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Sample records for gasoline kikan ni

  1. Effects of fuel and air mixing on WOT output in direct injection gasoline engine; Chokufun gasoline kikan ni okeru nenryo to kuki no kongo to shutsuryoku seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T; Iriya, Y; Naito, K; Mitsumoto, H; Iiyama, A [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of in-cylinder charge motion and the characteristics of the fuel spray and piston crown shape on WOT output in a direct injection gasoline engine are investigated. The fuel and air mixing process in a cylinder is analyzed by computer simulation and LIF method visualization. As a result, the technical factors to achieve enough mixing in a DI gasoline engine equipped with bowl in piston optimized for stratified combustion are clarified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Technology for emission control in internal combustion engines; Kakushu nainen kikan ni okeru hai gas joka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Described herein are emission control technology and exhaust gas cleaning measures for internal combustion engines. Gas turbines burn relatively high-quality fuels, such as natural gas, kerosene, diesel oil and gas oil, where the major concerns are to reduce NOx and dust emissions. The NOx abatement techniques fall into two general categories; wet processes which inject water or steam, and dry processes which depend on improved combustion. Power generation and cogeneration which burn natural gas adopt lean, premixed combustion and two-stage combustion as the major approaches. Low-speed, large-size diesel engines, which realize very high thermal efficiency, discharge high concentrations of NOx. Delayed fuel injection timing is the most easy NOx abatement technique to meet the related regulations, but is accompanied by decreased fuel economy. Use of water-emulsified fuel, water layer injection and multi-port injection can reduce NOx emissions without decreasing fuel economy, depending on optimization methods adopted. Automobile gasoline engines are required to further clean exhaust gases by catalystic systems. 9 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Rh-Ni and Rh-Co Catalysts for Autothermal Reforming of Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeongyu; Lee, Daehyung; Kim, Yongmin; Lee, Jinhee; Nam, Sukwoo; Choi, Daeki; Yoon, Chang Won [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Rh doped Ni and Co catalysts, Rh-M/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.2 wt % of Rh; M = Ni or Co, 20 wt %) were synthesized to produce hydrogen via autothermal reforming (ATR) of commercial gasoline at 700 .deg. C under the conditions of a S/C ratio of 2.0, an O/C ratio of 0.84, and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 20,000 h{sup -1}. The Rh-Ni/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (1) exhibited excellent activities, with H{sub 2} and (H{sub 2}+CO) yields of 2.04 and 2.58 mol/mol C, respectively. In addition, this catalyst proved to be highly stable over 100 h without catalyst deactivation, as evidenced by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and elemental analyses. Compared to 1, Rh-Co/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (2) exhibited relatively low stability, and its activity decreased after 57 h. In line with this observation, elemental analyses confirmed that nearly no carbon species were formed at 1 while carbon deposits (10 wt %) were found at 2 following the reaction, which suggests that carbon coking is the main process for catalyst deactivation.

  4. ACTIVITY TEST AND REGENERATION OF NiMo/Z CATALYST FOR HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE PLASTIC FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity test and regeneration of NiMo/active natural zeolite catalyst for hydrocracking of waste plastic fraction of polyprophylene (PP type have been carried out. The catalysts was prepared by loading Mo followed by Ni Metals onto the natural zeolite (Z sample, then calcined at 500oC, oxidized and reduced at 400oC under nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stream, respectively. The characterization of catalysts including spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume were performed by gas sorption analyzer, amount of total acid sites was determined by gas sorption method, and acid site strength was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The hydrocracking process was carried out in a semi-flow reactor system at 360 oC and catalyst:feed ratio 0.5 under hydrogen stream (150 mL/hour. The feed was vaporized from the pyrolisis reactor into the hydrocracking reactor. A liquid product was collected and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The characterization results showed that spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume of the Z sample decreased after loading of the Ni and Mo metals. Amount of total acid sites of the NiMo/Z catalyst was higher than that of the Z sample. The activity of NiMo/Z catalyst decreased after several continously runs. Its regeneration produced the NiMo/Z reg catalyst with similar activity and selectivity to the fresh catalyst (NiMo/Z. The activity of catalysts at the optimum condition followed the order of NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (conversion of hydrocarbon C>12 and NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (total yield of gasoline fraction. The selectivity of catalysts for C7-C8 product followed the order of Z>NiMo/Z>NiMo/Z reg. Keywords: activity, polyprophylene, catalyst, gasoline fraction.

  5. Low-Temperature Catalytic Performance of Ni-Cu/Al2O3 Catalysts for Gasoline Reforming to Produce Hydrogen Applied in Spark Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Anh Tuan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Ni-Cu/Al2O3 catalysts for steam reforming (SR of gasoline to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture applied in a spark ignition (SI engine was investigated at relatively low temperature. The structural and morphological features and catalysis activity were observed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and temperature programmed reduction (TPR. The results showed that the addition of copper improved the dispersion of nickel and therefore facilitated the reduction of Ni at low temperature. The highest hydrogen selectivity of 70.6% is observed over the Ni-Cu/Al2O3 catalysts at a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. With Cu promotion, a gasoline conversion of 42.6% can be achieved at 550 °C, while with both Mo and Ce promotion, the gasoline conversions were 31.7% and 28.3%, respectively, higher than with the conventional Ni catalyst. On the other hand, initial durability testing showed that the conversion of gasoline over Ni-Cu/Al2O3 catalysts slightly decreased after 30 h reaction time.

  6. The performance of pelletized Ce-Y and Ni-Y zeolites for removal of thiophene from model gasoline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Rahimi, Amir [University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    H-Y zeolite was prepared with Na-Y zeolite via ion-exchange method. Ni-Y and Ce-Y zeolites were then prepared with H-Y zeolite via solid-state ion-exchange (SSIE) method. The pellet form of the zeolites was employed for removal of thiophene from samples containing 194, 116 and 72 ppmw sulfur in a batch system at ambient condition. The removal of sulfur over the three types of the adsorbents decreased according to the following order: Ce-Y (81..7%)>Ni-Y (75.2%)>Na-Y (51.7%), indicating that the Ce-Y zeolite was the most effective adsorbent for removing of sulfur compounds from gasoline. Adsorption isotherms of thiophene on Ni-Y and Ce-Y zeolites were obtained and correlated with six well-known isotherms. The equilibrium data of thiophene adsorption were well fitted to the isotherms and the corresponding parameters and fitting error criteria of the isotherm equations were obtained.

  7. The performance of pelletized Ce-Y and Ni-Y zeolites for removal of thiophene from model gasoline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Rahimi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    H-Y zeolite was prepared with Na-Y zeolite via ion-exchange method. Ni-Y and Ce-Y zeolites were then prepared with H-Y zeolite via solid-state ion-exchange (SSIE) method. The pellet form of the zeolites was employed for removal of thiophene from samples containing 194, 116 and 72 ppmw sulfur in a batch system at ambient condition. The removal of sulfur over the three types of the adsorbents decreased according to the following order: Ce-Y (81..7%)>Ni-Y (75.2%)>Na-Y (51.7%), indicating that the Ce-Y zeolite was the most effective adsorbent for removing of sulfur compounds from gasoline. Adsorption isotherms of thiophene on Ni-Y and Ce-Y zeolites were obtained and correlated with six well-known isotherms. The equilibrium data of thiophene adsorption were well fitted to the isotherms and the corresponding parameters and fitting error criteria of the isotherm equations were obtained

  8. Effects of gasoline properties on exhaust emission and photochemical reactivity; Gasoline seijo ga haiki gas sosei, kokagaku hannosei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, R; Usui, K; Moriya, A; Sato, M; Nomura, T; Sue, H [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of fuel properties on emissions, four passenger cars were tested under Japanese 11 and 10-15 modes using two series gasoline fuels. The test results suggest that the distillation property (T90) affects A/F ratio which in turn influences exhaust emissions. The results of regression analysis show that both ozone forming potential and air toxics are highly corrected with the composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Ni and Pb in diesel and gasoline samples stabilized as microemulsion using conventional and permanent modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos Reyes, Mariela N.; Campos, Reinaldo C.

    2005-01-01

    A procedure for the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Ni and Pb in diesel and gasoline samples was developed. Sample stabilization was necessary because of evident analyte losses that occurred immediately after sampling. Excellent long-term sample stabilization was observed by mixing different organic solvents with propan-1-ol and 50% vol/vol HNO 3 at a 3.3:6.5:1 volume ratio. For Pb, efficient thermal stabilization was obtained using aqueous Pd-Mg modifier as well as for Ir as permanent modifier. The drying temperature and ramp rate influenced the sensitivity obtained for Ni, and had to be carefully optimized. Taking this into account, the same sensitivity was attained in all investigated organic media stabilized as microemulsion. Thus, calibration with microemulsions prepared with a single organic solvent was possible, using aqueous or organic stock solutions. Commercial gasoline and diesel samples were directly analyzed after stabilization as microemulsion and by comparative UOP procedures. n-Hexane microemulsions were used for calibration, and good agreement was obtained between the results using the proposed and comparative procedures. Typical coefficients of variation (n = 6) ranged from 1% to 4%, and from 1% to 3% for Ni and Pb, respectively. Detection limits (k = 3) in the original gasoline or diesel samples, derived from 10 blank measurements, were 4.5 and 3.6 μg l -1 for Ni and Pb, respectively, comfortably below the values found in the analyzed samples

  10. Determination of Cu, Mn, Ni and Sn in gasoline by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and emulsion sample introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.; Dias, Lucia Felicidade; Pozebon, Dirce; Aucelio, Ricardo Q.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Welz, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    Trace metals in fuels, except in the case of additives, are usually undesirable and normally they occur in very low concentrations in gasoline, requiring sensitive techniques for their determination. Coupling of electrothermal vaporization with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry minimizes the problems related to the introduction of organic solvents into the plasma. Furthermore, sample preparation as oil-in-water emulsions reduces problems related to gasoline analysis. In this work, a method for determination of Cu, Mn, Ni and Sn in gasoline is proposed. Samples were prepared by forming a 10-fold diluted emulsion with a surfactant (Triton X-100), after treatment with concentrated HNO 3 . The sample emulsion was pre-concentrated in the graphite tube by repeated pipetting and drying. External calibration was used with aqueous standards in a purified gasoline emulsion. Six samples from different gas stations were analyzed, and the analyte concentrations were found to be in the μg l -1 range or below. The limits of detection were 0.22, 0.02, 0.38 and 0.03 μg l -1 for Cu, Mn, Ni and Sn, respectively. The accuracy of the method was estimated using a recovery test

  11. Gasoline marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzenbaum, H.M.

    1991-02-01

    Consumers have the option of purchasing several different grades of unleaded gasoline regular, mid-grade, and premium which are classified according to an octane rating. Because of concern that consumers may be needlessly buying higher priced premium unleaded gasoline for their automobiles when regular unleaded gasoline would meet their needs, this paper determines whether consumers were buying premium gasoline that they may not need, whether the higher retail price of premium gasoline includes a price mark-up added between the refinery and the retail pump which is greater than that included in the retail price for regular gasoline, and possible reasons for the price differences between premium and regular gasoline

  12. Cracking vegetable oil from Callophylluminnophyllum L. seeds to bio-gasoline by Ni-Mo/Al2O3 and Ni-Mo/Zeolite as micro-porous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, Effendi, R.; Tursiloadi, S.

    2016-02-01

    Natural minerals such as zeolite are local natural resources in the various regions in Indonesia. Studies on the application of natural mineral currently carried out by national research institutions, among others, as a filler, bleaching agent, or dehydration agent. However, not many studies that utilize these natural minerals as green catalysts material which has high performance for biomass conversion processes and ready to be applied directly by the bio-fuel industry. The trend movement of green and sustainable chemistry research that designing environmentally friendly chemical processes from renewable raw materials to produce innovative products derived biomass for bio-fuel. Callophylluminnophyllum L. seeds can be used as raw material for bio-energy because of its high oil content. Fatty acid and triglyceride compounds from this oil can be cracked into bio-gasoline, which does not contain oxygen in the hydrocarbon structure. Bio-gasoline commonly is referred to as drop-in biofuel because it can be directly used as a substitute fuel. This paper focused on the preparation and formulation of the catalyst NiMo/H-Zeolite and Ni-Mo/Al2O3 which were used in hydro-cracking process of oil from Callophylluminnophyllum L. seeds to produce bio-gasoline. The catalysts were analyzed using XRD, BET and IR-adsorbed pyridine method. The results of hydro-cracking products mostly were paraffin (C10-C19) straight chain, with 59.5 % peak area based on GC-MS analysis.

  13. Gasoline marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, J.

    1991-06-01

    This paper is a discussion of two reports. One, issued in April 1990, addresses gasoline octane mislabeling, and the other, issued in February 1991, addresses possible consumer overbuying of premium gasoline. Consumers can purchase several grades of unleaded gasoline with different octane ratings regular (87 octane), mid-grade (89 octane), and premium (91 octane or above). A major concern of consumer buying gasoline is that they purchase gasoline with an octane rating that meets their vehicles' octane requirements. In summary, it was found that consumers may unknowingly be purchasing gasoline with lower octane than needed because octane ratings are mislabeled on gasoline pumps. At the same time, other consumers, believing they may get better performance, may be knowingly buying higher priced premium gasoline when regular gasoline would meet their vehicles' needs. These practices could be coasting consumers hundred of millions of dollars each year

  14. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  15. Production of ultra-low-sulfur gasoline: an equilibrium and kinetic analysis on adsorption of sulfur compounds over Ni/MMS sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazle; Liu, B S; Zhang, Q L; Wang, W S

    2012-11-15

    High performance nickel-based micro-mesoporous silica (Ni/MMS) sorbent was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with ultrasonic aid (IWI-u) for adsorptive desulfurization (ADS) of commercial gasoline and simulated fuels. The sorbents were characterized with BET, XRD, TPR, SEM, HRTEM and TG/DTG. These results show that 20 wt%Ni/MMS (IWI-u) can still retain the framework of MMS and nickel particles were homogeneously distributed in the MMS channels without any aggregation, which improved significantly the ADS performance of the sorbents. The studies on the ADS kinetics indicate that the adsorption behavior of thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) over 20 wt%Ni/MMS (IWI-u) can be described appropriately by pseudo second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model verified that the steric hindrance and intraparticle diffusion were the rate controlling step of the adsorption process of DBT molecules. Langmuir model can be used to describe the adsorption isotherms for T, BT and DBT due to low coverage. The regeneration sorbent maintains the sulfur removal efficiency of 85.9% for 6 cycles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mixture formation of direct gasoline injection engine. In cylinder gas sampling using fast response ionization detector; Tonai funsha gasoline engine no kongoki keisei. Kosoku FID ni yoru tonai gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marubara, M; Ota, N; Kudo, H; Yamamoto, H [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Local mixture concentration near the spark plug of a direct gasoline injection engine was observed by a fast flame ionization detector. To ensure combustion stability and good fuel economy in DISC operation, the swirl ratio and the piston configuration were optimized. Swirl is needed to retain well-vaporized and stable mixture near the spark plug especially in light load. And adequate volume in piston cavity is required for trapping curved fuel spray in it. With these specifications, the fuel economy improvement of 13 to 30 % was realized. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. New high expansion ratio gasoline engine for the TOYOTA hybrid system. Improving engine efficiency with high expansion ratio cycle; Hybrid system yo kobochohi gasoline engine. Kobochohi cycle ni yoru engine no kokoritsuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K; Takaoka, T; Ueda, T; Kobayashi, Y [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    50% reduction of CO2 and fuel consumption have been achieved with the newly developed gasoline engine for the Toyota Hybrid System. This is achieved due to the combination of electric motors and the internal combustion engine which is optimized in the size, swept volume and heat cycle. By delaying the intake valve close timing a high expansion ratio (13.5:1) cycle has been realized. Electricmotor assist enable to cut the maximum engine speed, and friction loss. A best fuel consumption figure better than 230 g/kWh has been achieved. Elimination of lightload firing, motor assisted quick start and improvement of catalyst warm up makes to achieve the clean emission level such as 1/10 of Japanese `78 regulation limit. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effect of heat transfer in cylinder on air quantity of 4-stroke cycle gasoline engine; 4 Stroke gasoline engine no kyunyu shinkiryo ni oyobosu cylinder nai dennetsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M.; Oguri, Y.; Suzuki, T. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-01-25

    Many papers concerning air quantity of 4-stroke cycle gasoline engine have been published. It has been reported in these papers that heat transfer in surface of cylinder and inlet port gives big influence to the air quantity. But it has not been clear which influence of heat transfer in cylinder and inlet port is strong. So the authors derived a function of the air quantity thermodynamically considering heat transfer, and examined which of influence of heat transfer was strong. The results show ; (1) The influence of heat transfer in cylinder is small (about 1%) at full load, and is also small (about 5%) at light load. (2) Heat transfer in cylinder almost increases the air quantity. (3) The influence of heat transfer in inlet port decreases the air quantity with around 30% greatly. (author)

  19. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  20. Fiscal 2000 report of investigation. Research study on reduction of carbon dioxide discharge by increase in octane number in gasoline through use of biomass; 2000 nendo biomass wo riyoshita gasoline no octane ka kojo ni yoru nisanka tanso haishutsu sakugen ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigative research was conducted on the means of reducing fuel consumption of motor vehicles and reducing greenhouse effect gases, by making octane boosters for gasoline through the use of alcohol derived from biomass feedstock. As a result of the investigation, the following proposals were made. In present gasoline-fueled motor vehicles, an increase in the octane number by 5 will allow a higher compression by 1, thereby reducing fuel consumption by 2.5% during running. The suitable octane boosters are MTBE (methyl tertiary butylether) and ETBE (ethyl tertiary butylether) both of which can be produced from either methanol or ethanol derived from biomass feedstock. Blending regular gasoline with an octane number of 90 and either MTBE or ETBE by 18% may make gasoline having an octane number of 95, leading to a reduction of carbon dioxide emission by 4.8% and 6.8% respectively. The amount of alcohol needed for these octane boosters is 2.2 megatons of methanol per year for MTBE production and 2.7 megatons of ethanol per year for ETBE; this requires 12 plants nationwide for producing the octane boosters at 0.5 megatons per year; and, in view of the cost of transportation, alcohol producing plants are desirably located near the octane booster producing plants. (NEDO)

  1. Gasoline sniffing multifocal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T M; Shneker, B F; Juel, V C

    2001-11-01

    The polyneuropathy caused by chronic gasoline inhalation is reported to be a gradually progressive, symmetric, sensorimotor polyneuropathy. We report unleaded gasoline sniffing by a female 14 years of age that precipitated peripheral neuropathy. In contrast with the previously reported presentation of peripheral neuropathy in gasoline inhalation, our patient developed multiple mononeuropathies superimposed on a background of sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The patient illustrates that gasoline sniffing neuropathy may present with acute multiple mononeuropathies resembling mononeuritis multiplex, possibly related to increased peripheral nerve susceptibility to pressure in the setting of neurotoxic components of gasoline. The presence of tetraethyl lead, which is no longer present in modern gasoline mixtures, is apparently not a necessary factor in the development of gasoline sniffer's neuropathy.

  2. Recovery of gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-02-27

    The abstract describes a process for recovering a maximum quantity of commercial gasoline from a composite hydrocarbon stream containing hydrocarbons within and below the gasoline boiling range, including olefins. The hydrocarbon stream is separated into low vapor pressure gasoline and a gas fraction consisting of hydrocarbons of the 4 carbon atom group and some of the 3 carbon atom group. The gas fraction is subjected to a polymerization operation, characterized by utilizing the products of the polymerization procedure - both liquid polymers and unconverted gases - to increase the yield of gasoline and to adjust the low vapor pressure gasoline to the vapor pressure of commercial gasoline. A fraction of the gaseous products of the polymerization procedure are used for this purpose. The remainder of the gaseous products are recycled through the polymerization operation.

  3. Production of aviation gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-25

    A process is described for preparing gasoline possessing properties for use as a fuel, particularly for aviation motors, beginning with gasolines composed among others of cyclic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, consisting in treating the gasoline by means of selective solvents of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, and preferably at the same time employing liquid hydrocarbons which are gaseous under normal conditions and adding to the refined product nonaromatics which boil in the range of the gasoline and have an actane number above 95 or which give the mixture an octane number of 82.5.

  4. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  5. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  6. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  7. Autoignition characteristics of oxygenated gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changyoul; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Badra, Jihad; Kalghatgi, Gautam; Sarathy, Mani; Curran, Henry; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Gasoline anti-knock quality, defined by the research and motor octane numbers (RON and MON), is important for increasing spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency. Gasoline knock resistance can be increased using a number of blending components

  8. Closing the gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a representative of the Oil Companies' European Organization for Environmental and Health Protection (CONCAWE), argues the advantages of closing the gasoline system. Because this decouples the product from the environment, health risks and environmental damage are reduced. It is also more effective than changing the composition of gasoline because it offers better cost effectiveness, energy efficiency and the minimization of carbon dioxide release into the environment. However it will take time and political will to change until all European vehicles are fitted with three way catalysts and carbon canisters: control systems to monitor such systems will also need to be set up. However CONCAWE still recommends its adoption. (UK)

  9. Roles of major organizations in EC for decision making. EC no ishi kettei ni okeru shuyo kikan no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper considers authorization powers held by the major organizations in the EC, with the Maastricht Treaty kept in mind. One of the objectives of establishing the EC is to harmonize and develop the economic activities in the community on the whole, and promote making closer the relations among the member nations. The EC's supernationality has two aspects: finances (using financial sources from externally common tariffs as the EC's independent financial resources) and legislations (member nations delegating their own powers to the international organization). Organizations involving in the EC legislations are the European Assembly, the board of ministers, and the EC Committee. The Assembly has deciding powers at high levels on the EC budget decision, as well as vetoing power on the budget. The board of ministers is provided with deciding powers to assure achievement of the objectives defined in the official requirements. The Committee has a supernational character that each committee member can act independently free from being subjected to orders from his or her native country. Practically, however, the authorization relationship among the organizations has confrontations over the interests of the organizations and member nations. There have been such movements in this situation as the Luxemburg compromises, actions at the agricultural ministers meeting, and preparation of the unified European protocol. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho to haishutsubutsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Miyamoto, T; Tsujimura, K [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, S; Shimizu, K [Japan Automobile Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new concept of multiple stage diesel combustion was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation, in order to reduce NOx emissions at high load conditions. With this concept, the premixed combustion occurs under the fuel lean conditions and the diffusion combustion occurs under the high temperature conditions. As seen in the result of combustion observation, a first stage combustion occurs with no luminous flame. A second stage combustion occurs with a luminous flame after very short ignition delay period. However the luminous flame is disappeared immediately. Because cylinder temperature is high, and hence soot oxidizes immediately. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H; Tasaka, H [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S; Harada, a; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Smoke reduction using multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no smoke teigen koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, K. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.

    1999-09-25

    A new diesel combustion concept termed MULDIC (MULtiple stage Diesel Combustion), which can reduce NO{sub x} emissions at high load conditions, was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation. The engine test showed that simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke could be obtained with MULDIC operation. In-cylinder combustion observation was carried out in order to clarify the cause of the smoke reduction of the MULDIC. In these photographs, a first stage combustion sins observed with nonluminous flame. In a second stage combustion, a highly sooting luminous flame was observed because the ignition delay was short. However this luminous flame disappeared quickly. Computational results showed that, oxygen is distributed evenly in the cylinder in later portion of the second stage combustion. Moreover, since cylinder temperature was very high, most of the soot oxidized rapidly. Thus, low smoke combustion was obtained. (author)

  14. Leaded gasoline - an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    2001-01-01

    In the European countries it is a clear trend towards the increasing consumption of unleaded gasolines. Driving force of this trend is, on the one hand the high toxicity of lead compounds and on the other, the necessity of purification of exhaust gases by catalytic converters, for which the lead represent a catalyst poison. In Macedonia, the limit lead content in the leaded gasolines is relatively high (0,6 g/l), as well as the consumption of the leaded gasolines. Rapid and complete transition to unleaded gasolines can be realized by the concept of step by step reduction of lead in our gasolines. (Original)

  15. Attempt of lean burn of a 4 cycle gasoline engine by the aid of low pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection; Tonai kuki nenryo funsha ni yoru lean burn no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S; Kondo, M; Sekiya, Y; Murayama, T [Hokkaido Automotive Engineering College, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Comparable performance and exhaust emission with conventional carburetor was obtained by a low Pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection system. And lean burn of idling and light load operation till A/F=70 was realized by installing a spark Plug and a reed type injection nozzle in a divided combustion chambaer of a 4 cycle gasoline engine. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  16. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline blendstocks...

  17. Batteries: Lower cost than gasoline?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werber, Mathew; Fischer, Michael; Schwartz, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    We compare the lifecycle costs of an electric car to a similar gasoline-powered vehicle under different scenarios of required driving range and cost of gasoline. An electric car is cost competitive for a significant portion of the scenarios: for cars of lower range and for higher gasoline prices. Electric cars with ∼150 km range are a technologically viable, cost competitive, high performance, high efficiency alternative that can presently suit the vast majority of consumers' needs.

  18. Reformulated gasoline: lessons from America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.

    1995-01-01

    Regulating fuel quality is one of the few politically feasible options for improving air quality in the short and medium term. This book explores and studies the reformulated gasoline programme currently underway in the USA. Despite the smoothness of the initial implementation of the programme, difficulties may arise in the future. It is concluded that reformulated gasoline prices are more independent of crude oil price changes than conventional unleaded gasoline. Finally, the study suggests that refiners will not reap great profit from investment in the supply of reformulated gasoline because of government restrictions. (UK)

  19. Volatilization of gasoline from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthus, P.

    1993-05-01

    Gasoline contaminated soil threatens water resources and air quality. The extent of the threat depends on gasoline behavior in soil, which is affected by various mechanisms such as volatilization. To quantify volatilization, gasoline spills were simulated in the laboratory using a synthetic gasoline and three dry soils. Total gasoline and individual gasoline compound concentrations in soil were monitored as a function of depth and time. The time to reduce overall gasoline concentration in coarse sand, sandy loam, and silt loam to 40% of initial concentration, averaged between surface and a 200-mm depth, ranged from 0.25 d to 10 d. A wicking phenomenon which contributed to gasoline flux toward the atmosphere was indicated by behavior of a low-volatility gasoline compound. Based on separate wicking experiments, this bulk immiscible movement was estimated at an upward velocity of 0.09 m/d for Delhi sandy loam and 0.05 m/d for Elora silt loam. 70 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs

  20. Oxygenates to hike gasoline price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that cost of achieving required US gasoline formulations this winter in Environmental Protection Agency carbon monoxide (CO) nonattainment areas could reach 3-5 cents/gal, an Energy Information Administration analysis has found. EIA says new winter demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol created by 190 amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) will exceed US oxygenate production by 140,000-220,000 b/d. The shortfall must be made up from inventory or imports. EIA estimates the cost of providing incremental oxygenate to meet expected gasoline blending demand likely will result in a price premium of about 20 cents/gal of MTBE equivalent over traditional gasoline blend octane value. That cost likely will be added to the price of oxygenated gasoline

  1. One-pot aqueous phase catalytic conversion of sorbitol to gasoline over nickel catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Yujing; Qiu, Songbai; Xu, Ying; Ding, Mingyue; Chen, Lungang; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong; Wang, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Directly production gasoline (C5–C12 alkanes) from biomass-derived sugar alcohol sorbitol. • Temperature of STG (553–593 K) was lower than that of traditional methanol to gasoline (MTG) (623–773 K). • Gasoline yield of 46.9% and C7–C12 hydrocarbons reached up to 45.5% in the gasoline products. - Abstract: The carbon chain extension and hydrodeoxygenation steps play critical roles in the high-energy-density hydrocarbons production. In this paper, a systematic study had been carried out to investigate one-pot aqueous phase catalytic conversion of sorbitol to gasoline (STG) over bifunctional Ni-based catalysts. Characterization technologies of N 2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and NH 3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH 3 -TPD) were used to study the textural properties, phase compositions, acid behavior and morphologies of the catalysts. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed bed reactor. It was found that the physically mixed Ni/HZSM-5 and Ni/silica-gel (mesoporous SG) catalyst realized the carbon chain extension and exhibited excellent performances on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction (46.9% of gasoline (C5–C12) yield and 45.5% of C7–C12 hydrocarbons in the gasoline products). Especially, the temperature of STG (553–593 K) was lower obviously than that of the traditional methanol to gasoline (MTG) process (623–773 K). It provided a novel transformation of sorbitol to long-chain alkanes by one-pot process over the bifunctional catalyst (Ni@HZSM-5/SG), wherein hydrodeoxygenation, ketonization and aldol condensation steps were integrated

  2. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  3. Autoignition characteristics of oxygenated gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changyoul

    2017-08-14

    Gasoline anti-knock quality, defined by the research and motor octane numbers (RON and MON), is important for increasing spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency. Gasoline knock resistance can be increased using a number of blending components. For over two decades, ethanol has become a popular anti-knock blending agent with gasoline fuels due to its production from bio-derived resources. This work explores the oxidation behavior of two oxygenated certification gasoline fuels and the variation of fuel reactivity with molecular composition. Ignition delay times of Haltermann (RON = 91) and Coryton (RON = 97.5) gasolines have been measured in a high-pressure shock tube and in a rapid compression machine at three pressures of 10, 20 and 40 bar, at equivalence ratios of φ = 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8, and in the temperature range of 650–1250 K. The results indicate that the effects of fuel octane number and fuel composition on ignition characteristics are strongest in the intermediate temperature (negative temperature coefficient) region. To simulate the reactivity of these gasolines, three kinds of surrogates, consisting of three, four and eight components, are proposed and compared with the gasoline ignition delay times. It is shown that more complex surrogate mixtures are needed to emulate the reactivity of gasoline with higher octane sensitivity (S = RON–MON). Detailed kinetic analyses are performed to illustrate the dependence of gasoline ignition delay times on fuel composition and, in particular, on ethanol content.

  4. Engine performances and exhaust gas characteristics of methanol-fueled two-cycle engines. Kogata ni cycle ter dot methanol kikan no seino ni oyobosu shoinshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, N.; Kajitani, S. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineerineering); Hayashi, S.; Kubota, Y. (Muroran Inst. of Technology, Muroran (Japan))

    1990-10-25

    Regarding crank case compressed two cycle engine, feasibility of methanol-fueled engine was investigated by studying effective factors on properties of power, combustion, and exhaust gas. For the experiment, air-cooling single cylinder engine was used of which specification was shown by table. As for the experiment, quantities of in-taken air, fuel consumption, torque, and composition of exhaust gas were measured under various conditions. As the consideration of experimental results, those were obtained that less exhaust gas with high performance operation of tow-cycle engie was achieved, too, by using diluted mixture gas of methanol, and that problems were found to be studied for the realization of high compression ratio. 12 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study of hydrocarbon emission in small direct injection engines; Kogata DI diesel kikan ni okeru teifukaji HC haishutsu ni kansuru kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurushima, T; Zhang, L; Ueda, T; Fujino, R; Yokota, K [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The cause of unburned hydrocarbon emission in small DI diesel engines at light load was studied. An optically accessible engine which was enabled to visualize the squish area was used to investigate the behavior of spray, mixture distribution and so on. Based on these observations and engine tests, the factors such as the direct impingement of liquid phase fuel spray to the combustion chamber wall the unevenness of fuel spray among holes and spreading of the fuel droplets, mixture and flame to the squish area were supposed to be the cause of forming HC emission. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Study on soot particle formation and oxidation in DI diesel engine; Chokufunshiki diesel kikan ni okeru susu ryushi no seicho sanka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, K; Senda, J; Fujimoto, H [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Asai, G [Yanmar Diesel Engine Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To clarify soot formation and oxidation process in diesel combustion, the natural emission of OH radical and the flame temperature were obtained in the combustion chamber of D.I. diesel engine. Further, soot were detected by LII (Laser Induced Incandescence) and LIS (Laser Induced Scattering) technique to assess the relative soot diameter and its number density. OH emission and flame temperature were compared with data of soot diameter and number- density. The results show that : (1) OH emission has relation to flame temperature. (2) OH emission arises latter than soot emission, because early soot at early combustion consume OH to oxidate. (3) As soon as it is ignited, soot particles are formed in the region of low temperature. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Study of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu keisei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    A study is being made on premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) by means of early fuel injection in diesel engines. The PREDIC makes it possible to largely reduce NOx emission, but has such problems as ignition control and increase in THC and CO generation. In order to clarify the relationship between fuel spray characteristics in the PREDIC and properties of gas mixture and exhausts, the present study has investigated spread and internal structure of the spray by means of spray observation experiment using a pintle swirl nozzle. Based on the result therefrom, simulations were used to investigate effects of spatial dispersion characteristics of the spray on properties of the gas mixture and exhausts before ignition. The pintle swirl nozzle forms conical spray having an air layer inside the spray, where penetration is suppressed even under low atmospheric pressure. By forming hollow spray or solid spray in the conical spray, a possibility was indicated that equivalent ratio distribution of the gas mixture can be controlled and NO emission may be reduced. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Ambitious coal to gasoline plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1979-06-20

    A design study carried out by Badger Energy concludes that the first US commercial gasoline from coal facility could be completed in eight years. The cost of gasoline would be 1.09 US dollars/gal. in 1990 with coal at 25 US dollars/ton. The process involves oxygen-blown coal gasification, conversion to methanol by the Mobil process, gas fractionation and HF alkylation.

  9. Evaluation of Motor Gasoline Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    CAMPINNE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL I LABORATOIRE MECANIQUE TRANSPORT 2565 PLYMOUTH ROAD AVENUE DE LA RENAISSANCE, 3D ANN ARBOR MI 48105 B-1040 BRUSSELS 5...CUARTEL GENERAL DEL EJERCITO ATTN: MR K LAURINSEN ATTN: MAJ M ENGO NOGUES GADHOLTVEJ 11 DIVISION DE LOGISTICA (DIAM/LABCAMVE) DK-9900 FREDERIKSHAVN...Gum for Typical Civilian Gasolines Transported by CEPS and F-46 Gasolines Stored by CEPS ...................................... 47 B. Potential Gum

  10. Stabilization of gasoline from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, L

    1929-03-14

    A process is described of stabilizing gasoline from shale, consisting in treating by agitating the gasoline freshly distilled from shale oil with 1.5 percent of its weight of sulfuric acid diluted to more than 10 times its volume, after which separating the pyridine, then treating by agitating with sulfuric acid which treatment separates the unsaturated hydrocarbons and finally treating by agitating with 1.5 percent of its weight of saturated caustic soda solution and washing with water.

  11. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  12. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro, E-mail: okamoto@nrips.go.jp [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Muneyuki [Yamanashi Prefectural Police H.Q., 312-4 Kubonakajima, Isawa-cho, Usui, Yamanashi 406-0036 (Japan); Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma [Metropolitan Police Department, 2-1-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8929 (Japan); Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  13. Biofiltration of gasoline and ethanol-amended gasoline vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marlene; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Paca, Jan; Soccol, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the projected increase in use of ethanol as a biofuel, the current study was conducted to compare the biofiltration efficiencies for plain and 25% ethanol-containing gasoline. Two biofilters were operated in a downflow mode for 7 months, one of them being compost-based whereas the other using a synthetic packing material, granulated tire rubber, inoculated with gasoline-degrading microorganisms. Inlet concentrations measured as total hydrocarbon (TH) ranged from 1.9 to 5.8 g m(-3) at a constant empty bed retention time of 6.84 min. Contrary to the expectations based on microbiological considerations, ethanol-amended gasoline was more readily biodegraded than plain hydrocarbons, with the respective steady state elimination capacities of 26-43 and 14-18 gTH m(-3) h(-1) for the compost biofilter. The efficiency of both biofilters significantly declined upon the application of higher loads of plain gasoline, yet immediately recovering when switched back to ethanol-blended gasoline. The unexpected effect of ethanol in promoting gasoline biodegradation was explained by increasing hydrocarbon partitioning into the aqueous phase, with mass transfer being rate limiting for the bulk of components. The tire rubber biofilter, after a long acclimation, surpassed the compost biofilter in performance, presumably due to the 'buffering' effect of this packing material increasing the accessibility of gasoline hydrocarbons to the biofilm. With improved substrate mass transfer, biodegradable hydrocarbons were removed in the tire rubber biofilter's first reactor stage, with most of the remaining poorly degradable smaller-size hydrocarbons being degraded in the second stage.

