WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas water heater

  1. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  2. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  3. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2009-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  4. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  5. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-28

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  6. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel, C. Backman

    2017-06-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements.

  7. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  8. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certificati...

  9. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  10. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  11. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  12. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  13. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  14. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  15. A high turndown, ultra low emission low swirl burner for natural gas, on-demand water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Previous research has shown that on-demand water heaters are, on average, approximately 37% more efficient than storage water heaters. However, approximately 98% of water heaters in the U.S. use storage water heaters while the remaining 2% are on-demand. A major market barrier to deployment of on-demand water heaters is their high retail cost, which is due in part to their reliance on multi-stage burner banks that require complex electronic controls. This project aims to research and develop a cost-effective, efficient, ultra-low emission burner for next generation natural gas on-demand water heaters in residential and commercial buildings. To meet these requirements, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are adapting and testing the low-swirl burner (LSB) technology for commercially available on-demand water heaters. In this report, a low-swirl burner is researched, developed, and evaluated to meet targeted on-demand water heater performance metrics. Performance metrics for a new LSB design are identified by characterizing performance of current on-demand water heaters using published literature and technical specifications, and through experimental evaluations that measure fuel consumption and emissions output over a range of operating conditions. Next, target metrics and design criteria for the LSB are used to create six 3D printed prototypes for preliminary investigations. Prototype designs that proved the most promising were fabricated out of metal and tested further to evaluate the LSB’s full performance potential. After conducting a full performance evaluation on two designs, we found that one LSB design is capable of meeting or exceeding almost all the target performance metrics for on-demand water heaters. Specifically, this LSB demonstrated flame stability when operating from 4.07 kBTU/hr up to 204 kBTU/hr (50:1 turndown), compliance with SCAQMD Rule 1146.2 (14 ng/J or 20 ppm NOX @ 3% O2), and lower CO emissions than state

  16. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, T. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  18. Solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.; Lee, T.; Chung, K.

    2006-01-01

    Solar water heater has been commercialized during the last two decades in Taiwan. The government initiated the incentive programs during 1986-1991 and 2000-2004. This created an economic incentive for the end-users. The total area of solar collectors installed was more than one million square meters. The data also show that most of the solar water heaters are mainly used by the domestic sector for hot water production (about 97%). The regional popularization analysis indicates limited installation of solar water heaters in the northern district. In the eastern district and remote islands, the problems of climatic conditions and availability of localized installers/dealers are addressed. (author)

  19. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120 gallons...

  20. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454...

  1. The Energy Efficiency of Hot Water Production by Gas Water Heaters with a Combustion Chamber Sealed with Respect to the Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Czerski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigative results of the energy efficiency of hot water production for sanitary uses by means of gas-fired water heaters with the combustion chamber sealed with respect to the room in single-family houses and multi-story buildings. Additionally, calculations were made of the influence of pre-heating the air for combustion in the chimney and air supply system on the energy efficiency of hot water production. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics software was used for calculation of the heat exchange in this kind of system. The studies and calculations have shown that the use of gas water heaters with a combustion chamber sealed with respect to the room significantly increases the efficiency of hot water production when compared to traditional heaters. It has also been proven that the pre-heating of combustion air in concentric chimney and air supply ducts essentially improves the energy efficiency of gas appliances for hot water production.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  3. Heater for Combustible-Gas Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Walter B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed heater for pressurizing hydrogen, oxygen, or another combustible liquid or gas sealed in immersion cup in pressurized tank. Firmly supported in finned cup, coiled rod transfers heat through liquid metal to gas tank. Heater assembly welded or bolted to tank flange.

  4. Molded polymer solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  5. Cost effectiveness analysis for the substitution of the electrical shower to gas water heaters; Estudo de viabilidade para substituicao do chuveiro eletrico por aquecedores a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br; Monteiro, Jorge Venancio de Freitas [Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo (COMGAS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: venanciocomgas@uol.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The hydropower natural resources for generation of electrical energy at the south part of Brazil has been extinguished at the last years and as a consequence large investments should be made in order to attend the electrical energy demand at this part of country. These paper purposes a comparison between the use gas water heater and the traditional electrical shower largely applied at the Brazilian residences. It will be focused not only the consumer point of view but also the construction enterprise position as well as the advantages for the overall country due to this substitution. (author)

  6. Solar Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  7. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  8. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  9. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  10. Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keh-Chin [Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Kueijen, Tainan, Taiwan 711 (China); Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming [Aerospace Science and Technology Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Kueijen, Tainan, Taiwan 711 (China); Lin, Wei-Min [Tainan University of Technology (China)

    2008-01-15

    The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction. (author)

  11. Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming; Lin, Wei-Min

    2008-01-01

    The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction. (author)

  12. Water hammers in direct contact heater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the causes and mitigation or prevention of water hammers occurring in direct contact heaters and their attached lines. These water hammers are generally caused by rapid pressure reductions in the heaters or by water lines not flowing full. Proper design and operating measures can prevent or mitigate water hammer occurrence. Water hammers often do not originate at the areas where damage is noted

  13. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNICAL DECISIONS FOR HEAT SUPPLY WITH TUBULAR GAS HEATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRODOV V. F.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Annotation. Problems formulation. The problem that is solved is the development of autonomous heat supply systems that reduce the capital costs of construction and increase the efficiency of the use of energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem is the use of tubular gas heaters. For this, it is necessary to develop new technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters, as well as scientific and methodological support for the development, construction and operation of heat supply systems with tubular gas heaters. Analysis of recent research. Preliminary studies of infrared tubular gas heaters are considered, which were used to heat industrial enterprises with sufficiently high premises. The task was to extend the principles of heat supply by means of tubular heaters for heating air, water and heating medium in relatively low rooms. Goal and tasks. To lay out the development of technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters, which increase the efficiency and reliability of heat supply systems and extend the use of tubular gas heaters in heat supply. Results. Technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters have made it possible to extend their applications for heating air, water and heating medium in relatively low rooms. Scientific novelty. New technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters increase the efficiency of using fuel and energy resources at low capital costs. Practical significance. Technical solutions for heat supply using tubular heaters have the potential for wide application in the heat supply of industrial, public and residential facilities. Conclusions. For two decades, new technical solutions for heat supply with tubular gas heaters have been developed, which increase the efficiency and reliability of heat supply systems and can be widely used for autonomous heating.

  15. Heater test in the Opalinus Clay of the Mont Terri URL. Gas release and water redistribution - Contribution to heater experiment (HE); Rock and bentonite thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the nearfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jockwer, N.; Wieczorek, K.

    2006-06-01

    Beside salt and granite, clay formations are investigated as potential host rocks for disposing radioactive waste. In Switzerland in the canton Jura close to the city of St. Ursanne, an underground laboratory was built in the vicinity of the reconnaissance gallery of a motorway tunnel. Since 1995, a consortium of 12 international organisations is running this laboratory for investigating the suitability of the Opalinus clay formation with regard to disposal of radioactive waste. In 1999, the Heater Experiment B (HE-B) was started for investigating the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes of the Opalinus clay in interaction with the bentonite buffer. The principal contractors of this project were the Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S. A. (ENRESA), the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, and the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). GRS participated in that experiment for determining the subjects of gas generation, gas release, water content, and water redistribution in the Opalinus clay during heating. This was achieved by analysing gas and water samples from the test field before, during, and after the heating period and by performing geoelectric tomography measurements in the heated region. The in-situ measurements were supported by an additional laboratory programme. This report deals with the work of GRS performed in this project during the years 1999 to 2005. All the results obtained in the frame of the project are presented. Additional laboratory measurements conducted by the Pore Water Laboratory at CIEMAT in Madrid are also presented. The participation of GRS was funded by German Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWA) under the contract No. 02 E 9602 and by the Commission of the European Communities under the contract No. FIKW.CT-2001-00132. (orig.)

  16. Solar Water-Heater Design and Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlamert, P.; Kennard, J.; Ciriunas, J.

    1982-01-01

    Solar/Water heater system works as follows: Solar--heated air is pumped from collectors through rock bin from top to bottom. Air handler circulates heated air through an air-to-water heat exchanger, which transfers heat to incoming well water. In one application, it may reduce oil use by 40 percent.

  17. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  18. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation; Weitzel, E. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation

    2017-03-03

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  19. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  20. Energy efficiency improvement and fuel savings in water heaters using baffles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeini Sedeh, Mahmoud; Khodadadi, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermal efficiency improved by simple/novel design of baffles inside water reservoir. ► Noticeable steady-state natural gas savings of about 5%. ► Extensive 3-D numerical investigations followed by experimental verifications. ► Baffle designs prototyped in identical water heaters for ANSI/US DOE test protocols. ► Numerical/experimental results verified thermal efficiency improvement and fuel savings. -- Abstract: Thermal efficiency improvement of a water heater was investigated numerically and experimentally in response to presence of a baffle, particularly designed for modifying the flow field within the water reservoir and enhancing heat transfer extracted into the water tank. A residential natural gas-fired water heater was selected for modifying its water tank through introducing a baffle for lowering natural gas consumption by 5% as a target. Based on the geometric features of the selected water heater, three-dimensional models of the water heater subsections were developed. Upon detailed studies of flow and heat transfer in each subsection, various sub-models were integrated to a complete model of the water heater. Thermal performance of the selected water heater was investigated numerically using computational fluid dynamics analysis. Prior to baffle design process and in order to verify the developed model of the water heater, time-dependent numerically-predicted temperatures were compared to the experimentally-measured temperatures under the same conditions at six (6) different locations inside the water tank and good agreement was observed. Upon verifying the numerical model, the fluid flow and heat transfer patterns were characterized for the selected water heater. The overall design of the baffle and its location and orientation were finalized based on the numerical results and a set of parametric studies. Finally, two baffle designs were proposed, with the second design being an optimized version of the first design. The

  1. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  2. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  3. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  4. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  5. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  6. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  7. Solar water heaters in China. A new day dawning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Lu, Yonglong

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively affluent province, as a case study area to assess the performance of solar water heater utilization in China. The study will focus on institutional setting, economic and technological performance, energy performance, and environmental and social impact. Results show that China has greatly increased solar water heater utilization, which has brought China great economic, environmental and social benefits. However, China is confronted with malfeasant market competition, technical flaws in solar water heater products and social conflict concerning solar water heater installation. For further development of the solar water heater, China should clarify the compulsory installation policy and include solar water heaters into the current 'Home Appliances Going to the Countryside' project; most of the widely used vacuum tube products should be replaced by flat plate products, and the technology improvement should focus on anti-freezing and water saving; the resources of solar water heater market should be consolidated and most of the OEM manufacturers should evolve to ODM and OBM enterprises. (author)

  8. Preheating Water In The Covers Of Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    Solar water heaters that include glass covers over absorber plates redesigned to increase efficiencies according to proposal. Redesign includes modification of single-layer glass cover into double-layer glass cover and addition of plumbing so cool water to be heated made to flow between layers of cover before entering absorber plate.

  9. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  10. New generation of gas infrared point heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schink, Damian [Pintsch Aben B.V., Dinslaken (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    It is more than thirty years since gas infrared heating for points was introduced on the railway network of what is now Deutsche Bahn. These installations have remained in service right through to the present, with virtually no modifications. More stringent requirements as regards availability, maintainability and remote monitoring have, however, led to the development of a new system of gas infrared heating for points - truly a new generation. (orig.)

  11. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongchao Zhao; Yanrui Zhang; Haojun Mi; Yimeng Zhou; Yong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The heat pump water heater (HPWH), as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available wat...

  12. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-01-01

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  14. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  15. Performance of Thermosyphon Solar Water Heaters in Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Sheng Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available More than a single thermosyphon solar water heater may be employed in applications when considerable hot water consumption is required. In this experimental investigation, eight typical Taiwanese solar water heaters were connected in series. Degree of temperature stratification and thermosyphon flow rate in a horizontal tank were evaluated. The system was tested under no-load, intermittent and continuous load conditions. Results showed that there was stratification in tanks under the no-load condition. Temperature stratification also redeveloped after the draw-off. Analysis of thermal performance of the system was conducted for each condition.

  16. South Africa. Fertile ground for solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oirere, Shem

    2012-07-01

    The national solar water heating plan, launched by South Africa's state power utility Eskom, seems to be making good progress with the power generator saying at least 215,000 solar water heater (SWH) systems had been installed by February this year. (orig.)

  17. NORTH PORTAL - WATER HEATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY No.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.B. Blackstone

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for hot water in the Change House Facility and the selection of a water heater of appropriate size in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  18. Guidebook for the Development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Lütken, Søren E.; Sharma, Sudhir

    This guidebook provides an introduction to designing government-led interventions to scale up investment in solar water heater (SWH) markets, showing how these interventions can be packaged as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAS). Reflecting the changing balance in global greenhouse...... gas emissions, NAMAs embody the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. In addition to developed countries’ commitments to make quantitative reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, developing countries are invited to contribute with voluntary actions that are ‘nationally appropriate...

  19. Solar water heaters in China: A new day dawning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively

  20. Marketing and promoting solar water heaters to home builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C.; Ghent, P.

    1999-12-06

    This is the final report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. This report outlines suggested marketing communication materials and other promotional tools focused on selling products to the new home builder. Information relevant to promoting products to the new home buyer is also included.

  1. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, Forrest S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  2. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  3. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  4. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment (DHE... necessary for residential water heaters, because the existing test procedures for those products already...

  5. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... proposed to amend, where appropriate, its test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating... notes that the test procedure and metric for residential water heaters currently address and incorporate...

  6. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  7. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publically available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(TM), A.O. Smith Voltex(R), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(R) 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  8. Actual performance and economic feasibility of residential solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anhalt, J.

    1987-01-01

    Four residential solar water heaters currently available on the Brazilian market have been evaluated to their possible use for substituting the common electric shower head. The tests were carried out with the solar systems mounted side by side on an artificial roof. The hot water demand was simulated following a consumer profile which represents a Brazilian family with an income of seven minimum salaries. The data, which was collected automatically and presented in the form of graphs and tables, shows that an optimized solar water heater could save as much as 65% of the energy demand for residential water heating in the state of Sao Paulo. An economical study concludes that the installation and maintenance of such a solar system is feasible if long term financing is available. (author)

  9. Heat exchanger for solar water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, M.; Krupnick, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed efficient double-walled heat exchanger prevents contamination of domestic water supply lines and indicates leakage automatically in solar as well as nonsolar heat sources using water as heat transfer medium.

  10. Feed water pre-heater with two steam spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tratz, H.; Kelp, F.; Netsch, E.

    1976-01-01

    A feed water pre-heater for the two stage heating of feed water by condensing steam, having a low installed height is described, which can be installed in the steam ducts of turbines of large output, as in LWRs in nuclear power stations. The inner steam space is closed on one side by the water vessel, while the tubes of the inner steam space go straight from the water vessel, and the tubes of the outer steam space are bent into a U shape and open out into the water vessel. The two-stage preheater is thus surrounded by feedwater in two ways. (UWI) [de

  11. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. The...

  12. Efficient low static-volume water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Calrod heating element is surrounded by matrix of fused sintered copper or brass balls, and assembly is then installed in piping of water system. As water flows through matrix, sintered balls cause turbulent flow and heating. Applications include laundromats, laboratories, and photographic labs.

  13. Experimentation of a Solar Water Heater with Integrated Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmidi, I; Frikha, N; Chaouchi, B; Gabsi, S

    2009-01-01

    An integrated collector storage (ICS) solar water heater was constructed in 2004 and studied its optical and thermal performance. It was revealed that it has some thermal shortcomings of thermal performances. The ICS system consists of one cylindrical horizontal tank properly mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective was to delimit the causes of these deficiencies and trying to diagnose them. A rigorous experimentation of the solar water heater has been done over its daily energetic output as well as the evolution of the nocturnal thermal losses. In fact, three successive days, including nights, of operation have permitted to obtain diagrams describing the variations of mean temperature in the tank and the thermal loss coefficient during night of our installation. The experimental results, compared with those obtained by simulation, showed a perfecting of thermal performances of system which approach from those of other models introduced on the international market

  14. Performance test for a solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Two reports describe procedures and results of performance tests on domestic solar powered hot water system. Performance tests determine amount of energy collected by system, amount of energy delivered to solar source, power required to operate system and maintain proper tank temperature, overall system efficiency, and temperature distribution in tank.

  15. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  16. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  17. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater (HPWH, as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available water source. In order to study the thermal performance of the water-source heat pump water heater (WSHPWH system, an experimental prototype using the cyclic heating mode was established. The heating performance of the water-source heat pump water heater system, which was affected by the difference between evaporator water fluxes, was investigated. The water temperature unfavorably exceeded 55 °C when the experimental prototype was used for heating; otherwise, the compressor discharge pressure was close to the maximum discharge temperature, which resulted in system instability. The evaporator water flux allowed this system to function satisfactorily. It is necessary to reduce the exergy loss of the condenser to improve the energy utilization of the system.

  18. A solar assisted heat-pump dryer and water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Chou, S.K.; Jahangeer, K.A.; Rahman, S.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern about the depletion of conventional energy resources has provided impetus for considerable research and development in the area of alternative energy sources. A solar assisted heat pump dryer and water heater found to be one of the solutions while exploring for alternative energy sources. The heat pump system is used for drying and water heating applications with the major share of the energy derived from the sun and the ambient. The solar assisted heat pump dryer and water heater has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been investigated under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. The system consists of a variable speed reciprocating compressor, evaporator-collector, storage tank, air cooled condenser, auxiliary heater, blower, dryer, dehumidifier, and air collector. The drying medium used is air and the drying chamber is configured to carry out batch drying of good grains. A water tank connected in series with the air cooled condenser delivers hot water for domestic applications. The water tank also ensures complete condensation of the refrigerant vapour. A simulation program is developed using Fortran language to evaluate the performance of the system and the influence of different variables. The performance indices considered to evaluate the performance of the system are: Solar Fraction (SF), Coefficient of Performance (COP) and Specific Moisture Extraction Rate (SMER). A COP value of 7.5 for a compressor speed of 1800 rpm was observed. Maximum collector efficiencies of 0.86 and 0.81 have been found for evaporator-collector and air collector, respectively. A value of the SMER of 0.79 has been obtained for a load of 20 kg and a compressor speed of 1200 rpm

  19. Air source heat pump water heater: Dynamic modeling, optimal energy management and mini-tubes condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Oussama; Fardoun, Farouk; Younes, Rafic; Louahlia-Gualous, Hasna

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulation model to predict the performance of an ASHPWH (air source heat pump water heater). The developed model is used to assess its performance in the Lebanese context. It is shown that for the four Lebanese climatic zones, the expected monthly values of the average COP (coefficient of performance) varies from 2.9 to 5, leading to high efficiencies compared with conventional electric water heaters. The energy savings and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction are investigated for each zone. Furthermore, it is recommended to use the ASHPWH during the period of highest daily ambient temperatures (noon or afternoon), assuming that the electricity tariff and hot water loads are constant. In addition, an optimal management model for the ASHPWH is developed and applied for a typical winter day of Beirut. Moreover, the developed dynamic model of ASHPWH is used to compare the performance of three similar systems that differ only with the condenser geometry, where results show that using mini-condenser geometries increase the COP (coefficient of performance) and consequently, more energy is saved as well as more GHG emissions are reduced. In addition, the condenser “surface compactness” is increased giving rise to an efficient compact heat exchanger. - Highlights: • Numerical modeling and experimental validation for ASHPWH (air source heat pump water heater). • Optimization of the ASHPWH-condenser length. • Comparison of the ASHPWH with conventional electric water heater according to energy efficiency and green gas house emissions. • Development of an energetic-economic optimal management model for ASHPWH. • Energetic and environmental assessment of ASHPWH with mini-tubes condensers

  20. Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

    2011-12-31

    In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

  1. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  2. An overview of the development of solar water heater industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runqing, Hu; Peijun, Sun; Zhongying, Wang

    2012-01-01

    This article introduce the development of China solar water heater industry .Gives an overview of stages, market, manufacturing, application and testing about China solar water heater industry. Show the market data from 1998 to 2009. Analyze the experiences and features about the industry. The article also introduces the policy for solar hot water industry in China. These policies have accelerated the development of industry in which the main two incentive policies have the greatest influence on solar water heater industry. First one is the policy of mandatory installation of solar water heater implemented since 2007 by some local governments at provincial and municipal levels. Second is the subsidy policy for solar water heaters in the household appliances going to the countryside scheme implemented since 2009. At last the article gives the reason why China solar water heater industry have so rapid growth. From technology research, industrialization, prices and policy environment gives analysis. - Highlights: ► We compared International and China market about solar thermal products. ► The reason for rapid development of China solar water heater is explained. ► The experience of China solar water heater industry would give reference to other develop country. ► “Meet the demands of customer” is the main driver for the solar water heater industry development. ► The policy framework about China solar thermal industry was introduced. The industry achieved commercial operation without subsidy.

  3. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ..., freezers, apparel washing machines and dryers, electric ranges, and air-conditioners, under FTZ procedures...), fan motors, fans, filter/ dryers, expansion valves, accumulators, parts of electric water heaters...

  4. Subsidy programs on diffusion of solar water heaters: Taiwan's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Financial incentives are essentially one of the key factors influencing diffusion of solar water heaters in many countries. Two subsidy programs were initiated by the government of Taiwan in 1986 (1986-1991) and 2000 (2000-present), respectively. Those long-term national programs are considered to be the driving force on local market expansion. In 2008, the regional subsidy programs for solar water heaters were announced by Kaohsiung city and Kiemen county, which resulted in the growth in sales. A revised subsidy was also initiated by the government of Taiwan in 2009. The subsidy is 50% more. However, the tremendous enlargement of market size with a high-level ratio of subsidy over total installation cost might result in a negative impact on a sustainable SWH industry and long-term development of the local market, which is associated with system design and post-installation service. This paper aims to address the relative efficiency and pitfalls of those national and regional programs. - Research Highlights: → The direct subsidy has been the driving force on market expansion in Taiwan. → Higher subsidy would certainly increase the total number of systems installed. → A high-level subsidy results in a negative impact on users or a sustainable industry.

  5. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool... heating equipment and pool heaters. Table I.1--Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... for national energy and water conservation; and 7. Other factors the Secretary of Energy (Secretary...

  6. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  7. Development of design program for small-sized gas absorption chiller/heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J.I.; Kwon, O.K.; Moon, C.K. [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea); Yang, Y.M.; Kim, H.Y. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Analysis of basic data is performed for development of small size water-cooled household absorption chiller/heater using non CFC refrigerant, analytic simulation program of air cooling performance is developed that system has 1.5-10RT of air cooling performance, we perform cycle analysis and numerical simulation. We develope a performance analysis of simulation program to perform a basic design for 1.5-10RT apparatus of small size system of development model in gas driven double effect absorption chiller/heater. The system working condition and operation limit condition is decided from the existing data which is analyzed and the conference with KOGAS. After the basic input variable and regular condition is established for heat cycle analysis, the simulation algorithm is set up and performance simulation program is coded according to the organized algorithm. The basic design of optimum system is completed from parametric study using developed simulation program and establishing the design variable range of developing object model. 20 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Room chamber assessment of the pollutant emission properties of (nominally) low-emission unflued gas heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.K.; Mahoney, K.J., Min Cheng [CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    Pollutant emissions from unflued gas heaters were assessed in CSIRO'a Room Dynamic Environmental Chamber. This paper describes the chamber assessment procedure and presents findings for major commercial heaters that are nominally 'low-emission'. The chamber was operated at controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, ventilation and air mixing, representative of those encountered in typical indoor environments. A fixed rate of heat removal from the chamber air ensured that the heaters operated at constant heating rates, typically {approx}6 MJ/h which simulated operation of a heater after warm-up in an insulated dwelling in south-east Australia. The pollutants assessed were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, VOCs and respirable suspended particulates. One type of heater was lower emitting for nigroen dioxide, but emitted greater amounts of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde (the latter becoming significant to indoor air quality). When operated with low line pressure of slight misalignment of the gas burner, this heater became a hazardous source of these pollutants. Emissions from the heates changed little after continous operation for up to 2 months. (au)

  9. MATHEMATICAL AND INFORMATION SUPPORT FOR CALCULATION AND DESIGN OF TUBE GAS HEATERS LOCATED IN STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHORNOMORETS H. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. For the design and construction of tube gas heaters in building structures to need solve the problems of analysis and synthesis of such heating system. The mathematical model of this system is consists of: mathematical model of the tube gas heater, mathematical model of heat distribution in the building structure and corresponding boundary conditions. To solve the tasks of analysis and synthesis must be appropriate mathematical and information support. Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to describe the developed mathematical and information support that solve the problems of analysis and synthesis of heating systems with gas tube heaters, located in building constructions.Conclusion. Mathematical support includes the development of algorithms and software for the numerical solution of problems analysis and synthesis heating system. Information support includes all the necessary parameters characterizing the thermal properties of materials which used in the heating system, and the parameters characterizing the heat exchange between the coolant and components of the heating system. It was developed algorithms for solving problems of analysis and synthesis heating system with tube gas heater located in structures to use evolutionary search algorithm and software. It was made experimental study and was obtained results allow to calculate the heat transfer from the gas-air mixture to the boundary surface of the building structure. This results and computation will provide full information support for solving problems of analysis and synthesis of the heating system. Was developed mathematical and software support, which allows to solve the problems of analysis and synthesis heating systems with gas tube heaters, located in building structures. Tube gas heaters located in the building structures allows with small capital expenditures to provide space heating. Is necessary to solve the problems of analysis (calculation and

  10. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  11. Pengaruh Pelat Penyerap Ganda Model Gelombang dengan Penambahan Reflector terhadap Kinerja Solar Water Heater Sederhana

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Nova Risdiyanto

    2011-01-01

    Telah banyak dilakukan USAha meningkatkan kinerja solar water heater diantaranya modifikasi pelat penyerap tunggal menjadi ganda, modifikasi aliran untuk meningkatkan penyerapan panas, modifikasi material dan pelat penyerap ganda model gelombang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pelat penyerap ganda model gelombang dengan penambahan reflector terhadap kinerja solar water heater sederhana. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimen, untuk embandingkan kinerja pelat pen...

  12. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus on the co...... for future system optimization....

  13. Optimal and Learning-Based Demand Response Mechanism for Electric Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how to develop a learning-based demand response approach for electric water heater in a smart home that can minimize the energy cost of the water heater while meeting the comfort requirements of energy consumers. First, a learning-based, data-driven model of an electric water heater is developed by using a nonlinear autoregressive network with external input (NARX using neural network. The model is updated daily so that it can more accurately capture the actual thermal dynamic characteristics of the water heater especially in real-life conditions. Then, an optimization problem, based on the NARX water heater model, is formulated to optimize energy management of the water heater in a day-ahead, dynamic electricity price framework. A genetic algorithm is proposed in order to solve the optimization problem more efficiently. MATLAB (R2016a is used to evaluate the proposed learning-based demand response approach through a computational experiment strategy. The proposed approach is compared with conventional method for operation of an electric water heater. Cost saving and benefits of the proposed water heater energy management strategy are explored.

  14. Report of the workshop Energy Utility and Solar Water Heater 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The title workshop was organized to increase the interest of energy utilities for the Solar Water Heater campaign by providing representatives of the utilities with information about the technical and marketing aspects of solar boilers, and to stimulate knowledge transfer between the energy utilities about the method, the possibilities and bottlenecks of solar water heater projects

  15. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  16. Policy development for solar water heaters: the case of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The electric energy demand in Lebanon is estimated to grow at an average of 3-5% per year for the coming 10 years. Such an increase in energy demand is problematic for Lebanon since its economy is almost totally dependent on imported fuel which contributes to 97% of the overall energy requirements. Solar water heaters (SWH) are regarded as the most important element in a long term energy conservation and management strategy for this country, but their promotion is a national issue requiring the participation of many stake holders and decision makers. Additionally, the success of solar energy penetration into the existing energy market is constrained by many factors such as technical and financial limitations, decision criteria and policy instruments. This paper will explore the feasibility of SWH, and will work out, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process technique, a policy to ensure a large scale diffusion of SWH in the energy market

  17. Integrated collector storage solar water heater: Temperature stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, C.; Currie, J.; Muneer, T.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the temperature stratification inside an Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICS-SWH) was carried out. The system takes the form of a rectangular-shaped box incorporating the solar collector and storage tank into a single unit and was optimised for simulation in Scottish weather conditions. A 3-month experimental study on the ICS-SWH was undertaken in order to provide empirical data for comparison with the computed results. Using a previously developed macro model; a number of improvements were made. The initial macro model was able to generate corresponding water bulk temperature in the collector with a given hourly incident solar radiation, ambient temperature and inlet water temperature and therefore able to predict ICS-SWH performance. The new model was able to compute the bulk water temperature variation in different SWH collectors for a given aspect ratio and the water temperature along the height of the collector (temperature stratification). Computed longitudinal temperature stratification results obtained were found to be in close agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Electrochemical corrosion protection of storage water heaters in the building services; Elektrochemischer Korrosionsschutz von Speicher-Wassererwaermern in der Gebaeudetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytyn, Wilfried [MAGONTEC GmbH, Bottrop (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Storage water heaters currently experience a new consideration as a central thermal energy storage with an energy buffer characteristics. The contribution under consideration presents the principles and conditions of use for the cathodic corrosion protection of storage water heaters.

  19. Numerical and experimental investigation of thermosyphon solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelzouli, Khaled; Guizani, Amenallah; Kerkeni, Chakib

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied a thermosyphon solar water heater composed of high-performance components. • A differential equations solution technique is investigated. • The influences of the collector and storage losses on the system performance were examined. • The storage losses have more influence on the long-term performance. - Abstract: A glassed flat plate collector with selective black chrome coated absorber and a low wall conductance horizontal storage are combined in order to set up a high performance thermosyphon system. Each component is tested separately before testing the complete system in spring days. During the test period, effect of different inlet water temperatures on the collector performance is studied and results have shown that the collector can reach a high efficiency and high outlet water temperature even for elevated inlet water temperatures. Subsequently, long term system performance is estimated by using a developed numerical model. The proposed model, accurate and gave a good agreement with experimental results, allowed to describe the heat transfer in the storage. It has shown also that the long-term performances are strongly influenced by losses from the storage than losses from the collector

  20. Wasted Heat Engine Utilization in Central AC Condenser Type Water Chiller for Economical Energy Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Rasta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Central AC type water chiller is a refrigeration machine that release heat to environment. Heat energy that released to environment comes from room heat load that absorbed by machine and heat from compressor. The best form in using this loss energy is heat recovery water heater technology, where this machine will take heat from condenser by a heat exchanger to heating water. Refrigerant will flow in the heat exchanger before entering condenser, after that refrigerant flow to other components such as, expansion valve, evaporator, compressor and than return again to condenser, this process will be cycling regularly (closed cycle. Based on experimental and analysis result especially for AC with capacity 2 Pk, and tank capacity 75 liter, with water heater recovery device obtained that: (1 Compressor power consumption decrease from 1.66 kW to 1.59kW. (2 Heat rejected from condenser and used by water heater has ratio 4.683 kJ/s and 1.59 kJ/s, with water heater efficiency is 32.2%. (3 Maximum water temperature can be reached are in range 34oC – 47.5oC in 10-150 minutes and flow rate is 0.5 – 2.5 liter /min

  1. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EE-2006-BT-STD-0129] RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on page 20112 in the issue of Friday...

  2. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2011-BT-TP-0042] RIN 1904-AC53 Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for...

  3. Solar water heaters: possibilities of using in the climatic conditions of the Russia medium area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of mathematical simulation of the simplest solar water heating facility using up-to-date software and data of typical meteorological year it was shown that under the real climatic conditions peculiar to Russia central region it is appropriate to use seasonal solar water heaters operating from March up to September. It is shown that to promote solar water heaters in the Russian market one should elaborate engineering approaches and should introduce new materials ensuring reduction of cost of solar water heaters with the availability of high quality and durability [ru

  4. Exergy Analysis of Serpentine Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a solar hot water system is assessed for heat pump and domestic heating applications. Thermodynamic analysis on a serpentine-type thermosyphon flat-plate solar heater is conducted using the Second Law of thermodynamics. Exergetic optimization is first performed to determine the parameters for the maximum exergy efficiency using MATLAB optimization toolbox. Geometric parameters (collector surface area, dimensions, and pipe diameter, optical parameters (transmittance absorptance product, ambient temperature, solar irradiation and operating parameters (mass flow rate, fluid temperature, and overall heat transfer (loss coefficient are accounted for in the optimization scheme. The exergy efficiency at optimum condition is found to be 3.72%. The results are validated using experimental data and found to be in good agreement. The analysis is further extended to the influence of various operating parameters on the exergetic efficiency. It is observed that optical and thermal exergy losses contribute almost 20%, whereas approximately 77% exergy destruction is contributed by the thermal energy conversion. Exergy destruction due to pressure drop is found negligible. The result of this analysis can be used for designing and optimization of domestic heat pump system and hot water application.

  5. Management of aging of water heaters in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Serrano Ledesma, C.; Toro del toro, J.; Real Rubio, I.; Garcia Montejano, A.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this work includes the study of all feedwater heaters (from 1 to 6) in their two trains (A and B). In this study the main degradation phenomena that affect them, the operating parameters that can warn of a possible malfunction of the heater and possible strategies inspection, repair and replacement are analyzed. As a result of this study, a higher priority is obtained at a lower state of degradation of the heaters, possibly with a strategy inspection, repair or replacement, for each recharge, until the end of life of the plant. This will be a live program, which must be fed back to the studies of the parameters of operation of the heater during operation and results of the inspection of each recharge. May verify the effectiveness of aging management program using different indicators. (Author)

  6. Integrated collector-storage solar water heater with extended storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Rosen, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    The integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is one of the simplest designs of solar water heater. In ICSSWH systems the conversion of solar energy into useful heat is often simple, efficient and cost effective. To broaden the usefulness of ICSSWH systems, especially for overnight applications, numerous design modifications have been proposed and analyzed in the past. In the present investigation the storage tank of an ICSSWH is coupled with an extended storage section. The total volume of the modified ICSSWH has two sections. Section A is exposed to incoming solar radiation, while section B is insulated on all sides. An expression is developed for the natural convection flow rate in section A. The inter-related energy balances are written for each section and solved to ascertain the impact of the extended storage unit on the water temperature and the water heater efficiency. The volumes of water in the two sections are optimized to achieve a maximum water temperature at a reasonably high efficiency. The influence is investigated of inclination angle of section A on the temperature of water heater and the angle is optimized. It is determined that a volume ratio of 7/3 between sections A and B yields the maximum water temperature and efficiency in the modified solar water heater. The performance of the modified water heater is also compared with a conventional ICSSWH system under similar conditions.

  7. EFFICIENCY OF THE CAPACITY-TYPE SOLAR WATER HEATER WITH THE FLEXIBLE POLYMER ABSORBER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratschii V.V.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Energetic indexes of solar capacity-type water heaters with flexible polymer absorbers and different constructions of enclosures using the refined method of calculus were obtained.

  8. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial heat pump water... PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.106 Uniform test method for the measurement...

  9. Energy consumption modeling of air source electric heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Grant; Bansal, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Electric heat pump air source water heaters may provide an opportunity for significant improvements in residential water heater energy efficiency in countries with temperate climates. As the performance of these appliances can vary widely, it is important for consumers to be able to accurately assess product performance in their application to maximise energy savings and ensure uptake of this technology. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the performance of an air source heat pump water heater is strongly correlated to the water temperature in or surrounding the condenser. It is therefore important that energy consumption models for these products duplicate the real-world water temperatures applied to the heat pump condenser. This paper examines a recently published joint Australian and New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 4234: 2008; Heated water systems - Calculation of energy consumption. Using this standard a series TRNSYS models were run for several split type air source electric heat pump water heaters. An equivalent set of models was then run utilizing an alternative water use pattern. Unfavorable errors of up to 12% were shown to occur in modeling of heat pump water heater performance using the current standard compared to the alternative regime. The difference in performance of a model using varying water use regimes can be greater than the performance difference between models of product.

