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Sample records for gasoline-like fuel obtained

  1. Blending Octane Number of Toluene with Gasoline-like and PRF Fuels in HCCI Combustion Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer

    2018-04-03

    Future internal combustion engines demand higher efficiency but progression towards this is limited by the phenomenon called knock. A possible solution for reaching high efficiency is Octane-on-Demand (OoD), which allows to customize the antiknock quality of a fuel through blending of high-octane fuel with a low octane fuel. Previous studies on Octane-on-Demand highlighted efficiency benefits depending on the combination of low octane fuel with high octane booster. The author recently published works with ethanol and methanol as high-octane fuels. The results of this work showed that the composition and octane number of the low octane fuel is significant for the blending octane number of both ethanol and methanol. This work focuses on toluene as the high octane fuel (RON 120). Aromatics offers anti-knock quality and with high octane number than alcohols, this work will address if toluene can provide higher octane enhancement. Our aim is to investigate the impact of three gasoline-like fuels and two Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). More specifically, fuels are FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) I, FACE J, FACE A, PRF 70 and PRF 84. A CFR engine was used to conduct the experiments in HCCI mode. For this combustion mode, the engine operated at four specific conditions based on RON and MON conditions. The octane numbers corresponding to four HCCI numbers were obtained for toluene concentration of 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Results show that the blending octane number of toluene varies non-linearly and linearly with the increase in toluene concentration depending on the base fuel, experimental conditions and the concentration of toluene. As a result, the blending octane number can range from close to 150 with a small fraction of toluene to a number closer to that of toluene, 120, with larger fractions.

  2. THE EFFECT OF GASOLINE-LIKE FUEL PRODUCED FROM WASTE AUTOMOBILE TIRES ON EMISSIONS IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTOP, H. F.; VAROL, Y.; ALTUN, Ş.; FIRAT, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the effect of Gasoline-Like Fuel (GLF) on emissions was investigated for direct injection spark-ignited engine. The GLF was obtained from waste automobile tires by using the pyrolysis. The tires are installed to oven without any procedure such as cutting, melding etc. Obtained GLF was then used in a four-cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled and direct injection spark-ignited engine as blended with unleaded gasoline from 0% to 60% with an increment of 10%. Engine tests res...

  3. Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of Gasoline-Like Fuels under Diesel Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torelli, R.; Som, S.; Pei, Y.; Zhang, Yu; Traver, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Spray formation in internal combustion engines with direct injection is strictly correlated with internal nozzle flow characteristics, which are in turn influenced by fuel physical properties and injector needle motion. This paper pre-sents a series of 3D simulations that model the in-nozzle flow in a 5-hole mini-sac diesel injector. Two gasoline-like naphtha fuels, namely full-range and light naphtha, were tested under operating conditions typical of diesel applica-tions and were compared with n-dodecane, selected from a palette used as diesel surrogates. Validated methodolo-gies from our previous work were employed to account for realistic needle motion. The multi-phase nature of the problem was described by the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Cavitation effects were included by means of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model and turbulence closure was achieved with the Standard k-ε model in an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation. The results revealed that injector perfor-mance and propensity to cavitation are influenced by the fuel properties. Analyses of several physical quantities were carried out to highlight the fuel-to-fuel differences in terms of mass flow rate, discharge coefficients, and fuel vapor volume fraction inside the orifices. A series of parametric investigations was also performed to assess the fuel response to varied fuel injection temperature, injection pressure, and cross-sectional orifice area. For all cases, the strict correlation between cavitation magnitude and saturation pressure was confirmed. Owing to their higher volatil-ity, the two gasoline-like fuels were characterized by higher cavitation across all the simulated conditions. Occur-rence of cavitation was mostly found at the needle seat and at the orifice inlets during the injection event’s transient, when very small gaps exist between the needle and its seat. This behavior tended to disappear at maximum needle lift, where cavitation was

  4. Numerical Investigation of a Gasoline-Like Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Global Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Pinaki; Probst, Daniel; Pei, Yuanjiang; Zhang, Yu; Traver, Michael; Cleary, David; Som, Sibendu

    2017-03-28

    Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels. To aid the design and optimization of a compression ignition (CI) combustion system using such fuels, a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was conducted to understand the relative influence of various design parameters on efficiency, emissions and heat release rate. The design parameters included injection strategies, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) fraction, temperature and pressure at intake valve closure and injector configuration. These were varied simultaneously to achieve various targets of ignition timing, combustion phasing, overall burn duration, emissions, fuel consumption, peak cylinder pressure and maximum pressure rise rate. The baseline case was a three-dimensional closed-cycle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with a sector mesh at medium load conditions. Eleven design parameters were considered and ranges of variation were prescribed to each of these. These input variables were perturbed in their respective ranges using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to generate a set of 256 CFD simulations and the targets were calculated from the simulation results. GSA was then applied as a screening tool to identify the input parameters having the most

  5. Blending Octane Number of Toluene with Gasoline-like and PRF Fuels in HCCI Combustion Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Sarathy, Mani; Johansson, Bengt

    2018-01-01

    Future internal combustion engines demand higher efficiency but progression towards this is limited by the phenomenon called knock. A possible solution for reaching high efficiency is Octane-on-Demand (OoD), which allows to customize the antiknock

  6. Numerical Simulations of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuel Sprays under Vaporizing and Reactive Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Mohan, Balaji; Jaasim, Mohammed; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; Sim, Jaeheon; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani; Im, Hong G.

    2018-01-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are becoming more popular alternative for conventional spark engines to harvest the advantage of high volatility. Recent experimental study demonstrated that high reactivity gasoline fuel can be operated in a conventional mixing controlled combustion mode producing lower soot emissions than that of diesel fuel under similar efficiency and NOx level [1]. Therefore, there is much interest in using gasoline-like fuels in compression ignition engines. In order to improve the fidelity of simulation-based GCI combustion system development, it is mandatory to enhance the prediction of spray combustion of gasoline-like fuels. The purpose of this study is to model the spray characteristics of high reactivity gasoline fuels and validate the models with experimental results obtained through an optically accessible constant volume vessel under vaporizing [2] and reactive conditions [3]. For reacting cases, a comparison of PRF and KAUST multi-component surrogate (KMCS) mechanism was done to obtain good agreement with the experimental ignition delay. From this study, some recommendations were proposed for GCI combustion modelling framework using gasoline like fuels.

  7. Numerical Simulations of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuel Sprays under Vaporizing and Reactive Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Mohan, Balaji

    2018-04-03

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are becoming more popular alternative for conventional spark engines to harvest the advantage of high volatility. Recent experimental study demonstrated that high reactivity gasoline fuel can be operated in a conventional mixing controlled combustion mode producing lower soot emissions than that of diesel fuel under similar efficiency and NOx level [1]. Therefore, there is much interest in using gasoline-like fuels in compression ignition engines. In order to improve the fidelity of simulation-based GCI combustion system development, it is mandatory to enhance the prediction of spray combustion of gasoline-like fuels. The purpose of this study is to model the spray characteristics of high reactivity gasoline fuels and validate the models with experimental results obtained through an optically accessible constant volume vessel under vaporizing [2] and reactive conditions [3]. For reacting cases, a comparison of PRF and KAUST multi-component surrogate (KMCS) mechanism was done to obtain good agreement with the experimental ignition delay. From this study, some recommendations were proposed for GCI combustion modelling framework using gasoline like fuels.

  8. Obtaining fuel briquets from the solid municipal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Kachurkov, Gjorgji; Vasilevski, Goce

    1998-01-01

    Recycling systems for solid waste materials are designed to reduce the amount of solid waste materials going to land fields. Through the Trash Separation Systems, clean municipal waste are reused in production of fuel pellets. Other waste streams such as coal fines, sawdust, wood chips, coke breeze and agricultural waste can be blended with these pellets along with a high thermal value binder and/or used motor oil to form a quality clean burning alternative fuel. (Author)

  9. Processing biogas to obtain motor fuel - Operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how raw biogas can be processed in order to remove carbon dioxide and corrosive substances and thus bring it up to natural gas quality. The ecological advantages of using biogas as a fuel are discussed and the situation in Europe and Switzerland is examined. Also, feeding biogas into the normal natural gas mains is discussed and the technologies necessary for the cleaning and preparation of the biogas are described. These include absorption and adsorption processes as well as membrane systems that are used to remove excessive carbon dioxide. The costs involved are discussed on the basis of experience gained in Sweden and Switzerland. Finally, the environmental aspects of methane losses are discussed.

  10. Use of the fuel obtained from waste plastics as a mixture with diesel and biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiernicki, Z.; Zelazo, P. [Lublin Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2013-06-01

    The researches concerning the use of fuel derived from waste plastics and biodiesel have been presented in the paper. The biodiesel and the fuel obtained from waste plastics were both used as fuel components. The bio-admixture in the fuel was FAME, STING and rape oil. The catalytic cracking of polyolefin's was the source of second fuel admixture. The physical properties of analyzed components of the fuel have been presented. The operational parameters of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with tested fuel blends have been set out. The principles of fuel mixture preparation has been also described. The concept of the diesel fuel which is made from the components of opposite physical properties could have a positive practical effect and could improve the use of biofuels. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of the fuel influence in obtaining HAp by combustion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.L.; Leite, A.M.D.; Viana, K.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications has led to investigation of the calcium phosphate bioceramics, and in particular hydroxyapatite (HAp), being a material similar to bone tissue, with excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconduction, enabling bone regeneration which allows the use at implants and prostheses. The synthesis of the nanometric HAp by combustion reaction enables obtaining the nanometric HAp with a more similar structure biological apatite as possible. This work aims to synthesize HAp by combustion reaction using two different routes of synthesis, first, using urea as fuel and the second using glycine, after this, evaluate the influence of fuels used in the microstructure of the hydroxyapatite obtained. The HAp obtained was characterized by: XRD, FTIR and SEM. Through analysis of the results, there is the synthesis conditions used that glycine has performed more favorable to obtaining HAp. (author)

  12. Characterization of pyrolytic oil obtained from pyrolysis of TDF (Tire Derived Fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banar, Müfide; Akyıldız, Vildan; Özkan, Aysun; Çokaygil, Zerrin; Onay, Özlem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We pyrolyzed Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at different heating rates and temperatures. ► We determine convenient pyrolysis temperature for pyrolytic oil. ► The product can be used as fuel for combustion system in industry. ► TDF pyrolysis is advisable recycling system because of low hazardous constituents. - Abstract: In recent years, waste utilization before disposing to the land is the most important point about waste management. Due to the increasing emphasis on recycling, related to the two European Commission Directives (EC End of Life Vehicle Directive, EC Waste Landfill Directive) affecting the management of waste tires, there is interest in the development of alternative technologies for recycling waste tires. One of them is pyrolysis. For this purpose, a fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolysis of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at the temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C with the heating rates of 5 and 35 °C/min. The maximum pyrolytic oil yield (38.8 wt.%) was obtained at 400 °C with 5 °C/min heating rate. The yield of pyrolytic oil decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures whereas the yield of gases increased. The fuel properties of the pyrolytic oil including higher heating value (HHV), elemental composition, flash point, viscosity, distillation and density were determined. Pyrolytic oil was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) techniques and also, the amount of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and congener distribution characteristics were studied for determination of environmental effects. It was seen that the pyrolytic oils have similar fuel properties with the diesel. It was also found that pyrolytic oil contained 0.00118 I-TEQs/g at very low level. Finally, the pyrolytic oil can be evaluated for energy recovery according to Regulation

  13. Hybrid cogeneration system fueled with biogas obtained from urban sewage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Călin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available When treating urban waste water, a large quantity of sludge is produced. This sludge may by used in fermentation tanks to obtain biogas with medium to high levels of methane, which is ideal for electric energy and heat production. The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical study regarding the use of biogas in power and heat generation modules. Biogas can be used for fueling internal combustion engines or fuel cells, which in turn generate electricity. Waste heat contained in the exhaust gas can be recovered in order to maximize efficiency. The theoretical study presented in this paper evaluates electrical and overall efficiency of a biogas production installation inside an urban waste water treatment.

  14. Solutions obtained to international heat transfer benchmarking problems for nuclear fuel casks using Q/TRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, L.C.

    1987-02-01

    In 1985 Sandia National Laboratories participated in the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Reactor Physics (NEACRP) Specialists' Meeting on Heat Transfer Assessment of Transportation Packages. The objective of the meeting was to establish a set of model problems for use in comparing the performance of thermal analysis computer codes that may be used in the design of nuclear fuel shipping casks. The selected problems are to be used to compare code results for the thermal phenomena of conduction, convection, and radiation in cask-like problems. Two model problems were used in this study. The first problem required the determination of the steady-state temperatures of a 16 x 16 array of heated and unheated pins (representing fuel and control rod positions) of a simulated PWR fuel assembly. The second problem required the determination of transient temperatures of a finned surface (representing the external surface of a cask) subjected to an internal heat flux and to an external engulfing fire. Solutions to the problems were obtained with the code ''Q/TRAN.'' Solutions and descriptions of the necessary modeling techniques are given in this report

  15. Rotary kiln and batch pyrolysis of waste tire to produce gasoline and diesel like fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayanoğlu, Abdulkadir; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste Tire Oil (WTO) is produced from waste tire at rotary kiln reactor. • Physical and chemical properties of WTO and fuel samples are analyzed. • Gasoline like fuel (GLF) and diesel like fuel (DLF) are produced from the WTO-10 wt% CaO mixture at fixed bed reactor. • Physical and chemical properties of the GLF and DLF are compared with the standard fuels. - Abstract: In this study, waste tire is pyrolyzed in a rotary kiln reactor to obtain more gas, light liquid, heavy liquid, wax products, and less carbon black at their maximum yields as, 20%, 12%, 25%, 8% and 35% of the total weight (4 tones), respectively. Then, the heavy and light oils are reacted with additives such as natural zeolite (NZ) and lime (CaO) at different mass ratio as 2, 6, and 10 wt%, respectively, in the batch reactor to produce liquids similar to standard petroleum fuels. The heavy and light oils mixture samples are distillated to observe their optimum graphics which are similar to gasoline and diesel like fuel. Consequently, the best results are obtained from the CaO sample with 10 wt% in comparison to the ones from the gasoline and diesel fuels. The 10 wt% CaO light liquid mixture resembles to gasoline named as gasoline like fuel (GLF) and the 10 wt% CaO heavy liquid mixture is similar to diesel called as diesel like fuel (DLF). The chemical and physical features of the waste tire, light oil, heavy oil, GLF, and DLF are analyzed by TG (thermogravimetric)/dTG (derivative thermogravimetric), proximate, ultimate, higher heating value (HHV), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), sulfur, density, viscosity, gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS), flash point, moisture, and distillation tests. The test results are turned out to be very close to the standard petroleum fuel.

  16. Recovery of enriched Uranium (20% U-235) from wastes obtained in the preparation of fuel elements for argonaut type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriarte, A.; Ramos, L.; Estrada, J.; del Val, J. L.

    1962-01-01

    Results obtained with the two following installations for recovering enriched uranium (20% U-235) from wastes obtained in the preparation of fuel elements for Argonaut type reactors are presented. Ion exchange unit to recover uranium form mother liquors resulting from the precipitation ammonium diuranate (ADU) from UO 2 F 2 solutions. Uranium recovery unit from solid wastes from the process of manufacture of fuel elements, consisting of a) waste dissolution, and b) extraction with 10% (v/v) TBP. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Simultaneous fast pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of lignin to obtain a marine diesel fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng

    The topic of this Ph.D. project is to convert lignin, a by-product from a 2nd generation bio-ethanol plant, into a marine diesel fuel by fast pyrolysis followed with catalytic upgrading of the pyrolysis vapor. Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is underutilized in the 2nd...... generation bio-ethanol plants. Shipping industry on the other hand is looking for clean alternative fuels in order to meet stricter fuel quality and emission standards. To convert lignin into a renewable marine diesel fuel will both accelerate the development of modern bio-refinery and transfer the marine...

  18. In vitro performance of ceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, H; Garcia-Giralt, N; Fernández, J; Díez-Pérez, A; Guilemany, J M

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings obtained by plasma-spraying have been used for many years to improve biological performance of bone implants, but several studies have drawn attention to the problems arising from high temperatures and the lack of mechanical properties. In this study, plasma-spraying is substituted by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray, with lower temperatures reached, and TiO2 is added in low amounts to hydroxyapatite in order to improve the mechanical properties. Four conditions have been tested to evaluate which are those with better biological properties. Viability and proliferation tests, as well as differentiation assays and morphology observation, are performed with human osteoblast cultures onto the studied coatings. The hydroxyapatite-TiO2 coatings maintain good cell viability and proliferation, especially the cases with higher amorphous phase amount and specific surface, and promote excellent differentiation, with a higher ALP amount for these cases than for polystyrene controls. Observation by SEM corroborates this excellent behaviour. In conclusion, these coatings are a good alternative to those used industrially, and an interesting issue would be improving biological behaviour of the worst cases, which in turn show the better mechanical properties.

  19. Obtaining of ceria - samaria - gadolinia ceramics for application as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) when doped with rare earth oxides has its ionic conductivity enhanced, enabling its use as electrolyte for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IT-SOFC), which is operated in temperatures between 500 e 700 degree C. The most effective additives or dopants for ionic conductivity improvement are (samarium oxide - Sm 2 O 3 ) and gadolinia (gadolinium oxide - Gd 2 O 3 ), fixing the concentration between 10 and 20 molar%. In this work, Ce 0,8 (SmGd) 0,2 O 1,9 powders have been synthesized by hydroxide, carbonate and oxalate coprecipitation routes. The hydrothermal treatment has been studied for powders precipitated with ammonium hydroxide. A concentrate of rare earths containing 90wt% of CeO 2 and other containing 51% of Sm 2 O 3 and 30% of Gd 2 O 3 , both prepared from monazite processing, were used as starting materials. These concentrates were used due the lower cost compared to pure commercial materials and the chemical similarity of others rare earth elements. Initially, the coprecipitation and calcination conditions were defined. The process efficiency was verified by ceramic sinterability evaluation. The results showed that powders calcined in the range of 450 and 800 degree C presented high specific surface area (90 - 150 m 2 .g -1 ) and fluorite cubic structure, indicating the solid solution formation. It was observed, by scanning electron microscopy, that morphology of particles and agglomerates is a function of precipitant agent. The dilatometric analysis indicated the higher rate of shrinkage at temperatures around 1300-1350 degree C. High densification values (>95% TD) was obtained at temperatures above 1400 degree C. Synthesis by hydroxides coprecipitation followed by hydrothermal treatment demonstrated to be a promising route for crystallization of ceria nano powders at low temperatures (200 degree C). High values of specific surface area were reached with the employment of hydrothermal treatment (about 100 m 2 .g -1

  20. Liquid fuel obtain from polypropylene (PP-5) and high density polyethylene (HDPE-2) waste plastics mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed [Department of Research and Development, Natural State Research Inc, Stamford, (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Plastics are made by combination of small based molecules to form monomers. The monomers are then joined together by chemical polymerization mechanism to form polymers also known as plastics. These plastics contain various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and sul fur. The use of plastics is vastly expanded and it is being used in every sector of the world. However, using plastics does have a negative aspect, after use they end up in our landfill as waste causing numerous health and environmental problems. Landfill waste plastics release harmful gases due to the presence of carbon, chlorine and sul fur in them into the atmosphere causing climates to change drastically, equivalent to the effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. To overcome these environmental issues, scientists have already developed many methods to converting these waste plastics into energy and fuel . We developed one new methods thermal cracking conversion to convert these waste plastics into usable liquid fuel . Thermal cracking conversion is a process to shorten the long chain hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuel in the absence of a catalyst. The thermal degradation process of the waste plastics long chain hydrocarbon to makes short chain hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel produced has been analyzed and tested according to standard methods. Key words: fuel , hydrocarbon, waste plastic, thermal degradation, conversion, GC/MS.

  1. Liquid fuel obtain from polypropylene (PP-5) and high density polyethylene (HDPE-2) waste plastics mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Plastics are made by combination of small based molecules to form monomers. The monomers are then joined together by chemical polymerization mechanism to form polymers also known as plastics. These plastics contain various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and sul fur. The use of plastics is vastly expanded and it is being used in every sector of the world. However, using plastics does have a negative aspect, after use they end up in our landfill as waste causing numerous health and environmental problems. Landfill waste plastics release harmful gases due to the presence of carbon, chlorine and sul fur in them into the atmosphere causing climates to change drastically, equivalent to the effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. To overcome these environmental issues, scientists have already developed many methods to converting these waste plastics into energy and fuel . We developed one new methods thermal cracking conversion to convert these waste plastics into usable liquid fuel . Thermal cracking conversion is a process to shorten the long chain hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuel in the absence of a catalyst. The thermal degradation process of the waste plastics long chain hydrocarbon to makes short chain hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel produced has been analyzed and tested according to standard methods. Key words: fuel , hydrocarbon, waste plastic, thermal degradation, conversion, GC/MS

  2. Recovery of enriched Uranium (20% U-235) from wastes obtained in the preparation of fuel elements for argonaut type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte, A; Ramos, L; Estrada, J; Val, J L. del

    1962-07-01

    Results obtained with the two following installations for recovering enriched uranium (20% U-235) from wastes obtained in the preparation of fuel elements for Argonaut type reactors are presented. Ion exchange unit to recover uranium form mother liquors resulting from the precipitation ammonium diuranate (ADU) from UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} solutions. Uranium recovery unit from solid wastes from the process of manufacture of fuel elements, consisting of a) waste dissolution, and b) extraction with 10% (v/v) TBP. (Author) 9 refs.

  3. Information on the evolution of severe LWR fuel element damage obtained in the CORA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanz, G.; Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Sepold, L.; Schumacher, G.

    1992-01-01

    In the CORA program a series of out-of-pile experiments on LWR severe accidental situations is being performed, in which test bundles of LWR typical components and arrangements (PWR, BWR) are exposed to temperature transients up to about 2400deg C under flowing steam. The individual features of the facility, the test conduct, and the evaluation will be presented. In the frame of the international cooperation in severe fuel damage (SFD) programs the CORA tests are contributing confirmatory and complementary informations to the results from the limited number of in-pile tests. The identification of basic phenomena of the fuel element destruction, observed as a function of temperature, is supported by separate-effects test results. Most important mechanisms are the steam oxidation of the Zircaloy cladding, which determines the temperature escalation, the chemical interaction between UO 2 fuel and cladding, which dominates fuel liquefaction, relocation and resulting blockage formation, as well as chemical interactions with Inconel spacer grids and absorber units ((Ag, In, Cd) alloy or B 4 C), which are leading to extensive low-temperature melt formation around 1200deg C. Interrelations between those basic phenomena, resulting for example in cladding deformation ('flowering') and the dramatic hydrogen formation in response to the fast cooling of a hot bundle by cold water ('quenching') are determining the evolution paths of fuel element destruction, which are to be identified. (orig.)

  4. Clostridium beijerinckii mutant obtained atmospheric pressure glow discharge generates enhanced electricity in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Guo, Ting; Wang, Dong; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-01-01

    A Clostridium beijerinckii mutant M13 was derived from C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 by atmospheric pressure glow discharge. C. beijerinckii M13 generated a maximum output power density of 79.2 mW m(-2) and a maximum output voltage of 230 mV in a microbial fuel cell containing 1 g glucose l(-1) as carbon source and 0.15 g methyl viologen l(-1) as an electron carrier.

  5. An oxyde mixture fuel containing uranium and plutonium dioxides and process to obtain this oxyde mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.

    1976-01-01

    An oxide-mixture fuel containing uranium and plutonium dioxides having the slage of spherical, or nearly spherical, oxide-mixture particles with a diameter within the range of from 0.2 to 2 mn charactarized in that each oxide-mixture particles is provided with an outer layer comprising mainly UO2, the thickness of which is at least 0.05; whereas the inner portion of the oxide-mixture particles comprises mainly PUO 2

  6. Obtaining alternative fuel from sweet sorghum in the conditions of the Republic of Tatarstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gilmanshin, I. R.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    In the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation the main types of energy resources is the FCM (fuel-lubricating materials), electricity, coal and gas. Priority energy is determined depending on the orientation of the activity of the agricultural enterprise. In the cost of getting products one of the key factors is its energy intensity. Under the energy intensity means the amount of energy expended per unit of finished product. Domestic manufacturers lag behind on this indicator from their foreign colleagues. Greatly influenced by the climatic conditions of production, which affects the amount of energy expended annually becoming more expensive. In the article, the authors address a topical issue of renewable(alternative) fuels from sweet sorghum in the stems of which contains from 14 to 21 % sugar. In the Republic of Tatarstan tested and introduced varieties of sweet sorghum. On the basis of literary data and carried out their own research given a set of equipment and presents non-waste production chain of biodiesel and fuel pellets from stems of sweet sorghum.

  7. 40 CFR 80.607 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for diesel fuel or ECA marine fuel used for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... fuel will be segregated from motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel, as... documents associated with research and development motor vehicle diesel fuel must comply with requirements...

  8. Fabrication and characterization of Am, Np and Cm bearing MOX fuel obtained by conventional powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, A.; Leorier, C.; Desmouliere, F.; Donnet, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), CEA/DEN/VRH/DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides enables to produce energy and to turn them into shorter-lived nuclides. This promising way to reduce the long-term waste radiotoxicity is world wide investigated. In the framework of the Global Actinide Cycle International Demonstration and regarding the homogeneous recycling for transmutation in fast reactors, minor actinides (Am, Np, Cm) bearing MOX fuel pellets were fabricated in the ATALANTE facility by a conventional powder metallurgy process (milling then pressing and finally sintering). The sintered pellets were submitted to a visual inspection where neither crack nor strain was detected. In addition, the pellets exhibit a density in the range 93-96% TD which makes them proper to the irradiation in fast reactors. The pellets were characterized by XRD (X radiation diffraction) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) combined to image analysis. (authors)

  9. Molten fuel/coolant interaction studies: some results obtained with the Windscale small shock tube rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higham, E.J.; Vaughan, G.J.

    1978-02-01

    Experiments are described in which water has been brought into contact with various molten metals in a shock tube, thus simulating the fall of coolant into molten uranium dioxide in a postulated reactor accident. Impact velocities of the water on to the molten material were in the range 5 to 7 m/s. Shock-pulse pressures in the water column after impact and particle size distributions of the dispersed resolidified material that was recovered were measured. The proportion of dispersed material and the size of the shock pulse (by comparison with that expected from water hammer alone) have been used as criteria for the occurrence of a molten fuel/coolant interaction and such interactions of varying degrees of violence have been found for water/aluminium, water/bismuth, water/tin, over a range of temperatures from 350 0 C to 950 0 C, for water/boric oxide, but not for water/magnesium. (author)

  10. recovery of enriched uranium from waste solution obtained from fuel fabrication laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, S.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    reversed-phase partition chromatography is shown to be a convenient and applicable method for the quantitative recovery of uranium (19.7% enriched with 235 U) from highly impure solution . the processing of uranium compounds for atomic energy project especially in FMPP(Egyptian fuel manufacture pilot plant) gives rise to a variety of wastes in which the uranium content is of considerable importance. the recovery of uranium from concentrated mother liquors produced from ADU (ammonium diuranate ) precipitation, as well as those due to ADU washing is studied in this work. column of poly-trifluoro-monochloro-ethilene (Kel-F) supporting tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) retains uranium .impurities are eluted with 6.5 M HCl, and the uranium is eluted with water and the recovery of uranium is better than 94%. A mathematical model was suggested to stimulate the sorption process of uranium ions (or any other ion ) by column of solvent impregnated resin containing organic extractant (the same as the previous column) . An excellent agreement was founded between the experimental results and the mathematical model

  11. Catalytic Hydrotreatment of Light Distillates Obtained from Bio-Oil for Use in Oxygenated Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil can be fractionated into three parts according to their boiling points. This research reported that light distillates could be converted into oxygenated liquid fuels through a two-stage hydrotreatment approach, using a Pd/C catalyst. The main goal of the first hydrotreatment stage was to stabilize the high active components, which contained carbon–carbon double bonds and aldehyde groups. The second hydrotreatment stage aimed to saturate the components with benzene rings and keto groups, resulting in saturated oxygenated compounds. The H/Ceff ratio was improved greatly after the two-stage hydrotreatment, increasing from 0.51 (in the reactant to 1.67 (in the final products. The high heating value of the final products was 31.63 MJ/kg. After the two-stage hydrotreatment, the main products were C5–C9 alcohols, which were tested via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The products could be blended with gasoline directly. Based on the experiments regarding the hydrogenated model compounds, a reaction schematic for the two-stage hydrotreatment was created. Moreover, the bio-oil hydrotreatment kinetics were investigated. The order of the hydrotreatment reaction was 2.0, and the apparent activation energy (Ea was 57.29 KJ/mol.

  12. Effect of amount of glycine as fuel in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.N.; Simoes, V.N.; Neiva, L.S.; Quirino, M.R.; Vieira, D.A.; Gama, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the effect of the amount of glycine in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO synthesized by combustion reaction technique. The amount of glycine used was calculated on the stoichiometric composition of 50% and 100%. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption by the BET method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed with powder of Ni/NiO result. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed the presence of crystalline NiO phase in the presence of nickel as a secondary phase, whose amount increased with the amount of glycine. Increasing the concentration of glycine also caused an increase in surface area, which ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 m 2 /g. The micrographs revealed the formation of soft agglomerates with porous appearance and easy dispersions. It can be concluded that the synthesis is effective to obtain nanosized powders. (author)

  13. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2018-04-03

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  14. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Bakor, Radwan; AlRamadan, Abdullah; Almansour, Mohammed; Sim, Jaeheon; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Viollet, Yoann; Chang, Junseok

    2018-01-01

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  15. Bio-flex obtained from pyrolysis of biomass as fuel; Bio-flex obtido da pirolise de biomassa como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Viltre Rodriguez, Roberto Alfonso; Marin Mesa, Henry Ramon [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Samaniego, Manuel Raul Pelaez [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the BIOWARE experience in the bio fuel production from biomass residues. Fast pyrolysis of a mixture of sugar cane trash and elephant grass carried out in a fluidized bed reactor with capacity of 200 kg/h dry feed (12% w/w). The co-products particulate charcoal, acid extract, and bio-oil were obtained. The fast pyrolysis pilot plant PPR-200 belonged to UNICAMP and is operated by BIOWARE personnel. This paper presents the chemical rote to bio-flex production (a kind of bio diesel from acid esterification) from pyrolytic carboxylic acids. Both ethanol and methanol were used as reactant but higher yields were found with methanol. (author)

  16. The obtainment of highly concentrated uranium pellets for plate type (MTR) fuel by dispersion of uranium aluminides in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morando, R.A.; Raffaeli, H.A.; Balzaretti, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of the intermetallic UAl 3 for manufacturing plate type MTR fuel with 20% U 235 enriched uranium and a density of about 20 kg/m 3 is analyzed. The technique used is the dispersion of UAl 3 particles in aluminium powder. The obtainment of the UAl 3 intermetallic was performed by fusion in an induction furnace in an atmosphere of argon at a pressure of 0.7 BAR (400 mm) using an alumina melting pot. To make the aluminide powder and attain the wished granulometry a cutting and a rotating crusher were used. Aluminide powders of different granulometries and different pressures of compactation were analyzed. In each case the densities were measured. The compacts were colaminated with the 'Picture Frame' technique at temperatures of 490 and 0 deg C with excellent results from the manufacturing view point. (M.E.L.) [es

  17. Development of unfolding method to obtain pin-wise source strength distribution from PWR spent fuel assembly measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitompul, Yos Panagaman; Shin, Hee-Sung; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong Myeong; Seo, Hee; Kim, Ho Dong

    2013-01-01

    An unfolding method has been developed to obtain a pin-wise source strength distribution of a 14 × 14 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assembly. Sixteen measured gamma dose rates at 16 control rod guide tubes of an assembly are unfolded to 179 pin-wise source strengths of the assembly. The method calculates and optimizes five coefficients of the quadratic fitting function for X-Y source strength distribution, iteratively. The pin-wise source strengths are obtained at the sixth iteration, with a maximum difference between two sequential iterations of about 0.2%. The relative distribution of pin-wise source strength from the unfolding is checked using a comparison with the design code (Westinghouse APA code). The result shows that the relative distribution from the unfolding and design code is consistent within a 5% difference. The absolute value of the pin-wise source strength is also checked by reproducing the dose rates at the measurement points. The result shows that the pin-wise source strengths from the unfolding reproduce the dose rates within a 2% difference. (author)

  18. LWR mox fuel experience in Belgium and France with special emphasis on results obtained in BR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.; Haas, D.; Lippens, M.; Motte, F.; Lebastard, G.; Marin, J.F.

    1986-09-01

    The course of the paper reflects two main topics: LWR MOX fuel experience in Belgium and France, summarizing the fabrication techniques, the references, the underlying MOX fuel technology and the current R and D programs for expanding the data base; behaviour of MOX fuel rods irradiated under steady state and transient operating conditions, focusing on MOX fuel technology features acquired through the irradiations performed in the BR3 PWR, supplemented by tests in the BR2 MTR. This paper focuses on the thermomechanical behaviour of LWR MOX fuel rods, which is intimately related to the fabrication technique and vice-versa. 22 refs

  19. Some ideas about the modeling of experimental data obtained during spent fuel leaching in the presence of dissolved hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahiu, K.

    2003-01-01

    Lately several experimental data have been collected or published on the dissolution of spent fuel in solutions saturated with dissolved hydrogen. In the SFS project there are also several planned experiments of this type with different solids (alpha-doped UO 2 , high burnup spent fuel or MOX) or solution compositions (distilled water, low ionic strength carbonated solutions, concentrated NaCl solutions). There have been already also different hypothesis forwarded to explain the data as well as full models proposed including the influence of the dissolved Fe(II) on the fuel dissolution. Some ideas towards the main lines of modeling spent fuel dissolution under such conditions will be presented. The hydrogen effect on spent fuel dissolution is relatively recent and experiments are still carried out to confirm or rule it out for different spent fuels and conditions. For this reason it would be too ambitious at the present level of knowledge to present a full modeling of such data. This is because a spent fuel dissolution model should be valid for predictions of geological time scales based on relatively short time experiments. This is possible only with a very good understanding of the dissolution process and of the mechanisms underlying the hydrogen effect, while a simple extrapolation of experimental data for repository time scales would not be reliable. (Author)

  20. Analysis of the fuel influence in obtaining HAp by combustion reaction; Analise da influencia do combustivel na obtencao de HAp via reacao de combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.L.; Leite, A.M.D.; Viana, K.M.S., E-mail: kalineviana@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2016-07-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications has led to investigation of the calcium phosphate bioceramics, and in particular hydroxyapatite (HAp), being a material similar to bone tissue, with excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconduction, enabling bone regeneration which allows the use at implants and prostheses. The synthesis of the nanometric HAp by combustion reaction enables obtaining the nanometric HAp with a more similar structure biological apatite as possible. This work aims to synthesize HAp by combustion reaction using two different routes of synthesis, first, using urea as fuel and the second using glycine, after this, evaluate the influence of fuels used in the microstructure of the hydroxyapatite obtained. The HAp obtained was characterized by: XRD, FTIR and SEM. Through analysis of the results, there is the synthesis conditions used that glycine has performed more favorable to obtaining HAp. (author)

  1. Re-evaluation of Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel obtained at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for validation of burnup calculation code systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya, E-mail: suyama.kenya@jaea.go.jp [Office of International Relations, Nuclear Safety Division, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - Japan, 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 (Japan); Murazaki, Minoru; Ohkubo, Kiyoshi [Fuel Cycle Safety Research Group, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakahara, Yoshinori [Research Group for Analytical Science, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Uchiyama, Gunzo [Fuel Cycle Safety Research Group, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > The specifications required for the analyses of the destructive assay data taken from irradiated fuel in Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs were documented in this paper. > These data were analyzed using the SWAT2.1 code, and the calculation results showed good agreement with experimental results. > These destructive assay data are suitable for the benchmarking of the burnup calculation code systems. - Abstract: The isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuels is vital data for studies on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor physics. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been active in obtaining such data for pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels, and some data has already been published. These data have been registered with the international Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO) and widely used as international benchmarks for burnup calculation codes and libraries. In this paper, Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel from two fuel assemblies irradiated in the Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs in Japan are shown. The destructive assay data from Ohi-2 have already been published. However, these data were not suitable for the benchmarking of calculation codes and libraries because several important specifications and data were not included. This paper summarizes the details of destructive assay data and specifications required for analyses of isotopic composition from Ohi-1 and Ohi-2. For precise burnup analyses, the burnup values of destructive assay samples were re-evaluated in this study. These destructive assay data were analyzed using the SWAT2.1 code, and the calculation results showed good agreement with experimental results. This indicates that the quality of destructive assay data from Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs is high, and that these destructive assay data are suitable for the benchmarking of burnup calculation code systems.

