladder emptying, the magnitude of which increased in the order: beer → red wine → whisky. Alcoholic beverages exert an inhibitory effect upon the gastric emptying of a solid food and the meal-induced gallbladder emptying, whereas the effect upon the orocecal transit depends on the type of a beverage-whisky elicits a delay but beer or red wine are devoid of this effect.

  19. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Drechsler, Krista C; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2016-11-15

    Gastric protein hydrolysis may influence gastric emptying rate and subsequent protein digestibility in the small intestine. This study examined the gastric hydrolysis of dietary protein from raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig as a model for the adult human. The gastric hydrolysis of almond proteins was quantified by performing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent image analysis. There was an interaction between digestion time, stomach region, and almond type for gastric protein hydrolysis (pGastric emptying rate of protein was a significant (pgastric protein hydrolysis. In general, greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in raw almonds (compared to roasted almonds), hypothesized to be related to structural changes in almond proteins during roasting. Greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in the distal stomach (compared to the proximal stomach), likely related to the lower pH in the distal stomach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastric involvement in systemic sclerosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Levesque, H; Ducrotté, P; Denis, P; Hellot, M F; Benichou, J; Cailleux, N; Courtois, H

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of gastric electrical activity dysfunction with cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG), disturbances of gastric emptying function using radiopaque pellets, and gastric endoscopic abnormalities in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We also investigate for an association between EGG and gastric-emptying data with clinical manifestations and esophageal motor disturbances. Fasting and postprandial gastric electrical activity was studied in 22 consecutive patients with SSc (17 with and 5 without clinical gastric manifestations) and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Gastric emptying of radiopaque pellets and gastroscopy were also performed in SSc patients. The prevalence of EGG disturbances was as high as 81.82% in SSc patients. SSc patients exhibited, compared with controls, higher median percentage of dominant frequency in bradygastria during the fasting period and lower median values for postprandial electrical power and postprandial to fasting ratio for electrical power. Gastric emptying of radiopaque pellets was delayed in 11 SSc patients, and gastroscopy demonstrated "watermelon stomach" in 3 SSc patients. No correlation was found between the severity of gastric impairment and clinical presentation, SSc duration and subsets, and esophageal manometric impairment. Our study underlines the high frequency of gastric dysfunction in SSc patients. It suggests the usefulness of EGG in SSc in noninvasively detecting disorders of gastric electrical activity at an early stage and symptomatic patients with gastroparesis (because there was a correlation between values of postprandial to fasting ratio for electrical power of watermelon stomach diagnosis should be excluded in SSc patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage or with anemia related to iron deficiency.

  1. Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, E M; van Trijp, J C M; Renes, R J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers' perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate their individual product choice in response to a scenario. Scenarios varied as a between-subject factor in terms of whether information on the time gap till the next meal occasion (favorite main dish) was provided or not, and whether this meal would be eaten after one hour or four hours. To get a better understanding of consumer terminology a repertory grid task was used to elicit consumer attributes relating to satiety. This research shows that, when consumers are confronted with situations that vary in satiety requirements, they do not make significantly different snack products choices. But they do have specific ideas about the product features that influence the perceived satiety level of a product. Products perceived as fat, high in protein, with a savory taste and in one piece are expected to have a higher level of satiety compared to sweet products and products that exist of multiple small items. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of simulated intragastric haemorrhage on gastric acid secretion, gastric motility, and serum gastrin.

    OpenAIRE

    Fullarton, G M; Boyd, E J; Crean, G P; Hilditch, T E; McColl, K E

    1990-01-01

    The majority of upper gastrointestinal bleeds stop spontaneously despite the low pH and proteolytic activity of gastric juice which inhibit coagulation and platelet aggregation. In order to investigate this paradox six healthy male volunteers received intragastric infusions of 160 ml autologous venous blood or 160 ml egg white acting as control in random order on separate days. Basal acid output was calculated before infusion, net acid secretion and gastric volume emptied were calculated afte...

  3. Effects of the H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, J

    2008-01-01

    computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. Results......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. Material and methods. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...

  4. Effects of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J.L.; Graff, J.

    2008-01-01

    computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. RESULTS......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...

  5. Analyses of a satiety factor NUCB2/nesfatin-1; gene expressions and modulation by different dietary components in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Satoshi; Kimura, Tomoko; Kurishima, Miyuki; Mimura, Kana; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Oda, Hitomi; Mori, Akihiro; Momota, Yutaka; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi

    2016-03-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an anorexic peptide derived from a precursor, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), which is distributed in various organs, coexists with ghrelin in the gastric X/A-like cells and closely relates to an appetite control in rodents and humans. Nesfatin-1 may be a significant factor addressing the satiety also in veterinary medicine, however, there are few reports about nesfatin-1 in dogs. In the present study, we detected canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA in various tissues, especially abundant in pancreas, gastrointestinal tracts, testis and cerebellum. We examined circulating nesfatin-1 concentrations and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in upper gastrointestinal tracts (gastric corpus, pyloric antrum and duodenum) in dogs fed on different types of diets. Plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations in the dogs were approximately 4 ng/ml and they did not change after feeding through the study, however, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in pyloric antrum were 1.84-fold higher in the dogs fed on a High fiber/High protein diet (Pdogs fed on a High fat/Low protein diet (Pdogs fed on a Low fat/High carbohydrate diet (not significant) comparing to those on a control diet. It was concluded that High fiber/High protein and High fat/Low protein diets increased NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production in canine gastrointestinal tracts. These results may set the stage for further investigations of canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1, which may relate to satiety effects in dogs.

  6. Tolerable pain reduces gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility in healthy subjects: a crossover ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Kanbara, Kenji; Abe, Tetsuya; Yunoki, Naoko; Haruma, Ken; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2017-01-01

    Obstacles to pain management include patients' reluctance to inform healthcare provides about their pain, and differences in the pain management aims between patients and healthcare providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether tolerable pain influences gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility in healthy subjects. We undertook a crossover comparison study to evaluate gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility in 74 healthy subjects in the presence or absence of tolerable pain. The intensity of tolerable pain was defined as the upper limit of pain compatible with comfortable daily life. Pain was generated by clipping a clothes pin to the ear lobe, and the intensity of pain was adjusted by inserting the gauze between the ear lobe and the pin. Gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility were assessed by external ultrasonography. The cross-sectional area of the proximal stomach was measured after subjects had taken 100 mL-liquid meals four times, then the amplitude and frequency of antral contractions were measured. The median numerical rating scale of tolerable pain was 3 (interquartile rang 2-4). Gastric fundal accommodation, gastric motility and gastric emptying were all significantly impaired by tolerable pain ( P  < 0.001 for all comparisons). Even tolerable pain can reduce gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility, which could result in anorexia or decreased quality of life. Our findings provide important insights into pain management education for patients tolerating pain and healthcare providers encouraging patients to tolerate pain. This study was registered retrospectively.