  14. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This brochure is designed to help consumers understand how gasoline is priced and explained why prices increase, fluctuate and vary by location, city or region. The price of a litre of gasoline reflects the costs of crude oil, refining, retailing and taxes. Taxes are usually the largest single component of gasoline prices, averaging 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude oil makes up another 35 to 45 per cent of the price. Refining costs make up 10 to 15 per cent while the remaining 5 to 10 per cent represents retail costs. Gasoline retailers make a profit of about 1 cent per litre. The latest network technology allows national and regional retail chains to constantly monitor price fluctuations to change their prices at gasoline stations at a moments notice to keep up with the competition and to protect their market shares. Several government studies, plus the Conference Board of Canada, have reported that competition is working in favour of Canadian motorists. This brochure also explained the drawbacks of regulating crude and pump prices with the reminder that crude prices were regulated in the 1970s with many negative consequences. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Pricing policies for gasoline by Canadian oil companies are discussed. An attempt is made to demonstrate that competition between oil companies is extremely keen, and markups are so small that to stay in business, retail outlets have to sell huge volumes and sell non-fuel products, as a means to increase revenues and margins. An explanation is provided for why gasoline prices move in unison, and why what appears to the public as collusion and gouging is, in fact, the result of retail dealers attempting to stay in business. The high prices are attributed mainly to taxes by municipalities, the provinces and the federal government; taxes are said to account for 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude makes up another 35 to 45 per cent, refining adds 10 to 15 per cent, with the remaining 5 to 10 per cent representing retail costs. (Taxes in the United States average 20 to 30 per cent). Over the longer term, gasoline prices consistently reflect the cost of crude oil, dominated by the OPEC countries which supply about 41 per cent of daily world production. Another factor is the rise of global and regional commodity markets for refined products such as gasoline. Commodity traders buy wholesale gasoline cheaply whenever it is in oversupply, and sell it for a profit into markets where the demand is greater. While this is claimed to ensure competitive prices in all markets, the practice can also trigger abrupt changes in regional markets

  16. Transport gasoline demand in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of household gasoline demand in Canada by applying a detailed model to pool time-series (1969-1988) and cross-sectional provincial data. The model recognises three major behavioural changes that households can make in response to gasoline price changes: drive fewer miles, purchase fewer cars, and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. In the model, fuel economy is treated in considerable detail. The two components of the fuel economy of new cars sold-the technical fuel efficiency of various classes of cars and the distribution of new car sales according to their interior volume rather than their weight - are estimated as functions of economic variables. Car manufacturers are assumed to improve the technical fuel economy according to their expectation of consumer's response to future changes in gasoline prices and general economic conditions. (author)

  17. Environment and Energy. Phase out of gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaudda, G.

    2000-01-01

    The european recommendation 98/07/EEC gives the technical specification of automotive fuels quality, gasoline and diesel fuel and forbid for member countries the commercialization of lead gasoline from 01/01/2001 [it

  18. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

  19. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are considered...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.710 - Gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline. 1065.710 Section 1065.710... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.710 Gasoline. (a) Gasoline for testing must have octane values that represent commercially available fuels for the...

  1. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90 °F...

  2. Short-term inhalation toxicity of methanol, gasoline, and methanol/gasoline in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, R; Chu, I; Bjarnason, S; Vincent, R; Potvin, M; Miller, R B; Valli, V E

    1995-01-01

    Four- to five-week-old male and female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to vapors of methanol (2500 ppm), gasoline (3200 ppm), and methanol/gasoline (2500/3200 ppm, 570/3200 ppm) six hours per day, five days per week for four weeks. Control animals were exposed to filtered room air only. Depression in body weight gain and reduced food consumption were observed in male rats, and increased relative liver weight was detected in rats of both sexes exposed to gasoline or methanol/gasoline mixtures. Rats of both sexes exposed to methanol/gasoline mixtures had increased relative kidney weight and females exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures had increased kidney weight. Decreased serum glucose and cholesterol were detected in male rats exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures. Decreased hemoglobin was observed in females inhaling vapors of gasoline and methanol/gasoline at 570/3200 ppm. Urine from rats inhaling gasoline or methanol/gasoline mixtures had up to a fourfold increase in hippuric acid, a biomarker of exposure to the toluene constituent of gasoline, and up to a sixfold elevation in ascorbic acid, a noninvasive biomarker of hepatic response. Hepatic mixed-function oxidase (aniline hydroxylase, aminopyrine N-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase) activities and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity were elevated in rats exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures. Histopathological changes were confined to very mild changes in the nasal passages and in the uterus, where decreased incidence or absence of mucosal and myometrial eosinophilia was observed in females inhaling gasoline and methanol/gasoline at 570/3200 ppm. It was concluded that gasoline was largely responsible for the adverse effects, the most significant of which included depression in weight gain in the males, increased liver weight and hepatic microsomal enzyme activities in both sexes, and suppression of uterine eosinophilia. No apparent interactive effects

  3. Asian gasoline and diesel fuel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Nancy D.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the economic slowdown in the late 1990s, gasoline and diesel demand in the Asia-Pacific region has increased significantly. Regional demand is the highest in the world and most new refinery projects worldwide during the 1990s have been here. Generalisations are difficult because the region contains countries at different stages of economic development and environmental quality standards. Gasoline and diesel demand for 1985-2005 for Australasia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and East Asia is shown in four histograms. The trend towards unleaded gasoline, average gasoline aromatics levels and the quality of gasoline in Australasia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia are examined. A further three histograms show the growth in Asia-Pacific unleaded gasoline market share 1991-2000, the rise in octane levels as lead levels fall (1991-2005) and the calculated aromatics content of gasoline in 11 Asia-Pacific countries

  4. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-04-28

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... apply to: (i) All gasoline sold or transferred to a party who sells or transfers gasoline to the...

  6. Gasoline engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The call for environmentally compatible and economical vehicles necessitates immense efforts to develop innovative engine concepts. Technical concepts such as gasoline direct injection helped to save fuel up to 20 % and reduce CO2-emissions. Descriptions of the cylinder-charge control, fuel injection, ignition and catalytic emission-control systems provides comprehensive overview of today´s gasoline engines. This book also describes emission-control systems and explains the diagnostic systems. The publication provides information on engine-management-systems and emission-control regulations. Contents History of the automobile.- Basics of the gasoline engine.- Fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Gasoline injection systems over the years.- Fuel supply.- Manifold fuel injection.- Gasoline direct injection.- Operation of gasoline engines on natural gas.- Ignition systems over the years.- Inductive ignition systems.- Ignition coils.- Spark plugs.- Electronic control.- Sensors.- Electronic control unit.- Exh...

  7. Gasoline ingestion: a rare cause of pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ifad; Narasimhan, Kanakasabai; Aziz, Shahid; Owens, William

    2009-11-01

    The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involves inhalation or percutaneous absorption. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes after gasoline poisoning by oral ingestion. The major cause of mortality and morbidity associated with the ingestion of gasoline is related to pulmonary aspiration. Despite the high frequency of the ingestions, there is little documentation of nonpulmonary toxic effects of gasoline. After ingestion, the principal toxicity is aspiration pneumonia, but any documented extra pulmonary manifestations of this condition may be important in the overall management of these patients. We are reporting a rare case of pancytopenia along with aspiration pneumonia and multisystem organ failure in a 58-year-old male after prolonged intentional ingestion of gasoline. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of gasoline toxicity causing pancytopenia.

  8. Production of high anti-knock gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-09-20

    A process is described for producing gasoline of high antiknock value by separating from the gasoline of low antiknock value by treating the gasoline in the vapor phase under pressure equal to or slightly above atmospheric and at a temperature at which it does not form essentially hydrocarbons gaseous at the operating temperature and in contact with catalysts, the process being characterized by the utilization of catalysts of silicates or phosphates except pumice stone and fullers earth.

  9. Gasoline sales post minimal gain in 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-22

    Despite the continuing emphasis on conservation and the growing trend to smaller sized automobiles, sales of motor gasoline across Canada posted a gain of 0.4% in 1986. Figures are included in this survey for Canadian motor gasoline sales categorized by province, type of gasoline, and months of 1985 and 1986. Sales of refiners' diesel fuel oil are also categorized by province and by months of 1985 and 1986. Motor gasoline disposition for 1983-1986 is categorized into retail pump sales, road and urban transport, agriculture, public administration, and commercial and other institutional markets. Also included are figures for refiners' propane sales for 1983-1986 by province.

  10. 40 CFR 80.35 - Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling of retail gasoline pumps; oxygenated gasoline. 80.35 Section 80.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Oxygenated Gasoline § 80.35 Labeling...

  11. Numerical simulation of fuel sprays and combustion in a premixed lean diesel engine; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu to nensho no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, T; Harada, A; Sasaki, S; Shimazaki, N; Hashizume, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    Fuel sprays and combustion in a direct injection Premixed lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) engine, which can make smokeless combustion with little NOx emission, is studied numerically. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of KIVA II based computer code with a combustion submodel. The combustion submodel describes the formation of combustible fuel vapor by turbulent mixing and four-step chemical reaction which includes low temperature oxidation. Comparison between computation and experiment shows qualitatively good agreement in terms of heat release rate and NO emission. Computational results indicate that the combustion is significantly influenced by fuel spray characteristics and injection timing to vary NO emission. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Soot and NOx simultaneous reduction by use of CO2 mixed fuel; Ekika CO2 yokai nenryo ni yoru diesel kikan no susu, NOx no doji teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, J; Yokoyama, T; Ikeda, M; Fujimoto, H [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Ifuku, Y [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We propose the new fuel injection system by use of diesel fuel dissolved with CO2 to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. In this paper spray combustion characteristics of CO2 mixed fuel is reported. It is revealed that flame temperature and KL factor at the CO2 mixed fuel combustion are lower than at the only n-tridecane combustion due to separation or partly flashing of CO2component. And the result of exhaust gas measurement shows the capability that CO2 mixed fuel is able to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Improvement of D.I. diesel engine combustion using numerical simulation; Chokufun diesel kikan no nensho kaizen shuho. Suchi kaiseki ni yoru torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, T.; Adachi, T.; Isyii, Y. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    For the purpose of improving DI diesel engine combustion, it is important to predict air flow of intake and exhaust manifold, intake port flow, combustion chamber swirl and fuel spray combustion. This paper describes the application of numerical simulation to the engines, the analysis of phenomena and a problem of simulation model modification. (author)

  14. Study of high load operation limit for premixed compression ignition engine; Yokongo asshuku chakka kikan no kofuka unten genkai ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, N. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Akagawa, H. [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Tsujimura, K. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Miyamoto, T.

    2000-11-25

    NO{sub x} emission was remarkably reduced by PREDIC (PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion) system in which fuel was injected at very early stage of compression stroke and the major part of the fuel is considered to be burned with self-ignition of premixed charge around TDC. However PREDIC system had some problems, a restriction of a high load operation was one of these problems. In order to investigate the combustion characteristics of PREDIC at the richer operation limit, a test engine was operated with gaseous fuel-air mixture where less heterogeneous mixture can be formed than that of conventional diesel engines. A steep pressure rise or the abrupt increase in NO{sub x} emission determined the richer operation limit. This was at 2 to 2.4 of excess air ratio. Supercharging operation enabled the high load operation more than 2.4 of excess air ratio. (author)

  15. Improvement of diesel engine performance by hydraulically powered electronic control (mechatronics) system. Hakuyo diesel kikan no mechatronics system ni yoru seino kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kajima, T.; Sato, S.; Fujii, T.; Tobe, Y. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-07-20

    This paper describes new hydraulically-actuated mechanisms for both fuel injection and inlet/exhaust valve operation of diesel engines through solenoid valves, which obviate the conventional cam-driven system. These mechanisms were integrated with an electronic control unit also developed in this study and they were mounted as a mechatronics system'' on a power-increased single-cylinder engine. This mechatronics system was mainly composed of an injection control. boost and accumulation component, an inlet and exhaust valve control component, a solenoid valve, an electronic control equipment, a hydraulic power unit, and a maneuvering unit. The verification test was carried out for the improvement of diesel engine performance by the hydraulically powered mechatronics system. As a result, it was proved not only that these mechanisms provide stable operating characteristics over a wide range of conditions, but also that the electronic control system allows accurate, smooth response. 3 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Anticipation, Tax Avoidance, and the Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Coglianese, John; Davis, Lucas W; Kilian, Lutz; Stock, James H

    2015-01-01

    Traditional least squares estimates of the responsiveness of gasoline consumption to changes in gasoline prices are biased toward zero, given the endogeneity of gasoline prices. A seemingly natural solution to this problem is to instrument for gasoline prices using gasoline taxes, but this approach tends to yield implausibly large price elasticities. We demonstrate that anticipatory behavior provides an important explanation for this result. We provide evidence that gasoline buyers increase g...

  17. Oxygenated gasolines according to European specifications for quality and ecological clean gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panovska, Vesna; Tomanovikj, Violeta

    1999-01-01

    With the phasing out of lead additives from gasoline, the interest for oxygenates as a gasoline components grows up. However, since these materials are not hydrocarbons their behaviour in terms of blending differs from the gasoline which consists of hydrocarbons only. Therefore, it is important to explain their role in blending gasolines according to European specification for motor fuels. It is important to emphasize the oxygenate contribution in production more clean gasoline. In this paper, the oxygenate types and there basic specification features followed by manufacture, laboratory testing and blending specifications with refinery components is presented. (Author)

  18. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the

  19. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  20. Inventories and upstream gasoline price dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.

    This paper sheds new light on the asymmetric dynamics in upstream U.S. gasoline prices. The model is based on Pindyck's inventory model of commodity price dynamics. We show that asymmetry in gasoline price dynamics is caused by changes in the net marginal convenience yield: higher costs of marketing

  1. Understanding retail gasoline pricing : An empirical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruzikas, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    Retail gasoline markets offer an abundance of price data at the daily and, more recently, hourly level. Firms in this industry use sophisticated price strategies. Moreover, there have been a number of important recent market developments. All this makes retail gasoline a promising industry to study

  2. The gasoline retail market in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    1998-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the current status of the gasoline market in Quebec was presented. The study includes: (1) a review of the evolution of the retail market since the 1960s, (2) the development of a highly competitive sales environment, (3) a discussion of governmental interventions in the retail sales of gasoline, and (4) a discussion of the problems associated with the imposition of a minimum gasoline price. The low increase in demand for gasoline in Quebec since the 1980s has led to a considerable restructuring of the gasoline market. Consumers have little loyalty to specific brands but seek the lowest prices or prefer the outlets that offer the widest variety of associated services such as convenience stores, fast-food and car washes. Gasoline has clearly become a commodity in Quebec. An econometric model of gasoline price adjustments for the Montreal and Toronto urban areas and a summary of government interventions in the retail marketing of gasoline in Canada and the USA are included as appendices. tabs

  3. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-11-01

    Future thrusts for gasoline engine development can be broadly summarized into two categories: (i) efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines, and (ii) development of advance compression ignition (ACI) concepts. Efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines requires downsizing (and turbocharging) which may be achieved by using high octane gasolines, whereas, low octane gasolines fuels are anticipated for ACI concepts. The current work provides the essential combustion kinetic data, targeting both thrusts, that is needed to develop high fidelity gasoline surrogate mechanisms and surrogate complexity guidelines. Ignition delay times of a wide range of certified gasolines and surrogates are reported here. These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate complexity requirements for these gasolines in homogeneous environments are specified. For the discussions presented here, gasolines are classified into three categories: (i)\\tLow octane gasolines including Saudi Aramco’s light naphtha fuel (anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2 = 64; Sensitivity (S) = RON – MON = 1), certified FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline I and J (AKI ~ 70, S = 0.7 and 3 respectively), and their Primary Reference Fuels (PRF, mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane) and multi-component surrogates. (ii)\\t Mid octane gasolines including FACE A and C (AKI ~ 84, S ~ 0 and 1 respectively) and their PRF surrogates. Laser absorption measurements of intermediate and product species formed during gasoline/surrogate oxidation are also reported. (iii)\\t A wide range of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene (TPRF) blends to adequately represent the octane and sensitivity requirements of high octane gasolines including FACE gasoline F and G

  4. Bacterial contamination of motor gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, E.C. [ECHA Microbiology Ltd., Cardiff (United Kingdom); Koenig, J.W.J. [Koerperschaft des Oeffentlichen Rechts, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    Microbiological growth is found frequently in the bottom of jet fuel, distillate, heavy gasoil and crude oil tanks. Experience shows that traces of water - though theoretically enough for an outbreak of growth - rarely cause problems, because the tank is most probably drained frequently. However when a water table builds up and remains untouched for some time, the likelihood for growth, leading to later operational problems, rapidly increases. Normal paraffin hydrocarbons with c{sub 8}-c{sub 16} chain length appear to be especially vulnerable; in other words the kerosene/jet fuel boiling range is mainly at risk. Heavier hydrocarbon products (diesel, light heating oils and gasoils) however have increasingly seen problems over the last 15-20 years. Lighter products - mainly the gasoline boiling range appear to have been protected from microbial problems over many years. In a laboratory it was of course possible to degrade certain kinds of naphthas and finished gasolines, but those results did not mirror the findings in the field.

  5. Life cycle assessment of gasoline and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuholt, Edgar

    1995-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out to compare production and use of three different fuel products: regular gasoline, gasoline with MTBE and diesel. The study quantifies energy consumption and emissions through the production chain and assesses the potential impacts to the environment. Some of the methodological problems performing the LCA are discussed. The study indicates that production of gasoline with MTBE has potentially larger environmental impacts than production of regular gasoline, caused by the extra facilities for production of MTBE. The study also shows that the results are highly sensitive to the actual product specifications and assumptions that are made. Different product specifications can therefore lead to other conclusions. The results also indicate that production of diesel leads to significantly lower potential impacts than the gasolines

  6. Recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2017-12-06

    Petroleum-derived gasoline is currently the most widely used fuel for transportation propulsion. The design and operation of gasoline fuels is governed by specific physical and chemical kinetic fuel properties. These must be thoroughly understood in order to improve sustainable gasoline fuel technologies in the face of economical, technological, and societal challenges. For this reason, surrogate mixtures are formulated to emulate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and chemical kinetic properties of the real fuel, so that fundamental experiments and predictive simulations can be conducted. Early studies on gasoline combustion typically adopted single component or binary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane) as surrogates. However, the last decade has seen rapid progress in the formulation and utilization of ternary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane/toluene), as well as multicomponent mixtures that span the entire carbon number range of gasoline fuels (C4–C10). The increased use of oxygenated fuels (ethanol, butanol, MTBE, etc.) as blending components/additives has also motivated studies on their addition to gasoline fuels. This comprehensive review presents the available experimental and chemical kinetic studies which have been performed to better understand the combustion properties of gasoline fuels and their surrogates. Focus is on the development and use of surrogate fuels that emulate real fuel properties governing the design and operation of engines. A detailed analysis is presented for the various classes of compounds used in formulating gasoline surrogate fuels, including n-paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Chemical kinetic models for individual molecules and mixtures of molecules to emulate gasoline surrogate fuels are presented. Despite the recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuel combustion research, there are still major gaps remaining; these are critically discussed, as well as their implications on fuel formulation and engine

  7. Recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir; Kalghatgi, Gautam T.

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum-derived gasoline is currently the most widely used fuel for transportation propulsion. The design and operation of gasoline fuels is governed by specific physical and chemical kinetic fuel properties. These must be thoroughly understood in order to improve sustainable gasoline fuel technologies in the face of economical, technological, and societal challenges. For this reason, surrogate mixtures are formulated to emulate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and chemical kinetic properties of the real fuel, so that fundamental experiments and predictive simulations can be conducted. Early studies on gasoline combustion typically adopted single component or binary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane) as surrogates. However, the last decade has seen rapid progress in the formulation and utilization of ternary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane/toluene), as well as multicomponent mixtures that span the entire carbon number range of gasoline fuels (C4–C10). The increased use of oxygenated fuels (ethanol, butanol, MTBE, etc.) as blending components/additives has also motivated studies on their addition to gasoline fuels. This comprehensive review presents the available experimental and chemical kinetic studies which have been performed to better understand the combustion properties of gasoline fuels and their surrogates. Focus is on the development and use of surrogate fuels that emulate real fuel properties governing the design and operation of engines. A detailed analysis is presented for the various classes of compounds used in formulating gasoline surrogate fuels, including n-paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Chemical kinetic models for individual molecules and mixtures of molecules to emulate gasoline surrogate fuels are presented. Despite the recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuel combustion research, there are still major gaps remaining; these are critically discussed, as well as their implications on fuel formulation and engine

  8. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  10. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Drunk-Driving Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Guangqing Chi; Xuan Zhou; Timothy McClure; Paul Gilbert; Arthur Cosby; Li Zhang; Angela Robertson; David Levinson

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between changing gasoline prices and drunk-driving crashes. Specifically, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on drunk-driving crashes in Mississippi by age, gender, and race from 2004Ð2008, a period experiencing great fluctuation in gasoline prices. An exploratory visualization by graphs shows that higher gasoline prices are generally associated with fewer drunk-driving crashes. Higher gasoline prices depress drunk- driving crashes among younger...

  11. Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline, National Research Council

    ... and comparison of the emissions from motor vehicles using different reformulated gasolines based on their ozone-forming potentials and to assess the concomitant impact of that approach on air-quality benefits...

  12. Cointegration and the demand for gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskara Rao, B.; Rao, Gyaneshwar

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been a worldwide upsurge in the price of energy and in particular of gasoline. Therefore, demand functions for energy and its components like gasoline have received much attention. However, since confidence in the estimated demand functions is important for use in policy and forecasting, following [Amarawickrama, H.A., Hunt, L.C., 2008. Electricity demand for Sri Lanka: A time series analysis. Energy Economics 33, 724-739], this paper estimates the demand for gasoline is estimated with five alternative time series techniques with data from Fiji. Estimates with these alternative techniques are very close, and thus increase our confidence in them. We found that gasoline demand is both price and income inelastic.

  13. Hydrocarbon control strategies for gasoline marketing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.L.; Sakaida, R.R.; Yamada, M.M.

    1978-05-01

    This informational document provides basic and current descriptions of gasoline marketing operations and methods that are available to control hydrocarbon emissions from these operations. The three types of facilities that are described are terminals, bulk plants, and service stations. Operational and business trends are also discussed. The potential emissions from typical facilities, including transport trucks, are given. The operations which lead to emissions from these facilities include (1) gasoline storage, (2) gasoline loading at terminals and bulk plants, (3) gasoline delivery to bulk plants and service stations, and (4) the refueling of vehicles at service stations. Available and possible methods for controlling emissions are described with their estimated control efficiencies and costs. This report also includes a bibliography of references cited in the text, and supplementary sources of information.

  14. Gasoline tax best path to reduced emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinner, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Lowering gasoline consumption is the quickest way to increase energy security and reduce emissions. Three policy initiatives designed to meet such goals are current contenders in Washington, DC: higher gasoline taxes; higher CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards; and an auto registration fee scheme with gas-guzzler taxes and gas-sipper subsidies. Any of these options will give us a more fuel-efficient auto fleet. The author feels, however, the gasoline tax holds several advantages: it is fair, flexible, smart, and honest. But he notes that he is proposing a substantial increase in the federal gasoline tax. Real commitment would translate into an additional 50 cents a gallon at the pump. While the concept of increasing taxes at the federal level is unpopular with voters and, thus, with elected officials, there are attractive ways to recycle the $50 billion in annual revenues that higher gas taxes would produce

  15. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  16. Cointegration and the demand for gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskara Rao, B. [University of Western Sydney, Sydney1797 (Australia); Rao, Gyaneshwar [University of the South Pacific (Fiji)

    2009-10-15

    Since the early 1970s, there has been a worldwide upsurge in the price of energy and in particular of gasoline. Therefore, demand functions for energy and its components like gasoline have received much attention. However, since confidence in the estimated demand functions is important for use in policy and forecasting, following [Amarawickrama, H.A., Hunt, L.C., 2008. Electricity demand for Sri Lanka: A time series analysis. Energy Economics 33, 724-739], this paper estimates the demand for gasoline is estimated with five alternative time series techniques with data from Fiji. Estimates with these alternative techniques are very close, and thus increase our confidence in them. We found that gasoline demand is both price and income inelastic. (author)

  17. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its

  18. Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordian, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Alistair W; Morris, Stephen S

    2010-01-01

    Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR’s minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb. PMID:20948946

  19. Taking the mystery out of gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Gasoline price variations in different markets of Canada are primarily driven by market forces, not necessarily by costs, according to a petroleum valuation consultant of the Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy. Market forces include wholesale prices, the number and efficiency of stations in an area, companies' marketing strategies and customer buying preferences. Prices can be affected by any one of these forces at any time. The prediction is that wholesale prices will continue to be volatile in the next few months as the market adjusts to the changes in crude oil prices determined by OPEC as well as the summer season for gasoline. Changes in crude oil prices are usually reflected in the price of gasoline at the pump, although they do not necessarily move together. Demand which is an important factor in price, is cyclical in both the US and Canada, being lowest in the first quarter of the year, picking up during the second and third quarters with increased driving during good weather, and usually declining again in the fourth quarter with the onset of colder weather. Taxes are also a very significant component of the retail price of gasoline; in July 1998 the combined federal and provincial taxes accounted for 54 per cent of the average retail price of regular unleaded gasoline in Canada. Refining and marketing costs, the distance gasoline has to be transported to market, also influence prices at the pump

  20. Successful outcome after intravenous gasoline injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Wolfgang; Mitterhammer, Heike; Stauber, Rudolf; Kaufmann, Peter; Smolle, Karl Heinz

    2007-12-01

    Gasoline, ingested intentionally or accidentally, is toxic. The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involve oral ingestion or inhalation. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes following hydrocarbon poisoning by intravenous injection. Following a suicide attempt by intravenous self-injection of 10 ml of gasoline, a 26-year-old medical student was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with hemoptysis, symptoms of acute respiratory failure, chest pain, and severe abdominal cramps. Gas exchange was severely impaired and a chest x-ray indicated chemical pneumonitis. Initial treatment consisted of mechanical ventilation, supportive hyperventilation, administration of nitrogen oxide (NO), and prednisone. Unfortunately, the patient developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) complicated by life-threatening severe vasoplegia within 24 hours after gasoline injection. High doses of vasopressors along with massive amounts of parenteral fluids were necessary. Despite fluid replacement, renal function worsened and required hemofiltration on 5 sequential days. After 12 days of intensive care management, the patient recovered completely and was discharged to a psychiatric care facility. Intravenous gasoline injection causes major injury to the lungs, the organ bearing the first capillary bed encountered. Treatment of gasoline poisoning is symptomatic because no specific antidote is available. Early and aggressive supportive care may be conducive to a favorable outcome with minimal residual pulmonary sequelae.

  1. Toxicological Assessments of Rats Exposed Prenatally to Inhaled Vapors of Gasoline and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which is blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ...

  2. Feasibility study on reduction of gasoline emissions from oil depots and gasoline stations in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A field survey was conducted of oil shipment depots in Java and Bali islands owned by Indonesia's state-run oil company to study measures for reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Studies were made on the grasp of the amount of the hydrocarbon vapor emitted into the air, the amount of the gasoline recovered in case of adopting the vapor emission preventive technology, equipment cost/operational cost, etc. Concretely, the following three were studied: change of the gasoline storage tank to the inner floating roof type, and prevention of evaporation loss at the time of receiving and breathing loss caused by temperature changes; replacement with the vapor recovery type loading arm to recover gasoline vapor generated at the time of shipment/filling, and installation of the vapor recovery unit to recover vapor as gasoline; vapor balance system to recover in underground tank the gasoline vapor generated at the time of filling gasoline at gas station. As a result of the study, the recovered gasoline amount was 66,393 Kl/y and the CO2 reduction amount was 14,474 t/y at oil shipment depots and approximately 650 gasoline stations in Jakarta and Surabaya. (NEDO)

  3. Evaluation for leaded and unleaded Gasoline as Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Naga, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    With the phase out of alkyl lead compounds as necessary additives for gasoline in order to raise its octane number , the alternative is to reformulate gasoline to have nearly same octane number but with other chemical structures. Such reformulated gasoline (RFG) is found to contain higher aromatics, benzene, iso paraffins, in comparison to leaded gasoline. Additionally, this reformulated gasoline can also contain oxygenated additives. Accordingly, this paper is aiming at evaluation of emitted hazardous chemical compounds from car engines at fuel combustion. Role of chemical structures for reformulated gasoline in emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and poisoning materials are considered

  4. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  5. Experimental investigation on SI engine using gasoline and a hybrid iso-butanol/gasoline fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfasakhany, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • iso-Butanol–gasoline blends (iB) using up to 10 vol.% butanol were examined in SIE. • iB extensively decrease the greenhouse effect of SI engine. • iB without engine tuning led to a drop in engine performance at all speeds. • iB provide higher performance and lower CO and CO 2 emissions than n-butanol blends. • iB grant lower CO and UHC than gasoline at <2900 r/min, but overturn at >2900 r/min. - Abstract: Experimental investigation on pollutant emissions and performance of SI engine fueled with gasoline and iso-butanol–gasoline blends is carried out. Engine was operated at speed range of 2600–3400 r/min for each blend (3, 7 and 10 vol.% iso-butanol) and neat gasoline. Results declare that the CO and UHC emissions of neat gasoline are higher than those of the blended fuels for speeds less than or equal to 2900 r/min; however, for speeds higher than 2900 r/min, we have an opposite impact where the blended fuels produce higher level of CO and UHC emissions than the gasoline fuel. The CO 2 emission at using iso-butanol–gasoline blends is always lower than the neat gasoline at all speeds by up to 43%. The engine performance results demonstrate that using iso-butanol–gasoline blends in SI engine without any engine tuning lead to a drop in engine performance within all speed range. Without modifying the engine system, overall fuel combustion of iso-butanol–gasoline blends was quasi-complete. However, when engine system is optimized for blended fuels, iso-butanol has significant oxygen content and that can lead to a leaner combustion, which improves the completeness of combustion and therefore high performance and less emissions would be obtained. Finally, the performance and emissions of iso-butanol–gasoline blends are compared with those of n-butanol–gasoline blends at similar blended rates and engine working conditions. Such comparison is directed to evaluate the combustion dissimilarity of the two butanol isomers and also to

  6. 75 FR 74044 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Gasoline Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...; Gasoline Volatility AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance... entities: Entities potentially affected by this action are those who produce or import gasoline containing... Additives: Gasoline Volatility, Reporting Requirements for Parties Which Produce of Import Gasoline...

  7. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  8. Gasoline prices and the public interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The concerns that have been raised about gasoline prices in Newfoundland were addressed and the reasons why they differ significantly from one part of Newfoundland to another were examined. A research and investigation program was established to identify the factors contributing to the price of, and price variation in gasoline sold in the province. Companies directly involved in the gasoline retail business in the province were invited to answer an extensive questionnaire which asked detailed, confidential information concerning the company's operations. This report contains the results of the analysis of the responses, and provides a comprehensive picture of the operation of the petroleum industry. It also contains a series of recommendations for the government with respect to monitoring price fluctuations, gathering data about the industry, and constructing an independently owned and operated terminal storage facility. The report recommends against direct regulation. tabs., figs

  9. Gasoline prices, gasoline consumption, and new-vehicle fuel economy: Evidence for a large sample of countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Paul J.; Nishitateno, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    Countries differ considerably in terms of the price drivers pay for gasoline. This paper uses data for 132 countries for the period 1995–2008 to investigate the implications of these differences for the consumption of gasoline for road transport. To address the potential for simultaneity bias, we use both a country's oil reserves and the international crude oil price as instruments for a country's average gasoline pump price. We obtain estimates of the long-run price elasticity of gasoline demand of between − 0.2 and − 0.5. Using newly available data for a sub-sample of 43 countries, we also find that higher gasoline prices induce consumers to substitute to vehicles that are more fuel-efficient, with an estimated elasticity of + 0.2. Despite the small size of our elasticity estimates, there is considerable scope for low-price countries to achieve gasoline savings and vehicle fuel economy improvements via reducing gasoline subsidies and/or increasing gasoline taxes. - Highlights: ► We estimate the determinants of gasoline demand and new-vehicle fuel economy. ► Estimates are for a large sample of countries for the period 1995–2008. ► We instrument for gasoline prices using oil reserves and the world crude oil price. ► Gasoline demand and fuel economy are inelastic with respect to the gasoline price. ► Large energy efficiency gains are possible via higher gasoline prices

  10. Epidemic gasoline exposures following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong K; Takematsu, Mai; Biary, Rana; Williams, Nicholas; Hoffman, Robert S; Smith, Silas W

    2013-12-01

    Major adverse climatic events (MACEs) in heavily-populated areas can inflict severe damage to infrastructure, disrupting essential municipal and commercial services. Compromised health care delivery systems and limited utilities such as electricity, heating, potable water, sanitation, and housing, place populations in disaster areas at risk of toxic exposures. Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012 and caused severe infrastructure damage in heavily-populated areas. The prolonged electrical outage and damage to oil refineries caused a gasoline shortage and rationing unseen in the USA since the 1970s. This study explored gasoline exposures and clinical outcomes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Prospectively collected, regional poison control center (PCC) data regarding gasoline exposure cases from October 29, 2012 (hurricane landfall) through November 28, 2012 were reviewed and compared to the previous four years. The trends of gasoline exposures, exposure type, severity of clinical outcome, and hospital referral rates were assessed. Two-hundred and eighty-three gasoline exposures were identified, representing an 18 to 283-fold increase over the previous four years. The leading exposure route was siphoning (53.4%). Men comprised 83.0% of exposures; 91.9% were older than 20 years of age. Of 273 home-based calls, 88.7% were managed on site. Asymptomatic exposures occurred in 61.5% of the cases. However, minor and moderate toxic effects occurred in 12.4% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal (24.4%) and pulmonary (8.4%) symptoms predominated. No major outcomes or deaths were reported. Hurricane Sandy significantly increased gasoline exposures. While the majority of exposures were managed at home with minimum clinical toxicity, some patients experienced more severe symptoms. Disaster plans should incorporate public health messaging and regional PCCs for public health promotion and toxicological surveillance.

  11. Do gasoline prices exhibit asymmetry? Not usually

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found evidence of asymmetric price adjustment in U.S. retail gasoline prices in that gasoline prices rise more rapidly in response to a cost increase than fall in response to a cost decrease. By estimating a threshold cointegration model that allows for multiple regimes, I am able to test how sensitive this result is to outlying observations. In contrast to previous studies, I find little evidence of asymmetry for the vast majority of observations and that the asymmetry is being driven by a small number of outlying observations. (author)

  12. Motor Gasoline Market Model documentation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), describe its basic approach and to provide detail on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. The MGMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and price for motor gasoline in the US market; it also calculates end of month stock levels. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand and stock level

  13. Gasoline demand in Europe. New insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pock, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes a panel data set from 14 European countries over the period 1990-2004 to estimate a dynamic model specification for gasoline demand. Previous studies estimating gasoline consumption per total passenger cars ignore the recent increase in the number of diesel cars in most European countries leading to biased elasticity estimates. We apply several common dynamic panel estimators to our small sample. Results show that specifications neglecting the share of diesel cars overestimate short-run income, price and car ownership elasticities. It appears that the results of standard pooled estimators are more reliable than common IV/GMM estimators applied to our small data set. (author)

  14. Gasoline demand in Europe. New insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pock, Markus [Department of Economics and Finance, HealthEcon IHS - Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna Stumpergasse 56, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-01-15

    This study utilizes a panel data set from 14 European countries over the period 1990-2004 to estimate a dynamic model specification for gasoline demand. Previous studies estimating gasoline consumption per total passenger cars ignore the recent increase in the number of diesel cars in most European countries leading to biased elasticity estimates. We apply several common dynamic panel estimators to our small sample. Results show that specifications neglecting the share of diesel cars overestimate short-run income, price and car ownership elasticities. It appears that the results of standard pooled estimators are more reliable than common IV/GMM estimators applied to our small data set. (author)

  15. Recent Trends and Patterns of Gasoline Consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses recent trends and spatial patterns of gasoline consumption in Nigeria. In particular, it shows that the volume of gasoline consumption in the country fluctuates with changes in economic growth. The pattern of distribution of gasoline consumption indicates that the largest consumption centres are in the ...

  16. 46 CFR 56.50-70 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 56.50-70 Section 56.50-70... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-70 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Material.... Outlets in fuel lines for drawing gasoline for any purpose are prohibited. Valved openings in the bottom...

  17. 46 CFR 58.50-5 - Gasoline fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel tanks. 58.50-5 Section 58.50-5 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-5 Gasoline fuel tanks. (a) Construction—(1) Shape...) Installation. (1) Gasoline fuel tanks used for propulsion shall be located in water-tight compartments separate...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; gasohol. 48.4081-6 Section 48.4081-6... Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-6 Gasoline; gasohol. (a) Overview. This section provides rules for determining the applicability of reduced rates of tax on a removal or entry of gasohol or of gasoline used to...