  10. Coiled Tube Gas Heaters For Nuclear Gas-Brayton Power Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2018-03-31

    This project developed an alternative design for heat exchangers for application to heating supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) or air for power conversion. We have identified an annular coiled tube bundle configuration–where hot sodium enters tubes from multiple vertical inlet manifold pipes, flows in a spiral pattern radially inward and downward, and then exits into an equal number of vertical outlet manifold pipes–as a potentially attractive option. The S-CO2 gas or air flows radially outward through the tube bundle. Coiled tube gas heaters (CTGHs) are expected to have excellent thermal shock, long-term thermal creep, in-service inspection, and reparability characteristics, compared to alternative options. CTGHs have significant commonality with modern nuclear steam generators. Extensive experience exists with the design, manufacture, operation, in-service inspection and maintenance of nuclear steam generators. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission also has extensive experience with regulatory guidance documented in NUREG 0800. CTGHs leverage this experience and manufacturing capability. The most important difference between steam generators and gas-Brayton cycles such as the S-CO2 cycle is that the heat exchangers must operate with counter flow with high effectiveness to minimize the pinch-point temperature difference between the hot liquid coolant and the heated gas. S-CO2-cycle gas heaters also operate at sufficiently elevated temperatures that time dependent creep is important and allowable stresses are relatively low. Designing heat exchangers to operate in this regime requires configurations that minimize stresses and stress concentrations. The cylindrical tubes and cylindrical manifold pipes used in CTGHs are particularly effective geometries. The first major goal of this research project was to develop and experimentally validate a detailed, 3-D multi-phase (gas-solid-liquid) heat transport model for

  11. Research and development of an air-cycle heat-pump water heater. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, J.T.; Erickson, A.J.; Harvey, A.C.; Toscano, W.M.

    1979-10-01

    A prototype reverse Brayton air cycle heat pump water heater has been designed and built for residential applications. The system consists of a compressor/expander, an air-water heat exchanger, an electric motor, a water circulation pump, a thermostat, and fluid management controls. The prototype development program consisted of a market analysis, design study, and development testing. A potential residential market for the new high-efficiency water heater of approximately 480,000 units/y was identified. The retail and installation cost of this water heater is estimated to be between $500 and $600 which is approximately $300 more than a conventional electric water heater. The average payback per unit is less than 3-1/2 y and the average recurring energy cost savings after the payback period is approximately $105/y at the average seasonal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.7. As part of the design effort, a thermodynamic parametric analysis was performed on the water heater system. It was determined that to obtain a coefficient of performance of 1.7, the isentropic efficiency of both the compressor and the expander must be at least 85%. The selected mechanical configuration is described. The water heater has a diameter of 25 in. and a height of 73 in. The results of the development testing of the prototype water heater system showed: the electrical motor maximum efficiency of 78%; the compressor isentropic efficiency is 95 to 119% and the volumetric efficiency is approximately 85%; the expander isentropic efficiency is approximately 58% and the volumetric efficiency is 92%; a significant heat transfer loss of approximately 16% occurred in the expander; and the prototype heat pump system COP is 1.26 which is less than the design goal of at least 1.7. Future development work is recommended.

  12. Techno-economıc Analysıs of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater usıng F-chart Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, H.; Rahim, N. A.; Saidur, R.; Hasanuzzaman, M.

    2018-05-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in recent decades. Solar water heating systems based on thermal collector alone or connected with photovoltaic called as photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) are practical applications to replace the use of electrical water heaters but weather dependent performance of these systems is not linear. Therefore on the basis of short term or average weather conditions, accurate analysis of performance is quite difficult. The objective of this paper is to show thermal and economic analysis of evacuated tube collector solar water heaters. Analysis done by F-Chart shows that evacuated tube solar water heater achieves fraction value of 1 to fulfil hot water demand of 150liters and above per day for a family without any auxiliary energy usage. Evacuated tube solar water heater show life cycle savings of RM 5200. At water set temperature of 100°C, RM 12000 is achieved and highest life cycle savings of RM 6100 at the environmental temperature of 18°C are achieved. Best thermal and economic performance is obtained which results in reduction of household greenhouse gas emissions, reduction of energy consumption and saves money on energy bills.

  13. Study on the selection method of feed water heater safety valves in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianzhong; Huang Chao; Hu Youqing

    2014-01-01

    The selection of the high pressure feedwater heater's safety valve usually follows the principle recommended by HEI standards in thermal power plant. However, the nuclear power plant's heaters generally need to accept a lots of drain from a moisture separator reheater (MSR). When the drain regulating valve was failure in fully open position, a large number of high pressure steam will directly goes into the heater. It make high-pressure heater have a risk of overpressure. Therefore, the safety valve selection of the heaters for nuclear power plants not only need to follow the HEI standards, but also need to check his capacity in certain special conditions. The paper established a calculation method to determine the static running point of the heaters based on characteristic equations of the feed water heater, drain regulating valve and steam extraction pipings, and energy balance principle. The method can be used to calculate the equilibrium pressure of various special running conditions, so further determine whether the capacity of the safety valve meets the requirements of safety and emissions. The method proposed in this paper not only can be used for nuclear power plants, can also be used for thermal power plants. (authors)

  14. Nocturnal reverse flow in water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Runsheng; Yang, Yuqin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at night was studied. • Experimental measurements showed that reverse flow occurred in SWHs at night. • Reverse flow in SWHs was very high but the heat loss due to reverse flow was very low. • Reverse flow seemed not sensitive to atmospheric clearness but sensitive to collector tilt-angle. - Abstract: In this work, the thermal performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at nights was experimentally investigated. Measurements at nights showed that the water temperature in solar tubes was always lower than that in the water tank but higher than the ambient air temperature and T exp , the temperature of water inside tubes predicted in the case of the water in tubes being naturally cooled without reverse flow. This signified that the reverse flow in the system occurred at nights, making the water in solar tubes higher than T exp . It is found that the reverse flow rate in the SWH, estimated based on temperature measurements of water in solar tubes, seemed not sensitive to the atmospheric clearness but sensitive to the collector tilt-angle, the larger the tilt-angle of the collector, the higher the reverse flow rate. Experimental results also showed that, the reverse flow in the SWH was much higher as compared to that in a thermosyphonic domestic solar water heater with flat-plate collectors, but the heat loss from collectors to the air due to reverse flow in SWHs was very small and only took about 8–10% of total heat loss of systems

  15. Dissemination of Solar Water Heaters in Taiwan: The Case of Remote Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Ming Chung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heaters represent the success story in the development of renewable energy in Taiwan. With increasing public awareness, there are over 0.3 million residential systems in operation. To disseminate solar water heaters in remote islands, economic feasibility and water quality are taken into account in this study. The payback period in Kinmen and Penghu Counties are evaluated, according to effective annual solar energy gain, hot water consumption pattern and cost. Assessment of the scaling and corrosion tendencies for solar water heaters using tap and underground water are also presented. For flat-plate solar collectors with metal components, favorable corrosion resistance and protective anti-corrosion coatings are required.

  16. Understanding the Ecological Adoption of Solar Water Heaters Among Customers of Island Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudaruth Sharmila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the major factors impacting upon the ecological adoption of solar water heaters in Mauritius. The paper applies data reduction technique by using exploratory factor analysis on a sample of 228 respondents and condenses a set of 32 attributes into a list of 8 comprehensible factors impacting upon the sustained adoption of solar water heater in Mauritius. Multiple regression analysis was also conducted to investigate upon the most predictive factor influencing the adoption of solar water heaters in Mauritius. The empirical estimates of the regression analysis have also depicted that the most determining factor pertaining to the ‘government incentives for solar water heaters’ impacts upon the adoption of solar water heaters. These results can be related to sustainable adoption of green energy whereby targeted incentive mechanisms can be formulated with the aim to accelerate and cascade solar energy adoption in emerging economies. A novel conceptual model was also proposed in this paper, whereby, ecological stakeholders in the sustainable arena could use the model as a reference to pave the way to encourage adoption of solar water heating energy. This research represents a different way of understanding ecological customers by developing an expanding on an original scale development for the survey on the ecological adoption of solar water heaters.

  17. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaliche, Nessreen; Ayhan, Teoman; Fathallah, Raouf

    2017-11-01

    Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH) is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical simulation approach

  18. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaaliche Nessreen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical

  19. Helium heater design for the helium direct cycle component test facility. [for gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, V. R.; Gunn, S. V.; Lee, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a helium heater to be used to conduct non-nuclear demonstration tests of the complete power conversion loop for a direct-cycle gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant. Requirements for the heater include: heating the helium to a 1500 F temperature, operating at a 1000 psia helium pressure, providing a thermal response capability and helium volume similar to that of the nuclear reactor, and a total heater system helium pressure drop of not more than 15 psi. The unique compact heater system design proposed consists of 18 heater modules; air preheaters, compressors, and compressor drive systems; an integral control system; piping; and auxiliary equipment. The heater modules incorporate the dual-concentric-tube 'Variflux' heat exchanger design which provides a controlled heat flux along the entire length of the tube element. The heater design as proposed will meet all system requirements. The heater uses pressurized combustion (50 psia) to provide intensive heat transfer, and to minimize furnace volume and heat storage mass.

  20. Performance of commercially available solar and heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, C.R.; Kerr, A.S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries are using policy incentives to encourage the adoption of energy-efficient hot water heating as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such policies rely heavily on assumed performance factors for such systems. In-situ performance data for solar and heat pump hot water systems, however, are not copious in the literature. Otago University has been testing some systems available in New Zealand for a number of years. The results obtained are compared to international studies of in-situ performance of solar hot water systems and heat pump hot water systems, by converting the results from the international studies into a single index suitable for both solar and heat pump systems (COP). Variability in the international data is investigated as well as comparisons to model results. The conclusions suggest that there is not too much difference in performance between solar systems that have a permanently connected electric boost backup and heat pump systems over a wide range of environmental temperatures. The energy payback time was also calculated for electric boost solar flat plate systems as a function of both COP and hot water usage for a given value of embodied energy. The calculations generally bode well for solar systems but ensuring adequate system performance is paramount. In addition, such systems generally favour high usage rates to obtain good energy payback times

  1. Integrated solar water-heater and solar water cooler performance during winter time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.U.; Siddiqui, M.A

    2012-01-01

    Solar powered water heater and water cooler is an important contribution for the reduction of fossil fuel consumptions and harmful emissions to the environment. This study aims to harness the available solar potential of Pakistan and provide an option fulfilling the domestic hot and cold water demands during winter and summer seasons respectively. The system was designed for the tap-water temperature of 65 degree C (149 degree F) and the chilled drinking-water temperature of 14 degree C (57 degree F) that are the recommended temperatures by World Health Organization (WHO). The solar water heater serves one of the facilities of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at NED University of Engineering and Technology whereas, the solar water cooler will provide drinking water to approximately 50 people including both faculty and students. A pair of single glazed flat plate solar collector was installed to convert solar radiations to heat. Hot water storage and supply system was carefully designed and fabricated to obtain the designed tap-water temperature. Vapour-absorption refrigeration system was designed to chill drinking water. Intensity of solar radiations falling on the solar collector, water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the solar collectors and the tap water temperature were measured and analyzed at different hours of the day and at different days of the month. The results show that the installed solar collector system has potential to feed hot water of temperatures ranging from 65 degree C (149 degree F) to 70 Degree C (158 degree F), that is the required hot water temperature to operate a vapour absorption chilled water production system. (author)

  2. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  3. Studies in biogas technology. Part 4. A noval biogas plant incorporating a solar water-heater and solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A K.N. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore; Prasad, C R; Sathyanarayan, S R.C.; Rajabapaiah, P

    1979-09-01

    A reduction in the heat losses from the top of the gas holder of a biogas plant has been achieved by the simple device of a transparent cover. The heat losses thus prevented have been deployed to heat a water pond formed on the roof of the gas holder. This solar-heated water is mixed with the organic input for hot-charging of the biogas plant. To test whether the advantages indicated by a thermal analysis can be realized in practice, a biogas plant of the ASTRA design was modified to incorporate a roof-top water-heater. The operation of such a modified plant, even under worst case conditions, shows a significant improvement in the gas yield compared to the unmodified plant. Hence, the innovation reported here may lead to drastic reductions in the sizes and therefore costs of biogas plants. By making the transparent cover assume a tent-shape, the roof-top solar heater can serve the additional function of a solar still to yield distilled water. The biogas plant-cum-solar still described here is an example of a spatially integrated hybrid device which is extremely cost-effective.

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF PREFERED SOLUTIONS CHOICE FUNCTION FOR TUBULAR GAS HEATERS BY EXPERIMENTAL INFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARSUK R. V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Annotation. Problems formulation. The article deals with choice functions building of preferred solutions by experimental information for tubular gas heater working on fuel granules - pellets.Further choice functions using for making technical solutions by tubular gas heaters construction and designing. Recently research analysis. There are works about choice functions construction by separate presents are examined. But full chose functions building by separate presents are not examined. Aims and tasks. There are setting aim to develop full choice functions mathematical model on separate presents by authors. The expert are connect to primary experimental data’s evaluation that estimates separate results by output functions (criteria. Its evaluations issue in experimental points paired comparison’s table form. Thus, there are necessary construct binary choice relations presents on experimental “points” set by expert that then using for full choice function’s constructing. Conclusions. There are choice function’s construction’s sequence are sets. There are posed point comparison results that characterized tubular gas heater’s condition with expert’s evaluation using. Also posed output functions comparisons by which can be characterized improving tubular gas heater’s performance or vice versa.

  5. Estimation of cobalt release from feed water heater tubes of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Kitamura, M.; Ozawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the release source of cobalt from heater tubes of the feed water line, release rate measurements were carried out by detecting 60 Co released from irradiated stainless steel in contact with neutral water at an oxygen concentration of 20 ppb. The dependences of cobalt release rate on temperature, flow velocity and exposure time were studied after 670 hours of release experiments, and an empirical equation (which is presented) was obtained in the temperature range from 150 to 240 deg C. A decrease in the cobalt release rate above 250 deg C was considered due to the formation of a protective oxide layer. From these data, the amount of cobalt released from individual feed water heaters was evaluated. It was demonstrated that low cobalt containing stainless steel was economically applied only in the higher temperature region of the heater (20% of the total surface) to reduce cobalt feed rate into the reactor (to approx. 1/2). (author)

  6. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  7. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential water... final rule revising energy conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating.... EERE-2009-BT-TP-0013] RIN 1904-AB95 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures...

  8. One-year assessment of a solar space/water heater--Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Unit called "System 4" integrated into space-heating and hot-water systems of dormitory satisfied 32 percent of building heat load. System 4 includes flat-plate air collectors, circulation blowers, rock storage bed with heat exchanger, two hot water tanks, and auxiliary heaters. Report describes performance of system and subsystems, operating-energy requirements and savings, and performance parameters.

  9. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  10. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC

  11. Feed-water heaters alternative design comparison; Comparacion de disenos alternativos de calentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    A procedure is presented for the alternative design comparison of feed water heaters, based in the failure records of damaged tubes during operation. The procedure is used for cases in which non-continuous or random inspections are made to the feed-water heaters. [Espanol] Se presenta un procedimiento para comparar disenos alternativos de calentadores, basandose en los registros de fallas de los tubos rotos acumuladas durante su operacion. El procedimiento se emplea para casos en los que se realizan inspecciones a los calentadores no continuas, ya sea periodicas o al azar.

  12. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  13. Savings on natural gas consumption by doubling thermal efficiencies of balanced-flue space heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico, Luis E. [Conicet, and Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Gonzalez, Alejandro D. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (Inibioma-Conicet), 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    Natural gas is a relatively clean fossil fuel for space heating. However, when it is not used efficiently high consumption can become an environmental problem. In Argentina, individual balanced-flue space heaters are the most extensively used in temperate and cold regions. This furnace is a simple device with a burner set into a metal chamber, separated from the indoor ambient by an enclosing cabinet, and both inlet and outgas chimneys are connected to the outdoor ambient. In previous studies, we measured the performance of these commercial devices, and found very low thermal efficiency (in the range of 39-63% depending on the chimney configuration). The extensive use of these devices is possible due to the availability of unlimited amount of subsidised natural gas to households and businesses. In the present work, we developed a prototype with simple and low cost modifications made on commercial models, and measured the improvements on the thermal efficiency. Findings showed better infrared radiation, enhanced indoor air convection, and passive chimney flow regulation leading to thermal efficiency in the range of 75-85%. These values represent an improvement of 100% when compared to marketed models, and hence, the specific cost of the heater per unit of useful heating power delivered was actually reduced. Considering the large market presence of these furnaces in both residential and business sectors in Argentina, the potential benefits related to gas consumption and environmental emissions are very significant. (author)

  14. Pretest thermal analysis of the Tuff Water Migration/In-Situ Heater Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, B.M.

    1980-02-01

    This report describes the pretest thermal analysis for the Tuff Water Migration/In-Situ Heater Experiment to be conducted in welded tuff in G-tunnel, Nevada Test Site. The parametric thermal modeling considers variable boiling temperature, tuff thermal conductivity, tuff emissivity, and heater operating power. For nominal tuff properties, some near field boiling is predicted for realistic operating power. However, the extent of boiling will be strongly determined by the ambient (100% water saturated) rock thermal conductivity. In addition, the thermal response of the heater and of the tuff within the dry-out zone (i.e., bounded by boiling isotherm) is dependent on the temperature variation of rock conductivity as well as the extent of induced boiling

  15. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  16. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  17. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Studi Kinerja Solar Water Heater Dengan Aliran Zig-zag Beralur Balok

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhsan, M. Rizki; Soeparman, Sudjito; Sasongko, Mega Nur

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy can be used for water heating by using solar water heater application. Therefore, its still needs some modification due to its low efficiency. This modification can be done by replacing the conventional plate of solar collectors into a double plate with a zig-zag pattern. The results shown that along with the decreasing of water flow rates could significantly increase the useful energy (Qu). Initial temperature of water inlet could affect the generated maximum temperature. The hi...

  19. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  20. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  1. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  2. Application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to a gas heater used for the drying of agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Douglas Romeu da; Coradi, Paulo Carteri; Visser, Evan Michael; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a gas heater used for the drying of agricultural products. The effects of fuel, primary air and secondary air flows on the distribution on temperature and velocity in a heater were evaluated with the objective of rationalizing combustion fuel. LPG was used as the energy source to provide heated air for drying. The Navier-Stokes equations were used to resolve the problem of air and fuel flow, respecting the energy conservation, equations in the heater. From the results generated, it was confirmed that greater temperature were obtained with the convection coefficient was minimal (h = 0.01). Velocity presented a parabolic, fully developed profile. The greatest velocity was encountered in the central region of the flow, obtained when the Reynolds number was at its greatest. CFD software proved to be applicable in order to resolve heat and mass transfer problems in heaters. (author)

  3. Environmental aspects of the use of materials for solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Leun, C.J.; De Jager, D.

    1994-10-01

    The study on the title subject has been carried out in order to apply the results in new designs and to improve the production of solar water heating systems. Attention is paid to solar water heaters that are under development and solar water heaters that are commercially available in the Netherlands. Use has been made of a IVAM-developed product analysis method. For seven solar water heater concepts, that were on the market or under development in the Netherlands in 1992, the applied amounts of materials have been inventorized. Data on the environmental effects of the production of these materials are outlined and aggregated on the level of the components and the systems. Based on those data, environmental profiles are drafted, comprising 'effect scores' on 9 environmental criteria. However, the environmental 'effect scores' are not reliable enough to determine the most important factors in order to identify options to reduce the negative environmental effects. Data on the energy consumption of the production of relevant materials are available and reliable. The solar water heaters, considered in this report, do not show large differences for that matter. It appears that the amounts of air pollution, water pollution and waste flow from the production of materials for solar water heaters are no reasons to further reduce environmental effects of the production. It is recommended to focus on the reduction of material quantities and to increase the quantity of recycled material. Also it is recommended that manufacturers of solar boilers set up a take-back system. 43 tabs., 1 appendix, 56 refs

  4. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  5. A figure of merit for selective absorbers in flat plate solar water heaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive from first principles an analytical expression for a figure of merit (FM) for a selective solar absorber in a single glazed flat plate water heater. We first show that the efficiency of a collector with an absorber with absorptance α...

  6. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Owens, Douglas [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  7. NORTH PORTAL-WATER HEATER CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING No. 5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Blackstone

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for hot and the selection of a water heater of appropriate size, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  8. Radiative heat transfer analysis in pure water heater used for semiconductor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Kudo, K.; Mochida, A.; Ogawa, T.; Kadotani, K.

    2004-01-01

    A simplified one-dimensional model is presented to analyze the non-gray radiative transfer in pure water heater used in the rinsing processes within semiconductor production lines, and the ray-tracing method is extended to simulate the radiative heat transfer. To examine the accuracy of the simplified model, the distribution of radiation absorption is determined by the ray-tracing method based the simplified model and compared with the data obtained by three-dimensional non-gray model in combination with Monte Carlo method in reference, and the effects of the water thickness on the radiation absorption are analyzed. The results show that the simplified model has a good accuracy in solving the radiation absorption in the pure water heater. The radiation absorption increases with the water thickness, but when the water thickness is greater than 50 mm, the radiation absorption increases very slowly with the water thickness

  9. Consumers and experts. An econometric analysis of the demand for water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Soest, A.; Bartels, R.; Fiebig, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers can accumulate product information on the basis of a combination of searching, product advertising and expert advice. Examples of experts who provide product information include doctors advising patients on treatments, motor mechanics diagnosing car problems and recommending repairs, accountants recommending investment strategies, and plumbers making recommendations on alternative water heaters. In each of these examples, the transactions involve the sale of goods and services where the seller is at the same time an expert providing advice on the amount and type of product or service to be purchased. In the case of water heaters, the plumber advising a consumer on their choice of water heater will most likely also install the appliance. Because of the information asymmetry there is potentially a strategic element in the transmission of information from expert to consumer. This paper reports on an econometric investigation of the factors that determine the choices made by consumers and the recommendations made by plumbers and the extent to which plumbers act in the best interests of their customers. The empirical work is made possible by the availability of stated preference data generated by designed experiments involving separate samples of Australian consumers and plumbers. We find some evidence that plumbers have higher preferences than consumers for heater characteristics that increase their profit margin

  10. Studi Kinerja Solar Water Heater Dengan Aliran Zig-zag Beralur Balok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizki Ikhsan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy can be used for water heating by using solar water heater application. Therefore, its still needs some modification due to its low efficiency. This modification can be done by replacing the conventional plate of solar collectors into a double plate with a zig-zag pattern. The results shown that along with the decreasing of water flow rates could significantly increase the useful energy (Qu. Initial temperature of water inlet could affect the generated maximum temperature. The highest mean efficiencies of double plate solar water heater with a zig-zag grooved beams pattern of 49.11% was gained in the flow rate of 700 mL / min.

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF A PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lasode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a high-temperature, high-energy radiant energy source, with tremendous advantages over other alternative energy sources. It is a reliable, robust renewable resource which is largely undeveloped. The design and fabrication of parabolic trough solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface (curved mirror, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. The results obtained. compared favourably with other research works in the literature. It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for reducing water-heating costs.

  12. Effect of Installation of Solar Collector on Performance of Balcony Split Type Solar Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of surface orientation and slope of solar collectors on solar radiation collection of balcony split type solar water heaters for six cities in China were analyzed by employing software TRNSYS. The surface azimuth had greater effect on solar radiation collection in high latitude regions. For deviation of the surface slope angle within ±20° around the optimized angle, the variation of the total annual collecting solar radiation was less than 5%. However, with deviation of 70° to 90°, the variation was up to 20%. The effects of water cycle mode, reverse slope placement of solar collector, and water tank installation height on system efficiency were experimentally studied. The thermal efficiencies of solar water heater with single row horizontal arrangement all-glass evacuated tubular collector were higher than those with vertical arrangement at the fixed surface slope angle of 90°. Compared with solar water heaters with flat-plate collector under natural circulation, the system thermal efficiency was raised up to 63% under forced circulation. For collector at reverse slope placement, the temperature-based water stratification in water tank deteriorated, and thus the thermal efficiency became low. For improving the system efficiency, an appropriate installation height of the water tank was suggested.

  13. Simultaneous reduction of NO2 and CO in a domestic unvented gas-fired convective heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, N.; Kasugai, N. A.; Hasatani, M.; Ishibashi, N.

    1989-01-01

    A programme of industrial and university research has been carried out to develop a domestic, unvented gas-fired space-heater capable of the simultaneous reduction of NO 2 and CO. To this end, lean-burning convective heaters of two types have been devised, and their performance has been characterised on methane-air mixtures. One burner contains a vertical cylinder of stainless-steel wire mesh (Type A), and the other incorporates a heat-recirculating matrix and a horizontal plate of stainless-steel wire mesh (Type B). The results obtained under a wide range of equivalence ratios show that: - the emission characteristics for NO x and NO 2 in Type A were excellent over the entire equivalence ratio of 0.5 - 1.0, but the concentration of CO was always higher than the current informal guideline in Japan, in which CO/CO 2 -3 . - Type B displayed an optimum range of equivalence ratios to satisfy simultaneously every guideline for NO x ( 2 ( 2 . However, since the optimum range of equivalence ratio was limited to between 0.45 and 0.55, further effort should be devoted to the extension of this optimum range. (Author)

  14. Integrated Microfluidic Gas Sensors for Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Sniadecki, N.; DeVoe, D. L.; Beamesderfer, M.; Semancik, S.; DeVoe, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    A silicon-based microhotplate tin oxide (SnO2) gas sensor integrated into a polymer-based microfluidic system for monitoring of contaminants in water systems is presented. This device is designed to sample a water source, control the sample vapor pressure within a microchannel using integrated resistive heaters, and direct the vapor past the integrated gas sensor for analysis. The sensor platform takes advantage of novel technology allowing direct integration of discrete silicon chips into a larger polymer microfluidic substrate, including seamless fluidic and electrical interconnects between the substrate and silicon chip.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THERMOSYPHON SOLAR WATER HEATER IN THE SOUTH CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Riahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a natural circulation closed thermosyphon flat plate solar water heater has been tested at the Faculty of Engineering of University of Mazandaran located in Babol city (36N, 52E. Data were collected for several sunny and cloudy days. Dynamic response of the system to variations in solar insolation was studied and analyzed. It was found that such systems can provide ample energy to satisfy the demand for hot water, contrary to misperception among locals

  16. PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION OF THERMOSIPHON SOLAR FLAT PLATE WATER HEATER DUE TO SCALING

    OpenAIRE

    arunachala umesh chandavar

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Flat plate Solar Water Heater deteriorates within five to twelve years of their installation due to factors related to manufacturing, operating conditions, lack of maintenance etc. Especially, problem due to scaling is significant as it is based on quality of water used. The remaining factors are system dependent and could be overcome by quality production. Software is developed by incorporating Hottel Whillier Bliss (H-W-B) equation to ascertain the effect of scaling o...

  17. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Sari, Ahmet; Yardim, M. Hakan

    2006-01-01

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  18. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  19. Design and simulation of resistive SOI CMOS micro-heaters for high temperature gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, T; Covington, J A; Udrea, F; Ali, S Z; Guha, P K; Gardner, J W

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design of doped single crystal silicon (SCS) microhotplates for gas sensors. Resistive heaters are formed by an n+/p+ implantation into a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafer with a post-CMOS deep reactive ion etch to remove the silicon substrate. Hence they are fully compatible with CMOS technologies and allows for the integration of associated drive/detection circuitry. 2D electro-thermal models have been constructed and the results of numerical simulations using FEMLAB[reg] are given. Simulations show these micro-hotplates can operate at temperatures of 500 deg. C with a drive voltage of only 5 V and a power consumption of less than 100 mW

  20. Survey of large-scale solar water heaters installed in Taiwan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Keh-Chin; Lee Tsong-Sheng; Chung Kung-Ming [Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (China); Lien Ya-Feng; Lee Chine-An [Cheng Kung Univ. Research and Development Foundation, Tainan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Almost all the solar collectors installed in Taiwan, China were used for production of hot water for homeowners (residential systems), in which the area of solar collectors is less than 10 square meters. From 2001 to 2006, there were only 39 large-scale systems (defined as the area of solar collectors being over 100 m{sup 2}) installed. Their utilization purposes are for rooming house (dormitory), swimming pool, restaurant, and manufacturing process. A comprehensive survey of those large-scale solar water heaters was conducted in 2006. The objectives of the survey were to asses the systems' performance and to have the feedback from the individual users. It is found that lack of experience in system design and maintenance are the key factors for reliable operation of a system. For further promotion of large-scale solar water heaters in Taiwan, a more compressive program on a system design for manufacturing process should be conducted. (orig.)

  1. Modeling of a split type air conditioner with integrated water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techarungpaisan, P.; Theerakulpisut, S.; Priprem, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a steady state simulation model to predict the performance of a small split type air conditioner with integrated water heater. The mathematical model consists of submodels of system components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube, receiver and water heater. These submodels were built based on fundamental principles of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, empirical relationships and manufacturer's data as necessary. The model was coded into a simulation program and used to predict system parameters of interest such as hot water temperature, condenser exit air temperature, evaporator exit air temperature, mass flow rate of refrigerant, heat rejection in the condenser and cooling capacity of the system. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from an experimental rig built for validating the mathematical model. It was found that the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement

  2. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.; Ganji, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily...... consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering...... the value of the coefficient FRUL and τα, which are obtained experimentally as 6.03 and 0.83 respectively, average. monthly total load that is covered by this solar water heating system is estimated....

  3. Energy Efficiency Modelling of Residential Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Toan Tran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater is one of the most energy efficient technologies for heating water for household use. The present work proposes a simplified model of coefficient of performance and examines its predictive capability. The model is based on polynomial functions where the variables are temperatures and the coefficients are derived from the Australian standard test data, using regression technics. The model enables to estimate the coefficient of performance of the same heat pump water heater under other test standards (i.e. US, Japanese, European and Korean standards. The resulting estimations over a heat-up phase and a full test cycle including a draw off pattern are in close agreement with the measured data. Thus the model allows manufacturers to avoid the need to carry out physical tests for some standards and to reduce product cost. The limitations of the methodology proposed are also discussed.

  4. Performance comparison of air-source heat pump water heater with different expansion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jing-Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chun-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An air-source heat pump water heater model was developed and validated. • System performance with EEV, capillary tube or short tube orifice were compared. • Short tube orifice is more suitable for heat pump water heater than capillary tube. - Abstract: Air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH) is designed to work under wide operating conditions. Therefore, both the system and components require higher reliability and stability than ordinary heat pump air-conditioning systems. In this paper, a quasi-steady-state system model of ASHPWH using electronic expansion valve (EEV), capillary tube or short tube orifice as expansion device is developed and validated by a prototype using R134a and scroll compressor, by which the system performance is evaluated and compared at varying water temperature and different ambient temperature. Flow characteristics of those three expansion devices in ASHPWH are comparatively analyzed. Results show that the EEV throttling system performs best. Compared with capillary tube, flow characteristics of short tube orifice are closer to that of EEV and therefore more suitable for ASHPWH. Reliability concern of liquid carryover to the compressor in the system using short tube orifice is investigated as well. Higher superheat or less system refrigerant charge could help mitigate the risk.

  5. Experimental analysis of diffusion absorption refrigerator driven by electrical heater and engine exhaust gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge ADJIBADE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of H20-NH3-H2 diffusion absorption refrigeration under two types of energy sources, i.e. the conventional electric energy from grid (electric and exhaust gas from internal combustion engine. Dynamic method is used to evaluate the behavior of the components of the system for both energy sources. Results obtained show that the performance of each component under different types of energy sources is almost coherent. For the generator, the electrical heater system requires more time to warm up, around three minutes, compared to the 40 s for system running with exhaust gas. For the evaporator, the decreasing rate is higher for the exhaust gas source and it took only about two hours to reach steady-state while for the electrical heat, the steady-state is reached after about seven hours of operation. For both energy sources, the evaporation temperature stabilizes to 3 °C and the minimum temperature to boil off ammonia is around 140 °C.

  6. Assessment of the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaidajis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to life cycle thinking, the environmental burden deriving from different life cycle stages of a product or a system, such as manufacturing, transportation, maintenance and landfilling should be taken into consideration while assessing its environmental performance. In that aspect, the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater (SWH in Greece are analyzed and assessed with the application of relative life cycle assessment (LCA software in this study. In order to examine various impact categories such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity and so forth, the IMPACT2002+ method is applied. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle stages, processes and materials that significantly affect the system under examination and to provide a discussion regarding the environmental friendliness of solar water heaters.

  7. Thermal analysis of building roof assisted with water heater and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Prakash

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... Thermal analysis; building roof; solar water heating system; roof ... These solar collec- ... several benefits, such as its wide range of storage temper- ... rugated plate, rear plate and back insulation material [12]. ..... [7] Weiss W and Rommel M 2008 Process heat collectors. State of the art within Task 33/IV.

  8. Solar Water Heater Systems for Building Trades Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Milton; And Others

    This teaching unit serves as a guide for the installation of active solar water heating systems. It contains a project designed for use with secondary level students of a building trades class. Students typically would meet 2 to 3 hours per day and would be able to complete the activity within a 1-week time period. Objectives of this unit include:…

  9. Investigation of advanced propulsion technologies: The RAM accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two principal areas of advanced propulsion investigated are the ram accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater. The concept of the ram accelerator is presented as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerothermodynamics research. The ram accelerator is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled in a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Combustion on and behind the projectile generates thrust which accelerates it to very high velocities. The acceleration can be tailored for the 'soft launch' of instrumented models. The distinctive reacting flow phenomena that have been observed in the ram accelerator are relevant to the aerothermodynamic processes in airbreathing hypersonic propulsion systems and are useful for validating sophisticated CFD codes. The recently demonstrated scalability of the device and the ability to control the rate of acceleration offer unique opportunities for the use of the ram accelerator as a large-scale hypersonic ground test facility. The flowing gas radiation receiver is a novel concept for using solar energy to heat a working fluid for space power or propulsion. Focused solar radiation is absorbed directly in a working gas, rather than by heat transfer through a solid surface. Previous theoretical analysis had demonstrated that radiation trapping reduces energy loss compared to that of blackbody receivers, and enables higher efficiencies and higher peak temperatures. An experiment was carried out to measure the temperature profile of an infrared-active gas and demonstrate the effect of radiation trapping. The success of this effort validates analytical models of heat transfer in this receiver, and confirms the potential of this approach for achieving high efficiency space power and propulsion.

  10. Study Design And Realization Of Solar Water Heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, M.; Boudjemaa, F.; Akil, S. Kouider

    2011-01-01

    Solar is one of the most easily exploitable energy, it is moreover inexhaustible. His applications are many and are varied. The heating of the domestic water is one of the most immediate, simplest and also of most widespread exploitation of the solar energy. Algeria, from its geographical situation, it deposits one of the largest high sun surface expositions in the world. The exposition duration of the almost territory exceeds 2000 hours annually and can reach the 3900 hours (high plateaus and Sahara). By knowing the daily energy received by 1 m 2 of a horizontal surface of the solar thermal panel is nearly around 1700 KWh/m 2 a year in the north and 2263 KWh/m 2 a year in the south of the country, we release the most important and strategic place of the solar technologies in the present and in the future for Algeria. This work consists to study, conceive and manufacture solar water heating with the available local materials so, this type of the energy will be profitable for all, particularly the poor countries. If we consider the illumination duration of the panel around 6 hours a day, the water heat panel manufactured in our laboratory produce an equivalent energy of 11.615 KWh a day so, 4239 KWh a year. These values of energy can be easily increased with performing the panel manufacture.