  2. Process and plant for obtaining producer gas from fossil fuels. Verfahren und Anlage zur Gewinnung von Generatorgas aus fossilen Brennstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1983-12-01

    In a plant for generating producer gas from fossil fuels with relatively high humidity, there is predrying of the wet material in two drying chambers situated above the actual reactor shaft. The drying air required for this purpose is drawn off via blowers and heat exchangers preheated from the area of the combustion zone. The preparation of the crude gases produced first in the process is done by a socalled bypass gas system, i.e. the reintroduction of the crude gases enriched with tar oil and steam and diverting prepared hot gases via an annular pipe from the area of the reduction zone.

  3. A new fabrication route for SFR fuel using (U, Pu)O{sub 2} powder obtained by oxalic co-conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaudez, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.vaudez@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, SPUA, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Belin, Renaud C.; Aufore, Laurence; Sornay, Philippe [CEA, DEN, DEC, SPUA, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Grandjean, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DRCP, DIR, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2013-11-15

    The standard powder metallurgy preparation of SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) oxide fuel involves UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} co-milling. An alternative route, using a solid-solution of mixed oxide obtained by oxalic co-conversion as the starting material, is presented. It was used to manufacture nuclear fuels for the “COPIX” irradiation conducted in the Phenix SFR. Two processes using co-converted powders were tested to elaborate fuel pellets: (1) the Direct Process that consists in pressing and sintering the mixed oxide with the final Pu content and (2) the Dilution Process, which involves the dilution of a high Pu content mixed oxide with UO{sub 2}. After studying the structural and microstructural evolution with temperature of these innovative raw materials, the elaboration parameters were adjusted to obtain final pellets in accordance with the Phenix fuel specifications. This study demonstrates the feasibility of such new fabrication route at laboratory scale and, from a more fundamental prospect, allows a better understanding of the underlying phenomena involved during sintering.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of PtRu/C catalysts obtained by colloidal and deposition methods for fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberto Gomes Franco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to compare catalysts produced by the Bönnemann - colloidal method (PtRu (B1 and PtRu (B2, and those produced by the spontaneous deposition method (PtRu (SD. The catalysts produced by both methods had good electrochemical behavior for methanol oxidation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. The structure of the catalyst was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis (EDS was used to determine the semi-quantitative composition of the catalysts, and the electrochemical behavior was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV. The diffractograms of the binary catalysts revealed platinum and ruthenium as the only crystalline phases, as per ICDD data base. The PtRu (B1 catalyst, treated in a reducing atmosphere, has the same structure as PtRu (B2, treated in an oxidising/reducing atmosphere, except that the crystallite size was around 1.7 nm for PtRu (B1 instead of 9.9 nm for PtRu (B2. The catalysts PtRu (B2 and PtRu (SD showed similar cyclic voltammetric behavior, which was better than that of PtRu (B1. Both methods are suitable for the production of electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The colloidal method is more expensive than the deposition method, but the former permits the production of ternary and quaternary catalyst systems with enhanced CO tolerance.

  5. Effect of Feed Composition Changing at Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Unit Due to Involvement of Gasoline Fraction Obtained by Diesel Fuels Hydrodewaxing into the Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Natalia Sergeevna; Ivanchina, Emilia Dmitrievna; Ivashkina, Elena Nikolaevna; Frantsina, Evgeniya Vladimirovna; Silko, Galina Yurievna

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary products of hydrodewaxing process is stable gasoline, which is characterized by low octane number on the one hand. On the other hand, it contains a significant amount of iso-paraffins (on average 45% wt.) and naphthenes (on average 25% wt.), which are reagents in the naphtha catalytic reforming process primary reactions. Feasibility of stable gasoline obtained by means of diesel fuel catalytic hydrodewaxing process involving into the processing at the naphtha catalytic refo...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Logistics Agency. (a) Agencies shall be governed by the provisions of this § 101-26.602 in satisfying... petroleum products from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. (b) The Defense Logistics Agency has been...

  7. Study of UO2-10WT%Gd2O3 fuel pellets obtained by seeding method using AUC co-precipitation and mechanical mixing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.M.F.; Ferraz, W.B.A.; Santos, M.M. dos; Pinto, L.C.M.; Santos, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of gadolinium and uranium mixed oxide as a nuclear fuel aims to obtain a fuel with a performance better than that of UO 2 fuel. In this work, seeding method was used to improve ionic diffusivity during sintering to produce high density pellets containing coarse grains by co-precipitation and mechanical mixing processes. Sintered UO 2 -10 wt% Gd 2 O 3 pellets were obtained using the reference processes with 2 wt% and 5 wt% UO 2 seeds with two granulometries, less than 20 μm and between 20 and 38 μm. Characterisation was carried out by chemical analysis, surface area, X-ray diffraction, SEM, WDS, image analysis, and densitometry. The seeding method using mechanical mixing process was more effective than the co-precipitation method. Furthermore, mechanical mixing process resulted in an increase in density of UO 2 -10wt% Gd 2 O 3 with seeds in relation to that of UO 2 -10wt% Gd 2 O 3 without seeds. (author)

  8. Study of Maxwell–Wagner (M–W) relaxation behavior and hysteresis observed in bismuth titanate layered structure obtained by solution combustion synthesis using dextrose as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subohi, Oroosa; Shastri, Lokesh; Kumar, G.S.; Malik, M.M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T c ) to be 650 °C. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample. - Highlights: • Bi 4 Ti 3 O 12 is synthesized using solution combustion technique with dextrose as fuel. • Dextrose has high reducing capacity (+24) and generates more no. of moles of gases. • Impedance studies show that the sample follows Maxwell–Wagner relaxation behavior. • Shows lower remnant polarization due to higher c-axis ratio. - Abstract: Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate (Bi 4 Ti 3 O 12 ) obtained by solution combustion technique using dextrose as fuel is studied extensively in this paper. Dextrose is used as fuel as it has high reducing valancy and generates more number of moles of gases during the reaction. X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T c ) to be 650 °C. The dielectric loss is very less (tan δ < 1) at lower temperatures but increases around T c due to structural changes in the sample. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample

  9. Final results of the cadmium and spectral ratios obtained inside of the fuel rod positioned in the central position of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C.; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lambiasi, Beatriz G.N. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The spectral ratios are very important to determine some nuclear reactors parameters such as reaction rates, fuel lifetime, etc and some safety operational conditions. This study aims to determine the spectral ratios in 2 (two) spatial positions located inside the core of the Nuclear Reactor IPEN/MB-01. These places are at the central position of the nuclear reactor core in an asymptotic neutron flux region. The experiment consists in inserting different activation foil detectors inside an experimental fuel rod. The experimental rod is assembled at the central position of the reactor core. Activation neutron foil detectors of different elements such as {sup 197}Au, {sup 238}U, {sup 45}Sc, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 47}Ti and {sup 115m}In were used to cover a large range of neutron spectrum. Saturation activity per target nucleus was obtained by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe system. The experimental cadmium ratios compared with values computed by MCNP-4C code show good agreement. (author)

  10. Monte-Carlo code calculation of 3D reactor core model with usage of burnt fuel isotopic compositions, obtained by engineering codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Gorodkov, Sergey S.; Shcherenko, Anna I. [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A burn-up calculation of large systems by Monte-Carlo code (MCU) is complex process and it requires large computational costs. Previously prepared isotopic compositions are proposed to be used for the Monte-Carlo code calculations of different system states with burnt fuel. Isotopic compositions are calculated by an approximation method. The approximation method is based on usage of a spectral functionality and reference isotopic compositions, that are calculated by the engineering codes (TVS-M, BIPR-7A and PERMAK-A). The multiplication factors and power distributions of FAs from a 3-D reactor core are calculated in this work by the Monte-Carlo code MCU using earlier prepared isotopic compositions. The separate conditions of the burnt core are observed. The results of MCU calculations were compared with those that were obtained by engineering codes.

  11. Methods used and kind of results obtained in SCARABEE facility about fuel and clad motion diagnostics. Previsional development for SCARABEE N and CABRI facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardy, J.; Manent, G.; Roche, L.; Tattegrain, A.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques are described for planned LMFBR loss of flow simulation studies using irradiated fuel (SCARABEE N program) and for LMFBR transient overpower studies using both fresh and irradiated fuel (CABRI program)

  12. Design of a process for the use of residual hydrocarbons coming from the ships arriving at Moin for obtaining of a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrigal Calderon, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    A process is designed to carry out the obtaining of a fuel from the residual mixture of residual oils coming from the ships arriving at Moin, Limon, Costa Rica . A sampling of the residual oil in different ships is realized for a month to quantify the water content and basic sediment, as well as the heavy metal content. The results obtained have been 20,4 ± 4,6 % v/v of water and sediment, and 6,939 ppm of heavy metals as a minimum, this value may be higher depending on the quality of lubricant. The production volume of the residual oil is estimated according to historical data of the company ACASE S.A. (company responsible for collecting the oil residue of ships arriving at dock of Moin, Limon); therefore, the plant must process 25,000 liters of dirty oil per day. The main technologies (thermal process, treatment with chemical reaction, vacuum distillation and solvent extraction) to perform the process are compared and studied through a selection matrix. The technical and economic parameters chosen for the matrix have been: environmental impact, cost of operation, cost of equipment, safety of operation, maintenance of equipment, by-products obtained, waste generated, quality of the product obtained and ease of operation. The study has concluded that the treatment with chemical reaction has been the best option for the project of used oil utilization, as well as other physical methods of cleaning as the centrifugation of the same one. The installation of a waste oil processing plant has been a project that environmentally represents a benefit and economically viable, as currently the residual oil is left untreated for later use [es

  13. Comparison of in vitro behavior of as-sprayed, alkaline-treated and collagen-treated bioceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melero, H., E-mail: hortensia.melero.correas@gmail.com [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia-Giralt, N. [URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), RETICEF, Doctor Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Fernández, J. [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Díez-Pérez, A. [URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), RETICEF, Doctor Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Servei de Medicina Interna, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Guilemany, J.M. [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp)–TiO{sub 2} samples obtained using high velocity oxy-fuel spray (HVOF), that had previously shown excellent mechanical behaviour, were innovatively surface treated in order to improve their biological performance. The chosen treatments were an alkaline treatment to increase –OH radicals density on the surface (especially on TiO{sub 2} zones), and a collagen treatment to bond collagen fibrils to the –OH radicals present in hydroxyapatite. These coatings were analysed using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, and tested for human osteoblast biocompatibility and functionality. In the case of the alkaline treatment, although the –OH radicals density did not increase compared to the as-sprayed coatings, a nanostructured layer of sodium hydroxycarbonate precipitated on the surface, thus improving biological behaviour due to the nanoroughness effect. For the collagen-treated samples, collagen fibrils appeared well-adhered to the surface, and in vitro cell culture tests showed that these surfaces were much more conducive to cell adhesion and differentiation than the as-sprayed and alkaline-treated samples. These results pointed to collagen treatment as a very promising method to improve bioactivity of HAp–TiO{sub 2} thermal-sprayed coatings.

  14. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  15. An oxidative desulfurization method using ultrasound/Fenton's reagent for obtaining low and/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yongchuan; Qi, Yutai [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 115001 (China); Zhao, Dezhi [Department of Petroleum Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Zhang, Huicheng [Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals of SINOPEC Corp., Fushun 113001 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The total development trend in the world is towards continuously lower of sulfur content as a quality standard of diesel fuels. Integrating of an oxidative desulfurization unit with a conventional hydrotreating unit can bring benefits to producing low and/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels. Using the hydrotreated Middle East diesel fuel as a feedstock, four processes of the oxidative desulfurization have been studied: a hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid system and a Fenton's reagent system both without/with ultrasound. Results showed that the oxidative desulfurization reaction mechanics fitted apparent first-order kinetics. The addition of Fenton's reagent could enhance the oxidative desulfurization efficiency for diesel fuels and sono-oxidation treatment in combination with Fenton's reagent shows a good synergistic effect. Under our best operating condition for the oxidative desulfurization: temperature 313 K, ultrasonic power 200 W, ultrasonic frequency 28 kHz, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 0.05 mol/mol, pH 2.10 in aqueous phase and reaction time 15 min, the sulfur content in the diesel fuels was decreased from 568.75 {mu}g/g to 9.50 {mu}g/g. (author)

  16. Main crops used to obtain fuel from vegetable oils in Brazil; Principais culturas para obtencao de oleos vegetais combustiveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], Email: anna@ital.sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper tries to identify how the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel may unfold itself in different geographical areas starting from the specific characteristics for each cultivation and volume production of each plant at present. By combining the production of palm, peanut, corn, soy beans, coconut, cotton, castor beans, sunflower and canola, of each geographical area, with the average oil yield as compared with the production of 2004, it has been calculated that the potential of oil production from areas in the South (32,9%) and Middle west (40,8%), having a high per capita income, are much higher than the areas the North (3,4%) and Northeast (10,1%), mainly due to the high soy bean and corn production. Considering the participation of all these oleaginous raw materials, it has been considered that it would be necessary to increase about 5% of the actual production of these plants for a later transformation in fuel to supply the bio diesel demand. This modest growth estimate requires caution on the part of the farmers and oil crushers and converters for they must project their investments correctly, so that their production can be absorbed by the market. The oil yield per hectare and the land use per bio fuel ton are indicators which have a great importance to be considered in the national program to evaluate aspects of economic, social and environmental feasibility. (author)

  17. Combustion Chemistry of Fuels: Quantitative Speciation Data Obtained from an Atmospheric High-temperature Flow Reactor with Coupled Molecular-beam Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Markus; Oßwald, Patrick; Krueger, Dominik; Whitside, Ryan

    2018-02-19

    This manuscript describes a high-temperature flow reactor experiment coupled to the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique. This flexible tool offers a detailed observation of chemical gas-phase kinetics in reacting flows under well-controlled conditions. The vast range of operating conditions available in a laminar flow reactor enables access to extraordinary combustion applications that are typically not achievable by flame experiments. These include rich conditions at high temperatures relevant for gasification processes, the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime or investigations of complex technical fuels. The presented setup allows measurements of quantitative speciation data for reaction model validation of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis processes, while enabling a systematic general understanding of the reaction chemistry. Validation of kinetic reaction models is generally performed by investigating combustion processes of pure compounds. The flow reactor has been enhanced to be suitable for technical fuels (e.g. multi-component mixtures like Jet A-1) to allow for phenomenological analysis of occurring combustion intermediates like soot precursors or pollutants. The controlled and comparable boundary conditions provided by the experimental design allow for predictions of pollutant formation tendencies. Cold reactants are fed premixed into the reactor that are highly diluted (in around 99 vol% in Ar) in order to suppress self-sustaining combustion reactions. The laminar flowing reactant mixture passes through a known temperature field, while the gas composition is determined at the reactors exhaust as a function of the oven temperature. The flow reactor is operated at atmospheric pressures with temperatures up to 1,800 K. The measurements themselves are performed by decreasing the temperature monotonically at a rate of -200 K/h. With the sensitive MBMS technique, detailed speciation data is acquired and

  18. In-cylinder visualization and engine out emissions from CI to PPC for fuels with different properties

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao

    2018-02-27

    This study investigated the transition from conventional Compression Ignition (CI) to Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in an optical engine for fuels with differing properties. Combustion stratification and emissions were measured with diesel, naphtha and their corresponding surrogate fuels, N-heptane and PRF50. The aim of the study is to link the combustion images with engine out emissions and mixture homogeneity. Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from late to early injections was employed. Results show that combustion phasing trend is similar for diesel/N-heptane as well as for naphtha/PRF50 as the SOI moved from late injection timing to early injection timing. However, there is a significant difference in combustion phasing behavior for gasoline like fuels (naphtha and PRF50) and diesel fuels (diesel and N-heptane). CO emissions show an inverted V-shaped trend with one single peak in the transition zone. A “W” shape trend, with two bottoms at various dilution rates is observed for the UHC emissions. NOX emissions are high in the transition zone and decreased to lower levels in CI and PPC zones. NOX emissions are significantly reduced by reducing the intake O2 concentration with nitrogen. Except for diesel, the other three fuels show lower soot emissions. When compared to diesel like fuels, the natural luminosity of the images are lower for gasoline like fuels, indicating better premixed combustion. As the SOI is changed from CI to PPC mode, the combustion stratification increases towards a peak value in the transition zone and then decreases to a low level in PPC zone. A competition exists between the intake temperature and the dilution rate for the combustion stratification. The level of stratification is higher for real fuels (diesel and naphtha) when compared to surrogate fuel (N-heptane and PRF50).

  19. Specific considerations for obtaining appropriate La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-δ thin films using pulsed-laser deposition and its influence on the performance of solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jaeyeon; Lee, Heon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Kim, Hyoungchul; Hong, Jongsup; Son, Ji-Won

    2015-01-01

    To obtain La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-δ (LSGM) thin films with the appropriate properties, pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is employed, and specific considerations regarding control of the deposition parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that with a target of stoichiometric composition, appropriate LSGM thin films cannot be produced because of the deviation of the composition from the target to the thin film. Only after adjusting the target composition an LSGM thin film with an appropriate composition and phase can be obtained. The optimized LSGM thin film possesses an electrical conductivity close to that of the bulk LSGM. In contrast, non-optimized thin films do not yield any measurable electrical conductivity. The impact of the optimization of the LSGM thin-film electrolyte on the cell performance is quite significant, in that a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with an optimized LSGM thin-film electrolyte produces a maximum power density of 1.1 W cm-2 at 600 °C, whereas an SOFC with a non-optimal LSGM thin-film electrolyte is not operable.

  20. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  1. Fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.A.R.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Santen, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The principles and present-day embodiments of fuel cells are discussed. Nearly all cells are hydrogen/oxygen ones, where the hydrogen fuel is usually obtained on-site from the reforming of methane or methanol. There exists a tension between the promise of high efficiency in the conversion of

  2. Questionnaire used and responses obtained by sub-group 1C on the subject of the impact of national policies and constraints on nuclear fuel exploration, marketing and assurance of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on existing national policies and incentives for uranium and thorium exploration, mining, export, import and stockpiling of nuclear fuel and measures which are being adopted to promote nuclear industries is presented

  3. Polymeric membranes obtained from S-PEEK for application in PEM fuel cells; Caracterizacao de membranas polimericas obtidas a partir dos S-PEEK para aplicacao em celulas combustiveis do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Ednardo G.; Fiuza, Raildo A.; Catao, Ronei S.; Jose, Nadia M.; Boaventura, Jaime S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: ednardobarreto@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: raildofiuza@gmail.com, e-mail: roneicatao@ig.com.br, e-mail: nadia@ufba.br, e-mail: bventura@ufba.br; Pepe, Yuri [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2007-07-01

    This work had the objective to develop and to characterize S-PEEK membranes (sulfonated poly ether ether ketone) through chemical and electrochemical analyses. Conductivity test in function of the frequency and tension had been carried through; as well as, the open circuit tension of a fuel cell using the S-PEEK as electrolyte. Additional tests included TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), water absorption test, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), as tools to characterize conducting, thermal and mechanical proprieties of polymeric membrane. (author)

  4. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    A review is presented of the development of the (UPu)C sphere-pac fuel project during 1978. In particular, the problems encountered in obtaining good fuel quality in the fabrication process and their solution is discussed. The development of a fabrication pilot plant is considered, and the post-irradiation examination of fuel pins is presented. (Auth.)

  5. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  6. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  7. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H 2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH 2 and some ZrO 2 . Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  8. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  9. Activity, Performance, and Durability for the Reduction of Oxygen in PEM Fuel Cells, of Fe/N/C Electrocatalysts Obtained from the Pyrolysis of Metal-Organic-Framework and Iron Porphyrin Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lijun; Larouche, Nicholas; Chenitz, Régis; Zhang, Gaixia; Lefèvre, Michel; Dodelet, Jean-Pol

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TOC After a first decay common to all electrocatalysts, only NC Por-0.8 -1150 Ar + NH3 shows an improvement in durability attributable to a decrease in water flooding its catalytic sites, particularly those located in micropores. - Abstract: Fe/N/C type catalysts have been produced by ballmilling ZIF-8 (a metal-organic-framework) and a chloroiron-tetramethoxyporphyrin (ClFeTMPP). The resulting material was first pyrolyzed in Ar at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1150 °C, then in NH 3 at 950 °C in order to produce two series of catalysts: the Ar and the Ar + NH 3 ones. They were labeled NC Por-x-T Ar or NC Por-x-T Ar + NH 3 , where x is the nominal Fe loading in wt% and T is the temperature of the first pyrolysis in Ar. At 80 °C in H 2 /O 2 fuel cell, the most active and performing catalyst is NC Por-0.8-1050 Ar + NH 3 . All NC Por-0.8-T Ar + NH 3 catalysts with T comprised between 850 and 1050 °C display the same instability behavior. The only catalyst showing an improvement in durability is NC Por-0.8-1150 Ar + NH 3 . It is proposed that the drastic change in durability upon increasing the first pyrolysis temperature, from 1050 to 1150 °C in Ar, is attributable to an important decrease in the heteroatom content (a drop of 32% for both N and O atoms) of the catalyst upon graphitization, reducing the hydrophilic character of its carbonaceous support and decreasing the possibility of water flooding its catalytic sites, particularly the sites located in micropores

  10. The treatment of irradiated uranium fuel. Results obtained while operating the pilot plant at Fontenay-aux-Roses; Le traitement de l'uranium irradie. Resultats d'exploitation de l'usine-pilote de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnaut, P; Faugeras, P; Brut, A; Helou, R; Redon, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    In this paper the results obtained from four years operation of the pilot plant when using bars of increasing activity, are summarised and compared with the results of parallel studies carried out in the laboratory. As a conclusion to the article, the optimum conditions for the different phases of a process based on solvent extraction are given. (author)Fren. [French] Cette conference resume les resultats obtenus durant quatre annees de fonctionnement de l'Usine-Pilote, avec des barreaux d'activite croissante et les compare aux resultats d'etudes conduites parallelement en laboratoire. En conclusion sont donnees les conditions optima pour les differentes phases d'un procede base sur l'extraction par solvant. (auteur)

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Azekura, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a reactor core of a heavy water moderated light water cooled pressure tube type reactor, no sufficient effects have been obtained for the transfer width to a negative side of void reactivity change in a region of a great void coefficient. Then, a moderation region divided into upper and lower two regions is disposed at the central portion of a fuel assembly. Coolants flown into the lower region can be discharged to the cooling region from an opening disposed at the upper end portion of the lower region. Light water flows from the lower region of the moderator region to the cooling region of the reactor core upper portion, to lower the void coefficient. As a result, the reactivity performance at low void coefficient, i.e., a void reaction rate is transferred to the negative side. Thus, this flattens the power distribution in the fuel assembly, increases the thermal margin and enables rapid operaiton and control of the reactor core, as well as contributes to the increase of fuel burnup ratio and reduction of the fuel cycle cost. (N.H.)

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Atsushi; Shimada, Hidemitsu; Aoyama, Motoo; Nakajima, Junjiro

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for an n x n lattice-like BWR type reactor, n is determined to 9 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 4.4% by weight or less. Alternatively, n is determined to 10 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 5.2% by weight or less. An average take-out burnup degree is determined to 39GWd/t or less, and the matrix is determined to 9 x 9 or more, or the average take-out burnup degree is determined to 51GWd/t, and the matrix is determined to 10 x 10 or more and the increase of the margin of the maximum power density obtained thereby is utilized for the compensation of the increase of distortion of power distribution due to decrease of the kinds of plutonium enrichment degree, thereby enabling to reduce the kind of the enrichment degree of MOX fuel rods to one. As a result, the manufacturing step for fuel pellets can be simplified to reduce the manufacturing cost for MOX fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  13. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  14. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica as a platform for synthesis of drop-in transportation fuels and oleochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Qiao, Kangjian; Ahn, Woo Suk; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Harnessing lipogenic pathways and rewiring acyl-CoA and acyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein) metabolism in Yarrowia lipolytica hold great potential for cost-efficient production of diesel, gasoline-like fuels, and oleochemicals. Here we assessed various pathway engineering strategies in Y. lipolytica toward developing a yeast biorefinery platform for sustainable production of fuel-like molecules and oleochemicals. Specifically, acyl-CoA/acyl-ACP processing enzymes were targeted to the cytoplasm, peroxisome, or endoplasmic reticulum to generate fatty acid ethyl esters and fatty alkanes with tailored chain length. Activation of endogenous free fatty acids and the subsequent reduction of fatty acyl-CoAs enabled the efficient synthesis of fatty alcohols. Engineering a hybrid fatty acid synthase shifted the free fatty acids to a medium chain-length scale. Manipulation of alternative cytosolic acetyl-CoA pathways partially decoupled lipogenesis from nitrogen starvation and unleashed the lipogenic potential of Y. lipolytica. Taken together, the strategies reported here represent promising steps to develop a yeast biorefinery platform that potentially upgrades low-value carbons to high-value fuels and oleochemicals in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. PMID:27621436

  15. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica as a platform for synthesis of drop-in transportation fuels and oleochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Qiao, Kangjian; Ahn, Woo Suk; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-09-27

    Harnessing lipogenic pathways and rewiring acyl-CoA and acyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein) metabolism in Yarrowia lipolytica hold great potential for cost-efficient production of diesel, gasoline-like fuels, and oleochemicals. Here we assessed various pathway engineering strategies in Y. lipolytica toward developing a yeast biorefinery platform for sustainable production of fuel-like molecules and oleochemicals. Specifically, acyl-CoA/acyl-ACP processing enzymes were targeted to the cytoplasm, peroxisome, or endoplasmic reticulum to generate fatty acid ethyl esters and fatty alkanes with tailored chain length. Activation of endogenous free fatty acids and the subsequent reduction of fatty acyl-CoAs enabled the efficient synthesis of fatty alcohols. Engineering a hybrid fatty acid synthase shifted the free fatty acids to a medium chain-length scale. Manipulation of alternative cytosolic acetyl-CoA pathways partially decoupled lipogenesis from nitrogen starvation and unleashed the lipogenic potential of Y. lipolytica Taken together, the strategies reported here represent promising steps to develop a yeast biorefinery platform that potentially upgrades low-value carbons to high-value fuels and oleochemicals in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner.

  16. Quantitative liquid and vapor distribution measurements in evaporating fuel sprays using laser-induced exciplex fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fansler, Todd D; Drake, Michael C; Gajdeczko, Boguslaw; Düwel, Isabell; Koban, Wieland; Zimmermann, Frank P; Schulz, Christof

    2009-01-01

    Fully quantitative two-dimensional measurements of liquid- and vapor-phase fuel distributions (mass per unit volume) from high-pressure direct-injection gasoline injectors are reported for conditions of both slow and rapid vaporization in a heated, high-pressure spray chamber. The measurements employ the coevaporative gasoline-like fluorobenzene (FB)/diethylmethylamine (DEMA)/hexane exciplex tracer/fuel system. In contrast to most previous laser-induced exciplex-fluorescence (LIEF) experiments, the quantitative results here include regions in which liquid and vapor fuel coexist (e.g. near the injector exit). A unique aspect is evaluation of both vapor- and liquid-phase distributions at varying temperature and pressure using only in situ vapor-phase fluorescence calibration measurements at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This approach draws on recent extensive measurements of the temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of the FB–DEMA exciplex system, in particular on knowledge of the quantum efficiencies of the vapor-phase and liquid-phase (exciplex) fluorescence. In addition to procedures necessary for quantitative measurements, we discuss corrections for liquid–vapor crosstalk (liquid fluorescence that overlaps the vapor-fluorescence bandpass), the unknown local temperature due to vaporization-induced cooling, and laser-sheet attenuation by scattering and absorption

  17. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Artificial fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamon, L L.W.

    1918-08-20

    Lignite, peat, sud, leaf-mold, or shale, or two or more of these raw carbonaceous materials are mixed with cellulose material, such as sawdust, silica, alkali, and tar or pitch, or residues from tar or pitch, or residues from the distillation of oils, and the mixture is molded into blocks. Other carbonaceous materials, such as graphite, anthracite, or coal-dust, coke, breeze, or culm, and mineral substances, such as iron and manganese ores, may be added. A smokeless fuel can be obtained by coking the blocks in the usual way in retorts.

  19. Nuclear fuel clad clothed with burnable poison and obtainment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, P.; Netter, P.

    1994-01-01

    This clad has preferentially on its inner surface a boron compound such boron carbide or boron nitrogen deposited by Chemical Vapor Deposition or by Physical Vapor Deposition without any temperature elevation injurious to its mechanical properties. 3 figs

  20. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  1. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  3. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel storage apparatus for use in a water-filled pool is fabricated of a material such as stainless steel in the form of an egg crate structure having vertically extending openings. Fuel may be stored in this basic structure in a checkerboard pattern with high enrichment fuel, or in all openings when the fuel is of low effective enrichment. Inserts of a material such as stainless steel are adapted to fit within these openings so that a water gap and, therefore, a flux trap is formed between adjacent fuel storage locations. These inserts may be added at a later time and fuel of a higher enrichment may be stored in each opening. When it is desired to store fuel of still greater enrichment, poison plates may be added to the water gap formed by the installed insert plates, or substituted for the insert plates. Alternately, or in addition, fuel may be installed in high neutron absorption poison boxes which surround the fuel assembly. The stainless steel inserts and the poison plates are each not required until the capacity of the basic egg crate structure is approached. Purchase of these items can, therefore, be deferred for many years. Should the fuel to be stored be of higher enrichment than initially forecast, the deferred decision on the poison plates makes it possible to obtain increased poison in the plates to satisfy the newly discovered requirement

  4. Increasing TRIGA fuel lifetime with 12 wt.% U TRIGA fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton, W F; Cenko, M J; Levine, S H; Witzig, W F [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    In-core fuel management studies have been performed for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) wherein 12 wt % U fuel elements are used to replace the standard 8.5 wt % U TRIGA fuel. The core configuration used to develop a calculational model was a 90-element hexagonal array, which is representative of the PSBR core, and consists of five hexagonal rings surrounding a central thimble containing water. The technique employed for refueling the core fully loaded with 8.5 wt % U fuel involves replacing 8.5 wt % U fuel with 12 wt % U fuel using an in-out reloading scheme. A batch reload consists of 6 new 12 wt % U fuel elements. Placing the 12 wt % U fuel in the B ring produces fuel temperatures ({approx}450 {sup o}C) that are well below the 800{sup o}C maximum limitation when the PSBR is operating at its maximum allowed power of 1 Megawatt. The advantages of using new 12 wt % U fuel to replace the burned up 8.5 wt % U fuel in the B ring over refueling strictly with 8.5 wt % U-Zr TRIGA fuel are clearly delineated in Table 1 where cost calculations used the General Atomic pre-1972 prices for TRIGA fuel, i.e., $1500 and $1650 for an 8.5 and 12 wt % U fuel element, respectively. Experimental results obtained to date utilizing the 12 wt % U fuel elements agree with the computed results. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  6. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  7. The spent fuel safety experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmms, G.A.; Davis, F.J.; Ford, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting an ongoing investigation of the consequences of taking fuel burnup into account in the design of spent fuel transportation packages. A series of experiments, collectively called the Spent Fuel Safety Experiment (SFSX), has been devised to provide integral benchmarks for testing computer-generated predictions of spent fuel behavior. A set of experiments is planned in which sections of unirradiated fuel rods are interchanged with similar sections of spent PWR fuel rods in a critical assembly. By determining the critical size of the arrays, one can obtain benchmark data for comparison with criticality safety calculations. The integral reactivity worth of the spent fuel can be assessed by comparing the measured delayed critical fuel loading with and without spent fuel. An analytical effort to model the experiments and anticipate the core loadings required to yield the delayed critical conditions runs in parallel with the experimental effort

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuyama, Tadashi; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the bending of a fuel rod caused by the difference in the elongation between a joined fuel rod and a standard fuel rod thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: A joined fuel rod is in a thread engagement at its lower end plug thereof with a lower plate, while passed through at its upper end plug into an upper tie plate and secured with a nut. Further, a standard fuel rod is engaged at its upper end plug and lower end plug with the upper tie plate and the lower tie plate respectively. Expansion springs are mounted to the upper end plugs of these bonded fuel rods and the standard fuel rods for preventing this lifting. Each of the fuel rods comprises a plurality of sintered pellets of nuclear fuel materials laminated in a zircaloy fuel can. The content of the alloy ingredient in the fuel can of the bonded fuel rod is made greater than that of the alloy ingredient of the standard fuel rod. this can increase the elongation for the bonded fuel rod, and the spring of the standard fuel rod is tightly bonded to prevent the bending. (Yoshino, Y.)

  9. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  10. Nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Full text: Quality assurance is used extensively in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. This methodology is applied to all activities affecting the quality of a nuclear power plant in order to obtain confidence that an item or a facility will perform satisfactorily in service. Although the achievement of quality is the responsibility of all parties participating in a nuclear power project, establishment and implementation of the quality assurance programme for the whole plant is a main responsibility of the plant owner. For the plant owner, the main concern is to achieve control over the quality of purchased products or services through contractual arrangements with the vendors. In the case of purchase of nuclear fuel, the application of quality assurance might be faced with several difficulties because of the lack of standardization in nuclear fuel and the proprietary information of the fuel manufacturers on fuel design specifications and fuel manufacturing procedures. The problems of quality assurance for purchase of nuclear fuel were discussed in detail during the seminar. Due to the lack of generally acceptable standards, the successful application of the quality assurance concept to the procurement of fuel depends on how much information can be provided by the fuel manufacturer to the utility which is purchasing fuel, and in what form and how early this information can be provided. The extent of information transfer is basically set out in the individual vendor-utility contracts, with some indirect influence from the requirements of regulatory bodies. Any conflict that exists appears to come from utilities which desire more extensive control over the product they are buying. There is a reluctance on the part of vendors to permit close insight of the purchasers into their design and manufacturing procedures, but there nevertheless seems to be an increasing trend towards release of more information to the purchasers. It appears that

  11. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  12. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  14. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  15. Fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    Description of the operation of power plants and the respective procurement of fuel to fulfil the needs of the grid. The operation of the plants shall be optimised with respect to the fuel cost. (orig./RW) [de

  16. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  17. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  18. UK experience on fuel and cladding interaction in oxide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, W [Dounreay Experimental Reactor Establishment, Thurso, Caithness (United Kingdom); Findlay, J R [AERE, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1977-04-01

    The occurrence of fuel cladding interactions in fast reactor fuels has been observed in UK irradiations over a period of years. Chemical incompatibility between fuel and clad represents a potential source of failure and has, on this account, been studied using a variety of techniques. The principal fuel of interest to the UK for fast reactor application is mixed uranium plutonium oxide clad in stainless steel and it is in this field that the majority of work has been concentrated. Some consideration has been given to carbide fuels, because of their application as an advanced fuel. This experience is described in the accompanying paper. Several complementary initiatives have been followed to investigate the interactions in oxide fuel. The principal source of experimental information is from the experimental fuel irradiation programme in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). Supporting information has been obtained from irradiation programmes in Materials Testing Reactors (MTR). Conditions approaching those in a fast reactor are obtained and the effects of specific variables have been examined in specifically designed experiments. Out-of-reactor experiments have been used to determine the limits of fuel and cladding compatibility and also to give indications of corrosion The observations from all experiments have been examined in the light of thermo-dynamic predictions of fuel behaviour to assess the relative significance of various observations and operating conditions. An experimental programme to control and limit the interactions in oxide fuel is being followed.