  20. 40 CFR 80.81 - Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline. 80.81 Section 80.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.81 Enforcement exemptions for California gasoline. (a)(1) The requirements of subparts D, E, F, and J of this part are...

  1. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements required by these regulations shall be...

  2. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  3. 46 CFR 169.613 - Gasoline fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline fuel systems. 169.613 Section 169.613 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.613 Gasoline fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each gasoline fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-70 of this chapter (b) Each...

  4. 40 CFR 79.32 - Motor vehicle gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle gasoline. 79.32 Section...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.32 Motor vehicle gasoline. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle gasoline are hereby...

  5. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  6. Technique of sample preparation for analysis of gasoline and lubricating oils by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila P, P.

    1990-03-01

    The X-ray fluorescence laboratory of the National Institute of Nuclear Research when not having a technique for the analysis of oils it has intended, with this work, to develop a preparation technique for the analysis of the metals of Pb, Cr, Ni, V and Mo in gasolines and oils, by means of the spectrometry by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The obtained results, its will be of great utility for the one mentioned laboratory. (Author)

  7. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

  8. Production of clean gasoline from the condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddin Bentahar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The locally available Algerian bentonite is explored to prepare catalysts for the isomerization of the light fractions of Algerian condensate to produce high quality gasoline of high octane number. Satisfying results are obtained which render these catalysts applicable for a large scale production.

  9. Stream remediation following a gasoline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Reiter, G.A.; Challenger, G.

    2000-01-01

    On June 10, 1999, a pipe ruptured on the Olympic Pipe Line causing the release, explosion and fire of up to one million litres of gasoline in Bellingham, Washington. It affected approximately 5 km of the Whatcom Creek ecosystem. Following the incident, several concurrent activities in the source area and downstream occurred. This paper discussed the remediation of the affected stream bed sections. During the period July 6 - August 16, an interagency project was implemented. It involved mechanical, manual, and hydraulic in-situ treatment techniques to remove the gasoline from the stream bed and the banks. In addition, a series of controlled, hydraulic flushes were conducted. The sluice or control gates at the head of the Whatcom Creek were opened each night, and bigger flushes took place before and after the treatments. Simultaneously, water and sediment were sampled and analysed. The data obtained provided information on the state of the initial stream water and stream sediment and on the effects that the remediation had had. The residual gasoline was successfully removed from the sediments and river banks in six weeks. No downstream movement of the released gasoline towards Bellingham was detected. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  10. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in gasoline engine mechanics in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of small-engine mechanics; program content (curriculum framework and student performance…

  11. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  12. Development of synthetic gasoline production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, T; Fujita, H; Yamada, K; Suzuki, T; Tsuchida, Y

    1986-01-01

    As oil deposits are limited, it is very important to develop techniques for manufacturing petroleum alternatives as substitute energy sources to brighten the outlook for the future. The Research Association for Petroleum Alternatives Development (RAPAD) in Japan is engaged in the research and development of production techniques for light hydrocarbon oils such as gasoline, kerosene, and light oil from synthesis gas (CO, H/sub 2/) obtained from the raw materials of natural gas, coal, etc. Regarding the MTG process of synthesizing gasoline via methanol from synthesis gas and the STG process of directly synthesizing gasoline from synthesis gas, Cosmo Oil Co., Ltd. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., members of RAPAD, have sought jointly to develop catalysts and processes. As a result of this co-operation, the authors have recently succeeded in developing a new catalyst with a long life span capable of providing a high yield and high selectivity. Additionally, the authors are currently on the verge of putting into effect a unique two-step STG process of synthesizing high octane gasoline via dimethyl ether, referred to as the AMSTG process.

  13. Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... Gasoline Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council National Academy Press Washington D.C. Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as...

  14. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it

  15. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region

  16. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  17. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  18. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they're rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears

  19. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  20. MVMA's 1991 summer gasoline survey and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous newsletter (September 1991 issue of this journal), the results of MVMA's 1990 Summer Gasoline Survey were discussed. It was noted that many gasolines containing high concentrations of olefins (over 15 percent volume) were being marketed in the northeast corridor between Washington, D.C. and Boston. Also noted was the finding that the composition of gasoline plays an important role in determining the emissions from vehicles on the road. In this newsletter, the potential effects on air quality of the more recently surveyed gasolines are discussed. Three grades of unleaded gasoline were covered in the survey (premium, intermediate, and regular). 1 tab

  1. Survey of benzene and aromatics in Canadian Gasoline - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, M.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive database of the benzene and aromatics levels of gasoline produced in or imported into Canada during 1994, was presented. Environment Canada conducted a survey that requested refineries and importers to report quarterly on benzene and aromatics levels in gasoline. Benzene, which has been declared toxic by the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, is found in gasoline and is formed during the combustion of the aromatic components of gasoline. It was shown that benzene and aromatics levels differ regionally and seasonally. There are also variations in benzene levels between batches of gasoline produced at any one refinery. This report listed the responses to the benzene/aromatics survey. It also described the analytical procedures used to measure benzene and aromatics levels in gasoline, and provided guidelines for reporting gasoline benzene and total aromatics data. 7 tabs., 21 figs

  2. Research report for fiscal 1998. Survey on the researchers and research institutes for the effects of global warming and its countermeasures; 1998 nendo onshitsu koka gas ni yoru kankyo eikyo nado ni kansuru kenkyusha kenkyu kikan chosa chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researchers and research institutes across the world (except those in Japan), engaged in the study of global warming and measures to deal with the phenomenon, are extracted in compliance with certain specified standards, and the latest information on them is appropriately arranged and listed. It is further developed into an electronic database for the convenience of users. The collected information includes more than 230 research institutes and more than 1,000 researchers. The endeavor is exerted by extracting essays and institutes mainly out of the on-line databases. More than 1,000 essays and 130 institutes are covered. Visits are made to five institutes in the U.S. and four in Europe who are most actively engaged in the study of global warming, and detailed researches are conducted and information is exchanged. The Argonne National Institute copes with all energy problems related to global warming. Descriptions are given about environmental impact surveys and CO2 isolation in the ocean at the Center for Global Science of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the visitors heard explanations of technologies related to renewable energies and so forth. Researches are made into ecosystems at the University of California, and into natural energies at the University of Hawaii. Also visited are research institutes in Australia, Germany, Netherlands, and Britain. (NEDO)

  3. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, H; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, T [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  5. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  6. Misunderstood markets: The case of California gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer Ruth

    In 1996, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented a new benchmark for cleaner burning gasoline that is unique to California. Since then, government officials have often expressed concern that the uniqueness of petroleum products in California segregates the industry, allowing for gasoline prices in the State that are too high and too volatile. The growing concern about the segmentation of the California markets lends itself to analysis of spatial pricing. Spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline within the state exhibit some characteristics that seem, on the surface, inconsistent with spatial price theory. Particularly, some spatial price spreads of wholesale gasoline appear larger than accepted transportation rates and other spreads are negative, giving a price signal for transportation against the physical flow of product. Both characteristics suggest some limitation in the arbitrage process. Proprietary data, consisting of daily product prices for the years 2000 through 2002, disaggregated by company, product, grade, and location is used to examine more closely spatial price patterns. My discussion of institutional and physical infrastructure outlines two features of the industry that limit, but do not prohibit, arbitrage. First, a look into branding and wholesale contracting shows that contract terms, specifically branding agreements, reduces the price-responsiveness of would-be arbitrageurs. Second, review of maps and documents illustrating the layout of physical infrastructure, namely petroleum pipelines, confirms the existence of some connections among markets. My analysis of the day-of-the-week effects on wholesale prices demonstrates how the logistics of the use of transportation infrastructure affect market prices. Further examination of spatial price relationships shows that diesel prices follow closely the Augmented Law of One Price (ALOP), and that branding agreements cause gasoline prices to deviate substantially ALOP. Without branding

  7. pH-dependent release of trace elements including platinum group elements (PGEs) from gasoline and diesel catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucha, Veronika; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Strnad, Ladislav

    2014-05-01

    The release of trace metals and platinum group elements (PGEs) from automobile exhaust catalysts represents a remarkable source of higly dispersed environmental contamination. Especially, PGEs have shown increasing research interest due to their possible bioaccessibility. In our research, we focused on leaching behaviour of trace metals from gasoline and diesel automobile catalysts. While catalysts for gasoline engines contain a mixture of Pt-Pd-Rh or Pd-Rh, catalysts for diesel engines are composed only of Pt. We used dust from two crushed gasoline and two crushed diesel catalysts (new and aged). The dust of gasoline catalysts contains significant concentrations of Pt (700 mg.kg-1), Pd (11 000 mg.kg-1) and Rh (700 mg.kg-1). And the dust of diesel catalysts are composed of Pt (3 900 mg.kg-1) and they contains negligible amounts of Pd dan Rh (leaching of trace metals from dust we used pH-stat leaching test according to the European standard CEN/TS 14997. The concentrations of cations: PGEs (Pt, Pd a Rh), K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, La and Ce were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and anions: F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3- by high-performance liquid chromatography. Although the dusts from catalysts were relatively stable to acid/base influence, the leaching of trace metals from catalysts showed a dependence on pH. Generally, the highest concentrations were released under acidic conditions. The leaching of PGEs was higher for Pt in diesel catalysts and for Pd and Rh in gasoline catalysts. The highest concentrations of Zn and Pb were observed in old catalysts. The rare earth metals were released more from gasoline catalysts. Catalysts particles represent health risk especially with respect to their PGEs contents.

  8. Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

    2011-09-15

    The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first

  9. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase-out of leaded gasoline: a prescription for Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashisho, Z.; El-Fadel, M.; Ayoub, G.; Baaj, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Lead is a toxic heavy metal. Nevertheless, it has been mined and used for more than 800 years. Among the different contemporary sources of lead pollution, emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline is of particular concern, as it can constitutes more than 90 percent of total lead emissions into the atmosphere in congested urban areas. Concentrations of lead in air and blood are strongly correlated with gasoline lead content and traffic volume. As a result of the increasing awareness about the dangers of lead to human health and the measures to manage urban air pollution, the use of leaded gasoline has been decreasing worldwide. In Lebanon, in the absence of policies to reduce the use of lead in gasoline or to favor the use of unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline is the predominant grade. The objective of this research work is to analyze the current status of gasoline, and to assess the feasibility and prospect of such action. For this purpose, background information are presented, data about gasoline usage and specifications have been collected, field measurements have been performed and a public survey has been conducted. The comparison of the expected cost savings from phasing out leaded gasoline with the potential costs indicates that such action is economically highly justified. If effective regulatory measures are undertaken, leaded gasoline can be phased-out immediately without a significant cost

  11. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettendorf, L. [Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van der Geest, S. [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuper, G. [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-04-15

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find strong evidence for amount asymmetry. However, there is a faster reaction to upward changes in spot prices than to downward changes in spot prices. This implies timing or pattern asymmetry. This asymmetry starts three days after the change in the spot price and lasts for four days.

  12. Report on the Chatham gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A request to investigate was made by an independent gasoline retailer in Chatham, Ontario, alleging predatory pricing practices and abuse of dominant position by certain oil companies (Sunoco and Pioneer) during the spring of 1999. The Competition Bureau investigated the complaint and concluded that the conditions required to engage in the sort of anti-competitive conduct that was alleged, did not exist. No evidence of joint price determination at the wholesale or retail level between the two companies was found. The findings of the Competition Bureau detailed in this report disclosed that in the product and geographical market, namely retail gasoline sales in Chatham, Ontario,, there was no dominance by a single firm or group of firms at either the retail or wholesale level as required by Section 79 of the Competition Act, hence no grounds to proceed with an application to the Tribunal under Section 79

  13. Emissions characteristics of higher alcohol/gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, M.; Martin, D.W.; Carder, D.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols and gasoline (UTG96) blends. While lower alcohols (methanol and ethanol) have been used in blends with gasoline, very little work has been done or reported on higher alcohols (propanol, butanol and pentanol). Comparisons of emissions and fuel characteristics between higher alcohol/gasoline blends and neat gasoline were made to determine the advantages and disadvantages of blending higher alcohols with gasoline. All tests were conducted on a single-cylinder Waukesha Cooperative Fuel Research engine operating at steady state conditions and stoichiometric air-fuel (A/F) ratio. Emissions test were conducted at the optimum spark timing-knock limiting compression ratio combination for the particular blend being tested. The cycle emission [mass per unit time (g/h)] of CO, CO 2 and organic matter hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE) from the higher alcohol/gasoline blends were very similar to those from neat gasoline. Cycle emissions of NO x from the blends were higher than those from neat gasoline. However, for all the emissions species considered, the brake specific emissions (g/kW h) were significantly lower for the higher alcohol/gasoline blends than for neat gasoline. This was because the blends had greater resistance to knock and allowed higher compression ratios, which increased engine power output. The contribution of alcohols and aldehydes to the overall OMHCE emissions was found to be minimal. Cycle fuel consumption (g/h) of higher alcohol/gasoline blends was slightly higher than with neat gasoline due to the lower stoichiometric A/F ratios required by the blends. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (g/kW h) for the blends was significantly lower than that for neat gasoline. (Author)

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  15. Why did the consumption of Gasoline fall?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2002-01-01

    In the last three years, the Colombians stopped to consume 56.000 daily barrels of gasoline on the average. The economic crisis and the increase of the smuggling were the main reasons. They also influenced other facts as the entrance of Transmilenio in Bogota, the pick and badge and the increment of the prices. The demand of fuels fell 34,5% between 1998 and 2001

  16. Gasoline Combustion Fundamentals DOE FY17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Advanced automotive gasoline engines that leverage a combination of reduced heat transfer, throttling, and mechanical losses; shorter combustion durations; and higher compression and mixture specific heat ratios are needed to meet aggressive DOE VTP fuel economy and pollutant emission targets. Central challenges include poor combustion stability at low-power conditions when large amounts of charge dilution are introduced and high sensitivity of conventional inductive coil ignition systems to elevated charge motion and density for boosted high-load operation. For conventional spark ignited operation, novel low-temperature plasma (LTP) or pre-chamber based ignition systems can improve dilution tolerances while maintaining good performance characteristics at elevated charge densities. Moreover, these igniters can improve the control of advanced compression ignition (ACI) strategies for gasoline at low to moderate loads. The overarching research objective of the Gasoline Combustion Fundamentals project is to investigate phenomenological aspects related to enhanced ignition. The objective is accomplished through targeted experiments performed in a single-cylinder optically accessible research engine or an in-house developed optically accessible spark calorimeter (OASC). In situ optical diagnostics and ex situ gas sampling measurements are performed to elucidate important details of ignition and combustion processes. Measurements are further used to develop and validate complementary high-fidelity ignition simulations. The primary project audience is automotive manufacturers, Tier 1 suppliers, and technology startups—close cooperation has resulted in the development and execution of project objectives that address crucial mid- to long-range research challenges.

  17. A semiparametric model of household gasoline demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadud, Zia [Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Noland, Robert B. [Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Graham, Daniel J. [Centre for Transport Studies, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Gasoline demand studies typically generate a single price and income elasticity for a country. It is however possible that these elasticities may differ among various socio-economic groups. At the same time, parametric gasoline demand models may not be flexible enough to capture the changes in price elasticities with different levels of income. This paper models US gasoline demand using more flexible semiparametric techniques, accommodating the possibility of differences in responses among households. The econometric model employs a non-parametric bivariate smoothing for price and income and a parametric representation of other explanatory variables. Possible heterogeneity in price and income elasticities is modelled through interacting price and income with demographic variables. Results show that price responses do vary with demographic variables such as income, multiple vehicle holding, presence of multiple wage earners or rural or urban residential locations. Households' responses to a price change decrease with higher income. Multiple vehicle and multiple earner households also show higher sensitivity to a price change. Households located in urban areas reduce consumption more than those in rural areas in response to an increase in price. Comparison of the flexible semiparametric model with a parametric translog model, however, reveals no significant differences between results, and the parametric models have the advantage of lower computational requirements and better interpretability. (author)

  18. High octane gasoline components from catalytic cracking gasoline, propylene, and isobutane by disproportionation, clevage and alkylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, R.

    1980-07-08

    A process is described for producing high octane value gasoline which comprises in a disproportionation zone subjecting propylene and a mixture of propylene and ethylene obtained as hereinafter delineated to disproportionation conditions to produce a stream containing ethylene and a stream containing butenes, passing the ethylene-containing stream from said disproportionation zone together with a catalytic cracking gasoline to a cleavage zone under disproportionation conditions and subjecting the mixture of hydrocarbons therin to cleavage to produce said mixture of propylene and ethylene, a C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline-containing product and butenes and wherein the butenes obtained in the overall operation of the disproportionation zone and the cleavage zone are passed to an alkylation zone wherein said butenes are used to alkylate an isoparaffin to produce additional high octane value product.

  19. The US gasoline situation and crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Before and during the United States' summer driving season, concern over the country's gasoline supply can potentially influence the direction of the petroleum market. There are three causes of concern: a persistent lack of gasoline-producing capacity; a patchwork of as many as 18 different kinds of gasoline specifications; and the introduction of stringent new specifications for reformulated gasoline. However, gasoline stocks should be able to meet the needs of this year's driving season, at a time of ample crude oil availability, with strong imports. But, unplanned outages in the US logistics system and refining centres, or major disruptions in external gasoline supplies, could trigger price spikes that would, in turn, lead to frequently stronger crude oil prices, especially with the observed robust oil demand growth in China. (Author)

  20. Impact of unleaded gasoline in reducing emissions in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, S.H.

    2001-01-15

    Saudi Arabia is dealing progressively with tighter restrictions on refined product qualities. Efforts are ongoing within the country concerning the phase-out of lead in motor gasoline and the reduction of sulfur in diesel as well. The removal of lead is the main characteristic of environmental friendly gasoline. The detrimental health effects of using leaded gasoline are many, and lead exposure can cause kidney failure, brain dysfunction, behavioral problems, and neurological impairment. Saudi Arabia is moving towards using unleaded gasoline, and efforts are being put forward by research organizations to produce lead-free gasoline in the Kingdom. A high severity fluid catalytic cracking process is being developed for converting vacuum gas oil into high-octane gasoline components. This process requires high temperature and pressure and low contact time as compared to the conventional FCC process. (author)

  1. Unleaded gasoline with reduction in benzene and aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.

    2003-01-01

    The trend today is towards making gasoline more environment and human friendly or in other words making gasoline a really clean fuel. This paper covers the ill effects of benzene and aromatics and the driving force behind their reduction in gasoline worldwide. It addresses health concerns specifically, and the theme is unleaded gasoline without simultaneously addressing reduction in benzene and aromatics is more harmful. The paper cites worldwide case studies, and also the World Bank (WB), Government of Pakistan (GoP), and United Nations (UN) efforts in this area in Pakistan. (author)

  2. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: Neurotoxicity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    O?Callaghan, James P.; Daughtrey, Wayne C.; Clark, Charles R.; Schreiner, Ceinwen A.; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Sprague?Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from ?baseline gasoline? (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrati...

  3. 40 CFR 80.540 - How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? 80.540 Section 80.540... Marine Fuel Geographic Phase-in Provisions § 80.540 How may a refiner be approved to produce gasoline under the GPA gasoline sulfur standards in 2007 and 2008? (a) A refiner that has been approved by EPA...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11088 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... § 63.11088 What requirements must I meet for gasoline loading racks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

  5. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  6. 78 FR 20102 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... information collection request (ICR), ``Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions'' (EPA ICR No.2228.04.... Abstract: EPA would like to continue collecting notifications from gasoline retailers and wholesale...

  7. The effects of hydrous ethanol gasoline on combustion and emission characteristics of a port injection gasoline engine

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochen Wang; Zhenbin Chen; Jimin Ni; Saiwu Liu; Haijie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Comparative experiments were conducted on a port injection gasoline engine fueled with hydrous ethanol gasoline (E10W), ethanol gasoline (E10) and pure gasoline (E0). The effects of the engine loads and the additions of ethanol and water on combustion and emission characteristics were analyzed deeply. According to the experimental results, compared with E0, E10W showed higher peak in-cylinder pressure at high load. Increases in peak heat release rates were observed for E10W fuel at all the op...

  8. Laminar burning velocities at elevated pressures for gasoline and gasoline surrogates associated with RON

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2015-06-01

    The development and validation of a new gasoline surrogate using laminar flame speed as a target parameter is presented. Laminar burning velocities were measured using a constant-volume spherical vessel with ignition at the center of the vessel. Tested fuels included iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, various mixtures of primary reference fuels (PRFs) and toluene reference fuels (TRFs) and three gasoline fuels of 70, 85 and 95 RON (FACE J, C and F) at the initial temperature of 358K and pressures up to 0.6MPa in the equivalence ratio ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Normalized laminar burning velocity data were mapped into a tri-component mixture space at different experimental conditions to allocate different gasoline surrogates for different gasoline fuels, having RON of 70, 85 and 95. The surrogates of TRF-70-4 (17.94% iso-C8H18 +42.06% n-C7H16 +40% C7H8), TRF-85-1 (77.4% iso-C8H18 +17.6% n-C7H16 +5% C7H8), and TRF-95-1 (88.47% iso-C8H18 +6.53% n-C7H16 +5% C7H8) of RON 70, 85 and 95, respectively, are shown to successfully emulate the burning rate characteristics of the gasoline fuels associated with these RONs under the various experimental conditions investigated. An empirical correlation was derived to obtain laminar burning velocities at pressures that are experimentally unattainable as high as 3.0MPa. Laminar burning velocities were comparable to the simulated values for lean and stoichiometric flames but they were relatively higher than the simulated values for rich flames. A flame instability assessment was conducted by determining Markstein length, critical Pecklet number, and critical Karlovitz number at the onset of flame instability.

  9. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  10. Diesel fuel takes over from gasoline as the rop seller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sales of diesel fuel in Finland continued to increase during 2000, and exceeded gasoline sales in terms of tonnes sold for the first time since the early 1960s. Sales of gasoline and the other main petroleum products fell slightly compared to 1999. Sales of natural gas increased. Otherwise, the year was a relatively uneventful one on the Finnish oil market

  11. 40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline loading rack provisions. 63... loading rack provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (c) of this section, each owner or operator of a Group 1 gasoline loading rack classified under Standard Industrial Classification...

  12. Effect Of Ginger Extract On Gasoline Associated Immunitoxicities In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ginger extracts on gasoline associated immunotoxicities in wistar rats was studied. Fifteen wistar rats were randomly assigned into three study groups. Group 1 was the control, while groups 2 and 3 received daily treatment by inhalation of gasoline vapour. The animals in group3 were also treated with 100mg ...

  13. the reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    exposure to inhalation gasoline, which generally saturate the ambient air of their workplaces. In this study, we challenged male and female albino rats with gasoline vapour and monitored the endocrine disruptive effects as part of a comprehensive study of the health risks faced by refinery workers in Nigeria. The ultimate.

  14. Gasoline taxes or efficiency standards? A heterogeneous household demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Using detailed consumer expenditure survey data and a flexible semiparametric dynamic demand model, this paper estimates the price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity of gasoline demand at the household level. The goal is to assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and vehicle fuel efficiency standards on fuel consumption. The results reveal substantial interaction between vehicle fuel efficiency and the price elasticity of gasoline demand: the improvement of vehicle fuel efficiency leads to lower price elasticity and weakens consumers’ sensitivity to gasoline price changes. The offsetting effect also differs across households due to demographic heterogeneity. These findings imply that when gasoline taxes are in place, tightening efficiency standards will partially offset the strength of taxes on reducing fuel consumption. - Highlights: • Model household gasoline demand using a semiparametric approach. • Estimate heterogeneous price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity. • Assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and efficiency standards. • Efficiency standards offset the impact of gasoline taxes on fuel consumption. • The offsetting effect differs by household demographics

  15. 40 CFR 80.131 - Agreed upon procedures for GTAB, certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., certain conventional gasoline imported by truck, previously certified gasoline used to produce gasoline... gasoline used to produce gasoline, and butane blenders. (a) Attest procedures for GTAB. The following are... conventional gasoline and of RFG produced. Agree the volumes from the tank activity records to the batch volume...

  16. 40 CFR 80.553 - Under what conditions may the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards be extended for a small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline produced by the refinery must meet the gasoline sulfur standards under subpart H of this Part as... all succeeding compliance periods and all gasoline produced by the refinery must meet the gasoline... applicable). Upon such effective date, all gasoline produced by the refiner must meet the gasoline sulfur...

  17. Investigation of fatalities due to acute gasoline poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María A; Ballesteros, Salomé

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a simple, rapid, reliable, and validated method suited for forensic examination of gasoline in biological samples. The proposed methodology has been applied to the investigation of four fatal cases due to gasoline poisoning that occurred in Spain in 2003 and 2004. Case histories and pathological and toxicological findings are described in order to illustrate the danger of gasoline exposure under several circumstances. Gasoline's tissular distribution, its quantitative toxicological significance, and the possible mechanisms leading to death are also discussed. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography (GC) with flame-ionization detection, and confirmation was performed using GC-mass spectrometry in total ion chromatogram mode. m,p-Xylene peak was selected to estimate gasoline in all biological samples. Gasoline analytical methodology was validated at five concentration levels from 1 to 100 mg/L. The method provided extraction recoveries between 77.6% and 98.3%. The limit of detection was 0.3 mg/L, and the limit of quantitation was 1.0 mg/L. The linearity of the blood calibration curves was excellent with r2 values of > 0.997. Intraday and interday precisions had a coefficient of variation inhalation of gasoline vapor inside a small enclosed space. Case 3 is a death by recreational gasoline inhalation in a male adolescent. Heart blood concentrations were 28.4, 18.0, and 38.3 mg/L, respectively; liver concentrations were 41.4, 52.9, and 124.2 mg/kg, respectively; and lung concentrations were 5.6, 8.4, and 39.3 mg/kg, respectively. Case 4 was an accidental death due to gasoline ingestion of a woman with senile dementia. Peripheral blood concentration was 122.4 mg/L, the highest in our experience. Because pathological findings were consistent with other reports of gasoline intoxication and constituents of gasoline were found in the body, cause of death was attributed to acute gasoline

  18. Effects of maternal inhalation of gasoline evaporative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to assess potential health effects resulting from exposure to ethanol-gasoline blend vapors, we previously conducted neurophysiological assessment of sensory function following gestational exposure to 100% ethanol vapor (Herr et al., Toxicologist, 2012). For comparison purposes, the current study investigated the same measures after gestational exposure to 100% gasoline evaporative condensates (GVC). Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 3K, 6K, or 9K ppm GVC vapors for 6.5 h/day over GD9 – GD20. Sensory evaluations of male offspring began around PND106. Peripheral nerve function (compound action potentials, NCV), somatosensory (cortical and cerebellar evoked potentials), auditory (brainstem auditory evoked responses), and visual evoked responses were assessed. Visual function assessment included pattern elicited visual evoked potentials (VEP), VEP contrast sensitivity, and electroretinograms (ERG) recorded from dark-adapted (scotopic) and light-adapted (photopic) flashes, and UV and green flicker. Although some minor statistical differences were indicated for auditory and somatosensory responses, these changes were not consistently dose- or stimulus intensity-related. Scotopic ERGs had a statistically significant dose-related decrease in the b-wave implicit time. All other parameters of ERGs and VEPs were unaffected by treatment. All physiological responses showed changes related to stimulus intensity, and provided an estimate of detectable le

  19. NGL recovery increase through natural gasoline recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas M., M.; Bracho, J.L.; Murray, J. [Lagoven S.A., Maracaibo (Venezuela). Western Div.

    1997-12-31

    Given that the gas being processed in the compression plants Tia Juana 2 (PCTJ-2) and Tia Juana 3 (PCTJ-3) of Lagoven, S.A., an operating affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. has become learner through time, current production of natural gas liquids (NGL) and plant efficiency are significantly lower, compared to design and first obtained values. In this sense and aimed at increasing propane production, an optimization study on condensate stream recirculation and absorber installation was carried out to affect the process equilibrium constants thereby obtaining deeper extraction. Recirculation streams options were recirculation of natural gasoline obtained from the downstream fractionation process and recirculation of a conditioned, unfractionated, deethanized condensate stream. From the study, the natural gasoline recirculation scheme was determined to be the most efficient NGL recovery process. Accordingly, Lagoven, S.A. has undertaken a project to carry out this optimization scheme in PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3. Construction stages are currently underway with completion scheduled at the end of 1997.

  20. The elasticity of demand for gasoline in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Zeng, Jieyin

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline in China. Our estimates of the intermediate-run price elasticity of gasoline demand range between −0.497 and −0.196, and our estimates of the intermediate-run income elasticity of gasoline demand range between 1.01 and 1.05. We also extend previous studies to estimate the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) elasticity and obtain a range from −0.882 to −0.579. - highlights: • The price elasticity of demand for gasoline in China is between −0.497 and −0.196. • The income elasticity of demand for gasoline in China is between 1.01 and 1.05. • The price elasticity of demand for VMT in China is between −0.882 and −0.579

  1. Projected reformulated gasoline and AFV use in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemis, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the spring to summer of 1996, California will switch from conventional and oxygenated gasolines to reformulated gasoline. This gasoline will be a designer fuel, and generally not available from sources outside California, since California's fuel specifications then will be unique. Thus, it will be important for California refiners to be able to meet the California reformulated gasoline (Cal-RFG) demand. California refiners are investing over $4 billion to upgrade their facilities for Cal-RFG. This represents approximately 40% of the total cost of making Cal-RFG, and is expected to cost 5--15 cents/gallon more than conventional gasoline to produce. Starting in the year 2000, EPA will require use of a similar fuel in seven geographical areas outside of California. The discussion below focuses on the supply, demand and price projections for Cal-RFG

  2. The butane as a component for the gasoline blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicheva, Ljubica

    2002-01-01

    In OKTA Crude Oil Refinery - Skopje the production of butane as a pure component is based on a liquid phase and it is used for both TNG (propane-butane gas) and motor gasoline production with a quality that satisfy the standard. By using the butane as a gasoline component the quality of the MB-98 and BMB has been improved. The butane itself ensures octane improvement of the pool, by what the content of the lead additives or the octane of the main component - reformat decreases. Also, the butane addition decreases the density of the final products by what the financial effects have been improved. It is also interesting to explain the usage of butane for gasoline production concerning the new proposed standard. The paper presents the practical results, through tables and diagrams, of the butane usage as a component for gasoline production, as well as the butane influence to the quality of the produced gasoline. (Original)

  3. Ignition studies of two low-octane gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2017-07-24

    Low-octane gasolines (RON ∼ 50–70 range) are prospective fuels for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) internal combustion engines. GCI technology utilizing low-octane fuels has the potential to significantly improve well-to-wheel efficiency and reduce the transportation sector\\'s environmental footprint by offsetting diesel fuel usage in compression ignition engines. In this study, ignition delay times of two low-octane FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE I and FACE J, were measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine over a broad range of engine-relevant conditions (650–1200 K, 20 and 40 bar and ϕ = 0.5 and 1). The two gasolines are of similar octane ratings with anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2, of ∼ 70 and sensitivity, S = RON–MON, of ∼ 3. However, the molecular compositions of the two gasolines are notably different. Experimental ignition delay time results showed that the two gasolines exhibited similar reactivity over a wide range of test conditions. Furthermore, ignition delay times of a primary reference fuel (PRF) surrogate (n-heptane/iso-octane blend), having the same AKI as the FACE gasolines, captured the ignition behavior of these gasolines with some minor discrepancies at low temperatures (T < 700 K). Multi-component surrogates, formulated by matching the octane ratings and compositions of the two gasolines, emulated the autoignition behavior of gasolines from high to low temperatures. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine simulations were used to show that the PRF and multi-component surrogates exhibited similar combustion phasing over a wide range of engine operating conditions.

  4. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  5. Degradation of tetraethyllead in leaded gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, L.; Jing, W.; Thomas, J.; Mulroy, P.

    1995-01-01

    For over 50 years, since its introduction in 1923 by General Motors, tetraethyllead (TEL) was the major antiknock agent used in leaded gasoline. Since the middle of 1970, use of leaded gasoline in automobiles was gradually phased out. The main objective of this study is to determine the degradation rates and metabolites of TEL in gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils. TEL in uncontaminated soils disappeared rapidly. Ionic triethyllead (TREL) was the major organolead metabolite in these soils, with ionic diethyllead (DEL) being the minor product. Nonsterile soils, but not autoclaved soils, had limited capacity to mineralize 14 C-TEL to 14 CO 2 , H 2 0, and Pb 2+ . Unlike TEL in uncontaminated soils, petroleum hydrocarbons protected TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils from being degraded. Both disappearance and mineralization rates of TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils decreased with the increase in gasoline concentration. It appears that TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils is relatively stable until the level of petroleum hydrocarbons falls below a critical value. TEL is then rapidly degraded. Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms may be involved, to some extent, in the degradation of TEL

  6. The crisis of gasoline consumption in the Iran's transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houri Jafari, H.; Baratimalayeri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels have the greatest share in supplying the world's energy demands. Regarding the limited natural resources, fuel consumption management and energy planning in the end-user sectors are two great matters of importance. Among the fossil fuels, gasoline is the principal fuel for light-duty vehicles. In Iran, fuel consumption, especially that of gasoline, has increased sharply with the growth rate of 10.2% for the year 2006 in comparison with that in 2005, turning into a big crisis in the recent years. On the other hand, enormous subsidies for importing 40% of domestic demands, which have reached more than 10 billion US$, are too much to be supplied. In this study, we have assessed the gasoline consumption, production, import and prices; reviewed main causes of the tremendous growth rate of consumption, current conservation policies and their advantages or disadvantages (SWOT analysis); proposed short- to long-term solutions and strategies for efficient gasoline consumption management; and finally, current strategies and proposed solutions are analyzed and evaluated. A foregone conclusion strongly suggests that not only the low price of motor gasoline but also mass production of vehicles with the conventional technology, likewise, affects motor gasoline demand. A second conclusion is that gasoline crisis in Iran has no straight solution, and that fundamental strategies and policies are needed to solve the problem. (author)

  7. Tiered gasoline pricing: A personal carbon trading perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yao; Fan, Jin; Zhao, Dingtao; Wu, Yanrui; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proffers a tiered gasoline pricing method from a personal carbon trading perspective. An optimization model of personal carbon trading is proposed, and then, an equilibrium carbon price is derived according to the market clearing condition. Based on the derived equilibrium carbon price, this paper proposes a calculation method of tiered gasoline pricing. Then, sensitivity analyses and consumers' surplus analyses are conducted. It can be shown that a rise in gasoline price or a more generous allowance allocation would incur a decrease in the equilibrium carbon price, making the first tiered price higher, but the second tiered price lower. It is further verified that the proposed tiered pricing method is progressive because it would relieve the pressure of the low-income groups who consume less gasoline while imposing a greater burden on the high-income groups who consume more gasoline. Based on these results, implications, limitations and suggestions for future studies are provided. - Highlights: • Tiered gasoline pricing is calculated from the perspective of PCT. • Consumers would be burdened with different actual gasoline costs. • A specific example is provided to illustrate the calculation of TGP. • The tiered pricing mechanism is a progressive system.

  8. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  9. Benzene in Canadian gasoline : report on the effect of the benzene in gasoline regulations 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sabourin, R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brunet, E. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    The response of primary suppliers to Benzene in Gasoline Regulations was reviewed, and a summary of the effects of those regulations on the composition of gasoline in Canada in 2002 was offered. These regulations, effective July 1, 1999, were designed to provide a new approach to control fuel composition. It allowed suppliers, as a basis for compliance, the option to elect to use a yearly pool average. The benzene emission number (BEN) of gasoline was regulated, and a limit imposed on a per-litre limit for benzene at point of sale. The results indicated that reported benzene levels were significantly reduced, while aromatic levels remained practically unchanged from 1994. Since 1998, rural ambient benzene concentrations decreased by more than 32 per cent, while in urban areas, they decreased by 47 per cent over the same period. The regulated requirements for benzene concentration were met by primary suppliers in Canada in 2002 (with one exception), as were BEN levels. A number of instances of non-compliance with laboratory procedures were discovered during independent audits required for those suppliers who elected to be on on a yearly pool average. Corrective action designed to address these issues was implemented. 41 tabs., 24 figs.