  7. Gut satiety hormones and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köşüş, Aydin; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğullari, Betül; Hizli, Deniz; Namuslu, Mehmet; Ayyildiz, Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is described as unexplained excessive nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Some gut hormones that regulate appetite may have important role in etiopathogenesis of HG and weight changes during pregnancy. In this study, levels of gut satiety hormones were evaluated in pregnant women with HG. This prospective case-control study was conducted in 30 women with HG and 30 healthy pregnant women without symptoms of HG. Fasting venous blood samples were taken from all subjects for measurement of plasma gut hormone levels; obestatin (pg/mL), peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Plasma PYY and PP levels were significantly higher in HG group. The most important parameter in diagnosis of HG was plasma PP level. Simple use of PP level led to the diagnosis 91.1 % of HG cases correctly. The single most important parameter in the prediction of HG was also PP level. Anorexigenic gut hormones might have important role in etiopathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum and weight changes during pregnancy.

  8. Gastric motility evaluated by electrogastrography and alternating current biosusceptometry in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreis, Uilian; Corá, Luciana A; Miranda, José Ricardo A; Américo, Madileine F; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2008-01-01

    Association techniques could be the answer for evaluating electromechanical coupling and gastric emptying under basal conditions and after administration of drugs. Electrogastrography (EGG) and alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) emerged due to their interesting nature, noninvasiveness and low cost. The aims were to examine in dogs the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying by ACB and electrical and motor responses to erythromycin and propranolol by ACB and EGG respectively. Twelve beagle dogs ingested a solid test meal on separate days. Under anesthesia, gastric motility was evaluated by EGG and ACB after erythromycin and propranolol administration. Without anesthesia, gastric emptying was assessed under basal conditions and after erythromycin by ACB. ACB and EGG showed a strong temporal correlation. Erythromycin and propranolol presented the same profile with different power ratios; the amplitude increased whereas frequency decreased. Also, erythromycin administration hastened gastric emptying while reducing the orocaecal transit time. There is a demand for reliable, easy-to-perform and comfortable techniques to record gastric emptying and gastric activity in medicine and veterinary practice. In summary, the association of ACB with EGG accompanied by an appropriate animal model is promising for evaluating effects of drugs in gastric myoelectrical and contractile activity

  9. The gastrointestinal emptying and transit of radiolabelled oral dosage forms in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kirkwood, I.D.; Chatterton, B.E.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Sansom, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: By developing an animal model, the costs and time as well as the number of human studies involved to assess new oral pharmaceutical dosage forms could be greatly reduced. To validate the pig as a suitable model, the solid, liquid and particle gastric emptying rates (both fed and fasting) are required The aims were to:- train the pigs to be scanned under a variety of conditions, design and manufacture scanning cages, develop a scintigraphic imaging method in the pig, design a suitable system for the oral delivery of an intact radiolabelled capsule, acquire images providing information on the anatomical position and in-vivo performance of the capsule, perform a series of gastric emptying studies. Liquid emptying data shows a 50% emptying time of 15 minutes in the pig (human 4-31 min). Solid emptying in the sedated pig is poor at 2 hours. In the unsedated pig the maximum time for a solid study has been 45 minutes. This study has provided some useful information regarding the gastrointestinal anatomy of pigs. The preliminary data indicates that the model has potential. In the future, a simultaneous scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of drug absorption will be performed

  10. The gastrointestinal emptying and transit of radiolabelled oral dosage forms in the pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kirkwood, I.D.; Chatterton, B.E.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Sansom, L.N. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: By developing an animal model, the costs and time as well as the number of human studies involved to assess new oral pharmaceutical dosage forms could be greatly reduced. To validate the pig as a suitable model, the solid, liquid and particle gastric emptying rates (both fed and fasting) are required The aims were to:- train the pigs to be scanned under a variety of conditions, design and manufacture scanning cages, develop a scintigraphic imaging method in the pig, design a suitable system for the oral delivery of an intact radiolabelled capsule, acquire images providing information on the anatomical position and in-vivo performance of the capsule, perform a series of gastric emptying studies. Liquid emptying data shows a 50% emptying time of 15 minutes in the pig (human 4-31 min). Solid emptying in the sedated pig is poor at 2 hours. In the unsedated pig the maximum time for a solid study has been 45 minutes. This study has provided some useful information regarding the gastrointestinal anatomy of pigs. The preliminary data indicates that the model has potential. In the future, a simultaneous scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of drug absorption will be performed

  11. Small intestinal emptying time in normal Beagle dogs: a contrast radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.; Atilola, M.A.O.; Muhumuza, L.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time in dogs are frequently discussed. However, it is often of interest to the radiologist to know what normal small intestinal emptying times should be. A total of 15 upper gastrointestinal studies was performed on five internal parasite-free, normal, standard Beagle dogs with three studies on each dog, 6 days apart. The ages and weights of the dogs ranged from 2–8 years and from 12.4–13.7 kg, respectively. Following 24-hour fasting, a dose of 10 ml/kg bw of 60% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension was administered through a stomach tube. Then, sequential radiographs were made at 30-minute intervals until the entire contrast medium column was in the colon and cecum. The mean, standard deviation, and range of gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time, and small intestinal emptying time were 76 ± 16.7 (30–120), 73 ± 16.4 (30–120), and 214 ± 25.1 (180–300) minutes, respectively. This study offers the possibility that small intestinal emptying time may be used to further evaluate patients with suspected small intestinal partial obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, ischemia, or lymphangiectasia

  12. Intraindividual comparison of gastric peristalsis after ingestion of a semiliquid and solid test meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.; Muenzing, W.; Vorderholzer, W.; Schindlbeck, N.; Hahn, K.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: Patients with various disorders of gastric function were studied with radiolabeled test meals of different consistency to elaborate the effect of ingested media on gastric peristalsis and emptying. Methods: In 12 patients parameters of gastric function were intraindividually compared after ingestion of a semiliquid and a solid test meal. In addition to the standard evaluation derived from time activity curves condensed images were established from two fixed time intervals (early and late period). These images were used to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions using Fourier analysis. Results: As expected gastric emptying was influenced by the consistency of the test meal. Mean emptying rates for the solid meal were significant lower than those for the semiliquid one (p [de

  13. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Margarida Barra Bisinotto

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. Method: A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Conclusion: Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  14. Effects of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J.L.; Graff, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies on animals have shown that histamine may be involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tone. However, the role of histamine in the regulation of human gastric motor function is not clear. This study examined the effect of ranitidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission......: Ranitidine did not change gastric volume before the meal, nor at 0 h or 1 h after it. Furthermore, ranitidine did not influence gastric retention of meal components after 0.5 h and 1 h. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous bolus injection of 50 mg ranitidine does not modify gastric volume or gastric emptying after a 600...