  19. UK experience on fuel and cladding interaction in oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batey, W.; Findlay, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The occurrence of fuel cladding interactions in fast reactor fuels has been observed in UK irradiations over a period of years. Chemical incompatibility between fuel and clad represents a potential source of failure and has, on this account, been studied using a variety of techniques. The principal fuel of interest to the UK for fast reactor application is mixed uranium plutonium oxide clad in stainless steel and it is in this field that the majority of work has been concentrated. Some consideration has been given to carbide fuels, because of their application as an advanced fuel. This experience is described in the accompanying paper. Several complementary initiatives have been followed to investigate the interactions in oxide fuel. The principal source of experimental information is from the experimental fuel irradiation programme in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). Supporting information has been obtained from irradiation programmes in Materials Testing Reactors (MTR). Conditions approaching those in a fast reactor are obtained and the effects of specific variables have been examined in specifically designed experiments. Out-of-reactor experiments have been used to determine the limits of fuel and cladding compatibility and also to give indications of corrosion The observations from all experiments have been examined in the light of thermo-dynamic predictions of fuel behaviour to assess the relative significance of various observations and operating conditions. An experimental programme to control and limit the interactions in oxide fuel is being followed

  20. Fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel pellet for insertion into a cladding tube in order to form a fuel element or a fuel rod. The fuel pellet has got a belt-like projection around its essentially cylindrical lateral circumferential surface. The upper and lower edges in vertical direction of this belt-like projection are wave-shaped. The projection is made of the same material as the bulk pellet. Both are made in one piece. (orig.) [de

  1. Seismic behaviour of fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heuy Gap; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-01

    A general approach for the dynamic time-history analysis of the reactor core is presented in this paper as a part of the fuel assembly qualification program. Several detailed core models are set up to reflect the placement of the fuel assemblies within the core shroud. Peak horizontal responses are obtained for each model for the motions induced from earthquake. The dynamic responses such as fuel assembly shear force, bending moment and displacement, and spacer grid impact loads are carefully investigated. Also, the sensitivity responses are obtained for the earthquake motions and the fuel assembly non-linear response characteristics are discussed. (Author) 9 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  3. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A new fuel can with a loose bottom and head is described. The fuel bar is attached to the loose bottom and head with two grid poles keeping the distance between bottom and head. A bow-shaped handle is attached to the head so that the fuel bar can be lifted from the can

  4. Advanced fuel cycles and burnup increase of WWER-440 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proselkov, V.; Saprykin, V.; Scheglov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of operational experience of 4.4% enriched fuel in the 5-year fuel cycle at Kola NPP Unit 3 and fuel assemblies with Uranium-Gadolinium fuel at Kola NPP Unit 4 are made. The operability of WWER-440 fuel under high burnup is studied. The obtained results indicate that the fuel rods of WWER-440 assemblies intended for operation within six years of the reviewed fuel cycle totally preserve their operability. Performed analyses have demonstrated the possibility of the fuel rod operability during the fuel cycle. 12 assemblies were loaded into the reactor unit of Kola 3 in 2001. The predicted burnup in six assemblies was 59.2 MWd/kgU. Calculated values of the burnup after operation for working fuel assemblies were ∼57 MWd/kgU, for fuel rods - up to ∼61 MWd/kgU. Data on the coolant activity, specific activity of the benchmark iodine radionuclides of the reactor primary circuit, control of the integrity of fuel rods of the assemblies that were operated for six years indicate that not a single assembly has reached the criterion for the early discharge

  5. LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnas, F.X.; Jeuland, N.; Fouquet, J.P.; Lauraire, S.; Coroller, P.

    2005-01-01

    LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  6. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2018-04-03

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  7. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-09-26

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuels and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  8. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  9. LEU fuel fabrication in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorsetti, D.R.; Gomez, J.O.; Marajofsky, A.; Kohut, C.

    1985-01-01

    As an Institution, aiming to meet with its own needs, CNEA has been intensively developing reduced enriched fuel to use in its own research and test reactors. Development of the fabrication technology as well as the design, installation and operation of the manufacturing plant, have been carried out with its own funds. Irradiation and post-irradiation of test miniplates have been taking place within the framework of the RERTR program. During the last years, CNEA has developed three LEU fuel types. In the previous RERTR meetings, we presented the technological results obtained with these fuel types. This paper focuses on CNEA LEU fuel element manufacturing status and the trained personnel we can offer in design and manufacture fuel capability. CNEA has its own fuel manufacturing technology; the necessary facilities to start the fuel fabrication; qualified technicians and professionals for: fuel design and behaviour analysis; fuel manufacturing and QA; international recognition of its fuel development and manufacturing capability through its ORR miniplate irradiation; its own natural uranium and the future possibility to enrich up to 20% U 235 ; the probability to offer a competitive fuel manufacturing cost in the international market; the disposition to cooperate with all countries that wish to take part and aim to reach an self-sufficiency in their own fuel supply needs

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  11. Fuel Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, A.

    1982-09-01

    FRAGEMA has developed most types of inspection equipments to work on irradiated fuel assemblies and on single fuel rods during reactor outages with an efficiency compatible with the utilities operating priorities. In order to illustrate this statement, two specific examples of inspection equipments are shortly described: the on-site removable fuel rod assembly examination stand, and the fuel assembly multiple examination device. FRAGEMA has developed techniques for the identifiction of the leaking fuel rods in the fuel assembly and the tooling necessary to perform the replacement of the faulted element. These examples of methods, techniques and equipments described and the experience accumulated through their use allow FRAGEMA to qualify for offering the supply of the corresponding software, hardware or both whenever an accurate understanding of the fuel behaviour is necessary and whenever direct intervention on the assembly and associated components is necessary due to safety, operating or economical reasons

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  13. Composite Solid Fuel: Research of Formation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving of local low-grade fuels resources in fuel and energy balance is actual question of research in the present. In this paper the possibility of processing low-grade fuel in the solid fuel composite was considered. The aim of the work is to define the optimal parameters for formation of the solid composite fuel. A result of researches determined that dextrin content in the binder allows to obtain solid composite fuel having the highest strength. The drying temperature for the various fuels was determined: for pellets production was 20-80 °C, for briquettes – 20-40 °C.

  14. The Fuel Performance Analysis of LWR Fuel containing High Thermal Conductivity Reinforcements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Su; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2015-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of fuel affects many performance parameters including the fuel centerline temperature, fission gas release and internal pressure. In addition, enhanced safety margin of fuel might be expected when the thermal conductivity of fuel is improved by the addition of high thermal conductivity reinforcements. Therefore, the effects of thermal conductivity enhancement on the fuel performance of reinforced UO2 fuel with high thermal conductivity compounds should be analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the fuel performance of modified UO2 fuel with high thermal conductivity reinforcements by using the FRAPCON-3.5 code. The fissile density and mechanical properties of the modified fuel are considered the same with the standard UO2 fuel. The fuel performance of modified UO2 with high thermal conductivity reinforcements were analyzed by using the FRAPCON-3.5 code. The thermal conductivity enhancement factors of the modified fuels were obtained from the Maxwell model considering the volume fraction of reinforcements

  15. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel; Taranger, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    The production of fuels for nuclear power plants involves five principal stages: prospecting of uranium deposits (on the ground, aerial, geochemical, geophysical, etc...); extraction and production of natural uranium from the deposits (U content of ores is not generally high and a chemical processing is necessary to obtain U concentrates); production of 235 U enriched uranium for plants utilizing this type of fuel (a description is given of the gaseous diffusion process widely used throughout the world and particularly in France); manufacture of suitable fuel elements for the different plants; reprocessing of spent fuels for the purpose of not only recovering the fissile materials but also disposing safely of the fission products and other wastes [fr

  17. UO2 microspheres obtainment through the internal gelation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterba, M.E.; Gomez Constenla, A.

    1987-01-01

    UO 2 microspheres obtainment process through the internal gelation method which allows the spheres' obtainment of uniform size is detailed herein, varying the same among 0.3 and 1.7 mm of diameter. The sintered density reaches 10.78 g/cm 3 , permitting the fuels fabrication dispersed and vibro-compacted fuels. The trichloroethylene use implementation as gelation agent is described, thus reducing the number of stages in the microspheres fabrication. At the same time, the uranium sun composition has been modified so as to be compatible with the use solvent. (Author)

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  1. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  2. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  3. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  4. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  5. Evaluation of biodiesel obtained from cottonseed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad-38000 (Pakistan); Anwar, Farooq [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Knothe, Gerhard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitutes for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide a fuel with more benign environmental properties. In this work biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil by transesterification with methanol, using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide as catalysts. A series of experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effects of reaction variables such as methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50%), temperature (25-65 C), and stirring intensity (180-600 rpm) to achieve the maximum yield and quality. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio (mol/mol), 0.75% sodium methoxide concentration (wt.%), 65 C reaction temperature, 600 rpm agitation speed and 90 min reaction time offered the maximum methyl ester yield (96.9%). The obtained fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters (COME), cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, lubricity, cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point, flash point, ash content, sulfur content, acid value, copper strip corrosion value, density, higher heating value, methanol content, free and bound glycerol were determined and are discussed in the light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  9. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  10. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  11. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  13. Fuel assembly inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaginuma, Yoshitaka

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to inspect appearance of fuel assemblies by photographing the appearance of fuel assemblies. Namely, the inspection device of the present invention measures bowing of fuel assembly or each of fuel rods or both of them based on the partially photographed images of fuel assembly. In this case, there is disposed a means which flashily projects images in the form of horizontal line from a direction intersecting obliquely relative to a horizontal cross section of the fuel assembly. A first image processing means separates the projected image pictures including projected images and calculates bowing. A second image processing means replaces the projected image pictures of the projected images based on projected images just before and after the photographing. Then, images for the measurement of bowing and images for inspection can be obtained simultaneously. As a result, the time required for the photographing can be shortened, the time for inspection can be shortened and an effect of preventing deterioration of photographing means by radiation rays can be provided. (I.S.)

  14. Fuel inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Tadashi.

    1990-01-01

    The fuel inspection device of the present invention has a feature of obtaining an optimum illumination upon fuel rod interval inspection operation in a fuel pool. That is, an illumination main body used underwater is connected to a cable which is led out on a floor. A light control device is attached to the other end of the cable and an electric power cable is connected to the light control device. A light source (for example, incandescent lamp) is incorporated in the casing of the illumination main body, and a diffusion plate is disposed at the front to provide a plane light source. The light control device has a light control knob capable of remote-controlling the brightness of the light of the illumination main body. In the fuel inspection device thus constituted, halation is scarcely caused on the image screen upon inspection of fuels by a submerged type television camera to facilitate control upon inspection. Accordingly, efficiency of the fuel inspection can be improved to shorten the operation time. (I.S.)

  15. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  16. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  17. Fuel assemblies for use in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel assembly for use in pressurized water cooled nuclear fast breeder reactors is described in which moderator to fuel ratios, conducive to a high Pu-U-D 2 O reactor breeding ratio, are obtained whilst at the same time ensuring accurate spacing of fuel pins without the parasitic losses associated with the use of spacer grids. (U.K.)

  18. Sulphur in liquid fuels 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Fuels Div., Oil, Gas and Energy Branch ; Sabourin, R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Environment Canada has developed new regulations for sulphur content in fuels in an effort to align with requirements recently passed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report summarizes data regarding sulphur content in liquid fuels for the year 2002. The requirements of the Sulphur in Gasoline Regulation came into effect in 2002, limiting the average sulphur content of gasoline to 150 mg/kg. In January 2005, a 30 mg/kg average limit will come into effect. Also, in July 2002, the Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulation stipulated a maximum limit of 500 mg/kg for on-road diesel fuel. The new regulation continues this limit until mid-2006 at which time a 15 mg/kg limit will come into effect for on-road diesel fuel. Nationally, the average sulphur content in gasoline in 2002 was 246 mg/kg, which was 14.3 per cent lower than in 2001. The data covers the period from January 1 to December 31, 2002 and was obtained from petroleum refineries and importing companies that are required to submit quarterly information to the regional office of Environment Canada. Failure to comply results in penalties. The report includes data for aviation turbo fuel, motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, kerosene oil, low-sulphur diesel fuel, diesel fuel, light fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil. 16 tabs., 17 figs., 7 appendices.

  19. The FARC fuel archive of WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizin, M.N.; Parfenova, N.A.; Proselkov, V.N.; Shishkov, L.K.

    1998-01-01

    The principles of organisation are explained and the structure of the FARC fuel archive for WWER reactors is circumscribed. The objective of archive is accumulation of fuel data, data storage and obtaining of fuel using characteristics. The working version of fuel archive on 01 July 1998 is realised, in which the data tables for fuel assemblies for 169 WWER-440 cycles and 35 WWER-1000 cycles are stored. There are two different versions of fuel archive - for WWER-440 (FARC) and for WWER-1000 (FARC1000). A structure of some tables and the texts of programs for them differ. (Authors)

  20. Fuel channel refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Abdul-Razzak, A.

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of existing data on fuel channel refilling is presented. The analysis focuses on the data obtained using the Stern Laboratories Cold Water Injection Test (CWIT) Facility. The two-fluid model thermal-hydraulics computer code CATHENA is also used to simulate experimental results on fuel channel refilling from both the CWIT and RD-14 facilities. Conclusions related to single and double break tests, including the effect of non-condensible gases, are presented. A set of recommendations is given for further analysis and separate effect experiments. (67 figs., 5 tabs., 24 refs.)

  1. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  2. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  3. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  5. Improving Fuel Statistics for Danish Aviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    This report contains fuel use figures for Danish civil aviation broken down into domestic and international numbers from 1985 to 2000, using a refined fuel split procedure and official fuel sale totals. The results from two different models are used. The NERI (National Environmental Research...... Institute) model estimates the fuel use per flight for all flights leaving Danish airports in 1998, while the annual Danish CORINAIR inventories are based on improved LTO/aircraft type statistics. A time series of fuel use from 1985 to 2000 is also shown for flights between Denmark and Greenland/the Faroe...... Islands, obtained with the NERI model. In addition a complete overview of the aviation fuel use from the two latter areas is given, based on fuel sale information from Statistics Greenland and Statistics Faroe Islands, and fuel use data from airline companies. The fuel use figures are presented on a level...

  6. PWR fuel behavior: lessons learned from LOFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the experience with the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) fuel during loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs), operational and overpower transient tests and steady-state operation is presented. LOFT provides unique capabilities for obtaining pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel behavior information because it features the representative thermal-hydraulic conditions which control fuel behavior during transient conditions and an elaborate measurement system to record the history of the fuel behavior

  7. Fuel cells fuelled by Saccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechner, P.; Mor, L.; Sabag, N.; Rubin, Z.; Bubis, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Saccharides, like glucose, fructose and lactose, are ideal renewable fuels. They have high energy content, are safe, transportable, easy to store, non-flammable, non poisonous, non-volatile, odorless, easy to produce anywhere and abundant. Fuel Cells are electro-chemical devices capable to convert chemical energy into electrical energy from fuels, with theoretical efficiencies higher than 0.8 at room temperatures and with low pollutant emissions. Fuel Cells that can produce electricity form saccharides will be able to replace batteries, power electrical plants from biomass wastes, and serve as engines for transportation. In spite of these advantages, saccharide fuelled fuel cells are no available yet. Two obstacles hinder the feasibility of this potentially revolutionary device. The first is the high stability of the saccharides, which requires a good catalyst to extract the electrons from the saccharide fuel. The second is related to the nature of the Fuel Cells: the physical process takes place at the interface surface between the fuel and the electrode. In order to obtain high densities, materials with high surface to volume ratio are needed. Efforts to overcome these obstacles will be described. The use of saccharides as a fuel was treated from the thermodynamic point of view and compared with other common fuels currently used in fuel cells. We summarize measurements performed in a membrane less Alkaline Fuel Cell, using glucose as a fuel and KOH as electrolyte. The anode has incorporated platinum particles and operated at room temperature. Measurements were done, at different concentrations of glucose, of the Open Circuit Voltage, Polarization Curves and Power Density as function of the Current Density. The maximum Power Density reached was 0.61 mW/cm 2 when the Current density was 2.13 mA/cm 2 and the measured Open Circuit Voltage was 0.771 V

  8. Fuel production for LWRs - MOX fuel aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deramaix, P.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium recycling in Light Water Reactors is today an industrial reality. It is recycled in the form of (U, Pu)O 2 fuel pellets (MOX), fabricated to a large extent according to UO 2 technology and pellet design. The similarity of physical, chemical, and neutron properties of both fuels also allows MOX fuel to be burnt in nuclear plants originally designed to burn UO 2 . The industrial processes presently in use or planned are all based on a mechanical blending of UO 2 and PuO 2 powders. To obtain finely dispersed plutonium and to prevent high local concentration of plutonium, the feed materials are micronised. In the BNFL process, the whole (UO 2 , PuO 2 ) blend is micronised by attrition milling. According to the MIMAS process, developed by BELGONUCLEAIRE, a primary blend made of UO 2 containing about 30% PuO 2 is micronised in a ball mill, afterwards this primary blend is mechanically diluted in UO 2 to obtain the specified Pu content. After mixing, the (U, Pu)O 2 powder is pressed and the pellets are sintered. The sintering cover gas contains moisture and 5 v/o H 2 . Moisture increases the sintering process and the U-Pu interdiffusion. After sintering and grinding, the pellets are submitted to severe controls to verify conformity with customer specifications (fissile content, Pu distribution, surface condition, chemical purity, density, microstructure). (author)

  9. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  10. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, W. B.; Almeida, N. G. de

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST

  11. Fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, M.; Matus, L.; Vigassy, J.

    1987-11-01

    A short summary of the main critical points in fuel performance of nuclear power reactors from chemical and mechanical point of view is given. A schedule for a limited research program is included. (author) 17 refs

  12. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)

  14. Failed fuel detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utamura, Motoaki; Urata, Megumu.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To detect failed fuel element in a reactor with high precision by measuring the radioactivity concentrations for more than one nuclides of fission products ( 131 I and 132 I, for example) contained in each sample of coolant in fuel channel. Method: The radioactivity concentrations in the sampled coolant are obtained from gamma spectra measured by a pulse height analyser after suitable cooling periods according to the half-lives of the fission products to be measured. The first measurement for 132 I is made in two hours after sampling, and the second for 131 I is started one day after the sampling. Fuel element corresponding to the high radioactivity concentrations for both 131 I and 132 I is expected with certainty to have failed

  15. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  17. Bus fuel consumption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The interest in rapid bus transit has increased sharply with the realization that modern metropolitan areas rely on public transit to provide for strong economies and communities. As a prevention tool against traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality and rising greenhouse gas emissions, this study of bus fuel consumption was designed to assist in the planning and management of rapid bus transit. The Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Road Fuel Consumption Model was used as a starting point. The estimations required were realized with the help of Newtonian Mechanics. The four states of vehicular traffic were examined: acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle. The estimated total power required from the engine to overcome resistance forces, to run vehicle accessories and overcome internal engine friction was calculated. The data for the standard and articulated bus was obtained from OC Transpo in Ottawa. The study permitted the authors to conclude that the estimations for the parameters for power requirements and fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles are appropriate. The methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption on the Transitway, which is part of the rapid bus transit system, proved adequate. In addition, the methodology was useful to estimate fuel savings resulting from demand management strategies with potential for modal shift. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Development of MOX fuel database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Ozawa, Takayuki

    2007-03-01

    We developed MOX Fuel Database, which included valuable data from several irradiation tests in FUGEN and Halden reactor, for help of LWR MOX use. This database includes the data of fabrication and irradiation, and the results of post-irradiation examinations for seven fuel assemblies, i.e. P06, P2R, E03, E06, E07, E08 and E09, irradiated in FUGEN. The highest pellet peak burn-up reached ∼48GWd/t in MOX fuels, of which the maximum plutonium content was ∼6 wt%, irradiated in E09 fuel assembly without any failure. Also the data from the instrumented MOX fuels irradiated in HBWR to study the irradiation behavior of BWR MOX fuels under the steady state condition (IFA-514/565 and IFA-529), under the load-follow operation condition (IFA-554/555) and under the transit condition (IFA-591) are included in this database. The highest assembly burn-up reached ∼56 GWd/t in IFA-565 steady state irradiation test, and the maximum linear power of MOX fuel rods was 58.3-68.4 kW/m without any failure in IFA-591 ramp test. In addition, valuable instrument data, i.e. cladding elongation, fuel stack elongation, fuel center temperature and rod inner pressure were obtained from IFA-554/555 load-follow test. (author)

  19. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  20. Liquid fuels from Canadian peat by the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorz, J.; Majerski, P.; Scott, D.S. (Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada))

    1990-06-01

    Two Quebec peats were pyrolyzed in the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process with the objective of maximizing liquid yields. A young sphagnum peat gave maximum organic liquid yields of 45-47% in an optimum range of 450-550{degree}C and 1 atm pressure. Char yields varied from 35% to 26% and gas yields from 12% to 17% over the range. The character of the liquid product changed significantly over the optimum temperature range, with the ratio of water soluble to water insoluble components decreasing from 2.3 to 0.6 as temperature increased, with an accompanying decrease in oxygen content. Pyrolytic oil yields from an old black peat gave similar results, although with somewhat lower yields of organic liquids. Char yield was somewhat higher (33%) at optimum conditions, but gas yield was nearly identical. Upgrading tests of the peat oil obtained a yield of ca 33% of the liquid feed as a gasoline-like liquid under hydrodeoxygenation conditions. 7 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Hajime; Ueda, Makoto

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure capable of measuring, in a non-destructive manner, the releasing amount of nuclear gaseous fission products from spent fuels easily and at a high accuracy. Constitution: In order to confirm the integrity and the design feasibility of a nuclear fuel rod, it is important to accurately determine the amount of gaseous nuclear fission products released from nuclear pellets. In a structure where a plurality of fuel pellets are charged in a fuel cladding tube and retained by an inconel spring, a hollow and no-sealed type spacer tube made of zirconium or the alloy thereof, for example, not containing iron, cobalt, nickel or manganese is formed between the spring and the upper end plug. In the fuel rod of such a structure, by disposing a gamma ray collimator and a gamma ray detector on the extension of the spacer pipe, the gamma rays from the gaseous nuclear fission products accumulated in the spacer pipe can be detected while avoiding the interference with the induction radioactivity from inconel. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shinji; Kajiwara, Koichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the safety for the fuel rod failures by adapting plenum springs to function when small forces such as during transportation of fuel rods is exerted and not to function the resilient force when a relatively great force is exerted. Constitution: Between an upper end plug and a plenum spring in a fuel rod, is disposed an insertion member to the lower portion of which is mounted a pin. This pin is kept upright and causes the plenum spring to function resiliently to the pellets against the loads due to accelerations and mechanical vibrations exerted during transportation of the fuel rods. While on the other hand, if a compression force of a relatively high level is exerted to the plenum spring during reactor operation, the pin of the insertion member is buckled and the insertion member is inserted to the inside of the plenum spring, whereby the pellets are allowed to expand freely and the failures in the fuel elements can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hideaki; Sakai, Takao; Ishida, Tomio; Yokota, Norikatsu.

    1992-01-01

    The lower ends of a plurality of plate-like shape memory alloys are secured at the periphery of the upper inside of the handling head of a fuel assembly. As the shape memory alloy, a Cu-Zn alloy, a Ti-Pd alloy or a Fe-Ni alloy is used. When high temperature coolants flow out to the handling head, the shape memory alloy deforms by warping to the outer side more greatly toward the upper portion thereof with the temperature increase of the coolants. As the result, the shape of the flow channel of the coolants is changed so as to enlarge at the exit of the upper end of the fuel assembly. Then, the pressure loss of the coolants in the fuel assembly is decreased by the enlargement. Accordingly, the flow rate of the coolants in the fuel assembly is increased to lower the temperature of the coolants. Further, high temperature coolants and low temperature coolants are mixed sufficiently just above the fuel assembly. This can suppress the temperature fluctuation of the mixed coolants in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby enabling to decrease a fatigue and failures of the structural components in the upper portion of the reactor core. (I.N.)

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki; Fushimi, Atsushi; Tominaga, Kenji; Aoyama, Motoo; Ishii, Kazuya.

    1997-01-01

    In burnable poison-incorporated uranium fuels of a BWR type reactor, the compositional ratio of isotopes of the burnable poisons is changed so as to increase the amount of those having a large neutron absorbing cross sectional area. For example, if the ratio of Gd-157 at the same burnable poison enrichment degree is made greater than the natural ratio, this gives the same effect as the increase of the enrichment degree per one fuel rod, thereby providing an effect of reducing a surplus reactivity. Gadolinium, hafnium and europium as burnable poisons have an absorbing cross sectional area being greater in odd numbered nuclei than in even numbered nuclei, on the contrary, boron has a cross section being greater in even numbered nucleus than odd numbered nuclei. Accordingly, if the ratio of isotopes having greater cross section at the same burnable poison enrichment degree is made greater than the natural ratio, surplus reactivity at the initial stage of the burning can be reduced without greatly increasing the amount of burnable poison-incorporated uranium fuels, fuel loading amount is not reduced and the fuel economy is not worsened. (N.H.)

  5. Canadian power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.D.

    1976-03-01

    The following subjects are covered: the basic CANDU fuel design, the history of the bundle design, the significant differences between CANDU and LWR fuel, bundle manufacture, fissile and structural materials and coolants used in the CANDU fuel program, fuel and material behaviour, and performance under irradiation, fuel physics and management, booster rods and reactivity mechanisms, fuel procurement, organization and industry, and fuel costs. (author)

  6. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  7. Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Kobyłecki, Rafał; Bis, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

  8. Burnup performance of rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel in small pebble bed reactor with accumulative fuel loading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanullang, Irwan Liapto; Obara, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Burnup performance using ROX fuel in PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme was analyzed. • Initial excess reactivity was suppressed by reducing 235 U enrichment in the startup condition. • Negative temperature coefficient was achieved in all condition of PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme using ROX fuel. • Core lifetime of PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme using ROX fuel was shorter than with UO 2 fuel. • In PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme using ROX fuel, achieved discharged burnup can be as high as that for UO 2 fuel. - Abstract: The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has proposed rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel as a new, once-through type fuel concept. Here, burnup performance using ROX fuel was simulated in a pebble bed reactor with an accumulative fuel loading scheme. The MVP-BURN code was used to simulate the burnup calculation. Fuel of 5 g-HM/pebble with 20% 235 U enrichment was selected as the optimum composition. Discharged burnup could reach up to 218 GWd/t, with a core lifetime of about 8.4 years. However, high excess reactivity occurred in the initial condition. Initial fuel enrichment was therefore reduced from 20% to 4.65% to counter the initial excess reactivity. The operation period was reduced by the decrease of initial fuel enrichment, but the maximum discharged burnup was 198 GWd/t. Burnup performance of ROX fuel in this reactor concept was compared with that of UO 2 fuel obtained previously. Discharged burnup for ROX fuel in the PBR with an accumulative fuel loading scheme was as high as UO 2 fuel. Maximum power density could be lowered by introducing ROX fuel compared to UO 2 fuel. However, PBR core lifetime was shorter with ROX fuel than with UO 2 fuel. A negative temperature coefficient was achieved for both UO 2 and ROX fuels throughout the operation period.

  9. Application of game theory in decision making strategy: Does gas fuel industry need to kill oil based fuel industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Abdul Luky Shofi'ul; Prabandari, Dyah Lusiana; Hakim, Muhammad Lintang Islami

    2017-03-01

    Even though conversion of oil based fuel (Bahan Bakar Minyak) into gas fuel (Bahan Bakar Gas) for transportation (both land and sea) is one of the priority programs of the government of Indonesia, rules that have been established merely basic rules of gas fuel usage license for transportation, without discussing position of gas fuel related to oil based fuel in detail. This paper focus on possible strategic behavior of the key players in the oil-gas fuel conversion game, who will be impacted by the position of gas fuel as complement or substitution of oil based fuel. These players include industry of oil based fuel, industry of gas fuel, and the government. Modeling is made based on two different conditions: government plays a passive role and government plays an active role in legislating additional rules that may benefit industry of gas fuel. Results obtained under a passive government is that industry of oil based fuel need to accommodate the presence of industry of gas fuel, and industry of gas fuel does not kill/ eliminate the oil based fuel, or gas fuel serves as a complement. While in an active government, the industry of oil based fuel need to increase its negotiation spending in the first phase so that the additional rule that benefitting industry of gas fuel would not be legislated, while industry of gas fuel chooses to indifferent; however, in the last stage, gas fuel turned to be competitive or choose its role to be substitution.

  10. Method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Masaomi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Hirai, Mutsumi; Tanabe, Isami; Yuda, Ryoichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets by compression molding an oxide powder of nuclear fuel material followed by sintering, a metal nuclear material is mixed with an oxide powder of the nuclear fuel material. As the metal nuclear fuel material, whisker or wire-like fine wire or granules of metal uranium can be used effectively. As a result, a fuel pellet in which the metal nuclear fuel is disposed in a network-like manner can be obtained. The pellet shows a great effect of preventing thermal stress destruction of pellets upon increase of fuel rod power as compared with conventional pellets. Further, the metal nuclear fuel material acts as an oxygen getter to suppress the increase of O/M ratio of the pellets. Further, it is possible to reduce the swelling of pellet at high burn-up degree. (T.M.)

  11. Irradiation behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Walters, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Metallic fuels were the first fuels chosen for liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMR's). In the late 1960's world-wide interest turned toward ceramic LMR fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel was realized. However, during the 1970's the performance limitations of metallic fuel were resolved in order to achieve a high plant factor at the Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The 1980's spawned renewed interest in metallic fuel when the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept emerged at Argonne National Laboratory. A fuel performance demonstration program was put into place to obtain the data needed for the eventual licensing of metallic fuel. This paper will summarize the results of the irradiation program carried out since 1985

  12. A conceptual model for the fuel oxidation of defective fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, J.D.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.; He, Z.

    2007-01-01

    A mechanistic conceptual model has been developed to predict the fuel oxidation behaviour in operating defective fuel elements for water-cooled nuclear reactors. This theoretical work accounts for gas-phase transport and sheath reactions in the fuel-to-sheath gap to determine the local oxygen potential. An improved thermodynamic analysis has also been incorporated into the model to describe the equilibrium state of the oxidized fuel. The fuel oxidation kinetics treatment accounts for multi-phase transport including normal diffusion and thermodiffusion for interstitial oxygen migration in the solid, as well as gas-phase transport in the fuel pellet cracks. The fuel oxidation treatment is further coupled to a heat conduction equation. A numerical solution of the coupled transport equations is obtained by a finite-element technique with the FEMLAB 3.1 software package. The model is able to provide radial-axial profiles of the oxygen-to-uranium ratio and the fuel temperatures as a function of time in the defective element for a wide range of element powers and defect sizes. The model results are assessed against coulometric titration measurements of the oxygen-to-metal profile for pellet samples taken from ten spent defective elements discharged from the National Research Universal Reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories and commercial reactors

  13. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  15. CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacEwan, J.R.; Notley, M.J.F.; Wood, J.C.; Gacesa, M.

    1982-09-01

    The direction of CANDU fuel development was set in 1957 with the decision to build pressure tube reactors. Short - 50 cm long - rodded bundles of natural UO 2 clad in Zircaloy were adopted to facilitate on-power fuelling to improve uranium utilization. Progressive improvements were made during 25 years of development, involving 650 man years and 180 million dollars. Today's CANDU bundle is based on the knowledge gained from extensive irradiation testing and experience in power reactors. The main thrust of future development is to demonstrate that the present bundle is suitable, with minor modifications, for thorium fuels

  16. Magnetic signature surveillance of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernatowicz, H.; Schoenig, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    Typical nuclear fuel material contains tramp ferromagnetic particles of random size and distribution. Also, selected amounts of paramagnetic or ferromagnetic material can be added at random or at known positions in the fuel material. The fuel material in its non-magnetic container is scanned along its length by magnetic susceptibility detecting apparatus whereby susceptibility changes along its length are obtained and provide a unique signal waveform of the container of fuel material as a signature thereof. The output signature is stored. At subsequent times in its life the container is again scanned and respective signatures obtained which are compared with the initially obtained signature, any differences indicating alteration or tampering with the fuel material. If the fuel material includes a paramagnetic additive by taking two measurements along the container the effects thereof can be cancelled out. (author)

  17. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  18. High density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel development campaign that results in an aluminum plate-type fuel of unlimited LEU burnup capability with an uranium loading of 9 grams per cm 3 of meat should be considered an unqualified success. The current worldwide approved and accepted highest loading is 4.8 g cm -3 with U 3 Si 2 as fuel. High-density uranium compounds offer no real density advantage over U 3 Si 2 and have less desirable fabrication and performance characteristics as well. Of the higher-density compounds, U 3 Si has approximately a 30% higher uranium density but the density of the U 6 X compounds would yield the factor 1.5 needed to achieve 9 g cm -3 uranium loading. Unfortunately, irradiation tests proved these peritectic compounds have poor swelling behavior. It is for this reason that the authors are turning to uranium alloys. The reason pure uranium was not seriously considered as a dispersion fuel is mainly due to its high rate of growth and swelling at low temperatures. This problem was solved at least for relatively low burnup application in non-dispersion fuel elements with small additions of Si, Fe, and Al. This so called adjusted uranium has nearly the same density as pure α-uranium and it seems prudent to reconsider this alloy as a dispersant. Further modifications of uranium metal to achieve higher burnup swelling stability involve stabilization of the cubic γ phase at low temperatures where normally α phase exists. Several low neutron capture cross section elements such as Zr, Nb, Ti and Mo accomplish this in various degrees. The challenge is to produce a suitable form of fuel powder and develop a plate fabrication procedure, as well as obtain high burnup capability through irradiation testing

  19. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Catalyzed deuterium fueled tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Catalyzed deuterium fuel presents several advantages relative to D-T. These are, freedom from tritium breeding, high charged particle power fraction and lowered neutron energy deposition in the blanket. Higher temperature operation, lower power densities and increased confinement are simultaneously required. However, the present study has developed designs which have capitalized upon the advantages of catalyzed deuterium to overcome the difficulties associated with the fuel while obtaining high efficiency

  1. A Raman-Based Portable Fuel Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    Fuel is the single most import supply during war. Consider that the US Military is employing over 25,000 vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most fuel is obtained locally, and must be characterized to ensure proper operation of these vehicles. Fuel properties are currently determined using a deployed chemical laboratory. Unfortunately, each sample requires in excess of 6 hours to characterize. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a portable fuel analyzer capable of determine 7 fuel properties that allow determining fuel usage. The analyzer uses Raman spectroscopy to measure the fuel samples without preparation in 2 minutes. The challenge, however, is that as distilled fractions of crude oil, all fuels are composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon components that boil at similar temperatures, and performance properties can not be simply correlated to a single component, and certainly not to specific Raman peaks. To meet this challenge, we measured over 800 diesel and jet fuels from around the world and used chemometrics to correlate the Raman spectra to fuel properties. Critical to the success of this approach is laser excitation at 1064 nm to avoid fluorescence interference (many fuels fluoresce) and a rugged interferometer that provides 0.1 cm-1 wavenumber (x-axis) accuracy to guarantee accurate correlations. Here we describe the portable fuel analyzer, the chemometric models, and the successful determination of these 7 fuel properties for over 100 unknown samples provided by the US Marine Corps, US Navy, and US Army.