  10. A study of Canadian retail gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, A.L.

    1999-05-01

    Retail gasoline pricing in Canadian markets was examined to demonstrate why retail prices tend to follow one of two distinct patterns and that neither pattern is observable in the wholesale price. In many cities, retail prices are more rigid than wholesale prices, while in other markets, retail prices follow a cyclic pattern not seen in wholesale prices. This study examined why constant prices are observed in some cities, while other cities have cyclic prices. Theoretical justification was given to the argument that prices will remain constant only in markets in which there are only few gasoline companies with a small number of stations, but a large per-station capacity. It was shown that when one firm operates significantly more stations than its rival, a constant cost equilibrium cannot be maintained. However, a cycle equilibrium can be constructed in this case, and also when the two companies are similarly sized. An initial examination of available price, cost and market structure data shows that there is a positive correlation between price stability and concentration. The response of retail prices to wholesale price movements in the presence of a retail price cycle was also examined through the use of a simple model based on the predictions of the above theory. Data for the city of Windsor, Ontario was used for the modelling approach. A new cycle is created by an increase in price whenever the distance between the previous retail price and the current wholesale prices is very small. Retail prices are more responsive to wholesale prices over the increasing portion of the cycle. It was shown that when the asymmetric error correction model of Borenstein, Cameron and Gilbert is estimated, it indicates a more rapid response to wholesale price increases than to decreases. 72 refs., 22 tabs., 8 figs

  11. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2017-07-04

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  12. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  13. Quantifying the emissions reduction effectiveness and costs of oxygenated gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    During the fall, winter, and spring of 1991-1992, a measurement program was conducted in Denver, Colorado to quantify the technical and economic effectiveness of oxygenated gasoline in reducing automobile carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Emissions from 80,000 vehicles under a variety of operating conditions were measured before, during, and after the seasonal introduction of oxygenated gasoline into the region. Gasoline samples were taken from several hundred vehicles to confirm the actual oxygen content of the fuel in use. Vehicle operating conditions, such as cold starts and warm operations, and ambient conditions were characterized. The variations in emissions attributable to fuel type and to operating conditions were then quantified. This paper describes the measurement program and its results. The 1991-1992 Colorado oxygenated gasoline program contributed to a reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles. The measurement program demonstrated that most of the reduction is concentrated in a small percentage of the vehicles that use oxygenated gasoline. The remainder experience little or not reduction in emissions. The oxygenated gasoline program outlays are approximately $25 to $30 million per year in Colorado. These are directly measurable costs, incurred through increased government expenditures, higher costs to private industry, and losses in fuel economy. The measurement program determined the total costs of oxygenated gasoline as an air pollution control strategy for the region. Costs measured included government administration and enforcement, industry production and distribution, and consumer and other user costs. This paper describes the ability of the oxygenated gasoline program to reduce pollution; the overall cost of the program to government, industry, and consumers; and the effectiveness of the program in reducing pollution compared to its costs

  14. 40 CFR 80.195 - What are the gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The gasoline sulfur standards for refiners and importers, excluding gasoline produced by small... must include in its corporate pool all of the gasoline produced at any refineries owned by the parent... includes in its corporate pool the gasoline produced by any refineries owned by the parent company, and...

  15. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toxics requirements of this subpart apply separately for each of the following types of gasoline produced...) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this subpart apply to gasoline produced at a refinery... not apply to gasoline produced by a refinery approved under § 80.1334, pursuant to § 80.1334(c). (2...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1230 - What are the gasoline benzene requirements for refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in this paragraph (a). (5) Gasoline produced at foreign refineries that is subject to the gasoline... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the gasoline benzene... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline...

  17. 40 CFR 80.240 - What are the small refiner gasoline sulfur standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volume of gasoline produced by a small refiner's refinery up to the lesser of: (i) 105% of the baseline gasoline volume as determined under § 80.250(a)(1); or (ii) The volume of gasoline produced at that... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the small refiner gasoline...

  18. 40 CFR 80.375 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.375 Section 80.375 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Exemptions § 80.375 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart California gasoline...

  19. 40 CFR 80.200 - What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the sulfur... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.200 What gasoline is subject to the sulfur standards and requirements? For the purpose of...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline B... in Gasoline Method 1—Standard Method Test for Lead in Gasoline by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 1. Scope. 1.1. This method covers the determination of the total lead content of gasoline. The procedure's...

  1. 40 CFR 80.211 - What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... imported gasoline as blendstock? 80.211 Section 80.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.211 What are the requirements for treating imported gasoline as blendstock...

  2. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.340-79 Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to gasoline...

  3. 40 CFR 80.1236 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.1236 Section 80.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1236 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1235 - What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1235 What gasoline is subject to the benzene requirements of...

  5. 40 CFR 80.845 - What requirements apply to California gasoline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline? 80.845 Section 80.845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.845 What requirements apply to California gasoline? (a) Definition. For purposes of this...

  6. Investigation of bifunctional ester additives for methanol-gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, C.; Tang, Y.; Du, Q.; Song, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To explore new and multifunctional additives for methanol-gasoline, tartaric ester were synthesized and screened as phase stabilizer and saturation vapor pressure depressor for methanol-gasoline. The effect of the esters structure on the efficiency was discussed. The results show that the stabilities of the blends depend on the length of the glycolic esters alkoxy group. In addition, the tartaric esters also can depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline effectively in M15. Effect of the structure on the efficiency was also discussed. (author)

  7. Prices and taxes for gasoline and diesel in industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, R.

    2008-01-01

    This report present a comparative study on the prices and taxes of automotive fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel) in various industrialized countries, members of the OECD organization. Statistics are taken from a publication of the IEA (International Energy Agency), and concern the following fuel categories: regular gasoline, unleaded premium gasoline (SP 95 and SP 98), professional diesel fuel and domestic diesel fuel. It is shown that fuel prices are generally equivalent from one country to another, while taxes make all the difference for the retail final price. Somme global comparisons are also made between US and EU prices

  8. Mixed reforming of simulated gasoline to hydrogen in a BSCFO membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenliang; Han, Wei; Xiong, Guoxing; Yang, Weishen [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2006-10-30

    Currently, fuel cells are receiving more and more attention as the most promising new power generation technology, and fuel processing by the mixed reforming of liquid hydrocarbons (MRL) with water and oxygen is regarded as a desirable way for fuel cells. In this paper, we developed a new mixed reforming method for hydrogen production by combining a dense ceramic membrane Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}}(BSCFO) with a catalyst LiLaNiO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a membrane reactor and reforming a simulated gasoline. During a 500-h long-term test at optimized reaction conditions, all the components in the simulated gasoline converted completely, and around 90% selectivity of CO, around 95% selectivity of H{sub 2} and around 8.0mLcm{sup -2}min{sup -1} oxygen permeation flux were achieved. This provides a new optional way of hydrogen production for fuel cells. (author)

  9. Effects of gasoline and ethanol-gasoline exhaust exposure on human bronchial epithelial and natural killer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michèle; Usemann, Jakob; Bisig, Christoph; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas C R; Beier, Konstantin; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Latzin, Philipp; Müller, Loretta

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution exposure, including passenger car emissions, may cause substantial respiratory health effects and cancer death. In western countries, the majority of passenger cars are driven by gasoline fuel. Recently, new motor technologies and ethanol fuels have been introduced to the market, but potential health effects have not been thoroughly investigated. We developed and verified a coculture model composed of bronchial epithelial cells (ECs) and natural killer cells (NKs) mimicking the human airways to compare toxic effects between pure gasoline (E0) and ethanol-gasoline-blend (E85, 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) exhaust emitted from a flexfuel gasoline car. We drove a steady state cycle, exposed ECs for 6h and added NKs. We assessed exhaust effects in ECs alone and in cocultures by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and oxidative stress assay. We found no toxic effects after exposure to E0 or E85 compared to air controls. Comparison between E0 and E85 exposure showed a weak association for less oxidative DNA damage after E85 exposure compared to E0. Our results indicate that short-term exposure to gasoline exhaust may have no major toxic effects in ECs and NKs and that ethanol as part of fuel for gasoline cars may be favorable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New evidence on the asymmetry in gasoline price: volatility versus margin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abosedra, S.; Radchenko, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent evidence on the role that gasoline margins and volatility play in the asymmetric response of gasoline prices to changes in oil prices at different stages of distribution process. In a regression model with margins, we find that margins are statistically significant in explaining asymmetry between crude oil and spot gasoline prices, spot gasoline prices and wholesale gasoline prices, and wholesale gasoline prices and retail prices. In a regression model with input volatility, we find evidence that volatility is responsible for asymmetry between wholesale gasoline prices and retail gasoline prices. When both, gasoline margins and gasoline volatility are included in the regression, we find evidence supporting margins, the search theory, volatility, the oligopolistic coordination theory and an explanation of asymmetry. (author)

  11. Testing the Alchian-Allen Theorem: A Study of Consumer Behavior in the Gasoline Market

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lawson; Lauren Raymer

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses a data set of daily sales at a single gasoline station over a seven year period to determine if consumers respond to relative price changes among the three grades of gasoline. Based on the reasoning of Alchian and Allen (1964) and Barzel (1976), market shares of higher quality gasoline should increase at the expense of regular grade gasoline when overall gasoline prices increase. The empirical results do not conform to this expectation. We find instead that the consumers in th...

  12. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission

  13. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Joseph S.; Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W.; Chornet, Esteban

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 96-118 (1996) Describes health effects and current standards and guidelines relating to carbon monoxide, as well as recommendations for workers, employers, and manufacturers regarding small gasoline powered engine ...

  15. THE EFFECT OF GASOLINE PRICE ON ECONOMIC SECTORS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Ifeakachukwu Nwosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the long-run and short-run relationship between gasoline price and sectoral output in Nigeria for the period from 1980 to 2010. Six sectors (agriculture; manufacturing; building and construction; wholesale and retail; transportation and communication of the economy were examined. The long run regression estimate showed that gasoline price is a significant determinant output in all sectors examined with exception to the building and construction sector while the short run error correction estimate revealed that only output of the agriculture and the manufacturing sectors of the Nigerian economy is affect by gasoline price increase in the short run. The study recommended among others the need for the government to ensure adequate power supply in order to reduce the over reliance of economics sectors on gasoline as a prime source of power.

  16. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  17. Determination of (BTEX) of the gasoline's combustion in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Nelson; Insuasti, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    The contents of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) were determined and quantified in the gasoline's combustion on an internal combustion engine. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector were used for chemical determinations

  18. Premixed flame chemistry of a gasoline primary reference fuel surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Hansen, Nils; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the combustion chemistry of gasoline surrogate fuels promises to improve detailed reaction mechanisms used for simulating their combustion. In this work, the combustion chemistry of one of the simplest, but most frequently used

  19. Value of time: Speeding behavior and gasoline prices

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Do drivers reduce speeds when gasoline prices are high? Previous research investigating this energy conservation hypothesis produced mixed results. We take a fresh look at the data and estimate a significant negative relationship between speeding and gasoline prices. This presents a new methodology of deriving the 'Value of Time' (VOT) based on the intensive margin (previous VOT studies compare across the extensive margin) which has important advantages to circumvent potential omitted variabl...

  20. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  1. Conditioning of data for cyclic variation of IMEP under lean burn operation in a spark-ignition engine; Hibana tenka kikan no kihaku nensho untenji ni okeru zushi heikin yuko atsuryoku no hendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K.; Urata, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Ono, t. [Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-25

    In this study, we investigated the relationship of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) for a spark ignition engine under lean combustion with the cyclic variation of mass fraction burned by measuring the energy release from the spark plug, intensity of the light emission from the flame and the cylinder pressure at the same time. In order to minimized an error in the initial and late combustion sages of the mass fraction burned to be obtained by cylinder pressure, spark plug energy and intensity of light emission were measured. As a result, it was found that there are three main causes of cyclic variation of IMEP. These consist of the burning speed during the initial stage of combustion, variation in the total mass fraction burned, and variation of the late burning during the late expansion stroke. Thus, we determined that there is a favorable interrelationship between the IMEPs and the corrected mass fraction burned. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Study on a small diesel engine with direct injection impinging distribution spray combustion system. Optimum of injection system and combustion chamber; Shototsu kakusan hoshiki kogata diesel kikan ni kansuru kenkyu. Funshakei to nenshoshitsu no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K; Kato, S; Saito, T [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Tanabe, H [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This study is concerned with a small bore (93mm) diesel engine using impinged fuel spray, named OSKA system. The higher rate of injection show lower smoke emission with higher NOx Emission. The exhaust emission and performance were investigated under different compression ratio with higher rate of injection. The experimental results show that this OSKA system is capable for reducing the smoke emission without the deterioration of NOx emission and fuel consumption compared with the conventional DI diesel engine. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Report on investigation in fiscal 2000 of actual status of technological cooperation in foreign market entry supporting organizations in fiscal 2000; 2000 nendo kaigai shinshutsu shien kikan ni okeru gijutsu renkei jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to help improve the business creation supporting environment in Japan, investigations were performed on cases of advanced business creation supporting infrastructures, centering on the United States. The activity results were put into order in the following six fields: 1) creator support and incubators in the United States, 2) the current status of incubators in the United States, 3) support on creation by universities and research institutions, 4) advantages of industry-academia cooperation on creation support, 5) international cooperation in the state of Pennsylvania with other countries, and 6) conclusion. In Item 6), the evolution of the incubator concept in the United States, roles of incubators in areas in which general business creation infrastructures have matured, creator support by universities and education organizations, and matters expected on incubators were summarized. Based on the summarisation, four items were proposed, including structuring of the Japanese type business creation infrastructures to structure a fusion and circulation model for the Japanese type business creation support and economic development, and district economy development under the initiative of business communities. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1997 report on the investigation on the actual status of international research information exchange in research organizations in Japan and U.S.A; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Nichibei kenkyu kikan ni okeru kokusai kenkyu koryu jittai chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigation was made on the actual status of utilizing researchers from foreign countries and internationally exchanging researchers with views on technological researchers in universities and public institutes in Japan and the U.S.A. Foreign researchers at 39 research institutes in the Tsukuba area are from Asian region at 43%, and European and North American regions at 43%. Asian researchers are dominated overwhelmingly by Chinese and Korean people. Researchers from Europe and North America have a high ratio of working at institutes belonging to the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many of them are of short period staying type. On the other hand, many of those from African regions intend to study diplomatic and cultural exchange, and those from Middle and South American regions to study agricultural and fishery industries. About 8.4% of the scientists and engineers who obtained doctorates in America in 1995 is foreign nationals, and about 83.3% of them is of long period staying type. Foreign students in the U.S.A. account for 3.1% of students in institutions of higher education. The higher the education level, the higher the foreign student ratio, whereas the ratio reaches 33.0% in doctoral courses. Persons who obtained doctorates in the department of science and engineering are, in decreasing order, Chinese, Taiwanese, Indian and Korean. 32 figs., 47 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1997 research report on the survey on public test and evaluation organizations for development of welfare equipment; 1997 nendo fukushi kiki kaihatsu ni kakawaru koteki shiken hyoka kikan chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This research studies the construction policy of public test and evaluation systems for future development and practical use of welfare equipment, through survey on the current methods for development, practical test and evaluation of welfare equipment in countries advanced in welfare, and preparation of basic data for promoting establishment of public test and evaluation functions in Japan. Infrastructure preparation for standards and public test and evaluation organizations for developing welfare equipment is being promoted by Technical Laboratory of Bicycle Industry Promotion Association and some national organizations such as Product Evaluation Technical Center, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, and Living and JIS Center. However, preparation of objective and across test and evaluation systems for developing welfare equipment is still insufficient. Product Evaluation Technical Center is now approaching to evaluation and standardization of welfare equipment. Public test and evaluation organizations of the UK, Sweden and Denmark are presented. (NEDO)

  6. Three-dimensional analysis of internal flow characteristics in the injection nozzle tip of direct-injection diesel engines; Sanjigen suchi kaiseki ni yoru DI diesel kikan no nenryo funsha nozzle nai ryudo tokusei no kaimei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H; Matsui, Y; Kimura, S [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To reduce the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of direct-injection diesel engines, it is essential to optimize the fuel injection equipment closely related to combustion and emission characteristics. In this study, three-dimensional computation has been applied to investigate the effects of the injection nozzle specifications (e.g., sac volume, round shape at the inlet of the nozzle hole) and needle tip deviation on internal flow characteristics. The computational results revealed that the effects of the nozzle specifications and needle tip deviation with a smaller needle lift on internal flow characteristics and a general approach to optimize the injection nozzle specifications were obtained. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Attempt of multiple stage injection with EGR for high load operation of a premixed compression ignition engine; Tadan funsha ni yoru yokongo asshuku chakka kikan no unten ryoiki kakudai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan); Tsujimura, K. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-01-25

    By injecting fuel at the very early stage of compression stroke and thus creating homogeneous lean mixture before ignition, (PREDIC ; PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion), simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke was obtained. However, since increasing the mixture equivalence ratio cause knocking, it was difficult to operate at higher load conditions. In this study, in order to reduce combustion rate at high load conditions in a premixed compression ignition engine, multiple stage injection method and EGR were combined, and heterogeneous mixture was made before ignition. The engine test results showed that NO{sub x} emissions could be reduced to less than 50 ppm, without knocking even at full load conditions. In addition, smoke emissions were also maintained below invisible level. It can be understood that the premixing of fuel was advanced, smoke was reduced, and EGR rate was increased, resulting lower heat release rate and NO{sub x} emissions. (author)

  8. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  9. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  10. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-05

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin.

  11. Assessment in rats of the reproductive toxicity of gasoline from a gasoline vapor recovery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Trimmer, G W; Whitman, F T; Nessel, C S; Mackerer, C R; Hagemann, R; Priston, R A; Riley, A J; Cruzan, G; Simpson, B J; Urbanus, J H

    2000-01-01

    Gasoline (CAS 86290-81-5) is one of the world's largest volume commercial products. Although numerous toxicology studies have been conducted, the potential for reproductive toxicity has not been directly assessed. Accordingly, a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats was conducted to provide base data for hazard assessment and risk characterization. The test material, vapor recovery unit gasoline (68514-15-8), is the volatile fraction of formulated gasoline and the material with which humans are most likely to come in contact. The study was of standard design. Exposures were by inhalation at target concentrations of 5000, 10 000, and 20 000 mg/m(3). The highest exposure concentration was approximately 50% of the lower explosive limit and several orders of magnitude above anticipated exposure during refueling. There were no treatment-related clinical or systemic effects in the parental animals, and no microscopic changes other than hyaline droplet nephropathy in the kidneys of the male rats. None of the reproductive parameters were affected, and there were no deleterious effects on offspring survival and growth. The potential for endocrine modulation was also assessed by analysis of sperm count and quality as well as time to onset of developmental landmarks. No toxicologically important differences were found. Therefore, the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity in this study was > or =20 000 mg/m(3). The only systemic effects, in the kidneys of the male rats, were consistent with an alpha-2 u-globulin-mediated process. This is a male rat-specific effect and not relevant to human health risk assessment.

  12. Characterization and Performance Test of Palm Oil Based Bio-Fuel Produced Via Ni/Zeolite-Catalyzed Cracking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kadarwati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking process of palm oil into bio-fuel using Ni/zeolite catalysts (2-10% wt. Ni at various reaction temperatures (400-500oC in a flow-fixed bed reactor system has been carried out. Palm oil was pre-treated to produce methyl ester of palm oil as feedstock in the catalytic cracking reactions. The Ni/zeolite catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation method using Ni(NO32.6H2O as the precursor. The products were collected and analysed using GC, GC-MS, and calorimeter. The effects of process temperatures and Ni content in Ni/zeolite have been studied. The results showed that Ni-2/zeolite could give a yield of 99.0% at 500oC but only produced gasoline fraction of 18.35%. The physical properties of bio-fuel produced in this condition in terms of density, viscosity, flash point, and specific gravity were less than but similar to commercial fuel. The results of performance test in a 4-strike engine showed that the mixture of commercial gasoline (petrol and bio-fuel with a ratio of 9:1 gave similar performance to fossil-based gasoline with much lower CO and O2 emissions and more efficient combustion

  13. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose

  14. Development of fuel economy 5W-20 gasoline engine oil; Teinenpi 5W-20 gasoline engine yu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, K; Ueda, F; Kurono, K; Kawai, H; Sugiyama, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A 5W-20 gasoline engine oil which improves vehicle fuel efficiency by more than 1.5% relative to a conventional 5W-30 gasoline engine oil was newly developed. Its high fuel economy performance lasts 10,000 km. The viscosity was optimized to satisfy both fuel economy and antiwear performances. Thiadiazole was used to retain the initial fuel economy performance provided by MoDTC. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Air pollution from lead added to gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingeon, B; Collombel, C

    1973-01-01

    General hygienic and toxicological problems of lead added to gasoline are discussed. Lead emitted by motor vehicles pollutes the air especially in cities and along highways, and is accumulated by soil and plants. The lead levels found in the blood of subjects living in cities and near highways was significantly higher than in rural dwellers. Close correlation between the atmospheric lead concentration and the carbon monoxide concentration as well as the traffic density was established, indicating traffic as the source of atmospheric lead. The effect of traffic on the atmospheric lead concentration extended over a distance of up to 4 km. The lead, emitted by motor vehicles in the form of submicron particles, is retained in the organism at rates of 5-10 percent following ingestion, and at rates of 30-50 percent when inhaled. Lead is partially excreted by the liver, kidney, hair, and nails. Some 95 percent of the retained lead is found in the blood, and accumulation in the bones with potential mobilization due to increases in the corticosteroid level was observed. Exposure to lead can be diagnosed by basophil granulation test, urine delta-aminolevulinic acid test, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase test.

  16. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  17. 40 CFR 80.340 - What standards and requirements apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? 80... gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG)? (a) Any refiner who produces...) The sulfur content and volume of each batch of gasoline produced is that of the butane the refiner...

  18. Size distribution, chemical composition and oxidation reactivity of particulate matter from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yueqi; Zhu, Lei; Fang, Junhua; Zhuang, Zhuyue; Guan, Chun; Xia, Chen; Xie, Xiaomin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol-gasoline blended fuels have been widely applied in markets recently, as ethanol reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and improves anti-knock performance. However, its effects on particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine still need further investigation. In this study, the effects of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels on particle size distributions, number concentrations, chemical composition and soot oxidation activity of GDI engine were investigated. It was found that ethanol-gasoline blended fuels increased the particle number concentration in low-load operating conditions. In higher load conditions, the ethanol-gasoline was effective for reducing the particle number concentration, indicating that the chemical benefits of ethanol become dominant, which could reduce soot precursors such as large n-alkanes and aromatics in gasoline. The volatile organic mass fraction in ethanol-gasoline particulates matter was higher than that in gasoline particulate matter because ethanol reduced the amount of soot precursors during combustion and thereby reduced the elemental carbon proportions in PM. Ethanol addition also increased the proportion of small particles, which confirmed the effects of ethanol on organic composition. Ethanol-gasoline reduced the concentrations of most PAH species, except those with small aromatic rings, e.g., naphthalene. Soot from ethanol-gasoline has lower activation energy of oxidation than that from gasoline. The results in this study indicate that ethanol-gasoline has positive effects on PM emissions control, as the soot oxidation activity is improved and the particle number concentrations are reduced at moderate and high engine loads. - Highlights: • Ethanol-gasoline reduces elemental carbon in PM. • Ethanol-gasoline increases volatile organic fraction in PM. • Soot generated from ethanol-gasoline has higher oxidation activity.

  19. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether sales of new motorcycles was a mechanism to explain the relationship between motorcycle fatalities and gasoline prices. The data came from the Motorcycle Industry Council, Energy Information Administration and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1984-2009. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions estimated the effect of inflation-adjusted gasoline price on motorcycle sales and logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) between new and old motorcycle fatalities when gasoline prices increase. New motorcycle sales were positively correlated with gasoline prices (r = 0.78) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities. Compared to crashes on older motorcycle models, those on new motorcycles were more likely to be young riders, occur in the afternoon, in clear weather, with a large engine displacement, and without alcohol involvement. Riders on new motorcycles were more likely to be in fatal crashes relative to older motorcycles (OR 1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.28) when gasoline prices increase. Our findings suggest that, in response to increasing gasoline prices, people tend to purchase new motorcycles, and this is accompanied with significantly increased crash risk. There are several policy mechanisms that can be used to lower the risk of motorcycle crash injuries through the mechanism of gas prices and motorcycle sales such as raising awareness of motorcycling risks, enhancing licensing and testing requirements, limiting motorcycle power-to-weight ratios for inexperienced riders, and developing mandatory training programs for new riders.

  20. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  1. Gasoline Prices, Transport Costs, and the U.S. Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Yilmazkuday

    2014-01-01

    The e¡èects of gasoline prices on the U.S. business cycles are investigated. In order to distinguish between gasoline supply and gasoline demand shocks, the price of gasoline is endogenously determined through a transportation sector that uses gasoline as an input of production. The model is estimated for the U.S. economy using five macroeconomic time series, including data on transport costs and gasoline prices. The results show that although standard shocks in the literature (e.g., technolo...

  2. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...

  3. Health effects of inhaled gasoline engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Campen, Matthew J; Barrett, Edward G; Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their prevalence in the environment, and the myriad studies that have shown associations between morbidity or mortality with proximity to roadways (proxy for motor vehicle exposures), relatively little is known about the toxicity of gasoline engine emissions (GEE). We review the studies conducted on GEE to date, and summarize the findings from each of these studies. While there have been several studies, most of the studies were conducted prior to 1980 and thus were not conducted with contemporary engines, fuels, and driving cycles. In addition, many of the biological assays conducted during those studies did not include many of the assays that are conducted on contemporary inhalation exposures to air pollutants, including cardiovascular responses and others. None of the exposures from these earlier studies were characterized at the level of detail that would be considered adequate today. A recent GEE study was conducted as part of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (www.nercenter.org). In this study several in-use mid-mileage General Motors (Chevrolet S-10) vehicles were purchased and utilized for inhalation exposures. An exposure protocol was developed where engines were operated with a repeating California Unified Driving Cycle with one cold start per day. Two separate engines were used to provide two cold starts over a 6-h inhalation period. The exposure atmospheres were characterized in detail, including detailed chemical and physical analysis of the gas, vapor, and particle phase. Multiple rodent biological models were studied, including general toxicity and inflammation (e.g., serum chemistry, lung lavage cell counts/differentials, cytokine/chemokine analysis, histopathology), asthma (adult and in utero exposures with pulmonary function and biochemical analysis), cardiovascular effects (biochemical and electrocardiograph changes in susceptible rodent models), and susceptibility to infection (Pseudomonas bacteria challenge). GEE resulted in

  4. Gasoline prices and traffic crashes in Alabama, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; McClure, Timothy E; Brown, David B

    2012-09-01

    The price of gasoline has been found to be negatively associated with traffic crashes in a limited number of studies. However, most of the studies have focused either on fatal crashes only or on all crashes but measured over a very short time period. In this study, we examine gasoline price effects on all traffic crashes by demographic groups in the state of Alabama from 1999 to 2009. Using negative binomial regression techniques to examine monthly data from 1999 to 2009 in the state of Alabama, we estimate the effects of changes in gasoline price on changes in automobile crashes. We also examine how these effects differ by age group (16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-64, and 65+), gender (male and female), and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). The results show that gasoline prices have both short-term and long-term effects on reducing total traffic crashes and crashes of each age, gender, and race/ethnicity group (except Hispanic due to data limitations). The short-term and long-term effects are not statistically different for each individual demographic group. Gasoline prices have a stronger effect in reducing crashes involving drivers aged 16 to 20 than crashes involving drivers aged 31 to 64 and 65+ in the short term; the effects, however, are not statistically different across other demographic groups. Although gasoline price increases are not favored, our findings show that gasoline price increases (or decreases) are associated with reductions (or increases) in the incidence of traffic crashes. If gasoline prices had remained at the 1999 level of $1.41 from 1999 to 2009, applying the estimated elasticities would result in a predicted increase in total crashes of 169,492 (or 11.3%) from the actual number of crashes. If decision makers wish to reduce traffic crashes, increasing gasoline taxes is a possible option-however, doing so would increase travel costs and lead to equity concerns. These findings may help to shape transportation

  5. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Price and income elasticities of transport fuel demand have numerous applications. They help forecast increases in fuel consumption as countries get richer, they help develop appropriate tax policies to curtail consumption, help determine how the transport fuel mix might evolve, and show the price response to a fuel disruption. Given their usefulness, it is understandable why hundreds of studies have focused on measuring such elasticities for gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. In this paper, I focus my attention on price and income elasticities in the existing studies to see what can be learned from them. I summarize the elasticities from these historical studies. I use statistical analysis to investigate whether income and price elasticities seem to be constant across countries with different incomes and prices. Although income and price elasticities for gasoline and diesel fuel are not found to be the same at high and low incomes and at high and low prices, patterns emerge that allow me to develop suggested price and income elasticities for gasoline and diesel demand for over one hundred countries. I adjust these elasticities for recent fuel mix policies, and suggest an agenda of future research topics. - Research highlights: ► Surveyed econometric studies of transport fuel demand. ► Developed price elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel fuel for 120 countries. ► Developed income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel fuel for 120 countries. ► Suggested a research agenda for future work.

  6. Associations of cycling with urban sprawl and the gasoline price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Inas

    2009-01-01

    Determine the relationships between cycling and urban sprawl and between cycling and the gasoline price. Cross-sectional multivariate regression analyses using pooled data from two individual-level national surveys to analyze the effects of variations in levels of urban sprawl and the gasoline price on cycling as a form of physical activity. Metropolitan areas representative of the U.S. population, 1990 to 2001. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: 146,730 individuals at least 18-years-old in the United States; Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey: 73,903 individuals at least 18-years-old in the United States. Self-reported information on bicycling served as the dependent variable. Urban sprawl and the gasoline price served as key independent variables. Living in a metropolitan area with a lower degree of urban sprawl increased the probability of cycling in the past month by 3.4 to 4.4 percentage points and 1.6 to 2.1 percentage points from the means for men and women, respectively. Increasing the gasoline price by one dollar increased the probability of cycling by 4.3 to 4.7 percentage points and 2.9 to 3.5 percentage points for men and women, respectively. Results indicate that the prevalence of cycling is higher in less sprawling areas and areas with higher gasoline prices. More research is needed to refine results on how individuals respond to incentives and the roles that monetary and time costs play in improving public health.

  7. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2018-04-03

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  8. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Bakor, Radwan; AlRamadan, Abdullah; Almansour, Mohammed; Sim, Jaeheon; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Viollet, Yoann; Chang, Junseok

    2018-01-01

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  9. Suicide attempt by intravenous injection of gasoline: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Katrin; Kuehnemund, Alexander; Schwab, Tilmann; Geibel-Zehender, Annette; Bley, Thorsten; Bode, Christoph; Busch, Hans-Joerg

    2010-11-01

    There is much experience with intoxication by aspiration of volatile hydrocarbon products, whereas intravenous injection of these distillates is rare. There are only few reports that describe a wide variety of associated pathological changes, predominantly in the pulmonary system. We report the case of an intravenous self-injection of gasoline by a young man in a suicide attempt. Immediately after injecting gasoline, the 22-year-old man developed bradycardia, hypotension, and increasing dyspnea. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed signs consistent with diffuse alveolar-toxic damage to the lung. These symptoms and radiological findings are similar to those commonly observed after inhalation of this type of substance. This may have been due to diffusion of gasoline into the alveoli, where its presence leads to this characteristic damage. In this patient, gasoline entered the intramuscular tissue, and the patient developed a soft-tissue phlegmon at the forearm. At operation, gas emanation and superficial necrosis were noted. Nevertheless, the patient's outcome was good, with full recovery within 3 weeks. The major changes in this patient after intravenous injection of gasoline were in the pulmonary system, including hypoxemia and radiological findings that could be related to an exhalation of the volatile substance. In addition, gas in the musculature of the injection area caused a soft-tissue phlegmon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  11. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  12. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elfasakhany, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.%) in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled wit...

  13. The effects of hydrous ethanol gasoline on combustion and emission characteristics of a port injection gasoline engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative experiments were conducted on a port injection gasoline engine fueled with hydrous ethanol gasoline (E10W, ethanol gasoline (E10 and pure gasoline (E0. The effects of the engine loads and the additions of ethanol and water on combustion and emission characteristics were analyzed deeply. According to the experimental results, compared with E0, E10W showed higher peak in-cylinder pressure at high load. Increases in peak heat release rates were observed for E10W fuel at all the operating conditions. The usage of E10W increased NOX emissions at a wide load range. However, at low load conditions, E10W reduced HC, CO and CO2 emissions significantly. E10W also produced slightly less HC and CO emissions, while CO2 emissions were not significantly affected at higher operating points. Compared with E10, E10W showed higher peak in-cylinder pressures and peak heat release rates at the tested operating conditions. In addition, decreases in NOX emissions were observed for E10W from 5 Nm to 100 Nm, while HC, CO and CO2 emissions were slightly higher at low and medium load conditions. From the results, it can be concluded that E10W fuel can be regarded as a potential alternative fuel for gasoline engine applications.

  14. Global progress and backsliding on gasoline taxes and subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael L.; Hazlett, Chad; Mahdavi, Paasha

    2017-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, many governments will have to reform their energy policies. These policies are difficult to measure with any precision. As a result, it is unclear whether progress has been made towards important energy policy reforms, such as reducing fossil fuel subsidies. We use new data to measure net taxes and subsidies for gasoline in almost all countries at the monthly level and find evidence of both progress and backsliding. From 2003 to 2015, gasoline taxes rose in 83 states but fell in 46 states. During the same period, the global mean gasoline tax fell by 13.3% due to faster consumption growth in countries with lower taxes. Our results suggest that global progress towards fossil fuel price reform has been mixed, and that many governments are failing to exploit one of the most cost-effective policy tools for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI gasoline release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 378 liters (100 gallons) of gasoline into a sandy acquifer. Images were made in 5 planes before and 5 times during the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial as well as the temporal development of the plume as it spread at the water table. Information of the electrical impedance (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used or several different frequencies to produce images. We observed little dispersion in the images either before or after the gasoline entered the acquifer. Likewise, despite some laboratory measurements of impedances, there was no evidence of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the gasoline

  16. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Viollet, Yoann; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Im, Hong G.; Chang, Junseok

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have

  17. A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet; Charry Prada, Iran David; Amer, Ahmad Amer; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to develop a reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene) with an emphasis on the formation of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Starting from an existing base mechanism for gasoline

  18. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum; Benzin nefti Kumkol`skogo mestorozhdeniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadirov, A N; Zhizhin, N I; Musaeva, Z G

    1997-11-04

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author) 2 tabs., 1 fig. Suppl. Neft` i gaz Kazakhstana

  19. Cloud Forming Potential of Aerosol from Light-duty Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we evaluate the hygroscopicity and droplet kinetics of fresh and aged emissions from new generation gasoline direct injector engines retrofitted with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Furthermore, ageing and subsequent secondary aer...

  20. Development of tartaric esters as bifunctional additives of methanol-gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Changchun; Tang, Ying; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Xiaoli; Xu, Lianghong

    2014-01-01

    Methanol has become an alternative fuel for gasoline, which is facing a rapidly rising world demand with a limited oil supply. Methanol-gasoline has been used in China, but phase stability and vapor lock still need to be resolved in methanol-gasoline applications. In this paper, a series of tartaric esters were synthesized and used as phase stabilizers and saturation vapor pressure depressors for methanol-gasoline. The results showed that the phase stabilities of tartaric esters for methanol-gasoline depend on the length of the alkoxy group. Several tartaric esters were found to be effective in various gasoline-methanol blends, and the tartaric esters display high capacity to depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline. According to the results, it can be concluded that the tartaric esters have great potential to be bifunctional gasoline-methanol additives.

  1. Terpineol as a novel octane booster for extending the knock limit of gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Naser, Nimal; Roberts, William L.; Dibble, Robert W.; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Improving the octane number of gasoline offers the potential of improved engine combustion, as it permits spark timing advancement without engine knock. This study proposes the use of terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline in a spark ignited

  2. Understanding premixed flame chemistry of gasoline fuels by comparing quantities of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures that vary in composition depending on crude oil feedstocks and refining processes. Gasoline combustion in high-speed spark ignition engines is governed by flame propagation, so understanding fuel composition

  3. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-16

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  4. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  5. Catalytic reduction of NOx in gasoline engine exhaust over copper- and nickel-exchanged X-zeolite catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Das, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Catalytic removal of NO x in engine exhaust gases can be accomplished by non-selective reduction, selective reduction and decomposition. Noble metals are extensively used for non-selective reduction of NO x and up to 90% of engine NO x emissions can be reduced in a stoichiometric exhaust. This requirement of having the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio acts against efficiency improvement of engines. Selective NO x reduction in the presence of different reductants such as, NH 3 , urea or hydrocarbons, requires close control of the amount of reductant being injected which otherwise may be emitted as a pollutant. Catalytic decomposition is the best option for NO x removal. Nevertheless, catalysts which are durable, economic and active for NO x reduction at normal engine exhaust temperature ranges are still being investigated. Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging the Na+ ion with copper, nickel and copper-nickel metal ions and applied to the exhaust of a stationary gasoline engine to explore their potential for catalytic reduction of NO x under a wide range of engine and exhaust conditions. Some encouraging results have been obtained. The catalyst Cu-X exhibits much better NO x reduction performance at any temperature in comparison to Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X; while Cu-Ni-X catalyst exhibits slightly better performance than Ni-X catalyst. Maximum NO x efficiency achieved with Cu-X catalyst is 59.2% at a space velocity (sv) of 31 000 h -1 ; while for Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X catalysts the equivalent numbers are 60.4% and 56% respectively at a sv of 22 000 h -1 . Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts exhibit significant NO x reduction capability for a wide range of air/fuel ratio and with a slower rate of decline as well with increase in air/fuel ratio. (author)

  6. 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Sens, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines in Berlin in November 2016. Experts from industry and universities discuss in their papers the challenges to ignition systems in providing reliable, precise ignition in the light of a wide spread in mixture quality, high exhaust gas recirculation rates and high cylinder pressures. Classic spark plug ignition as well as alternative ignition systems are assessed, the ignition system being one of the key technologies to further optimizing the gasoline engine.