  15. Effects of the H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Studies on animals have shown that histamine may be involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tone. However, the role of histamine in the regulation of human gastric motor function is not clear. This study examined the effect of ranitidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. Material and methods. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission....... Ranitidine did not change gastric volume before the meal, nor at 0 h or 1 h after it. Furthermore, ranitidine did not influence gastric retention of meal components after 0.5 h and 1 h. Conclusions. Intravenous bolus injection of 50 mg ranitidine does not modify gastric volume or gastric emptying after a 600...

  16. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provi......AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have...... kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h...

  17. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (psnack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  18. Beyond Emptiness: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halla Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book, Jae-Seong Lee argues that not only Eastern thoughts but also Western philosophy lead us to transcend our ordinary, binary, reflexive thought and become one with the truth, namely, Emptiness, or the true self. But this aspect has not been thoroughly considered in Western metaphysics. After considering Heidegger’s failure to get to the bottom of transcendence through his “Dasein,” Lee looks to the French postmodern ethicists, in particular, Levinas, in this regard. Just like the Mahayana Buddhist philosopher Nāgārjuna did almost two thousand years earlier, Lee suggests that Levinas too may have hit upon the insight that genuine subjectivity can be reached through an openness to the Other as the wholly exterior. Throughout the entire book, Jae-Seong Lee shows a strong interest in postmodern ethics, Daoism, Buddhism, theology, and literature, but in the end, he concludes that Buddhist philosophy, with its focus on Emptiness, would be the best approach to a merging of Eastern and Western Ways of thinking in our search for the ultimate and absolute. Finally, Lee suggests that the general philosophical theory he introduces and develops actually works for literary works including the Book of Job, Count Dracula and Frankenstein.

  19. Empty Container Management in Cyclic Shipping Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Ping Song; Jing-Xin Dong

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the empty container management problem in a cyclic shipping route. The objective is to seek the optimal empty container repositioning policy in a dynamic and stochastic situation by minimising the expected total costs consisting of inventory holding costs, demand lost-sale costs, lifting-on and lifting-off charges, and container transportation costs. A three-phase threshold control policy is developed to reposition empty containers in cyclic routes. The threshold values a...

  20. Adaptive upregulation of gastric and hypothalamic ghrelin receptors and increased plasma ghrelin in a model of cancer chemotherapy-induced dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, N M; Moore, G B T; Kaur, R; Liu, Y-L; Wood, S L; Morrow, R W; Sanger, G J; Andrews, P L R

    2008-06-05

    Chemotherapy treatment can lead to delayed gastric emptying, early satiety, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, described collectively as the cancer-associated dyspepsia syndrome (CADS). Administration of ghrelin (GHRL), an endogenous orexigenic peptide known to stimulate gastric motility, has been shown to reduce the symptoms of CADS induced in relevant animal models with the potent chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. We examined the effects in the rat of cisplatin (6 mg/kg i.p.) treatment on the expression of GHRL and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) mRNAs in the hypothalamus and the stomach at a time-point (2 days) when the effects of cisplatin are pronounced. In addition, plasma levels of GHRL (acylated and total including des-acyl GHRL) were measured and the effect on these levels of treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (2 mg/kg s.c. bd.) was investigated. Cisplatin increased GHSR mRNA expression in the stomach (67%) and hypothalamus (52%) but not GHRL mRNA expression and increased the percentage of acylated GHRL (7.03+/-1.35% vs. 11.38+/-2.40%) in the plasma. Dexamethasone reduced the plasma level of acylated GHRL and the percentage of acylated GHRL to values below those in animals treated with saline alone (7.03+/-1.35% vs. 2.60+/-0.49%). Our findings support the hypothesis that an adaptive upregulation of the ghrelin receptor may occur during cancer chemotherapy-associated dyspepsia. This may have a role in defensive responses to toxic challenges to the gut. In addition, our results provide preliminary evidence for glucocorticoid modulation of plasma ghrelin levels.

  1. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, J

    2006-01-01

    : To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion...... of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean...... emptying time, gastric half emptying time, gastric retention at 15 min or small intestinal mean transit time. Glyceryl trinitrate did not influence the frequency of duodenal contractions, the amplitude of duodenal contractions or the duodenal motility index. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous infusion of glyceryl...

  2. Gastric schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Sung; Hsu, Han-Shui; Tsai, Chien-Ho; Li, Wing-Yin; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2004-11-01

    Gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors are a group of tumors originated from the mesenchymal stem cells of the gastrointestinal tract, consisting of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), leiomyomas or leiomyosarcomas or schwannomas. Gastric schwannoma is a very rare gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumor, which represents only 0.2% of all gastric tumors and 4% of all benign gastric neoplasms. We report a 24-year-old girl who suffered from an episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The endoscopic examination showed a round submucosal tumor with a central ulceration and bleeding over the high body of the stomach. Surgical resection of the tumor was performed. The pathological examination revealed a picture of spindle cell tumor that was strongly positive for S-100 protein stain, and non-reactive for CD34, CD117, actin, HHF-35, desmin, melan-A and HMB-45, consistent with gastric schwannoma. The literature is reviewed.

  3. Abnormal gastric and small intestinal motor function in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Smout, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    It is now well recognized that the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying in both insulin-dependent as well as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is high. Recently performed studies have shown that motor disorders of several parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract contribute to this delay in

  4. Satiety and eating patterns in two species of constricting snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben P; Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Satiety has been studied extensively in mammals, birds and fish but very little information exists on reptiles. Here we investigate time-dependent satiation in two species of constricting snakes, ball pythons (Python regius) and yellow anacondas (Eunectes notaeus). Satiation was shown to depend...... on both fasting time and prey size. In the ball pythons fed with mice of a relative prey mass RPM (mass of the prey/mass of the snake×100) of 15%, we observed a satiety response that developed between 6 and 12h after feeding, but after 24h pythons regained their appetite. With an RPM of 10% the pythons...... a significant decrease in handling time between the first and the second prey and a positive correlation between handling time and the mass of the snake....