  2. 75 FR 79964 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... renewable fuel facility to be considered biogas for purposes of Table 1 to Sec. 80.1426; --Sec. 80.1452(b... explained that many developers of ethanol facilities, including their own, sought to obtain construction permits without going through EPA's New Source Review (NSR) program, and were able to do so by obtaining...

  3. New UO2 fuel studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, P.; Lemaignan, C.; Caillot, L.; Mocellin, A.; Eminet, G.

    1998-01-01

    With improved UO 2 fuels, compared with the current PWR, one would enable to: retain the fission products, rise higher burn-ups and deliver the designed power in reactor for longer times, limit the pellet cladding interaction effects by easier deformation at high temperatures. Specific studies are made in each field to understand the basic mechanisms responsible for these improvements. Four programs on new UO 2 fuels are underway in the laboratory: advanced microstructure fuels (doped fuels), fuels containing Er 2 O 3 a burnable absorber, fuels with improved caesium retention, composite fuels. The advanced microstructure UO 2 fuels have special features such as: high grain sizes to lengthen the fission gas diffusion paths, intragranular precipitates as fission gas atoms pinning sites, intergranular silica based viscoplastic phases to improve the creep properties. The grain size growth can be obtained with a long time annealing or with corundum type oxide additives partly soluble in the UO 2 lattice. The amount of doping element compared with its solubility limit and the sintering conditions allows to obtain oxide or metallic precipitates. The fuels containing Er 2 O 3 as a burnable absorber are under irradiation in the TANOX device at the present time. Specific sintering conditions are required to improve the erbium solubility in UO 2 and to reach standard or large grain sizes. The improved caesium retention fuels are doped with SiO 2 +A1 2 O 3 or SiO 2 +ZrO 2 additives which may form stable compounds with the Cs element in accidental conditions. The composite fuels are made of UO 2 particles of about 100 μm in size dispersed in a molybdenum metallic (CERMET) or MgA1 2 O 4 ceramic (CERCER) matrix. The CERMET has a considerably higher thermal conductivity and remains ''cold'' during irradiation. The concept of double barrier (matrix+fuel) against fission products is verified for the CERMET fuel. A thermal analysis of all the irradiated rods shows that the thermal

  4. Accident analysis of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Chi, D. Y

    1998-03-01

    Steady state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterment of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. The HANARO fuel test loop was designed to match the CANDU and PWR fuel operating conditions. The accident analysis was performed by RELAP5/MOD3 code based on FTL system designs and determined the detail engineering specification of in-pile test section and out-pile systems. The accident analysis results of FTL system could be used for the fuel and materials designer to plan the irradiation testing programs. (author). 23 refs., 20 tabs., 178 figs.

  5. Surveillance instrumentation for spent-fuel safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Holmes, J.P.; Gillman, L.K.; Schmitz, J.A.; McDaniel, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The movement, in a facility, of spent reactor fuel may be tracked using simple instrumentation together with a real time unfolding algorithm. Experimental measurements, from multiple radiation monitors and crane weight and position monitors, were obtained during spent fuel movements at the G.E. Morris Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. These data and a preliminary version of an unfolding algorithm were used to estimate the position of the centroid and the magnitude of the spent fuel radiation source. Spatial location was estimated to +-1.5 m and source magnitude to +-10% of their true values. Application of this surveillance instrumentation to spent-fuel safeguards is discussed

  6. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2010-10-01

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  7. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about biodiesel fueling infrastructure codes Case Studies California Ramps Up Biofuels Infrastructure Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate

  10. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  11. Fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the size of the reactor core upper mechanisms and the reactor container, as well as decrease the nuclear power plant construction costs in reactors using liquid metals as the coolants. Constitution: Isotope capturing devices comprising a plurality of pipes are disposed to the gas plenum portion of a nuclear fuel rod main body at the most downstream end in the flowing direction of the coolants. Each of the capturing devices is made of nickel, nickel alloys, stainless steel applied with nickel plating on the surface, nickel alloys applied with nickel plating on the surface or the like. Thus, radioactive nuclides incorporated in the coolants are surely captured by the capturing devices disposed at the most downstream end of the nuclear fuel main body as the coolants flow along the nuclear fuel main body. Accordingly, since discharging of radioactive nuclides to the intermediate fuel exchange system can be prevented, the maintenance or reparing work for the system can be facilitated. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  13. Thorium fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Darilek, P.; Breza, J.; Necas, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the thorium fuel cycle management. Description of the thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycle benefits and challenges as well as thorium fuel calculations performed by the computer code HELIOS are presented.

  14. Spent fuel reprocessing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Mizuguchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1996-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels containing oxides of uranium and transuranium elements are dismantled and sheared, then oxide fuels are reduced into metals of uranium and transuranium elements in a molten salt with or without mechanical removal of coatings. The reduced metals of uranium and transuranium elements and the molten salts are subjected to phase separation. From the metals of uranium and transuranium elements subjected to phase separation, uranium is separated to a solid cathode and transuranium elements are separated to a cadmium cathode by an electrolytic method. Molten salts deposited together with uranium to the solid cathode, and uranium and transuranium elements deposited to the cadmium cathode are distilled to remove deposited molten salts and cadmium. As a result, TRU oxides (solid) such as UO 2 , Pu 2 in spent fuels can be reduced to U and TRU by a high temperature metallurgical method not using an aqueous solution to separate them in the form of metal from other ingredients, and further, metal fuels can be obtained through an injection molding step depending on the purpose. (N.H.)

  15. Repairing fuel for reinsertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukshenk, A.

    1986-01-01

    Eqiupment for nuclear reactor fuel assembly repairing produced by Westinghouse and Brawn Bovery companies is described. Repair of failed fuel assemblies replacement of defect fuel elements gives a noticeable economical effect. Thus if the cost of a new fuel assembly is 450-500 thousand dollars, the replacement of one fuel element in it costs approximately 40-60 thousand dollars. In simple cases repairing includes either removal of failed fuel elements from a fuel assembly and its reinsertion with the rest of fuel elements into the reactor core (reactor refueling), or replacement of unfailed fuel elements from one fuel assembly to a new one (fuel assembly overhaul and reconditioning)

  16. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  17. Burn of actinides in MOX fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel from nuclear reactors is stored temporarily in dry repositories in many countries of the world. However, the main problem of spent fuel, which is its high radio-toxicity in the long term, is not solved. A new strategy is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle and for the sustain ability of nuclear power generation, this strategy could be the recycling of plutonium to obtain more energy and recycle the actinides generated during the irradiation of the fuel to transmute them in less radioactive radionuclides. In this work we evaluate the quantities of actinides generated in different fuels and the quantities of actinides that are generated after their recycling in a thermal reactor. First, we make a reference calculation with a regular enriched uranium fuel, and then is changed to a MOX fuel, varying the plutonium concentrations and determining the quantities of actinides generated. Finally, different amounts of actinides are introduced into a new fuel and the amount of actinides generated at the end of the fuel burn is calculated, in order to determine the reduction of minor actinides obtained. The results show that if the concentration of plutonium in the fuel is high, then the production of minor actinides is also high. The calculations were made using the cell code CASMO-4 and the results obtained are shown in section 6 of this work. (Author)

  18. History of fast reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, J.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Frost, B.R.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Mustelier, J.P. (COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France)); Bagley, K.Q. (AEA Reactor Services, Risley (United Kingdom)); Crittenden, G.C. (AEA Reactor Services, Dounreay (United Kingdom)); Dievoet, J. van (Belgonucleaire, Brussels (Belgium))

    1993-09-01

    The first fast breeder eactors, constructed in the 1945-1960 time period, used metallic fuels composed of uranium, plutonium, or their alloys. They were chosen because most existing reactor operating experience had been obtained on metallic fuels and because they provided the highest breeding ratios. Difficulties in obtaining adequate dimensional stability in metallic fuel elements under conditions of high fuel burnup led in the 1960s to the virtual worldwide choice of ceramic fuels. Although ceramic fuels provide lower breeding performance, this objective is no longer an important consideration in most national programs. Mixed uranium and plutonium dioxide became the ceramic fuel that has received the widest use. The more advanced ceramic fuels, mixed uranium and plutonium carbides and nitrides, continue under development. More recently, metal fuel elements of improved design have joined ceramic fuels in achieving goal burnups of 15 to 20 percent. Low-swelling fuel cladding alloys have also been continuously developed to deal with the unexpected problem of void formation in stainless steels subjected to fast neutron irradiation, a phenomenon first observed in the 1960s. (orig.)

  19. Prospects and technical and economic evaluation of methods for obtaining synthetic liquid from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlikhter, E B; Khor' kov, A V; Zhorov, Y M

    1980-11-01

    Rising oil prices and the exhaustion of cheap organic fuels point to the need for chemical processing of coal to obtain synthetic liquid fuels. Added importance for such development in the USSR is dictated by the remote location of many coal deposits, such as the Kansko-Achinsk basin. Methods for synthesizing described include thermal dissolution in a hydrogen donor solvent, hydrogenation, and gasification with subsequent synthesis and pyrolysis. The need for improved technology is stressed. Cost factors are related to the chemical process involved, rather than to losses in fuel quantities, and the methanol produced is readily transported by pipeline. It can be used for both gasoline and diesel fuels.

  20. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  1. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    In a fuel assembly in which spectral shift type moderator guide members are arranged, the moderator guide member has a flow channel resistance member, that provides flow resistance against the moderators, in the upstream of a moderator flowing channel, by which the ratio of removing coolants is set greater at the upstream than downstream. With such a constitution, the void distribution increasing upward in the channel box except for the portion of the moderator guide member is moderated by the increase of the area of the void region that expands downward in the guide member. Accordingly, the axial power distribution is flattened throughout the operation cycle and excess distortion is eliminated to improve the fuel integrity. (T.M.)

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the corrosion rate and suppress the increase of radioactive corrosion products in reactor water of nuclear fuel assemblies for use in BWR type reactors having spacer springs made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloys. Constitution: Spacer rings made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloy are incorporated and used as fuel assemblies after applying treatment of dipping and maintaining at high temperature water followed by heating in steams. Since this can remove the nickel leaching into reactor water at the initial stage, Co-58 as the radioactive corrosion products in the reactor water can be reduced, and the operation at in-service inspection or repairement can be facilitated to improve the working efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The dipping time is desirably more than 10 hours and more desirably more than 30 hours. (Horiuchi, T. )

  3. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ritsuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the operation performance of a BWR type reactor by improving the distribution of the uranium enrichment and the incorporation amount of burnable poisons in fuel assemblies. Constitution: The average enrichment of uranium 235 is increased in the upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion, while the incorporation amount of burnable poisons is increased in an upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion. The difference in the incorporation amount of the burnable poisons between the upper and lower portions is attained by charging two kinds of fuel rods; the ones incorporated with the burnable poisons over the entire length and the others incorporated with the burnable poisons only in the upper portions. (Seki, T.)

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for a BWR type reactor, water rods or water crosses are disposed between fuel rods, and a value with a spring is disposed at the top of the coolant flow channel thereof, which opens a discharge port when pressure is increased to greater than a predetermined value. Further, a control element for the amount of coolant flow rate is inserted retractable to a control element guide tube formed at the lower portion of the water rod or the water cross. When the amount of control elements inserted to the control element guide tube is small and the inflown coolant flow rate is great, the void coefficient at the inside of the water rod is less than 5%. On the other hand, when the control elements are inserted, the flow resistance is increased, so that the void coefficient in the water rod is greater than 80%. When the pressure in the water rod is increased, the valve with the spring is raised to escape water or steams. Then, since the variation range of the change of the void coefficient can be controlled reliably by the amount of the control elements inserted, and nuclear fuel materials can be utilized effectively. (N.H.)

  5. Reactor fuel performance data file, 1985 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Fujita, Misao; Watanabe, Kohji.

    1986-07-01

    In safety evaluation and integrity studies of reactor fuel, data on fuel performance are the most basic materials. The Fuel Reliability Laboratory No.1 has obtained the fuel performance data by joining in some international programs to study the safety and integrity of fuel. Those data have only used for the studies in the above two fields. However, if the data are rearranged and compiled in a easily usable form, they can be utilized in other field of studies. Then, a 'data file' on fuel performance is beeing compiled by adding data from open literatures to those obtained in international programs. The present report is prepared on the basis of the data file compiled by March in 1986. (author)

  6. Studies and manufacture of plutonium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussy, P.; Mustelier, J.P.; Pascard, R.

    1964-01-01

    The studies carried out at the C.E.A. on the properties of fast neutron reactor fuels, the manufacture of fuel elements and their behaviour under irradiation are broadly outlined. The metal fuels studied are the ternary alloys U Pu Mo, U Pu Nb, U Pa Ti, U Pa Zr, the ceramic fuels being mixed uranium and plutonium oxides, carbides and nitrides obtained by sintering. Results are given on the manufacture of uranium fuel elements containing a small proportion of plutonium, used in a critical experiment, and on the first experiments in the manufacture of fuel elements for the reactor Rapsodie. Finally the results of irradiation tests carried out on the prototype fuel pins for Rapsodie are described. (authors) [fr

  7. The FARC fuel archive of VVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizin, M.N.; Parfenova, N.A.; Proselkov, V.N.; Shishkov, L.K.

    1998-01-01

    The principles of organisation are explained and the structure of the FARC fuel archive for VVER reactors is described. The objective of the archive is accumulation of fuel data, data storage and obtaining the fuel using characteristics. The working version of fuel archive on 01.07.98 is realised, in which the data tables for fuel assemblies for 169 VVER-440 cycles and 35 VVER-1000 cycles are stored. There are two different versions of fuel archive - for VVER-440 (FARC) and for VVER-1000 (FARC1000). A structure of some tables and the texts of programs for them differ. The algorithms and codes for checking integrity, reasonableness and reliability of fuel archive data are developed. (author)

  8. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  9. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  10. Solid TRU fuels and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Suzuki, Yasufumi

    1997-01-01

    Alloys and nitrides are candidate solid fuels for transmutation. However, the nitride fuels are preferred to the alloys because they have more favorable thermal properties which allows to apply a cold-fuel concept. The nitride fuel cycle technology is briefly presented

  11. Fast breeder fuel element development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.; Muehling, G.

    1983-08-01

    This report is a compilation of the papers which have been presented during a seminar ''Fast Breeder Fuel Element Development'' held on November 15/16, 1982 at KfK. The papers give a survey of the status, of the obtained results and of the necessary work, which still has to be done in the frame of various development programmes for fast breeder fuel elements. In detail the following items were covered by the presentations: - the requirements and boundary conditions for the design of fuel pins and elements both for the reference concept of the SNR 300 core and for the large, commercial breeder type of the future (presentation 1,2 and 6); - the fabrication, properties and characterization of various mixed oxide fuel types (presentations 3,4 and 5); - the operational fuel pin behaviour, limits of different design concepts and possible mechanism for fuel pin failures (presentations (7 and 8); - the situation of cladding- and wrapper materials development especially with respect to the high burn-up values of commercial reactors (presentations 9 and 10); - the results of the irradiation experiments performed under steady-state and non-stationary operational conditions and with failed fuel pins (presentations 11, 12, 13 and 14). (orig./RW) [de

  12. GENUSA Fuel Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choithramani, Sylvia; Malpica, Maria [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas, GENUSA, Josefa Valcarcel, 26 28027 Madrid (Spain); Fawcett, Russel [Global Nuclear Fuel (United States)

    2009-06-15

    GNF ENUSA Nuclear Fuel S.A. (GENUSA) was formed in Madrid in May 1996. GENUSA is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Spain, jointly owned by GNF-A and ENUSA. GENUSA consolidates all European BWR fuel marketing activities of GNF-A and ENUSA, primarily providing marketing and project management. In its standard way of operating, it will obtain engineering, components and conversion from GNF-A and engineering, fabrication and fuel related services from ENUSA. GENUSA's development philosophy over the past decades has been to introduce evolutionary designs, supported by our global experience base, that deliver the performance needed by our customers to meet their operating strategies. GENUSA considers, as one of our strengths, the ever-increasing experience base that provides the foundation for such evolutionary changes. This experience is supported and complemented with an even greater GNF experience. Over the last 40 years, GNF and ENUSA have designed, fabricated, and placed in operation over 144,000 BWR fuel bundles containing over 9.7 million fuel rods. This experience base represents the widest range of operating conditions of any BWR fuel vendor, reflecting varying reactor power densities, operating strategies, and water chemistry environments. It covers operating periods of up to {approx}10 years and bundle average exposures up to 68 MWd/kgU.. It provides the confirmation of our understanding and ability to model fuel performance behavior, and has been instrumental in the identification and characterization of each encountered failure mechanism. With the knowledge gained from this extensive experience base, mitigating actions have been developed and progressively implemented by GENUSA as part of a continuous program toward improved fuel reliability and performance. GENUSA's evolutionary product introduction strategy has been extremely successful. There has been a continuous stream of new products/processes that were developed to

  13. Used fuel packing plant for CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, I.; Thayer, B.; Bains, N., E-mail: imenzies@atsautomation.com [ATS Automation, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Murchison, A., E-mail: amurchison@nwmo.ca [NWMO, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Large forgings have been selected to containerize Light Water Reactor used nuclear fuel. CANDU fuel, which is significantly smaller in size, allows novel approaches for containerization. For example, by utilizing commercially available extruded ASME pipe a conceptual design of a Used Fuel Packing Plant for containerization of used CANDU fuel in a long lived metallic container has been developed. The design adopts a modular approach with multiple independent work cells to transfer and containerize the used fuel. Based on current technologies and concepts from proven industrial systems, the Used Fuel Packing Plant can assemble twelve used fuel containers per day considering conservative levels of process availability. (author)

  14. K Basin spent nuclear fuel characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAWRENCE, L.A.

    1999-02-10

    The results of the characterization efforts completed for the N Reactor fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins were Collected and summarized in this single referencable document. This summary provides a ''road map'' for what was done and the results obtained for the fuel characterization program initiated in 1994 and scheduled for completion in 1999 with the fuel oxidation rate measurement under moist inert atmospheres.

  15. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Organic Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton

    of the products. The observation of internal reforming was indirectly confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, where the best fits were obtained when a Gerischer element describing preceding chemical reaction and diffusion was included in the equivalent circuit of a methanol/air operated cell...... evaporated liquid stream supply to either of the electrodes. A large number of MEAs with different component compositions have been prepared and tested in different conditions using the constructed setups to obtain a basic understanding of the nature of direct DME HT-PEM FC, to map the processes occurring...... inside the cells and to determine the lifetime. Additionally, comparison was made with methanol as fuel, which is the main competitor to DME in direct oxidation of organic fuels in fuel cells. For the reference, measurements have also been done with conventional hydrogen/air operation. All...

  16. Nuclear fuel preheating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor new fuel handling system which conveys new fuel from a fuel preparation room into the reactor containment boundary is described. The handling system is provided with a fuel preheating station which is adaptd to heat the new fuel to reactor refueling temperatures in such a way that the fuel is heated from the top down so that fuel element cladding failure due to thermal expansions is avoided. (U.S.)

  17. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  18. Characterization of fuel swelling in helium-bonded carbide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, D.L.Y.

    1987-08-01

    This work is not only the first attempt at characterizing the swelling of (U,Pu)C fuel pellets, but it also represents the only detailed examinations on carbide fuel swelling at high fuel burnups (4 to 16 at. %). This characterization includes the contributions of fission gases, cracks and solid fission products to fuel swelling. Significantly, the contributions of fission gases and cracks were determined by using the image analysis technique (IAT) which allows researchers to take areal measurements of the irradiated fuel porosity and cracks from the photographs of metallographic fuel samples. However, because areal measurements for varying depths in the fuel pellet could not be obtained, the crack areal measurements could not be converted into volumetric quantities. Consequently, in this situation, an areal fuel swelling analysis was used. The macroscopic fission-gas induced fuel swelling (MAS) caused by fission-gas bubbles and pores > 1 μm was determined using the measured irradiated fuel porosity because the measuring range of IAT is limited to bubbles and pores >1 μm. Conversely, for fuel swelling induced by fission-gas bubbles < 1 μm, the microscopic fission-gas induced fuel swelling (MIS) was estimated using an areal fuel swelling model

  19. Core fuel management using TVS-2M fuel assembly and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Min; Wang Hongxia; Li Youyi

    2014-01-01

    To improve the economic efficiency, TVS-2M fuel assembly was considered to apply in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant units 3, 4. Using KASKAD program package, a preliminary research and design was carried out for the Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant loading TVS-2M fuel assembly from the first cycle to equilibrium cycle. An improved fuel management program was obtained, and the economic analysis of the two fuel management programs with or without TVS-2M assembly was studied. The analysis results show that TVS-2M fuel assembly can improve the economic efficiency of the plant remarkably. (authors)

  20. Radioactive decay properties of CANDU fuel. Volume 1: the natural uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, L.J.; Coady, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The two books of Volume 1 comprise the first in a three-volume series of compilations on the radioactive decay propertis of CANDU fuel and deal with the natural uranium fuel cycle. Succeeding volumes will deal with fuel cycles based on plutonium recycle and thorium. In Volume 1 which is divided into three parts, the computer code CANIGEN was used to obtain the mass, activity, decay heat and toxicity of CANDU fuel and its component isotopes. Data are also presented on gamma spectra and neutron emissions. Part 3 contains the data relating to the plutonium product and the high level wastes produced during fuel reprocessing. (author)

  1. Loading procedures for shipment of irradiated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, E F; Feltz, D E; Sandel, P S; Schoenbucher, B [Texas A and M University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    The Nuclear Science Center at Texas A and M does not have proper equipment and facilities for transferring irradiated fuel from the reactor pool to the transport vehicle. To accomplish the transfer of 23 MTR type fuel elements procedures were developed using a modified fork lift and flex-lift obtained locally. The transfer was accomplished without incident and with negligible personnel exposure. (author)

  2. Fuel followed control rod installation at AFRRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Mark; Owens, Chris; Forsbacka, Matt

    1992-01-01

    Fuel Followed Control Rods (FFCRs) were installed at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute's 1 MW TRIGA Reactor. The procedures for obtaining, shipping, and installing the FFCRs is described. As part of the FFCR installation, the transient rod drive was relocated. Core performance due to the addition of the fuel followed control rods is discussed. (author)

  3. Loading procedures for shipment of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, E.F.; Feltz, D.E.; Sandel, P.S.; Schoenbucher, B.

    1974-01-01

    The Nuclear Science Center at Texas A and M does not have proper equipment and facilities for transferring irradiated fuel from the reactor pool to the transport vehicle. To accomplish the transfer of 23 MTR type fuel elements procedures were developed using a modified fork lift and flex-lift obtained locally. The transfer was accomplished without incident and with negligible personnel exposure. (author)

  4. Nuclear Fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Hiromasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the stress gradient resulted in the fuel can in fuel rods adapted to control the axial power distribution by the combination of fuel pellets having different linear power densities. Constitution: In a fuel rod comprising a first fuel pellet of a relatively low linear power density and a second fuel pellet of a relatively high linear power density, the second fuel pellet is cut at its both end faces by an amount corresponding to the heat expansion of the pellet due to the difference in the linear power density to the adjacent first fuel pellet. Thus, the second fuel pellet takes a smaller space than the first fuel pellet in the fuel can. This can reduce the stress produced in the portion of the fuel can corresponding to the boundary between the adjacent fuel pellets. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Fabrication of the instrumented fuel rods for the 3-Pin Fuel Test Loop at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Park, Sung Jae; Shin, Yoon Tag; Lee, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung Ho; Kim, Soo Sung; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Ki Hong; Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2008-09-01

    The 3-Pin Fuel Test Loop(hereinafter referred to as the '3-Pin FTL') facility has been installed at HANARO(High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) and the 3-Pin FTL is under a test operation. The purpose of this report is to fabricate the instrumented fuel rods for the 3-Pin FTL. The fabrication of these fuel rods was based on experiences and technologies of the instrumented fuel rods for an irradiation fuel capsule. The three instrumented fuel rods of the 3-Pin FTL have been designed. The one fuel rod(180 .deg. ) was designed to measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuels and the internal pressure of the fuel rod, and others(60 .deg. and 300 .deg. ) were designed to measure the centerline temperature of the fuel pellets. The claddings were made of the reference material 1 and 2 and new material 1 and 2. And nuclear fuel was used UO 2 (2.0w/o) pellet type with large grain and standard grain. The major procedures of fabrication are followings: (1) the assembling and weld of fuel rods with the pellet mockups and the sensor mockups for the qualification tests, (2) the qualification tests(dimension measurements, tensile tests, metallography examinations and helium leak tests) of weld, (3) the assembling and weld of instrumented fuel rods with the nuclear pellets and the sensors for the irradiation test, and (4) the qualification tests(the helium leak test, the dimensional measurement, electric resistance measurements of sensors) of test fuel rods. Satisfactory results were obtained for all the qualification tests of the instrumented fuel rods for the 3-Pin FTL. Therefore the three instrumented fuel rods for the 3-Pin FTL have been fabricated successfully. These will be installed in the In-Pile Section of 3-Pin FTL. And the irradiation test of these fuel rods is planned from the early next year for about 3 years at HANARO

  6. Fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up: analysis of reactivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Shmelev, A.N.; Ternovykh, M.J.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Jinhong, L.; Saito, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cycles of light-water reactors (LWR) with high fuel burn-up (above 100 MWd/kg), as a rule, involve large amounts of fissionable materials. It leads to forming the neutron spectrum harder than that in traditional LWR. Change of neutron spectrum and significant amount of non-traditional isotopes (for example, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 231 Pa, 232 U) in such fuel compositions can alter substantially reactivity coefficients as compared with traditional uranium-based fuel. The present work addresses the fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up which are based on Th-Pa-U and U-Np-Pu fuel compositions. Numerical analyses are carried out to determine effective neutron multiplication factor and void reactivity coefficient (VRC) for different values of fuel burn-up and different lattice parameters. The algorithm is proposed for analysis of isotopes contribution to these coefficients. Various ways are considered to upgrade safety of nuclear fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up. So, the results obtained in this study have demonstrated that: -1) Non-traditional fuel compositions developed for achievement of high fuel burn-up in LWR can possess positive values of reactivity coefficients that is unacceptable from the reactor operation safety point of view; -2) The lattice pitch of traditional LWR is not optimal for non-traditional fuel compositions, the increased value of the lattice pitch leads to larger value of initial reactivity margin and provides negative VRC within sufficiently broad range of coolant density; -3) Fuel burn-up has an insignificant effect on VRC dependence on coolant density, so, the measures undertaken to suppress positive VRC of fresh fuel will be effective for partially burnt-up fuel compositions also and; -4) Increase of LWR core height and introduction of additional moderators into the fuel lattice can be used as the ways to reach negative VRC values for full range of possible coolant density variations

  7. Fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up: analysis of reactivity coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Shmelev, A.N.; Ternovykh, M.J.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Jinhong, L. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Saito, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Fuel cycles of light-water reactors (LWR) with high fuel burn-up (above 100 MWd/kg), as a rule, involve large amounts of fissionable materials. It leads to forming the neutron spectrum harder than that in traditional LWR. Change of neutron spectrum and significant amount of non-traditional isotopes (for example, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 232}U) in such fuel compositions can alter substantially reactivity coefficients as compared with traditional uranium-based fuel. The present work addresses the fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up which are based on Th-Pa-U and U-Np-Pu fuel compositions. Numerical analyses are carried out to determine effective neutron multiplication factor and void reactivity coefficient (VRC) for different values of fuel burn-up and different lattice parameters. The algorithm is proposed for analysis of isotopes contribution to these coefficients. Various ways are considered to upgrade safety of nuclear fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up. So, the results obtained in this study have demonstrated that: -1) Non-traditional fuel compositions developed for achievement of high fuel burn-up in LWR can possess positive values of reactivity coefficients that is unacceptable from the reactor operation safety point of view; -2) The lattice pitch of traditional LWR is not optimal for non-traditional fuel compositions, the increased value of the lattice pitch leads to larger value of initial reactivity margin and provides negative VRC within sufficiently broad range of coolant density; -3) Fuel burn-up has an insignificant effect on VRC dependence on coolant density, so, the measures undertaken to suppress positive VRC of fresh fuel will be effective for partially burnt-up fuel compositions also and; -4) Increase of LWR core height and introduction of additional moderators into the fuel lattice can be used as the ways to reach negative VRC values for full range of possible coolant density variations.

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Koji; Ueda, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    In a fuel assembly used for a light water cooled reactor such as a BWR type reactor, a water rod is divided axially into an upper outer tube and a lower outer tube by means of a plug disposed from the lower end of a water rod to a position 1/4 - 1/2 of the entire length for the water rod. Inlet apertures and exit apertures for moderators are respectively perforated for the divided outer tube and upper and lower portions. Further, an upper inner tube with less neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is perforated on the plug in the outer tube, while a lower inner tube with greater neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is suspended from the lower surface of the plug in the outer tube. Then, the opening area for the exit apertures disposed to the upper outer tube and the lower outer tube is controlled depending on the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the upper inner tube and the upper outer tube, and the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the lower inner tube and the lower outer tube. This enables effective spectral shift operation and improve the fuel economy. (T.M.)

  9. Analysis of ADU structure obtained under different precipitation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramella, Jose L.; Esteban, Adolfo; Mendez De Leo, Lucia P.; Sassone, Ariel; Novara, Oscar E.; Boero, Norma L.; Leyva, Ana G.

    1999-01-01

    ADU is the nominal name for ammonium poly uranate. It is a very complex compound of polymeric structure, which may have, according to precipitation conditions, different chemical composition and crystallographic structure. ADU is used as uranium oxide precursor in the manufacture of fuel elements. In former papers it was proved that if ultrasound is applied during precipitation and digestion the characteristics of the final product (U 3 O 8 UO 2 ) improve. By studying ADU thermal decomposition obtained by ultrasonic application, it was intended to obtain its composition. Therefore, differential thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analyses were performed. Samples were taken from special points and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and scanning. An experiment was also designed to identify the products released during heating. Results and conclusions obtained are presented in this work. (author)

  10. Fuel Burn Estimation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Validated the fuel estimation procedure using flight test data. A good fuel model can be created if weight and fuel data are available. Error in assumed takeoff weight results in similar amount of error in the fuel estimate. Fuel estimation error bounds can be determined.

  11. Fuel channel refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Abdul-Razzak, A.

    1992-11-01

    This report extends the work reported in document INFO-0370 on fuel channel refilling by providing analysis of the refilling tests conducted using the RD-14 and RD-14M test facilities. The analysis focuses on the general thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the facilities following various small and large inlet and outlet header breaks with emergency coolant injection. The two-fluid model thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHENA was tested against results obtained from selected experiments carried out in the two facilities. Conclusions related to the effect of break size, mode of emergency core injection, primary pump operation and parallel channels are presented. (Author) (116 figs., 17 tabs., 53 refs.)

  12. BWR fuel cycle optimization using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Servin, Juan Jose; Castillo, Jose Alejandro; Pelta, David Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → OCONN a new system to optimize all nuclear fuel management steps in a coupled way. → OCON is based on an artificial recurrent neural network to find the best combination of partial solutions to each fuel management step. → OCONN works with a fuel lattices' stock, a fuel reloads' stock and a control rod patterns' stock, previously obtained with different heuristic techniques. → Results show OCONN is able to find good combinations according the global objective function. - Abstract: In nuclear fuel management activities for BWRs, four combinatorial optimization problems are solved: fuel lattice design, axial fuel bundle design, fuel reload design and control rod patterns design. Traditionally, these problems have been solved in separated ways due to their complexity and the required computational resources. In the specialized literature there are some attempts to solve fuel reloads and control rod patterns design or fuel lattice and axial fuel bundle design in a coupled way. In this paper, the system OCONN to solve all of these problems in a coupled way is shown. This system is based on an artificial recurrent neural network to find the best combination of partial solutions to each problem, in order to maximize a global objective function. The new system works with a fuel lattices' stock, a fuel reloads' stock and a control rod patterns' stock, previously obtained with different heuristic techniques. The system was tested to design an equilibrium cycle with a cycle length of 18 months. Results show that the new system is able to find good combinations. Cycle length is reached and safety parameters are fulfilled.