  7. Testing for asymmetric pricing in the Canadian retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godby, R.; Lintner, A.M.; Stengos, T.; Wandschneider, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies a Threshold Regression model to test for asymmetric pricing in the retail gasoline market in Canada, using weekly data for the period January 1990 to December 1996. We present results for 13 Canadian cities for both premium and regular gasoline. Within the context of an error correction model we test for the presence of asymmetric price behaviour using average changes in crude prices as well as various lags for the change in crude as possible thresholds. We are unable to find any evidence to support this view. 23 refs

  8. The reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwoke, C C; Nwobodo, E D; Unekwe, P; Odike, M; Chukwumai, S T; Amilo, G

    2005-01-01

    Daily exposure to fuel vapour may pose significant health risk to exposed individuals. Fifteen each of male and female albino rats weighing between 110-230g were divided into test (10) and control (5) groups each. The test animals; were exposed to inhalation gasoline for one hour daily for twenty-one consecutive days. All animals were then bled and the serum levels of the reproductive hormones determined. The results showed significant [P inhalation gasoline exposure significantly [P < 0.05] lowers the levels of reproductive hormones in albino rats and may thus interfere with reproduction.

  9. Particle number emissions of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles; Partikelanzahl-Emission bei Hybridfahrzeugen mit Ottomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Scott [Horiba Instruments Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are commonly reputed to be environmentally friendly. Different studies show that this assumption raises some questions in terms of particle number emissions. Against the background that upcoming emission standards will not only limit particle matter emissions but also particle number emissions for gasoline engines, the exhaust behaviour of downsized gasoline engines used in HEV should be investigated more extensively. A Horiba study compares the particle number emissions of a gasoline vehicle to those of a gasoline powered HEV. (orig.)

  10. Who is exposed to gas prices? How gasoline prices affect automobile manufacturers and dealerships

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Risso, Jorge; Zettelmeyer, Florian; Busse, Meghan R.; Knittel, Christopher Roland

    2016-01-01

    Many consumers are keenly aware of gasoline prices, and consumer responses to gasoline prices have been well studied. In this paper, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships. We estimate how changes in gasoline prices affect equilibrium prices and sales of both new and used vehicles of different fuel economies. We investigate the implications of these effects for individual auto manufacturers, taking into account differences...

  11. Who is exposed to gas prices? How gasoline prices affect automobile manufacturers and dealerships

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Meghan R.; Kittel, Christopher R.; Zettelmeyer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Many consumers are keenly aware of gasoline prices, and consumer responses to gasoline prices have been well studied. In this paper, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships. We estimate how changes in gasoline prices affect equilibrium prices and sales of both new and used vehicles of different fuel economies. We investigate the implications of these effects for individual auto manufacturers, taking into account differences...

  12. Effect of honey supplementation on toxicity of gasoline vapor exposure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    M B Abubakar; W Z Abdullah; S A Sulaiman; F E Uboh; B S Ang

    2013-01-01

    Summary. Different health risks including haematotoxicity and weight loss have been reported for gasoline. Supplementation with antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E has been shown to ameliorate the toxicity effects of gasoline vapours exposure. Honey contains vitamins, and polyphenols that possess good antioxidant properties. The potential role of honey in preventing gasoline-induced haematotoxicity and weight loss was assessed in male rats. The rats were exposed to gasoline (11.13±1.1cm...

  13. 75 FR 52591 - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Requirements on Gasoline Transport Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... gasoline transport vehicle (6 NYCRR 230.6(b)); and (3) to retain pressure-vacuum test and repair results... Gasoline Transport Vehicles AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... recent pressure- vacuum test results with the gasoline transport vehicle and retaining pressure-vacuum...

  14. 40 CFR 80.210 - What sulfur standards apply to gasoline downstream from refineries and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combined with non-S-RGAS for the sole purpose of producing midgrade gasoline. (6) Where S-RGAS is being... of the gasoline. (f) Downstream standards applicable to S-RGAS when produced or imported. (1) The downstream standard applicable to any gasoline classified as S-RGAS when produced or imported shall be...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1220 - What are the implementation dates for the gasoline benzene program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... annual averaging period thereafter, gasoline produced at each refinery of a refiner or imported by an... annual averaging period thereafter, gasoline produced at each refinery of a refiner or imported by an... the gasoline benzene program? 80.1220 Section 80.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  16. 40 CFR 80.255 - Compliance plans and demonstration of commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commitment to produce low sulfur gasoline. 80.255 Section 80.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur... gasoline. The requirements of this section apply to any refiner approved for small refiner standards who...

  17. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This proposed rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... A. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A...

  18. 78 FR 34966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor Recovery From Southeast... specifically installed at gasoline dispensing facilities (GDF) and capture the refueling fuel vapors at the gasoline pump nozzle. The system carries the vapors back to the underground storage tank at the GDF to...

  19. 78 FR 58184 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor... measures for new and upgraded gasoline dispensing facilities in the State. The September 18, 2009, SIP... .0953), entitled Vapor Return Piping for Stage II Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks...

  20. 40 CFR 80.335 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.335 What gasoline sample...

  1. 40 CFR 80.27 - Controls and prohibitions on gasoline volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls and prohibitions on gasoline... prohibitions on gasoline volatility. (a)(1) Prohibited activities in 1991. During the 1991 regulatory control... shall sell, offer for sale, dispense, supply, offer for supply, or transport gasoline whose Reid vapor...

  2. 40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.395 Section 80.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.395 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program? (a) Persons liable for...

  3. 78 FR 65875 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor... Administrative Code, Chapter NR 420 Control of Organic Compound Emissions from Petroleum and Gasoline Sources... FROM PETROLEUM AND GASOLINE SOURCES. NR 420.01 as published in the (Wisconsin) Register, February, 1990...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1348 - What gasoline sample retention requirements apply to refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline sample retention... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements § 80.1348 What gasoline sample retention requirements...

  5. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable for...

  6. 76 FR 40246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2006-0976; FRL-9430-5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline Volatility; Correction AGENCY... a gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) limit of 7.8 pounds per square inch (psi) for gasoline sold in...

  7. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  8. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section 80.385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.385 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? No person shall: (a...

  9. 40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reformulated gasoline. 80.78 Section 80.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. (a) Prohibited activities. (1) No person may manufacture...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall: (a...

  11. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and importers...

  12. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  13. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order 12866...

  14. 78 FR 72033 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Florida: General Requirements and Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Florida: General Requirements and Gasoline Vapor Control... Protection (FDEP), related to the State's gasoline vapor recovery program. This correcting amendment corrects... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This action corrects inadvertent errors in a rulemaking related to Florida's gasoline...

  15. 76 FR 9013 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... this action are those who (1) Manufacture gasoline, post-refinery component, or detergent additives, (2) blend detergent additives into gasoline or post-refinery component, or (3) transport or receive a...

  16. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1....164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January 1...) and tax on the sale of gasoline, diesel fuel or other motor fuel paid by the consumer (other than in...

  17. 78 FR 34303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program..., 2009, for the purpose of removing Stage II vapor control requirements for new and upgraded gasoline... Piping for Stage II Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks. In addition, rule 15A-02D...

  18. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  19. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural...

  20. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. 80.73 Section 80.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Gasoline § 80.73 Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances. In appropriate...

  1. R and D on metal hydride materials and Ni-MH batteries in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Uehara, I.; Ishikawa, H.

    1999-01-01

    The production of small-sized Ni-MH batteries, which amounts to some 40% of market share for portable appliances, is still growing because of an increase in the energy density per volume and also a reduction in price. Highly efficient electric vehicles (EV) propelled by a large-sized Ni-MH battery have been commercialized and have twice the driving range of a conventional EV with a Pb-acid battery. A hybrid vehicle with a high-powered Ni-MH battery has been brought onto the market, providing twice the gas mileage and half the CO 2 emissions of a gasoline vehicle. A fuel cell electric vehicle with hydrogen tank or methanol reformer, power-assisted by a Ni-MH battery, is under development. The Ni-MH battery will be a key component for the next generation of vehicles in addition to advanced information and telecommunication systems. (orig.)

  2. A new kind of Molotov? Gasoline-pool chlorinator mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutches, Katherine; Lord, James

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the reaction between pool chlorinators and gasoline. In particular, the propensity for self-ignition and the resulting chemical products were studied. An organic pool chlorinator was combined with gasoline in varying proportions in an attempt to form a hypergolic mixture. None of the combinations resulted in self-ignition, but larger quantities of chlorinator produced vigorous light-colored smoke and a solid mass containing isocyanuric acid and copper chloride. Additionally, the chlorinating abilities of different commercially available pool chlorinators were explored. When Ca(ClO)(2) and sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinators were used, the presence of gasoline was still visible after 10 days, despite limited chlorination. The trichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinator, however, caused efficient chlorination of the C(2)- and C(3)-alkylbenzenes, making gasoline no longer identifiable. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  3. Improving gasoline quality produced from MIDOR light naphtha isomerization unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Isomerization process became one of the best gasoline production sources, as it gives a high octane product while saving environment from pollution impacts. This paper presents a practical study that aims to improve the gasoline quality and economic income of an existing light naphtha isomerization unit used for octane improvement. The study included selecting the optimum combination of isomerization unit equipment that gives better product specifications for a specified feed. Eight scenarios were studied and simulated to predict the product specs. The original studied unit is MIDOR light naphtha isomerization unit at Alexandria-Egypt that recycles the unconverted hexane (C6. The other studied scenarios were adding fractionators for separating feed iso-pentanes, and recycling unconverted pentanes, hexanes and/or combinations of these fractionators. The results show a change in octane number of gasoline product for a specific feed. Once through process with no extra fractionators has lower octane number of 81 while that with de-iso-pentanizer–de-pentanizer and de-hexanizer produces gasoline with 92.3 octane number. Detailed economic study was done to calculate the return on investment “ROI” for each process option based on equipment, utilities, feed and product prices. Once through simple isomerization unit had the lowest ROI of 14.3% per year while the combination of De-iso-pentanizer with the De-hexanizer had the best ROI of 26.6% per year.

  4. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  5. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  6. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline...

  7. Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.

    The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…

  8. Basic Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a basic gasoline engine mechanics program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes a…

  9. Sales of diesel fuel up, gasoline sales down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The combined sales of petroleum products in Finland during 1999 totalled more than nine million tonnes, which was little changed from the figure for 1998. Sales of traffic fuels increased, while those of fuel oil fell. Diesel fuel sales reached a record level, while sales of gasoline continued their downward trend

  10. Potential of secondary aerosol formation from Chinese gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhuofei; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Qin, Yanhong; Niu, He; Li, Mengren; Yang, Yudong; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Shao, Min; Shuai, Shijin

    2018-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline vehicles have drawn public attention in China due to their significant primary emissions of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, little information on secondary aerosol formation from exhaust for Chinese vehicles and fuel conditions is available. In this study, chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from the exhaust of a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The engine and fuel used are common in the Chinese market, and the fuel satisfies the China V gasoline fuel standard. Substantial secondary aerosol formation was observed during a 4-5hr simulation, which was estimated to represent more than 10days of equivalent atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing. As a consequence, the extreme case secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production was 426±85mg/kg-fuel, with high levels of precursors and OH exposure. The low hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed inside the chamber suggests that SOA was the dominant chemical composition. Fourteen percent of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reductions of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles are essential to mediate pollution in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The distributional incidence of the gasoline tax in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Jiménez, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distributional incidence of the excise tax on gasoline in Chile using Household Budget Surveys. The incidence is calculated with respect to both income and expenditure distributions in order to consider the potential differences between transitory and permanent income. The Suits Index is estimated as a measure of the degree of progressivity of the tax, and confidence intervals are calculated using a bootstrap methodology to statistically compare changes in the incidence given changes in the tax. The results show that the tax, contrary to the evidence for several developed countries, is slightly or moderately progressive, with a lower degree of progressivity observed in the calculations based on income than those based on expenditure. The simulation of the 25% reduction in the tax rate implemented in 2008 shows that, in terms of incidence, its effect is to reduce the progressivity of the gasoline tax, which is the opposite of what was sought by the government with this policy. -- Highlights: •Gasoline tax is an optimal tax and is a significant instrument of climate policy. •Despite its benefits, it faces political economy challenges in its implementation. •In the public discussion in developing countries the tax is considered regressive. •The estimation of the distributional incidence shows that it is slightly progressive. •Increases in gasoline taxes can reduce both negative externalities and inequality

  12. Inventory of greenhouse gases emissions from gasoline and diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion are of global concern due to their negative effects on public health and environment. This paper is an inventory of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) released into the environment through consumption of fuels (gasoline and diesel) in Nigeria from 1980 to 2014. The fuel consumption data ...

  13. Gasoline, diesel, and ethanol biofuels from grasses and plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ram B; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    ...-generation biofuels obtained from nonfood biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wood, and municipal solid wastes. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the...

  14. EVALUATION AND REPORTING OF COUNTY GASOLINE USE METHODOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report reviews two EPA studies that investigated improvements in the allocation of state-level gasoline sales to the county level in order to improve annual county-level emissions estimates from this source category. The approaches taken in these studies are compared with the...

  15. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Sara Safari [Faculty of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Alimorad, E-mail: rashidiam@ripi.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, Tehran 14665-1998 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza [Catalysis Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Leila [Faculty of Chemistry, Kashan University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  16. Comparative exergy analyses of gasoline and hydrogen fuelled ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, J.; Dincer, I.; Yang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative exergy models for naturally aspirated gasoline and hydrogen fuelled spark ignition internal combustion engines were developed according to the second laws of thermodynamics. A thorough graphical analysis of heat transfer, work, thermo mechanical, and intake charge exergy functions was made. An irreversibility function was developed as a function of entropy generation and graphed. A second law analysis yielded a proportional exergy distribution as a fraction of the intake charge exergy. It was found that the hydrogen fuelled engine had a greater proportion of the intake charge exergy converted into work exergy, indicating a second law efficiency of 50.13% as opposed to 44.34% for a gasoline fuelled engine. The greater exergy due to heat transfer or thermal availability associated with the hydrogen fuelled engine is postulated to be a part of the reason for decreased work output of a hydrogen engine. Finally, a second law analysis of both hydrogen and gasoline combustion reactions indicate a greater combustion irreversibility associated with gasoline combustion. A percentage breakdown of the combustion irreversibilities were also constructed according to information found in literature searches. (author)

  17. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: neurotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, James P; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. The functional observation battery (FOB) with the addition of motor activity (MA) testing, hematoxylin and eosin staining of brain tissue sections, and brain regional analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to assess behavioral changes, traditional neuropathology and astrogliosis, respectively. FOB and MA data for all agents, except G/TBA, were negative. G/TBA behavioral effects resolved during recovery. Neuropathology was negative for all groups. Analyses of GFAP revealed increases in multiplebrain regions largely limited to males of the G/EtOH group, findings indicative of minor gliosis, most significantly in the cerebellum. Small changes (both increases and decreases) in GFAP were observed for other test agents but effects were not consistent across sex, brain region or exposure concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurobehavioral evaluations of rats gestationally exposed to gasoline vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the US fuel supply is moving towards blends with higher ethanol levels, there are questions regarding effects of these fuel vapors in the developing fetus. As part of a project evaluating gasoline-ethanol blends of different proportions. we included an evaluation of inhaled pu...

  19. Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Farshad

    The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding of exhaust products of fuels such as gasoline, ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran and comparison of results. A quantitative analysis of individual hydrocarbon species from exhaust emissions of these three fuels were carried out with direct injects spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. The analysis of hydrocarbon species were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) connected on-line to SI engine. During this project, novel works have been done including the set up of on-line exhaust emission measurement device for detection and quantification of individual volatile hydrocarbons. Setting of a reliable gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurement system required definition and development of a precise method. Lubricity characteristics of biofuels and gasoline were investigated using High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results showed great enhancing lubricity characteristics of biofuels when added to conventional gasoline. 2,5-dimenthylfuran was found to be the best among the fuels used, addition of this fuel to gasoline also showed better result compared with ethanol addition.

  20. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... of such protection. (d) Exhaust pipe. (1) Exhaust pipe installations must conform to the requirements...

  1. Ignition studies of two low-octane gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Lovisotto, Leonardo; Issayev, Gani; Badra, Jihad; Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    , were measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine over a broad range of engine-relevant conditions (650–1200 K, 20 and 40 bar and ϕ = 0.5 and 1). The two gasolines are of similar octane ratings with anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2

  2. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  4. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  5. Ni hombres ni mujeres providenciales

    OpenAIRE

    Montaño Virreira, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    Debo advertir a la y el lector de este texto que lo que a continuación se presenta no es, ni de lejos, una propuesta realista, si por ella entendemos la traducción, enclave mujer, de las actuales tendencias de liderazgo político vigentes en la región. Por el contrario, intento argumentaren favor de un liderazgo que supere el caudillismo como estilo y se aproxime al máximo hacia el respeto de las formas, entendiendo que sin ellas no es posible construir la democracia. Para hacerlo reviso rápid...

  6. Customer exposure to gasoline vapors during refueling at service stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkola, M A; Saarinen, L H

    2000-09-01

    Gasoline is a volatile complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that is easily vaporized during handling under normal conditions. Modern reformulated gasoline also contains oxygenates to enhance octane number and reduce ambient pollution. This study measured the difference in the exposure of customers to gasoline and oxygenate vapors during refueling in service stations with and without vapor recovery systems. Field measurements were carried out at two self-service stations. One was equipped with Stage I and the other with Stage II vapor recovery systems. At Stage I stations there is vapor recovery only during delivery from road tanker, and at Stage II stations additional vapor recovery during refueling. The exposure of 20 customers was measured at both stations by collecting air samples from their breathing zone into charcoal tubes during refueling with 95-octane reformulated gasoline. Each sample represented two consecutive refuelings. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection for vapor components. The Raid vapor pressure of gasoline was 70 kPa and an oxygen content 2 wt%. Oxygenated gasoline contained 7 percent methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 5 percent methyl tert-amyl ether (MtAE). The geometric mean concentrations of hydrocarbons (C3-C11) in the customers' breathing zone was 85 mg/m3 (range 2.5-531 mg/m3) at the Stage I service station and 18 mg/m3 (range service station. The geometric mean of the exposure of customers to MtBE during refueling at the Stage I service station was 15.3 mg/m3 (range 1.8-74 mg/m3), and at the Stage II service station 3.4 mg/m3 (range 0.2-16 mg/m3). The differences in exposure were statistically significant (p station. The measurements were done on consecutive days at the various service stations. The temperature ranged from 10 to 17 degrees C, and wind velocity was 2-4 m/s. The climatic conditions were very similar on the measurement days. Based on this study it was found

  7. GTLine – Gasoline as a potential CN suppressant for GTL

    KAUST Repository

    Reijnders, Jos; Boot, Michael; Johansson, Bengt; de Goey, Philip

    2018-01-01

    The main driver to investigate low temperature combustion concepts, such as partially premixed combustion (PPC), is the promise of low particulate matter (PM) and nitric oxide (NOx) emissions. A critical prerequisite for PPC is to temporally isolate the fuel injection and combustion events. In practice, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is applied in order to sufficiently extend the ignition delay to that effect. Hereby, in general, higher EGR rates are necessary for fuels with higher cetane numbers (CN). Against this background, the objective of this paper is to investigate the efficacy, with respect to PM-NOx emissions and engine efficiency, of gasoline as a potential gas-to-liquid (GTL) CN suppressant in various dosages. The performance of the resulting GTLine blend will be evaluated under PPC operating conditions in a heavy-duty direct-injected diesel engine. Setting aside for a moment any potential practical issues (e.g., flash point, vapor pressure) that fall outside the scope of this study, our data suggest that blending gasoline to otherwise high CN GTL appears to be a promising route to improve not only the efficiency, but also PM and NOx emissions, particularly when operating in PPC mode. Interestingly, this benefit is notwithstanding the high aromaticity of the gasoline compared to GTL. Given the ongoing dieselization trend and associated surplus of gasoline in many regions, notably Europe, along with the fact that the cost price of gasoline is significantly lower than that of GTL, the proposed GTLine approach promises to be a cost effective way to accommodate GTL in a world wherein low temperature combustion concepts, such as PPC, appear to be really taking off.

  8. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  9. GTLine – Gasoline as a potential CN suppressant for GTL

    KAUST Repository

    Reijnders, Jos

    2018-03-23

    The main driver to investigate low temperature combustion concepts, such as partially premixed combustion (PPC), is the promise of low particulate matter (PM) and nitric oxide (NOx) emissions. A critical prerequisite for PPC is to temporally isolate the fuel injection and combustion events. In practice, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is applied in order to sufficiently extend the ignition delay to that effect. Hereby, in general, higher EGR rates are necessary for fuels with higher cetane numbers (CN). Against this background, the objective of this paper is to investigate the efficacy, with respect to PM-NOx emissions and engine efficiency, of gasoline as a potential gas-to-liquid (GTL) CN suppressant in various dosages. The performance of the resulting GTLine blend will be evaluated under PPC operating conditions in a heavy-duty direct-injected diesel engine. Setting aside for a moment any potential practical issues (e.g., flash point, vapor pressure) that fall outside the scope of this study, our data suggest that blending gasoline to otherwise high CN GTL appears to be a promising route to improve not only the efficiency, but also PM and NOx emissions, particularly when operating in PPC mode. Interestingly, this benefit is notwithstanding the high aromaticity of the gasoline compared to GTL. Given the ongoing dieselization trend and associated surplus of gasoline in many regions, notably Europe, along with the fact that the cost price of gasoline is significantly lower than that of GTL, the proposed GTLine approach promises to be a cost effective way to accommodate GTL in a world wherein low temperature combustion concepts, such as PPC, appear to be really taking off.

  10. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  11. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  12. Hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folarin O. Owagboriaye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of gasoline fumes have been reported, but evidence of its hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity are rare. Therefore, this study assesses hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes on forty Albino rats randomly assigned to five experimental treatments (T with eight rats per treatment (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. T1(Control was housed in a section of experimental animal house free from gasoline fumes while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were exposed to gasoline fumes in exposure chambers for one, three, five and nine hours daily respectively for twelve weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and histopathological examination of the liver tissues were used as diagnostic markers to assess liver dysfunction. Genotoxicity test was conducted on the lung tissues using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR technique. Significant increase (p < 0.05 in the level of ALT, AST and ALP for T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to T1 were recorded. Photomicrograph examination of the liver sections of T1 showed hepatic tissue with normal liver cell architecture while that of T2, T3, T4 and T5 revealed degenerative changes in the ultrastructural integrity of the hepatic cells. Genotoxicity test revealed DNA bands at a reducing intensity from T1 to T5. Dendrogram showed DNA damage in the lungs of T3, T4 and T5 were closely similar and the genotoxic impact was more in T3. Frequent exposure to gasoline fumes was observed to induce hepatoxicity and genotoxicity, hence impairing the normal liver function and gene structure.

  13. Gasoline taxes and revenue volatility: An application to California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madowitz, M.; Novan, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how applying different combinations of excise and sales taxes on motor fuels impact the volatility of retail fuel prices and tax revenues. Two features of gasoline and diesel markets make the choice of tax mechanism a unique problem. First, prices are very volatile. Second, demand for motor fuels is extremely inelastic. As a result, fuel expenditures vary substantially over time. Tying state revenues to these expenditures, as is the case with a sales tax, results in a volatile stream of revenue which imposes real costs on agents in an economy. On July 1, 2010, California enacted Assembly Bill x8-6, the “Gas Tax Swap”, increasing the excise tax and decreasing the sales tax on gasoline purchases. While the initial motivation behind the revenue neutral swap was to provide the state with greater flexibility within its budget, we highlight that this change has two potentially overlooked benefits; it reduces retail fuel price volatility and tax revenue volatility. Simulating the monthly fuel prices and tax revenues under alternative tax policies, we quantify the potential reductions in revenue volatility. The results reveal that greater benefits can be achieved by going beyond the tax swap and eliminating the gasoline sales tax entirely. - Highlights: • We examine how gasoline taxes affect government revenue volatility. • We simulate the impact of California's Gasoline Tax Swap policy. • Sales taxes are shown to magnify price volatility and government revenue volatility. • A pure excise tax policy results in less volatile fuel prices and state revenues. • We argue that reductions in both forms of volatility are welfare enhancing

  14. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: immunotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kimber L; Peachee, Vanessa L; Armstrong, Sarah R; Twerdok, Lorraine E; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A

    2014-11-01

    Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential immunotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) administered for 6h/day, 5days/week for 4weeks. The antibody-forming cell (AFC) response to the T-dependent antigen, sheep erythrocyte (sRBC), was used to determine the effects of the gasoline vapor condensates on the humoral components of the immune system. Exposure to BGVC, G/MTBE, G/TAME, and G/TBA did not result in significant changes in the IgM AFC response to sRBC, when evaluated as either specific activity (AFC/10(6) spleen cells) or as total spleen activity (AFC/spleen). Exposure to G/EtOH and G/DIPE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the AFC response, reaching the level of statistical significance only at the high 20,000mg/m(3) level. Exposure to G/ETBE resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the AFC response at the middle (10,000mg/m(3)) and high (20,000mg/m(3)) exposure concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Compositional effects on the ignition of FACE gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Kukkadapu, Goutham; Mehl, Marco; Javed, Tamour; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Naser, Nimal; Tekawade, Aniket; Kosiba, Graham; Alabbad, Mohammed; Singh, Eshan; Park, Sungwoo; Rashidi, Mariam Al; Chung, Suk-Ho; Roberts, William L.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Sung, Chih-Jen; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    As regulatory measures for improved fuel economy and decreased emissions are pushing gasoline engine combustion technologies towards extreme conditions (i.e., boosted and intercooled intake with exhaust gas recirculation), fuel ignition characteristics become increasingly important for enabling stable operation. This study explores the effects of chemical composition on the fundamental ignition behavior of gasoline fuels. Two well-characterized, high-octane, non-oxygenated FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE F and FACE G, having similar antiknock indices but different octane sensitivities and chemical compositions are studied. Ignition experiments were conducted in shock tubes and a rapid compression machine (RCM) at nominal pressures of 20 and 40. atm, equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1.0, and temperatures ranging from 650 to 1270. K. Results at temperatures above 900. K indicate that ignition delay time is similar for these fuels. However, RCM measurements below 900. K demonstrate a stronger negative temperature coefficient behavior for FACE F gasoline having lower octane sensitivity. In addition, RCM pressure profiles under two-stage ignition conditions illustrate that the magnitude of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) increases with decreasing fuel octane sensitivity. However, intermediate-temperature heat release is shown to increase as fuel octane sensitivity increases. Various surrogate fuel mixtures were formulated to conduct chemical kinetic modeling, and complex multicomponent surrogate mixtures were shown to reproduce experimentally observed trends better than simpler two- and three-component mixtures composed of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene. Measurements in a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine demonstrated that the multicomponent surrogates accurately captured the antiknock quality of the FACE gasolines. Simulations were performed using multicomponent surrogates for FACE F and G to reveal the underlying chemical

  16. Compositional effects on the ignition of FACE gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-05-08

    As regulatory measures for improved fuel economy and decreased emissions are pushing gasoline engine combustion technologies towards extreme conditions (i.e., boosted and intercooled intake with exhaust gas recirculation), fuel ignition characteristics become increasingly important for enabling stable operation. This study explores the effects of chemical composition on the fundamental ignition behavior of gasoline fuels. Two well-characterized, high-octane, non-oxygenated FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE F and FACE G, having similar antiknock indices but different octane sensitivities and chemical compositions are studied. Ignition experiments were conducted in shock tubes and a rapid compression machine (RCM) at nominal pressures of 20 and 40. atm, equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1.0, and temperatures ranging from 650 to 1270. K. Results at temperatures above 900. K indicate that ignition delay time is similar for these fuels. However, RCM measurements below 900. K demonstrate a stronger negative temperature coefficient behavior for FACE F gasoline having lower octane sensitivity. In addition, RCM pressure profiles under two-stage ignition conditions illustrate that the magnitude of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) increases with decreasing fuel octane sensitivity. However, intermediate-temperature heat release is shown to increase as fuel octane sensitivity increases. Various surrogate fuel mixtures were formulated to conduct chemical kinetic modeling, and complex multicomponent surrogate mixtures were shown to reproduce experimentally observed trends better than simpler two- and three-component mixtures composed of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene. Measurements in a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine demonstrated that the multicomponent surrogates accurately captured the antiknock quality of the FACE gasolines. Simulations were performed using multicomponent surrogates for FACE F and G to reveal the underlying chemical

  17. Gasoline, Ethanol and Methanol (GEM) Ternary Blends utilization as an Alternative to Conventional Iraqi Gasoline to Suppress Emitted Sulfur and Lead Components to Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2016-01-01

    Iraqi conventional gasoline characterized by its low octane number not exceed 82 and high lead and sulfur content. In this paper tri-component or ternary, blends of gasoline, ethanol, and methanol presented as an alternative fuel for Iraqi conventional gasoline. The study conducted by using GEM blend that equals E85 blend in octane rating. The used GEM selected from Turner, 2010 collection. G37 E20 M43 (37% gasoline + 20% ethanol+ 43% methanol) was chosen as GEM in present study. This blend u...

  18. Atomization and spray characteristics of bioethanol and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel injected through a direct injection gasoline injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Kim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Chang Sik

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the spray characteristics and atomization performance of gasoline fuel (G100), bioethanol fuel (E100), and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel (E85) in a direct injection gasoline injector in a gasoline engine. The overall spray and atomization characteristics such as an axial spray tip penetration, spray width, and overall SMD were measured experimentally and predicted by using KIVA-3V code. The development process and the appearance timing of the vortices in the test fuels were very similar. In addition, the numerical results accurately described the experimentally observed spray development pattern and shape, the beginning position of the vortex, and the spray breakup on the spray surface. Moreover, the increased injection pressure induced the occurrence of a clear circular shape in the downstream spray and a uniform mixture between the injected spray droplets and ambient air. The axial spray tip penetrations of the test fuels were similar, while the spray width and spray cone angle of E100 were slightly larger than the other fuels. In terms of atomization performance, the E100 fuel among the tested fuels had the largest droplet size because E100 has a high kinematic viscosity and surface tension.

  19. Degradation of tetraethyllead during the degradation of leaded gasoline hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulroy, P.T.; Ou, L.T.

    1998-01-01

    For over 50 years, leaded gasoline was the only fuel for automobiles, and tetraethyllead (TEL) was the major octane number enhancer used in leaded gasoline. Ample information is available on the fate and remediation of gasoline hydrocarbons in contaminated subsoils and groundwater. However, little is known regarding the fate of TEL in leaded gasoline-contaminated subsoils and groundwater. In soil not contaminated with gasoline, TEL was rapidly degraded and completely disappeared in 14 d. In gasoline-contaminated soil, TEL degradation was slower; after 77 d, 4 to 17% of the applied TEL still remained in the contaminated soil. Disappearance of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was initially rapid but slowed appreciably after 7 to 14 d. As a result, after 77 d, 33 to 51% of the applied gasoline still remained in soil. The retardation of TEL degradation in leaded gasoline-contaminated soil is due to the presence of gasoline hydrocarbons. As long as gasoline hydrocarbons remain in soil, TEL may also remain in soil, most likely in the gasoline hydrocarbon phase

  20. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.% in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends, the concentrations of CO and UHC (unburnt hydrocarbons emissions were significantly decreased, compared to the neat gasoline. Methanol–gasoline blends presented the lowest emissions of CO and UHC among all test fuels. Ethanol–gasoline blends showed a moderate emission level between the neat gasoline and ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends, e.g., ethanol–gasoline blends presented lower CO and UHC emissions than those of the neat gasoline but higher emissions than those of the ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. In addition, the CO and UHC decreased and CO2 increased when ethanol and/or methanol contents increased in the fuel blends. Furthermore, the effects of blended fuels on engine performance were investigated and results showed that methanol–gasoline blends presents the highest volumetric efficiency and torque; ethanol–gasoline blends provides the highest brake power, while ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends showed a moderate level of volumetric efficiency, torque and brake power between both methanol–gasoline and ethanol–gasoline blends; gasoline, on the other hand, showed the lowest volumetric efficiency, torque and brake power among all test fuels.

  1. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance...

  2. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow gasoline to be handled in a manner that would result in vapor...

  4. Experimental study on emissions and performance of an internal combustion engine fueled with gasoline and gasoline/n-butanol blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfasakhany, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using of 3 and 7 vol.% n-butanol blends in SI engine is studied for the first time. • Engine performance and emissions depend on both engine speed and blend rates. • CO and UHC for blended fuels are maximum at 3000–3100 r/min. • The higher the rate of n-butanol, the lower the emissions and performance. • This study strongly supports using low blend rates of n-butanol (<10 vol.%) in ICE. - Abstract: In this paper, exhaust emissions and engine performance have been experimentally studied for neat gasoline and gasoline/n-butanol blends in a wide range of working speeds (2600–3400 r/min) without any tuning or modification on the gasoline engine systems. The experiment has the ability of evaluating performance and emission characteristics, such as break power, torque, in-cylinder pressure, volumetric efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and concentrations of CO 2 , CO and UHC. Results of the engine test indicated that using n-butanol–gasoline blended fuels slightly decrease the output torque, power, volumetric efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and in-cylinder pressure of the engine as a result of the leaning effect caused by the n-butanol addition; CO, CO 2 and UHC emissions decrease dramatically for blended fuels compared to neat gasoline because of the improved combustion since n-butanol has extra oxygen, which allows partial reduction of the CO and UHC through formation of CO 2 . It was also noted that the exhaust emissions depend on the engine speed rather than the n-butanol contents

  5. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  6. Gasoline reformulation to reduce exhaust emissions in Finnish conditions. Influence of sulphur and benzene contents of gasoline on exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytoe, M.; Aakko, P.; Lappi, M.