  5. Dynamics of food choice and sensory specific satiety

    OpenAIRE

    Weijzen, P.L.G.

    2008-01-01

    Since the problem of overweight increases, the development of tools to manage energy intake is important. The author studied two issues that affect total energy intake: food choice and food intake. She investigated differences between people in their ability to transform healthy food choice intentions into action. Moreover, she investigated food properties that promote sensory specific satiety. This is an important factor in the termination of consumption. Especially susceptible for not trans...

  6. Satiety effects of cholecystokinin and caerulein in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, T R; Anika, S M; Wolff, N C

    1978-07-01

    Six adult rabbits were maintained on an 18 h fast, 6 h feeding schedule. At the end of the fast either 0.5-40 Ivy dog units (IDU)/kg cholecystokinin (CCK) or 0.9% NaCl were injected intravenously. Feed intake was then measured for 15 min. Significant depression of intake was found at 1 IDU/kg, a 50% depression of intake after 5.5 IDU/kg, and no intake after 40 IDU/kg. Caerulein in similar experiments gave significant depression of intake at 0.125 microgram/kg, a 50% depression after 0.28 microgram/kg, and no intake after 5.0 microgram/kg. In three of these rabbits subdiaphragmatic vagotomy did not abolish the satiety effects of CCK and caerulein. The synthetic octapeptide of CCK was less potent in causing satiety. After CCK or caerulein the rabbits showed typical postprandial behavior. Taste aversion tests failed to demonstrate a strong aversion to flavors associated with the compounds used. These results indicate that exogenous CCK can act as a satiety agent at levels of the same order as the physiological range.

  7. Multifocal Gastric Ulcers Caused by Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma in a Patient With Significant Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gromski MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary gastrointestinal (GI lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with varied clinical presentations. The stomach is the most common GI site and accounts for 70% to 75% of GI lymphomas. We present a patient with gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL who presented with significant weight loss, early satiety, and multifocal ulcerated gastric lesions. Esophagoduodenoscopy should be performed in patients presenting with warning symptoms as in our case. Diagnosis is usually made by endoscopic biopsies. Multiple treatment modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have been used. Advancements in endoscopic and pathologic technology decrease turnaround time for diagnosis and treatment initiation, thus reducing the need for surgery. Health care providers should maintain a high level of suspicion and consider gastric DLBCL as part of the differential diagnosis, especially in those with warning symptoms such as weight loss and early satiety with abnormal endoscopic findings.

  8. Feeding patients with preoperative symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction after pancreatoduodenectomy: Early oral or routine nasojejunal tube feeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Arja; Wennink, Roos A. W.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Kazemier, Geert; Gouma, Dirk J.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Besselink, Marc G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Early oral feeding is currently considered the optimal routine feeding strategy after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Some have suggested that patients with preoperative symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) who undergo PD have such a high risk of developing delayed gastric emptying that these

  9. Satiety responsiveness and eating behavior among Chilean adolescents and the role of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M; Hoyos, V; Martinez, S M; Lozoff, B; Castillo, M; Burrows, R; Blanco, E; Gahagan, S

    2014-04-01

    To determine patterns of satiety responsiveness and its relationship to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), in a cohort of adolescents. We also assessed whether sex, body mass index and duration of breastfeeding, during infancy, predicted satiety responsiveness and eating behavior at 16 years. Adolescents (n=576) from a longitudinal cohort, which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial, participated in an unlimited breakfast after an overnight fast, and reported satiety response on a visual analog scale after the meal, followed by an EAH procedure. Height, weight and body composition were measured before breakfast. Latent profile analysis generated profiles that captured individual differences in satiety responsiveness. Multivariable regressions, adjusted for potential confounders, evaluated the association between: (1) satiety responsiveness and EAH, and (2) breastfeeding in infancy, satiety responsiveness and EAH in adolescence. Participants were on average 16.7-year old, 48% female, 37% overweight/obese and 76% were breastfed as the sole source of milk for eat during the EAH procedure (odds ratio (OR)=2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.8-3.6). Being breastfed for meal, we found varied satiety responses, which related to EAH. Furthermore, shorter breastfeeding duration was associated with poorer satiety response and higher consumption during an EAH procedure. Understanding if breastfeeding influences the development of satiety responsiveness and eating behavior may be important in an era characterized by abundant calorie-dense foods and a plethora of environmental cues promoting consumption.

  10. Fed and fasted gastric pH and gastric residence time in conscious beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Kazuko; Li, Fasheng; Liese, Ryan; Sutton, Steven C

    2009-07-01

    The gastric pH values are controversial in the literature. Some suggest the dog gastric pH is higher than human and dog gastric pH after fed with particular diet is uncertain. Gastric pH in 16 male beagle dogs was measured using Bravo pH telemetry system. For the fed study, the dogs received 10 or 200 g of dog dry food (5L18) 15 min before dosing the Bravo pH capsule, followed by a 50 mL of water to aid in swallowing. It was surprising to find a small, but statistically significantly lower pH in the fed compared to the fasted stomach. The average gastric pH in fasted dogs was 2.05 and 1.08 and 1.26 for 10 and 200 g fed dogs. The average gastric emptying time of the capsule was 1.4, 9.4 and 20 h for fasted, 10 g fed and 200 g fed dogs, respectively. The inter-individual variability was higher in fasted dogs than in fed dogs. The results showed the gastric pH in each colony of dogs can be different from reported values in the literature. It emphasizes that the importance of measuring the pH in each colony when dogs are used to evaluate pharmacokinetics of pH sensitive drugs or formulations.

  11. Elevated postoperative endogenous GLP-1 levels mediate effects of roux-en-Y gastric bypass on neural responsivity to food cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Kulve, Jennifer S.; Veltman, Dick J.; Gerdes, Victor E.A.; Van Bloemendaal, Liselotte; Barkhof, Frederik; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Holst, Jens J.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Diamant, Michaela; IJzerman, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that weight reduction and improvements in satiety after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are partly mediated via postoperative neuroendocrine changes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone secreted after food ingestion and is associated with appetite and