  13. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use

  14. Metallic fuel design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, B. O. and others

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the R and D results of the ''Metallic Fuel Design Development'' project that performed as a part of 'Nuclear Research and Development Program' during the '97 - '98 project years. The objectives of this project are to perform the analysis of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behaviors, and preliminary conceptual design for the fuel system of the KALIMER liquid metal reactor. The following are the major results that obtained through the project. The preliminary design requirements and design criteria which are necessary in conceptual design stage, are set up. In the field of fuel pin design, the pin behavior analysis, failure probability prediction, and sensitivity analysis are performed under the operation conditions of steady-state and transient accidents. In the area of assembly duct analysis; 1) KAFACON-2D program is developed to calculate an array configuration of inner shape of assembly duct, 2) Stress-strain analysis are performed for the components of assembly such as, handling socket, mounting rail and wire wrap, 3) The BDI program is developed to analyze mechanical interaction between pin bundle and duct, 4) a vibration analysis is performed to understand flow-induced vibration of assembly duct, 5) The NUBOW-2D, which is bowing and deformation analysis code for assembly duct, is modified to be operated in KALIMER circumstance, and integrity evaluation of KALIMER core assembly is carried out using the modified NUBOW-2D and the CRAMP code in U.K., and 6) The KALIMER assembly duct is manufactured to be used in flow test. In the area of non-fuel assembly, such as control, reflector, shielding, GEM and USS, the states-of-the-arts and the major considerations in designing are evaluated, and the design concepts are derived. The preliminary design description and their design drawing of KALIMER fuel system are prepared based upon the above mentioned evaluation and analysis. The achievement of conceptual

  15. Metallic fuel design development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, B. O. and others

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the R and D results of the ''Metallic Fuel Design Development'' project that performed as a part of 'Nuclear Research and Development Program' during the '97 - '98 project years. The objectives of this project are to perform the analysis of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behaviors, and preliminary conceptual design for the fuel system of the KALIMER liquid metal reactor. The following are the major results that obtained through the project. The preliminary design requirements and design criteria which are necessary in conceptual design stage, are set up. In the field of fuel pin design, the pin behavior analysis, failure probability prediction, and sensitivity analysis are performed under the operation conditions of steady-state and transient accidents. In the area of assembly duct analysis; 1) KAFACON-2D program is developed to calculate an array configuration of inner shape of assembly duct, 2) Stress-strain analysis are performed for the components of assembly such as, handling socket, mounting rail and wire wrap, 3) The BDI program is developed to analyze mechanical interaction between pin bundle and duct, 4) a vibration analysis is performed to understand flow-induced vibration of assembly duct, 5) The NUBOW-2D, which is bowing and deformation analysis code for assembly duct, is modified to be operated in KALIMER circumstance, and integrity evaluation of KALIMER core assembly is carried out using the modified NUBOW-2D and the CRAMP code in U.K., and 6) The KALIMER assembly duct is manufactured to be used in flow test. In the area of non-fuel assembly, such as control, reflector, shielding, GEM and USS, the states-of-the-arts and the major considerations in designing are evaluated, and the design concepts are derived. The preliminary design description and their design drawing of KALIMER fuel system are prepared based upon the above mentioned evaluation and analysis. The achievement of conceptual design technology on metallic fuel

  16. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  17. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  18. Nuclear fuel shipping inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Hada, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an nuclear fuel shipping inspection device having a high detection sensitivity and capable of obtaining highly reliable inspection results. Constitution: The present invention concerns a device for distinguishing a fuel assembly having failed fuel rods in LMFBR type reactors. Coolants in a fuel assembly to be inspected are collected by a sampling pipeway and transferred to a filter device. In the filter device, granular radioactive corrosion products (CP) in the coolants are captured, to reduce the background. The coolants, after being passed through the filter device, are transferred to an FP catching device and gamma-rays of iodine and cesium nuclides are measured in FP radiation measuring device. Subsequently, the coolants transferred to a degasing device to separate rare gas FP in the coolants from the liquid phase. In a case if rare gas fission products are detected by the radiation detector, it means that there is a failed fuel rod in the fuel assembly to be inspected. Since the CP and the soluble FP are separated and extracted for the radioactivity measurement, the reliability can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Characteristics of fuel cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilina, C.A.; Everette, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Management System started in 1979 to describe and model the existing commercial low-level waste management system. The system description produced is based on the identification of the different elements making up both the fuel and non-fuel cycle and their relationships to each other. A systems model based on the system description can accurately reflect the flow of low-level waste from generator to disposal site and is only limited by the reliability of the information it uses. For both the fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle large quantities of information is required in order to allow the system to operate at its full potential. Work is ongoing to collect this information. Significant progress is being made in the fuel cycle area primarily because the majority of fuel cycle low-level radioactive waste is produced by commercial power reactor plant operations. The Low-Level Waste Management system is only beginning to derive the benefits to be obtained from an accurate low-level waste management information system. As data is verified and analyzed, results on a national as well as individual organization level will be gained. Comparisons to previous studies will be made. Accurate projections of waste volumes and activities to be produced, projected impacts of waste streams of treatment or management changes are only examples of information to be produced. 1 figure, 1 table

  20. Quadratic reactivity fuel cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    For educational purposes it is highly desirable to provide simple yet realistic models for fuel cycle and fuel economy. In particular, a lumped model without recourse to detailed spatial calculations would be very helpful in providing the student with a proper understanding of the purposes of fuel cycle calculations. A teaching model for fuel cycle studies based on a lumped model assuming the summability of partial reactivities with a linear dependence of reactivity usefully illustrates fuel utilization concepts. The linear burnup model does not satisfactorily represent natural enrichment reactors. A better model, showing the trend of initial plutonium production before subsequent fuel burnup and fission product generation, is a quadratic fit. The study of M-batch cycles, reloading 1/Mth of the core at end of cycle, is now complicated by nonlinear equations. A complete account of the asymptotic cycle for any order of M-batch refueling can be given and compared with the linear model. A complete account of the transient cycle can be obtained readily in the two-batch model and this exact solution would be useful in verifying numerical marching models. It is convenient to treat the parabolic fit rho = 1 - tau 2 as a special case of the general quadratic fit rho = 1 - C/sub tau/ - (1 - C)tau 2 in suitably normalized reactivity and cycle time units. The parabolic results are given in this paper

  1. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  2. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development

  3. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development.

  4. Oxide fuel pin transient performance analysis and design with the TEMECH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, F.E.; Dutt, S.P.; Hinman, C.A.; Hunter, C.W.; Pitner, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The TEMECH code is a fast-running, thermal-mechanical-hydraulic, analytical program used to evaluate the transient performance of LMR oxide fuel pins. The code calculates pin deformation and failure probability due to fuel-cladding differential thermal expansion, expansion of fuel upon melting, and fission gas pressurization. The mechanistic fuel model in the code accounts for fuel cracking, crack closure, porosity decrease, and the temperature dependence of fuel creep through the course of the transient. Modeling emphasis has been placed on results obtained from Fuel Cladding Transient Test (FCTT) testing, Transient Fuel Deformation (TFD) tests and TREAT integral fuel pin experiments

  5. KMRR fuel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, D.S.; Sim, B.S.; Kim, T.R.; Hwang, W.; Kim, B.G.; Ku, Y.H.; Lee, C.B.; Lim, I.C.

    1992-06-01

    KMRR fuel rod design criteria on fuel swelling, blistering and oxide spallation have been reexamined. Fuel centerline temperature limit of 250deg C in normal operation condition and fuel swelling limit of 12 % at the end of life have been proposed to prevent fuel failure due to excessive fuel swelling. Fuel temperature limit of 485deg C has been proposed to exclude the possibility of fuel failures during transients or under accident condition. Further analyses are needed to decide the fuel cladding temperature limit to preclude the oxide spallation. Design changes in fuel assembly structure and their effects on related systems have been reviewed from a structural integrity viewpoint. The remained works in fuel mechanical design area have been identified and further efforts of fuel design group will be focused on these aspects. (Author)

  6. Fuel Property Blend Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagnon, Scott J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, Kuiwen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kukkadapu, Goutham [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-12

    The object of this project is to develop chemical models and associated correlations to predict the blending behavior of bio-derived fuels when mixed with conventional fuels like gasoline and diesel fuels.

  7. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    The Air Base Technologies Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a logistic fuel processor that removes the sulfur content of the fuel and in the process converts logistic fuel...

  8. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  9. Analysis of irradiation temperature in fuel rods of OGL-1 fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kousaku; Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Minato, Kazuo; Ikawa, Katsuichi; Iwamoto, Kazumi

    1984-10-01

    Irradiation temperature in the fuel rods of 5th OGL-1 fuel assembly was analysed by the system composed by STPDSP2 and TRUMP codes. As the measured input-data, following parameters were allowed for; circumferential heating distribution around the fuel rod, which was measured in the JMTR critical assembly, axial heating distribution through the fuel rod, ratio of peak heatings of three fuel rods, and pre- and post-irradiation outer radii of the fuel compacts and inner radii of the graphite sleeves, which had been measured in PIE of the 5th OGL-1 fuel assembly. In computation the axial distributions of helium coolant temperature through the fuel rod and the heating value of each fuel rod were, firstly, calculated as input data for TRUMP. The TRUMP calculation yielded the temperatures which were fitted in those measured by all of the thermo-couples installed in the fuel rods, by adjusting only the value of the surface heat transfer coefficient, and consequently, the temperatures in all portions of the fuel rod were obtained. The apparent heat transfer coefficient changed to 60% of the initial values in the middle period of irradiation. For this reduction it was deduced that shoot had covered the surface of the fuel rod during irradiation, which was confirmed in PIE. Beside it, several things were found in this analysis. (author)

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataumi, Kazutoshi; Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a pellet to be loaded comprises an external layer of fissile materials containing burnable poisons and an internal layer of fissile materials not containing burnable poison. For example, there is provided a dual type pellet comprising an external layer made of UO 2 incorporated with Gd 2 O 3 at a predetermined concentration as the burnable poisons and an internal layer made of UO 2 not containing Gd 2 O 3 . The amount of the burnable poisons required for predetermined places is controlled by the thickness of the ring of the external layer. This can dissipate an unnecessary poisoning effect at the final stage of the combustion cycle. Further, since only one or a few kinds of powder mixture of the burnable poisons and the fissile materials is necessary, production and product control can be facilitated. (I.N.)

  11. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  12. A CAREM type fuel element dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoia, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A first analysis on the dynamic behaviour of a fuel element designed for the CAREM nuclear reactor (Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares) was performed. The model used to represent this dynamic behaviour was satisfactorily evaluated. Using primary estimations for some of its numerical parameters, a first approximation to its natural vibrational modes was obtained. Results obtained from fuel elements frequently used in nuclear power plants of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) type, are compared with values resulting from similar analysis. (Author) [es

  13. Nuclear fuel replacement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.; Robey, R.M.; Wett, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel handling arrangement for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a single rotating plug eccentric to the fuel core and a fuel handling machine radially movable along a slot in the plug with a transfer station disposed outside the fuel core but covered by the eccentric plug and within range of movement of said fuel handling machine to permit transfer of fuel assemblies between the core and the transfer station. (author)

  14. CANDU fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanoff, N.V.; Bazeley, E.G.; Hastings, I.J.

    1982-01-01

    CANDU fuel has operated successfully in Ontario Hydro's power reactors since 1962. In the 19 years of experience, about 99.9% of all fuel bundles have performed as designed. Most defects occurred before 1979 and subsequent changes in fuel design, fuel management, reactor control, and manufacturing quality control have reduced the current defect rate to near zero. Loss of power production due to defective fuel has been negligible. The outstanding performance continues while maintaining a low unit energy cost for fuel

  15. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    .... The focus during the subject period was directed to understanding the pyrolysis and combustion of endothermic fuels under subcritical conditions and the pyrolysis of these fuels under supercritical conditions...

  16. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus during the subject period was directed to understanding the pyrolysis and combustion of endothermic fuels under subcritical conditions and the pyrolysis of these fuels under supercritical conditions...

  17. Research on bioorganic fuels as power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Markku J.; Spets, Jukka-Pekka [Aalto University, Department of Energy Technology-TKK, Applied Thermodynamics, PO Box 4400, FI-02201 TKK (Finland); Kiros, Yohannes [Royal Institute of Technology-KTH, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, S100-44 Stockholm (Sweden); Anttila, Tomi [Oy Hydrocell Ltd, Minkkikatu 1-3, 04430 Jaervenpaeae (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with the kind of the bioorganic fuel cells that are equipped with or without ion exchange membranes. The bioorganic materials of interest are alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and glucose, which are obtained from renewable energy sources such as biomass. The operation temperatures of the direct fuel cells cover from room temperature up to 150 C. The direct bioorganic fuel cells belong to the subject area of 'Advanced fuel cells' of the Working group 4 in the EU COST Action 543 among the collaborating Universities and Institutes. Bioorganic fuel cells are suitable for application in small portable power sources, such as backups, battery chargers and in electronic devices. A number of current and earlier works are summarised and advances are highlighted in this area with special emphasis on glucose as a fuel. (author)

  18. Lignocellulosic Biobutanol as Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pexa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery of lignocellulosic waste material in the form of liquid fractions can yield alcohol-based fuels such as bioethanol or biobutanol. This study examined biobutanol derived from lignocellulosic material that was then used as an additive for diesel engines. Biobutanol was used in fuel mixtures with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME obtained by esterification of animal fat (also a waste material in the amounts of 10%, 30%, and 50% butanol. 100% diesel and 100% FAME were used as reference fuels. The evaluation concerned the fuel’s effect on the external speed characteristics, harmful exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption while using the Non-Road Steady Cycle test. When the percentage of butanol was increased, the torque and the power decreased and the brake specific fuel consumption increased. The main advantage of using biobutanol in fuel was its positive effect on reducing the fuel’s viscosity.

  19. Fuel morphology effects on fission product release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of fission product release behavior observed during four severe fuel damage tests on bundles of UO 2 fuel rods. Transient temperatures up to fuel melting were obtained in the tests that included both rapid and slow cooldown, low and high (36 GWd/t) burnup fuel and the addition of Ag-In-Cd control rods. Release fractions of major fission product species and release rates of noble gas species are reported. Significant differences in release behavior are discussed between heatup and cooldown periods, low and high burnup fuel and long- and short-lived fission products. Explanations for the observed differences are offered that relate fuel morphology changes to the releases

  20. Market dynamics of biomass fuel in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, W.F.; Zane, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The California market for biomass fuel purchased by independent power producers has grown substantially since 1980. The PURPA legislation that based power purchase rates upon the 'avoided cost' of public utilities resulted in construction of nearly 900 Megawatts of capacity coming online by 1991. Until 1987, most powerplants were co-sited at sawmills and burned sawmill residue. By 1990 the installed capacity of stand-alone powerplants exceeded the capacity co-sited at wood products industry facilities. The 1991 demand for biomass fuel is estimated as 6,400,000 BDT. The 1991 market value of most biomass fuel delivered to powerplants is from $34 to $47 per BDT. Biomass fuel is now obtained from forest chips, agriculture residue and urban wood waste. The proportion of biomass fuel from the wood products industry is expected to decline and non-traditional fuels are expected to increase in availability

  1. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  2. Reprocessing of fast neutron reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.

    1981-05-01

    A PUREX process specially adapted to fast neutron reactor fuels is employed. The results obtained indicate that the aqueous process can be applied to this type of fuel: almost 10 years operation at the AT 1 plant which processes fuel from RAPSODIE; the good results obtained at the MARCOULE pilot plant on large batches of reference fuels. The CEA is continuing its work to transfer this technology onto an industrial scale. Industrial prototypes and the launching of the TOR (traitement d'oxydes rapides) project will facilitate this transfer. In 1984, it is expected that fast fuels will be able to be processed on a significant scale and that supplementary R and D facilities will be available [fr

  3. Core analysis during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    An 1200-day time-dependent fuel-management for the transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor has been simulated to show the compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the reactor operation. The simulation calculations were carried out with the RFSP code, provided by cell averaged fuel properties obtained from the POWDERPUFS-V code. The refueling scheme for both fuels was an eight bundle shift at a time. The simulation results show that the maximum channel and bundle powers were maintained below the license limit of the CANDU 6. This indicates that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle is compatible with the CANDU 6 reactor operation during the transition period. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  4. Core analysis during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An 1200-day time-dependent fuel-management for the transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor has been simulated to show the compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the reactor operation. The simulation calculations were carried out with the RFSP code, provided by cell averaged fuel properties obtained from the POWDERPUFS-V code. The refueling scheme for both fuels was an eight bundle shift at a time. The simulation results show that the maximum channel and bundle powers were maintained below the license limit of the CANDU 6. This indicates that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle is compatible with the CANDU 6 reactor operation during the transition period. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  5. Developing Spent Fuel Assembly for Advanced NDA Instrument Calibration - NGSI Spent Fuel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Banfield, James [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States); Skutnik, Steven [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the application of modeling and simulation to support the performance assessment and calibration of the advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments developed under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) Project. Advanced NDA instrument calibration will likely require reference spent fuel assemblies with well-characterized nuclide compositions that can serve as working standards. Because no reference spent fuel standard currently exists, and the practical ability to obtain direct measurement of nuclide compositions using destructive assay (DA) measurements of an entire fuel assembly is prohibitive in the near term due to the complexity and cost of spent fuel experiments, modeling and simulation will be required to construct such reference fuel assemblies. These calculations will be used to support instrument field tests at the Swedish Interim Storage Facility (Clab) for Spent Nuclear Fuel.

  6. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  7. Fuel performance experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofer, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The history of LWR fuel supply has been characterized by a wide range of design developments and fuel cycle cost improvements. Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. has pursued an aggressive fuel research and development program aimed at improved fuel performance. Exxon Nuclear has introduced many design innovations which have improved fuel cycle economics and operating flexibility while fuel failures remain at very low levels. The removable upper tie plate feature of Exxon Nuclear assemblies has helped accelerate this development, enabling repeated inspections during successive plant outages. Also, this design feature has made it possible to repair damaged fuel assemblies during refueling outages, thereby minimizing the economic impact of fuel failure from all causes

  8. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  9. HTGR fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, L.H.; Heath, C.A.; Shefcik, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The following aspects of HTGR reprocessing technology are discussed: characteristics of HTGR fuels, criteria for a fuel reprocessing flowsheet; selection of a reference reprocessing flowsheet, and waste treatment

  10. Grid spacers for use in a nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwako, Akira.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain spacers capable of reducing the pressure loss by enlarging coolant flow channels when the fuel temperature is high, while capable of reliably maintaining the fuel pins with no vibrations when the fuel temperature is low. Constitution: This invention concerns grid spacers for constituting fuel assemblies for use in water cooled reactors. Memory shape alloys are disposed at least a portion of a spacer element that takes such a shape as urging the pin when the fuel temperature is low, while enlarging the coolant flow channel to reduce the pressure loss when the fuel temperature is high. (Ikeda, J.)

  11. Radioactive decay properties of CANDU fuel. Volume 1: the natural uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, L.J.; Coady, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The computer code CANIGEN was used to obtain the mass, activity, decay heat and toxicity of CANDU fuel and its component isotopes. Data are also presented on gamma spectra and neutron emissions. Part 1 presents these data for unirradiated fuel, uranium ore and uranium mill tailings. In Part 2 they have been computed for fuel irradiated to levels of burnup ranging from 140 GJ/kg U to 1150 GJ/kg U. (author)

  12. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  13. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100 th nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U 3 O 8 were replaced by U 3 Si 2 -based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to fulfill its mission that is

  14. Nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The production of new fuel for a power plant reactor and its disposition following discharge from the power plant is usually referred to as the ''nuclear fuel cycle.'' The processing of fuel is cyclic in nature since sometime during a power plant's operation old or ''depleted'' fuel must be removed and new fuel inserted. For light water reactors this step typically occurs once every 12-18 months. Since the time required for mining of the raw ore to recovery of reusable fuel materials from discharged materials can span up to 8 years, the management of fuel to assure continuous power plant operation requires simultaneous handling of various aspects of several fuel cycles, for example, material is being mined for fuel to be inserted in a power plant 2 years into the future at the same time fuel is being reprocessed from a discharge 5 years prior. Important aspects of each step in the fuel production process are discussed

  15. High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2006-01-01

    The use of internally and externally cooled annular fuel rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and economic assessment. The investigation was conducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperature. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasibility issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density

  16. Economic feasibility prediction of the commercial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yan; Karady, George G.; Winston, Anthony; Gilbert, Palomino; Hess, Robert; Pelley, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a prediction method and corresponding Visual Basic program to evaluate the economic feasibility of the commercial fuel cells in utility systems. The economic feasibility of a fuel cell is defined as having a net present value (NPV) greater than zero. The basic process of the method is to combine fuel cell specifications and real energy market data to calculate yearly earning and cost for obtaining the NPV of fuel cells. The Fuel Cell Analysis Software was developed using Visual Basic based on the proposed method. The investigation of a 250 kW molten carbonate fuel cell (FuelCell Energy DFC300A) predicted that, for application specifically in Arizona, United States, no profit would result from the installation of this fuel cell. The analysis results indicated that the efficiency, investment cost, and operation cost are three key factors affecting potential feasibility of the commercial fuel cells

  17. Paired replacement fuel assemblies for BWR-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Kazushige.

    1997-01-01

    There are disposed a large-diameter water rod constituting a non-boiling region at a central portion and paired replacement fuel assemblies for two streams having the same average enrichment degree and different amount of burnable poisons. The paired replacement fuel assemblies comprise a first fuel assembly having a less amount of burnable poisons and a second fuel assembly having a larger amount of burnable poisons. A number of burnable poison-containing fuel rods in adjacent with the large diameter water rod is increased in the second fuel assembly than the first fuel assembly. Then, the poison of the paired replacement fuel assemblies for the BWR type reactor can be annihilated simultaneously at the final stage of the cycle. Accordingly, fuels for a BWR type reactor excellent in economical property and safety and facilitating the design of the replacement reactor core can be obtained. (N.H.)

  18. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  19. Oil-shale gasification for obtaining of gas for synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation); Avakyan, T.; Lapidus, A.L. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of qualified usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. Gasification with further processing of gaseous products is a one of possible ways of their use. Production of synthesis gas with H{sub 2}/CO ratio equal 2 is possible by gasification of oil-shale. This gas is converted into the mixture of hydrocarbons over cobalt catalyst at temperature from 160 to 210 C at atmospheric pressure. The hydrocarbons can be used as motor, including diesel, or reactive fuel. (orig.)

  20. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Fanjas, Y.

    1993-01-01

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have led to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  1. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Fanjas, Y.

    1994-01-01

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have lead to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  2. Simulation of uranium and plutonium oxides compounds obtained in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, Ivan Yu.; Karengin, Alexander G.; Babaev, Renat G.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to carry out thermodynamic simulation of mixed plutonium and uranium oxides compounds obtained after plasma treatment of plutonium and uranium nitrates and to determine optimal water-salt-organic mixture composition as well as conditions for their plasma treatment (temperature, air mass fraction). Authors conclude that it needs to complete the treatment of nitric solutions in form of water-salt-organic mixtures to guarantee energy saving obtainment of oxide compounds for mixed-oxide fuel and explain the choice of chemical composition of water-salt-organic mixture. It has been confirmed that temperature of 1200 °C is optimal to practice the process. Authors have demonstrated that condensed products after plasma treatment of water-salt-organic mixture contains targeted products (uranium and plutonium oxides) and gaseous products are environmental friendly. In conclusion basic operational modes for practicing the process are showed.

  3. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740 0 C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000 0 C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th- 233 U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized

  4. Taxation on vehicle fuels: its impacts on switching to cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular consumption of fossil fuel contributes over 90% of air pollution in Hong Kong. A key strategy to improve Hong Kong's air quality is to discourage dirty fuels (e.g., leaded petrol and high-sulphur diesel) and to promote the use of clean fuels (e.g., low-sulphur diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). This paper presents the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the Government's clean fuel programs that offer tax subsidy to lower the consumption cost of such fuels. For the cases of unleaded petrol and ultra-low-sulphur diesel, lower fuel duties were offered so that the prices of these fuels were below those of leaded petrol and conventional diesel. Conventional petrol and diesel were phased out. In order to decide on the level of fuel duty concessions required to introduce LPG for taxis and bio-diesel for other vehicles, various Government-run trial programs were introduced to obtain cost estimates of using these alternative cleaner fuels. LPG using vehicles were subsequently exempted from the fuel duty in order to attract taxi and light bus operators to switch to LPG. It is apparent that the higher the subsidy, the faster is the rate at which switching to cleaner fuels takes place

  5. Obtaining shale oil suitable for lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudel, M

    1851-11-12

    Treats with sulphuric acid and then with soda, obtaining 57 per cent of products suitable for lighting in place of the usual 35 to 40 per cent as obtained by present processes. The product has a less disagreeable odor.

  6. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.; Homan, F.J.; Balthesen, E.; Turner, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred in the development of HTGR fuel and fuel cycle. These accomplishments permit a wide choice of fuel designs, reactor concepts, and fuel cycles. Fuels capable of providing helium outlet temperatures of 750 0 C are available, and fuels capable of 1000 0 C outlet temperatures may be expected from extension of present technology. Fuels have been developed for two basic HTGR designs, one using a spherical (pebble bed) element and the other a prismatic element. Within each concept a number of variations of geometry, fuel composition, and structural materials are permitted. Potential fuel cycles include both low-enriched and high-enriched Th- 235 U, recycle Th- 233 U, and Th-Pu or U-Pu cycles. This flexibility offered by the HTGR is of great practical benefit considering the rapidly changing economics of power production. The inflation of ore prices has increased optimum conversion ratios, and increased the necessity of fuel recycle at an early date. Fuel element makeup is very similar for prismatic and spherical designs. Both use spherical fissile and fertile particles coated with combinations of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. Both use carbonaceous binder materials, and graphite as the structural material. Weak-acid resin (WAR) UO 2 -UC 2 fissile fuels and sol-gel-derived ThO 2 fertile fuels have been selected for the Th- 233 U cycle in the prismatic design. Sol-gel-derived UO 2 UC 2 is the reference fissile fuel for the low-enriched pebble bed design. Both the United States and Federal Republic of Germany are developing technology for fuel cycle operations including fabrication, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste handling. Feasibility of basic processes has been established and designs developed for full-scale equipment. Fuel and fuel cycle technology provide the basis for a broad range of applications of the HTGR. Extension of the fuels to higher operating temperatures and development and commercial demonstration of fuel

  7. Treat upgrade fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, K.V.; Schell, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    An extrusion and thermal treatment process was developed to produce graphite fuel rods containing a dispersion of enriched UO 2 . These rods will be used in an upgraded version of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). The improved fuel provides a higher graphite matrix density, better fuel dispersion and higher thermal capabilities than the existing fuel

  8. Integrated fuel processor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Pereira, C.; Lee, S. H. D.; Krumpelt, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies has been supporting the development of fuel-flexible fuel processors at Argonne National Laboratory. These fuel processors will enable fuel cell vehicles to operate on fuels available through the existing infrastructure. The constraints of on-board space and weight require that these fuel processors be designed to be compact and lightweight, while meeting the performance targets for efficiency and gas quality needed for the fuel cell. This paper discusses the performance of a prototype fuel processor that has been designed and fabricated to operate with liquid fuels, such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, etc. Rated for a capacity of 10 kWe (one-fifth of that needed for a car), the prototype fuel processor integrates the unit operations (vaporization, heat exchange, etc.) and processes (reforming, water-gas shift, preferential oxidation reactions, etc.) necessary to produce the hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) that will fuel the polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. The fuel processor work is being complemented by analytical and fundamental research. With the ultimate objective of meeting on-board fuel processor goals, these studies include: modeling fuel cell systems to identify design and operating features; evaluating alternative fuel processing options; and developing appropriate catalysts and materials. Issues and outstanding challenges that need to be overcome in order to develop practical, on-board devices are discussed

  9. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  10. NUPEC proves reliability of LWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    It is very important in assuring the safety of nuclear reactors to confirm the reliability of fuel assemblies. The test program of the Nuclear Power Engineering Center on the reliability of fuel assemblies has verified the high performance and reliability of Japanese LWR fuels, and confirmed the propriety of their design and fabrication. This claim is based on the data obtained from the fuel assemblies irradiated in commercial reactors. The NUPEC program includes irradiation test which has been conducted for 11 years since fiscal 1976, and the maximum thermal loading test using the out of pile test facilities simulating a real reactor which has been continued since fiscal 1978. The irradiation test on BWR fuel assemblies in No.3 reactor in Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., and on PWR fuel assemblies in No.3 reactor in Mihama Power Station, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., and the maximum thermal loading test on BWR and PWR fuel assemblies are reported. The series of postirradiation examination of the fuel assemblies used for commercial reactors was conducted for the first time in Japan, and the highly systematic data on 27 items were obtained. (Kako, I.)

  11. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  12. Reactor fueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Noriaki; Hirano, Haruyoshi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To optimally position a fuel catcher by mounting a television camera to a fuel catching portion and judging video images by the use of a computer or the like. Constitution: A television camera is mounted to the lower end of a fuel catching mechanism for handling nuclear fuels and a fuel assembly disposed within a reactor core or a fuel storage pool is observed directly from above to judge the position for the fuel assembly by means of video signals. Then, the relative deviation between the actual position of the fuel catcher and that set in a memory device is determined and the positional correction is carried out automatically so as to reduce the determined deviation to zero. This enables to catch the fuel assembly without failure and improves the efficiency for the fuel exchange operation. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Keiichi

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the tensile stresses resulted in a fuel can as well as prevent decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes by decreasing the inner pressure within the nuclear fuel element. Constitution: A fuel can is filled with hollow fuel pellets, inserted with a spring for retaining the hollow fuel pellets with an appropriate force and, thereafter, closely sealed at the both ends with end plugs. A cylindrical body is disposed into the bore holes of the hollow fuel pellets. Since initial sealing gases and/or gaseous nuclear fission products can thus be excluded from the bore holes where the temperature is at the highest level, the inner pressure of the nuclear fuel element can be reduced to decrease the tensile strength resulted to the fuel can. Furthermore, decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Failed fuel rod detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Katsuya; Matsuda, Yasuhiko

    1984-05-02

    The purpose of the project is to enable failed fuel rod detection simply with no requirement for dismantling the fuel assembly. A gamma-ray detection section is arranged so as to attend on the optional fuel rods in the fuel assembly. The fuel assembly is adapted such that a gamma-ray shielding plate is detachably inserted into optional gaps of the fuel rods or, alternatively, the fuel assembly can detachably be inserted to the gamma-ray shielding plate. In this way, amount of gaseous fission products accumulated in all of the plenum portions in the fuel rods as the object of the measurement can be determined without dismantling the fuel assembly. Accordingly, by comparing the amounts of the gaseous fission products, the failed fuel rod can be detected.

  15. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal... Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received adverse comment, we are withdrawing the...

  16. Vibration characteristics analysis for HANARO fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung

    2001-06-01

    For investigating the vibration characteristics of HANARO fuel assembly, the finite element models of the in-air fuel assemblies and flow tubes were developed. By calculating the hydrodynamic mass and distributing it on the in-air models, the in-water models of the flow tubes and the fuel assemblies were developed. Then, modal analysis of the developed models was carried out. The analysis results show that the fundamental vibration modes of the in-air 18-element and 36-element fuel assemblies are lateral bending modes and its corresponding natural frequencies are 26.4Hz and 27.7Hz, respectively. The fundamental natural frequency of the in-water 18-element and 36-element fuel assemblies were obtained as 16.1Hz and 16.5Hz. For the verification of the developed finite element models, modal analysis results were compared with those obtained from the modal test. These results demonstrate that the natural frequencies of lower order modes obtained from finite element analysis agree well with those of the modal test and the estimation of the hydrodynamic mass is appropriate. It is expected that the analysis results will be applied as a basic data for the operation and management of the HANARO. In addition, when it is necessary to improve the design of the fuel assembly, the developed finite element models will be utilized as a base model for the vibration characteristic analysis of the modified fuel assembly

  17. Materials for fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Sossina M

    2003-01-01

    Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cell...

  18. Advanced fuels safety comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmes, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The safety considerations of advanced fuels are described relative to the present understanding of the safety of oxide fueled Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Safety considerations important for the successful implementation of advanced fueled reactors must early on focus on the accident energetics issues of fuel coolant interactions and recriticality associated with core disruptive accidents. It is in these areas where the thermal physical property differences of the advanced fuel have the greatest significance

  19. Nuclear fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadzhiev, Z; Kharalampieva, Ts; Pejchinov, Ts [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    An assessment of fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP units 1-6 is made on the basis of operational data obtained for a total of 62 fuel cycles. Basic characteristics of core loading and operation conditions are given. SPPS-1 and BIPR-7 codes are used to calculate assembly-wise power distributions for different full power days of a given cycle and unit. The data are compared with the measured values of these quantities. The analysis performed shows that the core loading option chosen has led to efficient fuel utilization without violation of the nuclear safety criteria. For WWER-440 (Units 1 - 4) this is expressed in effective reduction of the reactor vessel irradiation, maintaining the design duration of the fuel cycles at a reduced number of assemblies by a factor 5 - 5-10%, utilizing fuel with higher enrichment and implementing the 4-year fuel cycle. For WWER-1000 the improvements lead to: adoption of the 3-year fuel cycle utilizing fuel with 4.4% initial enrichment, implementation of improved fuel with a new type of absorbers and more effective low-leakage core loading patterns. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 7 refs.

  20. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Fuel pattern recognition device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomomi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors normal fuel exchange upon fuel exchanging operation carried out in a reactor of a nuclear power plant. Namely, a fuel exchanger is movably disposed to the upper portion of the reactor and exchanges fuels. An exclusive computer receives operation signals of the fuel exchanger during operation as inputs, and outputs reactor core fuel pattern information signals to a fuel arrangement diagnosis device. An underwater television camera outputs image signals of a fuel pattern in the reactor core to an image processing device. If there is any change in the image signals for the fuel pattern as a result of the fuel exchange operation of the fuel exchanger, the image processing device outputs the change as image signals to the fuel pattern diagnosis device. The fuel pattern diagnosis device compares the pattern information signals from the exclusive computer with the image signals from the image processing device, to diagnose the result of the fuel exchange operation performed by the fuel exchanger and inform the diagnosis by means of an image display. (I.S.)

  2. High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2006-01-31

    The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

  3. Fuel lattice design using heuristics and new strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo M, J. A.; Torres V, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Pelta, D. A. [ETS Ingenieria Informatica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Granada, Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Campos S, Y., E-mail: juanjose.ortiz@inin.gob.m [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work show some results of the fuel lattice design in BWRs when some allocation pin rod rules are not taking into account. Heuristics techniques like Path Re linking and Greedy to design fuel lattices were used. The scope of this work is to search about how do classical rules in design fuel lattices affect the heuristics techniques results and the fuel lattice quality. The fuel lattices quality is measured by Power Peaking Factor and Infinite Multiplication Factor at the beginning of the fuel lattice life. CASMO-4 code to calculate these parameters was used. The analyzed rules are the following: pin rods with lowest uranium enrichment are only allocated in the fuel lattice corner, and pin rods with gadolinium cannot allocated in the fuel lattice edge. Fuel lattices with and without gadolinium in the main diagonal were studied. Some fuel lattices were simulated in an equilibrium cycle fuel reload, using Simulate-3 to verify their performance. So, the effective multiplication factor and thermal limits can be verified. The obtained results show a good performance in some fuel lattices designed, even thought, the knowing rules were not implemented. A fuel lattice performance and fuel lattice design characteristics analysis was made. To the realized tests, a dell workstation was used, under Li nux platform. (Author)

  4. Fuel lattice design using heuristics and new strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo M, J. A.; Torres V, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, R.; Pelta, D. A.; Campos S, Y.

    2010-10-01

    This work show some results of the fuel lattice design in BWRs when some allocation pin rod rules are not taking into account. Heuristics techniques like Path Re linking and Greedy to design fuel lattices were used. The scope of this work is to search about how do classical rules in design fuel lattices affect the heuristics techniques results and the fuel lattice quality. The fuel lattices quality is measured by Power Peaking Factor and Infinite Multiplication Factor at the beginning of the fuel lattice life. CASMO-4 code to calculate these parameters was used. The analyzed rules are the following: pin rods with lowest uranium enrichment are only allocated in the fuel lattice corner, and pin rods with gadolinium cannot allocated in the fuel lattice edge. Fuel lattices with and without gadolinium in the main diagonal were studied. Some fuel lattices were simulated in an equilibrium cycle fuel reload, using Simulate-3 to verify their performance. So, the effective multiplication factor and thermal limits can be verified. The obtained results show a good performance in some fuel lattices designed, even thought, the knowing rules were not implemented. A fuel lattice performance and fuel lattice design characteristics analysis was made. To the realized tests, a dell workstation was used, under Li nux platform. (Author)

  5. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Perez, Danielle Marie [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  6. Fuel Cycle Cost Calculations for a 120,000 shp PWR for Ship Propulsion. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, N.H.; Foggi, C.; Giacomazzi, G.

    1972-02-01

    A parametric study of the fuel cycle costs for a 120,000 SHP PWR for ship propulsion has been carried out. Variable parameters are: fuel pellet diameter, moderating ratio and refuelling scheme. Minimum fuel cycle costs can be obtained at moderating ratios of about 2.2. Both fuel cycle costs and reactor control requirements favour the two batch core. (author)

  7. Preliminary study on direct recycling of spent PWR fuel in PWR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Nuha; Novitriana; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary study on direct recycling of PWR spent fuel to support SUPEL (Straight Utilization of sPEnt LWR fuel in LWR system) scenario has been conducted. Several spent PWR fuel compositions in loaded PWR fuel has been evaluated to obtain the criticality of reactor. The reactor can achieve it criticality for U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel is at least 4.0 a% with the minimum fraction of the spent fuel in the core is 15.0 %. The neutron spectra become harder with the escalating of U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel as well as the amount of the spent fuel in the core.