  11. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  12. Experimental investigation of a Hybrid Solar Drier and Water Heater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajer, Alireza; Nematollahi, Omid; Joybari, Mahmood Mastani; Hashemi, Seyed Ahmad; Assari, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A Hybrid Solar Drier and Water Heater System experimentally investigated. • Using collected data, GIS maps were plotted for solar energy of Khuzestan Province. • System is presented which facilitates a dual-purpose solar collector. • The system includes a 100 l water storage tank, a solar dryer with 5 trays. • Experiments were carried out to dry vegetables (parsley, dill and coriander). - Abstract: Drying process is of great importance in food industries. One of the best methods of food drying is using solar dryers. For initial estimation of solar energy, calculations were made for statistical information measured by Renewable Energy Organization of Iran. Using collected data, GIS maps were plotted for solar energy of Khuzestan Province, Iran. In this study, a new hybrid system is presented which facilitates a dual-purpose solar collector to simultaneously support a dryer system and provide consumptive hot water. The system includes a 100 l water storage tank, a solar dryer with 5 trays, and a dual-purpose collector. Experiments were carried out to dry a mixture of vegetables (parsley, dill and coriander) at constant air and water flow rates. Besides, an electrical heater has been used as an auxiliary source for heating. The results indicated that the system optimally dried the vegetables and simultaneously provided the consumptive hot water

  13. Heat techniques in the light of the innovation curve. New technology for gas appliances and solar water heaters; Warmtetechnieken in het licht van de innovatiecurve. Nieuwe technologie gezocht voor gastoestel en zonneboilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebregt, R.

    2012-09-15

    The development, market introduction and deployment of new techniques often follows an S-shaped curve. The gas-fired boiler transformed from a conventional apparatus into the current high efficiency boiler. Will the high efficiency electricity boiler be the next breakthrough technique? The electrical and gas heat pumps are fully developed techniques, but this does not apply to their use in Dutch single-family dwellings [Dutch] De ontwikkeling, marktintroductie en toepassing van nieuwe technieken verloopt vaak volgens een S-vormige curve. De gasketel transformeerde van conventioneel toestel naar de huidige hr-ketel. Is de hre-ketel de volgende doorbraaktechniek? De elektrische en de gaswarmtepomp zijn uitontwikkelde technieken, maar nog niet voor de toepassing in een Nederlandse eengezinswoning.

  14. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could

  15. Water into gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodord, Julian.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the move by water utilities into the gas market and potentially into the electricity supply market. Operation by Dee Valley Holdings, York Waterworks, York Gas, and North Wales Gas are reported, and investment, use of mail campaigns and telemarketing to secure customers, and the opportunities offered by diversification are considered. (UK)

  16. Diffusion of solar water heaters in regional China: Economic feasibility and policy effectiveness evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ben; Song, Guojun; Smardon, Richard C.; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the technical feasibility of solar water heaters (SWHs) has long been established, the economic feasibility of SWHs in regional China remains to be examined. This paper constructs cost models to calculate costs per unit energy saving of SWHs in 27 Chinese provincial capital cities. The cost effectiveness of SWHs is examined at the national level. At a micro level, we analyze the financial attractiveness of consumers’ investment in SWHs. A panel data model is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a subsidy program in rural China. The results show that SWH costs, ranging from 0.305 to 0.744 CNY/kW h, are much lower than those of other major renewable energies across China. This finding indicates that the diffusion of SWHs is a cost-effective way to reach China’s renewable energy target. For consumers, incentive programs for SWHs are needed to improve the financial attractiveness of the devices in China. Existing subsidy policies for rural China have failed to significantly enhance the deployment of SWHs. The causes of the failure are examined and a new incentive program is suggested for rural areas of the country. - Highlights: • We examine the economic feasibility of solar water heaters in 27 Chinese cities. • We evaluate policy effectiveness of solar water heaters (SWHs) using panel data. • Diffusion of SWHs is cost effective in fulfilling China’s renewable energy target. • Financial attractiveness of SWHs is limited without incentive programs. • The existing subsidy policy is proved to be a failure and a new program is suggested

  17. Scheduling of Domestic Water Heater Power Demand for Maximizing PV Self-Consumption Using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for maximizing photo-voltaic (PV) selfconsumption in a household context exploiting the flexible demand of an electric water heater. The predictive controller uses a water heater model and forecast of the hot Water consumption in order...... to predict the future temperature of the water and it manages its state (on and off) according to the forecasted PV production, which are computed starting from forecast of the solar irradiance. Simulations for the proof of concept and for validating the proposed control strategy are proposed. Results...... of the control approach are compared with a traditional thermostatic controller using historical measurements of a 10 kW PV installation. Economic results based on the Italian self consumption tariffs are also reported. The model of the water heater complex is a mixed grey and white box and its parameters have...

  18. One dimensional analysis model for condensation heat transfer in feed water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Michio; Takamori, Kazuhide; Aihara, Tsuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    In order to simplify condensation heat transfer calculations for feed water heaters, one dimensional (1D) analyses were compared with three dimensional (3D) analyses. The results showed that average condensation heat transfer coefficients by 1D analyses with 1/2 rows of heat transfer tubes agreed with those by 3D analyses within 7%. Using the 1D analysis model, effects of the pitch of heat transfer tubes were evaluated. The results showed that the pitch did not affect much on heat transfer rates and that the size of heat transfer tube bundle could be decreased by a small pitch. (author)

  19. To built a solar hot water heater to work the sustainability problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero Gómez, María Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are commemorating the Education Decade for Sustainable Development. If we want to create positive towards our environment and its sustainable development we have to begin working at school. It is necessary to show our students what problems of the environment are and which solutions can be adopted. That is the reason we have planned this activity in our secondary school. We do think that by doing daily activities we have a good opportunity to fulfil this goal. An example of such experiences is the fabrication of a solar hot water heater to make them and their families more environment conscience.

  20. Thermal stratification in storage tanks of integrated collector storage solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshchepkov, M.Y.; Frid, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of the shape of the tank, the installation angle, and the magnitude of the absorbed heat flux on thermal stratification in integrated collector-storage solar water heaters, numerical simulation of thermal convection in tanks of different shapes and same volume was carried out. Idealized two-dimensional models were studied; auto model stratification profiles were obtained at the constant heat flux. The shape of the tank, the pattern of the heat flux dynamics, the adiabatic mixing on the circulation rate and the degree of stratification were shown to have significant influence. (authors)

  1. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas.

  2. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank,

  3. Feedwater heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Shigeto; Minato, Akihiko; Yokomizo, Osamu; Masuhara, Yasuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a feedwater heater for a BWR type reactor. A cylinder is fit into the lower portion of a drain inlet pipe, to which drain water inflows from a turbine, and a disk is disposed to the lower end of the cylinder vertically to the axis of the cylinder, to constitute a drain water dispersing mechanism. Drain water inflown from the drain inlet pipe is fallen in the cylinder and collides against the disk. The collided drain water is splashed horizontally by its kinetic energy to reach the heat transfer pipe and conducts heat exchange. In this case, the drain water is converted into fine droplets by the collision against the disk and scattered in a wide range in the heater. As a result, sensible heat in the drain water can be transferred to feedwater effectively. Then, even the heat energy of the drain water can be utilized effectively for heat exchange, to improve the heat exchange efficiency. (I.N.)

  4. Evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Kazuhide; Minato, Akihiko

    1993-01-01

    A multidimensional analysis code for two-phase flow using a two-fluid model was improved by taking into consideration the condensation heat transfer, film thickness, and film velocity, in order to develop an evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater. The following results were obtained by a two-dimensional analysis of a feed-water heater for a power plant. (1) In the model, the film flowed downward in laminar flow due to gravity, with droplet entrainment and deposition. For evaluation of the film thickness, Fujii's equation was used in order to account for forced convection of steam flow. (2) Based on the former experimental data, the droplet deposition coefficient and droplet entrainment rate of liquid film were determined. When the ratio at which the liquid film directly flowed from an upper heat transfer tube to a lower heat transfer tube was 0.7, the calculated total heat transfer rate agreed with the measured value of 130 MW. (3) At the upper region of a heat transfer tube bundle where film thickness was thin, and at the outer region of a heat transfer tube bundle where steam velocity was high, the heat transfer rate was large. (author)

  5. The study of production performance of water heater manufacturing by using simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Bamatraf, OAA; Tadjuddin, M.

    2018-02-01

    In industrial companies, as demand increases, decision-making to increase production becomes difficult due to the complexity of the model systems. Companies are trying to find the optimum methods to tackle such problems so that resources are utilized and production is increased. One line system of a manufacturing company in Malaysia was considered in this research. The Company produces several types of water heater and each type went into many processes, which was divided into twenty six sections. Each section has several operations. The main type of the product was 10G water heater which is produced most compare to other types, hence it was taken under consideration to be studied in this research. It was difficult to find the critical section that could improve the productions of the company. This research paper employed Delmia Quest software, Distribution Analyser software and Design of Experiment (DOE software) to simulate one model system taken from the company to be studied and to find the critical section that will improve the production system. As a result, assembly of inner and outer tank section were found to be the bottleneck section. Adding one section to the bottleneck increases the production rate by four products a day. The buffer size is determined by the experiment was six items.

  6. Condensation heat transfer of a feed-water heater and improvement of its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Kazuhide; Murase, Michio; Baba, Yoshikazu; Aihara, Tsuyoshi

    1995-01-01

    In this study, a condensation heat transfer model, coupled with a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis, was developed. In the heat transfer model, the liquid film flow rate on the heat transfer tubes was calculated by a mass balance equation and the liquid film thickness was calculated from the liquid film flow rate using Nusselt's laminar flow model and Fujii's equation for the steam velocity effect. The model was verified by condensation heat transfer experiments. In the experiments, 112 horizontal, staggered tubes with an outer diameter of 16mm and length of 0.55m were used. The calculated over-all heat transfer coefficients agreed with the data within ±5% under the inlet quality conditions of 13-100%. Based on a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis, an improved feed-water heater with support plates, which have flow holes between the upper and lower tube bundles, was designed. The total heat exchange capacity of the improved feed-water heater increased about 6%. (author)

  7. Relationship between Organic Carbon and Opportunistic Pathogens in Simulated Glass Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlling organic carbon levels in municipal water has been hypothesized to limit downstream growth of bacteria and opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs. Here, the relationships between influent organic carbon (0–15,000 µg ozonated fulvic acid /L and the number of total bacteria [16S rRNA genes and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs] and a wide range of OPPPs (gene copy numbers of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Vermamoeba vermiformis, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycobacterium avium were examined in the bulk water of 120-mL simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs. The SGWHs were operated at 32–37 °C, which is representative of conditions encountered at the bottom of electric water heaters, with water changes of 80% three times per week to simulate low use. This design presented advantages of controlled and replicated (triplicate conditions and avoided other potential limitations to OPPP growth in order to isolate the variable of organic carbon. Over seventeen months, strong correlations were observed between total organic carbon (TOC and both 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and HPC counts (avg. R2 > 0.89. Although M. avium gene copies were occasionally correlated with TOC (avg. R2 = 0.82 to 0.97, for 2 out of 4 time points and over a limited TOC range (0–1000 µg/L, no other correlations were identified between other OPPPs and added TOC. These results suggest that reducing organic carbon in distributed water is not adequate as a sole strategy for controlling OPPPs, although it may have promise in conjunction with other approaches.

  8. Relationship between Organic Carbon and Opportunistic Pathogens in Simulated Glass Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Krista; Pruden, Amy; Falkinham, Joseph O; Edwards, Marc; Williams, Krista; Pruden, Amy; Falkinham, Joseph O; Edwards, Marc

    2015-06-09

    Controlling organic carbon levels in municipal water has been hypothesized to limit downstream growth of bacteria and opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs). Here, the relationships between influent organic carbon (0-15,000 µg ozonated fulvic acid /L) and the number of total bacteria [16S rRNA genes and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs)] and a wide range of OPPPs (gene copy numbers of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Vermamoeba vermiformis, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycobacterium avium) were examined in the bulk water of 120-mL simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs). The SGWHs were operated at 32-37 °C, which is representative of conditions encountered at the bottom of electric water heaters, with water changes of 80% three times per week to simulate low use. This design presented advantages of controlled and replicated (triplicate) conditions and avoided other potential limitations to OPPP growth in order to isolate the variable of organic carbon. Over seventeen months, strong correlations were observed between total organic carbon (TOC) and both 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and HPC counts (avg. R2 > 0.89). Although M. avium gene copies were occasionally correlated with TOC (avg. R2 = 0.82 to 0.97, for 2 out of 4 time points) and over a limited TOC range (0-1000 µg/L), no other correlations were identified between other OPPPs and added TOC. These results suggest that reducing organic carbon in distributed water is not adequate as a sole strategy for controlling OPPPs, although it may have promise in conjunction with other approaches.

  9. Thermal performance analysis of a direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, X.Q.; Zhang, D.; Li, Y.; Yang, Q.M.

    2011-01-01

    A direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater (DX-SAHPWH) is described, which can supply hot water for domestic use during the whole year. The system mainly employs a bare flat-plate collector/evaporator with a surface area of 4.2 m 2 , an electrical rotary-type hermetic compressor, a hot water tank with the volume of 150 L and a thermostatic expansion valve. R-22 is used as working fluid in the system. A simulation model based on lumped and distributed parameter approach is developed to predict the thermal performance of the system. Given the structure parameters, meteorological parameters, time step and final water temperature, the numerical model can output operational parameters, such as heat capacity, system COP and collector efficiency. Comparisons between the simulation results and the experimental measurements show that the model is able to give satisfactory predictions. The effect of various parameters, including solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and compressor speed, has been analyzed on the thermal performance of the system. -- Highlights: ► A direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater (DX-SAHPWH) is described. ► A simulation model based on lumped and distributed parameter approach is developed to predict the thermal performance of the system. ► The numerical model can output operational parameters, such as heat capacity, system COP and collector efficiency. ► Comparisons between the simulation results and the experimental measurements show that the model is able to give satisfactory predictions. ► The effect of various parameters has been analyzed on the thermal performance of the system.

  10. For sale - Whirlpool 40 gal gas water heater | News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financial Officer Finance Section Office of the Chief Operating Officer Facilities Engineering Services Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center Office of the Chief Safety Officer Environment, Safety, Health and Quality Section Office of the Chief Project Officer Office of Project Support Services Office of

  11. Equations for nickel-chromium wire heaters of column transfer lines in gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A

    2004-05-30

    Heating of chromatographic columns, transfer lines, and other devices is often required in neuroscience research. For example, volatile compounds passing through a capillary column of a gas chromatograph (GC) can be split, with half exiting the instrument through a heated transfer line to an insect antenna or olfactory sensillum for electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) recordings. The heated transfer line is used to prevent condensation of various chemicals in the capillary that would otherwise occur at room temperature. Construction of such a transfer line heater is described using (80/20%) nickel-chromium heating wire wrapped in a helical coil and powered by a 120/220 V ac rheostat. Algorithms were developed in a computer program to estimate the voltage at which a rheostat should be set to obtain the desired heater temperature for a specific coil. The coil attributes (radius, width, number of loops, or length of each loop) are input by the user, as well as AWG size of heating wire and desired heater temperature. The program calculates total length of wire in the helix, resistance of the wire, amperage used, and the voltage to set the rheostat. A discussion of semiochemical isolation methods using the GC-EAD and bioassays is presented.

  12. Study of an improved integrated collector-storage solar water heater combined with the photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Palideh, Vahid; Mohammadnia, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with PV panel was conducted. • The present model dose not uses any photovoltaic driven water pump. • High packing factor and tank water mass are caused to high PVT system efficiency. • Larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency. - Abstract: A photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) module is a combination of a photovoltaic (PV) panel and a thermal collector for co-generation of heat and electricity. An integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) system, due to its simple and compact structure, offers a promising approach for the solar water heating in the varied climates. The combination of the ICSSWH system with a PV solar system has not been reported. In this paper, simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with the PV panel has been conducted. The proposed design acts passive. Therefore, it does not use any photovoltaic driven water pump to maintain a flow of water inside the collector. The effects of the solar cell packing factor, the tank water mass and the collector area on the performance of the present PVT system have been investigated. The simulation results showed that the high solar cell packing factor and the tank water mass are caused to the high total PVT system efficiency. Also, larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency

  13. Research and development of a heat-pump water heater. Volume 2. R and D task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, R.L.; Amthor, F.R.; Doyle, E.J.

    1978-08-01

    The heat pump water heater is a device that works much like a window air conditioner except that heat from the home is pumped into a water tank rather than to the outdoors. The objective established for the device is to operate with a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 3 or, an input of one unit of electric energy would create three units of heat energy in the form of hot water. With such a COP, the device would use only one-third the energy and at one-third the cost of a standard resistance water heater. This Volume 2 contains the final reports of the three major tasks performed in Phase I. In Task 2, a market study identifies the future market and selects an initial target market and channel of distribution, all based on an analysis of the parameters affecting feasibility of the device and the factors that will affect its market acceptance. In the Task 3 report, the results of a design and test program to arrive at final designs of heat pumps for both new water heaters and for retrofitting existing water heaters are presented. In the Task 4 report, a plan for an extensive field demonstration involving use in actual homes is presented. Volume 1 contains a final summary report of the information in Volume 2.

  14. A viable CDM model for solar water heaters; CDM-Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-15

    It is a well known fact that solar water Heaters (SWH) replace fossil fuels and they do not represent business as usual scenario. Therefore use of this appliance can qualify to be considered as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. However a single solar water heater is a very small unit to be able to generate sufficient Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) to pursue it as a CDM project. Even if the project is considered at the level of local venders or at the level of a company engaged in manufacturing SWH, the CERs still remain very small. The study examines the size of the project from the perspective of its viability as a CDM project and also explores other related issues such as additionality requirement, selection of methodology, baseline calculations, approach for stakeholders' comments, potential bundlers, monitoring and verification, and required policy interventions. Bank of Maharashtra (BOM), a commercial bank in India engaged in financing Solar Water Heaters (SWH), was considered as the base for the study. The CERs were calculated considering Electricity and LPG as the baseline. For the purpose of sensitivity analysis, various price bands for CERs (between US$ 15-25/CER) were considered. The analysis was carried out with bundling of SWH at BOM level, and at the Association of Banks (AOB) / Ministry level (in which case SWH financed by several banks are bundled). Recently approved Programme of Activities (PoA) approach was also considered in the analysis. The analysis clearly indicated that: 1) The CDM project with bundling at an individual bank level with about 8600 installations, though cash surplus, would generate the cash just to meet its own sustainability. But it is a very small project. 2) Bundling of installations by various banks, through an entity such as Association of Banks, would be a viable and sustainable CDM project due to benefits arising out of scale of economy. 3) The profitability of the CDM project would improve further if

  15. Performance evaluation of an integrated solar water heater as an option for building energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharuman, C.; Arakeri, J.H.; Srinivasan, K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalaore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-03-15

    Since a majority of residential and industrial building hot water needs are around 50 {sup o}C, an integrated solar water heater could provide a bulk source that blends collection and storage into one unit. This paper describes the design, construction and performance test results of one such water-heating device. The test unit has an absorber area of 1.3 m{sup 2} and can hold 170 l of water, of which extractable volume per day is 100 l. Its performance was evaluated under various typical operating conditions. Every morning at about 7:00 a.m., 100 l of hot water were drawn from the sump and replaced with cold water from the mains. Although, during most of the days, the peak temperatures of water obtained are between 50 and 60 {sup o}C, the next morning temperatures were lower at 45-50 {sup o}C. Daytime collection efficiencies of about 60% and overall efficiencies of about 40% were obtained. Tests were conducted with and without stratification. Night radiation losses were reduced by use of a screen insulation. (author)

  16. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content (less than or equal to 40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details

  17. Gas consumption for water heating in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, R.; Weegink, R.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994 the total gas consumption of Dutch households increased slightly. This is mainly due to an increase in the number of occupied homes by about 75,000, an advancing penetration of gas-fired tap water heaters and a marginal increase in gas consumption for space heating. Another striking feature is the stabilisation of gas consumption of an average household for hot water purposes, since it decreased in 1992 and 1993 by 3% and 4,5% respectively. The so-called Dutch BAK (basic survey of the small-scale gas consumption) study also shows that the penetration of gas appliances with higher outputs and changing water tapping behaviour, the major reasons for consumption increases in the previous years, have changed only moderately. Gas consumption for cooking purposes remained almost stable, though. 7 tabs., 1 ill

  18. Local market of solar water heaters in Taiwan. Review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.C.; Lee, T.S.; Chung, K.M.; Lin, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    For promotion of solar water heaters in Taiwan, incentive programs were first initiated from 1986 to 1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. The subsidies create an economic incentive for the end users and have been rather instrumental at the initial stage of each program but lost their significance thereafter. To analyze the behavior of the major actors in the local market, two questionnaires were developed. One was addressed to sales and distribution agents while the other one consisted of person-to-person interviews with household owners. The market-driven mechanism is a multi-parametric phenomenon. Other than the capital cost and energy price (cost to benefit), architectural type of buildings (or degree of urbanization) and household composition play the major roles in market diffusion. (author)

  19. An experimental investigation with artificial sunlight of a solar hot-water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal performance measurements were made of a commercial solar hot water heater in a solar simulator to determine basic performance characteristics of a traditional type of flat plate collector, with and without side reflectors (to increase the solar flux). Information on each of the following was obtained; (1) the effect of flow and incidence angle on the efficiency of a flat plate collector (but only without side reflectors); (2) transient performance under flow and nonflow conditions; (3) the effectiveness of reflectors to increase collector efficiency for a zero radiation angle at fluid temperatures required for solar air conditioning; and (4) the limits of applicability of a collector efficiency correlation based on the Hottel Whillier equation.

  20. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Overvoltage (OV) in a low voltage distribution network is one of the foremost issues observed even under moderate penetration of rooftop solar photovoltaics (PVs). Similarly, grid under-voltage (UV) is foreseen as a potential issue resulting from increased integration of large flexible loads......, such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...... and reactive power injection/consumptions of the EWHs and PVs following the voltage violations. To effectively support the network in real-time, the controller allows EWHs to operate prior to PVs in OV and after the PVs in UV violations. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated...

  1. Thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) with phase change materials (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the effect of phase change materials integration on the thermal performances of an ICSSWH. • Two kinds and tree radiuses of the PCM layer are studied and the most appropriate design is presented. • The use of phase change materials in ICSSWH is determined to reduce the night thermal losses. • Myristic acid is the most appropriate PCM for this application regarding the daily and night operation. - Abstract: In this paper, we propose a numerical study of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH). Two numerical models in three-dimensional modeling are developed. The first one which describes a sensible heat storage unit (SHSU), allowing validating the numerical model. Based on the good agreement between numerical results and experimental data from literature, and as this type of solar water heater presents the disadvantage of its high night losses, we propose to integrate a phase change material (PCM) directly in the collector and to study its effect on the ICSSWH thermal performance. Indeed, a second 3D CFD model is developed and series of numerical simulations are conducted for two kind (myristic acid and RT42-graphite) and three radiuses (R = 0.2 m, R = 0.25 m and R = 0.3 m) of this PCM layer. Numerical results show that during the day-time, the latent heat storage unit (LHSU) performs better than the sensible one when myristic acid is used as PCM. Regarding the night operating of this solar system, it is found that the LHSU is more effective for both PCMs as it allows lower thermal losses and better heat preservation

  2. Experimental validation of dynamic simulation of the flat plate collector in a closed thermosyphon solar water heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherian, H.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Sadeghi, S.

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the dynamic simulation of thermosyphon solar water heater collector considering the weather conditions of a city in north of Iran. The simulation was done for clear and partly cloudy days. The useful energy, the efficiency diagrams, the inlet and the outlet of collector, center...

  3. Analysis of solar water heater with parabolic dish concentrator and conical absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, G.; Kumar, P.; Anwar, M.; Mohanraj, T.

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on developing novel technique for a solar water heating system. The novel solar system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, conical absorber and water heater. In this system, the conical absorber tube directly absorbs solar radiation from the sun and the parabolic dish concentrator reflects the solar radiations towards the conical absorber tube from all directions, therefore both radiations would significantly improve the thermal collector efficiency. The working fluid water is stored at the bottom of the absorber tubes. The absorber tubes get heated and increases the temperature of the working fluid inside of the absorber tube and causes the working fluid to partially evaporate. The partially vaporized working fluid moves in the upward direction due to buoyancy effect and enters the heat exchanger. When fresh water passes through the heat exchanger, temperature of the vapour decreases through heat exchange. This leads to condensation of the vapour and forms liquid phase. The working fluid returns to the bottom of the collector absorber tube by gravity. Hence, this will continue as a cyclic process inside the system. The proposed investigation shows an improvement of collector efficiency, enhanced heat transfer and a quality water heating system.

  4. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relief of any backfire that, if so restricted, could cause heater failure. (d) Heater controls: general. Provision must be made to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control... heater in case of leakage. (2) The region surrounding the heater, if the heater fuel system has fittings...

  5. Evaluation of the service quality of solar water-heaters; Evaluation de la qualite de service des chauffe-eau solaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscarlet, C.; Filloux, A.

    1998-12-31

    This small booklet is the result of research studies carried out for the evaluation of solar water-heater performances, including service quality. Service quality is evaluated according to the capacity of production of `useful` hot water (hot water above a given temperature) and to the influence of the daily profile of drawing up on the performances of the water-heater. Procedures have been developed that allow to determine these indicators without the need of supplementary tests. A suggestion of information file for solar water-heaters without auxiliary heating is proposed which presents for each type of apparatus a synthetic information about its performances and service quality. (J.S.)

  6. Utilization of air conditioner condenser as water heater in an effort to energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawan, Hery; Saputro, Panji; Kurniawan, Iden Muhtar

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of air conditioner condenser as water heater. Modification of existing air conditioner system is an effort to harvest waste heat energy from condenser. Modification is conducted in order to test the system into two mode tests, first mode with one condenser and second mode with two condensers. Harvesting the waste heat from condenser needs a theoretical and practice study to see how much the AC performance changes if modifications are made. It should also be considered how the technique of harvesting waste heat for water heating purposes. From the problem, this paper presents a comparison between AC performance before and after modification. From the experiment, an increase in compressor power consumption is 4.3% after adding a new condenser. The hot water temperature is attained to 69 °C and ready for warm bath. The increase in power consumption is not too significant compared to the attainable hot water temperature. Also seen that the value of condenser Performance Factor increase from 5.8 to 6.25 or by 7.8%.

  7. How to reduce risk of climate change: Domestic hot water production methanization and programmed timing of heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrini, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first identifies a significant and deleterious trend, in terms of poor energy efficiency and high carbon dioxide emissions, towards the increased use of electric water heaters for sanitary hot water production in single family units. It then points out how the use of wall mounted methane fired boilers can result in overall energy savings (overall electric power consumption for domestic hot water production is estimated to represent one- quarter of Italy's total domestic power demand), as well as air pollution abatement. The feasibility of other methods of energy conservation and pollution abatement in domestic water heating are also examined. These include the use of solar hot water heaters, computerized timers which allow users to program the operation of their heating plants, and the adoption by residential communities of methane fuelled district heating plants

  8. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost

  9. Experimental analysis of distinct design of a batch solar water heater with integrated collector storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Jaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new design of batch solar water heater has been studied. In this system, the collector and storage were installed in one unit. Unlike the conventional design consisting of small diameter water tubes, it has a single large diameter drum which serves the dual purpose of absorber tube and storage tank. In principle it is a compound parabolic collector. The drum is sized to have a storage capacity of 100 liter to serve a family of four persons. The tests were carried out with a single glass cover and two glass covers. The tests were repeated for several days. Performance analysis of the collector has revealed that it has maximum mean daily efficiency with two glass covers as high as 37.2%. The maximum water temperature in the storage tank of 60°C has been achieved for a clear day operation at an average solar beam radiation level of 680 W/m2 and ambient temperature of 32°C. To judge the operating characteristics and to synchronize utility pattern of the collector, the different parameters such as efficiency, mean plate temperature and mass flow rate has been investigated.

  10. Second-law analysis of a two-phase self-pumping solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.A.; Davidson, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper entropy generated by operation of a two-phase self-pumping solar water heater under Solar Rating and Certification Corporation rating conditions is computed numerically in a methodology based on an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that entropy generation is dominated by heat transfer across temperature differences. Conversion of radiant solar energy incident on the collector to thermal energy within the collector accounts for 87.1 percent of total entropy generation. Thermal losses are responsible for 9.9 percent of total entropy generation, and heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.4 percent of the total entropy generation. Mixing in the tempering valve is responsible for 0.7 percent of the total entropy generation. Approximately one half of the entropy generated by thermal losses is attributable to the self-pumping process. The procedure to determine total entropy generation can be used in a parametric study to evaluate the performance of two-phase hot water heating systems relative to other solar water heating options

  11. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of the performance of a tar solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, H.D.; Nimir, Y.L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental and theoretical evaluation of the performance of a tar solar water heater and comparison with that of a conventional type collector. The performance of both collectors is assessed under the same conditions. Both of the collectors have the same surface area and are glazed. The conventional type has the water tubes welded to the absorber plate, whereas in the tar type, the tar acts as an absorber plate that covers the water tubes. The theoretical model for each collector type, with the transient effects taken into account, is based on a control volume and a time base in the related energy equations. By considering a small element of the collector in each case, three partial differential equations were developed for each collector and were solved numerically by the Runge-Kutta method of the fifth order. A good agreement was achieved between the numerical and experimental results for both the conventional and tar collectors, indicating the feasibility of employing the theoretical model in the design of flat plate solar collectors. The results also showed that the conventional collector is more efficient than the tar type during most of the daylight, but the tar collector had the added advantage of better conservation of energy in late afternoon and evening

  12. Experimental performance analysis on a direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.W.; Wang, R.Z.; Wu, J.Y.; Xu, Y.X.

    2007-01-01

    A direct expansion solar assisted heat pump water heater (DX-SAHPWH) experimental set-up is introduced and analyzed. This DX-SAHPWH system mainly consists of 4.20 m 2 direct expansion type collector/evaporator, R-22 rotary-type hermetic compressor with rated input power 0.75 kW, 150 L water tank with immersed 60 m serpentine copper coil and external balance type thermostatic expansion valve. The experimental research under typical spring climate in Shanghai showed that the COP of the DX-SAHPWH system can reach 6.61 when the average temperature of 150 L water is heated from 13.4 deg. C to 50.5 deg. C in 94 min with average ambient temperature 20.6 deg. C and average solar radiation intensity 955 W/m 2 . And the COP of the DX-SAHPWH system is 3.11 even if at a rainy night with average ambient temperature 17.1 deg. C. The seasonal average value of the COP and the collector efficiency was measured as 5.25 and 1.08, respectively. Through exergy analysis for each component of the DX-SAHPWH system, it can be calculated that the highest exergy loss occurs in the compressor, followed by collector/evaporator, condenser and expansion valve, respectively. Further more, some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole DX-SAHPWH system

  13. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  14. Numerical analysis of using hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar water heater in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Sarduei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electrical performance of solar cells decreases with increasing cell temperature, basically because of growth of the internal charge carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. Hybrid Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT systems produce electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. PVT solar collectors convert the heat generated in the solar cells to low temperature useful heat energy and so they provide a lower working temperature for solar cells which subsequently leads to a higher electrical efficiency. Recently, in Iran, the reforming government policy in subsidy and increasing fossil fuels price led to growing an interest in use of renewable energies for residual and industrial applications. In spite of this, the PV power generator investment is not economically feasible, so far. Hybrid PVT devices are well known as an alternative method to improve energy performance and therefore economic feasibility of the conventional PV systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a PVT solar water heater in four different cities of Iran using TRNSYS program. Materials and Methods The designed PVT solar water system consists of two separate water flow circuits namely closed cycle and open circuit. The closed cycle circuit was comprised of a solar PVT collector (with nominal power of 880 W and area of 5.6 m2, a heat exchanger in the tank (with volume of 300 L, a pump and connecting pipes. The water stream in the collector absorbs the heat accumulated in the solar cells and delivers it to the water in the tank though the heat exchanger. An on/off controller system was used to activate the pump when the collector outlet temperature was higher than that of the tank in the closed cycle circuit. The water in the open circuit, comes from city water at low temperature, enters in the lower part of the storage tank where the heat transfer occurs between the two separate circuits. An auxiliary heater, connected

  15. Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  16. Predictive Power of Machine Learning for Optimizing Solar Water Heater Performance: The Potential Application of High-Throughput Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the performance of solar water heater (SWH is challenging due to the complexity of the system. Fortunately, knowledge-based machine learning can provide a fast and precise prediction method for SWH performance. With the predictive power of machine learning models, we can further solve a more challenging question: how to cost-effectively design a high-performance SWH? Here, we summarize our recent studies and propose a general framework of SWH design using a machine learning-based high-throughput screening (HTS method. Design of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heater (WGET-SWH is selected as a case study to show the potential application of machine learning-based HTS to the design and optimization of solar energy systems.

  17. Dimensioning of a solar water heater made from PET bottles; Dimensionamento de um aquecedor solar de agua feito com garrafas PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoleti, Pedro Henrique Fonseca; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis

    2008-07-01

    This document show the solar water heater made of PET bottles, a simple-construction solar water heater that try to give us two important solutions, water heating using solar energy and reutilization of the PET bottles left in the nature. Also, it will be showed how to do the dimensioning of it. Based on the showed dimensioning a application / software is developed and after that simulations are made using the application to provide how is the economy if it's used this kind of solar water heater and their environmental contribution by reutilization of the PET bottles abandoned in the nature. For example, in a common home the economy is about 45% of the electricity bill considering that the warmed water is used just to take a shower. So, the conclusion is: the solar water heater made by PET bottles is a very relevant equipment to the use of the solar energy, to useful applications and environmental contribution. (author)

  18. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC Reflector(C < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E, China. The first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to analyze and contrast their thermal performance. The water in the tank was heated from 26.9 to 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Two types of solar water heater systems were used, and the data gathered for two days were compared. The results show that when attaining low temperature water, the evacuated tube solar water heater system without a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the system with a mini-CPC reflector, including the average and immediate values. On the other hand, when attaining high temperature water, the system with a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the other one. The comparison presents the advantages of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector, which can be offered as a reference when choosing which solar water system to use for actual applications.

  19. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other

  20. The Impact of Water Quality on the Use of Solar Water Heaters in Remote Islands of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chun Fan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of solar water heaters (SWHs in Taiwan’s remote islands has been subjected to scaling and, in particular, corrosion problems due to sources of water. In this study, four different water quality indices including the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI, the Ryznar Stability Index (RSI, the Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI, and the Larson-Skold Corrosive Index (LSCI were employed to assess the scaling and corrosion tendencies in SWHs caused by tap water and ground water in the Penghu, Kinmen, and Lienchiang counties, each of which is constituted of several remote islands. In general, the LSI, the RSI, and the PSI results show a slight scaling tendency in Penghu, but a corrosion tendency in Kinmen and Lienchiang. Nevertheless, all LSCI results show a serious steel corrosion tendency in these three counties. In addition, the chloride ion (Cl− concentrations are higher than 45 mg/L in either tap water (except for the Lieyu township in Kinmen or ground water. This fact resulted in serious corrosion problems, as found in the currently installed SWHs, which were mainly made from 304 stainless steel. The metals with higher corrosion resistance to chloride ions are required in the manufacture of SWHs to be installed on these three remote-island counties.

  1. Discussion on Boiler Efficiency Correction Method with Low Temperature Economizer-Air Heater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liu; Xing-sen, Yang; Fan-jun, Hou; Zhi-hong, Hu

    2017-05-01

    This paper pointed out that it is wrong to take the outlet flue gas temperature of low temperature economizer as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation based on GB10184-1988. What’s more, this paper proposed a new correction method, which decomposed low temperature economizer-air heater system into two hypothetical parts of air preheater and pre condensed water heater and take the outlet equivalent gas temperature of air preheater as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation. This method makes the boiler efficiency calculation more concise, with no air heater correction. It has a positive reference value to deal with this kind of problem correctly.