  12. Towards a satiety map of common foods: Associations between perceived satiety value of 100 foods and their objective and subjective attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; James Stubbs, R; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Hunger is one of the main reasons given by people experiencing problems in managing their weight. Identifying the types and properties of foods that enhance satiety may help consumers improve appetite control and weight management. However the attributes of foods associated with their perceived satiety value have been largely unexamined. The current research examined a range of objective and subjective attributes of foods and sought to map them onto ratings of their perceived satiety value. Participants (n=1127) rated 100 individual food images, through online surveys, based on subjective (e.g. perceived energy content, control over eating, healthiness, palatability) and objective (e.g. actual energy content, macronutrient composition, cost/kcal) attributes. Perceived satiety value was quantified from ratings of how filling each food was judged to be. Results showed that when controlling for perceived total energy content, perceived satiety value was associated with lower energy density (r=-.74), lower %fat (r=-.47), higher %protein (r=.31) and higher cost (r=.48). In terms of subjective attributes, perceived satiety value was associated with greater healthiness (r=.90), weight management (r=.91), frequency of consumption (r=.58) and greater control over eating (r=.76). Linear regression models indicated that the objective attributes of energy density, %fat, fibre content, %carbohydrate and cost (R(2)=.69) and the subjective attribute of utility for weight management and frequency of consumption (R(2)=.83) accounted for the most variance in the perceived satiety value of food. These findings may help towards a 'satiety map' of the diet with implications for public health promotion and the development of satiety enhancing foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  14. [Gastric tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E; Oliveira, A; Costa, A; Sa, L; Vieira, A; Oliveira, A

    1994-12-01

    A 37 year old woman with duodenal ulcer not responsive to medical treatment was operated. Antrectomy, truncal vagotomy and Bilroth II gastrojejunostomy were performed. The histopathology revealed epithelioid cell granulomas with multinucleated cells and central ceseation, in the gastric side of the pylorus and in three isolated lymph nodes. With Ziehl-Neelsen staining there were multiple acid-fast bacilli. There was no evidence or previous history, personal or familial, or tuberculosis in an other localization. Epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of gastric tuberculosis are discussed according to the literature.

  15. Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.F.; Woisard, K.K.; Cooper, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction can be a devastating complication of invasion of the gastric wall and vessels by fungi colonizing the gastric mucosa. Even in the presence of extensive transmural necrosis, however, the radiographs do not necessarily show evidence of gastric mucosal abnormality. Instead, plain films and positive contrast studies may erroneously suggest a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. Ancillary evidence of a devitalized viscus in a baby who appears to have complete gastric outlet obstruction should suggest the diagnosis of gastric infarction. (orig.)

  16. Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.F.; Woisard, K.K.; Cooper, G.L.

    1988-02-01

    Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction can be a devastating complication of invasion of the gastric wall and vessels by fungi colonizing the gastric mucosa. Even in the presence of extensive transmural necrosis, however, the radiographs do not necessarily show evidence of gastric mucosal abnormality. Instead, plain films and positive contrast studies may erroneously suggest a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. Ancillary evidence of a devitalized viscus in a baby who appears to have complete gastric outlet obstruction should suggest the diagnosis of gastric infarction.

  17. Effect of training on the reliability of satiety evaluation and use of trained panellists to determine the satiety effect of dietary fibre: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky A Solah

    Full Text Available The assessment of satiety effects on foods is commonly performed by untrained volunteers marking their perceived hunger or fullness on line scales, marked with pre-set descriptors. The lack of reproducibility of satiety measurement using this approach however results in the tool being unable to distinguish between foods that have small, but possibly important, differences in their satiety effects. An alternate approach is used in sensory evaluation; panellists can be trained in the correct use of the assessment line-scale and brought to consensus on the meanings of descriptors used for food quality attributes to improve the panel reliability. The effect of training on the reliability of a satiety panel has not previously been reported.In a randomised controlled parallel intervention, the effect of training in the correct use of a satiety labelled magnitude scale (LMS was assessed versus no-training. The test-retest precision and reliability of two hour postprandial satiety evaluation after consumption of a standard breakfast was compared. The trained panel then compared the satiety effect of two breakfast meals containing either a viscous or a non-viscous dietary fibre in a crossover trial.A subgroup of the 23 panellists (n = 5 improved their test re-test precision after training. Panel satiety area under the curve, "after the training" intervention was significantly different to "before training" (p < 0.001. Reliability of the panel determined by intraclass correlation (ICC of test and retest showed improved strength of the correlation from 0.70 pre-intervention to 0.95 post intervention. The trained "satiety expert panel" determined that a standard breakfast with 5g of viscous fibre gave significantly higher satiety than with 5g non-viscous fibre (area under curve (AUC of 478.2, 334.4 respectively (p ≤ 0.002.Training reduced between panellist variability. The improved strength of test-retest ICC as a result of the training intervention

  18. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. When pain and hunger collide; psychological influences on differences in brain activity during physiological and non-physiological gastric distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, S J

    2011-06-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been used extensively in conjunction with gastric balloon distension in an attempt to unravel the relationship between the brain, regulation of hunger, satiety, and food intake tolerance. A number of researchers have also adopted a more physiological approach using intra-gastric administration of a liquid meal which has revealed different brain responses to gastric balloon distension. These differences are important as they question the utility and relevance of non-physiological models such as gastric balloon distension, especially when investigating mechanisms of feeding behavior such as satiety. However, an assessment of the relevance of physiological versus non-physiological gastric distension has been problematic due to differences in distension volumes between studies. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Geeraerts et al. compare brain activity during volume matched nutrient gastric distension and balloon distension in healthy volunteers. Gastric balloon distension activated the 'visceral pain neuromatrix'. This network of brain regions was deactivated during nutrient infusion, supporting the notion that brain activity during physiological versus non-physiological distension is indeed different. The authors suggest deactivation of the pain neuromatrix during nutrient infusion serves as a prerequisite for tolerance of normal meal volumes in health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. X-ray study of gastric hypokinesia (587 cases analysis) and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zuyi; Chen Xiaodong; Zhang Huilin; Guo Yingfeng; Deng Mingxing

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the gastric hypokinesia X-ray findings and its clinical significance. Methods: In 2822 patients with upper barium meal examination and 112 with alimentary tract barium meal examination was determined according to the gastrorrhea, pattern, pyloric reflux, peristalsis and emptying with clinical data, hypokinesia. Results: 562 of 2822 patients suffered from gastric hypokinesia (19.9%) and 25 of 112 patients with alimentary tract barium meal examination suffered from gastric hypokinesia (22.3%). There were 587 cases of functional dyspepsia in total. Conclusion: It's a useful method to find gastric hypokinesia by X-ray examination and it may be helpful for treatment of FD

  1. Primary presentation of Jeune's syndrome as gastric motility disorder in an infant: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Katyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 4-week-old female neonate with Jeune's asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD and coexistent situs anomaly, primarily presenting as gastric motility disorder. The child presented with abdominal distension and nonbilious vomiting since birth with failure to thrive. However, skeletal survey revealed JATD. Upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed situs inversus with delayed gastric emptying. Pyloric biopsy and intraoperative antro-duodenal manometry confirmed association of gastric motility disorder. Awareness of the unusual possibility of primary presentation of Jeune syndrome as gastric motility disorder will improve the management approach in such infants.