  8. Gel-sphere-pac reactor fuel fabrication and its application to a variety of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.

    1979-12-01

    The gel-sphere-pac fuel fabrication option was evaluated for its possible application to commercial scale fuel fabrication for 19 fuel element designs that use oxide fuel in metal clad rods. The dry gel spheres are prepared at the reprocessing plant and are then calcined, sintered, inspected, and loaded into fuel rods and packed by low-energy vibration. A fuel smear density of 83 to 88% theoretical can be obtained. All fuel fabrication process steps were defined and evaluated from fuel receiving to finished fuel element shipping. The evaluation also covers the feasibility of the process, the current status of technology, estimates of the required time and cost to develop the technology to commercial status, and the safety and licensability of commercial scale plants. The primary evaluation was for a Light-Water Reactor fuel element containing (U,Pu)O 2 fuel. The other 18 fuel element types - 3 for Light-Water Reactors, 1 for a Heavy-Water Reactor, 1 for a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor, 7 for Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors, and 3 pairs for Light-Water Prebreeder and Breeder Reactors - were compared with the Light-Water Reactor. The gel-sphere-pac option was found applicable to 17 of the 19 element types; the characteristics of a commercial scale plant were defined for these for making cost estimates for such plants. The evaluation clearly shows the gel-sphere-pac process to be a viable fuel fabrication option. Estimates indicate a significant potential fabrication cost advantage for the gel-sphere-pac process if a remotely operated and remotely maintained fuel fabrication plant is required

  9. Fuel cycles of WWER-1000 based on assemblies with increased fuel mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosourov, E.; Pavlovichev, A.; Shcherenko, A.

    2011-01-01

    Modern WWER-1000 fuel cycles are based on FAs with the fuel column height of 3680 mm, diameters of the fuel pellet and its central hole of 7.6 and 1.2 mm respectively. The highest possible fuel enrichment has reached its license limit that is 4.95 %. Research in the field of modernization, safety justification and licensing of equipment for fuel manufacture, storage and transportation are required for further fuel enrichment increase (above 5 %). So in the nearest future an improvement of technical and economic characteristics of fuel cycles is possible if assembly fuel mass is increased. The available technology of the cladding thinning makes it possible. If the fuel rod outer diameter is constant and the clad inner diameter is increased to 7.93 mm, the diameter of the fuel pellet can be increased to 7.8 mm. So the suppression of the pellet central hole allows increasing assembly fuel weight by about 8 %. In this paper we analyze how technical and economic characteristics of WWER-1000 fuel cycle change when an advanced FA is applied instead of standard one. Comparison is made between FAs with equal time interval between refueling. This method of comparison makes it possible to eliminate the parameters that constitute the operation component of electricity generation cost, taking into account only the following technical and economic characteristics: 1)cycle length; 2) average burnup of spent FAs; 3) specific natural uranium consumption; 4)specific quantity of separative work units; 5) specific enriched uranium consumption; 6) specific assembly consumption. Collected data allow estimating the efficiency of assembly fuel weight increase and verifying fuel cycle characteristics that may be obtained in the advanced FAs. (authors)

  10. Fuel fabrication and reprocessing for nuclear fuel cycle with inherent safety demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrin, Andrey Yurevich; Dvoeglazov, Konstantin Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Valentine Borisovich; Volk, Vladimir Ivanovich; Skupov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Glushenkov, Alexey Evgenevich [Joint Stock Company ' ' The High Technological Research Institute of Inorganic Materials' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Troyanov, Vladimir Mihaylovich; Zherebtsov, Alexander Anatolievich [Innovation and Technology Center of Project ' ' PRORYV' ' , State Atomic Energy Corporation ' ' Rosatom' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    The strategies adopted in Russia for a closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR), selection of fuel type and recycling technologies of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are discussed. It is shown that one of the possible technological solutions for the closing of a fuel cycle could be the combination of pyroelectrochemical and hydrometallurgical methods of recycling of SNF. This combined scheme allows: recycling of SNF from FR with high burn-up and short cooling time; decreasing the volume of stored SNF and the amount of plutonium in a closed fuel cycle in FR; recycling of any type of SNF from FR; obtaining the high pure end uranium-plutonium-neptunium end-product for fuel refabrication using pellet technology.

  11. Advanced technique for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (Russian Federation))

    1992-03-01

    Reviews foreign technical reports on advanced techniques for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers and analyzes a technique developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA). Characteristics of 25 fuel types, including 19 grades of coal, are listed along with a diagram of an installation with a drop tube furnace. Characteristics include burn-out intensity curves obtained using thermogravimetric analysis for high-volatile bituminous, semi-bituminous and coking coal. The patented LFP-SKM mathematical model is used to model combustion of a particular fuel under given conditions. The model allows for fuel particle size, air surplus, load, flame height, and portion of air supplied as tertiary blast. Good agreement between computational and experimental data was observed. The method is employed in designing new boilers as well as converting operating boilers to alternative types of fuel. 3 refs.

  12. BWR fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baily, W.E.; Armijo, J.S.; Jacobson, J.; Proebstle, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The General Electric experience base on BWR fuel includes over 29,000 fuel assemblies which contain 1,600,000 fuel rods. Over the last five years, design, process and operating changes have been introduced which have had major effects in improving fuel performance. Monitoring this fuel performance in BWRs has been accomplished through cooperative programs between GE and utilities. Activities such as plant fission product monitoring, fuel sipping and fuel and channel surveillance programs have jointly contributed to the value of this extensive experience base. The systematic evaluation of this data has established well-defined fuel performance trends which provide the assurance and confidence in fuel reliability that only actual operating experience can provide

  13. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  14. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-05-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600 0 C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660 0 C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents

  15. Elongated fuel road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.E.; Linkison, W.S.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel rod is proposed where a reorientation of the fuel in case of a considerable temperature increase, causing the melting of the densified fuel powder, will be avoided. For this purpose, in longitudinal direction of the fuel rod, a number of diameter reductions of the can are applied of certain distances. In the reduction zone the cross-sectional area of the fuel is reduced, as compared to the one of the remaining fuel material in the regions without diameter reduction, but not the density of the fuel. The recess is chosen to that in case of melting of the fuel in the center of the not contracted zone the fuel in the center of the narrowed area will remain solid and keep the molten material in position. (HR) [de

  16. Method of fueling for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takao.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the monitoring of reactor power with sufficient accuracy, upon starting even without existence of neutron source in case of a low average burnup degree in the reactor core. Constitution: Each of fuel assemblies is charged such that neutron source region monitors for the start-up system in a reactor core neutron instrumentation system having nuclear fuel assemblies and a neutron instrumentation system are surrounded with 4 or 16 fuel assemblies of a low burnup degree. Then, the average burnup degree of the fuel assemblies surrounding the neutron source region monitors are increased than the reactor core burnup degree, whereby neutrons released from the peripheral fuels are increased, sufficient number of neutron counts can be obtained even with no neutron sources upon start-up and the reactor power can be monitored at a sufficient accuracy. (Sekiya, K.)

  17. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  18. Development of a diesel substitute fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Anton; Mair-Zelenka, Philipp [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology; Zeymer, Marc [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria). MRDI-D Product Development and Innovation

    2013-06-01

    Substitute fuels composed of few real chemical compounds are an alternative characterisation approach for conventional fuels as opposed to the traditional pseudo-component method. With the algorithm proposed in this paper the generation of such substitutes will be facilitated and well-established thermodynamic methods can be applied for physical property-data prediction. Based on some quality criteria like true boiling-point curve, liquid density, C/H ratio, or cloud point of a target fuel a surrogate which meets these properties is determined by fitting its composition. The application and capabilities of the algorithm developed are demonstrated by means of an exemplary diesel substitute fuel. The substitute mixture obtained can be generated and used for evaluation of property-prediction methods. Furthermore this approach can help to understand the effects of mixing fossil fuels with biogenic compounds. (orig.)

  19. Modified ADS molten salt processes for back-end fuel cycle of PWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Kyu; Yeon, Jei-Won; Kim, Won-Ho

    2002-01-01

    The back-end fuel cycle concept for PWR spent fuel is explained. This concept is adequate for Korea, which has operated both PWR and CANDU reactors. Molten salt processes for accelerator driven system (ADS) were modified both for the transmutation of long-lived radioisotopes and for the utilisation of the remained fissile uranium in PWR spent fuels. Prior to applying molten salt processes to PWR fuel, hydrofluorination and fluorination processes are applied to obtain uranium hexafluoride from the spent fuel pellet. It is converted to uranium dioxide and fabricated into CANDU fuel. From the remained fluoride compounds, transuranium elements can be separated by the molten salt technology such as electrowinning and reductive extraction processes for transmutation purpose without weakening the proliferation resistance of molten salt technology. The proposed fuel cycle concept using fluorination processes is thought to be adequate for our nuclear program and can replace DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactor) fuel cycle. Each process for the proposed fuel cycle concept was evaluated in detail

  20. Calculation simulation of equivalent irradiation swelling for dispersion nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wei; Zhao Yunmei; Gong Xin; Ding Shurong; Huo Yongzhong

    2015-01-01

    The dispersion nuclear fuel was regarded as a kind of special particle composites. Assuming that the fuel particles are periodically distributed in the dispersion nuclear fuel meat, the finite element model to calculate its equivalent irradiation swelling was developed with the method of computational micro-mechanics. Considering irradiation swelling in the fuel particles and the irradiation hardening effect in the metal matrix, the stress update algorithms were established respectively for the fuel particles and metal matrix. The corresponding user subroutines were programmed, and the finite element simulation of equivalent irradiation swelling for the fuel meat was performed in Abaqus. The effects of the particle size and volume fraction on the equivalent irradiation swelling were investigated, and the fitting formula of equivalent irradiation swelling was obtained. The results indicate that the main factors to influence equivalent irradiation swelling of the fuel meat are the irradiation swelling and volume fraction of fuel particles. (authors)

  1. Fuel Cell / electrolyser, Solar Photovoltaic Powered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental obtained results in the operation ofelectrolyzer powered by solar photovoltaic modules, for the waterelectrolysis and with the obtained hydrogen and oxygen proceeds tothe operation in fuel cell mode, type PEM. The main operatingparameters and conditions to optimize the energy conversion on thesolar-hydrogen-electricity cycle are highlighted, so that those arecomparable or superior to conventional cycles.

  2. Characteristics of fuel CRUD from Ringhals Unit 4. A comparison of CRUD samples from ultrasonic fuel cleaning and fuel scrape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Eskhult, Jonas; Marks, Chuck; Dingee, John; Bengtsson, Bernt; Wells, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics and behaviour of PWR fuel CRUD are closely related to plant radiation field build-up and the risks of CRUD-Induced Power Shifts (CIPS, previously AOA) and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC). At Ringhals NPP fuel scrape technology has frequently been used to collect fuel CRUD samples as a part of plant water chemistry monitoring programs. In 2012, high efficiency ultrasonic fuel cleaning (HE-UFC) technology was first used at Ringhals Unit 4 to reduce the risk of CIPS, which was expected to increase due to steam generator replacement and a subsequent power uprate. In the HE-UFC system a “first-of-a-kind” CRUD sampling system was installed for collecting fuel CRUD. It is of interest to compare the fuel CRUD samples collected by the two different CRUD sampling methods and to understand if HE-UFC crud sampling could be used to replace or supplement the fuel scrape method. This paper presents some preliminary results on isotopic compositions, elemental compositions, and phase compositions of fuel CRUD samples collected from similar fuel rods and assemblies by both methods during the 2012 refueling outage, one cycle after steam generator replacement at Ringhals Unit 4. The results show that the characteristics of fuel CRUD sampled by HE-UFC and fuel scrape, although not always identical, were similar or correlated to some extent in terms of weight ratios of Ni to Fe and Cr to Fe as well as specific activities of Co-58, Co-60 and Cr-51. However, due to the limited experience with the HE-UFC sampling method, more consideration is required if the statistical significance of the obtained data and indications are to be verified. (author)

  3. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  4. Thermophysical properties of reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, L.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of the literature on the enthalpy of uranium, thorium, and plutonium oxide and an approach is described for calculating the vapor pressure and gaseous composition of reactor fuel. In these calculations, thermodynamic functions of gas phase molecular species (obtained from matrix-isolation spectroscopy) are employed in conjunction with condensed phase therodynamics. A summary is presented of the status of this work

  5. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    A survey of electrochemical methods applications in fuel reprocessing was completed. A dummy fuel assembly shroud was cut using the remotely operated laser disassembly equipment. Operations and engineering efforts have continued to correct equipment operating, software, and procedural problems experienced during the previous uranium compaigns. Fuel cycle options were examined for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle. In high temperature gas cooled reactor spent fuel studies, preconceptual designs were completed for the concrete storage cask and open field drywell storage concept. These and other tasks operating under the consolidated fuel reprocessing program are examined.

  6. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  7. BNFL Springfields Fuel Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkiainen, S.; Plit, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Fuel Division of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) manufactures nuclear fuel elements for British Magnox and AGR power plants as well as for LWR plants. The new fuel factory - Oxide Fuel Complex (OFC), located in Springfields, is equipped with modern technology and the automation level of the factory is very high. With their quality products, BNFL aims for the new business areas. A recent example of this expansion was shown, when BNFL signed a contract to design and license new VVER-440 fuel for Finnish Loviisa and Hungarian Paks power plants. (author)

  8. Motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-09-14

    The abstract describes a process for obtaining a maximum quantity of commercial gasoline from a composite hydrocarbon stream containing hydrocarbons within and below the gasoline boiling range including gaseous olefins. The hydrocarbon stream is separated into low vapor pressure gasoline and a gas fraction consisting of the 4 carbon atom group and possibly some of the 3 carbon atom group. The fraction is subjected to a polymerization process utilizing the products of the operation, both liquid polymers and unconverted gases to increase the yield of the gasoline and to adjust the low vapor pressure of the gasoline to the equivalent of that of commercial gasoline. A small fraction of the gaseous products are used for this purpose. The remainder are recycled through the polymerization operation.

  9. Obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarova, M.A.; Solojenkin, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate. By means of exchange reaction between silver nitrate and potassium cyanide the potassium dicyan-argentate was synthesized. The analysis of obtained samples was carried out by means of titration and potentiometry.

  10. Treating shale oil to obtain sulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, H

    1921-01-21

    The process shows as its principal characteristics: (1) treating the oil with chlorsulfonic acid at a temperature of about 100/sup 0/C; (2) the transformation of the sulfonic acid obtained into salts; (3) as new industrial products, the sulfonates obtained and their industrial application as disinfectants for hides and wood.

  11. Strategies for obtaining unpublished drug trial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Nicole; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Bero, Lisa Anne

    2013-01-01

    Authors of systematic reviews have difficulty obtaining unpublished data for their reviews. This project aimed to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of authors in searching for and gaining access to unpublished data for their systematic reviews, and to give guidance on best...... practices for identifying, obtaining and using unpublished data....

  12. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA, and...

  13. Nuclear fuel activities in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairiot, H

    1997-12-01

    In his presentation on nuclear fuel activities in belgium the author considers the following directions of this work: fuel fabrication, NPP operation, fuel performance, research and development programmes.

  14. Advanced fuel development at AECL: What does the future hold for CANDU fuels/fuel cycles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupferschmidt, W.C.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper outlines advanced fuel development at AECL. It discusses expanding the limits of fuel utilization, deploy alternate fuel cycles, increase fuel flexibility, employ recycled fuels; increase safety and reliability, decrease environmental impact and develop proliferation resistant fuel and fuel cycle.

  15. 76 FR 37703 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing AGENCY: Environmental... hearing to be held for the proposed rule ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel... be proposing amendments to the renewable fuel standard program regulations to establish annual...

  16. The analysis of the RA reactor irradiated fuel cooling in the spent fuel pool; Analiza hladjenja ozracenog goriva u bazenu za odlaganje reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrhovac, M; Afgan, N; Spasojevic, D; Jovic, V [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1985-07-01

    According to the RA reactor exploitation plan the great quantity of the irradiated spent fuel will be disposed in the reactor spent fuel pool after each reactor campaign which will including the present spent fuel inventory increase the residual power level in the pool and will soon cause the pool capacity shortage. To enable the analysis of the irradiated fuel cooling the pool and characteristic spent fuel canister temperature distribution at the residual power maximum was done. The results obtained under the various spent fuel cooling conditions in the pit indicate the normal spent fuel thermal load even in the most inconvenient cooling conditions. (author)

  17. Analysis of IFR driver fuel hot channel factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J.Y.; Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic uncertainty factors for Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) driver fuels have been determined based primarily on the database obtained from the predecessor fuels used in the IFR prototype, Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The uncertainty factors were applied to the channel factors (HCFs) analyses to obtain separate overall HCFs for fuel and cladding for steady-state analyses. A ''semistatistical horizontal method'' was used in the HCFs analyses. The uncertainty factor of the fuel thermal conductivity dominates the effects considered in the HCFs analysis; the uncertainty in fuel thermal conductivity will be reduced as more data are obtained to expand the currently limited database for the IFR ternary metal fuel (U-20Pu-10Zr). A set of uncertainty factors to be used for transient analyses has also been derived

  18. Analysis of IFR driver fuel hot channel factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J.Y.; Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic uncertainty factors for Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) driver fuels have been determined based primarily on the database obtained from the predecessor fuels used in the IFR prototype. Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The uncertainty factors were applied to the hot channel factors (HCFs) analyses to obtain separate overall HCFs for fuel and cladding for steady-state analyses. A 'semistatistical horizontal method' was used in the HCFs analyses. The uncertainty factor of the fuel thermal conductivity dominates the effects considered in the HCFs analysis; the uncertainty in fuel thermal conductivity will be reduced as more data are obtained to expand the currently limited database for the IFR ternary metal fuel (U-20Pu-10Zr). A set of uncertainty factors to be used for transient analyses has also been derived. (author)

  19. Express diagnostics of WWER fuel rods at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, S.; Amosov, S.; Sagalov, S.; Kostyuchenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher safety and economical efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPP) call for a continuous design modification and technological development of fuel assemblies and fuel rods as well as optimization of their operating conditions. In doing so the efficiency of new fuel introduction depends on the completeness of irradiated fuel data in many respects as well as on the rapidity and cost of such data obtaining. Standard examination techniques of fuel assemblies (FA) and fuel rods (FR) intended for their use in hot cell conditions do not satisfy these requirements in full extent because fuel assemblies require preliminary cooling at NPP to provide their shipment to the research center. Expenditures for FA transportation, capacity of hot cells and expenditures for the examined fuel handling do not make it possible to obtain important information about the condition of fuel assemblies and fuel rods after their operation. In order to increase the comprehensiveness of primary data on fuel assemblies and fuel rods immediately after their removal from the reactor, inspection test facilities are widely used for these purposes. The inspection test facilities make it possible to perform nondestructive inspection of fuel in the NPP cooling pools. Moreover these test facilities can be used to repair failed fuel assemblies. The ultrasonic testing of failed fuel rods inside the fuel assembly was developed for stands of inspection and repair of TVSA WWER-1000 for the Kalinin NPP and Temelin NPP. This method was tested for eight leaking fuel assemblies WWER-440 and WWER-1000 with a burnup of ∼14 up to 38 MW·day/kgU. The ultrasonic testing proved its high degree of reliability and efficiency. The defectoscopy by means of the pulsed eddy-current method was adapted for the stand of inspection and repair of TVSA WWER-1000 for the Kalinin NPP. This method has been used at RIAR as an express testing method of FR claddings during the post-irradiation examinations of fuel assemblies WWER

  20. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  1. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition

  2. ACPR upgrade fuel motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.G.; Stalker, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    Coded aperture imaging techniques are being applied to the problem of fuel motion detection in core disruptive safety experiments in the LMFBR. The upgraded Sandia Annular Core Pulse Reactor will be used for fuel motion studies, and a system is now being developed to image fuel motion through a slot in the core in l- and 7-pin experiments. The γ-rays emitted by the fuel will be modulated by a coded aperture and will form a pseudohologram on a scintillator. This shadowgram will be lens coupled first to an optical image intensifier, and then to a rotating prism framing camera. The goal is to obtain quality images of fuel with approximately 1 mm spatial resolution at about 10 4 frames/sec. Some of the feasibility milestones which have been reached thus far are the following: (1) A fuel pin shaped 252 Cf fission gamma ray source has been imaged through 1.27 cm of steel (simulating reactor containment). (2) A 252 Cf source has been imaged through 1.27 cm of steel with x-ray image intensifier amplification. (3) Collimation and shielding tests indicate that at ACPR it should be possible to obtain adequate signal to noise at the detector when the fuel is observed through a slot in the core

  3. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

  4. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  5. Fuel Assembly Damping Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kanghee; Kang, Heungseok; Oh, Dongseok; Yoon, Kyungho; Kim, Hyungkyu; Kim, Jaeyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper summary the fuel assembly damping data in air/in still water/under flow, released from foreign fuel vendors, compared our data with the published data. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping measurement testing are also briefly discussed. Understanding of each fuel assembly damping mechanisms according to the surrounding medium and flow velocity can support the fuel design improvement in fuel assembly dynamics and structural integrity aspect. Because the upgraded requirements of the newly-developed advanced reactor system will demands to minimize fuel design margin in integrity evaluation, reduction in conservatism of fuel assembly damping can contribute to alleviate the fuel design margin for sure. Damping is an energy dissipation mechanism in a vibrating mechanical structure and prevents a resonant structure from having infinite vibration amplitudes. The sources of fuel assembly damping are various from support friction to flow contribution, and it can be increased by the viscosity or drag of surrounding fluid medium or the average velocity of water flowing. Fuel licensing requires fuel design evaluation in transient or accidental condition. Dynamic response analysis of fuel assembly is to show fuel integrity and requires information on assembly-wise damping in dry condition and under wet or water flowing condition. However, damping measurement test for the full-scale fuel assembly prototype is not easy to carry out because of the scale (fuel prototype, test facility), unsteadiness of test data (scattering, random sampling and processing), instrumentation under water flowing (water-proof response measurement), and noise. LWR fuel technology division in KAERI is preparing the infra structure for damping measurement test of full-scale fuel assembly, to support fuel industries and related research activities. Here is a preliminary summary of fuel assembly damping, published in the literature. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping

  6. Romanian nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budan, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents and comments the policy adopted in Romania for the production of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel before and after 1990. The CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing started in Romania in December 1983. Neither AECL nor any Canadian nuclear fuel manufacturer were involved in the Romanian industrial nuclear fuel production before 1990. After January 1990, the new created Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) assumed the responsibility for the Romanian Nuclear Power Program. It was RENEL's decision to stop, in June 1990, the nuclear fuel production at the Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors (IRNE) Pitesti. This decision was justified by the Canadian specialists team findings, revealed during a general, but well enough technically founded analysis performed at IRNE in the spring of 1990. All fuel manufactured before June 1990 was quarantined as it was considered of suspect quality. By that time more than 31,000 fuel bundles had already been manufactured. This fuel was stored for subsequent assessment. The paper explains the reasons which provoked this decision. The paper also presents the strategy adopted by RENEL after 1990 regarding the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program. After a complex program done by Romanian and Canadian partners, in November 1994, AECL issued a temporary certification for the Romanian nuclear fuel plant. During the demonstration manufacturing run, as an essential milestone for the qualification of the Romanian fuel supplier for CANDU-6 reactors, 202 fuel bundles were produced. Of these fuel bundles, 66 were part of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 first fuel load (the balance was supplied by Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. ZPI). The industrial nuclear fuel fabrication re-started in Romania in January 1995 under AECL's periodical monitoring. In December 1995, AECL issued a permanent certificate, stating the Romanian nuclear fuel plant as a qualified and authorised CANDU-6 fuel supplier. The re-loading of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 started in the middle

  7. Determination of sulfur content in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daucik, P.; Zidek, Z.; Kalab, P.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfur content in fuels, Diesel fuels, and in the solutions of dibutylsulfide in a white oil was determined by various methods. The results obtained by elemental analysis have shown that the method is not advisable for the determination of sulfur in fuels. A good agreement was found by comparing the results in the determination of the sulfur by Grote-Krekeler's and Hermann-Moritz's methods and by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The last method is the modern, comfortable, and timesaving method enabling the fast and precise determination of sulfur contents in the various types of samples. (authors)

  8. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  9. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  10. Dissolution studies of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    To obtain quantitative data on the dissolution of high burnup spent nuclear fuel, dissolution study have been carried out at the Department of Chemistry, JAERI, from 1984 under the contract with STA entitled 'Reprocessing Test Study of High Burnup Fuel'. In this study PWR spent fuels of 8,400 to 36,100 MWd/t in averaged burnup were dissolved and the chemical composition and distribution of radioactive nuclides were measured for insoluble residue, cladding material (hull), off-gas and dissolved solution. With these analyses basic data concerning the dissolution and clarification process in the reprocessing plant were accumulated. (author)

  11. Fuel management codes for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, B.; Coulon, P.; Mougniot, J.C.; Gouriou, A.; Pontier, M.; Skok, J.; Carnoy, M.; Martin, J.

    The CAPHE code is used for managing and following up fuel subassemblies in the Phenix fast neutron reactor; the principal experimental results obtained since this reactor was commissioned are analyzed with this code. They are mainly concerned with following up fuel subassembly powers and core reactivity variations observed up to the beginning of the fifth Phenix working cycle (3/75). Characteristics of Phenix irradiated fuel subassemblies calculated by the CAPHE code are detailed as at April 1, 1975 (burn-up steel damage)

  12. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Obydenkova, SV; Kouris, P Panagiotis; Hensen, EJM Emiel; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, MD Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability....

  13. Magnetic scanning of LWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Moodenbaugh, A.

    1980-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are available both for fresh and spent fuel, but generally are too time consuming and do not uniquely identify an assembly. A new method is reported to obtain a signature from a magnetic scan of each assembly. This scan is an NDA technique that detects magnetic inclusions. It is potentially fast (5 min/assembly), and may provide a unique signature from the magnetic properties of each fuel assembly

  14. Process to produce homogenized reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.E.; Daniel, J.L.; Brite, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The fuels consist of a mixture of PuO 2 and UO 2 . In order to increase the homogeneity of mechanically mixed fuels the pellets are sintered in a hydrogen atmosphere with a sufficiently low oxygen potential. This results in a reduction of Pu +4 to Pu +3 . By the reduction process water vapor is obtained increasing the pressure within the PuO 2 particles and causing PuO 2 to be pressed into the uranium oxide structure. (DG) [de

  15. Fuel performance evaluation for the CAFE experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Hirota, Leandro T.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel rod cladding material is the second barrier to prevent the release of radioactive inventories in a PWR reactor. In this sense, an important safety aspect is to assess the fuel behavior under operational conditions. This can be made by means of fuel performance codes and confirmed by experimental measurements. In order to evaluate the fuel behavior of fuel rods in steady-state conditions, it was designed an experimental irradiation device, the Nuclear Fuel Irradiation Circuit (CAFE-Mod1). This device will allow controlling the surface rod temperature, to measure the power associated to the rod and the evolution of fission gas release for a typical PWR fuel pin. However, to support the experimental irradiation program, it is extremely important to simulate the experimental conditions using a fuel performance code. The aim of this paper is to evaluate some parameters and aspects related to the fuel rod behavior during the irradiation program. This evaluation was carried out by means of an adapted fuel performance code. Obtained results have shown that besides of the variation observed for parameters, such as, fuel temperature and fission gas release as a function of fuel enrichment level, the fuel rod integrity was preserved in all studied conditions. (author)

  16. Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations NREL's technology validation team evaluates fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) to provide comprehensive, unbiased evaluation results of fuel cell bus early transportation applications for fuel cell technology. Buses operate in congested areas where

  17. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Through its Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program, NREL researches, develops, analyzes, and validates fuel cell and hydrogen production, delivery, and storage technologies for transportation

  18. Development of System Engineering Technology for Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hodong; Choi, Iljae

    2013-04-01

    The development of efficient process for spent fuel and establishment of system engineering technology to demonstrate the process are required to develop nuclear energy continuously. The demonstration of pyroprocess technology which is proliferation resistance nuclear fuel cycle technology can reduce spent fuel and recycle effectively. Through this, people's trust and support on nuclear power would be obtained. Deriving the optimum nuclear fuel cycle alternative would contribute to establish a policy on back-end nuclear fuel cycle in the future, and developing the nuclear transparency-related technology would contribute to establish amendments of the ROK-U. S. Atomic Energy Agreement scheduled in 2014

  19. Fuel performance experience at TVO nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    TVO nuclear power plant consists of two BWR units of ASEA-ATOM design. The fuel performance experience extending through six cycles at TVO I and four cycles at TVO II is reported. The experience obtained so far is mainly based on ASEA-ATOM 8 x 8 fuel and has been satisfactory. Until autumn 1984 one leaking fuel assembly had been identified at TVO I and none at TVO II. Most of the problems encountered have been related to leaf spring screws and channel screws. The experience indicates that satisfactory fuel performance can be achieved when utilizing strict operational rules and proper control of fuel design and manufacture. (author)

  20. Modeling RERTR experimental fuel plates using the PLATE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Brazener, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modeling results using the PLATE dispersion fuel performance code are presented for the U-Mo/Al experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-1, -2, -3 and -5 irradiation tests. Agreement of the calculations with experimental data obtained in post-irradiation examinations of these fuels, where available, is shown to be good. Use of the code to perform a series of parametric evaluations highlights the sensitivity of U-Mo dispersion fuel performance to fabrication variables, especially fuel particle shape and size distributions. (author)

  1. Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels (PF), as a promising technology for CO2 capture from power plants, has gained a lot of concerns and also advanced considerable research, development and demonstration in the last past years worldwide. The use of CO2 or the mixture of CO2 and H2O vapor as th...

  2. EFFICACY OF FILTRATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN WATER CLARITY AT K EAST SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB

    2006-09-28

    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination.

  3. EFFICACY OF FILTRATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN WATER CLARITY AT K EAST SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) BASIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN JB

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination

  4. Enterprise Analysis of Strategic Airlift to Obtain Competitive Advantage Through Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    case risk scenarios. Ruan, Zhang, Miao and Shen (2011) combined the vehicle loading and capacitated VRP. Their hybrid approach utilized honey bee ...Scott AFB, IL: HQ AMC/A3V. Vincenty, T. (1975). Direct and Inverse Solutions of Geodesics on the Ellipsoid with Application of Nested Equations. FE

  5. Technical study report on fuel fabrication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shusaku; Tanaka, Kenya; Ono, Kiyoshi; Iwasa, Katsuyoshi; Hoshino, Yasushi; Shinkai, Yasuo

    2000-07-01

    The feasibility study of FBR and related fuel cycle is performed for developing the FBR recycle system which ensures safety, economic competitiveness, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation under consistency of FBR reactor and fuel cycle systems. In this study, a conceptual design study and system characteristics evaluation are conducted for fuel fabrication systems of pellet process, vibropack process for oxide and nitride fuel and casting process for metal fuel. Technical issues in each process are also extracted. In 1999 fiscal year, a conceptual design study were conducted for the fuel fabrication plants adopting (1) the short pellet process which simplifies the conventional MOX pellet fabrication processes, (2) vibropack processes of aqueous gelation process, improved RIAR process, improved ANL process and fluoride volatility process, (3) casting processes of injection process, centrifuging process. As a result, attainable perspective was obtained for each fuel fabrication system through the evaluation of apparatuses, layout and facility volume, etc. In each fuel fabrication system, technical issues for practical use were made clear. Hereafter, more detailed study will be performed for each system, and research programs for phase II study will be planned. (author)

  6. CANDU-6 fuel optimization for advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Aubin, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.st-aubin@polymtl.ca; Marleau, Guy, E-mail: guy.marleau@polymtl.ca

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • New fuel selection process proposed for advanced CANDU cycles. • Full core time-average CANDU modeling with independent refueling and burnup zones. • New time-average fuel optimization method used for discrete on-power refueling. • Performance metrics evaluated for thorium-uranium and thorium-DUPIC cycles. - Abstract: We implement a selection process based on DRAGON and DONJON simulations to identify interesting thorium fuel cycles driven by low-enriched uranium or DUPIC dioxide fuels for CANDU-6 reactors. We also develop a fuel management optimization method based on the physics of discrete on-power refueling and the time-average approach to maximize the economical advantages of the candidates that have been pre-selected using a corrected infinite lattice model. Credible instantaneous states are also defined using a channel age model and simulated to quantify the hot spots amplitude and the departure from criticality with fixed reactivity devices. For the most promising fuels identified using coarse models, optimized 2D cell and 3D reactivity device supercell DRAGON models are then used to generate accurate reactor databases at low computational cost. The application of the selection process to different cycles demonstrates the efficiency of our procedure in identifying the most interesting fuel compositions and refueling options for a CANDU reactor. The results show that using our optimization method one can obtain fuels that achieve a high average exit burnup while respecting the reference cycle safety limits.

  7. Development of PHWR fuel fabrication in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.S.; Yang, M.S.; Kim, D.H.; Rim, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a research project to develop the PHWR (CANDU) nuclear fuel fabrication technology in 1981. Based on the results of the intensive developmental work, several prototype fuel bundles were fabricated and tested in the Hot Test Loop at KAERI continuously in 1983 and 1984. After that, irradiation test and post-irradiation examination were carried out for two KAERI-made fuel bundles at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Canada in 1984. Since the results of in-pile and out-of-pile tests with prototype fuel bundles proved to be satisfactory, 48 additional fuel bundles were loaded in Wolsung reactor (CANDU) in 1984 and 1985, and all of them were discharged without a defect after excellent performance in the power reactor. In 1985, the Korean government decided that KAERI supplies all the fuel necessary for the Wolsung reactor. For the mass production of nuclear fuel bundle, several process equipment, facilities and automation methods have been improved making use of experience accumulated during research. A quality assurance program was also established, and quality inspection technology was reviewed and improved to fit the mass production. This paper deals with the development experience so far obtained with the design and fabrication of the Korean PHWR fuel

  8. The cost of spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.; Badillo, V.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments, constructing repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution?, or What is the best technology for an specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while others works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However currently, the plants are under a process for extended power up-rate to 20% of original power and also there are plans to extended operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of fuel performance with different enrichment degrees for an experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Pino, Eddy S.; Gomes, Daniel S.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of fuel performance is conventionally carried out using specific codes developed to this aim. The obtained data are confirmed by experimental measurements performed using devices, which are located inside research reactors, projected to simulate reactor conditions under normal operation. Due to the limitations of the available reactor core length for irradiation in research reactors core, fuel rods used to obtain experimental data must present the same characteristics of the real fuel rod, but with a shorter length. Then, in order to compare the obtained results to the expected behavior of the real fuel rod, the experimental fuel rod should be designed with a free volume to fuel volume ratio very closed to the one of the full scale fuel rod. The aim of this paper is to evaluate some parameters and aspects related to the fuel rod behavior in a rod applied to the experimental irradiation device called Nuclear Fuel Irradiation Circuit (CAFE-Mod1) considering two fuel enrichment degrees: a typical commercial PWR enrichment and a value about 4 times higher. This evaluation is carried out by means of an adapted fuel performance code. Some of the parameter evaluated were fuel temperature and fission gas release as function of the fuel enrichment level. The results obtained in this paper were very similar to the ones previously obtained without consider similar free volume between the experimental and the full length fuel rod, regardless of low increases observed for the internal rod pressure and the amount of fission gas released. (author)

  10. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    ... to light gases then steam reform the light gases into hydrogen rich stream. This report documents the efforts in developing a fuel processor capable of providing hydrogen to a 3kW fuel cell stack...