  2. The potential and reality of the solar water heater programme in South African townships: Lessons from the City of Tshwane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, Claire; Cherni, Judith A.; Mapako, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    The South African solar water heater (SWH) programme is part of national policy to improve the country's electricity security, an innovative strategy to provide indigent households with free solar water heaters. The study assesses the effects of the government programme for poor townships on reduction of household electricity consumption, decline in energy poverty, and reduction in CO2 emissions; and estimates the impact of SWH on reducing electricity demand nationwide. It reports results from fieldwork carried out in the City of Tshwane to measure both quantitatively and qualitatively the success of the project's deployment in townships. Although households register average savings of 27% on their monthly electricity bills and off-peak electricity demand has reduced significantly in the area, a variety of problems prevented the project from attaining the desired level of impact. Difficulties encountered include technical faults with the heaters combined with nonavailability of maintenance; a rise in water consumption; lack of community engagement leading to apathy; and dearth of owner training leading to underuse. The gap between inflated estimates and real savings is discussed. Expanding the programme could generate jobs but significant challenges remain. - Highlights: • The government's aim of saving electricity and reducing utility bills partly achieved. • Savings of electricity are estimated at about 25% less than the potential saving. • Wrong assumption that peak time is only 1 h produced savings 5 times larger. • ESKOM & government overlooked providing Information on the SWH to the householders. • No maintenance led to abandonment by many or water leaking increasing utility bills.

  3. Experimental performance analysis and optimization of a direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.W.; Wang, R.Z.; Wu, J.Y.; Xu, Y.X.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater (DX-SAHPWH) with rated input power 750 W was tested and analyzed. Through experimental research in spring and thermodynamics analysis about the system performance, some suggestions for the system optimization are proposed. Then, a small-type DX-SAHPWH with rated input power 400 W was built, tested and analyzed. Through exergy analysis for each component of DX-SAHPWH (A) and (B), it can be seen that the highest exergy loss occurs in the compressor and collector/evaporator, followed by the condenser and expansion valve, respectively. Furthermore, some methods are suggested to improve the performance of each component, especially the collector/evaporator. A methodology for the design optimization of the collector/evaporator was introduced and applied. In order to maintain a proper matching between the heat pumping capacity of the compressor and the evaporative capacity of the collector/evaporator under widely varying ambient conditions, the electronic expansion valve and variable frequency compressor are suggested to be utilized for the DX-SAHPWH

  4. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  5. A parametric study on a humidification–dehumidification (HDH) desalination unit powered by solar air and water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yıldırım, Cihan; Solmuş, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A time dependent humidification–dehumidification desalination process is investigated. • Fourth-order Runge–Kutta method is used to simulate the problem. • Daily and annual performance are examined. • Various operational parameters are investigated. - Abstract: The performance of a solar powered humidification–dehumidification desalination system is theoretically investigated for various operating and design parameters of the system under climatological conditions of Antalya, Turkey. The primary components of the system are a flat plate solar water heater, a flat plate double pass solar air heater, a humidifier, a dehumidifier and a storage tank. The mathematical model of the system is developed and governing conservation equations are numerically solved by using the Fourth order Runge–Kutta method. Daily and annual yields are calculated for different configurations of the system such as only water heating, only air heating and water–air heating

  6. Experimental validation of dynamic simulation of the flat plate collector in a closed thermosyphon solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherian, H.; Rezania, A.; Sadeghi, S.; Ganji, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the dynamic simulation of thermosyphon solar water heater collector considering the weather conditions of a city in north of Iran. The simulation was done for clear and partly cloudy days. The useful energy, the efficiency diagrams, the inlet and the outlet of collector, center of the absorber and center of the glass cover temperatures, were obtained. The simulation results were then compared with the experimental results in fall and showed a good agreement.

  7. Prediction of photovoltaic and solar water heater diffusion and evaluation of promotion policies on the basis of consumers’ choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yohei; Akai, Kenju; Shen, Junyi; Fujimura, Naoki; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki; Saijo, Tatsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Consumers’ preference on PV and solar water heater were investigated. ► Diffusion of the technologies in Japan was modeled by using Bass diffusion model. ► Policy measures to diffuse the technologies were evaluated by using the framework. ► Subsidy is more cost effective than FIT to diffuse PV. ► Public perception is the bottleneck of diffusion of solar water heater. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an integrated analytical framework consisting of the following three steps: (1) investigation of consumers’ preferences, (2) prediction of technology diffusion by taking into account consumers’ preferences, and (3) estimation of CO 2 emission reduction caused by the diffusion of the examined technology. By using this framework, this paper evaluates the policy measures implemented for disseminating photovoltaics and solar water heaters in terms of the contribution to reducing CO 2 emissions from the residential sector. We investigated consumer preferences for these technologies as well as the effects of attributes such as installation cost, energy price, energy efficiency, and perception on consumers’ choices. Considering these effects, we developed a model that estimates the diffusion of these technologies into the residential sector of Japan through 2025 and the resulting CO 2 emission reduction. We found that the policy measures for the diffusion of photovoltaics that reduce initial cost (e.g., subsidy programs) are more cost effective for reducing CO 2 emission than those reducing users’ operating expenditure (e.g., feed-in tariff programs). For solar water heater to be able to reduce the CO 2 emissions considerably, the public perception must be improved.

  8. Development of Low-Cost Solar Water Heater Using Recycled Solid Waste for Domestic Hot Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Din Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the development of a low-cost solar water heater (SWH system by utilizing solid waste material as part of system elements. Available technologies of the solar water heater systems, heat collectors and its components were reviewed and the best system combinations for low cost design were chosen. The passive-thermosiphon system have been chosen due to its simplicity and independency on external power as well as conventional pump. For the heat collector, flat plate type was identified as the most suitable collector for low cost design and suits with Malaysia climate. Detail study on the flat plate collector components found that the heat absorber is the main component that can significantly reduce the solar collector price if it is replaced with recycled solid waste material. Review on common solid wastes concluded that crushed glass is a non-metal material that has potential to either enhance or become the main heat absorber in solar collector. A collector prototype were then designed and fabricated based on crashed glass heat collector media. Thermal performance test were conducted for three configurations where configuration A (black painted aluminum absorber used as benchmark, configuration B (crushed glass added partially that use glass for improvement, and lastly configuration C (black colored crushed glass that use colored glass as main absorber. Result for configuration B have shown a negative effect where the maximum collector efficiency is 26.8% lower than configuration A. Nevertheless, configuration C which use black crushed glass as main heat absorber shown a comparable maximum efficiency which is at 82.5% of the maximum efficiency for configuration A and furthermore have shown quite impressive increment of efficiency at the end of the experiment. Hence, black colored crushed glass is said to have quite a good potential as the heat absorber material and therefore turn out to be a new contender to other non

  9. 即热式热水器的界定和安全隐患%Definition and Safety Risks of Instantaneous Water Heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉声; 胡晴宇; 沈冬波

    2015-01-01

    Describe the definition and classification of open-outlet water heater and closed water heater, analysis safety requirements of open-outlet water heater and closed water heater through using and inter-nal structure,Analysis Safety risks caused by the wrong instal ation method.%通过对敞开式热水器和封闭式热水器的定义明确两者的分类和界定,从使用方式和内部结构的角度分析敞开式热水器和封闭式热水器的安全要求,分析错误的安装方式所带来的安全隐患。

  10. Extending the upper temperature range of gas chromatography with all-silicon microchip columns using a heater/clamp assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Johnson, Jacob E; Nuss, Johnathan G; Stark, Brittany A; Hawkins, Aaron R; Tolley, Luke T; Iverson, Brian D; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

    2017-09-29

    Miniaturization of gas chromatography (GC) instrumentation is of interest because it addresses current and future issues relating to compactness, portability and field application. While incremental advancements continue to be reported in GC with columns fabricated in microchips (referred to in this paper as "microchip columns"), the current performance is far from acceptable. This lower performance compared to conventional GC is due to factors such as pooling of the stationary phase in corners of non-cylindrical channels, adsorption of sensitive compounds on incompletely deactivated surfaces, shorter column lengths and less than optimum interfacing to injector and detector. In this work, a GC system utilizing microchip columns was developed that solves the latter challenge, i.e., microchip interfacing to injector and detector. A microchip compression clamp was constructed to heat the microchip (i.e., primary heater), and seal the injector and detector fused silica interface tubing to the inlet and outlet ports of the microchip channels with minimum extra-column dead volume. This clamp allowed occasional operation up to 375°C and routine operation up to 300°C. The compression clamp was constructed of a low expansion alloy, Kovar™, to minimize leaking due to thermal expansion mismatch at the interface during repeated thermal cycling, and it was tested over several months for more than one hundred injections without forming leaks. A 5.9m long microcolumn with rectangular cross section of 158μm×80μm, which approximately matches a 100μm i.d. cylindrical fused silica column, was fabricated in a silicon wafer using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and high temperature fusion bonding; finally, the channel was coated statically with a 1% vinyl, 5% phenyl, 94% methylpolysiloxane stationary phase. High temperature separations of C10-C40 n-alkanes and a commercial diesel sample were demonstrated using the system under both temperature programmed GC (TPGC) and thermal

  11. Sustainable implementation of solar tunnel dryers, water heaters and cookers in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Peter [Danish Energy Management, DEM for Renewable Energy Project, REP, Dhobighat, Lalitpur (Nepal); Shrestha, Niraj; Shakya, Prajwal Raj [Renewable Energy Project, REP, Dhobighat, Lalitpur (Nepal); Pokharel, Govind [Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Lalitpur (Nepal)

    2008-07-01

    The Renewable Energy Project (REP) is a joint effort of the European Union and the Government of Nepal. Main objectives of the project are to create renewable energy infrastructure and services for the benefit of rural people in remote districts of Nepal. The REP will provide solar energy systems for public services in remote districts, as well as for income generating activities e.g. agro business and tourism. The REP focuses on the installation of institutional PV systems with a total capacity of 0.850 MWp. Concurrently, a number of solar thermal systems are being provided to community organizations (COs) in rural areas of Nepal. The priority applications for the solar thermal part are solar tunnel dryers for small industries drying vegetables. fruits and herbs, solar water heaters for community centers in trekking areas and large scale solar cookers in schools. The paper describes the Renewable Energy Project's implementation program for solar thermal technology and in particular the implications on design and usefulness of the solar tunnel dryer from on-site feasibility studies carried out by the project team. REP provides a framework for a sustainable implementation of these systems by carrying out the whole process from dissemination of information to demand collection, feasibility studies, design, procurement, commissioning and user training. Hand over of ownership will take place once the equipment is installed and successfully commissioned. Monitoring during the first year of operation should conclude the project. REP is co-funded by the European Union and the Government of Nepal. (orig.)

  12. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of Stirling engine heater: Parametrical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheith, R.; Hachem, H.; Aloui, F.; Ben Nasrallah, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A Stirling engine was investigated to optimize its operation and its performance. • The porous medium present the highest amount of heat exchanged in a Stirling engine. • The heater characteristics are determinant points to enhance the thermal exchange in Stirling engine. • All operation parameters influence the heater performances. • Thermal and exergy heater efficiencies are sensible to temperature and pressure. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to optimize γ Stirling engine performances with a special care given to the heater. This latter consists of 20 tubes in order to increase the exchange area between the working gas and the hot source. Different parameters were chosen to evaluate numerically and experimentally the heater. The selected four independent parameters are: heating temperature (300–500 °C), initial filling pressure (3–8 bar), cooling water flow rate (0.2–3 l/min) and frequency (2–7 Hz). The amount of energy exchanged in the heater is significantly influenced by the frequency and heating temperature but it is slightly enhanced with the increase in the cooling water flow rate. The thermal and the exergy efficiencies of the heater are very sensible to the temperature and pressure variations.

  14. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., could cause heater failure. (d) Heater controls; general. Provision must be made to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control component, control system tubing, or... leakage. (2) The region surrounding the heater, if the heater fuel system has fittings that, if they...

  15. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-09-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of vapor compression heat pump cycle for tap water heating and development of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikawa, Michiyuki; Koyama, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The ideal vapor compression cycle for tap water heating and its COP were defined. • It was verified theoretically that CO_2 achieves the highest COP for tap water heating. • The prototype of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use was developed. • Further COP improvement of CO_2 heat pump water heater was estimated. - Abstract: The ideal vapor compression cycle for tap water heating and its coefficient of performance (COP) have been studied theoretically at first. The ideal cycle is defined as the cycle whose high temperature heat source varies temperature with constant specific heat and other processes are same as the reverse Carnot cycle. The COP upper limit of single stage compression heat pump cycle for tap water heating with various refrigerants such as fluorocarbons and natural refrigerants was calculated. The refrigerant which achieves the highest COP for supplying hot water is CO_2. Next, the prototype of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use has been developed. Its outline and experimental results are described. Finally its further possibility of COP improvement has been studied. The COP considered a limit from a technical point of view was estimated about 6.0 at the Japanese shoulder season (spring and autumn) test condition of heating water from 17 °C to 65 °C at 16 °C heat source air temperature (dry bulb)/12 °C (wet bulb).

  17. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... corresponded to the levels in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers... provides a brief history of DOE's more recent test procedure rulemakings related to residential water... performance (e.g., such as ambient air temperature, ambient relative humidity, and inlet water temperature...

  18. Simulation analysis on dynamic performance of a combined solar/air dual source heat pump water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Weishi; Yu, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater is investigated. • An additional air source evaporator is used in parallel way in the M-DX-SHPWH system. • The M-DX-SHPWH system displays a higher performance at the low solar radiation. • Effects of solar radiation and air temperature on the performance are discussed. - Abstract: This paper investigated a combined solar/air dual source heat pump water heater system for domestic water heating application. In the dual source system, an additional air source evaporator is introduced in parallel way based on a conventional direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heaters (DX-SHPWH) system, which can improve the performance of the DX-SHPWH system at a low solar radiation. In the present study, a dynamic mathematical model based on zoned lump parameter approach is developed to simulate the performance of the system (i.e. a modified DX-SHPWH (M-DX-SHPWH) system). Using the model, the performance of M-DX-SHPWH system is evaluated and then compared with that of the conventional DX-SHPWH system. The simulation results show the M-DX-SHPWH system has a better performance than that of the conventional DX-SHPWH system. At a low solar radiation of 100 W/m"2, the heating time of the M-DX-SHPWH decreases by 19.8% compared to the DX-SHPWH when water temperature reaches 55 °C. Meanwhile, the COP on average increases by 14.1%. In addition, the refrigerant mass flow rate distribution in the air source evaporator and the solar collector of the system, the allocation between the air source evaporator and the solar collector areas and effects of solar radiation and ambient air temperature on the system performance are discussed.

  19. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  20. Experimental study on a prototype of heat pipe solar water heater using refrigerant R134a as a transfer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, T.; Sembiring, J.; Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    A prototype of a solar water heater by using refrigerant as a heat transfer fluid is investigated experimentally. The objective is to explore the characteristics and the performance of the prototype. To make heat transfer from the collector to the heated fluid effectively, refrigerant R134a is used as a transfer. In the experiments, the initial pressure inside the heat pipe is varied. The prototype is exposed to solar irradiation in a location in Medan city for three days of the experiment. Solar collector temperatures, solar radiation, water temperature, and ambient temperature are measured. The efficiency of the system is analyzed. The results show that temperature of the hot water increases as the initial pressure of the working fluid increase. However, the increasing is not linear, and there must exist an optimum initial pressure. For the case with the refrigerant pressure of 110 psi, the maximum hot water temperature and maximum thermal efficiency are 45.36oC and 53.23%, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that solar water heater by using refrigerant R134a should be operated at initial pressure 110 psi.

  1. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  2. Experimental investigation of the higher coefficient of thermal performance for water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; You, Shijun; Xu, Wei; Wang, Min; He, Tao; Zheng, Xuejing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy grades system for solar water heater (SWH) in China was introduced. • Heat loss and capacity of heat collection mainly affected SWH thermal performance. • Optimum ratio of tank volume to collector area for solar water heater is 57 to 72 L/m 2 . • The recommendation polyurethane insulation layer should be around 50 mm thick. • SWH with shorter tube has a better thermal performance. - Abstract: Solar water heaters (SWHs), now widely used in China, represent an environmentally friendly way to heat water. We tested the performance of more than 1000 water-in-glass evacuated tube SWHs according to Chinese standards and found that the heat loss from the storage tank and capacity of the solar collector affected their thermal performance. The optimum parameters to maximize the performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube SWHs included a ratio of tank volume to collector area of 57–72 L/m 2 , which should give a system efficiency of 0.49–0.57, meaning that the temperature of water in the tank will exceed 45 °C after one day of heat collection. In addition, the polyurethane insulation layer should be around 50 mm thick with a free foaming density of about 35 kg/m 3 , and the evacuated tube should be short. The tilt angle did not affect the performance of the SWHs. These results should aid in the design of highly efficient SWHs

  3. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  4. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  5. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  6. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  7. Enhancing the solar still using immersion type water heater productivity and the effect of external cooling fan in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Garni, Ahmed Z.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work an attempt is made to enhance the of double slope solar still productivity by an immersion type water heater using. The effect of using an external fan to cool the glass surface is also examined. Experiments were carried out for winter season in Saudi Arabian climatic conditions at latitude 26 degree N. A solar still with 35 degree glass slope angle is chosen in our study. Since the yield of a solar still is more for low water depths, the water level in the base tank was maintained at 1 cm. The experimental results showed that the productivity increased by a significant 370% when two water heaters each having 500 W capacities was used. When external cooling fan was used the productivity was found to decrease by 4 % and 8% for wind speeds of 7 m/s and 9 m/s respectively. Thermal modeling was also done by the heat and mass transfer relations using, and then numerical simulations were carried out to validate with the experimental results. A good agreement between experimental and numerical results was found. The present study is partial implementation of two patents submitted in this field. (authors)

  8. Shale gas: the water myth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, Kerry [Dillon Consulting Limited (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, due to the depletion of traditional fossil fuel resources and the rising price of energy, production from unconventional gas activities has increased. Large shale gas plays are available in Quebec but environmental concerns, mainly in terms of water resources, have been raised. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the impact of shale gas exploitation on water resources. It is shown herein that shale gas water use is not significant, the water use of 250 wells represents only 0.3% of the Quebec pulp and paper industry's water use, or 0.0004% of the flow of the St Lawrence. It is also shown that the environmental risk associated with fracking and drilling activities is low. This paper demonstrated that as long as industry practices conform to a well-designed regulatory framework, shale gas development in Quebec will have a low impact on water resources and the environment.

  9. PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION OF THERMOSIPHON SOLAR FLAT PLATE WATER HEATER DUE TO SCALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arunachala umesh chandavar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 340 1943 International Islamic University 16 4 2279 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The performance of Flat plate Solar Water Heater deteriorates within five to twelve years of their installation due to factors related to manufacturing, operating conditions, lack of maintenance etc. Especially, problem due to scaling is significant as it is based on quality of water used. The remaining factors are system dependent and could be overcome by quality production. Software is developed by incorporating Hottel Whillier Bliss (H-W-B equation to ascertain the effect of scaling on system efficiency in case of thermosiphon system. In case of clean thermosiphon system, the instantaneous efficiency calculated at 1000 W/m2 radiation is 72 % and it drops to 46 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. The mass flow rate is reduced by 90 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. Whereas, the average temperature drop of water in the tank is not critical due to considerable heat content in water under severe scaled condition.  But practically in case of major scale growth, some of the risers are likely to get blocked completely which leads to negligible temperature rise in the tank. ABSTRAK: Prestasi plat rata pemanas air suria merosot selepas lima hingga dua belas tahun  pemasangannya disebabkan faktor-faktor yang berkaitan dengan pembuatannya, cara kendaliannya, kurangnya penyelenggaraan dan sebagainya.  Terutama sekali, masalah disebabkan scaling (tembunan endapan mineral perlu diambil berat kerana ianya bergantung kepada kualiti air yang digunakan. Faktor-faktor selebihya bersandarkan sistem dan ia

  10. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaowei; Liu Zhenyan; Li Yuan; Zhao Keke; Wang Zhigang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users

  11. On a Green Municipal Initiative in Cape Town (South Africa): Lessons from the Solar Water Heater Advanced Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubresson, Alain

    2013-01-01

    During the 2000's, the metropolitan municipality of Cape Town elaborated an ambitious energy transition strategy, backed up by the Energy and Climate Action Plan approved in 2010. One element of this plan is a mass solar water heater roll-out programme for households. Analysing the difficulties in the implementation of this programme, this article argues that the main limits to metropolitan action do not result primarily from local and/or multi-level governance issues but from national constraints and stakes which are deeply rooted in the political economy of South Africa. Any attempt to build an autonomous metropolitan energy policy is therefore today illusory in South Africa

  12. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cihan Çakır

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  13. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, M Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-09-29

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption-dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  14. A simulation study on the operating performance of a solar-air source heat pump water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoying; Zhang Xiaosong; Deng Shiming

    2006-01-01

    A simulation study on the operating performance of a new type of solar-air source heat pump water heater (SAS-HPWH) has been presented. The SAS-HPWH used a specially designed flat-plate heat collector/evaporator with spiral-finned tubes to obtain energy from both solar irradiation and ambient air for hot water heating. Using the meteorological data in Nanjing, China, the simulation results based on 150 L water heating capacity showed that such a SAS-HPWH can heat water up to 55 deg. C efficiently under various weather conditions all year around. In this simulation study, the influences of solar radiation, ambient temperature and compressor capacity on the performance of the SAS-HPWH were analyzed. In order to improve the overall operating performance, the use of a variable-capacity compressor has been proposed

  15. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  16. China's transition to green energy systems: The economics of home solar water heaters and their popularization in Dezhou city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Song Guojun; Beresford, Melanie; Ma, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Studying the popularization of solar water heaters (SWHs) is significant for understanding China's transition to green energy systems. Using Dezhou as a case study, this paper presents new angles on analyzing SWH deployment in China by addressing both the economic potential and the institutional dimensions at the local level. Using estimates from the demand-side of hot water for a typical three-person household in Dezhou, the paper evaluates the economic potential of a SWH in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Then, expanding the analysis beyond economics, we take an institutionalist approach to study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success in SWH adoptions. By examining the five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime, we find that Dezhou's SWH deployment is driven by an urge to develop businesses and the local economy, and its success results from at least five unique factors, including the development of SWH industrial clusters in Dezhou, big manufacturers' market leadership in SWH innovations, a tight private enterprise-local government relation, geographic location within the SWH industrial belt, and the adaptive attitude of Dezhou's households towards natural resource scarcity. - Highlights: → We study the popularization of solar water heaters in Dezhou, China. → We study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success. → Five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime are examined. → Dezhou's success results from at least five unique factors. → This leads to important directions for improving China'ss green innovation adoption.

  17. Experimental study on depth of paraffin wax over floating absorber plate in built-in storage solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sivakumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the effect of depth of phase change material over the absorber surface of an integrated collector-storage type flat plate solar water heater. Flat plate solar water heaters are extensively used all over the world to utilize the natural source of solar energy. In order to utilize the solar energy during off-sunshine hours, it is inevitable to store and retain solar thermal energy as long as possible. Here, phase change material is not used for heat storage, but to minimize losses during day and night time only. The depth of phase change material over a fixed depth of water in a solar thermal collector is an important geometric parameter that influences the maximum temperature rise during peak solar irradiation and hence the losses. From the results of the studies for different masses of paraffin wax phase change material layers, the optimum depth corresponding to the maximum heat gain till evening is found to be 2 mm, and the heat retention till the next day morning is found to be 4 mm.

  18. Gas in your water well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    In Alberta, the presence of carbon dioxide, methane or hydrogen sulphide in water wells is common. The aim of this paper is to provide information to private owners of water wells. It is stated in this document that spurting taps or a gurgling noise indicate that there is gas in your water well; you can determine which gas it is by collecting a sample and having it analyzed. In order to address the risks associated with the presence of gas in the water well, the well pit or well pump should be properly vented to avoid any oxygen deficiency in the atmosphere. It is also possible to get rid of the gas by lowering the pump intake. It is also mentioned that the development of coalbed methane in Alberta should not contaminate private wells since regulations aimed at avoiding this have been implemented. This paper provided useful information to help private owners manage the presence of gas in their water wells.

  19. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  20. Devise of an exhaust gas heat exchanger for a thermal oil heater in a palm oil refinery plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chucherd, Panom; Kittisupakorn, Paisan

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the devise of an exhaust gas heat exchanger for waste heat recovery of the exhausted flue gas of palm oil refinery plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing an economizer to heat the feed water which can save the fuel consumption of the coal fired steam boiler and the outlet temperature of flue gas will be controlled in order to avoid the acid dew point temperature and protect the filter bag. The decrease of energy used leads to the reduction of CO2 emission. Two designed economizer studied in this paper are gas in tube and water in tube. The gas in tube exchanger refers to the shell and tube heat exchanger which the flue gas flows in tube; this designed exchanger is used in the existing unit. The new designed water in tube refers to the shell and tube heat exchanger which the water flows in the tube; this designed exchanger is proposed for new implementation. New economizer has the overall coefficient of heat transfer of 19.03 W/m2.K and the surface heat transfer area of 122 m2 in the optimized case. Experimental results show that it is feasible to install economizer in the exhaust flue gas system between the air preheater and the bag filter, which has slightly disadvantage effect in the system. The system can raise the feed water temperature from 40 to 104°C and flow rate 3.31 m3/h, the outlet temperature of flue gas is maintained about 130 °C.

  1. Infrared Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  2. Experimental Study of a Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater Coupled to a Fibre-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwosu, P. N.; Oparaku, O. U.; Okonkwo, W. I.; Unachukwu, G. O.; Agbiogwu, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal performance of the thermosyphon solar water heater was analyzed to show its applicability in a tropical climate using data of cloudy, sunny and hazy days. The average daily efficiency of the parallel-connected module, ranged between 35 and 40%. Also, an analysis of the temperature storage characteristics of a novel fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) storage tank was undertaken. The inlet andoutlet positions were determined using the recommendation of Simon and Wenxian [1]: the optional position for the inlet/outlet was around the very top/bottom of the tank. The obtained results showed that the coupled FRP tank substantially retained and delivered the stored hot water during off-sunshine hours with minimal losses, and stratification occurred in the tank as a result. In view of the thermal performance, FRP materials can be efficiently employed in the design of solar hot water storage tanks. (authors)

  3. The development of an ultra-low-emission gas-fired combustor for space heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Tian-yu; Khinkis, M.J.; Coppin, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    An ultra-low-emission as-fired combustor has been developed for relatively low-temperature direct-air heating applications. High-lean premixed cyclonic combustion with a flame stabilizer is employed to achieve ultra-low emissions and high turndown operation. On the basis of analytical studies and cold modeling a 350-kW test combustor was designed and successfully tested. Experimental results obtained using natural gas and ambient air demonstrated that the test combustor can operate steadily at high excess air up to 80% to 100% over a large turndown range up to 40:1. At design operating conditions, NO x emissions as low as 0.6 vppm and CO and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions below 3 vppm were achieved. Over the full operating range, NO x emissions from 0.3 to 1.0 vppm and CO and THC emissions below 4 vppm were demonstrated. In all tests, concentrations of NO 2 were less than 40% of the total NO 2 emissions from combustion processes required for good indoor air quality (0.5 vppm). This paper presents the concept of high-lean premixed ultra-low-emission cyclonic combustion, design specifications for the combustion system, and the major experimental results, including flame stability, emissions, and turndown performance. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  4. A thermodynamic analysis of a transcritical cycle with refrigerant mixture R32/R290 for a small heat pump water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jianlin; Xu, Zong; Tian, Gaolei [Department of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, West Xianning Road, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, a thermodynamic analysis on the performance of a transcritical cycle using azeotropic refrigerant mixtures of R32/R290 with mass fraction of 70/30 has been performed. The main purpose of this study is to theoretically verify the possibility of applying the chosen refrigerant mixture in small heat pumps for high temperature water heating applications. Performance evaluation has been carried out for a simple azeotropic mixture R32/R290 transcritical cycle by varying evaporator temperature, outlet temperature of gas cooler and compressor discharge pressure. Furthermore, the effects of an internal heat exchanger on the transcritical R32/R290 cycle have been presented at different operating conditions. The results show that high heating coefficient of performance (COP{sub h}) and volumetric heating capacity can be achieved by using this transcritical cycle. It is desirable to apply the chosen refrigerant mixture R32/R290 in small heat pump water heater for high temperature water heating applications, which may produce hot water with temperature up to 90 C. (author)

  5. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  6. Numerical study on the effects of absorptivity on performance of flat plate solar collector of a water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambunan, D. R. S.; Sibagariang, Y. P.; Ambarita, H.; Napitupulu, F. H.; Kawai, H.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics of absorber plate of a flat plate solar collector play an important role in the improvement of the performance. In this work, a numerical analysis is carried out to explore the effect of absorptivity and emissivity of absorber plate to the performance of the solar collector of a solar water heater. For a results comparison, a simple a simple solar box cooker with absorber area of 0.835 m × 0.835 m is designed and fabricated. It is employed to heat water in a container by exposing to the solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia. The transient governing equations are developed. The governing equations are discretized and solved using the forward time step marching technique. The results reveal that the experimental and numerical results show good agreement. The absorptivity of the plate absorber and emissivity of the glass cover strongly affect the performance of the solar collector.

  7. Experimental study on the performance of a multi-functional domestic air conditioner with integrated water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jiankai; Li, Hui; Yao, Yang; Jiang, Yiqiang; Zhang, Xinran

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel MDACWH was presented and experimentally studied. • MDACWH has high performance on making domestic hot water and air conditioning. • The time for heating water reduced to 22.0 min after modification. • Average COP reached 4.32, which was 1.58 times higher than the unmodified unit. - Abstract: The recovery of condenser heat is concerned one of the most effective methods to curb energy consumption in residential dwellings. Aiming at recovering the condenser heat of domestic air conditioner, this paper experimentally studied a multi-functional domestic air conditioner with integrated water heater (MDACWH) which can effectively provide space – cooling and domestic hot water simultaneously. The dynamic operation characteristics, such as hot water supply and energy efficiency were tested to verify the availability of the MDACWH. The results showed that the MDACWH can effectively heat the domestic hot water without losing its cooling capacity. It was also found that with the use of MDACWH, the coefficient of comprehensive energy performance of the MDACWH was about 1.58 times higher than that of the unmodified experimental unit. Furthermore, the water-heating time was shorten remarkably from 128.5 min to 22.0 min. The novel domestic air conditioner, compared with the unmodified initial prototype, can be more practical and provide significant energy savings in space-cooling and hot water supply.

  8. Water recovery from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijboer, R.; Van Deelen-Bremer, M.H.; de Vos, F.; Zeijseink, A.G.L. [KEMA Nederland B.V. (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    In the power generation process a large amount of water is needed, for steam generation, flue gas cleaning etc. On the other hand a large amount of water is emitted to the atmosphere via the stack. For example a 400 MW coal fired power plant with a flue gas desulfurisation plant emits about 1,500,000 m{sup 3} per hour with a water concentration of about 11%. The emitted water has a rather good quality compared to surface water and needs less effort to be treated for use as make-up water. As the available amount of water in the flue gas from the earlier mentioned power plant is about 150 tons per hour, recovering 20% of this amount covers the make-up water needs of this 400 MW power plant. Direct condensation of the flue gas needs large cooling power and the condensed water is acidic and corrosive and needs cleanup treatment before it can be used in the water/steam cycle. KEMA developed a technology based on gas separation membranes which makes it possible to recover water from flue gas. The process is covered by a wide patent. The principle of the membrane is comparable to the material that is used in fabric like SympaTex{reg_sign} and GORE-TEX{reg_sign}. The GORE-TEX material is permeable to water vapor but rejects liquid water. The driving force is the water vapor pressure close to the human skin which is the higher than the water vapor pressure open the outside of the clothing. The selectivity of the GORE-TEX material however is not good enough to be used at the temperature of flue gas. The University of Twente (Netherlands) developed a membrane material based on modified PEEK which is highly selective of water vapor at flue gas temperatures. Based on the fact that flat membranes have an uneconomical surface to volume ratio, the choice has been made to use hollow fibre membranes. 6 figs.

  9. A hybrid desalination system using humidification-dehumidification and solar stills integrated with evacuated solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshir, S.W.; Peng, Guilong; Yang, Nuo; Eltawil, Mohamed A.; Ali, Mohamed Kamal Ahmed; Kabeel, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evacuated solar water heater integrated with humidification-dehumidification system. • Reuse of warm water drained from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills. • The thermal performance of hybrid system is increased by 50% and maximum yield is 63.3 kg/day. • The estimated price of the freshwater produced from the hybrid system is $0.034/L. - Abstract: This paper offers a hybrid solar desalination system comprising a humidification-dehumidification and four solar stills. The developed hybrid desalination system reuses the drain warm water from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills to stop the massive warm water loss during desalination. Reusing the drain warm water increases the gain output ratio of the system by 50% and also increased the efficiency of single solar still to about 90%. Furthermore, the production of a single solar still as a part of the hybrid system was more than that of the conventional one by approximately 200%. The daily water production of the conventional one, single solar still, four solar still, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were 3.2, 10.5, 42, 24.3 and 66.3 kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the cost per unit liter of distillate from conventional one, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were around $0.049, $0.058 and $0.034, respectively.

  10. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkanshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S; Mizuno, T [Yazaki Resources Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the purpose of satisfying demands for qualitative improvement on tapwater temperature and pressure, an indirect-type solar water heater using solar cells, in which a closed type hot water storage tank connected directly to the water supply is integrated with a solar collector, was examined for its characteristics and performance. The heat collecting medium is a water solution of polypropylene glycol, which circulates through the solar collector pump, cistern, solar collector, and heat exchanger (hot water storage tank). The results of the test are summarized below. When comparison is made between the two solar collector pump control methods, the solar cells direct connection method and the differential thermo method utilizing temperature difference between the solar collector and the hot water storage tank, they are alike in collecting heat on clear days, but on cloudy days the latter collects 5% more than the former. In winter, when the heat exchanger heat transfer area is 0.4m{sup 2} large, a further increase in the area improves but a little the heat collecting efficiency. An increase in the medium flow rate and temperature, or in the Reynolds number, enhances the heat collecting efficiency. 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  12. A novel PV/T-air dual source heat pump water heater system: Dynamic simulation and performance characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jingyong; Ji, Jie; Wang, Yunyun; Zhou, Fan; Yu, Bendong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The PV/T evaporator and air source evaporator connect in parallel and operate simultaneously. • A dynamic model is developed to simulate the behavior of the system. • The thermal and electrical characteristics of the PV/T evaporator are evaluated. • The contribution of the air source evaporator and PV/T evaporator has been discussed. - Abstract: To enable the heat pump water heater maintain efficient operation under diverse circumstances, a novel PV/T-air dual source heat pump water heater (PV/T-AHPWH) has been proposed in this study. In the PV/T-AHPWH system, a PV/T evaporator and an air source evaporator connect in parallel and operate simultaneously to recover energy from both solar energy and environment. A dynamic model is presented to simulate the behavior of the PV/T-AHPWH system. On this basis, the influences of solar irradiation, ambient temperature and packing factor have been discussed, and the contributions of air source evaporator and PV/T evaporator are evaluated. The results reveal that the system can obtain efficient operation with the average COP above 2.0 under the ambient temperature of 10 °C and solar irradiation of 100 W/m 2 . The PV/T evaporator can compensate for the performance degradation of the air source evaporator caused by the increasing condensing temperature. As the evaporating capacity in PV/T evaporator remains at relatively low level under low irradiation, the air source evaporator can play the main role of recovering heat. Comparing the performance of dual source heat pump system employing PV/T collector with that utilizing normal solar thermal collector, the system utilizing PV/T evaporator is more efficient in energy saving and performance improvement.

  13. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relief of any backfire that, if so restricted, could cause heater failure. (d) Heater controls; general. There must be means to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control... malfunctioning; or (ii) Allow flammable fluids or vapors to reach the heater in case of leakage. (2) Each part of...

  14. Application of CAE-modeling for the study of the influence of the sensor location on the flow-through water heater operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakunin, A. G.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with issues related to increasing the efficiency of the system of automatic maintenance of the temperature of liquid media entering the pipes to the place of consumption. For this purpose, a flowing water heater model is proposed, made in the SolidWorks environment, the construction parameters of which can be changed using the appropriate macro and screen form. It is shown that the choice of the location of the temperature sensor has a significant effect on such parameters of the device as the accuracy of maintaining a given temperature regime and the duration of the transient process caused by a change in the temperature of the liquid entering the heater. On a concrete example, it is shown that by changing the distance between the sensor and the heating module, it is possible to achieve minimum temperature fluctuations of the heat-transfer-agent at the heater outlet.