  2. An Operational Model for Empty Container Management

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Olivo; Paola Zuddas; Massimo Di Francesco; Antonio Manca

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a mathematical programming approach for empty container management. Since directional imbalances in trade activities result in a surplus or shortage of empty containers in ports and depots, their management can be thought of as a min cost flow problem whose arcs represent services routes, inventory links and decisions concerning the time and place to lease containers from external sources. We adopt an hourly time-step in a dynamic network and, although this time-period gen...

  3. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelsbrunner, Martin E; Nakano, Motoko; Holzer, Peter

    2009-06-02

    Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg) modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 - 30 mg/kg) or cimetidine (10 mg/kg), and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M). During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect the gastric mucosa from acid injury independently of their

  4. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect

  5. Sensory-specific satiety in obese and normal-weight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, H.M.; Huntjens, L.; Gemert, L.J. van; Graaf, C. de; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sensory-specific satiety has been found to play an important role in food choice and meal termination, and it might be a factor contributing to obesity. Objective: We hypothesized that obese and normal-weight people have different sensitivities to sensory-specific satiety for high-fat

  6. Periprandial changes of the sympathetic-parasympathetic balance related to perceived satiety in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study the relevance of physiological responses reflecting the autonomic nervous system were evaluated in relation to perceived satiety. Subjects were exposed to a lunch-induced hunger-satiety shift, while profiling

  7. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Kleef, van E.; Mela, D.J.; Hulshof, T.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we

  8. Weak Satiety Responsiveness Is a Reliable Trait Associated with Hedonic Risk Factors for Overeating among Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dalton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals exhibit a weak satiety response to food and may be susceptible to overconsumption. The current study identified women showing consistently low or high satiety responses to standardised servings of food across four separate days and compared them on behavioural, psychological and physiological risk factors for overeating and future weight gain. In a crossover design, 30 female participants (age: 28.0 ± 10.6; body mass index (BMI: 23.1 ± 3.0 recorded sensations of hunger in the post-prandial period following four graded energy level breakfasts. Satiety quotients were calculated to compare individuals on satiety responsiveness across conditions. Body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR, energy intake, food reward and craving, and eating behaviour traits were assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. A distinct low satiety phenotype (LSP was identified with good consistency across separate study days. These individuals had a higher RMR, greater levels of disinhibition and reported feeling lower control over food cravings. Further, they consumed more energy and exhibited greater wanting for high-fat food. The inverse pattern of characteristics was observed in those exhibiting a consistently high satiety phenotype (HSP. Weak satiety responsiveness is a reliable trait identifiable using the satiety quotient. The LSP was characterised by distinct behavioural and psychological characteristics indicating a risk for overeating, compared to HSP.

  9. Weak Satiety Responsiveness Is a Reliable Trait Associated with Hedonic Risk Factors for Overeating among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Michelle; Hollingworth, Sophie; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-09-04

    Some individuals exhibit a weak satiety response to food and may be susceptible to overconsumption. The current study identified women showing consistently low or high satiety responses to standardised servings of food across four separate days and compared them on behavioural, psychological and physiological risk factors for overeating and future weight gain. In a crossover design, 30 female participants (age: 28.0 ± 10.6; body mass index (BMI): 23.1 ± 3.0) recorded sensations of hunger in the post-prandial period following four graded energy level breakfasts. Satiety quotients were calculated to compare individuals on satiety responsiveness across conditions. Body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy intake, food reward and craving, and eating behaviour traits were assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. A distinct low satiety phenotype (LSP) was identified with good consistency across separate study days. These individuals had a higher RMR, greater levels of disinhibition and reported feeling lower control over food cravings. Further, they consumed more energy and exhibited greater wanting for high-fat food. The inverse pattern of characteristics was observed in those exhibiting a consistently high satiety phenotype (HSP). Weak satiety responsiveness is a reliable trait identifiable using the satiety quotient. The LSP was characterised by distinct behavioural and psychological characteristics indicating a risk for overeating, compared to HSP.

  10. Glycemic index, insulinemic index, and satiety index of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kai Ling; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2012-08-01

    To determine glycemic, insulinemic, and satiety indices of 3 types of kefir. This study was divided into 3 phases. In phase 1, 50 g of available carbohydrate from low-fat strawberry kefir or orange kefir was tested, and in phase 2, low-fat plain kefir containing 25 g of available carbohydrates was tested for glycemic index (GI), in both cases compared with an equivalent amount of glucose. In phase 3, 1000-kJ portions of all 3 types of kefirs were compared with white bread with the same energy content to determine the insulinemic index (II) and satiety index (SI) of all 3 kefirs. In all phases, a single-meal, randomized crossover design was performed in which the test meals were given to healthy adults, 5 men and 5 women. The total incremental plasma glucose area under the curve (iAUC) for strawberry, orange, and plain kefirs was significantly lower compared with the respective high-GI control food, which was glucose solution. However, the IIs and SIs of kefir did not differ significantly from the white bread. Kefir is a low- to moderate-GI food; however, its II was high. Although kefir had higher water content, the SI of kefir was not significantly different from white bread.

  11. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous nasogastric tube feeding: monitoring by combined use of refractometry and traditional gastric residual volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W-K; McClave, S-A; Chao, Y-C

    2004-02-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs) is insensitive and cannot distinguish retained enteral formula from the large volume of endogenous secretions. We designed this prospective study to determine whether refractometry and Brix value (BV) measurements could be used to monitor gastric emptying and tolerance in patients receiving continuous enteral feeding. Thirty-six patients on continuous nasogastric tube feeding were divided into two groups; patients with lower GRVs (75 ml) in Group 2. Upon entry, all gastric contents were aspirated, the volume was recorded (Asp GRV), BV measurements were made by refractometry, and then the contents were reinstilled but diluted with 30 ml additional water. Finally, a small amount was reaspirated and repeat BV measurements were made. Three hours later, the entire procedure was repeated a second time. The BV ratio, calculated (Cal) GRV, and volume of formula remaining were calculated by derived equations. Mean BV ratios were significantly higher for those patients in Group 2 compared to those in Group 1. All but one of the 22 patients (95%) in Group 1 had a volume of formula remaining in the stomach estimated on both measurements to be less than the hourly infusion rate (all these patients had BV ratios 70%). Three of the Group 2 patients (21%) whose initial measurement showed evidence for retention of formula, improved on repeat follow-up measurement assuring adequate gastric emptying. The remaining five patients from Group 2 (35%) had a volume of formula remaining that was less than the hourly infusion rate on both measurements. The pattern of Asp GRVs and serial pre- and post-dilution BVs failed to differentiate these patients in Group 2 with potential emptying problems from those with sufficient gastric emptying. Refractometry and measurement of the BV may improve the clinical utilization of GRVs, by its ability to identify the component of formula within gastric contents and track changes in that component related