    1994-01-01

    At earlier stages of the study it was found that the exhaust emissions from cars are reduced when using fuels with no more than 4 wt% of oxygen. At this stage of the study the work focused on impacts of the sulphur and benzene content of gasoline on exhaust emissions in Finland. Sulphur in gasoline retards the operation of the catalyst, and consequently the exhaust emissions of catalyst cars increase if the sulphur content of the fuel increases. In the present study, evaporation during refuelling were measured for fuels with varying vapour pressures and benzene contents of gasoline. The total hydrocarbon evaporation was reduced by 22 % (10 g) when the vapour pressure of gasoline was reduced from 85 kPa to 65 kPa. Correspondingly, benzene evaporation during refuelling was reduced to a third when the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from the level of 3 wt% to 1 wt%. The reduction of the sulphur content of gasoline from 500 ppm to 100 ppm affected regulated exhaust emissions from the catalyst car at +22 deg C as follows: CO emission was reduced on average by 14 % (0.175 g/km), CH emission by 7 % (0.010 g/km) and NO x emission by 9 % (0.011 g/km). At-7 deg C the percentual changes were smaller. When the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from 3 wt% to 1 wt%, the benzene emission from the catalyst cars was reduced by 20-30 % and from the non-catalyst cars on average by 30 % both at +22 deg C and -7 deg C. The benzene emission ranged 3-22 mg/km for the catalyst cars and 40-90 mg/km for the non-catalyst cars at +22 deg C in the FTP test

  7. Bioaccumulation of gasoline in brackish green algae and popular clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan A. El-Shoubaky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha clathrata and the clams (Tapes decussates and Venerupis aurea grow together in Timsah Lake, Suez Canal, Egypt. Our ultimate goal is to validate the bioaccumulation of gasoline in the marine organisms and their behavior after exposure to the pollutant, experimentally. These species were treated with a serial treatment of gasoline (1000, 4000, 16,000 and 64,000 μl in aquaria with brackish sea-water for 72 h. The tested green algae and clams were taken for an analysis of total hydrocarbon accumulation daily. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between the four species and also between the duration of exposure. The accumulation of gasoline in U. lactuca and E. clathrata reached their maximum after 48 h at 1000 and 4000 μl. The highest absorption was registered after 24 h only at 16,000 and at 64,000 μl. U. lactuca recorded complete mortality in 64,000 μl at 72 h whereas E. clathrata registered death at 48 h and 72 h in the same treatment. V. aurea was more sensitive than T. decussates. The accumulation of gasoline reached its maximum in V. aurea after only 24 h in the first treatment while it retarded to 48 h in T. decussates with a lesser accumulation. However, both clam species accumulated the highest amount of petroleum hydrocarbons during the first hour of exposure at the first treatment. In the third and fourth treatments, clams did not accumulate gasoline but began to dispose it from their tissues till it became less than that in the control. Mortality gradually increased with time in each treatment except the last one (64,000 μl in which 100% death of the specimens was observed. In general, the bioaccumulation of gasoline level was in a descending order as follows: U. lactuca > E. clathrata > V. aurea > T. decussates. Their behavior changed from accumulation to detoxification with time and with the increase in pollutant concentration. Generally, these

  8. Adsorption and preconcentration of divalent metal ions in fossil fuels and biofuels: gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, diesel-like and ethanol by using chitosan microspheres and thermodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Alexandre G S; Pescara, Igor C; Evangelista, Sheila M; Holanda, Matheus S; Andrade, Romulo D; Suarez, Paulo A Z; Zara, Luiz F

    2011-05-15

    Biodiesel and diesel-like have been obtained from soybean oil by transesterification and thermal cracking process, respectively. These biofuels were characterized as according to ANP standards by using specific ASTM methods. Ethanol, gasoline, and diesel were purchased from a gas station. Deacetylation degree of chitosan was determined by three distinct methods (conductimetry, FTIR and NMR), and the average degree was 78.95%. The chitosan microspheres were prepared from chitosan by split-coating and these spheres were crosslinked using glutaraldehyde. The surface area of microspheres was determined by BET method, and the surface area of crosslinked microspheres was 9.2m(2)g(-1). The adsorption isotherms of cooper, nickel and zinc on microspheres of chitosan were determined in petroleum derivatives (gasoline and diesel oil), as well as in biofuels (alcohol, biodiesel and diesel-like). The adsorption order in all fuels was: Cu>Ni>Zn. The elution tests presented the following preconcentration degrees: >4.5 to ethanol, >4.4 to gasoline, >4.0 to diesel, >3.8 to biodiesel and >3.6 to diesel-like. The application of chitosan microspheres in the metal ions preconcentration showed the potential of this biopolymer to enrich fuel sample in order to be analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Using stable isotope analysis to discriminate gasoline on the basis of its origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Su-Young; Shin, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sin-Woo; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2012-03-15

    Leakage of gasoline and diesel from underground tanks has led to a severe environmental problem in many countries. Tracing the production origin of gasoline and diesel is required to enable the development of dispute resolution and appropriate remediation strategies for the oil-contaminated sites. We investigated the bulk and compound-specific isotopic compositions of gasoline produced by four oil companies in South Korea: S-Oil, SK, GS and Hyundai. The relative abundance of several compounds in gasoline was determined by the peak height of the major ion (m/z 44). The δ(13)C(Bulk) and δD(Bulk) values of gasoline produced by S-Oil were significantly different from those of SK, GS and Hyundai. In particular, the compound-specific isotopic value (δ(13)C(CSIA)) of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in S-Oil gasoline was significantly lower than that of gasoline produced by other oil companies. The abundance of several compounds in gasoline, such as n-pentane, MTBE, n-hexane, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene, differed widely among gasoline from different oil companies. This study shows that gasoline can be forensically discriminated according to the oil company responsible for its manufacture using stable isotope analysis combined with multivariate statistical analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Terpineol as a novel octane booster for extending the knock limit of gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-09-16

    Improving the octane number of gasoline offers the potential of improved engine combustion, as it permits spark timing advancement without engine knock. This study proposes the use of terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline in a spark ignited (SI) engine. Terpineol is a bio-derived oxygenated fuel obtained from pine tree resin, and has the advantage of higher calorific value than ethanol. The ignition delay time (IDT) of terpineol was first investigated in an ignition quality tester (IQT). The IQT results demonstrated a long ignition delay of 24.7 ms for terpineol and an estimated research octane number (RON) of 104, which was higher than commercial European (Euro V) gasoline. The octane boosting potential of terpineol was further investigated by blending it with a non-oxygenated gasoline (FACE F), which has a RON (94) lower than Euro V gasoline (RON = 97). The operation of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) SI engine fueled with terpineol-blended FACE F gasoline enabled spark timing advancement and improved engine combustion. The knock intensity of FACE F + 30% terpineol was lower than FACE F gasoline at both maximum brake torque (MBT) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) operating points. Increasing proportions of terpineol in the blend caused peak heat release rate, in-cylinder pressure, CA50, and combustion duration to be closer to those of Euro V gasoline. Furthermore, FACE F + 30% terpineol displayed improved combustion characteristics when compared to Euro V gasoline. © 2016

  11. Effects of policy characteristics and justifications on acceptance of a gasoline tax increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplowitz, Stan A.; McCright, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Many economists argue that increasing the gasoline tax is an effective way to reduce fuel consumption. Yet, public support for such a tax increase has been rather low among US residents. We performed eight survey experiments (total N approximately 3000) to examine how selected policy characteristics and persuasive messages influence support for a gasoline tax increase. Several policy characteristics significantly increased support for a gasoline tax increase. Having the increase phased in over five years modestly increased support. Compared with giving the extra revenue to the US Treasury’s General Fund, both refunding the extra revenue equally to all American families and having this revenue used for energy efficient transportation strongly increased support. Support for a gasoline tax increase was not affected by the nature of the mechanism to achieve revenue neutrality. Most people supported a 20 cent per gallon tax increase to repair roads and bridges. Explaining how the gasoline tax increase would reduce fuel consumption slightly increased support for a gasoline tax increase, but neither being informed of the high gasoline prices in other advanced industrial countries nor the actual pump price of gasoline at the time of the experiment influenced support for a gasoline tax increase. - Highlights: • Phasing in the tax increase modestly raised support. • Making the tax increase revenue-neutral increased support. • Using the extra revenue for energy efficiency increased support. • Information on high gasoline prices elsewhere did not influence support. • Variation in actual fuel prices did not influence support.

  12. NGL recovery being hiked by natural-gasoline recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas M, M.; Bracho, J.L. [Lagoven S.A., Maracaibo (Venezuela); Murray, J.E. [Murray (James E.), Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1997-07-07

    Construction will be completed later this year at two compression plants operated by Lagoven, S.A., to install natural-gasoline recirculation to improve NGL recovery. The project is the result of a study of condensate-stream recirculation and absorber operations at the compression plants Tia Juana 2 (PCTJ-2) and Tia Juana 3 (PCTJ-3), offshore Lake Maracaibo in western Venezuela. The PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3 gas compression plants have two systems: gas compression and NGL extraction. Previous analysis of the NGL extraction and fractionation processes of Lagoven determined that there are two practical and attractive alternatives for the recirculation of the condensate streams in PCTJ-2 and 3: recirculation of natural gasoline from the Ule LPG plant; recirculation of a conditioned condensate from the de-ethanizer tower of each plant. Both alternatives are discussed. Also described are fractionation capacity, and modifications for adding absorption and fractionation.

  13. Performance of a hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changwei; Wang, Shuofeng; Zhang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a combustion strategy for the hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine (HHGE). ► The HHGE produced much lower HC and CO emissions at cold start. ► The H 2 -gasoline blends were effective for improving engine performance at idle and part loads. ► The HHGE could run smoothly at lean conditions. -- Abstract: This paper proposed a new combustion strategy for the spark-ignited (SI) engines. A gasoline engine was converted into a hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine (HHGE) by adding a hydrogen injection system and a hybrid electronic control unit. Different from the conventional gasoline and hydrogen–enriched gasoline engines, the HHGE is fueled with the pure hydrogen at cold start to produce almost zero emissions, with the hydrogen–gasoline blends at idle and part loads to further improve thermal efficiency and reduce emissions, and with the pure gasoline to ensure the engine power output at high loads. Because the HHGE is fueled with the pure gasoline at high loads and speeds, experiments are only conducted at clod start, idle and part load conditions. Since lean combustion avails the further improvement of the engine performance, the HHGE was fueled with the lean mixtures in all tests. The experimental results showed that the hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine was started successfully with the pure hydrogen, which produced 94.7% and 99.5% reductions in HC and CO emissions within 100 s from the onset of the cold start, compared with the original gasoline engine. At an excess air ratio of 1.37 and idle conditions, indicated thermal efficiency of the 3% hydrogen–blended gasoline engine was 46.3% higher than that of the original engine. Moreover, the engine cyclic variation was eased, combustion duration was shortened and HC, CO and NOx emissions were effectively reduced for the hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engines.

  14. Fine-particle Mn and other metals linked to the introduction of MMT into gasoline in Sydney, Australia: Results of a natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D. D.; Gulson, B. L.; Davis, J. M.; Stelcer, E.; Garton, D.; Hawas, O.; Taylor, A.

    Using a combination of accelerator-based ion beam methods we have analysed PM 2.5 particulates for a suite of 21 species (H, C, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb) to evaluate the contribution to Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) air associated with the introduction of MMT as a replacement for lead. MMT was discontinued in 2004. Teflon filters representing continuous sampling for a 7 year period from 1998 to 2004 were analysed from two sites: one from Mascot, a suburb close to the Central Business District [CBD ( n=718)] and a high trafficked area, and the other, a relatively rural (background) setting at Richmond, ˜20 km west of the CBD ( n=730). Manganese concentrations in air at the background site increased from a mean of 1.5-1.6 ng m -3 to less than 2 ng m -3 at the time of greatest MMT use whereas those at Mascot increased from about 2 to 5 ng m -3. From the maximum values, the Mn showed a steady decrease at both sites concomitant with the decreasing use of MMT. Lead concentrations in air at both sites decreased from 1998 onwards, concomitant with the phase out of leaded gasoline, attained in 2002. Employing previously determined elemental signatures it was possible to adjust effects from season along with auto emissions and soil. A high correlation was obtained for the relationship between Mn in air and lead replacement gasoline use ( R2 0.83) and an improved correlation for Mn/ Al+Si+K and lead replacement gasoline use ( R2 0.93). In addition, using Mn concentrations normalized to background values of Al+Si+K or Ti to account for the lithogenically derived Mn, the proportion of anthropogenic Mn was approximately 70%. The changes for Mn and Pb detected in the particulates are attributed to the before-during-after use of MMT and decreasing use of lead in gasoline. The values measured in Sydney air are well below the reference concentration of 50 ng Mn m -3. The incremental increases in air, however, are larger than

  15. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  16. Electron beam destruction of contaminant gasoline additives in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezyk, S.P.; Jones, J.; Cooper, W.J.; O'Shea, K.E.; Fim, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. phase-out of tetraethyl lead in the 1970's resulted in ever-increasing amounts of high-octane compounds, notably methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), being added to gasoline to give cleaner burning fuel. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act oxygenate requirements led refiners to more than double the amount of these chemicals being blended into gasoline, and this combination of large scale use, high water solubility, low soil adsorption, and only minor biodegradability under normal aquifer conditions has now resulted in large-scale MTBE contamination occurring in natural, ground, and drinking water systems. The remediation of gasoline oxygenate contaminated ground and drinking water remains a pressing environmental problem. Studies of MTBE-contaminated water have shown that conventional air stripping and carbon adsorption are not viable technologies. Therefore Advanced Oxidation (and Reduction) Processes (AOPs) are expected to be required for these remediations. These technologies are defined as those that use the hydroxyl radical (and hydrated electron) and include H 2 O 2 /UV, H 2 O 2 /Fe(II), H 2 O 2 /O 3 , TiO 2 /UV, sonolysis, and electron beam treatment of contaminated waters. The water decontamination of current and potential gasoline oxygenates (MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), ethanol, and tert-amyl ether (TAME)) using free radicals produced by the electron beam irradiation AOP has been studied. Kinetic studies have been used to determine rate constants for the reaction of these ethers and alcohols with hydroxyl radicals, hydrated electrons and hydrogen atoms, and also the subsequent formation and decay of their corresponding peroxyl radicals. These kinetic data have been combined with mechanistic degradation and product distribution information to construct a computer kinetic model that can predict the removal of these contaminants under a variety of water conditions. This model was used to compare the predicted MTBE removal

  17. Long term storage of finished gasolines in large salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, J.W.J. [German Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    Strategic oil stocking requires large low cost storage facilities. Crude oil has been held in very large salt mines and/or artificially made salt caverns for many years, notably in Europe and the USA. Following crude oil, gasoils and refinery light feed stocks have been tried also. Military organisations tried jet fuel and early cases of underground aviation gasoline storage in steel tanks have been reported.

  18. A review of centrifugal testing of gasoline contamination and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegoda, Jay N; Hu, Liming

    2011-08-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS) is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced.

  19. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GASOLINE AND ALCOHOL BIOFUEL MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Povar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of added alcohols, ethanol and butanol, on the main biofuel properties, such as the specific gravity, Reid saturated vapour pressure and distillation curves have been investigated. These properties are intimately related to the fuel composition and their prediction relies on the knowledge of its components characteristics. This research proves the possibility of obtaining fuels with different levels of resistance to detonation, using gasoline with different chemical components and various fractions of alcohols.

  20. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G; Smith, J; Sahl, J; Kavet, R

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study to assess magnetic field levels in electric compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, and established a methodology that would provide valid data for further assessments. The sample consisted of 14 vehicles, all manufactured between January 2000 and April 2009; 6 were gasoline-powered vehicles and 8 were electric vehicles of various types. Of the eight models available, three were represented by a gasoline-powered vehicle and at least one electric vehicle, enabling intra-model comparisons. Vehicles were driven over a 16.3 km test route. Each vehicle was equipped with six EMDEX Lite broadband meters with a 40-1,000 Hz bandwidth programmed to sample every 4 s. Standard statistical testing was based on the fact that the autocorrelation statistic damped quickly with time. For seven electric cars, the geometric mean (GM) of all measurements (N = 18,318) was 0.095 µT with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.66, compared to 0.051 µT (N = 9,301; GSD = 2.11) for four gasoline-powered cars (P electric vehicles covered the same range as personal exposure levels recorded in that study. All fields measured in all vehicles were much less than the exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Future studies should include larger sample sizes representative of a greater cross-section of electric-type vehicles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  2. A Review of Centrifugal Testing of Gasoline Contamination and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay N. Meegoda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced.

  3. The new Mazda gasoline engine Skyactiv-G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Isobe, Ritarou; Yamakawa, Masahisa; Nishida, Masami [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Skyactiv is a generic term for Mazda's next-generation technologies being developed to achieve both driving pleasure and environmental and safety performance. It is a contribution to the company's long- term vision for technology development. Of these technologies, this article describes the development of Mazda's new highly-efficient direct-injection gasoline engine that achieves a compression ratio of 14.0 to 1. (orig.)

  4. Decontamination of the site of an army gasoline service station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.; Katzer, W.; Scheidt, M.; Roll, S.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report on the decontamination of the site of a gasoline service station at the Fuchsberg barracks at Salzwedel. Albeit that the accident is not spectacular for its magnitude, this case is interesting and exemplary because of the combined use of the most diverse decontamination methods. Soi air removal by suction, ground water decontamination, and microbiological soil decontamination were successfully used in conjunction. (orig.) [de

  5. Fuel consumption of gasoline ethanol blends at different engine rotational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Barakat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumption (mf kg/h was estimated for two hydrocarbon gasolines (BG1-OE and BG2-OE and their ethanol blends which contain from 4 to 20 vol.% of ethanol. Fuel consumption experiments for sixteen fuel samples (5 L each, were conducted on a four cylinder, four stroke spark ignition test vehicle Sahin car, Type 1.45, model 2001. The engine has a swept volume of 1400 c.c., a compression ratio of 8.3:1 and a maximum power of 78 HP at 5500 rpm. The obtained data reveal that the relation between fuel consumption and ethanol concentration is linear. Six linear equations for BG1-ethanol blends and BG2-ethanol ones at the investigated rotational speeds, were developed. Fuel consumption values of the first set of gasoline-ethanol blends are lower than that of the second set. This may be attributed to the difference in the chemical composition of base gasolines BG1 in the first set which is enriched in the less volatile reformate if compared with the second set which is more enriched in isomerate, the more volatile refinery stream.

  6. France prefers methanol for long term use as gasoline substitute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-02

    The French carburol programme, which plans to reduce its consumption of gasoline from imported crude oil, based on methanol and butanol-acetone mixtures was detailed recently at the ECMRA in Cannes. The programme envisages the production of methanol from synthesis gas generated by the gasification of materials such as wood, coal, lignite and heavy oil residues. Also planned is the production of mixtures of butanol and acetone from such biomass sources as straw, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar cane and beet and alfalfa by hydrolysis followed by fermentation. In the first phase of the programme, up to 1985, methanol and butanol-acetone may be added to all premium gasoline sold in France up to 10% so that engine modification is not required. A higher alcohol content mixture, 25-50% is planned for the second phase to run in modified cars. The substitution of 50% of French gasoline could be achieved by 1995 by the production of 8m. ton/year oil equivalent of carburol.

  7. The Energy Information Administration's assessment of reformulated gasoline: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report (Part II) concludes a two part study of The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) assessment of Reformulated Gasoline (RFG). The data contained herein updates EIA's previous findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The major findings of Part II have not changed considerably from Part I: Supplies of RFG are adequate to meet demand, but a tight supply-demand balance exists, leaving the RFG system with little ability to absorb unexpected supply or delivery system disruption. In December 1994, the estimated demand for RFG was 2.6 million barrels per day, with the production capability just meeting this demand. The study concludes that current prices for RFG are consistent with the costs underlying the product, and the difference in RFG and conventional gasoline indicates confidence in supply. The study also follows the impact of recent events such as: postponement of the Renewable Oxygenate Standard, the decision to require importers to use the U.S. average baseline for limiting emissions, the disruption of the Colonial Pipeline in Texas, and Pennsylvania's request to opt-out of the RFG program

  8. Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Hinlein, E.S.; Yuefeng, Xie; Leach, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in the field) and sleeve segments (in the laboratory) were subjected to methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatographic analysis to compare their aviation gasoline content. The barrel extrusion sampling method yielded a vertical profile with 0.10m resolution over an essentially continuous 5.0m interval from the ground surface to the water table. The sleeve segment alternative yielded a more resolved 0.03m vertical profile over a shorter 0.8m interval through the capillary fringe. The two methods delivered precise estimates of the vertically integrated mass of aviation gasoline at a given horizontal location, and a consistent view of the vertical profile as well. In the latter regard, a 0.2m thick lens of maximum contamination was found in the center of the capillary fringe, where moisture filled all voids smaller than the mean pore size. The maximum peak was resolved by the core sleeve data, but was partially obscured by the barrel extrusion observations, so that replicate barrels or a half-pint Mason jar size should be considered for data supporting vertical transport analyses in the absence of sleeve partitions

  9. Gasoline standard Motor monthly Prices, Projection and Impact, during 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    1999-01-01

    The liberation of prices for the standard gasoline and ACPM, that was given starting from January of 1.999, it outlines uncertainties on the possible prices evolution, along the supply chain until the final user, in comparison with the system previous of control and adjustment. This article presents an approach to the possible evolution of the gasoline motor prices during 1.999, in their different components. It makes it from the entrance to the producer until when one sells the public to a maximum price that includes the super tax. Additionally, it makes a preliminary calculation of the impact of the prices prospective month to month on the cost of transport of ECOPETROL revenues and the Nation revenues. The prospective annual percentage variation is presented from the entrance to the producer and of the other components of the price of the standard gasoline motor in different scenarios of the rate variation. In the most probable scenario, a variation is expected from the entrance to the producing of 1,9% and an increment in the sale price to the public, without including the super tax, of 12,6%

  10. Monitoring of Gasoline-ethanol Degradation In Undisturbed Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österreicher-Cunha, P.; Nunes, C. M. F.; Vargas, E. A.; Guimarães, J. R. D.; Costa, A.

    Environmental contamination problems are greatly emphasised nowadays because of the direct threat they represent for human health. Traditional remediation methods fre- quently present low efficiency and high costs; therefore, biological treatment is being considered as an accessible and efficient alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing, commonly used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon spills, stimulates the degradation capacity of indigenous microorganisms by providing better subsur- face oxygenation. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are mixed (78:22 v/v); some authors indicate that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in subsurface is hin- dered by the presence of much more rapidly degrading ethanol. Contaminant distribu- tion and degradation in the subsurface can be monitored by several physical, chemical and microbiological methodologies. This study aims to evaluate and follow the degra- dation of a gasoline-ethanol mixture in a residual undisturbed tropical soil from Rio de Janeiro. Bioventing was used to enhance microbial degradation. Shifts in bacte- rial culturable populations due to contamination and treatment effects were followed by conventional microbiology methods. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measure- ments, which consist of the emission of electro-magnetic waves into the soil, yield a visualisation of contaminant degradation because of changes in soil conductivity due to microbial action on the pollutants. Chemical analyses will measure contaminant residue in soil. Our results disclosed contamination impact as well as bioventing stim- ulation on soil culturable heterotrophic bacterial populations. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a wider evaluation of processes occurring in soil.

  11. Biomass to Gasoline and Diesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kraus, Larry [CRI-Criterion, Houston, TX (United States); McLeod, Celeste [CRI-Criterion, Houston, TX (United States); DelPaggio, Alan [CRI-Criterion, Houston, TX (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gephart, John [Johnson Timber, Hayward, WI (United States); Gromov, Dmitri [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Purtle, Ian [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Starr, Jack [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Hahn, John [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Dorrington, Paul [Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation, Nelson (New Zealand); Stevens, James [Blue Marble Biomaterials, Missoula, MT (United States); Shonnard, David [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Maleche, Edwin [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  12. Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Polymorphisms: Modulator of Genetic Damage in Gasoline Pump Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Kanu; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Gulati, Sachin; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Gupta, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated genetic damage in gasoline pump workers using the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Blood and urine samples were collected from 50 gasoline pump workers and 50 control participants matched with respect to age and other confounding factors except for exposure to benzene through gasoline vapors. To determine the benzene exposure, phenol was analyzed in urinary samples of exposed and control participants. Urinary mean phenol level was found to be significantly high (P gasoline pump workers (6.70 ± 1.78) when compared to control individuals (2.20 ± 0.63; P gasoline vapors can increase genotoxic risk in gasoline pump workers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. physiological changes induced by inhalation of unleaded gasoline in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.A.R.

    2006-01-01

    air pollution is the most dangerous form of pollution as it can expose a person to about 10.000 times more mass of an environmental pollutant than does food or water gasoline is the primary product of petroleum refining and it perhaps the most widely used energy source in the world. in addition to industrial applications, the ready availability of gasoline to power automotive engines, there are increasing opportunities for occupational and environment exposure to this liquid fuel. with the removal of lead from gasoline and the use of new technologies, it is very important to conduct studies of toxic effects of reformulated gasoline (unleaded gasoline) which will shed the light on this new formula and either it is more or less benefit than the old one. the objective of this work was to asses the health effects of unleaded gasoline refined and used in Egypt

  14. Impact of reformulated gasoline on emissions from current and future vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, J.M.; Benson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Gasolines reformulated specifically for reducing vehicle emissions will result in the most significant changes in the U.S. refining industry since the advent of unleaded gasoline. This paper will review the results from the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program showing the beneficial effects on vehicle emissions of individually decreasing gasoline aromatic, olefin and sulfur contents, 90% distillation temperature, and Reid vapor pressure, and of adding oxygenates. The paper discusses the importance of reformulated gasolines for reducing emissions from existing vehicles by complying with requirements in the Clean Air Act and California's Low Emission Vehicle/Clean Fuels Program. It will show the importance of controlling Vehicle/Clean Fuels Program. It will show the importance of controlling specific aromatic and olefin compounds in gasoline, and it will discuss how automotive manufacturers will utilize reformulated gasolines to meet future stringent vehicle emission standards

  15. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compound Emissions from On-Road Gasoline Vehicles and Small Off-Road Gasoline Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Presto, Albert A; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Robinson, Allen L

    2016-04-19

    Dynamometer experiments were conducted to characterize the intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road gasoline engines. IVOCs were quantified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of adsorbent samples collected from a constant volume sampler. The dominant fraction (>80%, on average) of IVOCs could not be resolved on a molecular level. These unspeciated IVOCs were quantified as two chemical classes (unspeciated branched alkanes and cyclic compounds) in 11 retention-time-based bins. IVOC emission factors (mg kg-fuel(-1)) from on-road vehicles varied widely from vehicle to vehicle, but showed a general trend of lower emissions for newer vehicles that met more stringent emission standards. IVOC emission factors for 2-stroke off-road engines were substantially higher than 4-stroke off-road engines and on-road vehicles. Despite large variations in the magnitude of emissions, the IVOC volatility distribution and chemical characteristics were consistent across all tests and IVOC emissions were strongly correlated with nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), primary organic aerosol and speciated IVOCs. Although IVOC emissions only correspond to approximately 4% of NMHC emissions from on-road vehicles over the cold-start unified cycle, they are estimated to produce as much or more SOA than single-ring aromatics. Our results clearly demonstrate that IVOCs from gasoline engines are an important class of SOA precursors and provide observational constraints on IVOC emission factors and chemical composition to facilitate their inclusion into atmospheric chemistry models.

  16. Changes in the microbial community during bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Aline Jaime; Rodrigues, Edmo Montes; Leal, Patr?cia Lopes; J?lio, Aline Daniela Lopes; Fernandes, Rita de C?ssia Rocha; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; T?tola, Marcos Rog?rio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to verify the changes in the microbial community during bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil. Microbial inoculants were produced from successive additions of gasoline to municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) previously fertilized with nitrogen-phosphorous. To obtain Inoculant A, fertilized MSWC was amended with gasoline every 3 days during 18 days. Inoculant B received the same application, but at every 6 days. Inoculant C included MSWC fertilized with N–P, but no gas...

  17. Flow of gasoline-in-water microemulsion through water-saturated soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Y.; Mansell, R.S.; Rhue, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Much consideration has been given to the use of surfactants to clean up nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from contaminated soil and ground water. Although this emulsification technique has shown significant potential for application in environmental remediation practices, a major obstacle leading to low washing efficiency is the potential formation of macroemulsion with unfavorable flow characteristics in porous media. This study investigated influences of the flow of leaded-gasoline-in-water (LG/W) microemulsion upon the transport of gasoline and lead (Pb) species in water-saturated soil columns. Two experiments were performed: (1) the immiscible displacement of leaded gasoline and (2) the miscible displacement of LG/W microemulsion through soil columns, followed by sequentially flushing with NaCl solution and a water/surfactant/cosurfactant (W/S/CoS) mixture. Comparison of breakthrough curves (BTC) for gasoline between the two experiments shows that about 90% of gasoline and total Pb were removed from the soil columns by NaCl solution in the LG/W microemulsion experiment as compared to 40% removal of gasoline and 10% removal of total Pb at the same process in the leaded gasoline experiment. Results indicate that gasoline and Pb species moved much more effectively through soil during miscible flow of LG/W microemulsion than during immiscible flow of leaded gasoline. In contrast to the adverse effects of macroemulsion on the transport of NAPLs, microemulsion was found to enhance the transport of gasoline through water-saturated soil. Mass balance analysis shows that the W/S/CoS mixture had a high capacity for removing residual gasoline and Pb species from contaminated soil. Comparison of water-pressure differences across the soil columns for the two experiments indicates that pore clogging by gasoline droplets was greatly minimized in the LG/W microemulsion experiment

  18. Analysis of the French gasoline market since the deregulation of prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantz, F.; Ioannidis, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the behaviour of gasoline prices in France over the period 1980-1990. We have established that the price liberalization measures introduced in 1985 were successful in integrating the domestic market to the European one, but the process of integration is still in progress. The behaviour of the Tax Authorities did not inhibit price flexibility with final gasoline prices responding symmetrically to international gasoline price changes. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska.

    OpenAIRE

    Backer, L C; Egeland, G M; Ashley, D L; Lawryk, N J; Weisel, C P; White, M C; Bundy, T; Shortt, E; Middaugh, J P

    1997-01-01

    Although most people are thought to receive their highest acute exposures to gasoline while refueling, relatively little is actually known about personal, nonoccupational exposures to gasoline during refueling activities. This study was designed to measure exposures associated with the use of an oxygenated fuel under cold conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska. We compared concentrations of gasoline components in the blood and in the personal breathing zone (PBZ) of people who pumped regular unleade...

  20. Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kinawy Amal A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in ...

  1. Experimental investigations on controlled auto-ignition combustion in a four-stroke gasoline engine

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, Aaron John

    2001-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The effects of air and exhaust gas dilution on the CAI combustion of a range of fuels including three gasoline compositions, four primary reference fuels, and two alcohols are experimentally investigated using a single cylinder research engine. Two of the three gasolines tested are manufactured from standard gasoline during engine operation by a novel fuel system, designed to improve the per...

  2. Comparison Pore Aggregate Levels After Extraction With Solvents Pertamax Plus And Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Muthia

    2017-12-01

    Loss of asphalt content extraction results become problems in Field Work For implementing parties. The use of solvents with high octane (pertamax plus) for the extraction, dissolving the asphalt more than gasoline. By comparing the levels of aggregate pores after using solvent extraction pertamax plus compared to gasoline could answer that pertamax plus more solvent dissolves the bitumen compared to gasoline. This study aims to obtain comparative levels of porous aggregate mix AC-WC after using solvent extraction pertamax plus compared to gasoline. This study uses the aggregate that has been extracted from the production of asphalt mixtures, when finisher and after compaction field. The method used is the assay of coarse and fine aggregate pores, extraction of bitumen content to separate the aggregate with bitumen. Results of testing the total absorption after extraction using a solvent preta max plus in the production of asphalt mixtures 0.80%, while gasoline solvent 0.67% deviation occurs 0.13%. In the finisher after the solvent extraction preta max plus 0.77%, while 0.67% gasoline solvent occurs deviation of 0.1%. At the core after extraction and solvent pertamax plus 0.71%, while gasoline solvent 0.60% 0.11% deviation occurs. The total water absorption after extraction using a solvent pertamax plus greater than gasoline. This proves that the solvent dissolves pertamax plus more asphalt than gasoline.

  3. Long term durability tests of small engines fueled with bio-ethanol / gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippayawong, N.; Kundhawiworn, N.; Jompakdee, W.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the result of an ongoing research to evaluate performance and wear of small, single cylinder, naturally aspirated, agricultural spark ignition engines using biomass-derived ethanol and gasoline blends. The reference gasoline fuel was selected to be representative of gasoline typically available in Thailand. Long-term engine tests of 10% and 20% ethanol / gasoline blends as well as the reference fuel were performed at a constant speed of 2300 rpm under part load condition up to 200 operation hours for each fuel type. Engine brake power, specific fuel consumption, carbon deposits and surface wear were measured and compared between neat gasoline and ethanol/ gasoline blends. It was found that blended fuels appeared to affect the engine performance in a similar way and compared well with the base gasoline fuel. From the results obtained, it was found that engine brake power and specific fuel consumption changed slightly with running time and were not found to have any significant change between different fuel blends. There were carbon deposits buildup on the spark plug, the intake port and exhaust valve stem for all fuels used. Surface wear was not significantly different in the test engines between neat gasoline or ethanol/gasoline blend fuelling

  4. On the road to recovery: Gasoline content regulations and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Michelle

    2017-07-01

    Gasoline content regulations are designed to curb pollution and improve health, but their impact on health has not been quantified. By exploiting both the timing of regulation and spatial variation in children's exposure to highways, I estimate the effect of gasoline content regulation on pollution and child health. The introduction of cleaner-burning gasoline in California in 1996 reduced asthma admissions by 8% in high exposure areas. Reductions are greatest for areas downwind from highways and heavy traffic areas. Stringent gasoline content regulations can improve child health, and may diminish existing health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Inhalation of gasoline and damage to health in workers at gas stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, Nurka; Mujagić, H; Pavlović, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to made assessment of chronic health effects in 37 workers exposed to gasoline, and its constituents at gasoline stations between 1985 and 1996. By the study we have involved thirty-seven persons who had been exposed to gasoline for more than five years were examined. The evaluation included a medical/occupational history, hematological and biochemical examination, a physical exam, standardized psychological tests, and ultrasound examination of kidneys and liver. The groups were identical in other common parameters including age, gender (all men), and level of education (P gasoline unexposed controls and 25 workers at gasoline stations exposed to organic lead for only nine months. Peripheral smear revealed basophilic punctuated eritrocytes and reticulocytosis. We found in chronic exposed gasoline workers haematological disorders: mild leukocytosis (7 of 37), lymphocytosis (20 of 37), mild lymhocytopenia (3 of 37), decrease of red blood cells count (11 of 37). Results indicated that they have suffered from liver disorders: lipoid degeneration of liver (14 of 37), chronic functional damages of liver (3 of 37), cirrhosis (1 of 37). Ultrasound examination indicated chronic kidney damages (8 of 37). These results significantly differed from those of controls (P gasoline stations exposed to gasoline for more than 5 years the symptom of depression and decreased reaction time and motor abilities were identified. The summary of diseases of workers exposed to organic lead and gasoline are discussed.

  6. Polycaprolactone-Polydiacetylene Electrospun Fibers for Colorimetric Detection of Fake Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad Ali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PCDA (Pentacosadiynoic Acid monomers were successfully embedded in PCL (Poly ?-Caprolactone polymer matrix by electrospinning process for the first time. The resultant EFM (Electrospun Fibers Mat was photo-polymerized under 254 nm UV light that enables colorimetric detection of fake gasoline. Results revealed that the fake gasoline develops a red color mat within 5 sec. FE-SEM images showed that the fake gasoline treatment dissolved the PCL EFM that give access to interact with PDA polymer. The proposed litmus-type sensor based on PCL-PDA EFM is highly sensitive to fake gasoline and can be fabricated easily

  7. The taxation effect on gasoline price asymmetry nexus: Evidence from both sides of the Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polemis, Michael L.; Fotis, Panagiotis N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the degree of competition in various gasoline markets and infers possible causes of price asymmetry across the globe. For this purpose we use the Dynamic Ordinary Least Square method in order to estimate price asymmetry in twelve European countries and the United States for a sample of weekly observations which spans the period from June 1996 to August 2011. The results indicate the common perception that less competitive gasoline markets exhibit price asymmetry, while highly competitive gasoline markets follow a symmetric price adjustment path. Finally, the inclusion of taxes (VAT and excise tax) into retail gasoline prices, supports the existence of price asymmetry in many European countries. - Highlights: • We examine the possible causes of gasoline price asymmetry across the globe. • We investigate the effect of taxation on the retail gasoline price adjustments. • There is a symmetric gasoline price response in the EU wholesale level. • Less competitive gasoline markets exhibit price asymmetry. • The oligopolistic structure of the gasoline markets inflates price asymmetry

  8. Feedback controlled fuel injection system can accommodate any alcohol-gasoline blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pefley, R K; Pullman, J B; Suga, T P; Espinola, S

    1980-01-01

    A fuel metering system has been adapted and permits operation on all blends of alcohols and gasoline ranging from pure gasoline to pure ethanol and methanol. It is a closed loop electronic feedback controlled fuel injection system (EFI) with exhaust oxygen sensor. The system is used by Toyota Motor Company in their Supra and Cressida models in conjunction with a 3-way catalytic exhaust system. These models meet California exhaust and evaporative emission standards. An unmodified model has been tested on alcohol gasoline blends from pure gasoline to 50% ethanol-50% gasoline and 30% methanol-70% gasoline and found to meet all exhaust and evaporative emissions standards. A Cressida with modified EFI system is currently being tested. It is capable of operating on pure gasoline, pure methanol or ethanol and all intermediate blends. The testing to date shows that the vehicle meets all exhaust emissions standards while operating over the blend range from pure gasoline to pure ethanol while maintaining driveability and energy based fuel economy. The paper will present the total test evidence for all gasoline-alcohol blends. This will include exhaust and evaporative emissions, fuel economy and driveability as determined in accordance with United States Federal Test Procedures. Additionally, the paper will report experiences accumulated from road operation of the vehicle over a six-month period.