  15. The efficiency of the heat pump water heater, during DHW tapping cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gużda, Arkadiusz; Szmolke, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses one of the most effective systems for domestic hot water (DHW) production based on air-source heat pump with an integrated tank. The operating principle of the heat pump is described in detail. Moreover, there is an account of experimental set-up and results of the measurements. In the experimental part, measurements were conducted with the aim of determining the energy parameters and measures of the economic efficiency related to the presented solution. The measurements that were conducted are based on the tapping cycle that is similar to the recommended one in EN-16147 standard. The efficiency of the air source heat pump during the duration of the experiment was 2.43. In the end of paper, authors conducted a simplified ecological analysis in order to determine the influence of operation of air-source heat pump with integrated tank on the environment. Moreover the compression with the different source of energy (gas boiler with closed combustion chamber and boiler fired by the coal) was conducted. The heat pump is the ecological friendly source of the energy.

  16. The efficiency of the heat pump water heater, during DHW tapping cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gużda Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses one of the most effective systems for domestic hot water (DHW production based on air-source heat pump with an integrated tank. The operating principle of the heat pump is described in detail. Moreover, there is an account of experimental set-up and results of the measurements. In the experimental part, measurements were conducted with the aim of determining the energy parameters and measures of the economic efficiency related to the presented solution. The measurements that were conducted are based on the tapping cycle that is similar to the recommended one in EN-16147 standard. The efficiency of the air source heat pump during the duration of the experiment was 2.43. In the end of paper, authors conducted a simplified ecological analysis in order to determine the influence of operation of air-source heat pump with integrated tank on the environment. Moreover the compression with the different source of energy (gas boiler with closed combustion chamber and boiler fired by the coal was conducted. The heat pump is the ecological friendly source of the energy.

  17. Detailed Theoretical Characterization of a Transcritical CO2 Direct Expansion Ground Source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Eslami-Nejad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new avenue in modern heat pump technology is related to the use of natural refrigerants such as carbon dioxide (CO2. The use of CO2 in direct expansion ground source heat pumps (DX-GSHP has also gained significant interest as it offers opportunities for cost reduction of the ground loop, albeit some challenges remain in their development, design and use. To address these challenges and to characterize CO2-DX-GSHP performance for water heating applications, a detailed theoretical model and a fully-instrumented test apparatus was developed and built at CanmetENERGY Research Laboratory. The theoretical model was validated against a set of experimental results and adopted to investigate the performance of the system over a wide operating range. Validation results showed that the model predicts the experimental results within the measurement uncertainty. A detailed system performance analysis was also performed using the theoretical model to understand the system behavior and explore the actions required for performance improvement in future installations. The results of the analysis showed that improper design and control of some components, such as the gas cooler and ground heat exchanger can degrade the system performance by up to 25%, and the heat pump heating capacity by 7.5%.

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet pressure, boiler exit steam temperature, and condenser pressure on the first and second laws' efficiencies are investigated. Also the best turbine extraction pressure on the first law efficiency is obtained. The results show that the biggest exergy loss occurs in the boiler followed by the turbine. The results also show that the overall thermal efficiency and the second law efficiency decrease as the condenser pressure increases for any fixed outlet boiler temperature, however, they increase as the boiler temperature increases for any condenser pressure. Furthermore, the best values of extraction pressure from high, intermediate, and low pressure turbine which give the maximum first law efficiencies are obtained based on the required heat load corresponding to each exit boiler temperature.

  19. Extreme learning machine: a new alternative for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Li, Hao; Tang, Xindong; Zhang, Xinyu; Lin, Fan; Cheng, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    Heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial indicators for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, wasting too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we previously used artificial neural networks and support vector machine to develop precise knowledge-based models for predicting the heat collection rates and heat loss coefficients of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters, setting the properties measured by "portable test instruments" as the independent variables. A robust software for determination was also developed. However, in previous results, the prediction accuracy of heat loss coefficients can still be improved compared to those of heat collection rates. Also, in practical applications, even a small reduction in root mean square errors (RMSEs) can sometimes significantly improve the evaluation and business processes. As a further study, in this short report, we show that using a novel and fast machine learning algorithm-extreme learning machine can generate better predicted results for heat loss coefficient, which reduces the average RMSEs to 0.67 in testing.

  20. Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

  1. Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on DHP copper by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus megaterium strains in media simulating heater waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumelzu, E.; Cabezas, C.; Schoebitz, R.; Ugarte, R.; Rodriguez, E.D.; Rios, J.

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of microbial populations in water heating systems of steam generators make it necessary to study the magnitude of the metabolic activity of bacteria and biofilm development that may lead to degradation of metal components through microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Electrolytes simulating the conditions found in heater water networks were used to induce biofilm formation on DHP copper coupons by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSMZ and Bacillus megaterium C10, a commercial strain and an isolate from these waters, respectively. In order to enhance their action, industrial waters enriched with the minimum nutrient content such as sodium lactate and sodium sulphite for the DSMZ strain and glucose, proteose peptone and starch for the C10 strain were employed. Biofilm formation was studied under controlled temperature, time, shaking, pH and concentrations of the media used in this study. Then, the samples were electrochemically tested in an artificial solution of sea water as control medium, based on the hypothesis that the action of an aggressive biofilm/electrolyte medium generates damaged and non-damaged areas on the metal surface, and assuming that the sea water trial can detect the latter. Hence, a higher anodic current was associated with a lower degradation of the metal surface by the action of one of the media under study. All these trials were performed along with bacterial count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, it was possible to identify under which conditions MIC on DHP copper occurred and complex mechanisms from retention of cations to diffusion processes at the biofilm/tested media interface level were proposed. Surface corrosion by MIC took place on DHP copper; therefore, greater control on the treatment of industrial waters is highly desirable. (author)

  2. Desempenho de um aquecedor de água a biogás Performance of a water heater by biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram desenvolvidos para dimensionar e adaptar o injetor do queimador principal de um aquecedor de água tipo acumulação de 75 L. O diâmetro do injetor foi redimensionado em função da pressão de serviço de 100 mm H2O e poder calorífico inferior do biogás de 21.600 kJ m-3 n, garantindo a manutenção da potência calorífica do equipamento de 20.900 kJ h-1. Os resultados demonstraram que o queimador adaptado operou com biogás adequadamente, com chama estável. A eficiência média do aquecedor foi de 68%, para ganho térmico de 36,7 ºC, correspondendo à temperatura final da água igual a 62,7 ºC, sendo consumido 0,796 m³n de biogás, aquecendo 75 L de água em 72 minutos.Studies had been developed to project and to adapt the injector of the main burner of water heater accumulated type of 75 L. The diameter of the injector was project in function of the pressure of service of 100 mm H2O and inferior calorific power of biogas of 21,600 kJ m-3 n, having guaranteed the maintenance of the calorific power of the equipment of 20,900 of kJ h-1 .The results had demonstrated that the adapted burner to operate with biogas operated adequately with a steady flame. The average efficiency of the heater was of 68%, for a thermal profit of 36.7 ºC, corresponding the final temperature of the water of 62.7 ºC being consumed 0.796 m³ n of biogas, heating 75 L of water in 72 minutes.

  3. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  4. Microcontroller based instrumentation for heater control circuit of tin oxide based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premalatha, S.; Krithika, P.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Ramanarayanan, R.R.; Prabhu, E.; Jayaraman, V.; Parthasarathy, R.

    2015-01-01

    A thin film sensor based on tin oxide developed in IGCAR is used to monitor very low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 2 ppm to 80 ppm). The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate and necessary electrical leads are taken out. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350°C. The sensor output (voltage signal) varies with H 2 concentration. In fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium is used as coolant. The sensor is used to detect water/steam leak in secondary sodium circuit. During the start up of the reactor, steam leak into sodium circuit generates hydrogen gas as a product that doesn't dissolve in sodium, but escapes to the surge tank containing argon i.e. in cover gas plenum of sodium circuit. On-line monitoring of hydrogen in cover gas is done to detect an event of water/steam leakage. The focus of this project is on the instrumentation pertaining to the temperature control for the sensor heater. The tin oxide based hydrogen sensor is embedded in a substrate which consists of a platinum heater, essentially a resistor. There is no provision of embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to the physical constraints, without which maintaining a constant heater temperature is a complex task

  5. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkahshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S; Mizuno, T [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Optimal operation control was discussed on a forced-circulation solar water heater using solar cells not only as the power supply of a heat collecting pump, but also for controlling operation of the heat collecting pump. With this system, when the amount of power generated by solar cells reaches a sufficient level for operating the heat collecting pump, the heat collecting pump starts operation, wherein the heat collecting medium circulates in the system. The discussion was given by using simulation based on experimental expressions such as the relation expression between insolation and heat collecting medium flow rate as derived from the result of the system`s heat collecting performance test. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: optimal insolation for activating the discussed system is from 50 to 100 W/m {sup 2}, and the heat collected within this range is within -1.5% of the collected heat amount at an optimum value; optimal activating insolation for the case of 1000 to 2000 W/m {sup 2} with low daily cumulative insolation is from 0 to 50 W/m {sup 2}, whereas the optimal activating insolation amount increases as the daily cumulative insolation amount increases; and the optimal activating insolation amount increases as water to be supplied requires higher temperature. 1 ref., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The design of electrical heater pins to simulate transient dryout and post-dryout of water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.; Butcher, A.A.; Sidoli, J.E.A.

    1978-11-01

    A theoretical assessment of indirect and direct filled heater simulations of nuclear reactor fuel pins is described. For reasons of fast temperature response, a direct unfilled heater, with thermocouples buried in the walls, is recommended for studies of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents leading to dryout, post-dryout and rewetting. A design of heater pins, for use in SGHWR or PWR experiments, and compatible with existing 9MW power supplies, is described. Experiments to confirm collapse pressure calculations at 1000 0 C and thermocouple response times are also reported. (author)

  7. Test of two heat-pump systems, Fre-Heater Type B and Fre-Heater Type C, made by Mueller. Installations for the cooling of milk and the heating of water on farms. Beproeving van twee warmtepompsystemen, type Fre-Heater, modellen B en C, fabrikaat Mueller. Installaties voor het koelen van melk en het verwarmen van water op de boerderij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouman, S; Verheij, C P; de Vries, J

    1980-01-01

    At the request of Meko Holland BV, Assen (the Netherlands), two heat-pump systems, Fre-Heater Type B and Fre-Heater Type C (FH-B and FH-C), were tested for their suitability for the simultaneous cooling of milk and heating of water on farms. The main purpose of the tests was to provide information about the technical properties of the systems, and about the possibilities they offer for the saving of energy. The test was carried out according to the directives laid down in the 'Beproevingsmethoden voor warmtepompsystemen ten behoeve van het verwarmen van water op de boerderij' (Test methods for heat-pump systems for the heating of water on farms), issued by the Netherlands Institute for Dairy Research, 1980. Both systems were compared with a conventional air-cooled refrigerated farm milk tank with a COPR (coefficient of performance of refrigeration) of 2.5. The FH-B was found to have a COPR of 2.25, and the FH-C a COPR of 2.52. The net savings of energy that could be achieved with the FH-B were 16.8 kWh per m3 cooled 'milk', and with the FH-C 17.2 kWh per m3 cooled 'milk'. Based on a pay-back period of five years and a price of electrical energy of Dfl 0.20 per kWh, the FH-B appeared to be economically justified at a farm with 38 cows and the FH-C at a farm with 48 cows (milk production 5.5 m3 per cow per year).

  8. Determination of inorganic compounds in drinking water on the basis of house water heater scale, part 1: Determination of heavy metals and uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of scale originated from drinking water on the house water heater, showed that scale is basically calcium carbonate that crystallizes hexagonally in the form of calcite. Scale taken as a sample from different spots in Belgrade – upper town of Zemun (sample 1 and Pančevo (sample 2 showed different configuration although it came from the same waterworks. That indicates either that the water flowing through waterworks pipes in different parts of the city is not the same or the waterworks net is not the same (age, maintaining, etc. All the elements which are dominant in drinking water (Ca, Mg, K, and Na, and which could be found in water by natural processes, are by their content far below the values regulated by law. The analysis also showed the presence of many metals: Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu Li, Sr, Cd, and Cr in the first sample, which are not found in the scale taken near Pančevo. The results obtained by calculating the mass concentration in drinking water on the basis of scale content, showed that both waters belonged to the category of low mineral waters. Contents of inorganic substances in these waters (117.85 mg/dm3 for sample 1 or 80.83 mg/dm3 for sample 2 are twice lower than the values predicted by the legislation. Gammaspectrometric analysis indicates the presence of radioactive elements – uranium and strontium which can influence human health.

  9. Experimental Study of a Novel Direct-Expansion Variable Frequency Finned Solar/Air-Assisted Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel direct expansion variable frequency finned solar/air-assisted heat pump water heater was fabricated and tested in the enthalpy difference lab with a solar simulator. A solar/air source evaporator-collector with an automatic lifting glass cover plate was installed on the system. The system could be operated in three modes, namely, air, solar, and dual modes. The effects of the ambient temperature, solar irradiation, compressor frequency, and operating mode on the performance of this system were studied in this paper. The experimental results show that the ambient temperature, solar irradiation, and operating mode almost have no effect on the energy consumption of the compressor. When the ambient temperature and the solar irradiation were increased, the COP was found to increase with decreasing heating time. Also, when the compressor frequency was increased, an increase in the energy consumption of the compressor and the heat gain of the evaporator were noted with a decrease in the heating time.

  10. Performance enhancement studies in a thermosyphon flat plate solar water heater with CuO nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasaien Anin Vincely

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on a thermosyphon type flat plate collector, inclined at 45°, for water heating application. Water and water based nanofluids were used as absorber fluid to gain heat from solar rays incident on the flat plate col-lector. Nanofluids were prepared by adding CuO nanoparticles of 40-50 nm size to the base fluid at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 wt% (ζ. The hot absorber fluid was made to circulate in the shell side of a heat exchanger, placed at the top of the flat plate collector, where utility water was circulated inside a helically coiled Cu tube. Temperatures at strategic locations in the flat plate collector, working fluid, utility water inlet and outlet were measured. The nanofluid increases the collector efficiency with increasing ζ. A highest efficiency enhancement of 5.7% was observed for the nanofluid with ζ = 0.2 having a mass flow rate of 0.0033 kg/s. The 3-D, steady-state, conjugate heat transfer CFD analyses were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT 15.0 software. Theoretically estimated buoyancy induced fluid flow rates were close with the CFD predictions and thus validates the computational methodology.

  11. State-of-the-art report for solar water heaters in the Netherlands 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselaar, L.; Blezer, I.

    2009-01-01

    This state-of-the-art report addresses the implementation of solar heat in the Netherlands. The main appliance is the solar boiler for production of warm tap water in households. Other appliances are production of warm tap water in large buildings (e.g. homes for the elderly), heating of dwellings and heating of swimming pools. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the market and techniques for this technology. Emphasis will be put on solar boilers, but other appliances will also be addressed [nl

  12. Effect of Tank Size on the Temperature Distributions for Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Masri, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    In the present study an investigation was conducted on the temperature distribution effect for several tank capacities (100 L, 120 L, 150 L and 200 L) having two different aspect ratios (H/D) for each capacity. Hot water is supplied to these tanks by a Hybrid PV/T collector of 4 m² illuminating area. The circulation of water within PV cells cools its surface area to solve the problem occurred in PV cells, where each 1°C increase in the surface module 0.45% of the electrical efficiency decreas...

  13. Factor 4 working group: preparing future is urgent. Energy saving certificates. The tax credit boosts the solar water heater and heat pump sales. Climatic change and energy: the Californian example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverne, R.; Rabany, B.; Leclercq, M.; Lorec, Ph.; Schweitzer, J.Ph.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 4 articles dealing with: the concluding report of the 'Factor 4' working group which expresses 28 recommendations in the form of energy policy proposals necessary to be implemented as soon as possible in order for France to start a society and economy transition and to reach the 2050 goal of dividing the present day greenhouse gas emissions by a factor 4; the energy saving certificates implemented with the July 13, 2005 law of energy policy choices, which targets the diffuse energy saving sources in the residential and tertiary sectors; the success of the tax credit for the use of solar thermal water heaters, wood-fuel space heating appliances and air/water and geothermal heat pumps, in particular in the residential sector; the problem of the links between climatic change and energy and the lessons learnt from the example of the 'new sustainable economy' of California (USA). (J.S.)

  14. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  15. The sun as hot water source. Answers to questions on the solar water heater; Le soleil source d'eau chaude. Les reponses a vos questions sur le chauffe-eau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide answers to the main questions concerning a water heating system for domestic use. It aims to help the people who want to buy a solar water heater, to better estimate the advantages and the limits, in providing information on the operating and the use. (A.L.B.)

  16. A procedure for analysing energy savings in multiple small solar water heaters installed in low-income housing in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglio, Thalita; Lamberts, Roberto; Barbosa, Miriam; Urbano, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Due to government subsidies, Brazil has witnessed an increase in the installation and use of small solar water heating systems in low-income housing projects. Although the initiative has reduced the load curve during peak times due to the reduced use of electric showerheads, measurement and verification (M and V) are needed to validate the savings. M and V procedures should take into account the social and economic variability of low-income housing developments. To improve M and V in low-income housing projects, this paper presents a methodology for identifying homogeneous subgroups based on their energy-saving potential. This research strategy involved a cluster analysis designed to improve the understanding of what energy savers and other influencing factors exist. A case study in Londrina Brazil was undertaken with 200 low-income families. Five clusters, created based on savings potential, were defined. The results showed that only two clusters demonstrated good electricity savings, representing 47% of families. However, two clusters, or 37%, did not provide satisfactory savings, and the other 16% did not provide any consumption history due to previous use of illegal city electricity connection practices. Therefore, studies confirm the need for a detailed measurement of the representative subgroups to assess the influence of human behaviour on potential SWHS-induced savings. - Highlights: • M and V is necessary to improve solar collector-area-based subsidy programmes. • M and V in large-scale sample should contemplate the social and economic variability. • Samples with homogeneous subgroups contribute to a consistent energy-saving M and V. • Solar Water Heaters in some cases may not offer energy saving in a low-income context. • SWH performance decreases with low educational level and difficulty of operation

  17. Artificial neural networks for the performance prediction of heat pump hot water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathioulakis, E.; Panaras, G.; Belessiotis, V.

    2018-02-01

    The rapid progression in the use of heat pumps, due to the decrease in the equipment cost, together with the favourable economics of the consumed electrical energy, has been combined with the wide dissemination of air-to-water heat pumps (AWHPs) in the residential sector. The entrance of the respective systems in the commercial sector has made important the modelling of the processes. In this work, the suitability of artificial neural networks (ANN) in the modelling of AWHPs is investigated. The ambient air temperature in the evaporator inlet and the water temperature in the condenser inlet have been selected as the input variables; energy performance indices and quantities characterising the operation of the system have been selected as output variables. The results verify that the, easy-to-implement, trained ANN can represent an effective tool for the prediction of the AWHP performance in various operation conditions and the parametrical investigation of their behaviour.

  18. A semi-analytical refrigeration cycle modelling approach for a heat pump hot water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaras, G.; Mathioulakis, E.; Belessiotis, V.

    2018-04-01

    The use of heat pump systems in applications like the production of hot water or space heating makes important the modelling of the processes for the evaluation of the performance of existing systems, as well as for design purposes. The proposed semi-analytical model offers the opportunity to estimate the performance of a heat pump system producing hot water, without using detailed geometrical or any performance data. This is important, as for many commercial systems the type and characteristics of the involved subcomponents can hardly be detected, thus not allowing the implementation of more analytical approaches or the exploitation of the manufacturers' catalogue performance data. The analysis copes with the issues related with the development of the models of the subcomponents involved in the studied system. Issues not discussed thoroughly in the existing literature, as the refrigerant mass inventory in the case an accumulator is present, are examined effectively.

  19. Evaluation of RSG-GAS purification system and pool warm water layer supplier performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyono; Suhadi; Diah-Erlina-Lestari

    2005-01-01

    Function of RSG-GAS purification system and warm water supplier (KBE 02) are to pick up dissolve activation result and another dirts of warm water layer. To keep quality of water at the decided level. The system is equipped by heater to supply warm water layer on the reactor pool surface the distribution is to reduce radiation level in the operation hall area a speciality on the reactor pool surface. Line KBE 02 tomord beam tube headitty system supplies water necessary to be shielding to beam tube in use off time. Of the RSG-GAS purification system and pool warm water layer performance date can be shown north of water is always in good condition. To require the dechded requirement. Resin live time is two years and then months

  20. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  1. Process and device for replacing heater in PWR pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gente, D.; Giron, M.

    1990-01-01

    To assure the tight fixation of replacing heater on a pressurizer penetration sleeve, a gas metal-arc welding single pass is executed. A tubular shaft is fixed over end of heater projecting from penetration sleeve. Over shaft is fixed tubular support for the torch which can rotate about axis of support axis heater. Welding torch and welding wire feeder roll are rotated in synchronisation by appropriate motors. Weld is made in single pass round periphery of heater and penetration sleeve [fr

  2. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTOR WATER HEATER SYSTEM FITTED WITH NAIL TWISTED TAPES ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SYED JAFAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance data for water flowing through the absorber tube fitted with two different twisted tape configurations in parabolic trough collector (PTC are presented. In the present work, a relative experimental study is carried out to investigate the performance of a PTC influenced by heat transfer through fluidabsorber wall mixing mechanism. The major findings of this experiment show that heat transport enhancement in the nail twisted tape collector perform significantly better than plain twisted tapes and also show that the smallest twisted tape ratio enhances the system performance remarkably maximizing the collector efficiency. The results suggest that the twisted tape and nail twisted tape would be a better option for high thermal energy collection in laminar region of the PTC system.

  3. Comparison of two temperature control techniques in a forced water heater solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, E.; E Guzmán, R.; Santos, A.; Cordoba, E.

    2017-12-01

    a study on the performance of a forced solar heating system in which a comparative analysis of two control strategies, including the classic on-off control and PID control is presented. From the experimental results it was found that the two control strategies show a similar behaviour in the solar heating system forced an approximate settling time of 60 min and over-elongation 2°C for the two control strategies. Furthermore, the maximum temperature in the storage tank was 46°C and the maximum efficiency of flat plate collector was 76.7% given that this efficiency is the ratio of the energy of the radiation on the collector and the energy used to heat water. The efficiency obtained is a fact well accepted because the business efficiencies of flat plate collectors are approximately 70%.

  4. ANALISIS TERMAL KOLEKTOR SURYA TIPE PLAT DATAR DENGAN FLUIDA KERJA ETANOL 96% PADA SISTEM SOLAR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianda .

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak – Optimasi penggunaan energi matahari perlu ditingkatkan, salah satunya dengan menggunakan kolektor surya. Panas yang diterima digunakan sebagai sumber kalor untuk memanaskan etanol 96% sebagai fluida kerja pada sistem solar water heater (SWH. Kegiatan penelitian diawali dengan desain, kontruksi, dan pengujian termal kolektor surya tipe plat datar. tujuan penelitian makalah adalah untuk menentukan energi yang diperoleh oleh fluida kerja secara optimal pada kolektor surya tipe plat datar berdasarkan perubahan debit dan pemasangan batu-batu kerikil yang disusun secara teratur dan merata diatas permukaan plat absorber untuk memperluas permukaan dan meningkatkan temperatur dalam kolektor surya serta menentukan pengaruh penggunaan dua cermin datar terhadap energi berguna pada kolektor surya tipe plat datar secara eksperimen. Analisis termal ini dilakukan untuk memanfaatkan potensi radiasi matahari yang bisa mencapai 5,2 kWh/m2 sebagai media pemanas fluida kerja yaitu etanol 96% merupakan langkah awal penelitian. Kolektor surya tipe plat datar yang digunakan memiliki geometri panjang 1m, lebar 0,5 m, tinggi 0,18 m, kolektor surya dilapisi dua bahan yang berbeda yaitu polistirena foam dengan tebal 0,02 m dan armaflex dengan tebal 0,02 m. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan sesuai variasi. Pengukuran besaran radiasi dan temperatur didalam box kolektor surya, temperatur pada satu kaca penutup, temperatur plat absorber, temperatur lingkungan, temperatur masuk etanol 96%, temperatur keluar etanol 96% dan kecepatan angin. Pengambilan radiasi matahari menggunakan kamera termal dan lux meter, temperatur menggunakan thermocouple tipe K, kecepatan angin menggunakan environment meter, dan debit menggunakan flow monitor. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah temperatur capaian maksimum terjadi ketika debit maksimal 2.0 lpm, dengan batu kerikil pada plat absorber dan sudut reflektor 0⁰. Kata kunci: optimasi, analisis termal, kolektor surya Abstract

  5. Development of form stable Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coated thermal phase change material for solar water heater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munusamy, Y.; Shanmugam, S.; Shi-Ying, Kee

    2018-04-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is one of the most popular and widely used thermal energy storage material in solar water heater because it able to absorb and release a large amount of latent heat during a phase change process over a narrow temperature range. However the practical application of PCM is limited by two major issues; 1) leakage which leads to material loss and corrosion of tank and 2) large volume change during phase change process which cause pressure build up in the tank. In this work, form-stable PCM was prepared by coating myristic acid with Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to prevent leakage of PCM. PMMA was mixed with different weight percentage (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 wt%) of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The purpose of adding DCP to PMMA is to crosslink the polymer and to increase the mechanical strength of PMMA to hold the myristic acid content inside the coating during the phase change process. Leakage test results showed that PMMA mixed with 0.1% DCP exhibit 0% leakage. This result is further supported by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) images and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results, where a compact and uniform coating without cracks were formed for PCM coated with PMMA with 0.1% DCP. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results shows that the melting point of form-stable PCM is 55°C, freezing point is 50°C, the latent heat of melting and freezing is 67.59 J/g.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of heat transfer phenomena, inside a flat-plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH), with indirect heat withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertzos, K.P.; Pnevmatikakis, S.E.; Caouris, Y.G.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal behavior of a particular flat-plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is examined, experimentally and numerically. The particularity consists of the indirect heating of the service hot water, through a heat exchanger incorporated into front and back major surfaces of the ICSSWH. Natural and forced convection mechanisms are both examined. A prototype tank was fabricated and experimental data of temperature profiles are extracted, during various energy withdrawals. A 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed and validated against experimental results. Numerical predictions are found highly accurate, providing thus the use of the 3D CFD model for the optimization of this and similar devices

  7. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  8. Replacement of the level control of draining tanks MSRS and powered water heaters with the OVATION system in Asco NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Jimenez, J.

    2012-01-01

    The current MSR drains and heaters tanks level control is local control individual, pneumatic and without action from Control room. The system has level switches for the generation of alarms, isolations and shots of bombs. Single control room operators have level alarms, final race of valves of control and indication of temperature and pressure of some tanks.

  9. Low cost solar array project silicon materials task. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental verification system for the production of silicon via the arc heater-sodium reduction of SiCl4 was designed, fabricated, installed, and operated. Each of the attendant subsystems was checked out and operated to insure performance requirements. These subsystems included: the arc heaters/reactor, cooling water system, gas system, power system, Control & Instrumentation system, Na injection system, SiCl4 injection system, effluent disposal system and gas burnoff system. Prior to introducing the reactants (Na and SiCl4) to the arc heater/reactor, a series of gas only-power tests was conducted to establish the operating parameters of the three arc heaters of the system. Following the successful completion of the gas only-power tests and the readiness tests of the sodium and SiCl4 injection systems, a shakedown test of the complete experimental verification system was conducted.

  10. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  11. Model based control and optimization of a feed-water heater train; Modellbaserad reglering och optimering av en foervaermarekedja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velut, Stephane; Raaberg, Martin; Wendel, Hans (Grontmij AB (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Thermal power plants are complex processes in which many variables must be monitored and controlled in real-time for a safe and economic operation. The complex interactions between actuators and controlled variables as well as the load dependent dynamics make the design and tuning of all controllers a challenging task. A mathematical model of the process that describes critical characteristics such as dynamics, interactions, and nonlinearities might greatly facilitate the task of the control engineer. Such controllers can be designed in a rather systematic way to achieve good performance in terms of response time and robustness. This enables the operator to run the process closer to its limits while minimizing damage risks. The goal of the project was threefold. The first objective was to describe the available methods to compute process models directly from experimental data and illustrate how those models can be used for control design. The second objective was to apply some of the fore mentioned methods on a specific process, namely a feed water heater train to control the level in each preheater. The third objective was to analyze how the level in each preheater affects the thermal efficiency of the plant and derive adequate set-points for the model-based controllers. The project started at the end of the production season, which resulted in a tight schedule for the planning and the realization of experiments. Informative data could however be collected and models could be derived for some specific loads. Unfortunately the effect of the changes in the level set point could not be verified because of the limited length of the experiments. The project results can be summarized as follows: The way the condensate level should be chosen in every preheater has been formulated as a simple optimization problem that aims as maximizing the thermal efficiency of the plant. Even though the model used in the optimization was simple, the results were pretty intuitive. The

  12. Numerical investigation on effect of riser diameter and inclination on system parameters in a two-phase closed loop thermosyphon solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung, Nay Zar; Li, Songjing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimum inclination for maximum heat flux changes with latitude of location. • Optimum inclination for maximum heat flux also changes local solar time. • Maximum flow rate increases with increasing of riser tube size. • Maximum mass flow rate is obtained at different inclinations for different risers. • Length of two-phase region depends on inclination angles but not riser tube size. - Abstract: In this work, the effect of riser diameter and its inclination angle on system parameters in a two-phase closed loop thermosyphon solar water heater has been numerically investigated. Here, receivable heat flux by the collector, circulating mass flow rate, driving pressure, total pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient in risers and collector efficiency are defined as system parameters. For this aim, a model of two-phase thermosyphon solar water heater that is acceptable for various inclinations is presented and variations of riser diameter and inclination are considered. The riser tube size is varied from 1.25 cm to 2.5 cm with inclination range 2–75°. The system absolute pressure is set as 3567 Pa and water is chosen as working fluid. The results show that higher inclination angle is required for higher latitude location to obtain maximum solar heat flux. At local solar noon of 21.996 north latitude, the optimum inclination angle increases in the range of 24–44° with increasing of riser diameter giving maximum circulating mass flow rate from 0.02288 kg/s to 0.03876 kg/s. The longer two-phase heat transfer characteristics can be obtained at smaller inclination angles and mass flow rate for all riser tube sizes. Therefore, it is observed that the optimum inclination angles and diameters for solar heat flux, circulating mass flow rate and heat transfer coefficient in two-phase thermosyphon systemdo not coincide. From this work, better understanding and useful information are provided for constructing two-phase thermosyphon solar heaters

  13. Performance Study of a Cylindrical Parabolic Concentrating Solar Water Heater with Nail Type Twisted Tape Inserts in the Copper Absorber Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Bhakta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the overall thermal performance of a cylindrical parabolic concentrating solar water heater (CPCSWH with inserting nail type twisted tape (NTT in the copper absorber tube for the nail twist pitch ratios, 4.787, 6.914 and 9.042, respectively. The experiments are conducted for a constant volumetric water flow rate and during the time period 9:00 a.m. to 15:00 p.m. The useful heat gain, hourly solar energy collected and hourly solar energy stored in this solar water heater were found to be higher for the nail twist pitch ratio 4.787. The above said parameters were found to be at a peak at noon and observed to follow the path of variation of solar intensity. At the start of the experiment, the value of charging efficiency was observed to be maximum, whereas the maximum values of instantaneous efficiency and overall thermal efficiency were observed at noon. The key finding is that the nail twist pitch ratio enhances the overall thermal performance of the CPCSWH.

  14. Panorama 2011: Unconventional gas and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.

    2011-01-01

    For a number of years now, the rapid development of unconventional gas use in North America has been revolutionising the natural gas market. This generic term refers to several production types, such as tight gas, shale gas and coal bed methane. What they have in common is that the rock needs to be 'stimulated' in order to extract gas from it that can be commercially produced. These methods (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing) all involve sensible management of the water needed for gas production. (author)

  15. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  16. Hydrothermal field test with french candidate clay embedding steel heater in the Stripa mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.; Lajudie, A.; Lechelle, J.; Bouchet, A.

    1992-12-01

    Field experiments with French kaolinite/smectite clay heated up to 170 degrees C in boreholes in granite were conducted for 8 months and 4 years. The clay heated for 8 months has a considerably higher water content and it had undergone much less changes in mineralogy and physical properties than the clay exposed to heating for 4 years. The drying of the latter clay was probably caused by hydrogen gas from corrosion of the heater. The clay next to the heater turned into clay-stone despite conversion of the kaolinite component to smectite. (42 refs)

  17. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  18. Is your electric process heater safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiras, C.S.

    2000-04-01

    Over the past 35 years, electric process heaters (EPHs) have been used to heat flowing fluids in different sectors of the energy industry: oil and gas exploration and production, refineries, petrochemical plants, pipeline compression facilities and power-generation plants. EPHs offer several advantages over fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers, which have been around for many years, including: smaller size, lighter weight, cleaner operation, lower capital costs, lower maintenance costs, no emissions or leakage, better control and improved safety. However, while many industrial standards have addressed safety concerns of fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers (API, TEMA, NFPA, OSHA and NEC), no standards address EPHs. The paper presents a list of questions that plant operators need to ask about the safety of their electric process heaters. The answers are also given.

  19. Optimal design and placement of serpentine heat exchangers for indirect heat withdrawal, inside flat plate integrated collector storage solar water heaters (ICSSWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G.; Panidis, T. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

    2010-08-15

    Parameters that affect the temperature at which service hot water (SHW) is offered by an immersed tube heat exchanger (HX), inside a flat plate Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH), are examined numerically, by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The storage water is not refreshed and serves for heat accumulation. Service hot water is drawn off indirectly, through an immersed serpentine heat exchanger. For the intensification of the heat transfer process, the storage water is agitated by recirculation through a pump, which goes on only when service water flows inside the heat exchanger. Three main factors, which influence the performance, are optimized: The position of the HX relative to tank walls, the HX length and the tube diameter. All three factors are explored so that to maximize the service water outlet temperature. The settling time of the optimum configuration is also computed. Various 3-D CFD models were developed using the FLUENT package. The heat transfer rate between the two circuits of the optimum configuration is maintained at high levels, leading to service water outlet temperatures by 1-7 C lower than tank water temperatures, for the examined SHW flow rates. The settling time is retained at sufficient law values, such as 20 s. The optimal position was found to lay the HX in contact with the front and back walls of the tank, with an optimum inner tube diameter of 16 mm, while an acceptable HX length was found to be about 21.5 m. (author)

  20. Radioactivity leakage accidents in the feed water heater and the general drainage of the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station of Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station, JAPC on the shell on extracted-steam side in B system of No. 4 feed water heater, drain water leakage occurred twice in January, 1981. Then, 61 pCi/g cobalt-60 and 10 pCi/g manganese-54 were detected in soil at the outlet of general drainage on April 17, 1981. The cause was found to be the overflow of radioactive liquid waste in the filter sludge storage tank on March 8, the same year. On-the-spot inspection was subsequently made by the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy on both leakage accidents. The results of inspections are described as follows: the course of leakage accident, and also the measures taken to JAPC in connection with the two leakage accidents. (J.P.N.)

  1. Life cycle environmental impacts of domestic solar water heaters in Turkey: The effect of different climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uctug, Fehmi Gorkem; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-05-01

    Solar water heating (SWH) systems could help reduce environmental impacts from energy use but their performance and impacts depend on the climate. This paper considers how these vary for residential SWH across four different climatic regions in Turkey, ranging from hot to cold climates. Life cycle assessment was used for these purposes. The results suggest that in the hotter regions, the impacts of SWH are 1.5-2 times lower than those of natural gas boilers. A similar trend was observed in the two colder regions except for acidification, which was four times higher than that of the boiler. The raw materials and electricity required for the manufacturing of the systems were found to be the most important contributors to the impacts. Recycling the major components instead of landfilling reduced human toxicity potential by 50% but had only a small effect (5%) on the other impacts. The impacts were highly sensitive to the type of material used for the construction of the hot storage tank, but were not affected by transport and end-of life recycling. The only exception to the latter is human toxicity potential which decreased significantly with greater recycling. Extrapolating the results at the national level showed that SWH systems could reduce the annual greenhouse gas emissions in Turkey by 790kt CO 2 -eq. and would save the economy $162.5millionperyear through the avoided imports of natural gas. All other impacts would also be reduced significantly (3-32 times), except for acidification which would double. Therefore, SWH systems should be deployed more extensively in Turkey but government incentives may be needed to stimulate the uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Separation of water through gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boch Andersen, Torben; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goal...... of the project was to formulate an alternative separation concept, which can replace the traditional water evaporation process in the sugar production. Work with the separation concept showed that gas hydrates can be used for water separation. The process is not suitable for sugar production because of large...... volumes and the needs for high pressure. The process could be interesting for concentration of heat sensitive, high value products...