  13. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00006364; The ATLAS collaboration; Dal Pra, S.; Di Girolamo, A.; Forti, A.; Templon, J.; Vamvakopoulos, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this analysis we quantify the wallclock time used by short empty pilot jobs on a number of WLCG compute resources. Pilot factory logs and site batch logs are used to provide independent accounts of the usage. Results show a wide variation of wallclock time used by short jobs depending on the site and queue, and changing with time. For a reference dataset of all jobs in August 2016, the fraction of wallclock time used by empty jobs per studied site ranged from 0.1% to 0.8%. The variation in wallclock usage may be explained by different workloads for each resource with a greater fraction when the workload is low. Aside from the wall time used by empty pilots, we also looked at how many pilots were empty as a fraction of all pilots sent. Binning the August dataset into days, empty fractions between 2% and 90% were observed.  The higher fractions correlate well with periods of few actual payloads being sent to the site.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-2 inhibits antral emptying in man, but is not as potent as glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, C F; Wettergren, A; Pedersen, J F

    2004-01-01

    with GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and the sensation of hunger in man. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scales scoring during......, but GLP-2 was less potent than GLP-1, which increased the antral emptying time by 192% (P hunger compared with saline (P = 0.023), whereas...... the two GLP-2 infusions had no significant effect. Addition of GLP-2 to the GLP-1 infusion did not decrease the sensation of hunger further. CONCLUSIONS: Both GLP-1 and GLP-2 inhibit antral emptying in man, but GLP-1 is more potent....

  15. Increased insulin responses to ingested foods are associated with lessened satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, S H; Miller, J B

    1995-02-01

    In order to assess the relationship between metabolic responses and satiety, four men and five women ate two pairs of foods containing 50 g of available carbohydrate, ordinary and quick-cooking rice and high- and low-amylose puffed rice. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and satiety ratings were assessed over 2 h and food intake measured immediately thereafter. The area under the curve (AUC) of the 2-h glucose response was 1.6 times greater after quick-cooking rice than that for ordinary rice. Similarly, the glucose AUC for the low-amylose rice was 1.5 times higher than that of the high-amylose rice. Insulin responses followed the pattern of the glucose responses. Conversely, the satiety AUC was 1.5 times higher for ordinary rice than for the quick-cooking rice, and 1.5 times higher for high-amylose than for low-amylose rice. Food intake (g) immediately after each 2-h session was significantly related to both the satiety AUC and the last rating score, thereby corroborating the satiety ratings. A significant negative association was found between the individual insulin and satiety AUC responses to the four foods. These results suggest that increased rate of starch digestion and higher insulin responses are associated with lessened satiety.

  16. Changes in Reward after Gastric Bypass: the Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Samantha; Goldstone, Anthony P; le Roux, Carel W

    2015-10-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is an effective long-term weight loss intervention. Key to its success appears a putative shift in food preference away from high-energy-density foods associated with a reduced appetitive drive and loss of neural reactivity in the reward system of the brain towards food. Post-prandial exaggerated satiety gut hormone responses have been implicated as mediators. Whilst the positive impact of bariatric surgery on both physical and psychological outcomes for many patients is clearly evident, a subset of patients appear to be detrimentally affected by this loss of reward from food and by a lack of alternative strategies for regulating affect after surgery. Mindfulness training has emerged as a potential tool in reducing the need for immediate reward that underpins much of eating behaviour. Further research is needed to help identify patients who may be more vulnerable after gastric bypass and which forms of support may be most beneficial.

  17. The surgical treatment of chronic gastric atony following Roux-Y diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, S.B.; Woodward, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    Symptoms of severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and frequent bezoars, as well as objective gastric retention, can occur following Roux-Y biliary diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis. Medical therapy and prokinetic drugs have proven ineffective. This review evaluates 37 patients who underwent further gastric resection from 1979 to 1987 to improve gastric emptying and resolve symptoms. Fifteen patients underwent perioperative radionuclide solid-food gastric emptying studies. Seventy-three per cent (27 of 37 patients) of the patients who underwent further gastric resection (70% to 95%) had a satisfactory postoperative response. Twenty patients were graded Visick 1 or 2 and 7 Visick-3 patients, although much improved, still had some symptoms of gastroparesis. Twenty-seven per cent (10 of 37 patients) failed to improve and underwent completion total gastrectomy. Overall, 70% of this group had almost complete resolution of their symptoms. Three of 10 patients were considered ''failures'' due to postprandial pain in 1 and early vasomotor dumping in 2. Of the 10 patients who failed initial revisional surgery, 7 underwent a 70% to 80% subtotal gastric resection (STG) and 3 patients underwent 85% to 95% extensive resection (EXT.G.). Of the 15 patients who underwent perioperative radionuclide evaluation, a mean two-hour gastric retention of 61.4% +/- 4% (SEM) decreased to 25% +/- 4% following further gastric resection. Eight patients were in the STG group and seven patients were in the EXT.G group. Following STG, mean two-hour gastric retention of 58.2% +/- 3.5% decreased to 38% +/- 3% (p less than 0.05). In seven patients who underwent EXT.G, mean two-hour retention of 65% +/- 4% decreased to 10% +/- 2.5% (p less than 0.005). EXT.G resulted in normal gastric emptying and few late failures

  18. Current perspectives on the management of gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattansingh A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroparesis is a condition of abnormal gastric motility characterised by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical outlet obstruction. It is seen commonly in people with diabetes but is idiopathic in a third of patients. Symptoms include nausea and vomiting, post-prandial fullness and early satiety, and abdominal bloating and discomfort. Investigations fall into three categories: gastric emptying studies, intraluminal pressure measurements and recording of gastric myoelectrical activity. Nuclear scintigraphy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and quantifying delayed gastric emptying. Treatment options include diet and behavioural changes, prokinetic drugs and surgical interventions. New advances in drug therapy and gastric electrical stimulation techniques hold considerable promise.

  19. Pouch emptying of solid foods after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1985-01-01

    To obtain information on possible determinants of weight loss after horizontal gastroplasty, pouch emptying was prospectively investigated in 27 morbidly obese patients. A scintigraphic method was used. Examinations were carried out every 6 months until 2 years after surgery. Pouch emptying...... was described by means of delay, time until half emptying, mean transit time, and emptying rate. The measures all showed a significant (p less than 0.05) acceleration of pouch emptying during the first 6 months after gastroplasty. Thereafter pouch emptying was unaltered. No significant association could...