  9. Emission consequences of introducing bio ethanol as a fuel for gasoline cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten Mentz; Møller, Flemming; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the direct vehicle emission impact of the future use of bio ethanol as a fuel for gasoline cars in Denmark arising from the vehicle specific fuel consumption and emission differences between neat gasoline (E0) and E5/E85 gasoline-ethanol fuel blends derived from emission......% in 2030. As predicted by the vehicle specific emission differences the calculated emission impacts of using bio ethanol are small for NOx, VOC and CO. Instead, for FS, BS1 and BS2 large emission reductions are due to the gradually cleaner new sold gasoline cars and the decline in total mileage until...

  10. Experimental investigation of the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG in a turbocharged spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni Movahed, M.; Basirat Tabrizi, H.; Mirsalim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is compared with gasoline and CNG modes. • BSFC, HC and CO emissions of the concomitant injection are lower than gasoline mode. • Deteriorations of the concomitant injection are negligible compared to gasoline mode. • Cylinder peak pressure and heat loss to coolant of the concomitant injection are lower than CNG mode. • Some shortcomings in CNG mode can be solved by changing the spark timing and lambda. - Abstract: Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is a new concept to overcome problems of bi-fueled spark ignition engines, which operate in single fuel mode, either in gasoline or in CNG mode. This experimental study indicates how some problems of gasoline mode such as retarded ignition timings for knock prevention and rich air–fuel mixture for component protection can be resolved with the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG. Results clearly show that the concomitant injection improves thermal efficiency compared to gasoline mode. On the other hand, simultaneous injection of gasoline and CNG reduces some problems of CNG mode such as high cylinder pressure and heat loss to the engine coolant. This decreases the stringent requirements for thermal and mechanical strength of the engine components in CNG mode. In addition, it is shown that by modifying the spark advance and air fuel ratio in CNG mode, the engine operation improves in terms of NOx emissions and maximum in-cylinder pressure as the concomitant injection does. Nevertheless, new requirements such as an intercooler with higher cooling capacity are implied to the engine configuration. Finally, the most important concerns in control strategies of the engine control unit for a vehicle with concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG are discussed

  11. Energy and labor cost of gasoline engine remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venta, E.R.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents a detailed estimate of the labor and energy, by fuel type, required by the U.S. economy to remanufacture gasoline-fueled automobile and truck engines. Th estimate was obtained by combining data provided by several remanufacturers with the results of input--output analysis. A rough estimate of the labor and energy required to manufacture new engines is also given. These estimates suggest that remanufactured engines require 50% of the energy and 67% of the labor that new engines require.

  12. Quasi-experimental taxation elasticities of US gasoline demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Taxation elasticities provide inputs in public policy aimed at raising revenues. Using the quasi-experimental method, this paper calculates gasoline taxation elasticities for the USA over 1952-86. The medium (mean) elasticity over this period is found to be -0.075 (-0.122). However, the elasticity following the oil shock of 1973 is found to be statistically different from the pre-shock elasticity. Reasons for this change in elasticity are discussed. The implication of this analysis is that tax policies based on price elasticities, rather than on tax elasticities, might be using an inappropriate elasticity estimate and consequently misinterpreting the government's ability to raise tax revenues. (author)

  13. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, Leon; Geest, Stephanie A. van der; Varkevisser, Marco

    2003-01-01

    This article analyses the retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996-2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which the prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of the outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using these two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on the Dutch consumer costs is negligible. (Author)

  14. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, L.; Van der Geest, S.A.; Varkevisser, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996 to 2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on Dutch consumer costs is negligible

  15. Assessing the Macroeconomic Importance of Gasoline and Vehicle Spending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Danilo J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poyer, David A. [Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Vector error correction (VEC) was used to test the importance of a theoretical causal chain from transportation fuel cost to vehicle sales to macroeconomic activity. Real transportation fuel cost was broken into two cost components: real gasoline price (rpgas) and real personal consumption of gasoline and other goods (gas). Real personal consumption expenditure on vehicles (RMVE) represented vehicle sales. Real gross domestic product (rGDP) was used as the measure of macroeconomic activity. The VEC estimates used quarterly data from the third quarter of 1952 to the first quarter of 2014. Controlling for the financial causes of the recent Great Recession, real homeowners’ equity (equity) and real credit market instruments liability (real consumer debt, rcmdebt) were included. Results supported the primary hypothesis of the research, but also introduced evidence that another financial path through equity is important, and that use of the existing fleet of vehicles (not just sales of vehicles) is an important transport-related contributor to macroeconomic activity. Consumer debt reduction is estimated to be a powerful short-run force reducing vehicle sales. Findings are interpreted in the context of the recent Greene, Lee, and Hopson (2012) (hereafter GLH) estimation of the magnitude of three distinct macroeconomic damage effects that result from dependence on imported oil, the price of which is manipulated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The three negative macroeconomic impacts are due to (1) dislocation (positive oil price shock), (2) high oil price levels, and (3) a high value of the quantity of oil imports times an oil price delta (cartel price less competitive price). The third of these is the wealth effect. The VEC model addresses the first two, but the software output from the model (impulse response plots) does not isolate them. Nearly all prior statistical tests in the literature have used vector autoregression (VAR) and

  16. Modification of Baselines for Gasoline Produced or Imported for Use in Hawaii, Alaska, and U.S. Territories Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This documents for modifications to fuel regulations to allow refiners and importers of conventional gasoline used in Hawaii, Alaska and U.S. Territories to petition EPA to change the way in which they calculate emissions from such gasoline.

  17. Performance and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Tavakoli, T.; Faizollahnejad, M. [Tarbiat Modares University, Jalale-E-Aleahmad Highway, Tehran, P.O. Box: 14115-111 (Iran); Buttsworth, D.R.; Yusaf, T.F. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 4350 QLD (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the performance and the pollutant emissions of a four-stroke SI engine operating on ethanol-gasoline blends of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with the aid of artificial neural network (ANN). The properties of bioethanol were measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The experimental results revealed that using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine marginally. For ethanol blends it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased while the brake thermal efficiency ({eta}{sub b.th.}) and the volumetric efficiency ({eta}{sub v}) were increased. The concentration of CO and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when ethanol blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol. In contrast, the concentration of CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} was found to be increased when ethanol is introduced. An ANN model was developed to predict a correlation between brake power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and emission components using different gasoline-ethanol blends and speeds as inputs data. About 70% of the total experimental data were used for training purposes, while the 30% were used for testing. A standard Back-Propagation algorithm for the engine was used in this model. A multi layer perception network (MLP) was used for nonlinear mapping between the input and the output parameters. It was observed that the ANN model can predict engine performance and exhaust emissions with correlation coefficient (R) in the range of 0.97-1. Mean relative errors (MRE) values were in the range of 0.46-5.57%, while root mean square errors (RMSE) were found to be very low. This study demonstrates that ANN approach can be used to accurately predict the SI engine performance and emissions. (author)

  18. Net effects of gasoline price changes on transit ridership in U.S. urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Using panel data of transit ridership and gasoline prices for ten selected U.S. urbanized areas over the time period of 2002 to 2011, : this study analyzes the effect of gasoline prices on ridership of the four main transit modesbus, light rail, h...

  19. Gasoline risk management: a compendium of regulations, standards, and industry practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    This paper is part of a special series of publications regarding gasoline toxicology testing and gasoline risk management; this article covers regulations, standards, and industry practices concerning gasoline risk management. Gasoline is one of the highest volume liquid fuel products produced globally. In the U.S., gasoline production in 2013 was the highest on record (API, 2013). Regulations such as those pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) and many others provide the U.S. federal government with extensive authority to regulate gasoline composition, manufacture, storage, transportation and distribution practices, worker and consumer exposure, product labeling, and emissions from engines and other sources designed to operate on this fuel. The entire gasoline lifecycle-from manufacture, through distribution, to end-use-is subject to detailed, complex, and overlapping regulatory schemes intended to protect human health, welfare, and the environment. In addition to these legal requirements, industry has implemented a broad array of voluntary standards and best management practices to ensure that risks from gasoline manufacturing, distribution, and use are minimized. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. Results The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. Conclusion It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats. PMID:19930677

  1. Catalysts for producing high octane-blending value olefins for gasoline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bruijn, de J.N.H.

    2001-01-01

    New restrictions on gasoline components mean that oxygenates and aromatics must be replaced by other high octane components. The dimerization of linear butene to form high octane gasoline blending components is evaluated under liquid phase reaction conditions over a number of different heterogeneous

  2. Performance and emissions of gasoline blended with terpineol as an octane booster

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Roberts, William L.; Dibble, Robert W.; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    . For FACE F + 30% terpineol, break thermal efficiency was improved by 12.1% over FACE F gasoline at full load for maximum brake torque operating point, and similar performance as EURO V gasoline was achieved. Due to its high energy density, total fuel

  3. Phasing out lead from gasoline in Pakistan: a benefit cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.P.; Zaman, Q.U.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has established a clear link between elevated blood lead levels nd adverse health effects in humans including the retardation of neurological development, hypertension, and cardiovascular ailments. Due to this, a large number of countries now restrict the sale of leaded gasoline. In contrast, only highly leaded gasoline is readily available in Pakistan, resulting in serious health concerns in certain areas. This paper presents the findings of a study to evaluate consumers' perceived benefits and actual costs of switching to unleaded gasoline in Pakistan. Policy implications are noted. The study indicates a concentration of adverse health effects in the major urban centers. Of special interest is the loss of approximately 2,5000 IQ points annually in Karachi and Lahore as a result of gasoline linked lead exposure. Consumers' willingness to pay for the removal of lead from gasoline, as estimated using a contingent valuation technique, is shown to be positively related to both educational attainment and income. Once consumers are informed of the adverse health effects associated with lead exposure, their willingness to pay for a switch to unleaded gasoline for exceeds the costs incurred. This suggests that significant gains in social welfare may be obtained by phasing out lead from gasoline in Pakistan. The benefits are most pronounced in urban areas, while in rural villages and small cities the costs are likely to out weight the benefits. A flexible program to restrict the sale of leaded gasoline in urban areas is thus recommended. (author)

  4. Neurodevelopmental effects of inhaled vapors of gasoline and ethanol in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasoline-ethanol blends comprise the major fraction of the fuel used in the US automotive fleet. To address uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to gasoline with more than 10% ethanol, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapor...

  5. Phytotoxicity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Köhler, A.; Larsen, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel fuel to willow and poplar trees was studied using a tree transpiration toxicity test. Soils were taken from an abandoned filling station. Concentrations in the samples were measured as the sum of hydrocarbons from C5 to C10 (gasoline) and C1...

  6. 40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle. 86....335-79 Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle. (a) The following test sequence shall be followed in... operating the engine at the higher approved load setting during cycle 1 and at the lower approved load...

  7. Commonised diesel and gasoline catalyst architecture; Standardisierte Katalysatorarchitektur fuer Diesel- und Ottomotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurell, Mats; Sjoers, Johan; Wernlund, Bjoern [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden); Brueck, Rolf [Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH, Lohmar (Germany). Forschung, Entwicklung und Applikation

    2013-11-01

    Volvo Cars has developed a standardised catalytic converter architecture for diesel and gasoline engines - the scalable so-called Compact Cat. The system covers both Euro 6 and SULEV applications for gasoline engines as well as Euro 6 applications for diesel engines. The standardised design using shared parts results in a considerable reduction in unit costs and tooling requirements. (orig.)

  8. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  9. Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinawy, Amal A

    2009-11-24

    This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats.

  10. Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinawy Amal A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel. The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA, norepinephrine (NE and serotonin (5-HT in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. Results The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. Conclusion It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats.

  11. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: generation and characterization of test materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Michael; Letinski, Daniel J; Carr, John; Caro, Mario L; Daughtrey, Wayne; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    In compliance with the Clean Air Act regulations for fuel and fuel additive registration, the petroleum industry, additive manufacturers, and oxygenate manufacturers have conducted comparative toxicology testing on evaporative emissions of gasoline alone and gasoline containing fuel oxygenates. To mimic real world exposures, a generation method was developed that produced test material similar in composition to the re-fueling vapor from an automotive fuel tank at near maximum in-use temperatures. Gasoline vapor was generated by a single-step distillation from a 1000-gallon glass-lined kettle wherein approximately 15-23% of the starting material was slowly vaporized, separated, condensed and recovered as test article. This fraction was termed vapor condensate (VC) and was prepared for each of the seven test materials, namely: baseline gasoline alone (BGVC), or gasoline plus an ether (G/MTBE, G/ETBE, G/TAME, or G/DIPE), or gasoline plus an alcohol (G/EtOH or G/TBA). The VC test articles were used for the inhalation toxicology studies described in the accompanying series of papers in this journal. These studies included evaluations of subchronic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. Results of these studies will be used for comparative risk assessments of gasoline and gasoline/oxygenate blends by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  13. How Well Does the Price of Unleaded Gasoline Predict the Price of Ethanol?

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the historical relationship of unleaded gasoline prices relative to ethanol prices. It uses several basic measures to determine the usefulness of wholesale unleaded gasoline price as a determinant of ethanol price, and it looks at the stability of that simple model over this decade.

  14. 40 CFR 80.8 - Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling methods for gasoline and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline and diesel fuel. The sampling methods specified in this section shall be used to collect samples...

  15. Stable carbon isotopic composition of gasolines determined by isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, B.J.; Philp, R.P.; Allen, J.D. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2002-07-01

    A large number of underground gasoline storage facilities in the United States continuously leak gasoline into the subsurface, which makes gasoline a major groundwater contaminant. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are used currently to characterize contaminated groundwater and soils. Correlations of contaminants with suspected source(s) are extremely difficult by these techniques because many gasolines have similar hydrocarbon distributions. The present study applied the technique of isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (irmGC-MS) to 19 gasoline samples from different areas of the USA. This allows a much better correlation of gasoline contaminants to source. Data obtained indicate a wide range of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C values for 16 ubiquitous compounds in the gasolines. The majority of samples could be distinguished from each other on the basis of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C hydrocarbon composition. The oxygenated additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was present in ten of the gasolines analyzed, and had a relatively narrow range of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C values (-30.4 to -28.3 per mille). Preliminary investigations were also made to determine the extent of carbon isotopic fractionation after simple water washing and evaporation experiments. Results indicate that the majority of compounds did not undergo significant carbon isotopic fractionation as a result of these processes. (author)

  16. Gasoline taxes : an examination of news media discourse related to gas tax funding in six states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Why is it that some state legislatures approved gasoline tax increases while others did not? : In this analysis we examine gasoline tax issue frames in the print news media to see if these : frames provide clues to the eventual policy outcomes. : We ...

  17. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-02

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  18. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  19. Study of nozzle deposit formation mechanism for direct injection gasoline engines; Chokufun gasoline engine yo nozzle no deposit seisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, M; Saito, A [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Matsushita, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Shibata, H [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niwa, Y [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nozzles in fuel injectors for direct injection gasoline engines are exposed to high temperature combustion gases and soot. In such a rigorous environment, it is a fear that fuel flow rate changes in injectors by deposit formation on nozzles. Fundamental factors of nozzle deposit formation were investigated through injector bench tests and engine dynamometer tests. Deposit formation processes were observed by SEM through engine dynamometer tests. The investigation results reveal nozzle deposit formation mechanism and how to suppress the deposit. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Analysis of mixture formation of direct injection gasoline engine; Tonai funsha gasoline engine no kongoki keisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, M; Saito, K; Basaki, M [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Matsushita, S; Gono, T [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    On direct injection gasoline engine, in order to achieve good stratified combustion, the extremely advanced control of air-fuel mixture is required. For this purpose, the method of diagnosing the quality of the state of mixture formation in combustion chambers becomes necessary. In this research, the state of air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber of a TOYOTA D-4 was analyzed in space and time by visualization, A/F multi-point measurement and A/F high response measurement, thus the effects that injection timing, swirl and fuel pressure exerted to mixture formation were elucidated. 3 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Chemometric classification of casework arson samples based on gasoline content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkov, Nikolai A; Sandercock, P Mark L; Harynuk, James J

    2014-02-01

    Detection and identification of ignitable liquids (ILs) in arson debris is a critical part of arson investigations. The challenge of this task is due to the complex and unpredictable chemical nature of arson debris, which also contains pyrolysis products from the fire. ILs, most commonly gasoline, are complex chemical mixtures containing hundreds of compounds that will be consumed or otherwise weathered by the fire to varying extents depending on factors such as temperature, air flow, the surface on which IL was placed, etc. While methods such as ASTM E-1618 are effective, data interpretation can be a costly bottleneck in the analytical process for some laboratories. In this study, we address this issue through the application of chemometric tools. Prior to the application of chemometric tools such as PLS-DA and SIMCA, issues of chromatographic alignment and variable selection need to be addressed. Here we use an alignment strategy based on a ladder consisting of perdeuterated n-alkanes. Variable selection and model optimization was automated using a hybrid backward elimination (BE) and forward selection (FS) approach guided by the cluster resolution (CR) metric. In this work, we demonstrate the automated construction, optimization, and application of chemometric tools to casework arson data. The resulting PLS-DA and SIMCA classification models, trained with 165 training set samples, have provided classification of 55 validation set samples based on gasoline content with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioventing of gasoline-contaminated soil under varied laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, M.; Shewfelt, K.; Lee, H.; Zytner, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Bioventing is becoming a popular in situ soil remediation technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioventing relies on enhancing the growth of indigenous microorganisms, which can mineralize the contaminant in the presence of sufficient nutrients. Although bioventing is currently being used as a remediation technology, there are some important questions that remain to be answered in order to optimize the process. These questions include the optimum soil moisture content, type and amount of nutrients necessary, and the best means of producing these conditions in the field. To address these questions, two distinct phases of experiments were conducted. The first experimental phase was designed to determine the optimum moisture content, C:N ratio and form of nitrogen supply for this soil. Using approximately 200g of contaminated soil in each of a series of sealed respirometers, microbial degradation of gasoline under bioventing conditions was quantified for C:N ratios of 5, 10 and 20:1, using varying mixtures of NH 4 + - and NO 3 - -N. The results of the studies indicated that the optimum soil moisture content was 15 wt%, with a C:N ratio of 10:1, using a 100% ammonium application. Using the results of the first phase, a second phase of laboratory research was initiated. Five mesoscale reactors have been developed to simulate the bioventing process that takes place in the field. These reactors are filled with approximately 4kg of gasoline-contaminated soil. The initial results are favourable. (author)

  3. Investigation on gasoline deep desulfurisation for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.C.; Song, L.F.; Hu, J.Y.; Ong, S.L.; Ng, W.J.; Lee, L.Y. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Wang, Y.H.; Zhao, J.G.; Ma, R.Y. [Beijing University of Chemical Technology (China). Ministry of Education

    2005-01-01

    The effect of adding some amounts of cerium into Zn-Fe-O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent on its performance of removal of organic sulfur compounds from gasoline by adsorption was studied in this paper. It showed that the ideal compositions for the preparation of Zn-Fe-Ce-O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} consisted of 4.54 wt.% ZnO, 2.25 wt.% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 2.5 wt.% CeO{sub 2}, respectively, shortened as AZFCO{sub 0.52} Further study indicated that this sorbent could be well regenerated at 250{sup o}C with gas mixtures containing 6.0 vol.% steam + air and 2400 ml h{sup -1} ml {sup -1} gas space velocity. At those regenerated conditions and 60{sup o}C adsorption temperature, the AZFCO{sub 0.52} sorbent had better desulfurization stability, which was confirmed by typical characterization results using BET, XRD and SEM apparatus. This implied that the AZFCO{sub 0.52} sorbent could be an ideal sorbent for removal of organic sulfur compounds from gasoline. (author)

  4. Premixed flame chemistry of a gasoline primary reference fuel surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2017-03-10

    Investigating the combustion chemistry of gasoline surrogate fuels promises to improve detailed reaction mechanisms used for simulating their combustion. In this work, the combustion chemistry of one of the simplest, but most frequently used gasoline surrogates – primary reference fuel 84 (PRF 84, 84 vol% iso-octane and 16 vol% n-heptane), has been examined in a stoichiometric premixed laminar flame. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron light source for species photoionization was used. Reactants, major end-products, stable intermediates, free radicals, and isomeric species were detected and quantified. Numerical simulations were conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic model with the most recently available high temperature sub-mechanisms for iso-octane and heptane, built on the top of an updated pentane isomers model and AramcoMech 2.0 (C0C4) base chemistry. A detailed interpretation of the major differences between the mechanistic pathways of both fuel components is given. A comparison between the experimental and numerical results is depicted and rate of production and sensitivity analyses are shown for the species with considerable disagreement between the experimental and numerical findings.

  5. Characterization of subsurface sediments at a site of gasoline contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, D.J.; Krauter, P.W.; Jovanovich, M.C.; Lee, K.; Nelson, S.C.; Noyes, C.

    1992-02-01

    The Dynamic Underground Stripping Project combines monitored steam injection and electrical heating to treat in situ a gasoline plume resulting from leakage of an underground storage tank. A preliminary field demonstration of this system was performed at an uncontaminated site (Clean Site) a few hundred feet away with similar geology to that at the Gasoline Spill (GS) area. This paper describes characterization efforts at both sites and highlights what we rearmed at the Clean Site that helped us plan our operations more effectively at the GS. To validate the success of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project, we require a detailed understanding of the physical, geological, hydrological, chemical, and biological nature of the demonstration sites and how these parameters change as a result of the Dynamic Stripping processes. The characterization process should also provide data to estimate the masses of contaminants present and their spatial distribution before and after the remedial process to (1) aid in the planning for placement of injection and extraction wells, (2) provide physical data to develop conceptual models, (3) validate subsurface imaging techniques, and (4) confirm regulatory compliance

  6. Generation and characterization of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation exposure atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Barr, Edward B; White, Richard K; Kracko, Dean; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara; Grosjean, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Exposure atmospheres for a rodent inhalation toxicology study were generated from the exhaust of a 4.3-L gasoline engine coupled to a dynamometer and operated on an adapted California Unified Driving Cycle. Exposure levels were maintained at three different dilution rates. One chamber at the lowest dilution had particles removed by filtration. Each exposure atmosphere was characterized for particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and detailed chemical speciation. The majority of the mass in the exposure atmospheres was gaseous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organics, with small amounts of particle-bound carbon/ions and metals. The atmospheres varied according to the cycle, with the largest spikes in volatile organic and inorganic species shown during the "cold start" portion of the cycle. Ammonia present from the exhaust and rodents interacted with the gasoline exhaust to form secondary inorganic particles, and an increase in exhaust resulted in higher proportions of secondary inorganics as a portion of the total particle mass. Particle size had a median of 10-20 nm by number and approximately 150 nm by mass. Volatile organics matched the composition of the fuel, with large proportions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to low amounts of oxygenated organics. A new measurement technique revealed organics reacting with nitrogen oxides have likely resulted in measurement bias in previous studies of combustion emissions. Identified and measured particle organic species accounted for about 10% of total organic particle mass and were mostly aliphatic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  7. Investigation on gasoline deep desulfurization for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.C.; Song, L.F.; Hu, J.Y.; Ong, S.L.; Ng, W.J.; Lee, L.Y.; Wang, Y.H.; Zhao, J.G.; Ma, R.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of adding some amounts of cerium into Zn-Fe-O/Al 2 O 3 sorbent on its performance of removal of organic sulfur compounds from gasoline by adsorption was studied in this paper. It showed that the ideal compositions for the preparation of Zn-Fe-Ce-O/Al 2 O 3 consisted of 4.54 wt.% ZnO, 2.25 wt.% Fe 2 O 3 and 2.5 wt.% CeO 2 , respectively, shortened as AZFC 0.52 . Further study indicated that this sorbent could be well regenerated at 250 deg. C with gas mixtures containing 6.0 vol.% steam + air and 2400 ml h -1 ml -1 gas space velocity. At those regenerated conditions and 60 deg. C adsorption temperature, the AZFC 0.52 sorbent had better desulfurization stability, which was confirmed by typical characterization results using BET, XRD and SEM apparatus. This implied that the AZFC 0.52 sorbent could be an ideal sorbent for removal of organic sulfur compounds from gasoline

  8. Using gasoline in an advanced compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, R.F.; Ariztegui, J.; Dubois, T.; Hamje, H.D.C.; Pellegrini, L.; Rickeard, D.J.; Rose, K.D. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium); Heuser, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Schnorbus, T.; Kolbeck, A.F. [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Future vehicles will be required to improve their efficiency, reduce both regulated and CO{sub 2} emissions, and maintain acceptable driveability, safety, and noise. To achieve this overall performance, they will be configured with more advanced hardware, sensors, and control technologies that will also enable their operation on a broader range of fuel properties. Fuel flexibility has already been demonstrated in previous studies on a compression ignition bench engine and a demonstration vehicle equipped with an advanced engine management system, closed-loop combustion control, and air-path control strategies. An unresolved question is whether engines of this sort can also operate on market gasoline while achieving diesel-like efficiency and acceptable emissions and noise levels. In this study, a compression ignition bench engine having a higher compression ratio, optimised valve timing, advanced engine management system, and flexible fuel injection could be operated on a European gasoline over full to medium part loads. The combustion was sensitive to EGR rates, however, and optimising all emissions and combustion noise was a considerable challenge at lower loads. (orig.)

  9. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  10. Robust predictive control of a gasoline debutanizer column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Almeida Neto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the application of Model Predictive Control to moderately nonlinear processes. The system used in this work is an industrial gasoline debutanizer column. The paper presents two new formulations of MPC: MMPC (Multi-Model Predictive Controller and RSMPC (Robust Stable MPC. The approach is based on the concepts of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI, which have been recently introduced in the MPC field. Model uncertainty is considered by assuming that the true process model belongs to a convex set (polytope of possible plants. The controller has guaranteed stability when a Lyapunov type inequality constraint is included in the MPC problem. In the debutanizer column, several nonlinearities are present in the advanced control level when the manipulated inputs are the reflux flow and the reboiler heat duty. In most cases the controlled outputs are the contents of C5+ (pentane and heavier hydrocarbons in the LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas and the gasoline vapor pressure (P VR. In this case the QDMC algorithm which is usually applied to the debutanizer column has a poor performance and stability problems reflected in an oscillatory behavior of the process. The new approach considers several process models representing different operating conditions where linear models are identified. The results presented here show that the multimodel controller is capable of controlling the process in the entire operating window while the conventional MPC has a limited operating range.

  11. Remediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by passive volatilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, S.G.; Miller, G.C.; Miller, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    Loss of 10 hydrocarbons characteristic of those found in gasoline (benzene; n-heptane; toluene; m-xylene; n-nonane; n-propylbenzene; 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene; n-butylbenzene; 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene; and n-dodecane) from 20-cm soil layers was investigated in several field experiments. Soil was spiked with 50 mg kg -1 of each compound, placed in pans outdoors, and subjected to one of five treatments: dry, unmixed soil; dry soil mixed weekly; soil watered once only; soil watered periodically; and soil watered and mixed periodically. Significantly greater rates of loss occurred from wet soils, with an average of 5.7% remaining in wet and mixed treatments at the 18- to 20-cm depth on Day 32 of the spring experiment, compared with 61% remaining in dry, unmixed soils. Following wetting of the soil by rain, less than 8% overall remained in any soil layer by Day 64. Loss was greatest during the summer experiment. By Day 32, only tetramethylbenzene and dodecane were measurable for the wet treatments, with totals below 5% at the 18- to 20-cm depth. An average of 48.6% remained in the dry soils. The final experiment during fall 1989 demonstrated loss of 500 mg kg -1 of unleaded gasoline from spiked soil. No measurable amounts remained after 8 d in wet and mixed treatments and 16 d in wet, unmixed treatments, bu 3.5% remained after 32 d in initially dry soil

  12. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  13. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan. Economic and regulatory analysis draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This economic and regulatory analysis meets the requirements of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, which calls for an evaluation of the potential economic impacts of the gasoline rationing contingency plan. In addition, this analysis is intended to satisfy the requirements of the President's Executive Order No. 12044 of March 23, 1978, regarding government regulations, and provides an inflationary impact statement for the proposed rationing plan. To perform the analysis of rationing program impacts on the total national economy, three separate projections were required. First, a projection is made of the ''normal'' U.S. economy for a future period--the last quarter of 1980 through the third quarter of 1981 in this analysis. Second, a projection is made of the impacts which a petroleum supply interruption would have on the U.S. economy during this future period, assuming that DOE's standby allocation and price control regulations were implemented for crude oil and products. Third, and most significant, an estimate is made of the incremental impacts of the gasoline rationing program on this already-perturbed future U.S. economy.

  14. The impact of gasoline price fluctuations on lodging demand for US brand hotels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Kate; Enz, Cathy A.; Canina, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Analyzing US brand hotels, over a 13-year period, this study provides empirical evidence of a significant negative relationship between gasoline prices and demand for certain lodging products, controlling for economic factors (i.e. gross domestic product and population density). Applying principles from microeconomic demand theory to the literature on gasoline price elasticities, consumer demographics and lodging demand, a set of hypotheses were devised to test the relationship between gasoline prices and lodging demand for specific hotel locations and price segments. Using fixed effects models, the results reveal that lodging demand decreases as gasoline prices rise in all segments except upper-upscale and all locations except urban areas. Hotels in midscale without food and beverage and economy market segments, in resort, suburban and highway locations, exhibit the greatest association between gasoline price shifts and demand. Implications of these findings are discussed for both hospitality research and practice. (Author)

  15. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Amrin; Barot, Darshana; Chandel, Divya

    2018-04-01

    Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group) and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group). Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation of gasoline fumes. The frequencies of micronucleated cells, nuclear bud, condensed chromatin cells, karyorrhectic cells, pyknotic cells, and karyolytic cells were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the comparison group. Exposure to gasoline fumes is associated with increased frequency of cell abnormalities. This may lead to various health consequences including cancer in those occupationally exposed to gasoline fumes.

  16. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrin Shaikh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. Methods: The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation of gasoline fumes. Results: The frequencies of micronucleated cells, nuclear bud, condensed chromatin cells, karyorrhectic cells, pyknotic cells, and karyolytic cells were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Exposure to gasoline fumes is associated with increased frequency of cell abnormalities. This may lead to various health consequences including cancer in those occupationally exposed to gasoline fumes.

  17. The impact of gasoline price fluctuations on lodging demand for US brand hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Kate; Enz, Cathy A.; Canina, Linda [Cornell Univ., School of Hotel Administration, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Analyzing US brand hotels, over a 13-year period, this study provides empirical evidence of a significant negative relationship between gasoline prices and demand for certain lodging products, controlling for economic factors (i.e. gross domestic product and population density). Applying principles from microeconomic demand theory to the literature on gasoline price elasticities, consumer demographics and lodging demand, a set of hypotheses were devised to test the relationship between gasoline prices and lodging demand for specific hotel locations and price segments. Using fixed effects models, the results reveal that lodging demand decreases as gasoline prices rise in all segments except upper-upscale and all locations except urban areas. Hotels in midscale without food and beverage and economy market segments, in resort, suburban and highway locations, exhibit the greatest association between gasoline price shifts and demand. Implications of these findings are discussed for both hospitality research and practice. (Author)

  18. Fundamental Interactions in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines with Fuel Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Benjamin Matthew

    Transportation accounted for 28% of the total U.S. energy demand in 2011, with 93% of U.S. transportation energy coming from petroleum. The large impact of the transportation sector on global climate change necessitates more-efficient, cleaner-burning internal combustion engine operating strategies. One such strategy that has received substantial research attention in the last decade is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). Although the efficiency and emissions benefits of HCCI are well established, practical limits on the operating range of HCCI engines have inhibited their application in consumer vehicles. One such limit is at high load, where the pressure rise rate in the combustion chamber becomes excessively large. Fuel stratification is a potential strategy for reducing the maximum pressure rise rate in HCCI engines. The aim is to introduce reactivity gradients through fuel stratification to promote sequential auto-ignition rather than a bulk-ignition, as in the homogeneous case. A gasoline-fueled compression ignition engine with fuel stratification is termed a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. Although a reasonable amount of experimental research has been performed for fuel stratification in GCI engines, a clear understanding of how the fundamental in-cylinder processes of fuel spray evaporation, mixing, and heat release contribute to the observed phenomena is lacking. Of particular interest is gasoline's pressure sensitive low-temperature chemistry and how it impacts the sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge. In order to computationally study GCI with fuel stratification using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and chemical kinetics, two reduced mechanisms have been developed. The reduced mechanisms were developed from a large, detailed mechanism with about 1400 species for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. The two versions of the reduced mechanism developed in this work are: (1) a 96-species version and (2

  19. 40 CFR 80.415 - What are the attest engagement requirements for gasoline sulfur compliance applicable to refiners...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refinery or importer produced or imported any GPA gasoline under § 80.216 or the refiner has approved...) Obtain a written representation from the company representative stating the refinery produces gasoline... shall be completed in 2004 through 2006 for a refinery or importer that produces gasoline subject to the...

  20. 40 CFR 80.216 - What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the GPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Geographic Phase-in Program § 80.216 What standards apply to gasoline produced or imported for use in the GPA? (a) The refinery or importer annual average sulfur standard for gasoline produced or imported for use...), shall be 150.00 ppm. (b) The per-gallon cap standard for gasoline produced or imported for use in the...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1336 - What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? 80.1336 Section 80.1336 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Hardship Provisions § 80.1336 What if a refiner or importer cannot produce gasoline conforming to the requirements of this subpart? In extreme, unusual, and unforeseen circumstances...

  2. 40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80.350 Section 80.350 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.350 What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck...

  3. 75 FR 7426 - Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... 2060-AI23; 2060-AQ12 Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline.... The rulemaking also required oil refiners to limit the sulfur content of the gasoline they produce. Sulfur in gasoline has a detrimental impact on catalyst performance and the sulfur requirements have...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63.11117 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in section § 63.11116(a). (b) Except as...

  5. 46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. 182.460 Section 182.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline must have a ventilation...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1334 - What are the requirements for early compliance with the gasoline benzene program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the gasoline benzene program? 80.1334 Section 80.1334 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Hardship Provisions § 80.1334 What are the requirements for early compliance with the gasoline...

  7. 26 CFR 48.6420-1 - Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gasoline used on a farm. 48.6420-1 Section 48.6420-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... § 48.6420-1 Credits or payments to ultimate purchaser of gasoline used on a farm. (a) In general. If gasoline is used on a farm for farming purposes after June 30, 1965, a credit (under the circumstances...

  8. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63.11118 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in §§ 63.11116(a) and 63.11117(b). (b) Except...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More...

  10. 40 CFR 80.380 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? 80.380 Section 80... obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? Any person may request an exemption from the provisions of this subpart for gasoline used for research, development or...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1000 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? 80.1000 Section 80... obtaining an exemption for gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes? Gasoline used for research, development or testing purposes is exempt from the requirements of this subpart if it is exempted...