  3. Shale Gas Development and Drinking Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elaine; Ma, Lala

    2017-05-01

    The extent of environmental externalities associated with shale gas development (SGD) is important for welfare considerations and, to date, remains uncertain (Mason, Muehlenbachs, and Olmstead 2015; Hausman and Kellogg 2015). This paper takes a first step to address this gap in the literature. Our study examines whether shale gas development systematically impacts public drinking water quality in Pennsylvania, an area that has been an important part of the recent shale gas boom. We create a novel dataset from several unique sources of data that allows us to relate SGD to public drinking water quality through a gas well's proximity to community water system (CWS) groundwater source intake areas.1 We employ a difference-in-differences strategy that compares, for a given CWS, water quality after an increase in the number of drilled well pads to background levels of water quality in the geographic area as measured by the impact of more distant well pads. Our main estimate finds that drilling an additional well pad within 1 km of groundwater intake locations increases shale gas-related contaminants by 1.5–2.7 percent, on average. These results are striking considering that our data are based on water sampling measurements taken after municipal treatment, and suggest that the health impacts of SGD 1 A CWS is defined as the subset of public water systems that supplies water to the same population year-round. through water contamination remains an open question.

  4. Analysis of proposed eco-design requirements for boilers and water heaters. Paper within the framwork of the ''Material Efficiency and Resource Conservation'' (MaRess) Project - Task 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Klaus; Franke, Moritz [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In 2005, the European Union released the EuP Directive focusing on ecodesign requirements for energy-using products (2005/32/EC: EU Parliament and Council of the EU 2005). This directive, also called Ecodesign Directive, is a framework directive establishing a structure in which so-called implementing measures define specific requirements for placing products on the market and/or putting them into service within the internal European market. These requirements can be environmental performance standards (e.g. minimum energy efficiency or emission standards) and labelling or information requirements. Some existing European directives are already declared as being implementing measures of the Ecodesign Directive. Additionally, new implementing measures have been and will further be developed. Product-specific preparatory studies on behalf of the European Commission provide the basis for this. The preparatory studies for boilers (Lot 1) and water heaters (Lot 2) have been conducted from February 2006 to October 2007 by Van Holsteijn en Kemna (VHK). Based on the preparatory studies, the EU Commission has released several working documents (WD) on possible ecodesign requirements for boilers and water heaters at the beginning of 2008. Following these documents, boilers and water heaters comprise gas-fired, oil-fired and electric central heating (CH) (combi-) boilers / dedicated water heaters in combination with capturing solar thermal energy or ambient heat1. The requirements contain basically energy labelling measures, minimum efficiency performance standards and limits on NOx emissions. An ''Ecoboiler Model'' resp. an ''Eco Hot Water Model'' has been elaborated within the preparatory studies. These models are a crucial part of the requirements and allow for calculation of the efficiencies of boilers and water heaters. Since the models have a high degree of complexity, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has asked Wuppertal

  5. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Doll

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumptionand high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report oninvestigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI based infrared (IR emitter devices heated byemploying different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our resultsclearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semiconductor over metallicheater materials. Long-term stable emitter operation in the vicinity of 1300 K could beattained using heavily antimony-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Sb heater elements.

  6. Low-power-consumption and high-sensitivity NO2 micro gas sensors based on a co-planar micro-heater fabricated by using a CMOS-MEMS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S. E.; Lee, J. W.; Park, S. J.; Park, J.; Park, K. H.; Kim, J.

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale, low-power-consumption, and high-sensitivity NO 2 gas sensors based on ZnO nanorods are reported in this work. To activate the chemical absorption and desorption for NO 2 gas, we embedded co-planar micro-heater in a micro gas sensor, that was made by using a Complementary Metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible Microelectromechanical Systems(CMOS-MEMS) process. To acquire simple fabrication and low fabrication cost, we located the micro-heater and the sensing electrode in the same plane. High-quality single-crystalline ZnO nanorods were selectively grown by using photolithography and a hydrothermal method. Their structural properties were confirmed by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDAX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics were measured to optimize the operating temperature of the fabricated devices as a chemical gas sensor. To test the possibility for use as chemical sensor, we measured the NO 2 gas response.

  7. China's transition to green energy systems: The economics of home solar water heaters and their popularization in Dezhou city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wei, E-mail: weiweileede@gmail.com [Department of Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Song Guojun [Environmental Policy and Planning Institute (EPPI), Renmin University of China, Beijing (China); Beresford, Melanie [Department of Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ma, Ben [Environmental Policy and Planning Institute (EPPI), Renmin University of China, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-15

    Studying the popularization of solar water heaters (SWHs) is significant for understanding China's transition to green energy systems. Using Dezhou as a case study, this paper presents new angles on analyzing SWH deployment in China by addressing both the economic potential and the institutional dimensions at the local level. Using estimates from the demand-side of hot water for a typical three-person household in Dezhou, the paper evaluates the economic potential of a SWH in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Then, expanding the analysis beyond economics, we take an institutionalist approach to study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success in SWH adoptions. By examining the five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime, we find that Dezhou's SWH deployment is driven by an urge to develop businesses and the local economy, and its success results from at least five unique factors, including the development of SWH industrial clusters in Dezhou, big manufacturers' market leadership in SWH innovations, a tight private enterprise-local government relation, geographic location within the SWH industrial belt, and the adaptive attitude of Dezhou's households towards natural resource scarcity. - Highlights: > We study the popularization of solar water heaters in Dezhou, China. > We study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success. > Five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime are examined. > Dezhou's success results from at least five unique factors. > This leads to important directions for improving China'ss green innovation adoption.

  8. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  9. Formation of gas bubbles in gas superheated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Y.

    1984-05-01

    The phenomenon of bubbles formation in supersaturated solutions of gases in water is a transport process, the final result of which is a separation of phases. In spite of its widespread appearance in industry and in nature, no model exists that can explain it and predict the degree of supersaturation which a gas-water solution can tolerate before bubbles are formed. The objective of this study was to fill this gap, and indeed, an extensive experimental work was carried out, a model was established and simple but accurate means were developed for predicting the tolerable degree of supersaturation of gas-water solutions. The model is also capable of predicting quite accurately the activation phenomenon in water. Superheating and supercooling phenomena were also examined in the light of the new model. (author)

  10. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of Left-Right twisted tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.; Suresh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater with full length Left-Right twist, twist fitted with rod and spacer at the trailing edge for lengths of 100, 200 and 300 mm for twist ratio 3 and 5 has been studied. The experimental data for plain tube collector has been compared with fundamental equation within a discrepancy of ±7.41% and ±14.97% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Result shows that the Nusselt number decreases by 11% and 19% for twist fitted with rod and twist with spacer, respectively, when compared with full length twist. Friction factor also decreases by 18% and 29% for twist fitted with rod and spacer, respectively, as compared with full length twist. The heat enhancement in twist fitted with rod at the trailing edge is maximum when compared with twist fitted with spacer because the swirl flow is maintained throughout the length of rod.

  11. NRC Information No. 89-04: Potential problems from the use of space heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    On December 7, 1988, with the Fort Calhoun Station in cold shutdown and defueled, an onsite release of toxic chlorine gas occurred. The chlorine gas leaked from a chlorine gas cylinder when the fusible plug melted because of the proximity of a space heater. The licensee stores the chlorine gas cylinders, used in the purification process of Missouri River water for plant cooling systems, in a ventilated, enclosed room approximately 4 by 6 feet. To keep the cylinders warm in preparation for use, a 13-kW heater was placed in the room. It appears, based on the licensee's initial investigation, that the fusible plug became overheated because of the close proximity of the heater to the cylinder and melted. The melting point of the plug is approximately 160 F. The melted fusible plug initiated the release of the chlorine gas. The licensee detected the chlorine leak by the odor of chlorine gas in the area adjacent to the gas bottle storage room. The area was immediately evacuated

  12. Fission gas behaviour in water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    During irradiation, nuclear fuel changes volume, primarily through swelling. This swelling is caused by the fission products and in particular by the volatile ones such as krypton and xenon, called fission gas. Fission gas behaviour needs to be reliably predicted in order to make better use of nuclear fuel, a factor which can help to achieve the economic competitiveness required by today's markets. These proceedings communicate the results of an international seminar which reviewed recent progress in the field of fission gas behaviour in light water reactor fuel and sought to improve the models used in computer codes predicting fission gas release. State-of-the-art knowledge is presented for both uranium-oxide and mixed-oxide fuels loaded in water reactors. (author)

  13. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  14. Water in the Gas Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Valentin, Ch. Claveau A.D. Bykov, N.N. Lavrentieva, VN. Saveliev , L.N. Sinitsa « THE TCPE MANY-BODY MODEL FOR WATER » 79 M. Masella and J-P. Flament...Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et Applications, CNRS Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. A.D. Bykov, N.N. Lavrentieva, V.N. Saveliev , L.N...T19 Lozada M. T4 Rothman L.S. T22 Lutz B. L. T33 Ruiz J. P24 Lynch R. P3 Sadlej A. T5 Lynden-Bell R. M. P8 Saveliev V.N. P4 Maemets V. P18 Saykally

  15. Supercritical water decontamination of town gas soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, B.S.; Azzam, F.O.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Town gas sites represent a large environmental problem that exists in more than 2,000 sites across North America alone. The major contaminants in town gas sods are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These are stable compounds that migrate deep into the soil and are traditionally very difficult to remove by conventional remediation processes. Supercritical fluids offer enhanced solvating properties along with reduced mass transfer resistances that make them ideal for removing compounds that are difficult or impossible to remove by conventional processes. Supercritical water is ideal for removing PAHs and other hydrocarbons from soil due to its high solvating power towards most hydrocarbon species. Supercritical water was investigated for its ability to remediate two different town gas sods containing from 3--20 wt% contamination. The sod was remediated in a 300-cc semi-continuous system to a more environmentally acceptable level

  16. Gas and Water Permeability of Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Martin, P. L.; Romero, F. J.; Gutierrez-Rodirgo, V.; Barcala, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The gas pressure of concrete samples was measured in an unsteady-state equipment working under low injection pressures and in a newly fine tuned steady-state setup working under different pressures. These measurements allowed the estimation of the intrinsic and relative gas permeability of the concrete and of the effect of boundary conditions on them. Permeability decreased with water content, but it was also greatly affected by the hydraulic history of concrete, i.e. if it had been previously dried or wetted. In particular, and for a given degree of saturation, the gas permeability of concrete previously saturated was lower than if the concrete had been just air dried or saturated after air drying. In any case, the gas permeability was about two orders of magnitude higher than the liquid water permeability (10-16 vs. 10-18 m2), probably due to the chemical reactions taking place during saturation (carbonation). The relative gas permeability of concrete increased sharply for water degrees of saturation smaller than 50%. The boundary conditions also affected the gas permeability, which seemed to be mostly conditioned by the back pressure and the confining pressure, increasing as the former increased and decreasing as the latter increased, i.e. decreasing as the effective pressure increased. Overall the increase of pressure head or injection pressure implied a decrease in gas permeability. External,microcracking during air-drying could not be ruled out as responsible for the decrease of permeability with confining pressure. The apparent permeability obtained applying the Klinkenberg method for a given effective pressure was only slightly smaller than the average of all the values measured for the same confining pressure range. For this reason it is considered that the Klinkenberg effect was not relevant in the range of pressures applied. (Author) 37 refs.

  17. Thermal performance analysis of a flat heat pipe working with carbon nanotube-water nanofluid for cooling of a high heat flux heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, A.; Sarafraz, M. M.; Shahmiri, S.; Madani, S. A. H.; Nikkhah, V.; Nakhjavani, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of a flat heat pipe working with carbon nanotube nanofluid is conducted. It is used for cooling a heater working at high heat flux conditions up to 190 kW/m2. The heat pipe is fabricated from aluminium and is equipped with rectangular fin for efficient cooling of condenser section. Inside the heat pipe, a screen mesh was inserted as a wick structure to facilitate the capillary action of working fluid. Influence of different operating parameters such as heat flux, mass concentration of carbon nanotubes and filling ratio of working fluid on thermal performance of heat pipe and its thermal resistance are investigated. Results showed that with an increase in heat flux, the heat transfer coefficient in evaporator section of the heat pipe increases. For filling ratio, however, there is an optimum value, which was 0.8 for the test heat pipe. In addition, CNT/water enhanced the heat transfer coefficient up to 40% over the deionized water. Carbon nanotubes intensified the thermal performance of wick structure by creating a fouling layer on screen mesh structure, which changes the contact angle of liquid with the surface, intensifying the capillary forces.

  18. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  19. Detritiation of Tritiated Effluent Gas and Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Soo; Yim, Sung Paal; Chung Hong Suk

    2007-06-01

    In a demonstration scale equipment for treatment of tritium in off-gas, Pt/SDBC as oxidation catalyst and Zeolite 13X as adsorbent was charged in the beds, respectively. It was confirmed from the performance test that decontamination factor of the equipment showed more than 100 under the flow rate of off-gas of 90 l/hr and at the temperature of 65 ∼ 80 .deg. C. A small scale CECE process has been developed combining LPCE catalytic column with SPE (solid polymer electrolyte) electrolysis. The catalytic column was a trickle-bed type packed with the mixture of 1 wt% Pt/SDBC catalyst and 4 mm Dixon wire-mesh ring. The experimental results of the CECE process proved that the decontamination factor of 13 ∼ 20 under the operating conditions of the water of the 4 l/day and the effluent hydrogen gas of 16.2 mol/h. A design code of CECE process also developed which will be applied the tritium industry. An experimental method for the reduction of tritiated organic waste by using catalytic oxidation was tested in a heated catalytic reactor of 0.5 wt% Pd/Al 2 O 3 . The simulated organic liquid was converted to water over 99%. A gas chromatographic column material was developed for the separation of mixed hydrogen isotopes. 17 wt% Pd-Pt on alumina showed 90% separation efficiency at 77 % yield for the separation of 29.2 % D 2 -H 2 gas mixture

  20. Test of the heatpump system Fre-Heater model D, made by Mueller Europa BV. Installation for the cooling of milk and the heating of water on farms. Beproeving van een warmtepompsysteem, type Fre-Heater model D, fabrikaat Mueller. Installatie voor het koelen van melk en het verwarmen van water op de boerderij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheij, C P; de Vries, J; van Haren, J J

    1982-01-01

    At the request of Mueller Europa BV (the Netherlands) the Fre-Heater D heat-pump system was tested for its suitability for the simultaneous cooling of milk and the heating of water on farms. The main purpose of the test was to provide information about the technical properties of the system and about the possibilities it offers for the saving of energy. The test was carried out according to the directives laid down in the 'Beproevingsmethode voor warmtepompsystemen ten behoeve van het verwarmen van water op de boerderij' (Test method for heat-pump systems for the heating of water on farms), issued by the Netherlands Institute for Dairy Research, 1980. The results obtained in the tests were used for the calculation of the savings of energy. The system was compared with a conventional air-cooled refrigerated farm milk tank with a COPR (coefficient of performance of refrigeration) of 2.5. The Fre-Heater D was found to have a COPR of 2.40. The net savings of energy that could be achieved varied from 20.9 to 13.8 kWh per m3 cooled 'milk' at farm sizes from 40 to 78 cows. Based on a price of electrical energy of Dfl 0.20 per kWh, this installation was found to be economically justified at a farm with 40 cows and more (milk production 5.5 m3 per cow per year). For a farm with 40 cows the pay-back period was found to be 4.1 years, and for a farm with 78 cows this period was 3.2 years.

  1. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray W. Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (stripper gas water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  2. Load Frequency Control by use of a Number of Both Heat Pump Water Heaters and Electric Vehicles in Power System with a Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Shimizu, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In Japan, from the viewpoints of global warming countermeasures and energy security, it is expected to establish a smart grid as a power system into which a large amount of generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and photovoltaic generation can be installed. Measures for the power system stability and reliability are necessary because a large integration of these renewable energy sources causes some problems in power systems, e.g. frequency fluctuation and distribution voltage rise, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is one of effective solutions to these problems. Due to a high cost of the BESS, our research group has studied an application of controllable loads such as Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) and Electric Vehicle (EV) to the power system control for reduction of the required capacity of BESS. This paper proposes a new coordinated Load Frequency Control (LFC) method for the conventional power plants, the BESS, the HPWHs, and the EVs. The performance of the proposed LFC method is evaluated by the numerical simulations conducted on a power system model with a large integration of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation.

  3. Coupled solar still, solar heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, R R; Harris, W B; Moor, D H; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation of combinations of solar stills and solar heaters indicates the probable economic advantage of such an arrangement in many locations if the size of the heater is optimized relative to that of the still. Experience with various low cost solar heaters is discussed.

  4. Conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakopoulos, P.J.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-05-01

    The mechanisms of conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water (HTO) have been examined for several tritium gaseous mixtures. The physical and chemical processes involved in the self-radiolysis of such mixtures have been analyzed and the kinetics involved in the formation of HTO has been presented. It has been determined that the formation of the H and/or OH free radicals, as intermediate species, are of significance in the formation of HTO. Therefore, the problem of reducing the rate of formation of tritiated water in a mixture of gaseous tritium with atmospheric components is one of finding an effective scavenger for the H and/or OH free radicals

  5. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  6. Detritiation of Tritiated Effluent Gas and Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Soo; Yim, Sung Paal; Chung Hong Suk

    2007-06-15

    In a demonstration scale equipment for treatment of tritium in off-gas, Pt/SDBC as oxidation catalyst and Zeolite 13X as adsorbent was charged in the beds, respectively. It was confirmed from the performance test that decontamination factor of the equipment showed more than 100 under the flow rate of off-gas of 90 l/hr and at the temperature of 65 {approx} 80 .deg. C. A small scale CECE process has been developed combining LPCE catalytic column with SPE (solid polymer electrolyte) electrolysis. The catalytic column was a trickle-bed type packed with the mixture of 1 wt% Pt/SDBC catalyst and 4 mm Dixon wire-mesh ring. The experimental results of the CECE process proved that the decontamination factor of 13 {approx} 20 under the operating conditions of the water of the 4 l/day and the effluent hydrogen gas of 16.2 mol/h. A design code of CECE process also developed which will be applied the tritium industry. An experimental method for the reduction of tritiated organic waste by using catalytic oxidation was tested in a heated catalytic reactor of 0.5 wt% Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The simulated organic liquid was converted to water over 99%. A gas chromatographic column material was developed for the separation of mixed hydrogen isotopes. 17 wt% Pd-Pt on alumina showed 90% separation efficiency at 77 % yield for the separation of 29.2 % D{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas mixture.

  7. Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C.

  8. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar water heater flat plate collector: Application to Tetouan (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagdougui, Hanane; Ouammi, Ahmed; Robba, Michela; Sacile, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The development of sustainable energy services like the supply of heating water may face a trade-off with a comfortable quality of life, especially in the winter season where suitable strategies to deliver an effective service are required. This paper investigates the heat transfer process as well as the thermal behavior of a flat plate collector evaluating different cover configurations. This investigation is performed according to a two-folded approach. Firstly, a complete model is formulated and implemented taking into account various modes of heat transfer in the collector. The goal is to investigate the impact of the number and types of covers on the top heat loss and the related thermal performance in order to support decision makers about the most cost-effective design. The proposed model can also be used to investigate the effect of the different parameters which may affect the performance of the collector. Secondly, a two objective constrained optimization model has been formulated and implemented to evaluate the optimality of different design approaches. The goal is to support decision makers in the definition of the optimal water flow and of the optimal collector flat area in order to give a good compromise between the collector efficiency and the output water temperature. The overall methodology has been tested on environmental data (temperature and irradiation) which are characteristic of Tetouan (Morocco). (author)

  9. Geochemical evidence of water-soluble gas accumulation in the Weiyuan gas field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several different opinions on the formation process of the Weiyuan gas field in the Sichuan Basin and the source of its natural gas. In view of the fact that the methane carbon isotope of the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is abnormally heavy, the geologic characteristics of gas reservoirs and the geochemical characteristics of natural gas were first analyzed. In the Weiyuan gas field, the principal gas reservoirs belong to Sinian Dengying Fm. The natural gas is mainly composed of methane, with slight ethane and trace propane. The gas reservoirs are higher in water saturation, with well preserved primary water. Then, it was discriminated from the relationship of H2S content vs. methane carbon isotope that the heavier methane carbon isotope of natural gas in this area is not caused by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Based on the comparison of methane carbon isotope in this area with that in adjacent areas, and combined with the tectonic evolution background, it is regarded that the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is mainly derived from water-soluble gas rather than be migrated laterally from adjacent areas. Some conclusions are made. First, since methane released from water is carbon isotopically heavier, the water-soluble gas accumulation after degasification results in the heavy methane carbon isotope of the gas produced from Weiyuan gas field. Second, along with Himalayan movement, great uplift occurred in the Weiyuan area and structural traps were formed. Under high temperature and high pressure, the gas dissolved in water experienced decompression precipitation, and the released natural gas accumulated in traps, consequently leading to the formation of Weiyuan gas field. Third, based on calculation, the amount of natural gas released from water which is entrapped in the Weiyuan gas field after the tectonic uplift is basically equal to the proved reserves of this field, confirming the opinion of water

  10. What makes renewable energy successful in China? The case of the Shandong province solar water heater innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goess, Simon; Jong, Martin de; Ravesteijn, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese province of Shandong, and more particularly its cities Dezhou, Jinan and Rizhao, have established an international reputation of being hotbeds for solar water heating (SWH) technology development and dissemination. The article aims to unveil the evolution of this innovative environment by applying the Functions of Innovation Systems (FIS) approach to the Chinese province of Shandong. It examines the actors, institutions and policy instruments that shape Shandong's innovation system for SWH, the dominant drivers and barriers during the evolution of the TIS and also assesses the applicability of the IS approach to China. It appears that the presence of influential interest organizations and proactive support from local governments have acted as strong drivers for the emergence of Shandong's innovation system for SWHs. On the other hand, the lack of adequate personnel and an overreliance on government policies act as main barriers. With regard to the Chinese specificities potentially detracting from the relevance of applying IS theory to China, we did not find that the central government acted as an initiator of innovation nor that state-owned enterprises had dominant positions in the market. In this innovative industry the impetus for development came from the bottom up and from private corporations. - Highlights: • Application of the functions of innovation systems framework to Chinese province. • Analysis of the evolution of Shandong's solar water heating industry and market. • Local governments and interest organizations make innovation environment successful. • Bottom-up development and dissemination of renewable energy in China.

  11. Solar Ray Tracing Analysis to Determine Energy Availability in a CPC Designed for Use as a Residential Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Terrón-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound parabolic concentrators are relevant systems used in solar thermal technology. With adequate tailoring, they can be used as an efficient and low-cost alternative in residential water heating applications. This work presents a simulation study using a ray tracing analysis. With this technique, we simulate the interaction between solar rays and solar concentrator to quantify the amount of energy that impinges on the receiver at a particular time. Energy availability is evaluated in a comparison of two configurations throughout the year: static setup at 21° and multi-position setup; tilted with respect to the horizontal, depending on three seasonal positions: 0° for summer, 16° for spring/autumn, and 32° for winter, with the aim to evaluate the amount of available energy in each season. The fact that a tracking system can be dispensed with also represents an economical option for the proposed application. The results showed that at 21°, the proposed solar Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC works satisfactorily; however, by carrying out the selected angular adjustments, the overall energy availability increased by 22%, resulting in a more efficient option. The most effective design was also built and analyzed outdoors. The obtained thermal efficiency was of ~43%. The optical design and its evaluation developed herein proved to be a valuable tool for prototype design and performance evaluation.

  12. CO{sub 2} capture from oil refinery process heaters through oxyfuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.B. Wilkinson; J.C. Boden; T. Gilmartin; C. Ward; D.A. Cross; R.J. Allam; N.W.Ivens [BP, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    BP has a programme to develop technologies that could reduce greenhouse gas emissions, by the capture and storage of CO{sub 2} from existing industrial boilers and process heaters. One generic technology under development is oxyfuel combustion, with flue gas recycle. Previous studies, by three of the authors, have concluded that refinery steam boilers could be successfully converted to oxyfuel firing. Fired heaters, however, differ from boilers in several respects and so it was decided to study the feasibility of converting process heaters. Three heaters, located on BP s Grangemouth refinery, were chosen as examples, as they are typical of large numbers of heaters worldwide. In establishing the parameters of the study, it was decided that the heat fluxes to the process tubes should not be increased, compared to conventional air firing. For two of the heaters this was achieved by proposing a slightly higher recycle rate than for the boiler conversion studied earlier - the heater duty would be retained with no changes to the tubes. For the third heater, where the process duty uses only the radiant section, the CO{sub 2} capture cost and the firing rate could be reduced by lowering the recycle rate. Some air in leakage to these heaters was considered inevitable, despite measures to control it, and therefore plant to remove residual inerts from the CO{sub 2} product was designed. Cryogenic oxygen production was selected for two heaters, but for the smallest heater vacuum swing adsorption was more economic. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Experimental study of a high-efficiency low-emission surface combustor-heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Tian-yu; Khinkis, M.J.; Fish, F.F.

    1991-01-01

    The surface combustor-heater is a combined combustion/heat-transfer device in which the heat-exchange surfaces are embedded in a stationary bed of refractory material where gaseous fuel is burned. Because of intensive heat radiation from the hot solid particles and enhanced heat convection from the gas flow to the heat-exchange tubes, heat transfer is significantly intensified. Removing heat simultaneously with the combustion process has the benefit of reducing the combustion temperature, which suppresses NO x formation. A basic experimental study was conducted on a 60-kW bench-scale surface combustor-heater with two rows of water-cooled tube coils to evaluate its performance and explore the mechanism of combined convective-radiative heat transfer and its interaction with combustion in the porous matrix. Combustion stability in the porous matrix, heat-transfer rates, emissions, and pressure drop through the unit have been investigated for the variable parameters of operation and unit configurations. Experimental results have demonstrated that high combustion intensity (up to 2.5 MW/m 2 ), high heat-transfer rates (up to 310 kW/m 2 ), high density of energy conversion (up to 8 MW/m 3 ), as well as ultra-low emissions (NO x and CO as low as 15 vppm*) have been achieved. The excellent performance of the test unit and the extensive data obtained from the present experimental study provide the basis for further development of high-efficiency and ultra low-emission water heaters, boilers, and process heaters based on the surface combustor-heater concept. 4 refs., 16 figs

  14. A New Type of Complex System of Solar Energy Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater%一种新型的太阳能——空气源复合热泵热水器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军军

    2011-01-01

    基于太阳能热利用技术、空气源热泵热水器理论,介绍了一种将太阳能与空气源相结合的双热源热泵热水器系统。该系统可充分利用太阳能加热生活用热水,辅以空气源热泵来满足太阳辐射照度不足时的用热水需求,同时用太阳能辅助加热来解决低温环境下空气源热泵运行工况恶劣的问题。系统充分利用了低品位的太阳能,保证稳定性,又可提高夏季阴雨天气、过渡季节及冬季太阳能热水器的热水温度,对于节约能源和环境保护具有重要意义。%Based on the technology of solar thermal and the theory of air-source heat pump water heater, a combined water heater system about solar and air source heat pump was introduced. The system Could make full use of solar energy to heat domestic hot water, combined with air-source heat pump to meet the shortage of solar irradiance when the hot water demand, and the auxiliary heating with solar energy to solve the problems of air source heat pump operating conditions in low temperature. The system took full use of the low-grade solar energy, and stability could be assured. And it could improve the temperature of the water in solar water heaters in rainy summers, transition seasons and winters. The system had significance for energy conservation and environmental protection.

  15. Water vapor and gas transport through PEO PBT block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; Potreck, Jens; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Introduction At the bore well natural gas is saturated with water. Downstream the presence of water may cause: formation of methane hydrates (blocking eventually the pipeline), condensation of water in the pipeline and corrosion effects. A process used for the dehydration of natural gas is glycol

  16. Gas-Chromatographic Determination Of Water In Freon PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic apparatus measures small concentrations of water in specimens of Freon PCA. Testing by use of apparatus faster and provides greater protection against accidental contamination of specimens by water in testing environment. Automated for unattended operation. Also used to measure water contents of materials, other than Freon PCA. Innovation extended to development of purgeable sampling accessory for gas chromatographs.

  17. Performance investigation of a novel frost-free air-source heat pump water heater combined with energy storage and dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenghao; Wang, Zhihua; Zheng, Yuxin; Lin, Zhang; Hao, Pengfei; Huan, Chao; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments are carried out to investigate a novel frost-free ASHPWH system. • Dynamic characteristics of the system are studied at different ambient conditions. • Test results confirm the expected potential to control the frost-free process. • The COP increased 17.9% and 3.4% respectively in comparison with RCD at −3 °C and 3 °C. - Abstract: Air-source heat pump (ASHP) often operates with substantial frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger at low ambient temperature in winter, it insulates the finned surface and also reduces heat transfer rate, leading to performance degradation or even shutdown of ASHP systems. Although several defrosting methods have been reported, the frosting and defrosting processes reduced energy efficiency and resulted in, in some cases, heat pump breakdown. To solve this problem, a novel frost-free air-source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH) system has been developed, which coupled with an extra heat exchanger coated by a solid desiccant (EHECSD) with an energy storage device (ESD). Based on the previous studies, a further analysis and comprehensive research on the novel frost-free ASHPWH system is presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics of the novel system are investigated experimentally in different ambient conditions. An experimental setup and experimental procedures are described in detail. Thereafter, the dehumidification efficiency and regeneration efficiency of EHECSD, suction and discharge pressures of the compressor, the temperature of PCM are evaluated during the heating and regeneration modes respectively. Results indicate that the system can keep the evaporator frost-free for 32, 34, 36 min during heating mode at the ambient temperatures of −3 °C, 0 °C and 3 °C and 85% RH. Compared with the reverse-cycle defrosting (RCD), COP of the frost-free ASHPWH are 17.9% and 3.4% higher at the ambient temperature of −3 °C and 3 °C respectively. With this innovative technology, it has

  18. Heavy water moderated gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly du Bois, B.; Bernard, J.L.; Naudet, R.; Roche, R.

    1964-01-01

    France has based its main effort for the production of nuclear energy on natural Uranium Graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors, and has a long term programme for fast reactors, but this country is also engaged in the development of heavy water moderated gas-cooled reactors which appear to present the best middle term prospects. The economy of these reactors, as in the case of Graphite, arises from the use of natural or very slightly enriched Uranium; heavy water can take the best advantages of this fuel cycle and moreover offers considerable development potential because of better reactor performances. A prototype plant EL 4 (70 MW) is under construction and is described in detail in another paper. The present one deals with the programme devoted to the development of this reactor type in France. Reasons for selecting this reactor type are given in the first part: advantages and difficulties are underlined. After reviewing the main technological problems and the Research and Development carried out, results already obtained and points still to be confirmed are reported. The construction of EL 4 is an important step of this programme: it will be a significant demonstration of reactor performances and will afford many experimentation opportunities. Now the design of large power reactors is to be considered. Extension and improvements of the mechanical structures used for EL 4 are under study, as well as alternative concepts. The paper gives some data for a large reactor in the present state of technology, as a result from optimization studies. Technical improvements, especially in the field of materials could lead to even more interesting performances. Some prospects are mentioned for the long run. Investment costs and fuel cycles are discussed in the last part. (authors) [fr

  19. 热泵与家用太阳热水器联合供热性能试验%Performance jointly test of heat pump water heater with household solar heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌学先; 高文峰; 兰青; 唐润生; 夏朝凤

    2011-01-01

    为解决家用太阳能热水器供热的间歇性和不稳定性,应用热泵辅助可达到全天候供热,该文通过对这种联合供热系统的供热性能和运行性能进行了测试,并对热水器的升温、保温和热泵的加热进行了试验和分析,结果表明:空气源热泵辅助型真空管家用太阳热水系统仅在累积太阳辐照量小于14 MJ/m2时,需要空气源热泵辅助加热,总制热性能系数可达6.18.%To solve the problems of heating intermittent and instability for household solar water heater, application of heat pump for evacuated tube solar water heater system can achieved auxiliary heat supply round-the-clock. Heating performance test and operation of the system were conducted and the temperature rise performance, heat preservation of the solar water heater system and the heating performance of heat pump were tested and analyzed in this paper. The result showed that when the solar radiation was less than 14 MJ/m2 , the system needed heating by air source heat pump,on this occasion, the system total coefficient of performance could reach 6.18.

  20. Membranes for Flue Gas Treatment - Transport behavior of water and gas in hydrophilic polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potreck, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Fossil fuel fired power plants produce electricity and in addition to that large volume flows of flue gas, which mainly contain N2, O2, and CO2, but also large quantities of water vapor. To prevent condensation of the water vapor present in this flue gas stream, water needs to be removed before

  1. Low cost solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single glazed low cost solar air heater is more efficient during summer while double glazed is better in winter. ► For the same initial investment, low cost solar air heaters collect more energy than packed bed solar air heater. ► During off season low cost solar air heater can be stored inside as it is light in weight. - Abstract: Two low cost solar air heaters viz. single glazed and double glazed were designed, fabricated and tested. Thermocole, ultraviolet stabilised plastic sheet, etc. were used for fabrication to reduce the fabrication cost. These were tested simultaneously at no load and with load both in summer and winter seasons along with packed bed solar air heater using iron chips for absorption of radiation. The initial costs of single glazed and double glazed are 22.8% and 26.8% of the initial cost of packed bed solar air heater of the same aperture area. It was found that on a given day at no load, the maximum stagnation temperatures of single glazed and double glazed solar air heater were 43.5 °C and 62.5 °C respectively. The efficiencies of single glazed, double glazed and packed bed solar air heaters corresponding to flow rate of 0.02 m 3 /s-m 2 were 30.29%, 45.05% and 71.68% respectively in winter season. The collector efficiency factor, heat removal factor based on air outlet temperature and air inlet temperature for three solar air heaters were also determined.