  20. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations.

  1. Scintigraphic Methods to Evaluate Alterations of Gastric and Esophageal Functions in Female Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Ömür

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Altered gastrointestinal function has frequently been observed in obese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and to determine the alterations of gastric emptying and esophageal transit by scintigraphic methods in obese patients. Methods: Scintigraphic studies of 50 obese female non-diabetic patients who had not received any treatment for weight control were retrospectively reviewed. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI was 34.96±3.04 kg/m² (range:32-39 kg/m². All subjects were submitted to scintigraphic evaluation of esophageal transit, gastro-esophageal reflux, gastric emptying and presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The data of obese patients were compared with those of sex-age matched 30 non-obese cases who were selected from our clinical archive. Results: In obese group, seventeen (34% patients were found to be GER positive scintigraphically; mean gastric emptying time (t½ was 59.18±30.8 min and the mean esophageal transit time was 8.9±7.2 s. Frequency of positive GER scintigraphy and the mean value of esophageal transit time were significantly higher in obese patients than non-obese control subjects. Gastric emptying time and esophageal transit time values were significantly longer in GER positive obese patients than GER negative ones. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of positive C14 urea breath test between obese and non-obese subjects and there were also no statistically significant correlations between BMI, GER, esophageal transit time and gastric emptying time. Conclusion: In our study, 42 of the 50 obese patients had esophago-gastric motility alterations. The significance of these alterations in obesity is not fully understood, but it is believed that these changes could be because of potential contributing factors in the development or maintenance of obesity or changes in eating habits

  2. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage, gender, and age. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2014;19:376. April 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/empty-nest-syndrome/art-20047165 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  3. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The pilot model used by the ATLAS production system has been in use for many years. The model has proven to be a success with many advantages over push models. However one of the negative side-effects of using a pilot model is the presence of 'empty pilots' running on sites which consume a small amount of walltime and not running a useful payload job. The impact on a site can be significant with previous studies showing a total 0.5% walltime usage with no benefit to either the site or to ATLAS. Another impact is the number of empty pilots being processed by a site's Compute Element and batch system which can be 5% of the total number of pilots being handled. In this paper we review the latest statistics using both ATLAS and site data and highlight edge cases where the number of empty pilots dominate. We also study the effect of tuning the pilot factories to reduce the number of empty pilots.

  4. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  5. Designing dairy desserts for weight management: Structure, physical properties and in vitro gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Jennifer; Llorca, Empar; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to observe the effect of adding dairy proteins and reducing the cream content in order to obtain healthier dairy desserts for use in weight management. The extra-whey protein low-cream sample had the densest, firmest matrix, which is related to increased satiety. The second aim was to investigate the in vitro gastric digestion behavior of whey and casein proteins in a heat-treated semisolid real food. The extra-casein protein sample matrix broke down more slowly than the others because the caseins clotted at the gastric pH. Despite being heated, the whey proteins in the panna cottas were more resistant to pepsin digestion than caseins; this is related with a higher satiety capacity. These findings suggest that the combination of reducing fat content (to obtain a reduced energy density product) and adding whey protein (to increase satiety capacity) allows obtaining dairy desserts for weight management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Josic, Julija; Olsson, Anna Thol?n; Wickeberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 hea...

  7. Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety

    OpenAIRE

    Harshaw, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge probabilistically as a function of experience during individual development. The metatheoretical perspective provided by developmental psychobiological sy...

  8. Anorexia induction by the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) is mediated by the release of the gut satiety hormone peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brenna M; Clark, Erica S; Pestka, James J

    2012-12-01

    Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. Although this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON induces the release of satiety hormones and that this response corresponds to the toxin's anorectic action. Acute ip exposure to DON had no effect on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, or ghrelin; however, the toxin was found to robustly elevate peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Specifically, ip exposure to DON at 1 and 5mg/kg bw induced PYY by up to 2.5-fold and CCK by up to 4.1-fold. These responses peaked within 15-120 min and lasted up to 120 min (CCK) and 240 min (PPY), corresponding with depressed rates of food intake. Direct administration of exogenous PYY or CCK similarly caused reduced food intake. Food intake experiments using the NPY2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 and the CCK1A receptor antagonist devazepide, individually, suggested that PYY mediated DON-induced anorexia but CCK did not. Orolingual exposure to DON induced plasma PYY and CCK elevation and anorexia comparable with that observed for ip exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that PYY might be one critical mediator of DON-induced anorexia and, ultimately, growth suppression.

  9. The interplay of health claims and taste importance on food consumption and self-reported satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Morwitz, Vicki; Chandon, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that subtle health claims used by food marketers influence pre-intake expectations, but no study has examined how they influence individuals' post-consumption experience of satiety after a complete meal and how this varies according to the value placed on food taste. In two experiments, we assess how labeling a pasta salad as "healthy" or "hearty" influences self-reported satiety, consumption volume, and subsequent consumption of another food. Using MANOVA, Study 1 shows that individuals who report low taste importance consume less-yet feel just as satiated-when a salad is labeled "hearty" rather than "healthy." In contrast, for individuals with higher taste importance, consumption and self-reported satiety are correlated and are both higher when a salad is labeled as "hearty" versus "healthy." Study 2 primes taste importance, rather than measuring it, and replicates these findings for consumption, but not for self-reported satiety. There was no effect on the consumption of other foods in either study. Overall, our findings add to earlier work on the impact of health labels by showing that subtle food descriptions also influence post-intake experiences of satiety, but that the direction of the effects depends on taste importance and on the selection of direct or indirect measures of satiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Satiety in the obese Zucker rat: effects of carbohydrate type and acarbose (Bay g 5421).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Vasselli, J R

    1989-09-01

    Despite the obese Zucker rat's hyperphagia on carbohydrate diets such as laboratory chow, this laboratory has found that its satiety response to glucose and other simple sugars is comparable to that of its lean control rat. To further investigate carbohydrate satiety in the Zucker rat, the short-term feeding behavior of obese and lean rats was observed following intragastric infusions (7.2 kcal in 10 ml) of corn starch and the starch hydrolysates Polycose and dextrin. There were no reliable between-genotype differences in the feeding inhibitory effects of Polycose and dextrin. However, in obese rats, the satiety effect of corn starch was delayed and reduced compared to that observed in lean rats (p less than 0.04). To modify the effect of corn starch, rats were adminis