  12. Performance and emissions of gasoline blended with terpineol as an octane booster

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-11-10

    This study investigates the effect of using terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline fuel. Unlike ethanol, terpineol is a high energy density biofuel that is unlikely to result in increased volumetric fuel consumption when used in engines. In this study, terpineol is added to non-oxygenated FACE F gasoline (Research Octane Number = 94.5) in volumetric proportions of 10%, 20% and 30% and tested in a single cylinder spark ignited engine. The performance of terpineol blended fuels are compared against a standard oxygenated EURO V (ethanol blended) gasoline. It was determined that the addition of terpineol to FACE F gasoline enhanced the octane number of the blend, resulting in improved brake thermal efficiency and total fuel consumption. For FACE F + 30% terpineol, break thermal efficiency was improved by 12.1% over FACE F gasoline at full load for maximum brake torque operating point, and similar performance as EURO V gasoline was achieved. Due to its high energy density, total fuel consumption was reduced by 6.2% and 9.7% with 30% terpineol in the blend when compared to FACE F gasoline at low and full load conditions, respectively. Gaseous emissions such as total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission were reduced by 36.8% and 22.7% for FACE F + 30% terpineol compared to FACE F gasoline at full load condition. On the other hand, nitrogen oxide and soot emissions are increased for terpineol blended FACE F gasoline when compared to FACE F and EURO V gasoline. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  13. PENINGKATAN KADAR GERANIOL DALAM MINYAK SEREH WANGI DAN APLIKASINYA SEBAGAI BIO ADDITIVE GASOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Astuti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sereh wangi merupakan salah satu tanaman penghasil minyak atsiri yang banyak mengandung geraniol. Geraniol merupakan senyawa penyedia oksigen sehingga minyak sereh wangi dimungkinkan dapat digunakan sebagai bio additive gasoline. Penelitian ini bertujuan  meningkatkan kadar geraniol dalam minyak sereh wangi dan menggunakannya sebagai bio additive gasoline.Penelitian dilakukan dalam  tiga tahap, yaitu  pemungutan minyak sereh wangi dari daun sereh wangi, peningkatan kadar geraniol dalam minyak sereh wangi dan aplikasi minyak sereh wangi yang mengandung geraniol tinggi sebagai bio aditive gasoline.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemungutan minyak sereh wangi yang dilakukan dengan metode distilasi uap menghasilkan rendemen sebesar 0,76% dengan kadar geraniol 5,36%.Kadar geraniol dapat ditingkatkan menjadi 21,78% melalui proses distilasi vakum pada suhu 120oC. Pengujian minyak sereh wangi dengan kadar geraniol tinggi sebagai bio additive gasoline meliputi uji performa dan efisiensi konsumsi bahan bakar dengan variasi perbandingan volume gasoline dengan bio additive. Hasilnya, penambahan minyak sereh wangi dengan perbandingan volume gasoline ; minyak sereh wangi = 1000:2 mampu meningkatkan power mesin dari 7,8HP menjadi 8,6HP. Sementara, pada pengujian efisiensi bahan bakar, penambahan minyak sereh wangi dengan perbandingan volume gasoline : minyak sereh wangi = 1000:2 dapat meningkatkan efisiensi mesin sebesar 10,8%. Citronella contains geraniol which is an oxygen provider substances, so it may be used as bio additive. The purpose of this research  is to increase geraniol content in citronella oil and use it as a gasoline bio additive. This research is conducted  in three steps including take the citronella oil from citronella leaf, increase geraniol content in citronella oil and use citronella oil as a gasoline bio additive. The result show that citronella oil produced from citronella leaf using vapor distillation method contains geraniol

  14. Combustion characteristics of a gasoline engine with independent intake port injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Chen, Xu; Lin, Chang-Lin; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different injection approaches for n-butanol and gasoline affect combustion events. • High n-butanol percentage in the total energy of fuels improves combustion stability. • N-butanol promotes ignition and shortens combustion duration. • Lean burn increases indicated mean effective pressure at fixed total energy of fuels. • Different fuel injection methods slightly affect indicated mean effective pressure. - Abstract: N-butanol, as a sustainable biofuel, is usually used as a blend with gasoline in spark ignition engines. In this study, the combustion characteristics were investigated on a four-cylinder spark ignition gasoline engine with independent port fuel injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline in different operating conditions. The results show that in the case of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direct injection gasoline at a given total energy released in a cycle, indicated mean effective pressure is slightly affected by spark timing at stoichiometry while it changes much more with delayed spark timing in lean burn conditions and is much higher in lean burn conditions compared to stoichiometry at given spark timings. With the increase of n-butanol percentage in a fixed total energy released in a cycle at given spark timings, ignition timing advances, combustion duration shortens, indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency increase. For the cases of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direction injection gasoline and port fuel injection of gasoline with direction injection n-butanol at a fixed total energy released in a cycle, their indicated mean effective pressures are close. But their combustion processes are dependent on fuel injection approaches.

  15. Ignition of alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels and their surrogate mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum derived gasoline is the most used transportation fuel for light-duty vehicles. In order to better understand gasoline combustion, this study investigated the ignition propensity of two alkane-rich FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline test fuels and their corresponding PRF (primary reference fuel) blend in fundamental combustion experiments. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured in two separate facilities at pressures of 10, 20, and 40 bar, temperatures from 715 to 1500 K, and two equivalence ratios. Rapid compression machine ignition delay times were measured for fuel/air mixtures at pressures of 20 and 40 bar, temperatures from 632 to 745 K, and two equivalence ratios. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was also performed on the FACE gasoline fuels, and the results were used to formulate multi-component gasoline surrogate mixtures. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling results are presented herein to provide insights into the relevance of utilizing PRF and multi-component surrogate mixtures to reproduce the ignition behavior of the alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels. The two FACE gasoline fuels and their corresponding PRF mixture displayed similar ignition behavior at intermediate and high temperatures, but differences were observed at low temperatures. These trends were mimicked by corresponding surrogate mixture models, except for the amount of heat release in the first stage of a two-stage ignition events, when observed. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  16. Electrokinetic enhanced bioventing of gasoline in clayey soil: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, W.W.; Wang, I.S.; Fan, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a case history on the bioventing of gasoline in soil with electrokinetic enhancement. The gasoline in soil was related to a 10,000-gallon underground storage tank spill, San Diego, California. The gasoline soil plume covers an area of about 2,400 square feet and to a depth of about 30 feet. The upper 15 feet of the soil plume consists of highly conductive marine clay. The lower 15 feet of the soil plume consists of dense cemented conglomerate sandstone. The gasoline concentration in the soil plume range from 100 to 2,200 mg/Kg(ppm) and the target cleanup level is below 100 ppm. Total gasoline in soil plume is estimated at about 1,000 pounds of gasoline in about 3,500 tons of soil. The soil remediation effort was completed after about 90 days of treatment. The concentration of gasoline in soil after treatment was way below the proposed cleanup level of less than 100 mg/Kg(ppm). The cost of treatment is about $50 per ton for this advanced soil treatment process which provides a cost effective solution to this soil plume with minimum disruption to business operation at the facility

  17. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-01-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 10 11 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m −3 , which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  18. Gasoline-related injuries and fatalities in the United States, 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Dorothy A

    2018-02-12

    This descriptive study examines twenty years of gasoline-related fatalities and emergency department treated injuries in the United States, based on data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Thermal burns consistently accounted for the majority (56%) of gasoline-related injuries and for most (82%) gasoline-related deaths, and were commonly (57-71%) associated with the use of gasoline as an accelerant. Poisoning accounted for 13% of injuries and 17% of deaths. The primary poisoning injury pattern was ingestion; the primary fatality pattern was inhalation, with about half of those associated with deliberate abuse. The estimated number of ingestions decreased from 60 to 23% of poisoning-related injuries, while injuries associated with inhalation abuse increased from 6 to 23%. Chemical burns and dermatitis were less represented in the injury data and were primarily associated with gasoline spills or splashes. Gasoline cans reportedly ignited or exploded in about 5% of thermal burn injuries and fatalities. While mandatory requirements for child resistant closures on gasoline cans (a primary intervention) have potentially impacted poisonings, the use of flame mitigation devices to address thermal injuries, if successful, would be a secondary intervention, and could address only a small percentage (about 5%) of injuries and deaths.

  19. Zinc-aluminates for an in situ sulfur reduction in cracked gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana-Solorzano, R.; Valente, J.S.; Hernandez-Beltran, F.J.; Castillo-Araiza, C.O. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152 C.P., 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-05-30

    Using additives remains as an attractive alternative for an in situ sulfur reduction in cracked gasoline since it is a practical, flexible and economical option. Zinc-aluminates prepared by the sol-gel method are used as additives for reducing sulfur in gasoline from the cracking of a high-sulfur feed in a fixed-bed bench reactor. Products distribution and feed conversion are not dramatically altered after incorporating the additive to the base catalyst with some effect on gasoline and its octane number and coke. A decrease in the gasoline sulfur content of up to 35 wt% including benzothiophene, and up to 50% excluding benzothiophene, is observed when blending the zinc-aluminates to the base catalyst, which is caused by lowering the C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl-thiophenes content. The zinc content of the zinc-aluminates has a positive effect on the gasoline sulfur reduction. It is suggested that together with the direct cracking of adsorbed thiophenic species on the additive, a further gasoline sulfur decrease is possible through cracking of saturated thiophenic species formed by hydrogenation of adsorbed thiophenic species with hydrogen produced in situ in the additive. The obtained results also demonstrate that solids with higher Lewis acidity are not unfailingly the most effective for gasoline sulfur reduction. (author)

  20. Effects of Biofuel and Variant Ambient Pressure on FlameDevelopment and Emissions of Gasoline Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Akasha; Khalid, Amir; Sapit, Azwan; Samsudin, Dahrum

    2016-11-01

    There are many technologies about exhaust emissions reduction for wide variety of spark ignition (SI) engine have been considered as the improvement throughout the combustion process. The stricter on legislation of emission and demands of lower fuel consumption needs to be priority in order to satisfy the demand of emission quality. Besides, alternative fuel such as methanol-gasoline blends is used as working fluid in this study due to its higher octane number and self-sustain concept which capable to contribute positive effect to the combustion process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of methanol-gasoline fuel with different blending ratio and variant ambient pressures on flame development and emission for gasoline engine. An experimental study is carried towards to the flame development of methanol-gasoline fuel in a constant volume chamber. Schlieren optical visualization technique is a visual process that used when high sensitivity is required to photograph the flow of fluids of varying density used for captured the combustion images in the constant volume chamber and analysed through image processing technique. Apart from that, the result showed combustion burn rate increased when the percentage of methanol content in gasoline increased. Thus, high percentage of methanol-gasoline blends gave greater flame development area. Moreover, the emissions of CO, NOX and HC are performed a reduction when the percentage of methanol content in gasoline is increased. Contrarily, the emission of Carbon dioxide, CO2 is increased due to the combustion process is enhanced.

  1. Evidence of asymmetric behavioral responses to changes in gasoline prices and taxes for different fuel types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo-Buenestado, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Using monthly data from the Spanish gasoline retail market we explore asymmetries in consumers’ behavioral responses to changes in gasoline prices and taxes. In particular, we are interested in investigating whether an increase in gasoline taxes has a more negative impact on the demand than a –similar in magnitude– increase in the “pre-tax” price of gasoline for different fuel types. We estimate fuel consumers’ responses using a rich set of robust panel data models considering potential dynamic effects and endogeneity problems. We find evidence to confirm the existence of asymmetric responses for the demand of unleaded fuels and agricultural diesel fuel. However we cannot support this statement for the regular diesel case: for this fuel both the tax-exclusive price and the tax elasticities are roughly the same. This result agrees with the fact that “diesel drivers” tend to be better informed about changes in both fuel prices and taxes. Some implications in terms of fiscal policy and pollution and climate change policy are also discussed. - Highlights: •Provide evidence of asymmetric responses of gasoline demand due to changes in prices and taxes. •Identify differences in the elasticity of the demand of diesel fuel and unleaded gasoline. •Perform robustness checks considering dynamic effects and IV regression. •Provide some policy recommendations for future gasoline tax changes.

  2. Toward the development of Raman spectroscopy as a nonperturbative online monitoring tool for gasoline adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Khay M; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara C; Singh, Gajendra P; Chia, Tet F; Tok, Wee L

    2013-02-05

    There is a critical need for a real-time, nonperturbative probe for monitoring the adulteration of automotive gasoline. Running on adulterated fuel leads to a substantive increase in air pollution, because of increased tailpipe emissions of harmful pollutants, as well as a reduction in engine performance. Consequently, both classification of the gasoline type and quantification of the adulteration content are of great significance for quality control. Gasoline adulteration detection is currently carried out in the laboratory with gas chromatography, which is time-consuming and costly. Here, we propose the application of Raman spectroscopic measurements for on-site rapid detection of gasoline adulteration. In this proof-of-principle report, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Raman spectra, in conjunction with multivariate analysis methods, in classifying the base oil types and simultaneously detecting the adulteration content in a wide range of commercial gasoline mixtures, both in their native states and spiked with different adulterants. In particular, we show that Raman spectra acquired with an inexpensive noncooled detector provides adequate specificity to clearly discriminate between the gasoline samples and simultaneously characterize the specific adulterant content with a limit of detection below 5%. Our promising results in this study illustrate, for the first time, the capability and the potential of Raman spectroscopy, together with multivariate analysis, as a low-cost, powerful tool for on-site rapid detection of gasoline adulteration and opens substantive avenues for applications in related fields of quality control in the oil industry.

  3. Optimal gasoline tax in developing, oil-producing countries: The case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antón-Sarabia, Arturo; Hernández-Trillo, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the methodology of Parry and Small (2005) to estimate the optimal gasoline tax for a less-developed oil-producing country. The relevance of the estimation relies on the differences between less-developed countries (LDCs) and industrial countries. We argue that lawless roads, general subsidies on gasoline, poor mass transportation systems, older vehicle fleets and unregulated city growth make the tax rates in LDCs differ substantially from the rates in the developed world. We find that the optimal gasoline tax is $1.90 per gallon at 2011 prices and show that the estimate differences are in line with the factors hypothesized. In contrast to the existing literature on industrial countries, we show that the relative gasoline tax incidence may be progressive in Mexico and, more generally, in LDCs. - Highlights: • We estimate the optimal gasoline tax for a typical less-developed, oil-producing country like Mexico. • The relevance of the estimation relies on the differences between less-developed and industrial countries. • The optimal gasoline tax is $1.90 per gallon at 2011 prices. • Distance-related pollution damages, accident costs and gas subsidies account for the major differences. • Gasoline tax incidence may be progressive in less developed countries

  4. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  5. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Raguz, Miroslav; Pavlovic, Sonja; Jespersen, Thomas; Castella, Vincent; Keller, Dagmar I; Abriel, Hugues

    2007-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a typical type-1 BrS pattern that persisted after the acute event. Genetic investigations allowed the identification of a novel SCN5A mutation leading to a frame-shift and early termination of the channel protein. Biochemical and cellular electrophysiology experiments confirmed the loss-of-function of the mutant allele. The patient was implanted with a cardioverter/defibrillator.

  6. Gasoline Engine HCCI Combustion - Extending the high load limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    There is an increasing global focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. For the automotive industry this means reducing CO2 emissions of the vehicles manufactured, which is synonymous with reducing their fuel consumption or adapting them for using renewable fuels. This thesis is based on a project aimed at improving the efficiency of gasoline engines in the lower load/speed region. The focus was mainly on a combustion strategy called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), but also on homogeneous lean and stratified lean spark-ignited combustion. In contrast to traditional stoichiometric spark-ignited combustion, HCCI can operate with diluted mixtures, which leads to better cycle efficiency, smaller pumping losses and smaller heat losses. However, at relatively high loads, HCCI combustion becomes excessively rapid, generating in-cylinder pressure oscillations (ringing), which are perceived as noise by the human ear. The main objective of the project was to identify ways to avoid this ringing behaviour in order to increase the upper load limit of HCCI. This is vital to avoid the need for mode switches to spark-ignited combustion at higher loads and to operate the engine as much as possible in the more effective HCCI mode. The strategy for reducing ringing investigated most extensively in the project was charge stratification, achieved by injecting part of the fuel late in the compression stroke. Available literature on effects of this strategy gave conflicting indications, both positive and negative effects have been reported, depending on the type of fuel and engine used. It was soon found that the strategy is effective for reducing ringing, but with resulting increases of NOX emissions. Further, in order for the strategy to be effective, global air/fuel ratios must not be much leaner than stoichiometric. The increases in NOX emissions were countered by shifting the ratio towards stoichiometric using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), allowing a three

  7. Radon distribution in a gasoline-contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, K.; Kuo, T.; Han, Y.; Chen, C.; Lin, C.; Lee, C.

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring radon-222 gas in groundwater was investigated as a partitioning tracer to detect non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in a gasoline-contaminated aquifer. The radon-222 activity of groundwater decreased significantly from an average of 7.38+/-1.68BqL -1 measured in monitoring wells located upgradient in the uncontaminated zone to an average of 2.30+/-0.60BqL -1 measured in monitoring wells inside the NAPL source zone. Meanwhile, the radium-226 concentrations measured in aquifer matrix were virtually homogeneous at several locations both upgradient of and inside the NAPL source zone. Furthermore, the NAPL concentration obtained from the Radon Deficit Factor agrees reasonably with the results derived from direct sampling and chemical analysis of soil samples taken from the residual NAPL source zone. The field results of this study confirmed the general applicability of groundwater radon to detect residual NAPL source zone

  8. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confer, Keith [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States)

    2014-12-18

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  9. Oxy-gasoline torch. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Under the deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) Implementation Plan of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), non-recyclable process components and debris that are removed from buildings undergoing D and D are disposed of in an on-site disposal facility (OSDF). Critical to the design and operation of the FEMP's OSDF are provisions to protect against subsidence of the OSDF's cap. Subsidence of the cap could occur if void spaces within the OSDF were to collapse under the overburden of debris and the OSDF cap. Subsidence may create significant depressions in the OSDF's cap in which rainwater could collect and eventually seep into the OSDF. To minimize voids in the FEMP's OSDF, large metallic components are cut into smaller segments that can be arranged more compactly when placed in the OSDF. Component segmentation using an oxy-acetylene cutting torch was the baseline approach used by the FEMP's D and D contractor on Plant 1, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Services, Inc., for the dismantlement and size-reduction of large metal components. Although this technology has performed satisfactorily, improvements are sought in the areas of productivity, airborne contamination, safety, and cost. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of using an oxy-gasoline torch as an alternative to the baseline oxy-acetylene torch for segmenting D and D components. This report provides a comparative analysis of the cost and performance of the baseline oxy-acetylene torch currently used by B and W Services, Inc., and the innovative oxy-gasoline torch

  10. Emissions from Ethanol-Gasoline Blends: A Single Particle Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. McMurry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its agricultural origin and function as a fuel oxygenate, ethanol is being promoted as an alternative biomass-based fuel for use in spark ignition engines, with mandates for its use at state and regional levels. While it has been established that the addition of ethanol to a fuel reduces the particulate mass concentration in the exhaust, little attention has been paid to changes in the physicochemical properties of the emitted particles. In this work, a dynamometer-mounted GM Quad-4 spark ignition engine run without aftertreatment at 1,500 RPM and 100% load was used with four different fuel blends, containing 0, 20, 40 and 85 percent ethanol in gasoline. This allowed the effects of the fuel composition to be isolated from other effects. Instrumentation employed included two Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers covering different size ranges for analysis of single particle composition, an Aethalometer for black carbon, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer for particle size distributions, a Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH species and gravimetric filter measurements for particulate mass concentrations. It was found that, under the conditions investigated here, additional ethanol content in the fuel changes the particle size distribution, especially in the accumulation mode, and decreases the black carbon and total particulate mass concentrations. The molecular weight distribution of the PAHs was found to decrease with added ethanol. However, PAHs produced from higher ethanol-content fuels are associated with NO2− (m/z—46 in the single-particle mass spectra, indicating the presence of nitro-PAHs. Compounds associated with the gasoline (e.g., sulfur-containing species are diminished due to dilution as ethanol is added to the fuel relative to those associated with the lubricating oil (e.g., calcium, zinc, phosphate in the single particle spectra. These changes have potential

  11. Simulation of an industrial pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostoufi, N.; Sotudeh-Gharebagh, R.; Ahmadpour, M.; Eyvani, J. [Process Design and Simulation Research Centre, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365/4563, Tehran (Iran)

    2005-02-01

    A model is developed based on a two-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline to obtain a C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} cut suitable for extraction of aromatics. In order to model the hydrogenation reactors, suitable hydrodynamic and reaction submodels should be solved simultaneously. The first stage hydrogenation takes place in a trickle bed reactor. The reaction rates of different di-olefines as well as hydrodynamic parameters of the trickle bed (i.e., catalyst wetting efficiency, pressure drop, mass transfer coefficient and liquid hold-up) have been combined to derive the equations to model this reactor. The second stage hydrogenation takes place in a two compartment fixed bed reactor. Hydrogenation of olefines takes place in the first compartment while sulfur is eliminated from the flow in the second compartment. These reactions occur at relatively higher temperature and pressure compared to the first stage. The key component in this stage is considered to be cyclohexene, of which the hydrogenation was found to be the most difficult of the olefines present in the feed. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic expression was adopted for the hydrogenation of cyclohexene and its kinetic parameters were determined experimentally in a micro-reactor in the presence of the industrial catalyst. The model was solved for the whole process of hydrogenation, including hydro-desulfurization. The predictions of the model were compared with actual plant data from an industrial scale pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation unit and satisfactory agreement was found between the model and plant data. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Post-mortem detection of gasoline residues in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Kevin; Olson, Greg; Forbes, Shari L

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gasoline residues could be detected post-mortem in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims. The lungs and heart blood were investigated to determine whether they were suitable samples for collection and could be collected without contamination during an autopsy. Three sets of test subjects (pig carcasses) were investigated under two different fire scenarios. Test subjects 1 were anaesthetized following animal ethics approval, inhaled gasoline vapours for a short period and then euthanized. The carcasses were clothed and placed in a house where additional gasoline was poured onto the carcass post-mortem in one fire, but not in the other. Test subjects 2 did not inhale gasoline, were clothed and placed in the house and had gasoline poured onto them in both fires. Test subjects 3 were clothed but had no exposure to gasoline either ante- or post-mortem. Following controlled burns and suppression with water, the carcasses were collected, and their lungs and heart blood were excised at a necropsy. The headspace from the samples was analysed using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Gasoline was identified in the lungs and heart blood from the subjects that were exposed to gasoline vapours prior to death (test subjects 1). All other samples were negative for gasoline residues. These results suggest that it is useful to analyse for volatile ignitable liquids in lung tissue and blood as it may help to determine whether a victim was alive and inhaling gases at the time of a fire.

  13. Comparative analysis of the Performance and Emission Characteristics of ethanol-butanol-gasoline blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Sumit; Singh, Perminderjit, Dr; Singh, Gurtej

    2018-02-01

    Global warming and energy security being the global problems have shifted the focus of researchers on the renewable sources of energy which could replace petroleum products partially or as a whole. Ethanol and butanol are renewable sources of energy which can be produced through fermentation of biomass. A lot of research has already been done to develop suitable ethanol-gasoline blends. In contrast very little literature available on the butanol-gasoline blends. This research focuses on the comparison of ethanol-gasoline fuels with butanol-gasoline fuels with regard to the emission and performance in an SI engine. Experiments were conducted on a variable compression ratio SI engine at 1600 rpm and compression ratio 8. The experiments involved the measurement of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and unburned hydrocarbons emission and among performance parameters brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were recorded at three loads of 2.5kgs (25%), 5kgs (50%) and 7.5kgs (75%). Results show that ethanol and butanol content in gasoline have decreased brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions while the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen are increased. Results indicate thatbutanol-gasoline blends have improved brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide emissions in an SI engine as compared to ethanol-gasoline blends. The carbon dioxide emissions and brake thermal efficiencies are comparable for ethanol-gasoline blends and butanol-gasoline blends. The butanol content has a more adverse effect on emissions of oxides of nitrogen than ethanol.

  14. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  15. Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamminger, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sevik, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scarcelli, Riccardo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallner, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wooldridge, Steven [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Boyer, Brad [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Hall, Carrie M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-10-17

    The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems. Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas. Adding natural gas at wide open throttle helps to reduce knock mitigating measures and increases the efficiency and power density compared to the other gasoline type fuels with lower knock resistance. The used methods, knock intensity and number of pressure waves, do not show significant differences in knock behavior for the natural gas - gasoline blends compared to the gasoline type fuels. A knock integral was used to describe the knock onset location of the fuels tested. Two different approaches were used to determine the experimental knock onset and were compared to the knock onset delivered by the knock integral (chemical knock onset). The gasoline type fuels show good agreement between chemical and experimental knock onset. However, the natural gas -gasoline blends show higher discrepancies comparing chemical and experimental knock onset.

  16. Possibility of content change in bioethanol gasoline during pre-treatment process for using accelerator mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Yunoki, Shunji; Suzuki, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to determine the bioethanol content of E3 gasoline by applying ASTM D6866 method B. In the pre-treatment process using accelerator mass spectroscopy(AMS), the graphite samples were prepared from E3 gasoline. Three portions of the same graphite sample were measured, and the contents agreed within the measurement error of AMS. The graphite samples prepared from eight portions of the same E3 gasoline sample were measured, but the accuracy was insufficient. There are many kinds of hydrocarbon compounds in the gasoline and their boiling points are different. The content of bioethanol was found to decrease with vaporization when E3 gasoline was placed in open air. A very small amount of E3 gasoline is pre-treated for AMS and the volatile loss cannot be ignored. It seems that the content change of bioethanol was caused by vaporization of E3 gasoline during the pre-treatment process. (author)

  17. Low-Temperature Miscibility of Ethanol-Gasoline-Water Blends in Flex Fuel Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Schramm, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The miscibility of blends of gasoline and hydrous ethanol was investigated experimentally at - 25 degrees C and - 2 degrees C. Furthermore, the maximum water content was found for ethanol in flex fuel blends. The results strongly indicate that blends containing ethanol with a water content above...... that of the ethanol/water azeotrope (4.4% water by mass) can be used as Flex Fuel blends together with gasoline at ambient temperatures of 25 degrees C and 2 degrees C, without phase separation occurring. Additionally, it was shown that the ethanol purity requirement of ethanol-rich flex fuel blends falls...... with increasing ethanol content in the gasoline-rich flex fuel blend....

  18. Performance and emissions analysis on using acetone–gasoline fuel blends in spark-ignition engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2016-01-01

    In this study, new blended fuels were formed by adding 3–10 vol. % of acetone into a regular gasoline. According to the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first time that the influence of acetone blends has been studied in a gasoline-fueled engine. The blended fuels were tested for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions using SI (spark-ignition) engine with single-cylinder and 4-stroke. Experimental results showed that the AC3 (3 vol.% acetone + 97 vol.% gasoline) blended fu...

  19. Regulatory changes and market volatility -- Continuing uncertainties in the reformulated gasoline program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the reformulated gasoline market. After several years of discussions, negotiations, and planning on the parts of the oil industry, EPA, and the New York Mercantile Exchange, the introduction of reformulated gasoline was executed without problems. Ample inventories were in place for distribution in December and January. Then 28 counties in Pennsylvania, 9 in New York, and 2 in Maine made requests to opt-out of the reformulated gasoline program. EPA, 10 days later, allowed this. The paper describes what this inadequate notice of the reversal of regulations had on the futures market and the uncertainties still in the market

  20. Comparison of combustion characteristics of n-butanol/ethanol–gasoline blends in a HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Liu, Mao-Bin; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The blends with alcohol autoignite early in the conditions highly diluted by exhaust. • n-Butanol is more reactive than ethanol in the blend with the same alcohol content. • Autoignition timing delays with retarding IVO timing for all alcohol–gasoline blends. • Advanced autoignition for the blends with alcohol leads to lower thermal efficiency. - Abstract: As a sustainable biofuel, n-butanol can be used in conventional spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines in order to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a novel combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of conventional SI engines at part loads. To understand the effect of alcohol structure on HCCI combustion under stoichiometric conditions highly diluted by exhaust gases, the combustion characteristics of n-butanol, ethanol and their blends with gasoline were investigated on a single cylinder port fuel injection gasoline engine with fixed intake/exhaust valve lifts at the same operating conditions in this study. The results show that autoignition timing for alcohol–gasoline blends is dependent on alcohol types and its concentration in the blend, engine speed and intake valve opening (IVO)/exhaust valve closing (EVC) timing. In the operating conditions with the residual gases more than 38% by mass in the mixture, alcohol–gasoline blends autoignite more easily than gasoline. Autoignition timing for n-butanol–gasoline blend is earlier than that for ethanol–gasoline blend with the same alcohol volume fraction at 1500 rpm in most cases while the autoignition timings for the blends with alcohol are relatively close at 2000 rpm at the same IVO/EVC timing. Combustion stability is improved with advanced EVC timing at a fixed IVO timing, which is benefit for the improvement in the thermal efficiency in the case of alcohol–gasoline blends. In addition, n-butanol–gasoline blends autoignite earlier than their ethanol–gasoline

  1. A simple contactless impedance probe for determination of ethanol in gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opekar, F.; Cabala, R.; Kadlecova, T.

    2011-01-01

    A contactless impedance probe with either a planar or a tubular detection cell has been developed and tested for rapid determination of the ethanol content in gasoline. The probe cell is connected as a capacitor determining the frequency of an electronic astable multivibrator. The multivibrator frequency depends on the permittivity of the test gasoline in the detection cell which is strongly influenced by the ethanol content as one of the major polar additives. The ethanol concentrations obtained with the impedance probe agree, within the reliability interval, with those obtained by GC-MS measurements and fall into the limits recommended by the appropriate European Standard. The gasoline samples are analyzed without any pretreatment.

  2. Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienkos, Philip T.

    2002-01-01

    Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19

  3. Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienkos, Philip T.

    2002-01-15

    Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19

  4. Oil price volatility and the asymmetric response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of volatility in oil prices on the degree of asymmetry in the response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases. Several time series measures of the asymmetry between the responses of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases and several measures of the oil price volatility are constructed. In all models, the degree of asymmetry in gasoline prices declines with an increase in oil price volatility. The results support the oligopolistic coordination theory as a likely explanation of the observed asymmetry and are not consistent with the standard search theory and the search theory with Bayesian updating. (author)

  5. Decay of 57Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Scardino, A.M. dos.

    1987-01-01

    The decay of 57 Ni to 57 Co was studied by gamma ray spectroscopy using both singles and coincidence spectra. The sources were obtained with the 58 Ni (Y,n) 57 Ni reaction. Natural metallic nickel was irradiated in the bremsstrahluhng beam of the linear accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo with 30 MeV electrons. The singles espectra were taken with 104 cc HPGe detector and the coincidences espectra with 27 and 53cc Ge(Li) and 104 cc. HPGe detectors. The energies of transitions that follow the 57 Ni decay were measured using 56 Co as standard (which was obtained by (Y,np) reaction in 58 Ni) and taking into account the cascade cross-over relations. (author) [pt

  6. The economics of gasoline subsidy cost reduction policy: Case study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimaya, Muhammad I.

    A gasoline subsidy distorts the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies and takes substantial revenues that arguably could be spent elsewhere with a better impact on economic growth. Governments with such subsidies are aware of their cost yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This thesis discusses in three essays the problem faced by the government in removing the gasoline subsidy and provides an alternative policy in reducing the subsidy cost applied to the case of Indonesia. In the first essay, we examine the decision-making process from the government's perspective that has an objective of generating savings to fund other programs while maintaining political power, and the influence that the general population has over the decision. Despite the immense literature on political power, there has yet to be any research that mathematically models the decision-making process of a government with influences from the general population. Under the benchmark scenario, the equilibrium strategy is to keep the subsidy intact. However, the results are found to be very sensitive to the magnitude of the shift in political power as well as the preferences of both the government and the people. In the second essay, we estimate the cross-price elasticity of regular gasoline with respect to premium gasoline price. The importance of such knowledge is to accurately determine the impact of fuel pricing policy that tends to have different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the grade of gasoline. Using data on the Mexican gasoline market, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline is found to be -0.895, which confirms high substitutability among gasoline with different grades. In the third essay, we look at the unique case of Indonesia that

  7. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  8. Pollutant emissions from gasoline combustion. 1. Dependence on fuel structural functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzhi R; Eddings, Eric G; Sarofim, Adel F

    2008-08-01

    To study the formation of air pollutants and soot precursors (e.g., acetylene, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and higher aromatics) from aliphatic and aromatic fractions of gasoline fuels, the Utah Surrogate Mechanisms is extended to include submechanisms of gasoline surrogate compounds using a set of mechanism generation techniques. The mechanism yields very good predictions of species concentrations in premixed flames of n-heptane, isooctane, benzene, cyclohexane, olefins, oxygenates, and gasoline using a 23-component surrogate formulation. The 1,3-butadiene emission comes mainly from minor fuel fractions of olefins and cyclohexane. The benzene formation potential of gasoline components shows the following trends as functions of (i) chemical class: n-paraffins produced by the real fuel should have priority when selecting candidate surrogate components for combustion simulations.

  9. The impact of ethanol production on US and regional gasoline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2009-01-01

    This study quantifies the impact of increasing ethanol production on wholesale/retail gasoline prices employing pooled regional time-series data from January 1995 to March 2008. We find that the growth in ethanol production kept wholesale gasoline prices $0.14/gallon lower than would otherwise have been the case. The negative impact of ethanol on retail gasoline prices is found to vary considerably across regions. The Midwest region has the biggest impact at $0.28/gallon, while the Rocky Mountain region had the smallest impact at $0.07/gallon. The results also indicate that the ethanol-induced reduction in gasoline prices comes at the expense of refiners' profits. We find a net welfare loss of $0.5 billion from the ethanol support policies in multiple markets.

  10. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzyński, Jakub J.; Christensen, Jan H.; Mayer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial...... functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial...... microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient...

  11. Application of Biologically-Based Lumping To Investigate the Toxicological Interactions of a Complex Gasoline Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    People are often exposed to complex mixtures of environmental chemicals such as gasoline, tobacco smoke, water contaminants, or food additives. However, investigators have often considered complex mixtures as one lumped entity. Valuable information can be obtained from these exp...

  12. Heterogeneity in the response to gasoline prices: Evidence from Pennsylvania and implications for the rebound effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillingham, Kenneth; Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The consumer response to changing gasoline prices has long interested economists and policymakers, for it has important implications for the effects of gasoline taxation and vehicle energy efficiency policies. This study examines both the elasticity of driving with respect to changing gasoline prices and heterogeneity in this elasticity by geography, the fuel economy of the vehicle, and the age of the vehicle. We use detailed annual vehicle-level emissions inspection test data from Pennsylvania that include odometer readings, inspection zip codes, and extensive vehicle characteristics. We estimate a short-run gasoline price elasticity of driving demand of − 0.10, and find substantial heterogeneity in this responsiveness. The elasticity is largely driven by low fuel economy vehicles, as well as vehicles between 3 and 7 years old. Our findings help reconcile some of the recent literature and provide guidance on the magnitude of the direct rebound effect from light duty vehicle energy efficiency policies.

  13. FOOTPRINT: A Screening Model for Estimating the Area of a Plume Produced From Gasoline Containing Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOOTPRINT is a screening model used to estimate the length and surface area of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes in groundwater, produced from a gasoline spill that contains ethanol.

  14. Effective and equitable supply of gasoline to impacted areas in the aftermath of a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this project was on supplying gasoline after a natural disaster. There were two aspects : for this work: determination of which gas stations should be provided with generators (among those that do : not have electric power) and determina...

  15. Quantities of Interest in Jet Stirred Reactor Oxidation of a High-Octane Gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Bingjie; Togbé , Casimir; Selim, Hatem; Dagaut, Philippe; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    related to smaller molecule reactions. The results presented here offer new insights into the oxidation chemistry of complex gasoline fuels and provide suggestions for the future development of surrogate kinetic models.

  16. Demand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than commonly thought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránek, T.; Iršová, Z.; Janda, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2012), s. 201-207 ISSN 0140-9883 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : gasoline demand * price elasticity * publication selection bias Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2012

  17. Ignition of alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels and their surrogate mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Kukkadapu, Goutham; Mehl, Marco; Wang, Weijing; Javed, Tamour; Park, Sungwoo; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Farooq, Aamir; Pitz, William J.; Sung, Chihjen

    2015-01-01

    Engines) gasoline test fuels and their corresponding PRF (primary reference fuel) blend in fundamental combustion experiments. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured in two separate facilities at pressures of 10, 20, and 40 bar, temperatures from

  18. Unusual facial markings and lethal mechanisms in a series of gasoline inhalation deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Chivell, Wayne C; Gilbert, John D

    2003-09-01

    A review of deaths associated with hydrocarbon toxicity from gasoline sniffing in South Australia throughout a 10 year period from July 1987 to June 2002 revealed 4 cases. The victims were all Aboriginal people from remote inland communities. Each death had occurred while the victim was lying in bed sniffing gasoline from a can held to the face. Once unconsciousness had occurred, the mouth and nose had been pressed firmly against the can by the weight of the head. In each case, the effects of gasoline toxicity had been exacerbated by hypoxia and hypercapnia from rebreathing into the container once a tight seal had been established between the face and the can. The circular impressions left by the can edges on the faces of each of the victims provided an autopsy marker that assisted in clarifying the details of the fatal episodes. Discouraging solitary gasoline sniffing in bed may reduce the death rate in communities where this behavior is practiced.

  19. Effects of maternal inhalation of gasoline evaporative condensates on sensory function in rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to assess potential health effects resulting from exposure to ethanol-gasoline blend vapors, we previously conducted neurophysiological assessment of sensory function following gestational exposure to 100% ethanol vapor (Herr et al., Toxicologist, 2012). For comparison p...

  20. Gasoline quality prediction using gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy: An artificial intelligence approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Brudzewski; A. Kesik; K. Kolodziejczyk; U. Zborowska; J. Ulaczyk [Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Department of Chemistry

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports on analysis of 45 gasoline samples with different qualities, namely, octane number and chemical composition. Measurements of data from gas chromatography and IR (FTIR) spectroscopy are used to gasoline quality prediction and classification. The data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and fuzzy C means (FCM) algorithm. The data were then analyzed following the neural network paradigms, hybrid neural network and support vector machines (SVM) classifier. The IR spectra were compressed and de-noised by the discrete wavelet analysis. Using the hybrid neural network and multi linear regression method (MLRM), excellent correlation between chemical composition of the gasoline samples and predicted value of the octane number was obtained. About 100% correct classification for six different categories of the gasoline was achieved, each of which has different qualities. 9 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.