  2. Life cycle water consumption for shale gas and conventional natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie E; Horner, Robert M; Harto, Christopher B

    2013-10-15

    Shale gas production represents a large potential source of natural gas for the nation. The scale and rapid growth in shale gas development underscore the need to better understand its environmental implications, including water consumption. This study estimates the water consumed over the life cycle of conventional and shale gas production, accounting for the different stages of production and for flowback water reuse (in the case of shale gas). This study finds that shale gas consumes more water over its life cycle (13-37 L/GJ) than conventional natural gas consumes (9.3-9.6 L/GJ). However, when used as a transportation fuel, shale gas consumes significantly less water than other transportation fuels. When used for electricity generation, the combustion of shale gas adds incrementally to the overall water consumption compared to conventional natural gas. The impact of fuel production, however, is small relative to that of power plant operations. The type of power plant where the natural gas is utilized is far more important than the source of the natural gas.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Solar Thermal Storage Tanks with Helical Jacket Heater and Upper Spiral Coil Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Man [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhong, Yiming; Nam, Jin Hyun [Daegu Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jae Dong [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hiki [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In a solar domestic hot water (Shadow) system, solar energy is collected using collector panels, transferred to a circulating heat transfer fluid (brine), and eventually stored in a thermal storage tank (Test) as hot water. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CAD) model was developed to predict the solar thermal energy storage in a hybrid type Test equipped with a helical jacket heater (mantle heat exchanger) and an immersed spiral coil heater. The helical jacket heater, which is the brine flow path attached to the side wall of a Test, has advantages including simple system design, low brine flow rate, and enhanced thermal stratification. In addition, the spiral coil heater further enhances the thermal performance and thermal stratification of the Test. The developed model was validated by the good agreement between the CAD results and the experimental results performed with the hybrid-type Test in Shadow settings.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Solar Thermal Storage Tanks with Helical Jacket Heater and Upper Spiral Coil Heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Man; Zhong, Yiming; Nam, Jin Hyun; Chung, Jae Dong; Hong, Hiki

    2013-01-01

    In a solar domestic hot water (Shadow) system, solar energy is collected using collector panels, transferred to a circulating heat transfer fluid (brine), and eventually stored in a thermal storage tank (Test) as hot water. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CAD) model was developed to predict the solar thermal energy storage in a hybrid type Test equipped with a helical jacket heater (mantle heat exchanger) and an immersed spiral coil heater. The helical jacket heater, which is the brine flow path attached to the side wall of a Test, has advantages including simple system design, low brine flow rate, and enhanced thermal stratification. In addition, the spiral coil heater further enhances the thermal performance and thermal stratification of the Test. The developed model was validated by the good agreement between the CAD results and the experimental results performed with the hybrid-type Test in Shadow settings

  5. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  6. Test results and supporting analysis of a near-surface heater experiment in the Eleana argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Lappin, A.R.; Thomas, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the in-situ thermomechanical response of argillite to heating was obtained from a near-surface heater test in the Eleana Formation, at the United States Department of Energy, Nevada Test Site. The experiment consisted of a 3.8 kW, 3-m long x 0.3-m diameter electrical heater in a central hole surrounded by peripheral holes containing instrumentation to measure temperature, gas pressures, and vertical displacement. A thermal model of the experiment agreed well with experimental results; a comparison of measured and predicted temperatures indicates that some nonmodeled vertical transport of water and water vapor occurred near the heater, especially at early times. A mechanical model indicated that contraction of expandable clays in the argillite produced a region 1.5 - 2.0 m in radius, in which opening of preexisting joints occurred as a result of volumetric contraction. Results of thermal and mechanical modeling, laboratory property measurements, experimental temperature measurements, and post-test observations are all self-consistent and provide preliminary information on the in-situ response of argillaceous rocks to the emplacement of heat-producing nuclear waste

  7. Criteria for design and application of city-gates heaters; Criterio para aplicacao e dimensionamento de aquecedores para pontos de entrega de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrique, Reis dos Reis Rodrigues; Machado, Leandro Bastos; Passos, Ney Goncalves; Correia, Luiz de Carvalho Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Gas delivery pressures foreseen in supplying contracts with LDS's (local distribution companies) require the adoption of pressure regulating systems in city-gates, which are installations where gas custody is transferred from the shipper to the LDC's. Generally, pressure drop is such that causes a large decrease in temperature gas. This temperature drop, depending on how large it is, may be not allowable, for it would imply in materials weakening and also in hydrocarbons hydrates formation. For this reason, many city-gates design contemplate a heating system, upstream the pressure regulation system, in order to warrant an acceptable temperature range of the delivering gas. The fact that heating systems represent roughly 30% of material costs of city-gates has motivated an accurate study of current practices of design and application of those systems. This paper presents these study results, as a criteria proposal that will allow city-gates reduction costs, both CAPEX and OPEX, at a very propitious time, considering that Brazilian gas industry is going to have a great expansion in the next years. (author)

  8. An experimental study of the mass flow rates effect on flat-plate solar water heater performance using Al2O3/water nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakasam Michael Joseph Stalin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, flat plate solar water heating system has been designed and fabricated accommodating 2 m2 area of solar collector and 0.12 m2 surface area of the heat exchanger using Al2O3/water nanofluid as the working fluid in order to evaluate the performance efficiency in the forced circulation mode. The instantaneous efficiency of solar collector is calculated by taking lower volume fraction of 0.01% with average particle size of 25 nm with and without Triton X-100 surfactant and varying the flow rate from 1 L per minute to 3 L per minute, as per ASHRAE standard. The experimental results show that utilizing Al2O3/water nanofluid with mass flow rate at 2 L per minute increases the collector efficiency by 14.3% when compared to distilled water as the working medium.

  9. Water vapor and Gas Transport through Polymeric Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water vapor transport through polymeric materials plays an important role in a large number of applications such as: food packaging, breathable clothing, roofing membranes, diapers, and the removal of water vapor from gas streams (e.g. dehydration of natural gas or the drying of compressed air).

  10. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method proposed involves the decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas via electrolysis, which is used in internal combustion engines of electrical generators for electricity generation. The by-product obtained from combustion of this gas is water vapour and oxygen to replenish the atmosphere.

  11. Gas stripping and recirculation process in heavy water separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzer, D.B.; Thayer, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is stripped from hot effluent, in a heavy water separation plant of the dual temperature isotope separation type, by taking liquid effluent from the hot tower before passage through the humidifier, passing the liquid through one or more throttle devices to flash-off the H 2 S gas content, and feeding the gas into an absorption tower containing incoming feed water, for recycling of the gas through the process

  12. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  13. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H; Warner, Nathaniel R; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J; Osborn, Stephen G; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D

    2013-07-09

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P gas (4)He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases.

  14. Safety distance between underground natural gas and water pipeline facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Yusof, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    A leaking water pipe bursting high pressure water jet in the soil will create slurry erosion which will eventually erode the adjacent natural gas pipe, thus causing its failure. The standard 300 mm safety distance used to place natural gas pipe away from water pipeline facilities needs to be reviewed to consider accidental damage and provide safety cushion to the natural gas pipe. This paper presents a study on underground natural gas pipeline safety distance via experimental and numerical approaches. The pressure–distance characteristic curve obtained from this experimental study showed that the pressure was inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance. Experimental testing using water-to-water pipeline system environment was used to represent the worst case environment, and could be used as a guide to estimate appropriate safety distance. Dynamic pressures obtained from the experimental measurement and simulation prediction mutually agreed along the high-pressure water jetting path. From the experimental and simulation exercises, zero effect distance for water-to-water medium was obtained at an estimated horizontal distance at a minimum of 1500 mm, while for the water-to-sand medium, the distance was estimated at a minimum of 1200 mm. - Highlights: • Safe separation distance of underground natural gas pipes was determined. • Pressure curve is inversely proportional to separation distance. • Water-to-water system represents the worst case environment. • Measured dynamic pressures mutually agreed with simulation results. • Safe separation distance of more than 1200 mm should be applied

  15. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Bernardo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in good agreement with measurements. On an annual basis a deviation of 2.5% out of 1099 kWh was obtained between the auxiliary energy from results and from the simulation model for a complete system. Using the validated model a system optimization was carried out with respect to control strategies for auxiliary heating, heat losses and volume of auxiliary storage. A sensitivity analysis was carried out regarding different volumes of retrofitted hot water boiler, DHW profiles and climates. It was estimated that, with adequate improvements, extended annual solar fractions of 60%, 78% and 81% can be achieved for Lund (Sweden, Lisbon (Portugal and Lusaka (Zambia, respectively. The correspondent collector area was 6, 4 and 3 m2, respectively. The studied retrofitted system achieves a comparable performance with conventional solar thermal systems with the potential to reduce the investment cost.

  16. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  17. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  18. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  19. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  20. 蓄能型太阳能热泵热水器性能系数的分析%Coefficient of performance of solar heat pump water heater with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 卫梁彦; 程清; 王玲珑

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem that solar heat pump water heater was prone to be affected by weather, a novel water heater integrated with collection, storage and evaporation was proposed. The principle, characteristics, operating modes and structure of the collector-storage-evaporator system were investigated. Using phase change material of decanoic acid to store solar radiation in sunny days as low-temperature source, hot water was produced at night or in continuous rainy days. Thermal efficiency of heat pump system was increased significantly, and the operating unstableness of the heat pump system caused by interval solar energy was also solved. Experiments under different conditions and operating modes in spring were conducted, and the coefficient of performance ( COP) of the system was analyzed. The results indicate that COP of this novel solar heat pump water heater with energy storage is higher than that of ordinary solar heat pump water heater at the same weather condition. The average COP of this system is 7. 56 with maximum of 8. 9 for average solar radiation of 592 W·m-2. COP can also reach 6.4 even at night, which means that weather has slight influence on COP.%针对太阳能热泵热水器受天气变化影响的问题,提出了一种新型的集热-蓄能-蒸发一体化太阳能热泵热水器,给出了系统的原理、特点、运行模式和集热-蓄能-蒸发器的结构形式,以癸酸为相变材料储存晴天的太阳辐射能,作为热泵在夜间和连续阴雨天时的低温热源制得热水,提高了热泵的制热效率,解决了太阳能间歇性所造成的系统运行不稳定的问题.进行了春季不同工况、不同工作模式的试验,分析了系统的性能系数COP,得出该系统的平均COP为7.56.太阳辐射强度均值为592 W·m-2的天气条件下,COP可达8.9;即使在夜间,COP仍能达到6.4,均高于相同天气条件下普通太阳能热泵热水器的COP,该系统的COP受天气变化影响较小.

  1. America: AGA [American Gas Association] initiative aims to boost gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    This article focuses on the aim of the American Gas Association to increase natural gas demand in the key areas of gas electric generation, natural gas vehicles, gas cooling, and conversion of oil burning facilities, electric water heaters and household appliances such as space heating, stoves, washers and lighting. The need to improve the reliability of natural gas supplies is discussed. It is anticipated that natural gas will not replace coal as the main energy source for power generation, but that it will help utilities to meet environmental regulations. (UK)

  2. Process for water-gas generation from degassed combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1906-05-23

    A process for water-gas generation in a continuous operation from degassed combustibles in the lower part of a vertical exterior-heated retort, whose middle part can serve to degas the combustibles, is described. It is characterized in that the water vapor employed is obtained by vaporizing water in the upper part of the retort by means of the waste heat from the heating gases, which had effected the coking of the combustibles before the water-gas recovery or after the latter.

  3. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  4. Architecture for Absorption Based Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Chugh, Devesh

    2018-04-24

    An absorption based heater is constructed on a fluid barrier heat exchanging plate such that it requires little space in a structure. The absorption based heater has a desorber, heat exchanger, and absorber sequentially placed on the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate. The vapor exchange faces of the desorber and the absorber are covered by a vapor permeable membrane that is permeable to a refrigerant vapor but impermeable to an absorbent. A process fluid flows on the side of the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate opposite the vapor exchange face through the absorber and subsequently through the heat exchanger. The absorption based heater can include a second plate with a condenser situated parallel to the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate and opposing the desorber for condensation of the refrigerant for additional heating of the process fluid.

  5. Emergency management in the gas and water supply; Notfallmanagement in der Gas- und Wasserversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, Stephan [KKI GmbH, Kompetenzzentrum Kritische Infrastrukturen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Gas and water pipes belong to the critical infrastructure in Germany. Their protection requires a holistic risk analysis, which also keep an eye on the dependence of the power supply. [German] Gas- und Wasserleitungen gehoeren zu den kritischen Infrastrukturen in Deutschland. Ihr Schutz erfordert eine ganzheitliche Risikoanalyse, die auch die Abhaengigkeit von der Stromversorgung im Blick hat.

  6. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  7. Cooling performance of helium-gas/water coolers in HENDEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Takada, Shoji; Hayashi, Haruyoshi; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Ohta, Yukimaru; Shimomura, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    1994-01-01

    The helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) has four helium-gas/water coolers where the cooling water flows in the tubes and helium gas on the shell side. Their cooling performance was studied using the operational data from 1982 to 1991. The heat transfer of helium gas on the shell was obtained for segmental and step-up baffle type coolers. Also, the change with operation time was investigated. The cooling performance was lowered by the graphite powder released from the graphite components for several thousand hours and thereafter recovered because the graphite powder from the components was reduced and the powder in the cooler shell was blown off during the operation. (orig.)

  8. Householders' use of storage heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, C M; Williams, D I; Steele, L M

    1986-11-01

    An investigation into the understanding and use of storage heater controls was carried out. The general level of satisfaction with storage heating was high (90%) and most people had a reasonable idea of how the system works, what the controls do and of the tariff costs. However, the study did find substantial areas of ignorance; 37% could not say what controls their heater had and 15% did not know what tariff they were on. This lack of knowledge may prevent users getting the best performance from their heating system, resulting in discomfort and large bills.

  9. Permeability of volcanic rocks to gas and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, M. J.; Reuschlé, T.; Farquharson, J. I.; Baud, P.

    2018-04-01

    The phase (gas or liquid) of the fluids within a porous volcanic system varies in both time and space. Laboratory experiments have shown that gas and water permeabilities can differ for the same rock sample, but experiments are biased towards rocks that contain minerals that are expected react with the pore fluid (such as the reaction between liquid water and clay). We present here the first study that systematically compares the gas and water permeability of volcanic rocks. Our data show that permeabilities to argon gas and deionised water can differ by a factor between two and five in two volcanic rocks (basalt and andesite) over a confining pressure range from 2 to 50 MPa. We suggest here that the microstructural elements that offer the shortest route through the sample-estimated to have an average radius 0.1-0.5 μm using the Klinkenberg slip factor-are accessible to gas, but restricted or inaccessible to water. We speculate that water adsorption on the surface of these thin microstructural elements, assumed here to be tortuous/rough microcracks, reduces their effective radius and/or prevents access. These data have important implications for fluid flow and therefore the distribution and build-up of pore pressure within volcanic systems.

  10. Electric arc hydrogen heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasypin, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental data on the electric arc burning in hydrogen are presented. Empirical and semiempirical dependences for calculating the arc characteristics are derived. An engineering method of calculating plasma torches for hydrogen heating is proposed. A model of interaction of a hydrogen arc with a gas flow is outlined. The characteristics of plasma torches for heating hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing gases are described. (author)

  11. Construction of a solar water heater sustainable in the amazon: using the methodology PBL for interaction between engineering courses and high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mota Milhomem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Across the country is being widely spread the use of energy  renewable, one of the clearest examples of this is to obtain energy by the sun's rays, as well as the latest advances in wind turbine deployment in the South and Northeast. Thus, in order to encourage high school students to engage in the study of science and research development intertwined with energy efficiency. The Laboratório de Engenhocas (hereafter, translated: Gadget Lab extension program of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA/CAMTUC, approved projects CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development in order to insert into in state high schools of the municipality the methodology PBL (Project Based Learning in order teach the students to learn, be proactive and spark interest in the field of applied sciences. Thus, students sought to develop activities that contribute to minimize the problems of society, thus, was the built and implemented a Low Cost Solar Heater in a single family residence Tucuruí where it was possible to analyze its feasibility and efficiency.

  12. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA's last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini's 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn's atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft

  13. Lithium recovery from shale gas produced water using solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eunyoung; Jang, Yunjai; Chung, Eunhyea

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas produced water is hypersaline wastewater generated after hydraulic fracturing. Since the produced water is a mixture of shale formation water and fracturing fluid, it contains various organic and inorganic components, including lithium, a useful resource for such industries as automobile and electronics. The produced water in the Marcellus shale area contains about 95 mg/L lithium on average. This study suggests a two-stage solvent extraction technique for lithium recovery from shale gas produced water, and determines the extraction mechanism of ions in each stage. All experiments were conducted using synthetic shale gas produced water. In the first-stage, which was designed for the removal of divalent cations, more than 94.4% of Ca"2"+, Mg"2"+, Sr"2"+, and Ba"2"+ ions were removed by using 1.0 M di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant. In the second-stage, for lithium recovery, we could obtain a lithium extraction efficiency of 41.2% by using 1.5 M D2EHPA and 0.3 M tributyl phosphate (TBP). Lithium loss in the first-stage was 25.1%, and therefore, the total amount of lithium recovered at the end of the two-step extraction procedure was 30.8%. Through this study, lithium, one of the useful mineral resources, could be selectively recovered from the shale gas produced water and it would also reduce the wastewater treatment cost during the development of shale gas. - Highlights: • Lithium was extracted from shale gas produced water using an organic solvent. • Two-stage solvent extraction technique was applied. • Divalent cations were removed in the first stage by D2EHPA. • Lithium was selectively recovered in the second stage by using TBP with D2EHPA.

  14. Build Your Own Solar Air Heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The solar air heater is a simple device for catching some of the sun's energy to heat a home. Procedures for making and installing such a heater are presented. Included is a materials list, including tools needed for constructing the heater, sources for obtaining further details, and a list of material specifications. (JN)

  15. Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2013–2014 Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon, Carlos [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States). Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC)

    2017-07-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) completed a fourth year-long evaluation on residential hot water heating systems in a laboratory environment (east central Florida, hot-humid climate). The evaluation studied the performance of five hot water systems (HWS) plus a reference baseline system for each fuel, (i.e., electric and natural gas). Electric HWS consisted of two residential electric heat pump water heaters (HPWHs, 60 and 80 gallons), a solar thermal system using a polymer absorber (glazed) collector with 80-gallon storage and a duplicate 50-gallon standard electric water heater with added cap and wrap insulation. Baseline performance data were collected from a standard 50-gallon electric water heater of minimum code efficiency to compare energy savings. Similarly, a standard 40-gallon upright vented natural gas water heater served as baseline for the natural gas fuel category. The latter, having a larger jacket diameter [18 in., with an energy factor (EF) of 0.62] with increased insulation, replaced a former baseline (17 in. diameter, EF = 0.59) that served during three previous testing rotations (2009–2013). A high-efficiency, condensing natural gas hybrid water heater with 27-gallon buffered tank was also tested and compared against the gas baseline. All systems underwent testing simultaneously side-by-side under the criteria specified elsewhere in this report.

  16. Performance of casting aluminum-silicon alloy condensing heating exchanger for gas-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weixue; Liu, Fengguo; You, Xue-yi

    2018-01-01

    Condensing gas boilers are widely used due to their high heat efficiency, which comes from their ability to use the recoverable sensible heat and latent heat in flue gas. The condensed water of the boiler exhaust has strong corrosion effect on the heat exchanger, which restricts the further application of the condensing gas boiler. In recent years, a casting aluminum-silicon alloy (CASA), which boasts good anti-corrosion properties, has been introduced to condensing hot water boilers. In this paper, the heat transfer performance, CO and NOx emission concentrations and CASA corrosion resistance of a heat exchanger are studied by an efficiency bench test of the gas-fired boiler. The experimental results are compared with heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka. The results show that the excess air coefficient has a significant effect on the heat efficiency and CO and NOx emission of the CASA water heater. When the excess air coefficient of the CASA gas boiler is 1.3, the CO and NOx emission concentration of the flue gas satisfies the design requirements, and the heat efficiency of water heater is 90.8%. In addition, with the increase of heat load rate, the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger and the heat efficiency of the water heater are increased. However, when the heat load rate is at 90%, the NOx emission in the exhaust gas is the highest. Furthermore, when the temperature of flue gas is below 57 °C, the condensation of water vapor occurs, and the pH of condensed water is in the 2.5 5.5 range. The study shows that CASA water heater has good corrosion resistance and a high heat efficiency of 88%. Compared with the heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka, there is still much work to do in optimizing and improving the water heater.

  17. Heater-Integrated Cantilevers for Nano-Samples Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Toffoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and characteristics of a micro-system for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA in which heater, temperature sensor and mass sensor are integrated into a single device are presented. The system consists of a suspended cantilever that incorporates a microfabricated resistor, used as both heater and thermometer. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to define the structure parameters. TGA sensors were fabricated by standard microlithographic techniques and tested using milli-Q water and polyurethane microcapsule. The results demonstrated that our approach provides a faster and more sensitive TGA with respect to commercial systems.

  18. Heater-Integrated Cantilevers for Nano-Samples Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli, Valeria; Carrato, Sergio; Lee, Dongkyu; Jeon, Sangmin; Lazzarino, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a micro-system for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in which heater, temperature sensor and mass sensor are integrated into a single device are presented. The system consists of a suspended cantilever that incorporates a microfabricated resistor, used as both heater and thermometer. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to define the structure parameters. TGA sensors were fabricated by standard microlithographic techniques and tested using milli-Q water and polyurethane microcapsule. The results demonstrated that our approach provides a faster and more sensitive TGA with respect to commercial systems.

  19. Impact of shale gas development on regional water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidic, R D; Brantley, S L; Vandenbossche, J M; Yoxtheimer, D; Abad, J D

    2013-05-17

    Unconventional natural gas resources offer an opportunity to access a relatively clean fossil fuel that could potentially lead to energy independence for some countries. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing make the extraction of tightly bound natural gas from shale formations economically feasible. These technologies are not free from environmental risks, however, especially those related to regional water quality, such as gas migration, contaminant transport through induced and natural fractures, wastewater discharge, and accidental spills. We review the current understanding of environmental issues associated with unconventional gas extraction. Improved understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants of concern and increased long-term monitoring and data dissemination will help manage these water-quality risks today and in the future.

  20. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...... with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE...

  1. Safety grade pressurizer heater power supply connector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.M.; Daftari, R.M.; Reyns, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a pressurizer heater power supply connector assembly for attaching a power cable to an electric heater within a pressurizer of a pressurized water nuclear reactor system, the electric heater having pin contacts. The assembly comprises: a pin-socket type connector including a tubular body having a first open end carrying a pin-socket contact member and an insert intermediate a shell and the pin-socket contact member, the contact member having socket means for electrically receiving and contacting the pin contacts, and a second open end; a flexible sealed conduit including a flexible corrugated tube having one end connected to the second open end of the pin-socket type connector, and another end; and a shop splice assembly including a header adapter and a hose clamp interconnected between the header adapter and another end of the flexible corrugated tube

  2. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  3. Contact heating of water products of combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, I Z

    1978-01-01

    The USSR's NIIST examined the processes and equipment for heating water by submerged combustion using natural gas. Written for engineers involved with the design and application of thermal engineering equipment operating with natural gas, the book emphasizes equipment, test results, and methods of calculating heat transfer for contact gas economizers developed by Scientific Research Institute of Sanitary Engineering and other Soviet organizations. The economic effectiveness of submerged-combustion heating depends on several factors, including equipment design. Recommendations cover cost-effective designs and applications of contact economizers and boilers.

  4. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology is discussed. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant, liquid sodium, were injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction occurred, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon were developed. The desired degree of separation was not achieved. The electrical, control and instrumentation, cooling water, gas, SiCl4, and sodium systems are discussed. The plasma reactor, silicon collection, effluent disposal, the gas burnoff stack, and decontamination and safety are also discussed. Procedure manuals, shakedown testing, data acquisition and analysis, product characterization, disassembly and decontamination, and component evaluation are reviewed.

  5. Storm water permitting for oil and gas facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Blanc, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    After several false starts, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published new federal storm water regulations in the November 16, 1990 Federal Register. These regulations identify facilities which must apply for a storm water permit and detail permit application requirements. The regulations appear at 40 CFR 122 Subpart B and became effective December 17, 1990. An outline of these regulations and their applicability to oil and gas facilities is presented. They are: facilities which require a storm water permit; types of storm water permits; permit application deadlines; permit application forms; facilities with existing storm water permits; storm water permit application data requirements; storm water sampling and analysis requirements; and EPA contacts for additional information

  6. Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1984-01-01

    A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

  7. Gas hydrate inhibition by perturbation of liquid water structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Natural gas hydrates are icy crystalline materials that contain hydrocarbons, which are the primary energy source for this civilization. The abundance of naturally occurring gas hydrates leads to a growing interest in exploitation. Despite their potential as energy resources and in industrial applications, there is insufficient understanding of hydrate kinetics, which hinders the utilization of these invaluable resources. Perturbation of liquid water structure by solutes has been proposed to be a key process in hydrate inhibition, but this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we report the direct observation of the perturbation of the liquid water structure induced by amino acids using polarized Raman spectroscopy, and its influence on gas hydrate nucleation and growth kinetics. Amino acids with hydrophilic and/or electrically charged side chains disrupted the water structure and thus provided effective hydrate inhibition. The strong correlation between the extent of perturbation by amino acids and their inhibition performance constitutes convincing evidence for the perturbation inhibition mechanism. The present findings bring the practical applications of gas hydrates significantly closer, and provide a new perspective on the freezing and melting phenomena of naturally occurring gas hydrates.

  8. Modelling a deep water oil/gas spill under conditions of gas hydrate formation and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Yapa, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    A model for the behavior of oil and gas spills at deepwater locations was presented. Such spills are subjected to pressures and temperatures that can convert gases to gas hydrates which are lighter than water. Knowing the state of gases as they rise with the plume is important in predicting the fate of an oil or gas plume released in deepwater. The objective of this paper was to develop a comprehensive jet/plume model which includes computational modules that simulate the gas hydrate formation/decomposition of gas bubbles. This newly developed model is based on the kinetics of hydrate formation and decomposition coupled with mass and heat transfer phenomena. The numerical model was successfully tested using results of experimental data from the Gulf of Mexico. Hydrate formation and decomposition are integrated with an earlier model by Yapa and Zheng for underwater oil or gas jets and plumes. The effects of hydrate on the behavior of an oil or gas plume was simulated to demonstrate the models capabilities. The model results indicate that in addition to thermodynamics, the kinetics of hydrate formation/decomposition should be considered when studying the behavior of oil and gas spills. It was shown that plume behavior changes significantly depending on whether or not the local conditions force the gases to form hydrates. 25 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  9. Design procedure of capsule with multistage heater control (named MUSTAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Hiroyuki; Endoh, Yasuichi; Hoshiya, Taiji; Niimi, Motoji; Harayama, Yasuo

    1990-11-01

    A capsule with electric heaters at multistage (named MUSTAC) is a type of capsule used in JMTR. The heaters are assembled in the capsule. Supply electric current to the heaters can be independently adjusted with a control systems that keeps irradiation specimens to constant temperature. The capsule being used, the irradiation specimen are inserted into specimen holders. Gas-gap size, between outer surface of specimen holders and inner surface of capsule casing, is calculated and determined to be flatten temperature of loaded specimens over the region. The rise or drop of specimen temperature in accordance with reactor power fluctuations is corrected within the target temperature of specimen by using the heaters filled into groove at specimen holder surface. The present report attempts to propose a reasonable design procedure of the capsules by means of compiling experience for designs, works and irradiation data of the capsules and to prepare for useful informations against onward capsule design. The key point of the capsule lies on thermal design. Now design thermal calculations are complicated in case of specimen holder with multihole. Resolving these issues, it is considered from new on that an emphasis have to placed on settling a thermal calculation device, for an example, a computer program on calculation specimen temperature. (author)

  10. Organic Pollutants in Shale Gas Flowback and Produced Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Bruning, Harry; Kools, Stefan A.E.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Wezel, van Annemarie P.

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses

  11. Gas exchange under water. Acclimation of terrestrial plants to submergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.

    2005-01-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be prolonged photosynthesis under water, but this has received only little

  12. Conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kato, Shohei

    1985-01-01

    The literature on conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water in various environments is reviewed. The conversion mechanisms and the conversion rates are as follows. 1. In the oxidation with oxygen and the isotopic exchange with water, tritium β-rays and metal catalyst are effective. The oxidation rate is ∼ 0.02 %/day at initial tritium concentration ≤ 10 -2 Ci/l and ∼ 2 %/day at 1 Ci/l. In the presence of oxygen and water, it is not clear whether the exchange reaction occurs or not because of the small amount of data. 2. For biological conversion, soil microorganisms contribute significantly. The conversion rate is greater than 10 %/hr. The tritium gas deposition velocity, which includes the uptake rate of tritium gas by soil and the conversion rate, ranges from 0.0025 to 0.11 cm/sec and is influenced by temperature and moisture of the soil. 3. Tritium gas is converted to the tritiated water through the reaction with hydroxyl radical produced by sunlight in the atmosphere. (author)

  13. Determination of thiobencarb in water samples by gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction via flotation assistance (HLLME-FA) coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied for the extraction and determination of thiobencarb in water samples. In this study, a special extraction cell was designed to facilitate collection of the ...

  14. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  15. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Removal of organic compounds from shale gas flowback water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Faber, Ann-Hélène; Wang, Yue; Grolle, Katja; Hofman-Caris, Roberta; Bruning, Harry; Van Wezel, Annemarie P.; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2018-01-01

    Ozonation, sorption to granular activated carbon and aerobic degradation were compared as potential treatment methods for removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions and selected organic compounds from shale gas flowback water after pre-treatment in dissolved air flotation unit. Flowback

  17. Heat pumps and solar water heaters in the City of the Sun. Financing and cost effectiveness; Warmtepompen en zonneboilers in de Stad van de Zon. Financiering en rentabiliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; De Raad, A. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The results of a study on the financing and cost effectiveness of the use of heat pumps and solar boilers in low-energy dwellings are presented. The investigation was carried out under the condition that costs for the occupants are not higher than the cost for the use of a gas-fired condensing boiler.

  18. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  19. Feedwater heater performance evaluation using the heat exchanger workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, K.M.; Singh, G.P.; Tsou, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A Heat Exchanger Workstation (HEW) has been developed to monitor the condition of heat exchanging equipment power plants. HEW enables engineers to analyze thermal performance and failure events for power plant feedwater heaters. The software provides tools for heat balance calculation and performance analysis. It also contains an expert system that enables performance enhancement. The Operation and Maintenance (O ampersand M) reference module on CD-ROM for HEW will be available by the end of 1995. Future developments of HEW would result in Condenser Expert System (CONES) and Balance of Plant Expert System (BOPES). HEW consists of five tightly integrated applications: A Database system for heat exchanger data storage, a Diagrammer system for creating plant heat exchanger schematics and data display, a Performance Analyst system for analyzing and predicting heat exchanger performance, a Performance Advisor expert system for expertise on improving heat exchanger performance and a Water Calculator system for computing properties of steam and water. In this paper an analysis of a feedwater heater which has been off-line is used to demonstrate how HEW can analyze the performance of the feedwater heater train and provide an economic justification for either replacing or repairing the feedwater heater

  20. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  1. Recent Advances in Water Analysis with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAskill, John A.; Tsikata, Edem

    2014-01-01

    We report on progress made in developing a water sampling system for detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in water with a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). Two approaches are described herein. The first approach uses a custom water pre-concentrator for performing trap and purge of VOCs from water. The second approach uses a custom micro-volume, split-splitless injector that is compatible with air and water. These water sampling systems will enable a single GC-based instrument to analyze air and water samples for VOC content. As reduced mass, volume, and power is crucial for long-duration, manned space-exploration, these water sampling systems will demonstrate the ability of a GCMS to monitor both air and water quality of the astronaut environment, thereby reducing the amount of required instrumentation for long duration habitation. Laboratory prototypes of these water sampling systems have been constructed and tested with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer as well as a thermal conductivity detector. Presented herein are details of these water sampling system with preliminary test results.

  2. Experimental study on total dissolved gas supersaturation in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more high dams have been constructed and operated in China. The total dissolved gas (TDG supersaturation caused by dam discharge leads to gas bubble disease or even death of fish. Through a series of experiments, the conditions and requirements of supersaturated TDG generation were examined in this study. The results show that pressure (water depth, aeration, and bubble dissolution time are required for supersaturated TDG generation, and the air-water contact area and turbulence intensity are the main factors that affect the generation rate of supersaturated TDG. The TDG supersaturation levels can be reduced by discharging water to shallow shoals downstream of the dam or using negative pressure pipelines. Furthermore, the TDG supersaturation levels in stilling basins have no direct relationship with those in reservoirs. These results are of great importance for further research on the prediction of supersaturated TDG generation caused by dam discharge and aquatic protection.

  3. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  4. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  5. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  6. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  7. Building America Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4, LaFayette, Georgia (CZ4), and Savannah, Georgia (CZ2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Kochkin, M. Sweet

    2017-02-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  8. Experimental investigation of the performance of an elbow-bend type heat exchanger with a water tube bank used as a heater or cooler in alpha-type Stirling machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ehwany, A.A.; Hennes, G.M. [Mech. Power Dept., Faculty of Eng., Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Eid, E.I. [Mech. Dept., Faculty of Ind. Education, Suez Canal University, Suez 43515 (Egypt); El-Kenany, E. [The Specialized Studies Academy, Workers University, Tech. Dept., Mansura (Egypt)

    2011-02-15

    In this work the effect of the elbow-bend geometry and the effect of the tube arrangement on the performance of air-to-water heat exchanger is studied experimentally. In elbow-bend heat exchanger, the direction of the working fluid is bended at 90 degrees to its inlet direction. The heating or cooling fluid flows inside straight tubes while the working fluid flows past the tubes along an elbow pass. Three different types of the geometry of the elbow with three different tube bank arrangements were studied. The results were plotted and analyzed to clarify the effects of the elbow-bend geometry, the tube bank arrangements and the dead volume in the heat exchanger on the heat transfer and pressure drop. Two empirical correlations were deduced for each design, one to predict the relation between Nusselt and Reynolds numbers, while the other relation is between the friction factor and Reynolds number. This work was done to select the more suitable design to be used as a heater or a cooler in Stirling machines. (author)

  9. Measurements of gas permeability and non-Darcy flow in gas-water-hydrate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersland, G.; Husebo, J.; Graue, A.; Kvamme, B. [Bergen Univ., Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Physics and Technology; Baldwin, B. [Green Country Petrophysics LLC, Dewey, OK (United States); Stevens, J.; Howard, J. [ConocoPhillips, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in natural gas hydrate reservoirs may offer stable long-term storage of a greenhouse gas while benefiting from methane production, without requiring heat. By exposing hydrate to a thermodynamically preferred hydrate former, CO{sub 2}, the hydrate may be maintained macroscopically in the solid state and retain the stability of the formation. However, there is concern over the flow capacity in such reservoirs. This depends on several factors, notably thermodynamic destabilization of hydrate in small pores due to capillary effects; the presence of liquid channels separating the hydrate from the mineral surfaces; and, the connectivity of gas or liquid filled pores and channels. This paper described a technique for measuring gas permeability in gas-water-hydrate systems. It reported on several experiments that measured gas permeability during stages of hydrate growth in sandstone core plugs. Interactions between minerals and surrounding molecules were also discussed. The formation of methane hydrate in porous media was monitored and quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of hydrate growth within the porous rock were provided along with measurements of gas permeability and non-Darcy flow effects at various hydrate saturations. Gas permeability was measured at steady state flow of methane through the hydrate-bearing core sample. Significant gas permeability was recorded for porous sandstone even when hydrates occupied up to 60 per cent of the pore space. It was concluded that MRI imaging can be used effectively to map and quantify hydrate saturation in sandstone core plugs. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  11. Feasibility of applying coal-fired boiler technology to process heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, T F

    1978-01-01

    The preponderance of coal in US fossil fuel reserves has raised the question of the conversion of hydrocarbon process heaters to coal firing. A review undertaken in 1977 by an API sub-committee concluded that neither existing heaters nor existing heater designs were capable of modification or revision to burn coal, and that new coal-fired design consistent with process requirements would be needed for this purpose. In recognition of this need a cooperative investigation was undertaken by Combustion Engineering and Lummus. The present paper, reporting on this investigation, reviews existing coal-fired boiler equipment and techniques and describes their adaptation to the development of a design concept for a coal-fired process heater. To this end, the design parameters for both steam boilers and fired heaters have been compared and have been incorporated into a workable coal-fired process heater design which includes the following features; a coutant bottom for ash removal, an ash-hopper located under both radiant and convection chambers, a tangent type finned wall construction, a straight through gas flow pattern, a vertical tube convection section, horizontal firing using round burners, and an overall geometry allowing a coil arrangement capable of accommodating varying numbers of parallel serpentine coils. These features are integrated into a conceptual heater design which is detailed in a series of illustrations.