  11. Future automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepik, M.

    1993-01-01

    There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au)

  12. Fuel cells: Project Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

  13. Fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Hirozo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a liquid-metal cooled reactor, to reduce the waiting time of fuel handling apparatuses and shorten the fuel exchange time. Constitution: A fuel transporting machine is arranged between a reactor vessel and an out-pile storage tank, thereby dividing the transportation line of the pot for contracting fuel and transporting the same. By assuming such a construction, the flow of fuel transportation which has heretofore been carried out through fuel transportation pipes is not limited to one direction but the take-out of fuels from the reactor and the take-in thereof from the storage tank can be carried out constantly, and much time is not required for fuel exchange. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  15. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  16. Fuel assembly guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations

  17. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  18. HEU and Leu FueL Shielding Comparative Study Applied for Spent Fuel Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.; Margeanu, S.; Barbos, D.

    2009-01-01

    , and in air at 1 m and 2 m, respectively, from the cask, by means of 3a Monte Carlo Morse-S GC code. Before loading into the shipping cask, TRIGA spent fuel source terms and spent fuel parameters have been obtained by means of Origin-S code. Both codes are included in the ORNL s Scale 5 programs package. 60 Co radioactivity is important for HEU spent fuel; actinides contribution to total fuel radioactivity is low. For LEU spent fuel 60 Co radioactivity is insignificant; actinides contribution to total fuel radioactivity is high. Dose rates for both HEU and LEU fuel contents are below regulatory limits, LEU spent fuel photon dose rates being greater than the HEU ones. The comparison between HEU spent fuel theoretical and measured dose rates in selected measuring points shows a good agreement, the calculated values being greater than the measured ones both to cask wall surface (about 34% relative difference) and in air at 1 m distance from the cask surface (about 15% relative difference). Keywords: TRIGA fuel, spent fuel transport, shipping cask, shielding analysis, photon dose rates

  19. Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, F.; Nauryzbaev, M.; Kolesnikov, B.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg 2 Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg 2 Si in non-water solutions)

  20. Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango peels as carbon source. AL Ezugwu, SOO Eze, FC Chilaka, CU Anyanwu ...

  1. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  2. Silicon dioxide obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Granado, S.R.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Polymeric Precursor Method is able for obtaining several oxide material types with high surface area even obtained in particle form. Several MO 2 oxide types such as titanium, silicon and zirconium ones can be obtained by this methodology. In this work, the synthesis of silicon oxide was monitored by thermal analysis, XRD and surface area analysis in order to demonstrate the influence of the several synthesis and calcining parameters. Surface area values as higher as 370m2/g and increasing in the micropore volume nm were obtained when the material was synthesized by using ethylene glycol as polymerizing agent. XRD analysis showed that the material is amorphous when calcinated at 600°C in despite of the time of calcining, but the material morphology is strongly influenced by the polymeric resin composition. Using Glycerol as polymerizing agent, the pore size increase and the surface area goes down with the increasing in decomposition time, when compared to ethylene glycol. (author)

  3. Process for obtaining cobalt and lanthanum nickelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapcov, V.; Samusi, N.; Gulea, A.; Horosun, I.; Stasiuc, V.; Petrenco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to the process for obtaining polycrystalline ceramics of cobalt and lanthanum nickelate with the perovskite structure from coordinative hetero metallic compounds. The obtained products can be utilized in the industry in the capacity of catalysts. Summary of the invention consists in obtaining polycrystalline ceramics LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 with the perovskite structure by pyrolysis of the parent compounds, namely, the coordinative hetero metallic compounds of the lanthanum cobalt or lanthanum nickel. The pyrolysis of the parent compound runs during one hour at 800 C. The technical result of the invention consists in lowering the temperature of the parent compound pyrolysis containing the precise ratio of metals necessary for ceramics obtaining

  4. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Tomihiro.

    1970-01-01

    The present invention relates to fuel assemblies employing wire wrap spacers for retaining uniform spatial distribution between fuel elements. Clad fuel elements are helically wound in the oxial direction with a wave-formed wire strand. The strand is therefore provided with spring action which permits the fuel elements to expand freely in the axial and radial directions so as to retain proper spacing and reduce stresses due to thermal deformation. (Ownes, K.J.)

  5. Fuels and auxiliary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svab, V.

    A brief survey is given of the problems of fuels, fuel cans, absorption and moderator materials proceeding from the papers presented at the 1971 4th Geneva Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the 1970 IAEA Conference in New York. Attention is focused on the behaviour of fuel and fuel can materials for thermal and fast reactors during irradiation, radiation stability of absorption materials and the effects of radiation on concrete and on moderator materials. (Z.M.)

  6. Fuel management and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendryes, G

    1972-11-01

    From international conference on nuclear solutions to world energy problems; Washington, District of Columbia, USA (12 Nov The low cost of the fuel cycle is the most attractive feature of the fast neutron breeder reactor. In order to achieve it a good fuel management is essential, with well balanced fixed investment and renewal fuel costs. In addition the designer can optimize the power station as a whole (fuel cycle and thermal characteristics). (auth)

  7. Spent fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this task is to support the Domestic Spent Fuel Storage Program through studies involving the transport of spent fuel. A catalog was developed to provide authoritative, timely, and accessible transportation information for persons involved in the transport of irradiated reactor fuel. The catalog, drafted and submitted to the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratories, for their review and approval, covers such topics as federal, state, and local regulations, spent fuel characteristics, cask characteristics, transportation costs, and emergency response information

  8. Fuel vapor pressure (FVAPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    A subcode (FVAPRS) is described which calculates fuel vapor pressure. This subcode was developed as part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The fuel vapor pressure subcode (FVAPRS), is presented and a discussion of literature data, steady state and transient fuel vapor pressure equations and estimates of the standard error of estimate to be expected with the FVAPRS subcode are included

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  10. Fuel cell.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, Manlio; Pede, Giovanni

    2006-03-01

    The development of FCs far automotive applications has been boosted thanks to their potential to offer clean and efficient energy without sacrificing performance or driving range. To realise this potential it is of paramount importance to assure braking energy recovery and to ensure that the complete FC system operates as efficiently as possible aver the range of driving conditions that may be encountered. An electric storage unit can be employed far these purposes, in this way it is also possible to down size the FC, the most expensive component, thus reducing the drive train total cost. This storage system will have to guarantee, at the same rime, a maximum power sufficient to compensate the difference between the generator maximum power and the maximum forecast (Pmax, required storage power) and an energetic content sufficient to avoid the complete discharge during every phase of demand for power (Emax, required storage energy). Thereby, it could be desirable to combine the characteristic of VC (high power, low energy) and batteries (high energy, low power), obtaining a Mixed Electric Storage. As a pare of a broader FCV development effort, ENEA, the /talian National Agency far New Technology, Energy and the Environment, is working to investigate this combination of energy storage systems, integrating advanced batteries and ultra capacitors, to optimise the performance of FCVs. The Report points at an optimization study, based on the down hill method, for the technical and economic sizing (the vehicle is the Fiat 600 FCV) of such a hybrid storage. 126 possible solutions have been investigated, combining different sizes and type, for FCS, batteries and ultra capacitors, and 2 possible storage system have been selected, the first one that minimizes the optimization function, and a second solution of minimum cost, with lower, but still acceptable performances [it

  11. Fuel demand in Brazil in a dynamic panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gervásio F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the sensitivity of fuel consumers regarding price and income, taking recent changes in the Brazilian fuel market into account. In this market, new market rules, energy policy towards fuel diversification and introduction of flex-fuel engines have determined fuel competition among gasoline, ethanol and compressed natural gas. Using a dynamic panel data model, demand equations for these three fuels are econometrically estimated to obtain consumer adjustment coefficients, price, cross-price and income elasticities in the short and long-run. In addition, the effect of the introduction of flex-fuel engines in the market and the rationality of consumers towards efficiency constraints of the engines were tested. Apart from considerable competition, results show that the dynamics of the Brazilian fuel market revolves around ethanol instead of gasoline. While demands for gasoline and natural gas are inelastic to price, demand for ethanol is elastic in Brazil. Furthermore, after the introduction of the flex-fuel technology the sensitivity of consumers to fuel prices changed, and ethanol consumers take efficiency constrains into account when ethanol prices reach the threshold of 70% of gasoline prices. - Highlights: ► Fuel demand in Brazil is evaluated, considering the changes in the fuel market. ► A dynamic panel data model is used to fit demand equations for fuels. ► Adjustment coefficients, price, cross-price and income elasticities are estimated. ► The impact of flex-fuel technology on the consumer behavior is tested. ► The results showed that the dynamic of the fuel market revolves around ethanol. ► The flex-fuel technology increased the competition among fuels

  12. Quantum-chemical study of antioxidant additives for jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O.Yu. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Karimova, R.I. [Bashkir State Agrarian Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E.M. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    To obtain the necessary quality of jet fuels it can be used technological methods (hydrocracking, deep hydration, hydrogenation) that increases the cost of the finished product. The second way is to use less purified raw materials with the introduction of effective additives. Fuels obtained by direct distillation, in ambient air are oxidized with great difficulty and oxidation products accumulate in them is very slow. Fuels derived by hydrogenation processes, have high susceptibility to oxidation, as a result in 1-2 years of storage considerably reduced their quality. Antioxidant additives play an important role in improving the quality of jet fuel. (orig.)

  13. Methods for measuring of fuel can deformation under radiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenchuk, A.V.; Fetisov, B.V.; Lakin, Yu.G.; Tonkov, V.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility for measuring fuel can deformation under radiation conditions by means of the acoustic method and tensoresistors is considered. The construction and operation of the in-pile facility for measuring creep of the fuel can specimen loaded by the internal pressure is described. The data on neutron radiation effect on changes in creep rate for zirconium fuel can are presented. The results obtained with tensoresistors are in a good agreement with those obtained by the acoustic method, which enables to recommend the use of both methods for the irradiation creep investigation of the fuel element cans

  14. Denatured fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the denatured fuel concept and discusses the characteristics of fuel cycles based on the concept. The proliferation resistance of denatured fuel cycles, the reactor types they involve, and the limitations they place on energy generation potential are discussed. The paper concludes with some remarks on the outlook for such cycles

  15. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  17. PWR fuel thermomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traccucci, R.; Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel thermo-mechanics means the studies of mechanical and thermal effects, and more generally, the studies of the behavior of the fuel assembly under stresses including thermal and mechanical loads, hydraulic effects and phenomena induced by materials irradiation. This paper describes the studies dealing with the fuel assembly behavior, first in normal operating conditions, and then in accidental conditions. 43 refs [fr

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tashima, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies arranged in the form of a lattice wherein there is attached to the interface of one of two adjacent fuel assemblies a plate spring having a concave portion curved toward said interface and to the interface of the other fuel assembly a plate spring having a convex portion curved away from said interface

  19. Gelled fuel simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, J.; Hiser, E.J.; Sippel, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    A relatively stable inert simulant formulation for a hazardous metallized fuel has the density, shear rate and yield stress of the duplicated fuel. This formulation provides inexpensive and safe testing of exploratory hydraulic studies, or testing of the mechanical strength of containers, plumbing, etc., in which the metallized fuels are to be used

  20. Fireplaces and Fireplace Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fireplaces and fuels. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the structural design, operation, and efficiency of fireplaces and characteristics of different fireplace fuels. Some topics covered are fuels, elements…

  1. Metallic fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Metallic fuels are capable of achieving high burnup as a result of design modifications instituted in the late 1960's. The gap between the fuel slug and the cladding is fixed such that by the time the fuel swells to the cladding the fission gas bubbles interconnect and release the fission gas to an appropriately sized plenum volume. Interconnected porosity thus provides room for the fuel to deform from further swelling rather than stress the cladding. In addition, the interconnected porosity allows the fuel pin to be tolerant to transient events because as stresses are generated during a transient event the fuel flows rather than applying significant stress to the cladding. Until 1969 a number of metallic fuel alloys were under development in the US. At that time the metallic fuel development program in the US was discontinued in favor of ceramic fuels. However, development had proceeded to the point where it was clear that the zirconium addition to uranium-plutonium fuel would yield a ternary fuel with an adequately high solidus temperature and good compatibility with austenitic stainless steel cladding. Furthermore, several U-Pu-Zr fuel pins had achieved about 6 at.% bu by the late 1960's, without failure, and thus the prospect for high burnup was promising

  2. Modeling fuel succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Davis; Jan van Wagtendonk; Jen Beck; Kent van Wagtendonk

    2009-01-01

    Surface fuels data are of critical importance for supporting fire incident management, risk assessment, and fuel management planning, but the development of surface fuels data can be expensive and time consuming. The data development process is extensive, generally beginning with acquisition of remotely sensed spatial data such as aerial photography or satellite...

  3. Rapsodie: A closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levallet, E.H.; Costa, L.; Mougniot, J.C.; Robin, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Fortissimo Version of the core of the RAPSODIE fast reactor produces 40 MWTh. Since its start up in May 1970 in the CEN-CADARACHE its availability has stayed around 85%. Some of the mixed oxyde fuel pins UO 2 - 30% PuO 2 have already reached 150.000 MWd/t. The reprocessing is done in the pilot plant located in the La Hague Center and the plutonium obtained has already been re-used in the reactor. The Rapsodie-Fortissimo cycle is therefore now a closed cycle. This cycle is quite representative of fast reactor cycle characteristics and thus provides a remarkable research and development tool for the study of fabrication, in-reactor performances, transport, storage and reprocessing. These studies concern in particular the evolution of fission products and heavy isotopes content in fuel which controls both reprocessing schemes and intensity of emitted radiations. A program for the analysis of irradiated fuel has been developed either using samples collected all along the cycle, or following the actual reprocessing subassemblies. A set of basic data and calculation models has been established with two objectives: to give a better interpretation of the experimental program on one hand, and to extrapolate these results to the fuel cycle of fast reactors in general on the other hand. The first results have been quite encouraging up to now [fr

  4. Agricultural policies and biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaim, S.; Hertzmark, D.

    The potentials for biomass energy derived from agricultural products are examined. The production of energy feedstocks from grains is discussed for the example of ethanol production from grain, with consideration given to the beverage process and the wet milling process for obtaining fuel ethanol from grains and sugars, the nonfeedstock costs and energy requirements for ethanol production, the potential net energy gain from ethanol fermentation, the effect of ethanol fuel production on supplies of protein, oils and feed and of ethanol coproducts, net ethanol costs, and alternatives to corn as an ethanol feedstock. Biomass fuel production from crop residues is then considered; the constraints of soil fertility on crop residue removal for energy production are reviewed, residue yields with conventional practices and with reduced tillage are determined, technologies for the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol and methanol are described, and potential markets for the products of these processes are identified. Implications for agricultural policy of ethanol production from grain and fuel and chemical production from crop residues are also discussed.

  5. CANDU fuel performance and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.G.; Wood, J.C.; Bain, A.S.

    1978-12-01

    The fuel defect rate in CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactors continues to be very low, 0.06% since 1972. The power ramp defects, which constituted the majority of the early defects, have been virtually eliminated by changed fuelling schemes and through the introduction of graphite CANLUB coatings on the inside of the sheath. Laboratory and loop irradiations have demonstrated that the graphite CANLUB layers increase the tolerance to power ramps, but to obtain the maximum benefit, coating parameters such as thickness, adhesion and wear resistance must be optimized. Siloxane CANLUB coated fuel offers greater tolerance to power ramps than most graphite coatings; quality control appears simpler and no instance of localized sheath hydriding has been seen with cured and irradiated coatings. Limited testing has shown that fuel with graphite discs between fuel pellets also has high tolerance to power ramps, but it is more costly and has lower burnup. The number of defects due to faulty components has been extremely small (0.00014%), but improved quality control and welding procedures can lower this number even further. Defects from causes external to the bundle have also been very few. (author)

  6. Solid oxide fuel cells fueled with reducible oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Steven S.; Fan, Liang Shih

    2018-01-09

    A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.

  7. Fuel and fuel cycles with high burnup for WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernushev, V.; Sokolov, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the status and trends in development of nuclear fuel and fuel cycles for WWER reactors. Parameters and main stages of implementation of new fuel cycles will be presented. At present, these new fuel cycles are offered to NPPs. Development of new fuel and fuel cycles based on the following principles: profiling fuel enrichment in a cross section of fuel assemblies; increase of average fuel enrichment in fuel assemblies; use of refuelling schemes with lower neutron leakage ('in-in-out'); use of integrated fuel gadolinium-based burnable absorber (for a five-year fuel cycle); increase of fuel burnup in fuel assemblies; improving the neutron balance by using structural materials with low neutron absorption; use of zirconium alloy claddings which are highly resistant to irradiation and corrosion. The paper also presents the results of fuel operation. (author)

  8. Integral nuclear fuel element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integral nuclear fuel element assembly utilizes longitudinally finned fuel pins. The continuous or interrupted fins of the fuel pins are brazed to fins of juxtaposed fuel pins or directly to the juxtaposed fuel pins or both. The integrally brazed fuel assembly is designed to satisfy the thermal and hydraulic requirements of a fuel assembly lattice having moderator to fuel atom ratios required to achieve high conversion and breeding ratios

  9. Reactor fuel element and fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Seiji; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Ikeda, Atsuko.

    1997-01-01

    A mixture of fission products and burnable poisons is disposed at least to a portion between MOX pellets to form a burnable poison-incorporated fuel element without mixing burnable poisons to the MOX pellets. Alternatively, a mixture of materials other than the fission products and burnable poisons is formed into disks, a fuel lamination portion is divided into at least to two regions, and the ratio of number of the disks of the mixture relative to the volume of the region is increased toward the lower portion of the fuel lamination portion. With such a constitution, the axial power distribution of fuels can be made flat easily. Alternatively, the thickness of the disk of the mixture is increased toward the lower region of the fuel lamination portion to flatten the axial power distribution of the fuels in the same manner easily. The time and the cost required for the manufacture are reduced, and MOX fuels filled with burnable poisons with easy maintenance and control can be realized. (N.H.)

  10. Technical report: fabrication of PWR type rodlet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Uno, Hisao; Sasajima, Hideo

    1990-06-01

    With respect to the simulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) experiments with pre-irradiated LWR type fuel rods at nuclear safety research reactor (NSRR), there were principally three technical difficulties which should be overcome: (1) Fabrication of the rodlet fuel; Fuel rods from the commercial power reactors had an active column length by 3.6m. To utilize this for NSRR pulse experiment, rodlet fuel having an active column length by 0.12m (reduced to one thirtieth) is requested to fabricate without changing the inside fuel conditions. (2) Development of in-core instrumentations: During pre-irradiation stages, a long-sized fuel rod had dimensional changes by waterside corrosion, bowing, creep down and so on. The fuel also had greater amount of radioactive fission products. This condition is significant to in-core instrumentations to be attached to the fuel rods. Well characterized data to be obtained from these, however, are quite necessary and important from research point of view. Remote handling techniques to attach the rod pressure sensor, the cladding extensometer, the fuel extensometer, and the cladding surface thermocouple to pre-irradiated fuel rods are, therefore, requested to develop. (3) Installation of PIE equipments for pulsed rodlet fuels: PIE on the pulsed rodlet fuels are necessary to better understanding the fuel performance detaily. Equipments which can easily detect the data related to PCMI type fuel failure are matter of concern. Since 1986, the technical difficulties have been tried to overcome by all staffs belonging to Reactivity Accident Laboratory, NSRR Operation Division, Department of Reactor Fuel Examination and Hot Laboratory. This report describes the technical achievements obtained through four years work. (author)

  11. Economic Analysis of Several Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Gao, Fanxing; Kim, Sung Ki

    2012-01-01

    Economics is one of the essential criteria to be considered for the future deployment of the nuclear power. With regard to the competitive power market, the cost of electricity from nuclear power plants is somewhat highly competitive with those from the other electricity generations, averaging lower in cost than fossil fuels, wind, or solar. However, a closer look at the nuclear power production brings an insight that the cost varies within a wide range, highly depending on a nuclear fuel cycle option. The option of nuclear fuel cycle is a key determinant in the economics, and therefrom, a comprehensive comparison among the proposed fuel cycle options necessitates an economic analysis for thirteen promising options based on the material flow analysis obtained by an equilibrium model as specified in the first article (Modeling and System Analysis of Different Fuel Cycle Options for Nuclear Power Sustainability (I): Uranium Consumption and Waste Generation). The objective of the article is to provide a systematic cost comparison among these nuclear fuel cycles. The generation cost (GC) generally consists of a capital cost, an operation and maintenance cost (O and M cost), a fuel cycle cost (FCC), and a decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D) cost. FCC includes a frontend cost and a back-end cost, as well as costs associated with fuel recycling in the cases of semi-closed and closed cycle options. As a part of GC, the economic analysis on FCC mainly focuses on the cost differences among fuel cycle options considered and therefore efficiently avoids the large uncertainties of the Generation-IV reactor capital costs and the advanced reprocessing costs. However, the GC provides a more comprehensive result covering all the associated costs, and therefrom, both GC and FCC have been analyzed, respectively. As a widely applied tool, the levelized cost (mills/KWh) proves to be a fundamental calculation principle in the energy and power industry, which is particularly

  12. 77 FR 61313 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel, or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, as... that which arose under RFS1 for certain renewable fuels (in particular biodiesel) that were produced...

  13. Fuel transfer machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, I.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel transfer machine for transferring fuel assemblies through the fuel transfer tube of a nuclear power generating plant containment structure is described. A conventional reversible drive cable is attached to the fuel transfer carriage to drive it horizontally through the tube. A shuttle carrying a sheave at each end is arranged in parallel with the carriage to also travel into the tube. The cable cooperating with the sheaves permit driving a relatively short fuel transfer carriage a large distance without manually installing sheaves or drive apparatus in the tunnel. 8 claims, 3 figures

  14. Transportation of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

  15. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  16. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  17. Mox fuels recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will firstly emphasis that the first recycling of plutonium is already an industrial reality in France thanks to the high degree of performance of La Hague and MELOX COGEMA's plants. Secondly, recycling of spent Mixed OXide fuel, as a complete MOX fuel cycle, will be demonstrated through the ability of the existing plants and services which have been designed to proceed with such fuels. Each step of the MOX fuel cycle concept will be presented: transportation, reception and storage at La Hague and steps of spent MOX fuel reprocessing. (author)

  18. Fuel cell opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, K. [Hydrogenics Corporation, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The opportunities for fuel cell development are discussed. Fuel cells are highly efficient, reliable and require little maintenance. They also produce virtually zero emissions. The author stated that there are some complicated issues to resolve before fuel cells can be widely used. These include hydrogen availability and infrastructure. While the cost of fuel cells is currently very high, these costs are constantly coming down. The industry is still in the early stages of development. The driving forces for the development of fuel cells are: deregulation of energy markets, growing expectations for distributed power generation, discontinuity between energy supply and demand, and environmental concerns. 12 figs.

  19. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Fraga, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  20. Organoclays obtaining starting up of clays sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.M. da; Mota, M.F.; Oliveira, G.C. de; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Clays have several applications in many areas of fields of technology, however, modification of these materials using organic compounds can be performed to obtain further hydrophobic materials, for applications in the adsorption of organic pollutants. This study aimed to analyze the effects of modifying two clays using sodium quaternary ammonium surfactants through ion exchange reaction process, in obtaining organoclays. The samples with sodium and organoclays were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy in the region (IV), Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA / TG) and organic adsorption tests. The results show that the process of obtaining organoclay is efficient, and materials have the potential for future applications in removing organic contaminants. (author)

  1. Obtain of uranium concentrates from fertil liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Castillo, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    This research tried to encounter the form to remove uranium from the rock in the best way, for that it was used different process like leaching, extraction, concentration and precipitation. To leach the mineral was chosen basic leaching, using a mixture of carbonate-sodium bicarbonate, this method is more adequated for the basic nature of the mineral. In extraction was used specific uranium ionic interchanges, so was chosen a tertiary amine like Alamina 336. The concentration phase is intimately binding with the extraction by ionic interchange, for the capability of resine's extraction to obtain concentrated liquids. When the liquids were obtained with high concentration of uranium in the same time were purified and then were precipitated, for that we employed a precipitant agent like: Sodium hydroxide, Amonium hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide, Hydrogen peroxide and phosphates. With all concentrates we obtain the YELLOW CAKE

  2. Fuel loads and fuel type mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvieco, Emilio; Riaño, David; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Morsdof, Felix; Chuvieco, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    Correct description of fuel properties is critical to improve fire danger assessment and fire behaviour modeling, since they guide both fire ignition and fire propagation. This chapter deals with properties of fuel that can be considered static in short periods of time: biomass loads, plant geometry, compactness, etc. Mapping these properties require a detail knowledge of vegetation vertical and horizontal structure. Several systems to classify the great diversity of vegetation characteristics in few fuel types are described, as well as methods for mapping them with special emphasis on those based on remote sensing images.

  3. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  4. Energetic assessment of soybean biodiesel obtainment in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents the result of a research that aimed to assess soybean-based biodiesel production in the West region of Paraná State, showing that the growing usage of these fuels happens due to the need for alternatives to the use of fossil fuels, once biomass-based fuels have been an environmentally-friendly ...

  5. The verification of PWR-fuel code for PWR in-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surian Pinem; Tagor M Sembiring; Tukiran

    2015-01-01

    In-core fuel management for PWR is not easy because of the number of fuel assemblies in the core as much as 192 assemblies so many possibilities for placement of the fuel in the core. Configuration of fuel assemblies in the core must be precise and accurate so that the reactor operates safely and economically. It is necessary for verification of PWR-FUEL code that will be used in-core fuel management for PWR. PWR-FUEL code based on neutron transport theory and solved with the approach of multi-dimensional nodal diffusion method many groups and diffusion finite difference method (FDM). The goal is to check whether the program works fine, especially for the design and in-core fuel management for PWR. Verification is done with equilibrium core search model at three conditions that boron free, 1000 ppm boron concentration and critical boron concentration. The result of the average burn up fuel assemblies distribution and power distribution at BOC and EOC showed a consistent trend where the fuel with high power at BOC will produce a high burn up in the EOC. On the core without boron is obtained a high multiplication factor because absence of boron in the core and the effect of fission products on the core around 3.8 %. Reactivity effect at 1000 ppm boron solution of BOC and EOC is 6.44 % and 1.703 % respectively. Distribution neutron flux and power density using NODAL and FDM methods have the same result. The results show that the verification PWR-FUEL code work properly, especially for core design and in-core fuel management for PWR. (author)

  6. Fuel design and operational experience in Loviisa NPP, future trends in fuel issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasvirta, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past operational experience of nuclear fuel with reference to most significant design changes during the years. In general, the fuel behaviour in Loviisa NPP in terms of leaking fuel assemblies has been good. The major improvements by fuel design changes in Lovissa NPP, including rod elongation margin, change in the pellet design and manufacturing process, upper grid modifications, change of material in the spacer grids and reduction of the shroud tube thickness are discussed and related to the number of failed fuel assemblies. The detailed investigation of fuel failure rates as function of different fuel and operation characteristics allows to classify the leaking fuel assemblies according to the cause of failure. In a brief discussion concerning new changes in the safety guide for nuclear design limits, re-issued by the Finnish Safety Authority (STUK), the frequencies for class 1 and class 2 accidents are determined. Another change in this guide is the introduction of design limits for the number of fuel rods experiencing DNB in class 1 accidents and number of failed rods in class 2 accidents. It is concluded that as far as normal operation is concerned, there seems to be sufficiently large margin between present operational limits in Loviisa and the design limits. The real limits do not come from fuel behaviour in the normal operation or operational occurrences but from the accident behaviour. At the moment, fuel assembly burnup extension beyond 45 MWd/kgU is clearly out of the question before further information and positive results are obtained on high burnup fuel behaviour in accident conditions

  7. Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.

  8. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

    1953-01-01

    Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

  9. Fuel charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikawa, Sadao.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable continuous fuel discharging and charging steps in a bwr type reactor by effecting positioning only for once by providing a plurality of fuel assembly grippers and their drives co-axially on a rotatable surface. Constitution: A plurality of fuel assembly grippers and their drives are provided co-axially on a rotatable surface. For example, a gripper A, a drive B, a gripper C and a drive D are arranged co-axially in symmetric positions on a disk rotated on rails by wheels and rotational drives. A new fuel in a fuel pool is gripped by the gripper A and transported above the reactor core. Then, the disk is positioned so that the gripper C can grip the spent fuel in the core, and the fuel to be discharged is gripped and raised by the gripper C. Then the disk is rotated by 180 0 and the new fuel in the gripper A is charged into the position from which the old fuel has been discharged and, finally, the discharged fuel is sent to the fuel pool for storage. (Seki, T.)

  10. A computer program for structural analysis of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, I.M.V.; Perrotta, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It's presented the code ELCOM for the matrix analysis of tubular structures coupled by rigid spacers, typical of PWR's fuel elements. The code ELCOM makes a static structural analysis, where the displacements and internal forces are obtained for each structure at the joints with the spacers, and also, the natural frequencies and vibrational modes of an equivalent integrated structure are obtained. The ELCOM result is compared to a PWR fuel element structural analysis obtained in published paper. (author) [pt

  11. A code for structural analysis of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, I.M.V.; Perrotta, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    It's presented the code ELCOM for the matrix analysis of tubular structures coupled by rigid spacers, typical of PWR's fuel elements. The code ELCOM makes a static structural analysis, where the displacements and internal forces are obtained for each tubular structure at the joints with the spacers, and also, the natural frequencies and vibrational modes of an equilavent integrated structure are obtained. The ELCOM result is compared to a PWR fuel element structural analysis obtained in published paper. (author) [pt

  12. Development of fuel number reader by ultrasonic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omote, T.; Yoshida, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a spent fuel ID number reader using ultrasonic imaging techniques that has been developed to realize efficient and automatic verification of fuel numbers, thereby to reduce mental load and radiation exposure for operators engaged in the verification task. The ultrasonic imaging techniques for automatic fuel number recognition are described. High-speed and high reliability imaging of the spent fuel ID number are obtained by using linear array type ultrasonic probe. The ultrasonic wave is scanned by switching array probe in vertical direction, and scanned mechanically in horizontal direction. Time for imaging of spent fuel ID number on assembly was confirmed less than three seconds by these techniques. And it can recognize spent fuel ID number even if spent fuel ID number can not be visualized by an optical method because of depositing fuel number regions by soft card. In order to recognize spent fuel ID number more rapidly and more reliably, coded fuel number expressed by plural separate recesses form is developed. Every coded fuel number consists of six small holes (about 1 mm dia.) and can be marked adjacent to the existing fuel number expressed by letters and numbers

  13. Fuel nozzle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC; Lacey, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; York, William David [Greer, SC; Stevenson, Christian Xavier [Inman, SC

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  14. Ducted fuel injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Charles J.

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies presented herein relate to enhancing mixing inside a combustion chamber to form one or more locally premixed mixtures comprising fuel and charge-gas with low peak fuel to charge-gas ratios to enable minimal, or no, generation of soot and other undesired emissions during ignition and subsequent combustion of the locally premixed mixtures. To enable sufficient mixing of the fuel and charge-gas, a jet of fuel can be directed to pass through a bore of a duct causing charge-gas to be drawn into the bore creating turbulence to mix the fuel and the drawn charge-gas. The duct can be located proximate to an opening in a tip of a fuel injector. The duct can comprise of one or more holes along its length to enable charge-gas to be drawn into the bore, and further, the duct can cool the fuel and/or charge-gas prior to combustion.

  15. Reactor fuel charging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Elman.

    1977-01-01

    In many types of reactor fuel charging equipment, tongs or a grab, attached to a trolley, housed in a guide duct, can be used for withdrawing from the core a selected spent fuel assembly or to place a new fuel assembly in the core. In these facilities, the trolley may have wheels that roll on rails in the guide duct. This ensures the correct alignment of the grab, the trolley and fuel assembly when this fuel assembly is being moved. By raising or lowering such a fuel assembly, the trolley can be immerged in the coolant bath of the reactor, whereas at other times it can be at a certain level above the upper surface of the coolant bath. The main object of the invention is to create a fuel handling apparatus for a sodium cooled reactor with bearings lubricated by the sodium coolant and in which the contamination of these bearings is prevented [fr

  16. Fuel element services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, H.; Alvarez, P.; Jimenez, J.

    2006-01-01

    Refuelling outages comprise a number of maintenance tasks scheduled long in advance to assure a reliable operation throughout the next cycle and, in the long run, a safer and more efficient plant. Most of these tasks are routine service of mechanical and electrical system and likewise fuel an be considered a critical component as to handling, inspection, cleaning and repair. ENUSA-ENWESA AIE has been working in this area since 1995 growing from fuel repair to a more integrated service that includes new and spent fuel handling, inserts, failed fuel rod detection systems, ultrasonic fuel cleaning, fuel repair and a comprehensive array of inspection and tests related to the reliability of the mechanical components in the fuel assembly, all this, performed in compliance with quality, safety, health physics and any other nuclear standard. (Author)

  17. Production of biofuels obtained from microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Fernández-Linares

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the situation of bio-fuels in the world, mainly of biodiesel is made. A comparison among the different raw materials for the synthesis of biodiesel is done and it is emphasized in the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The different fresh and salt water micro-algae in its lipid content and productivity are compared. A review of the process of biosynthesis of lipids in microalgae and how to improve the production of lipids in microalgae is shown. It is discussed the importance of the genetic manipulation to highly lipid-producing microalgae (example: Botryrococuus braunni, Nannochloropsis sp, Noechlorisoleobundans and Nitschia sp.. A study of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of cultivation of microalgae is also made. Finally, it is shown a perspective of biofuels from microalgae. Among the main challenges to overcome to produce biodiesel from microalgae are: the cost of production of biomass, which involves the optimization of media, selection and manipulation of strains and photobioreactors design. The processof separation of biomass, the extraction of oils and by-products, the optimization of the process of transesterification, purification and use of by-products must also be considered.

  18. Fuel cells 101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, B.

    2003-06-01

    A capsule history of fuel cells is given, beginning with the first discovery in 1839 by William Grove, a Welsh judge who, when experimenting with electrolysis discovered that by re-combining the two components of electrolysis (water and oxygen) an electric charge was produced. A century later, in 1958, Francis Thomas Bacon, a British scientist demonstrated the first working fuel cell stack, a technology which was licensed and used in the Apollo spacecraft. In Canada, early research on the development of fuel cells was carried out at the University of Toronto, the Defence Research Establishment and the National Research Council. Most of the early work concentrated on alkaline and phosphoric acid fuel cells. In 1983, Ballard Research began the development of the electrolyte membrane fuel cell, which marked the beginning of Canada becoming a world leader in fuel cell technology development. The paper provides a brief account of how fuel cells work, describes the distinguishing characteristics of the various types of fuel cells (alkaline, phosphoric acid, molten-carbonate, solid oxide, and proton exchange membrane types) and their principal benefits. The emphasis is on proton exchange membrane fuel cells because they are the only fuel cell technology that is appropriate for providing primary propulsion power onboard a vehicle. Since vehicles are by far the greatest consumers of fossil fuels, it follows that proton exchange membrane fuel cells will have the greatest potential impact on both environmental matters and on our reliance on oil as our primary fuel. Various on-going and planned fuel cell demonstration projects are also described. 1 fig.

  19. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    hydrocarbon fuel returning to the storage tank.Mathematical models of cooling and heating processes are built on the assumption that the heat exchange process of storage and environment is quasistationary.The paper presents relationships for determining the relative masses of nitrogen and time to perform the operation of cooling fuel from the initial to the desired final temperature as well as relationships to define the time of heating operation for a given capacity of the heat exchanger-heater and the pump station fueling system.The results of calculations of the relative liquid nitrogen costs during cooling of hydrocarbon gases depending on the mass flow rate of nitrogen in the cooling fuel system are shown in comparison with experimental data and numerical calculations. The maximum error of analytical calculation results and experimental values of the relative cost of liquid nitrogen does not exceed 4.5% and the error in determining the time required for operations of temperature preparation does not exceed 5%.Analytical relationships and results of calculations obtained on their basis are adequate and in compliance with experimental results, in accuracy are on a par with results of numerical calculations and, as compared to numerical solution, greatly simplify a procedure of implemented design calculations of fuel temperature preparation processes. Using these relationships allows to analyze the effectiveness of the operations of heating and cooling hydrocarbon fuel depending on the design parameters of the storage capacity, its thermal insulation, mass of fuel, thermal power of the heating devices, flow of nitrogen, as well as to determine the required mass of liquid nitrogen and the operation parameters of cooling (heating fuel for filling systems of launch complexes for different values of the environmental parameters, the initial and desired final temperaturesof the fuel.

  20. Obtaining the Andersen's chart, triangulation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation or stabilizing soil response. The process of obtaining the original chart has...

  1. Purification of alcohol obtained from molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visnevskaya, G L; Egorov, A S; Sokol' skaya, E V

    1960-01-01

    A study of the composition of alcohol liquids on different plates of a fractionation column of indirect action during purification of alcohol obtained from normal and defective molasses, and from starch raw material, showed that there were two local strength minima in the lower part of the column and on the plates (adjacent and feed). Aldehydes behaved as a typical head impurity; a noticeable increase in their concentration occurred only on the highest plates in the fractionation column. In the zone of the column containing liquids of a strength of 86 to 94% alcohol by weight a sharply pronounced local maximum of ester accumulation were observed, provisionally designated as intermediate, whose presence is apparently one of the causes of the specific sharp taste of alcohol obtained from molasses. These esters hinder the obtaining of high-grade alcohols which are standard in respect to ester content and oxidizability test. Reduction with 0.05N KMnO/sub 4/ occurs most rapidly with alcohol liquids in the zone of ester accumulation; purification of alcohols obtained from grain and potato raw material resulted in no zones of ester accumulation in the column.

  2. Obtaining shale distillate free from sulphur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-09-14

    A process whereby, from sulfur-containing shale, products free from sulfur may be obtained, consisting of mixing with the finely ground shale a portion of iron salts containing sufficient metal to unite with all the sulfur in the shale and form sulfide therewith, grinding the mixture to a fine state of subdivision and subsequently subjecting it to destructive distillation.

  3. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  4. Obtainment of tantalum oxide from national ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Ribeiro, S.; Martins, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of tantalum oxides (Ta 2 O 5 ) obtainment from Brazilian ores of tantalite and columbite are described. This study is a part of the technologic and scientific research design of refractory metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) and correlate ceramics. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose, coded MCC-PNF, was obtained from palm nut (Elaeis guineensis) fibres. MCC-PNF was examined for its physicochemical and powder properties. The powder properties of MCC-PNF were compared to those of the best commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101.

  6. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated purchase... submitted and select the most cost-effective alternative. (b) Receiving supported rate. Except with regard...

  7. Obtaining of uranium tetrafluoride UF4 by electrodialysis reactive from uranium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Lay, Danny Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The generation of uranium fuels has always been a topic worldwide. The uranium fuel manufacturing base is made under very strict parameters of radiological and industrial safety, being a stage called 'nuclear fuel cycle'. In Chile, it is done constant research for fuels. This report focuses primarily on participating in such research; mainly in the production of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) .The tetrafluoride production is very crucial for the nuclear fuel industry. Its production varies from precipitation in stirred conditions to electrolysis in mercury. However, both processes has shortcomings either in performance and environmental pollution, which is why it is proposed a new method of production based on a friendly process to the environment and easier to operate, the reactive electrodialysis (RED). Electrodialysis is a hybrid reactive process of separation by membranes, cationic and / or anionic, namely, ionic species. In the process, ions are induced to move by an electric potential applied and separated by these membranes, a highly selective physical barrier which allows passage of ions with certain charge, and prevents the passage of oppositely charged ions. And in turn, it is reactive because it forces a chemical reaction, redox, to obtain uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ). The results of these experiments show that by reactive electrodialysis, NH 4 UF 5 deposits were obtained. However, calcinating the NH 4 UF 5 to 450 o C, it decomposes to obtain uranium tetrafluoride, UF 4 . The best working conditions were obtained with an electric current of 0.5 (A), 41 o C and a flow of 16 (ml / s) of the electrolyte. It was possible to obtain 5,995 (g) to 3 (h), giving a current efficiency of 71.42%. In turn, working at high temperatures and flow recirculation is possible to operate with a potential difference of 1.7 (V)

  8. RERTR program progress in qualifying reduced-enrichment fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelgrove, James L.

    1983-01-01

    In order to provide the technical means for reducing the enrichment of uranium used to fuel research and test reactors, the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program has been engaged in the development and testing of higher-uranium-density fuels than had been used previously. This fuel development effort included work to increase the density of fuels which were being used at the time the Program began and work on a fuel with the potential for much higher density. The ultimate goal of the fuel development and testing phase of the Program is to 'qualify' the fuel for use. A fuel is considered qualified when a sufficient data base for the fuel exists that it can be approved by regulating bodies for use in reactors. To convert a core to the use of reduced-enrichment fuel it is necessary to show that the core will behave properly during normal and off-normal operating conditions and to show that the fuel will behave properly to a reasonable margin beyond the conditions expected during normal operation. It is this latter area that this paper will address. The main characteristics to be considered in evaluating the performance of a fuel are its swelling, its blister-threshold temperature, and its metallurgical appearance. Data for the qualification of the reduced-enrichment fuels being developed by the RERTR Program are obtained from examination of miniature fuel plates (miniplates) which successfully pass the irradiation screening tests and from examinations of full-sized fuel elements. This paper will summarize the miniplate data reported in other papers presented during this meeting and will give the status of full-sized element irradiations. Finally, the current status of qualification of the various fuel types will be discussed and some projections of the future will be given

  9. 77 FR 72746 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel Sulfur Programs AGENCY... Fuel Standard (``RFS'') program under section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act. The direct final rule also... marine diesel fuel produced by transmix processors, and the fuel marker requirements for 500 ppm sulfur...

  10. 78 FR 12005 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing AGENCY: Environmental... EPA is announcing a public hearing to be held for the proposed rule ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards,'' which was published separately in the Federal Register on...

  11. Combustion behaviour of ultra clean coal obtained by chemical demineralisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Rubiera; A. Arenillas; B. Arias; J.J. Pis; I. Suarez-Ruiz; K.M. Steel; J.W. Patrick [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    The increasing environmental concern caused by the use of fossil fuels and the concomitant need for improved combustion efficiency is leading to the development of new coal cleaning and utilisation processes. However, the benefits achieved by the removal of most mineral matter from coal either by physical or chemical methods can be annulled if poor coal combustibility characteristics are attained. In this work a high volatile bituminous coal with 6% ash content was subjected to chemical demineralisation via hydrofluoric and nitric acid leaching, the ash content of the clean coal was reduced to 0.3%. The original and treated coals were devolatilised in a drop tube furnace and the structure and morphology of the resultant chars was analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopies. The reactivity characteristics of the chars were studied by isothermal combustion tests in air at different temperatures in a thermogravimetric system. Comparison of the combustion behaviour and pollutant emissions of both coals was conducted in a drop tube furnace operating at 1000{sup o}C. The results of this work indicate that the char obtained from the chemically treated coal presents very different structure, morphology and reactivity behaviour than the char from the original coal. The changes induced by the chemical treatment increased the combustion efficiency determined in the drop tube furnace, in fact higher burnout levels were obtained for the demineralised coal.

  12. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy......-fuel process and focuses particularly on the combustion fundamentals, i.e. flame temperatures and heat transfer, ignition and burnout, emissions, and fly ash characteristics. Knowledge is currently available regarding both an entire oxy-fuel power plant and the combustion fundamentals. However, several...

  13. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells - Degradation and Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon

    for storage and distribution of hydrogen, it is more practical to use liquid alcohols as energy carriers for fuel cells. Among these, methanol is very attractive, as it can be obtained from a variety of renewable sources and has a relatively low reforming temperature for the production of hydrogen rich...... be stored in liquid alcohols such as methanol, which can be sources of hydrogen for fuel cell applications. In addition, fuel cells unlike other technologies can use a variety of other fuels that can provide a source of hydrogen, such as biogas, methane, butane, etc. More fuel flexibility combined....... On the other hand, CO and methanol-water vapor mixture degrade the fuel cell proportionally to the amounts in which they are tested. In this dissertation some of the mechanisms with which the impurities affect the fuel cell are discussed and interdependence among the effects is also studied. This showed...

  14. Pre-irradiation testing of experimental fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basova, B.G.; Davydov, E.F.; Dvoretskij, V.G.; Ivanov, V.B.; Syuzev, V.N.; Timofeev, G.A.; Tsykanov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The problems of testing of experimental fuel elements of nuclear reactors on the basis of complex accountancy of the factors defining operating capacity of the fuel elements are considered. The classification of the parameters under control and the methods of initial technological testing, including testing of the fuel product, cladding and fished fuel element, is given. The requirements to the apparatus used for complex testing are formulated. One of the possible variants of representation of the information obtained in the form of the input certificate of a single fuel element under study is proposed. The processing flowsheet of the gathered information using the computer is given. The approach under consideration is a methodological basis of investigation of fuel element operating life at the testing stage of the experimental fuel elements

  15. Characterization of spent EBR-II driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Operations and material control and accountancy requirements for the Fuel Conditioning Facility demand accurate prediction of the mass flow of spent EBR-II driver fuel into the facility. This requires validated calculational tools that can predict the burnup and isotopic distribution in irradiated Zr-alloy fueled driver assemblies. Detailed core-follow depletion calculations have been performed for an extensive series of EBR-II runs to produce a database of material inventories for the spent fuel to be processed. As this fuel is processed, comparison of calculated values with measured data obtained from samples of this fuel is producing a growing set of validation data. A more extensive set of samples and measurements from the initial processing of irradiated driver fuel has produced valuable estimates of the biases and uncertainties in both the measured and calculated values. Results of these comparisons are presented herein and indicate the calculated values adequately predict the mass flows

  16. Qualification status of LEU [low enriched uranium] fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelgrove, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient data has been obtained from tests of high-density, low-enriched fuels for research and test reactors to declare them qualified for use. These fuels include UZrH x (TRIGA fuel) and UO 2 (SPERT fuel) for rod-type reactors and UAl x , U 3 O 8 , U 3 Si 2 , and U 3 Si dispersed in aluminium for plate-type reactors. Except for U 3 Si, the allowable fission density for LEU applications is limited only by the available 235 U. Several reactors are now using these fuels, and additional conversions are in progress. The basic performance characteristics and limits, if any, of the qualified low-enriched (and medium-enriched) fuels are discussed. Continuing and planned work to qualify additional fuels is also discussed. (Author)

  17. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  18. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  19. Advanced disassembling technique of irradiated driver fuel assembly for continuous irradiation of fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Shoichi; Haga, Hiroyuki; Katsuyama, Kozo; Maeda, Koji; Nishinoiri, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    It was necessary to carry out continuous irradiation tests in order to obtain the irradiation data of high burn-up fuel and high neutron dose material for FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project. There, the disassembling technique of an irradiated fuel assembly was advanced in order to realize further continuous irradiation tests. Although the conventional disassembling technique had been cutting a lower end-plug of a fuel pin needed to fix fuel pins to an irradiation vehicle, the advanced disassembling technique did not need cutting a lower end-plug. As a result, it was possible to supply many irradiated fuel pins to various continuous irradiation tests for FaCT project. (author)

  20. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Won; Shin, Y. J.; Cho, S. H.

    2004-03-01

    The research on spent fuel management focuses on the maximization of the disposal efficiency by a volume reduction, the improvement of the environmental friendliness by the partitioning and transmutation of the long lived nuclides, and the recycling of the spent fuel for an efficient utilization of the uranium source. In the second phase which started in 2001, the performance test of the advanced spent fuel management process consisting of voloxidation, reduction of spent fuel and the lithium recovery process has been completed successfully on a laboratory scale. The world-premier spent fuel reduction hot test of a 5 kgHM/batch has been performed successfully by joint research with Russia and the valuable data on the actinides and FPs material balance and the characteristics of the metal product were obtained with experience to help design an engineering scale reduction system. The electrolytic reduction technology which integrates uranium oxide reduction in a molten LiCl-Li 2 O system and Li 2 O electrolysis is developed and a unique reaction system is also devised. Design data such as the treatment capacity, current density and mass transfer behavior obtained from the performance test of a 5 kgU/batch electrolytic reduction system pave the way for the third phase of the hot cell demonstration of the advanced spent fuel management technology

  1. Automatic spent fuel ID number reader (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, S.; Kawamoto, H.; Fujimaki, K.; Kobe, A.

    1991-01-01

    An effective and efficient technique has been developed for facilitating identification works of LWR spent fuel stored in large scale spent fuel storage pools of such as processing plants. Experience shows that there are often difficulties in the implementation of operator's nuclear material accountancy and control works as well as safeguards inspections conducted on spent fuel assemblies stored in deep water pool. This paper reports that the technique is realized as an automatic spent fuel ID number reader system installed on fuel handling machine. The ID number reader system consists of an optical sub-system and an image processing sub-system. Thousands of spent fuel assemblies stored in under water open racks in each storage pool could be identified within relatively short time (e.g. within several hours) by using this combination. Various performance tests were carried out on image processing sub-system in 1990 using TV images obtained from different types of spent fuel assemblies stored in various storage pools of PWR and BWR power stations

  2. Parameter Estimation of Spacecraft Fuel Slosh Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Sathya; Sudermann, James; Marlowe, Andrea; Njengam Charles

    2004-01-01

    Fuel slosh in the upper stages of a spinning spacecraft during launch has been a long standing concern for the success of a space mission. Energy loss through the movement of the liquid fuel in the fuel tank affects the gyroscopic stability of the spacecraft and leads to nutation (wobble) which can cause devastating control issues. The rate at which nutation develops (defined by Nutation Time Constant (NTC can be tedious to calculate and largely inaccurate if done during the early stages of spacecraft design. Pure analytical means of predicting the influence of onboard liquids have generally failed. A strong need exists to identify and model the conditions of resonance between nutation motion and liquid modes and to understand the general characteristics of the liquid motion that causes the problem in spinning spacecraft. A 3-D computerized model of the fuel slosh that accounts for any resonant modes found in the experimental testing will allow for increased accuracy in the overall modeling process. Development of a more accurate model of the fuel slosh currently lies in a more generalized 3-D computerized model incorporating masses, springs and dampers. Parameters describing the model include the inertia tensor of the fuel, spring constants, and damper coefficients. Refinement and understanding the effects of these parameters allow for a more accurate simulation of fuel slosh. The current research will focus on developing models of different complexity and estimating the model parameters that will ultimately provide a more realistic prediction of Nutation Time Constant obtained through simulation.

  3. Power from plutonium: fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Points of similarity and of difference between fast reactor fuel and fuels for AGR and PWR plants are established. The flow of uranium and plutonium in fast and thermal systems is also mentioned, establishing the role of the fast reactor as a plutonium burner. A historical perspective of fast reactors is given in which the substantial experience accumulated in test and prototype is indicated and it is noted that fast reactors have now entered the commercial phase. The relevance of the data obtained in the test and prototype reactors to the behaviour of commercial fast reactor fuel is considered. The design concepts employed in fuel are reviewed, including sections on core support styles, pin support and pin detail. This is followed by a discussion of current issues under the headings of manufacture, performance and reprocessing. This section includes a consideration of gel fuel, achievable burn-up, irradiation induced distortions and material choices, fuel form, and fuel failure mechanisms. Future development possibilities are also discussed and the Paper concludes with a view on the logic of a UK fast reactor strategy. (U.K.)

  4. Perturbation theory in nuclear fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear in-core fuel management involves all the physical aspects which allow optimal operation of the nuclear fuel within the reactor core. In most nuclear power reactors, fuel loading patterns which have a minimum power peak are economically desirable to allow the reactors to operate at the highest power density and to minimize the possibility of fuel failure. In this study, perturbation theory along with a binary fuel shuffling technique is applied to predict the effects of various core configurations, and hence, the optimization of in-core fuel management. The computer code FULMNT has been developed to shuffle the fuel assemblies in search of the lowest possible power peaking factor. An iteration approach is used in the search routine. A two-group diffusion theory method is used to obtain the power distribution for the iterations. A comparison of the results of this method with other methods shows that this approach can save computer time. The code also has a burnup capability which can be used to check power peaking throughout the core life

  5. Small Volume Fuel Testers Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoegl, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNenly, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Killingsworth, N. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Micro-liter fuel ignition testing (μ-FIT) is based on the premise that characteristics FREI (Flames with Repetitive Extinction and Ignition, i.e. cyclically occurring combustion events within heated capillaries), are linked to fuel properties. In early FY16, proof-of-concept measurements with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures, i.e. blends of n-heptane and iso-octane, yielded clear evidence for the feasibility of the approach. Our experiments showed that it is critical to accurately link observed flame positions to local temperatures, which provides information on ignition, extinction and flame propagation, all of which are known to be impacted by fuel properties. In FY16, one major hurdle was uncertainty of temperature calibration, which required significant efforts for corrective action that were not included in the original scope of work. Temperature calibrations are obtained by translating a thermocouple within the capillary in absence of a flame. While measurements have good repeatability when accounting for transient and insertion effects, results from nominally identical thermocouples reveal unacceptable uncertainty (up to ±50K), which is attributed to variations in thermocouple placement and manufacturing tolerances. This issue is currently being resolved by switching to non-intrusive optical temperature measurements. Updates are expected to yield uncertainties of less than ±10K, while also eliminating transient and insertion effects. The experimental work was complemented by computational efforts where it was shown that a simplified Lagrangian zero-D model with detailed kinetics yields fuelspecific differentiation of ignition temperatures for simple fuels that are consistent with experiments. Further, a 2D transient model was implemented in OpenFOAM to investigate combustion behavior of simple fuels at elevated pressure. In an upcoming visit to LLNL, more advanced simulations using LLNL’s computational tools (e.g. zero-RK) are planned, which will

  6. Diesel fuel filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel's hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system

  7. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  8. FBR fuel cycle can be competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardajs, R.; Kholl, R.; Pilling, R.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation results of comparative determination of averaged values for FBR and PWR reactor energy cost fuel components in England are described. Time periods till 2000 and 2020 yrs are considered. Dependence of the results obtained on changes of different initial factors is analysed. The FBR reactor fuel cost component is shown to be identically sensitive to the change is spent fuel cost. There is another condition for PWR reactors, where two factors are important: cost of source uranium ore concentrate and currency rate of exchange. The investigation carried out has shown that competitable fuel cost component of FBR reactors is reached even in first fast reactors, i.e. from the start of their large-scale construction. Thus, successive decrease of the capital component of energy cost is the key of success ful economical application of FBR reactors

  9. Sintering method for nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omuta, Hirofumi; Nakabayashi, Shigetoshi.

    1997-01-01

    When sintering a compressed nuclear fuel powder in an atmosphere of a mixed gas comprising hydrogen and nitrogen, steams are added to the mixed gas to suppress the nitrogen content in sintered nuclear fuel pellets. In addition, the content of nitrogen impurities in the nuclear fuel pellets can be controlled by controlling the amount of steams to be added to the mixed gas, namely, by controlling the dew point as an index thereof. If the addition amount of steams to the mixed gas is determined by controlling the dew point as an index, the content of nitrogen impurities in the sintered nuclear fuel pellets can be controlled reliably to a specified value of 0.0075% or less. If ammonolyzed gas is used as the mixed gas, a more economical mixed gas can be obtained than in the case of forming mixed gas by mixing the hydrogen gas and the nitrogen gas. (N.H.)

  10. Design and development of PWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehon, C.; Leclercq, J.; Watteau, M.

    1982-06-01

    After a brief description of the FRAGEMA fuel assembly which equips at the present time the pressurized water reactors of EdF (Electricite de France), and a presentation of the experience obtained on this fuel, one reviews the main aims and trends of the research and development program carried out by FRAGEMA to improve the design of fuels and to propose to the national customer, but also on the foreign markets, new products adapted to the demands of operators. One insists more particularly on new products that are on one hand the AFA fuel and on the other hand the burnable poison UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 ; their description is presented and their advantages are given. To conclude, one insists on the importance of the collaboration that have to be kept between the designer and the operator, the manufacturer, the R and D groups and the boiler specialist [fr

  11. Fluid flow test for KMRR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Yang, Sun Kyu; Chung, Chang Hwan; Chun, See Young; Song, Chul Hha; Jun, Hyung Gil; Chung, Heung Joon; Won, Soon Yeun; Cho, Young Rho; Kim, Bok Deuk

    1991-01-01

    Hydraulic and velocity measurment tests were carried out for the KMRR fuel assembly. Two types of the KMRR fuel assembly are consist of longitudinally finned rods. Experimental data of the pressure drops and friction factors for the KMRR fuel assemlby were produced. The measurement technique for the turbulent flow structure in subchannels using the LDV was obtained. The measurement of the experimental constant of the thermal hydraulic analysis code was investigated. The results in this study are used as the basic data for the development of an analysis code. The measurement technique acquired in this study can be applied to the KMRR thermal hydraulic commissioning test and development of the domestic KMRR fuel fabrication. (Author)

  12. Operating a locomotive on liquid methane fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that several years ago, Burlington Northern Railroad looked into the feasibility of operating a diesel railroad locomotive to also run on compressed natural gas in a dual-fuel mode. Recognizing the large volume of on-board storage required and other limitations of CNG in the application, a program was begun to fuel a locomotive with liquefied natural gas. Because natural gas composition can vary with source and processing, it was considered desirable to use essentially pure liquid methane as the engine fuel. Initial testing results show the locomotive system achieved full diesel-rated power when operating on liquid methane and with equivalent fuel efficiency. Extended testing, including an American Association of Railroad 500-hour durability test, was undertaken to obtain information on engine life, wear rate and lubrication oil life

  13. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile...... of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...

  14. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  15. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, A.; Mosci, A.; Nardi, A.; Vatteroni, R.; Zondini, C.

    1988-01-01

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  16. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building.

  17. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canillas, M.; Rivero, R.; García-Carrodeguas, R.; Barba, F.; Rodríguez, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties. [es

  18. Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindi, R.; Robert, A.

    1984-01-01

    Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers, application to the production of devices provided with said layers and to the construction of photoscintillators. The process comprises projecting onto a support, by cathodic sputtering, the material of at least one target, each target including silica and at least one chemical compound able to give luminescent centers, such as a cerium oxide, so as to form at least one luminescent glass layer of the said support. The layer or layers formed preferably undergo a heat treatment such as annealing in order to increase the luminous efficiency thereof. It is in this way possible to form a scintillating glass layer on the previously frosted entrance window of a photomultiplier in order to obtain an integrated photoscintillator

  19. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Canillas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties.

  20. Method of decladding spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutome, Kazuyuki; Kitagawa, Kazuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safety and easy decladding of nuclear fuels thereby reduce the processing cost. Constitution: Upon dismantling of a spent fuel rod, the fuel rod is heated at least to such a temperature that the ductility of a fuel can is recovered, then transported by using seizing rollers, by which the fuel rod is pressurized from the outer circumference to break the nuclear fuels at the inside thereof. Then, the destructed fuels are recovered from both ends of the fuel can. With such a constitution, since the ductility of the fuel can is recovered by heating, when the fuel rod is passed through the rollers in this state, the fuel can is deformed to destroy the nuclear fuels at the inside thereof. Since the nuclear fuels are destroyed into small pieces, they can be taken out easily from both ends of the fuel can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. Process for obtaining ammonium uranyl tri carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.R. dos; Riella, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure adopted for obtaining Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate (AUC) from uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) in a aqueous solutions of ammonium hydrogen carbonate is described in this work. The precipitation is made in temperature and pH controlled. This process consists of three steps: evaporation of U F 6 , AUC precipitation and filtration of the AUC slurry. An attempt is made of correlate the parameters involved in the precipitation process of AUC with its and U O 2 characteristics. (author)

  2. Superconducting materials fabrication process and materials obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.O.; Magnier, C.

    1989-01-01

    The preparation process of a fine powder of YBaCuO type superconductors of easy sintering comprises: mixing in presence of alcohol an aqueous solution of rare earth nitrate or acetate, alkaline earth nitrate or acetate and copper nitrate or acetate and an oxalic acid solution, the pH value of the mixture is comprised between 2 and 4, the obtained precipitate is separated, dried, calcined and eventually crushed [fr

  3. PULP OBTAINING METHOD FOR PACKAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzmich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for obtaining pulp which is used for production of cardboard, paper and package while using carbon dioxide and hydrazine hydrate and neutral-sulfite  shive cooking. Output increase of  the desired product can be explained by reduction in destruction of plant raw material carbohydrates during its cooking process. Quality improvement of the desired product (improvement in bleaching and output is attributed to the fact that usage of carbon dioxide and hydrazine contributes to provision of polysaccharide chain resistance to destruction due to the presence of  end links having structure of metasaccharinic and aldonic acids.The author has developed a new method for pulp obtaining on the basis of the executed investigations  and literature data.  СО2 and hydrazine hydrate have been used for obtaining pulp. Method invention concerns pulp obtaining and it can be used for paper and cardboard package manufacturing in pulp and paper industry.The method is to be carried in the following way: pulp-containing plant raw material is loaded into an autoclave and then aqua solution of sodium monosulfite containing hydrazine hydrate that constitutes 4–5 % of absolute dry pulp-containing raw material mass with liquid module 1:6–1:8 is supplied into the autoclave. The autoclave is closed for operation under pressure and the solution is carbonated under pressure which constitutes 5–8 % of absolute dry plant raw material (shover. Temperature is subsequently raised up to 180 °С in the space of 2 hours and cooking is carried out in the course of 4 hours. Usage of  the proposed method for shover cooking makes it possible to reduce monosulfite cooking process and improve qualitative characteristics and output of the desired product.  In addition to above mentioned fact there is a possibility to improve bleaching and final product output. 

  4. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakaroun, M. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France); Antony, R. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)], E-mail: remi.antony@unilim.fr; Taillepierre, P.; Moliton, A. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances.

  5. Calculation of demands for nuclear fuels and fuel cycle services. Description of computer model and strategies developed by Working Group 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working Group 1 examined a range of reactor deployment strategies and fuel cycle options, in oder to estimate the range of nuclear fuel requirements and fuel cycle service needs which would result. The computer model, its verification in comparison with other models, the strategies to be examined through use of the model, and the range of results obtained are described

  6. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 12: Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Fuel Management (FuMe) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; David Hall

    2005-01-01

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Fuel Management (FuMe) tool was developed to estimate sediment generated by fuel management activities. WEPP FuMe estimates sediment generated for 12 fuel-related conditions from a single input. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what the model does, and tells the user how to obtain the...

  7. Segmented fuel and moderator rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous segmented fuel and moderator rod for use with a water cooled and moderated nuclear fuel assembly. The rod comprises: a lower fuel region containing a column of nuclear fuel; a moderator region, disposed axially above the fuel region. The moderator region has means for admitting and passing the water moderator therethrough for moderating an upper portion of the nuclear fuel assembly. The moderator region is separated from the fuel region by a water tight separator

  8. Fuel number identification method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takami; Seno, Makoto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Takahashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Keiji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for automatically identifying fuel numbers impressed on fuel assemblies disposed in a fuel reprocessing facility, power plant and a reactor core at a high speed and at a high identification rate. Namely, three or more character images are photographed for one fuel assembly as an object of the identification under different illumination conditions. As a result, different character images by the number of the illumination directions can be obtained for identical impressed characters. Learning on a neural network system is applied to the images of all of the characters impressed on the fuel assembly obtained under illumination of predetermined directions. Then, result of the identification by the number of the illumination directions can be obtained for each of the characters as an object of the identification. As a result, since the result of the identification is determined based on a theory of decision of majority, highly automatic identification can be realized. (I.S.)

  9. Fission induced swelling and creep of U–Mo alloy fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hofman, G.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cheon, J.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Robinson, A.B.; Wachs, D.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Tapering of U–Mo alloy fuel at the end of plates is attributed to lateral mass transfer by fission induced creep, by which fuel mass is relocated away from the fuel end region where fission product induced fuel swelling is in fact the highest. This mechanism permits U–Mo fuel to achieve high burnup by effectively relieving stresses at the fuel end region, where peak stresses are otherwise expected because peak fission product induced fuel swelling occurs there. ABAQUS FEA was employed to examine whether the observed phenomenon can be simulated using physical–mechanical data available in the literature. The simulation results obtained for several plates with different fuel fabrication and loading scheme showed that the measured data were able to be simulated with a reasonable creep rate coefficient. The obtained creep rate constant lies between values for pure uranium and MOX, and is greater than all other ceramic uranium fuels.

  10. Main results of post-irradiation examinations of new-generation fuel assemblies VVER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvir, E.; Markov, D.; Polenok, V.; Zhitelev, V.; Kobylyansky, G.

    2009-01-01

    To increase the competitiveness of Russian nuclear fuel at the foreign market and to improve its technical and economic performance in order to provide a necessary level of safety, it is necessary to solve certain important tasks: Increase of fuel burn-up; Extension of operational lifetime of fuel assemblies and operational reliability of nuclear fuel; Introduction of cost-beneficial and flexible fuel cycles. Alternative fuel assemblies TVSA VVER-1000 and TVS-2 are used as a basis to optimize the nuclear fuel and develop advanced fuel cycles for nuclear power plants with VVER-1000 reactor types. Four fuel assemblies TVSA operated during 1 and up to 6 reactor cycles, reference fuel assembly TVS-2 operated during three reactor cycles and achieved an average fuel burnup of 48MW·day/kgU as well as failed fuel assembly TVS-2 operated during one cycle were examined at RIAR in recent years. The main objectives of these examinations were to obtain experimental data in support of operational integrity of products or to find out reasons of their failure. The performed post-irradiation examinations confirmed the operational integrity of alternative fuel assemblies TVSA including their geometrical stability up to the average fuel burnup of 55 MW·day/kgU over the fuel assembly (FA) (up to the maximal fuel burnup of ∼73 MW·day/kgU in fuel rods) and of TVS-2 up to the average fuel burnup of 48 MW·day/kgU over the fuel assembly. The changes introduced in the design of VVER-1000 fuel assembly during the development of alternative fuel assembly TVSA and TVS-2 did not make any negative effect on fuel rods. It was proved that causes of fuel rod failure were not related to design features of fuel assemblies. The design features and operating conditions of fuel assemblies under examinations are briefly described. Post-irradiation examinations proved the geometrical stability of fuel assemblies TVSA and TVS-2 under operation up to the fuel burnup of ∼50 MW day/kgU, as for the

  11. Antiknock additives for engine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Nambered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Obtaining gasoline with necessary quality and quantity is an actual problem. To increase fuel resources in the development are involved heavy oil, shale gas with further obtaining synthetic oil. Here is presented an analysis of processing technologies of natural and synthetic oil obtained in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, wherein focus is on octane number of gasoline fraction. Due to the low octane number, resolution of questions related to improving the detonation resistance, does not lose its relevance to the present day. Represented a quantum-chemical studies of some antiknock agents in the purpose by quantum chemistry methods to identify trends to increase the octane number of compounds and gasoline when they are added. (orig.)

  12. Determination of equilibrium fuel composition for fast reactor in closed fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ternovykha Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of evaluation of multiplying and reactivity characteristics of fast reactor operating in the mode of multiple refueling is presented. We describe the calculation model of the vertical section of the reactor. Calculation validations of the possibility of correct application of methods and models are given. Results on the isotopic composition, mass feed, and changes in the reactivity of the reactor in closed fuel cycle are obtained. Recommendations for choosing perspective fuel compositions for further research are proposed.

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  14. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  15. Boosting nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarthon, F.; Donnars, O.; Dupuy-Maury, F.

    2002-01-01

    This dossier gives a broad overview of the present day status of the nuclear fuel cycle in France: 1 - the revival of nuclear power as a solution to the global warming and to the increase of worldwide energy needs; 2 - the security of uranium supplies thanks to the reuse of weapon grade highly enriched uranium; 3 - the fabrication of nuclear fuels from the mining extraction to the enrichment processes, the fabrication of fuel pellets and the assembly of fuel rods; 4 - the new composition of present day fuels (UO x and chromium-doped pellets); 5 - the consumption of plutonium stocks and the Corail and Apa fuel assemblies for the reduction of plutonium stocks and the preservation of uranium resources. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, R.S.; Garner, D.L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear fuel assemblies designed for cooling on the 'tube-in-shell' principle in which the fuel is contained by a shell and is cooled by coolant passed through tubes extending through the shell. It has been proposed to employ coated particle fuel as a porous bed on the tube side and the bleed coolant from the tubes into direct contact with the fuel particles. In this way heat is extracted both by direct contact with the fuel and by heat transfer through the coolant tube walls. The system described aims to provide an improved structure of tube and shell for a fuel assembly of this kind and is particularly suitable for use in a gas cooled fast reactor, being able to withstand the neutron flux and high temperature conditions in these reactors. Constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Rowland, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting, fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  18. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroshi; Watari, Yoshio; Hizahara, Hiroshi; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1970-01-01

    When exchanging nuclear fuel assemblies during the operation of a nuclear reactor, melting of fuel bodies, and severence of tubular claddings is halted at the time of insertion by furnishing a neutron absorbing material such as B 10 , Cd, Gd or the like at the forward end of the fuel assembly to thereby lower the power peak at the forward ends of the fuel elements to within tolerable levels and thus prevent both fuel liquification and excessive expansion. The neutron absorbing material may be attached in the form of a plate to the fuel assembly forward tie plate, or may be inserted as a pellet into the front end of the tubular cladding. (Owens, K.J.)

  19. Fuel assembly spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Ken-etsu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the pressure loss of coolants by fuel assembly spacers. Constitution: Spacers for supporting a fuel assembly are attached by means of a plurality of wires to an outer frame. The outer frame is made of shape memory alloy such that the wires are caused to slacken at normal temperature and the slacking of the wires is eliminated in excess of the transition temperature. Since the wires slacken at the normal temperature, fuel rods can be inserted easily. After the insertion of the fuel rods, when the entire portion or the outer frame is heated by water or gas at a predetermined temperature, the outer frame resumes its previously memorized shape to tighten the wires and, accordingly, the fuel rods can be supported firmly. In this way, since the fuel rods are inserted in the slacken state of the wires and, after the assembling, the outer frame resumes its memorized shape, the assembling work can be conducted efficiently. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Kawada, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Masayoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a fuel element for reducing the mechanical interactions between a fuel-cladding tube and the fuel element and for alleviating the limits of the operating conditions of a reactor. Constitution: A fuel element having mainly uranium dioxide consists of a cylindrical outer pellet and cylindrical inner pellet inserted into the outer pellet. The outer pellet contains two or more additives selected from aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide, calcium oxide and iron oxide, and the inner pellet contains nuclear fuel substance solely or one additive selected from calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and iron oxide. The outer pellet of the fuel thus constituted is reduced in mechanical strength and also in the mechanical interactions with the cladding tube, and the plastic fluidity of the entire pellet is prevented by the inner pellet increased in the mechanical strength. (Kamimura, M.)