  12. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied

  13. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-01-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M and O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  14. Small scale heater tests in argillite of the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Thomas, R.K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1979-11-01

    Near-surface heater tests were run in the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site, in an effort to evaluate argillaceous rock for nuclear waste storage. The main test, which employed a full-scale heater with a thermal output approximating commercial borosilicate waste, was designed to operate for several months. Two smaller, scaled tests were run prior to the full-scale test. This report develops the thermal scaling laws, describes the pretest thermal and thermomechanical analysis conducted for these two tests, and discusses the material properties data used in the analyses. In the first test, scaled to a large heater of 3.5 kW power, computed heater temperatures were within 7% of measured values for the entire 96-hour test run. The second test, scaled to a large heater having 5.0 kW power, experienced periodic water in-flow onto the heater, which tended to damp the temperature. For the second test, the computed temperatures were within 7% of measured for the first 20 hours. After this time, the water effect became significant and the measured temperatures were 15 to 20% below those predicted. On the second test, rock surface spallation was noted in the bore hole above the heater, as predicted. The scaled tests indicated that in-situ argillite would not undergo major thermostructural failure during the follow-on, 3.5 kW, full-scale test. 24 figures, 6 tables

  15. Integrated solar-assisted heat pumps for water heating coupled to gas burners; control criteria for dynamic operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpa, F.; Tagliafico, L.A.; Tagliafico, G.

    2011-01-01

    A direct expansion integrated solar-assisted heat pump (ISAHP) is compared to a traditional flat plate solar panel for low temperature (45 deg. C) water heating applications. The (simulated) comparison is accomplished assuming both the devices are energy supplemented with an auxiliary standard gas burner, to provide the typical heat duty of a four-member family. Literature dynamical models of the systems involved have been used to calculate the main performance figures in a context of actual climatic conditions and typical stochastic user demand. The paper highlights new heat pump control concepts, needed when maximum energy savings are the main goal of the apparatus for given user demand. Simulations confirm the high collector efficiency of the ISAHP when its panel/evaporator works at temperature close to the ambient one. The device, with respect to a flat plate solar water heater, shows a doubled performance, so that it can do the same task just using an unglazed panel with roughly half of the surface.

  16. Analysis of pollutants in air and water using gas chromatography and headspace gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, H.

    1980-01-01

    The combination 'personal sampling' with headspace gas chromatography to determine traces of formaldehyde, phenol and benzene in air is investigated in this work, with the aim of developing maximum workplace concentration values (MWL values). Further possible applications of gas chromatography in trace analysis in the environmentally protected area. The analysis of chromium in waste waters (Cr III as acetyl acetonate complex) is investigated as further possible application, whereby optimum conditions are obtained. A modified flame ionization detector was used to increase the detection sensitivity.

  17. Suitability of pipeline material for buried gas and water piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, R

    1976-01-01

    Following a brief review of the development of the individual pipe materials and their use in the field of gas and water supply, the various stressing possibilities are dealt with. The corrosion influences from inside and outside, the material specifically for internal and external insulation, as well as the stressing due to sediments, are particularly brought out in this connection. A few remarks on the pressure pipes made of ductile cast iron, steel, reinforced concrete, asbestos cement and plastics are followed by comparisons with representations on material parameters to be proved, safety factors, tensile and pressure resistance, breaking tension and stress-strain diagram, wall thicknesses, friction losses, reactions depending on the E. modulus and distribution of the single pipe materials in the gas and water supply.

  18. WAG (water-alternating-gas) process design: an update review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, M.K. [University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Petroleum and Gas Engineering], e-mail: mkzahoor@uet.edu.pk; Derahman, M.N.; Yunan, M.H. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor (Malaysia). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2011-04-15

    The design and implementation of water-alternating-gas (WAG) process in an improved and cost-effective way are still under process. Due to the complexities involved in implementing the process and the lack of information regarding fluid and reservoir properties, the water-alternating-gas process has not yet been as successful as initially expected. This situation can be overcome by better understanding the fluid distribution and flow behavior within the reservoir. The ultimate purpose can be achieved with improved knowledge on wettability and its influence on fluid distribution, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and other design parameters. This paper gives an insight on the WAG process design and the recently developed correlations which are helpful in incorporating the effects of wettability variations on fluid dynamics within the reservoir. (author)

  19. Tritium-gas/water-vapor monitor. Tests and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    A tritium gas/water-vapor monitor was designed and built by the Health Physics Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In its prototype configuration, the monitor took the shape of two separate instruments: a (total) tritium monitor and a water-vapor monitor. Both instruments were tested and evaluated. The tests of the (total) tritium monitor, basically an improved version of the standard flow-through ion-chamber instrument, are briefly reported here and more completely elsewhere. The tests of the water-vapor monitor indicated that the novel approach used to condense water vapor for scintillation counting has a number of serious drawbacks and that further development of the instrument is unwarranted

  20. Liquid water transport mechanism in the gas diffusion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.; Wu, C.W. [State Key Laboratory of Structure Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-03-01

    We developed an equivalent capillary model of a microscale fiber-fence structure to study the microscale evolution and transport of liquid in a porous media and to reveal the basic principles of water transport in gas diffusion layer (GDL). Analytical solutions using the model show that a positive hydraulic pressure is needed to drive the liquid water to penetrate through the porous GDL even consisting of the hydrophilic fibers. Several possible contributions for the water configuration, such as capillary pressure, gravity, vapor condensation, wettability and microstructures of the GDL, are discussed using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). It is found that the distribution manners of the fibers and the spatial mixed-wettability in the GDL also play an important role in the transport of liquid water. (author)

  1. Distributed Nonstationary Heat Model of Two-Channel Solar Air Heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klychev, Sh. I.; Bakhramov, S. A.; Ismanzhanov, A. I.; Tashiev, N.N.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm for a distributed nonstationary heat model of a solar air heater (SAH) with two operating channels is presented. The model makes it possible to determine how the coolant temperature changes with time along the solar air heater channel by considering its main thermal and ambient parameters, as well as variations in efficiency. Examples of calculations are presented. It is shown that the time within which the mean-day efficiency of the solar air heater becomes stable is significantly higher than the time within which the coolant temperature reaches stable values. The model can be used for investigation of the performances of solar water-heating collectors. (authors)

  2. Experimental Analysis of the Thermo-Hydraulic Performance on a Cylindrical Parabolic Concentrating Solar Water Heater with Twisted Tape Inserts in an Absorber Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Birendra; Nayak, Rajen Kumar; Singh, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    A twisted tape inserted in an absorber tube may be an excellent option to enhance the performance of a cylindrical parabolic concentrating solar collector (CPC). The present work is an experimental study of the flow and heat transfer with and without twisted tape inserts in the absorber tube of a CPC. Results are presented for mass flow rates of water, ṁ=0.0198-0.0525 kg/s, twist ratio, y=5-10 and Reynolds number, Re=2577.46-6785.55. In the present study, we found that the outlet water temperature, collector efficiency and Nusselt number (Nu) are higher in the twisted tapes as compared to those without the twisted tape inserts in the absorber tube of the CPC. For fixed mass flow rate of water ṁ, the To and η increased with the decrease in twist ratio, y, and is higher in lower twist ratio, y=5, of the twisted tapes. The whole experiment was performed at the Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) in Dhanbad, India during the months of March-April 2017. Based on the experimental data, the correlations for the Nu and friction factor were also developed.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.645 - Amount of water in an ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of water in an ideal gas. 1065... in an ideal gas. This section describes how to determine the amount of water in an ideal gas, which... of water in an ideal gas, x H20, as follows: ER30AP10.034 Where: x H20 = amount of water in an ideal...

  4. Monitoring and modelling of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes - main results of a heater experiment at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingeborg, G.; Alheid, H.J. [BGR - Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Jockwerz, N. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) - Final Repository Research Division, Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [ENRESA - Empresa Nacional des Residuos Radioactivos, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Siner, J.L. [AITEMIN -Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarrollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales, Madrid, (Spain); Alonso, E. [CIMNE - Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria, UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H.P. [NAGRA - National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland); Plotze, M. [ETHZ - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, IGT, Zurich, (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [COLENCO Power Engineering Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The long-term safety of permanent underground repositories relies on a combination of engineered and geological barriers, so that the interactions between the barriers in response to conditions expected in a high-level waste repository need to be identified and fully understood. Co-financed by the European Community, a heater experiment was realized on a pilot plant scale at the underground laboratory in Mont Terri, Switzerland. The experiment was accompanied by an extensive programme of continuous monitoring, experimental investigations on-site as well as in laboratories, and numerical modelling of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. Heat-producing waste was simulated by a heater element of 10 cm diameter, held at a constant surface temperature of 100 C. The heater element (length 2 m) operated in a vertical borehole of 7 m depth at 4 to 6 m depth. It was embedded in a geotechnical barrier of pre-compacted bentonite blocks (outer diameter 30 cm) that were irrigated for 35 months before the heating phase (duration 18 months) began. The host rock is a highly consolidated stiff Jurassic clay stone (Opalinus Clay). After the heating phase, the vicinity of the heater element was explored by seismic, hydraulic, and geotechnical tests to investigate if the heating had induced changes in the Opalinus Clay. Additionally, rock mechanic specimens were tested in the laboratory. Finally, the experiment was dismantled to provide laboratory specimens of post - heating buffer and host rock material. The bentonite blocks were thoroughly wetted at the time of the dismantling. The volume increase amounted to 5 to 9% and was thus below the bentonite potential. Geo-electrical measurements showed no decrease of the water content in the vicinity of the heater during the heating phase. Decreasing energy input to the heater element over time suggests hence, that the bentonite dried leading to a decrease of its thermal conductivity. Gas release during the heating period occurred

  5. 78 FR 64905 - Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...-ZA31 Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk AGENCY: Coast Guard... availability of a proposed policy letter concerning the carriage of shale gas extraction waste water in bulk... transport shale gas extraction waste water in bulk. The policy letter also defines the information the Coast...

  6. Buffer mass test - Heater design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, J.; Ramqvist, G.; Pusch, R.

    1984-06-01

    The nuclear waste is assumed to be contained in cylindrical metal canisters which will be inserted in deposition holes. Heat is generated as a result of the continuing decay of the radioactive waste and in the Buffer Mass Test (BMT) the heat flux expected from such canisters was simulated by the use of six electric heaters. the heaters were constructed partly of aluminium and partly of stainless steel. They are 1520 mm in length and 380 mm in diameter, and give a maximum power output of 3000 W. The heater power can be monitored by panel meters coupled to a computer-based data acquisition system. Both the heater and the control system were manufactured with a high degree of redundancy in case of component failure. This report describes the design, construction, testing, installation and necessary tools for heater installation and dismantling operation. (author)

  7. Variations of free gas content in water during pressure fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, A.; Zielke, W.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper an experimental programme is described in order to determine the influence of the cavitation nuclei distribution on cavitation inception. This programme has been used to measure air bubbles dimensions and number and particularly to determine the influence of quick pressure variations on the size on the number of bubbles in a pipe. An optical device counting scattered light is used as a measuring technique. Gas bubbles go through an optical control volume where they receive a high intensity light beam and scatter the light, then led to a photomultiplier; the signals are sorted and counted according to their size. If the number of nuclei, the dimensions of the control volume and the velocity of the water are known, it is possible to determine bubbles concentrations and the bulk modulus of the water. This measuring technique has been applied to a flow in a 140 mm diameter pipe with quick pressure variations from 2 bar to 0-10 bar. During the variations, the void fraction depends on the Reynolds number of the flow and on the gas content of the water. The bulk modulus has been computed with different conditions. Most results concern pressures slightly over the vapor pressure. Air content has a strong influence on cavitation and on water compressibility after a vapor cavity collapse

  8. Indirect heating of natural gas using vapor chambers; Aquecimento indireto de gas natural com uso de camaras de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanez, Fernando H; Mantellil, Marcia H.B.; Borges, Thomaz P.F. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Landa, Henrique G. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2005-07-01

    Operation safety and reliability are major guidelines in the design of city-gate units. Conventional natural gas heaters operate by a indirect mechanism, where liquid water is used to transfer heat by natural convection between the combustion chamber and the natural gas coil. In this work, the concept of vapor chamber is evaluated as an indirect gas heater. In a vapor chamber, liquid water is in contact with the heat source, and vaporizes. The vapor condenses in contact with the heat sink. A reduced scale model was built and tested in order to compare these two heating concepts where the combustion chamber was replaced by electrical cartridge heaters. This engineering model can operate either as a conventional heater or as a vapor chamber. The comparison between the concepts was done by inducing a controlled power to the cartridges and by measuring the resulting temperature distributions. In the novel design, the heat exchanger efficiency increases, and the thermal inertia decreases, compared to the conventional system. The new sealed concept of the chamber prevents water evaporation losses. (author)

  9. Shale gas vs. coal: Policy implications from environmental impact comparisons of shale gas, conventional gas, and coal on air, water, and land in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenner, Steffen; Lamadrid, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the major environmental impacts of shale gas, conventional gas and coal on air, water, and land in the United States. These factors decisively affect the quality of life (public health and safety) as well as local and global environmental protection. Comparing various lifecycle assessments, this paper will suggest that a shift from coal to shale gas would benefit public health, the safety of workers, local environmental protection, water consumption, and the land surface. Most likely, shale gas also comes with a smaller GHG footprint than coal. However, shale gas extraction can affect water safety. This paper also discusses related aspects that exemplify how shale gas can be more beneficial in the short and long term. First, there are technical solutions readily available to fix the most crucial problems of shale gas extraction, such as methane leakages and other geo-hazards. Second, shale gas is best equipped to smoothen the transition to an age of renewable energy. Finally, this paper will recommend hybrid policy regulations. - Highlights: ► We examine the impacts of (un)conventional gas and coal on air, water, and land. ► A shift from coal to shale gas would benefit public health. ► Shale gas extraction can affect water safety. ► We discuss technical solutions to fix the most crucial problems of shale gas extraction. ► We recommend hybrid regulations.

  10. Comparative analysis between horizontal and vertical heater treaters: identification and analysis of efficiency variables for oil treatment; Analise comparativa entre tratadores termicos horizontais e verticais: levantamento de variaveis criticas a eficiencia do processamento primario do oleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, Fabricio de Queiroz; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Brazilian onshore oil and gas production scenario has undergone changes with the maturity of fields and the prioritization of investments towards offshore projects. Added to the issue of lack of investment issue, the increasing production of formation water, which has already exceeded the production of the oil itself. With that comes the need to study the efficiency of process stages. It is common to find oil treatment plants (ETOS) limiting production operations due to lack of capacity to deal with increasing volumes of produced water. The critical moment of an ETO in onshore operations is the 'breaking' of emulsion (water in oil) usually performed by heater treaters. This article offers a comparative analysis between horizontal (TTH) and vertical (TTV) heater treaters, indicating the main variables and demonstrating opportunities for internalization of traditional and innovative technologies in horizontal systems that result in energy efficiency, optimization of the specification of oil (for marketing) and reduced operating costs. (author)

  11. Uncertainties in gas dispersion at the Bruce heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E.; Ciccone, A.

    1995-07-01

    There have been concerns regarding the uncertainties in atmospheric dispersion of gases released from the Bruce Heavy Water Plant (BHWP). The concern arises due to the toxic nature of H 2 S, and its combustion product SO 2 . In this study, factors that contribute to the uncertainties, such as the effect of the shoreline setting, the potentially heavy gas nature of H 2 S releases, and concentration fluctuations, have been investigated. The basic physics of each of these issues has been described along with fundamental modelling principles. Recommendations have been provided on available computer models that would be suitable for modelling gas dispersion in the vicinity of the BHWP. (author). 96 refs., 4 tabs., 25 figs

  12. Vibrations in water-gas heat exchangers. Design and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Allard, G.; Vangedhen, A.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown on an example how to make a complete list of the possible vibrations and how to use the data of tests and technical literature to predict damaging vibrations. The water-heavy gas tubular heat-exchanger in case is briefly described. The sources of mechanical excitations are a compressor and earthquake loadings. The various eigenmodes are described and it is shown that no resonance is possible with the compressor and that the effect of the earthquake is negligible. The excitation of the tubes by the gas flow is examined by means of Connors stability criterion; and there is no resonance with the Benard-von Karman vortices. The magnification of this latter excitation by acoustical waves is not to be feared. Satisfactory tests have been carried successively on tubes, on the casing, on the casing plus part of the tubes, on a complete prototype in workshop and in operation on site [fr

  13. Uncertainties in gas dispersion at the Bruce heavy water plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alp, E; Ciccone, A [Concord Environmental Corp., Downsview, ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    There have been concerns regarding the uncertainties in atmospheric dispersion of gases released from the Bruce Heavy Water Plant (BHWP). The concern arises due to the toxic nature of H{sub 2}S, and its combustion product SO{sub 2}. In this study, factors that contribute to the uncertainties, such as the effect of the shoreline setting, the potentially heavy gas nature of H{sub 2}S releases, and concentration fluctuations, have been investigated. The basic physics of each of these issues has been described along with fundamental modelling principles. Recommendations have been provided on available computer models that would be suitable for modelling gas dispersion in the vicinity of the BHWP. (author). 96 refs., 4 tabs., 25 figs.

  14. Gas and water flow in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J.; Talandier, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Understanding the impact and fate of this gas phase is of significant importance within performance assessment and for the accurate long-term prediction of repository evolution. This paper describes the initial results from an ongoing experimental study to measure the two-phase flow behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from the Bure underground research laboratory (URL) in France, using the custom-designed BGS permeameter. The primary objectives of the study are to measure: (i) the hydraulic conductivity and intrinsic permeability; (ii) the capillary displacement pressure; (iii) the effective gas permeability and relative permeability to gas for a range of conditions; and (iv) the post-test gas saturation. During testing, the specimen, a cylinder of 54 mm thickness, cut perpendicular to bedding, is subject to an isotropic confining stress, with fluids injected through the base of the specimen. A novel feature of the apparatus is the use of porous annular guard-ring filters around the inflow and outflow filters. The pressures in these two 'guard-rings' can be independently monitored to provide data on the distribution of pressure and anisotropy of the sample. Initial measurements, performed on a specimen orientation perpendicular to the bedding plane, have been divided into three components: re-saturation and consolidation; hydraulic properties; gas behaviour. During the initial period of equilibration, re-saturation of the sample were noted. Net volume change due to re-saturation closely agreed with pre-test geotechnical measurements of water saturation, suggesting the bulk of the gas phase was resident in non-dilatant pores and that the specimen was fully saturated at the onset of testing. A two step consolidation test was then performed with confining pressure raised to 11 MPa for 5 days and then to 12.5 MPa for a further 8 days. Values for drained bulk modulus based on the total volume of fluid

  15. WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION; A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Jerry Meldon; Xiaomei Qi

    2001-01-01

    Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperature to improve reaction kinetics. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H(sub 2) removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H(sub 2)-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. In the first year of the project, we prepared a series of nanostructured Cu- and Fe-containing ceria catalysts by a special gelation/precipitation technique followed by air calcination at 650 C. Each sample was characterized by ICP for elemental composition analysis, BET-N2 desorption for surface area measurement, and by temperature-programmed reduction in H(sub 2) to evaluate catalyst reducibility. Screening WGS tests with catalyst powders were conducted in a flow microreactor at temperatures in the range of 200-550 C. On the basis of both activity and stability of catalysts in simulated coal gas, and in CO(sub 2)-rich gases, a Cu-CeO(sub 2) catalyst formulation was selected for further study in this project. Details from the catalyst development and testing work are given in this report. Also in this report, we present H(sub 2) permeation data collected with unsupported flat membranes of pure Pd and Pd-alloys over a wide temperature window

  16. Hydrodesulphurization of Light Gas Oil using hydrogen from the Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdulaziz

    2009-12-01

    The production of clean fuel faces the challenges of high production cost and complying with stricter environmental regulations. In this research, the ability of using a novel technology of upgrading heavy oil to treat Light Gas Oil (LGO) will be investigated. The target of this project is to produce cleaner transportation fuel with much lower cost of production. Recently, a novel process for upgrading of heavy oil has been developed at University of Waterloo. It is combining the two essential processes in bitumen upgrading; emulsion breaking and hydroprocessing into one process. The water in the emulsion is used to generate in situ hydrogen from the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR). This hydrogen can be used for the hydrogenation and hydrotreating reaction which includes sulfur removal instead of the expensive molecular hydrogen. This process can be carried out for the upgrading of the bitumen emulsion which would improve its quality. In this study, the hydrodesulphurization (HDS) of LGO was conducted using in situ hydrogen produced via the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR). The main objective of this experimental study is to evaluate the possibility of producing clean LGO over dispersed molybdenum sulphide catalyst and to evaluate the effect of different promoters and syn-gas on the activity of the dispersed Mo catalyst. Experiments were carried out in a 300 ml Autoclave batch reactor under 600 psi (initially) at 391°C for 1 to 3 hours and different amounts of water. After the hydrotreating reaction, the gas samples were collected and the conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen via WGSR was determined using a refinery gas analyzer. The sulphur content in liquid sample was analyzed via X-Ray Fluorescence. Experimental results showed that using more water will enhance WGSR but at the same time inhibits the HDS reaction. It was also shown that the amount of sulfur removed depends on the reaction time. The plan is to investigate the effect of synthesis gas (syngas

  17. Modelling the radiolysis of RSG-GAS primary cooling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butarbutar, S. L.; Kusumastuti, R.; Subekti, M.; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Water chemistry control for light water coolant reactor required a reliable understanding of radiolysis effect in mitigating corrosion and degradation of reactor structure material. It is known that oxidator products can promote the corrosion, cracking and hydrogen pickup both in the core and in the associated piping components of the reactor. The objective of this work is to provide the radiolysis model of RSG GAS cooling water and further more to predict the oxidator concentration which can lead to corrosion of reactor material. Direct observations or measurements of the chemistry in and around the high-flux core region of a nuclear reactor are difficult due to the extreme conditions of high temperature, pressure, and mixed radiation fields. For this reason, chemical models and computer simulations of the radiolysis of water under these conditions are an important route of investigation. FACSIMILE were used to calculate the concentration of O2 formed at relatively long-time by the pure water γ and neutron irradiation (pH=7) at temperature between 25 and 50 °C. This simulation method is based on a complex chemical reaction kinetic. In this present work, 300 MeV-proton were used to mimic γ-rays radiolysis and 2 MeV fast neutrons. Concentration of O2 were calculated at 10-6 - 106 s time scale.

  18. Biomass fueled closed cycle gas turbine with water injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, Silvia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-01-01

    Direct water injection has been studied for a small scale ({approx} 8 MW fuel input) closed cycle gas turbine coupled to a biomass fueled CFB furnace. Two different working fluids have been considered (helium-water mixture and nitrogen-water mixture). The water injection could take place between the compressor stages, as an intercooler, or after the high pressure compressor, as an aftercooler. Both this options have been studied, varying the relative humidity levels after the injection and the temperatures of the injected water. The effect of water injection on thermodynamic properties of the working fluids has been studied, together with its effect on turbomachinery isentropic efficiency. A sensitivity analysis on turbomachinery efficiency and cycle base pressure has been included. The results from this study have been compared to the performance of a dry closed cycle without water injection. The wet cycle shows an electric efficiency in the range 29-32% with helium-water mixture as working fluid and 30-32% with nitrogen-water mixture as working fluid, while the total efficiency (referring to the fuel LHV) is always higher than 100%. In the non-injected cycle the electric efficiency is 30-35% with helium and 32-36 with nitrogen. The total efficiency in the dry case with two level intercooling and postcooling is 87-89%, while is higher than 100% when only one stage inter- and postcooling is present. Aside from this, the study also includes a sizing of the heat exchangers for the different cycle variations. The heat transfer area is very sensible to the working fluid and to the amount of injected water and it's always higher when a nitrogen-water mixture is used. Compared to the cycle without water injection, by the way, the number of heat exchangers is reduced. This will lead to a lower pressure drop and a simpler plant layout. The total heat transfer area, however, is higher in the wet cycle than in the dry cycle.

  19. Analisis Termal High Pressure Feedwater Heater di PLTU PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfa Damayanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- PT. XYZ mengoperasikan tiga unit Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap (PLTU unit 3, 7 dan 8 berkapasitas 2.030 MegaWatt. Pada PLTU Paiton unit 7 dan 8 terdapat delapan buah feedwater heater yaitu empat buah Low Pressure Water Heater (LPWH, tiga buah High Pressure Water Heater (HPWH, dan sebuah dearator. Pada PLTU Paiton unit 7 dan 8 terdapat kerusakan pada HPWH 6 yang menyebabkan penurunan efisiensi dari siklus secara keseluruhan. Penurunan efisiensi dapat terjadi karena temperatur feedwater sebelum masuk ke boiler terlalu rendah, sehingga kalor yang dibutuhkan oleh boiler untuk memanaskan feedwater meningkat. Oleh karena itu konsumsi batubara akan meningkat dan menyebabkan terjadi kenaikan biaya operasional harian dalam sistem pembangkit. Dari data Divisi Produksi PT. XYZ Unit 7 dan 8 diperoleh spesifikasi HPWH 6, 7, dan 8 dan propertis fluida dalam HPWH 6, 7, dan 8. Data tersebut digunakan sebagai dasar analisis termal yang meliputi performa masing-masing HPH. Tahap selanjutnya dalam analisis termal adalah memvariasikan beban 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, dan 105%. Tahap terakhir analisis adalah menghitung performa dengan variasi sumbatan (plug 5%, 10%, 15%, dan 20% sesuai dengan variasi beban. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian tugas akhir ini adalah nilai effectiveness tertinggi tercapai pada pembebanan 100% serta menghasilkan pressure drop tertinggi pada pembebanan 105%, nilai effectiveness terbesar serta nilai pressure drop terkecil terjadi pada zona Condensing, serta sumbatan (plugging pada HPH akan menyebabkan penurunan nilai effectiveness dan kenaikan pressure drop sisi tube.

  20. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  1. Temperature measurements from a horizontal heater test in G-Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan; Ramirez, A.L.; Watwood, D.

    1991-10-01

    A horizontal heater test was conducted in G-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, to study the hydrothermal response of the rock mass due to a thermal loading. The results of the temperature measurements are reported here. The measured temperatures agree well with a scoping calculation that was performed using a model which investigates the transport of water, vapor, air, and heat in fractured porous media. Our results indicate that the temperature field might be affected by the initial moisture content of the rock, the fractures in the rock, the distance from the free surface of the alcove wall, and the temperature distribution on the heater surface. Higher initial moisture content, higher fracture density, and cooling from the alcove wall tend to decrease the measured temperature. The temperature on top of the horizontal heater can was about 30 degrees C greater than at the bottom throughout most of the heating phase, causing the rock temperatures above the heater to be greater than those below. Along a radius from the center of the heater, the heating created a dry zone, followed by a boiling zone and condensation zone. Gravity drainage of the condensed water in the condensation zone had a strong effect on the boiling process in the test region. The temperatures below and to the side of the heater indicated a region receiving liquid drainage from an overlying region of condensation. We verified that a thermocouple in a thin-wall tubing measures the same temperature as one grouted in a borehole

  2. Simulation of Water Gas Shift Zeolite Membrane Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Rizki, Z.; Zunita, Megawati; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    The search of alternative energy sources keeps growing from time to time. Various alternatives have been introduced to reduce the use of fossil fuel, including hydrogen. Many pathways can be used to produce hydrogen. Among all of those, the Water Gas Shift (WGS) reaction is the most common pathway to produce high purity hydrogen. The WGS technique faces a downstream processing challenge due to the removal hydrogen from the product stream itself since it contains a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and also the excess reactants. An integrated process using zeolite membrane reactor has been introduced to improve the performance of the process by selectively separate the hydrogen whilst boosting the conversion. Furthermore, the zeolite membrane reactor can be further improved via optimizing the process condition. This paper discusses the simulation of Zeolite Membrane Water Gas Shift Reactor (ZMWGSR) with variation of process condition to achieve an optimum performance. The simulation can be simulated into two consecutive mechanisms, the reaction prior to the permeation of gases through the zeolite membrane. This paper is focused on the optimization of the process parameters (e.g. temperature, initial concentration) and also membrane properties (e.g. pore size) to achieve an optimum product specification (concentration, purity).

  3. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  4. Examination and evaluation of the use of screen heaters for the measurement of the high temperature pyrolysis kinetics of polyethene and polypropene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Westerhout, R.W.J.; Balk, R.H.P.; Balk, R.H.P.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1997-01-01

    A screen heater with a gas sweep was developed and applied to study the pyrolysis kinetics of low density polyethene (LDPE) and polypropene (PP) at temperatures ranging from 450 to 530 C. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of screen heaters to measure these kinetics. On-line

  5. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, H. Arthur; Smith, Jennifer N.

    2010-01-01

    For terrestrial animals and plants, a fundamental cost of living is water vapor lost to the atmosphere during exchange of metabolic gases. Here, by bringing together previously developed models for specific taxa, we integrate properties common to all terrestrial gas exchangers into a universal model of water loss. The model predicts that water loss scales to gas exchange with an exponent of 1 and that the amount of water lost per unit of gas exchanged depends on several factors: the surface t...

  6. Using CFD to investigate heater fouling in a utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, L.; Sun, B.; Salcudean, M.

    2004-01-01

    A simulation investigation into the combustion and heat transfer process in a utility boiler is presented. The work is based on the commercial software Fluent 6.1.18. Flow, chemistry, energy, conservation and radiation models are used to simulate the process inside the furnace. Radiation and convection models are considered in the horizontal heater. The temperature and velocity fields are calculated to unveil the process inside and outside the furnace. The result shows that the fouling in reheater is formed because of the temperature and velocity field in the flue gas passage. A limited test is done to validate the simulation. (author)

  7. Design data brochure: Solar hot air heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The design, installation, performance, and application of a solar hot air heater for residential, commercial and industrial use is reported. The system has been installed at the Concho Indian School in El Reno, Oklahoma.

  8. A prototype construction of bearing heater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga

    2007-01-01

    A bearing heater system has been successfully constructed using transformer-like method of 1000 VA power, 220 V primary voltage, and 50 Hz electrical frequency. The bearing heater consists of primary coil 230 turns, U type and bar-type iron core with 36 cm 2 , 9 cm 2 ,and 3 cm 2 cross-section, and electrical isolation. The bearing heater is used to enlarge the diameter of the bearing so that it can be easily fixed on an electric motor shaft during replacement because the heating is conducted by treated the bearing as a secondary coil of a transformer. This bearing heater can be used for bearing with 3 and 6 cm of inner diameter and 12 cm of maximum outside diameter. (author)

  9. Thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical responses in the single heater test at the ESF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Blair, S.; Buettner, M

    1997-01-01

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) to study the thermal-mechanical responses of the rock mass. A set of boreholes were drilled in the test region for conducting a scoping test of the coupled thermal-mechanical- hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes. The holes for the TMHC tests include electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), neutron logging/temperature, hydrological, and optical multiple point borehole extensometers. A 4-kW heater was installed in the heater hole, and was energized on August 26, 1996. Some observed movements of the water around the heater are associated with a possible dry-out region near the heater. The water that has been moved is more dilute than the in situ ground water, except for the concentration of Ca. This indicates that fractures are the major water pathways, and the displaced water may have reached an equilibrium with carbonate minerals on the fracture surfaces. No mechanical-hydrological coupling has been observed. The tests are on-going, and more data will be collected and analyzed

  10. Waste heat gas utilization for HTGR gas turbine plant for sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.A.A.

    1981-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis is performed for a HTGR - Gas Turbine Plant, coupled with a Rankine cycle for additional power generation and/or desalination of sea water with a multistage flash evaporator. Three basic alternatives are studied: a) Brayton cycle with inter-cooling and without regeneration, coupled with a Rankine cycle for power generation and steam for evaporator. b) Same as a) but without inter-cooling and with regeneration. c) Brayton cycle with regeneration, without inter-cooling, coupled with a Rankine cycle for sea water evaporator steam generation. The behavior of the three alternatives is established with a parametric study for the most representative variables. Economy, safety and control aspects were considered for the three different conceptions. (Author) [pt

  11. Unregulated heat output of a storage heater

    OpenAIRE

    Lysak, Oleg Віталійович

    2017-01-01

    In the article the factors determining the heat transfer between the outer surfaces of a storage heater and the ambient air. This heat exchange is unregulated, and its definition is a precondition for assessing heat output range of this type of units. It was made the analysis of the literature on choosing insulating materials for each of the external surfaces of storage heaters: in foreign literature, there are recommendations on the use of various types of insulation depending on the type of...

  12. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  13. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  14. Conasauga near-surface heater experiment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, J.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Conasauga Experiment was undertaken to begin assessment of the thermomechanical and chemical response of a specific shale to the heat resulting from emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Canister-size heaters were implanted in Conasauga shale in Tennessee. Instrumentation arrays wee placed at various depths in drill holes around each heater. The heaters operated for 8 months and, after the first 4 days, were maintained at 385 0 C. Emphasis was on characterizing the thermal and mechanical response of the formation. Conduction was the major mode of heat transport; convection was perceptible only at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Despite dehydration of the shale at higher temperatures, in situ thermal conductivity was essentially constant and not a function of temperature. The mechanical response of the formation was a slight overall expansion, apparently resulting in a general decrease in permeability. Metallurgical observations were made, the stability of a borosilicate glass wasteform simulant was assessed, and changes in formation mineralogy and groundwater composition were documented. In each of these areas, transient nonequilibrium processes occur that affect material stability and may be important in determining the integrity of a repository. In general, data from the test reflect favorably on the use of shale as a disposal medium for nuclear waste

  15. Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C

    2013-12-31

    The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

  16. Globally significant greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The relevance of inland waters to global biogeochemical cycles is increasingly recognized, and of particular importance is their contribution of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The latter remain largely unreported in African inland waters. Here we report dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O from 12 rivers in Sub-Saharan Africa acquired during >30 field expeditions and additional seasonally resolved sampling at >30 sites between 2006 and 2014. Fluxes were calculated from reported gas transfer velocity values, and upscaled using available spatial datasets, with an estimated uncertainty of about ±19%. CO2 equivalent emissions ( 0.4±0.1 PgC yr-1) match 2/3 of the overall net carbon sink previously reported for Africa. Including emissions from wetlands of the Congo, the putative total emission ( 0.9±0.1 PgC yr-1) is about half of the global oceanic or land carbon sinks. In-situ respiration supported <14% of riverine CO2 emissions, which must therefore largely be driven by mineralization in wetlands or uplands. Riverine CO2 and CH4 emissions were directly correlated to wetland coverage and aboveground vegetation biomass, implying that future changes in wetland and upland vegetation cover will strongly impact GHG emissions from African inland waters.

  17. Gas cogeneration system in Sapporo Therme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Michihiko

    1988-06-01

    Sapporo Therme is a multi-purpose resort including a hot-water jumbo swimming pool having an area of about 130,000m/sup 2/ and a circumference of 800 m, 13 additional swimming pools with additional sizes, a hot-water slider, 16 types of saunas, an artificial sunbathing system, an athletic system, a restaurant, a cinema, tennis courts, and other outdoor facilities. Sapporo Therme uses a cogeneration system consisting of using LP gas(95% or more propane gas) to drive a 1,200 PS gas engine and supply motive power and lightening. At the same time, the cogeneration system collects gas engine waste heat and combines this heat with that from hot-water and steam boilers to supply hot water to swimming pools, roads, and room heaters. The ratio of waste heat collection rate to power generation efficiency is about 5.0. Sapporo Therme is thus the optimal facilities for cogeneration. (1 figs, 3 photos)

  18. Distinguishing the Source of Natural Gas Accumulations with a Combined Gas and Co-produced Formation Water Geochemical Approach: a Case Study from the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of gas and co-produced formation water geochemistry for identifying the source of natural gas and present gas geochemistry for the northern Appalachian Basin.

  19. Greenhouse gas and energy co-benefits of water conservation[Water Sustainability Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, C.

    2009-03-15

    Energy is needed to deliver water to, within and from communities to remove contaminants from water and wastewater, and to heat water in homes. The interconnections between water and energy are referred to as the water-energy nexus. Large volumes of water are needed to generate energy, notably to power turbines, to cool thermal or nuclear energy plants, and to extract oil from tar sands. At the same time, large amounts of energy are needed to pump, treat, heat and distribute water for urban, industrial and agricultural use and to collect and treat the resulting wastewater. The two sides of the water-energy nexus are generating new research and policy proposals to address the challenges of climate change, energy security and increasing water scarcity. This report demonstrated that a large untapped opportunity exists for water conservation to reduce energy, municipal costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The water-energy research in this study was based on a Soft Path for Water approach that incorporated facets of water demand management while moving beyond a short-term focus on cost-benefit criteria to examine how the services currently provided by water can be delivered to meet the need for economic, social and ecological sustainability. Although the research was conducted using data for municipalities in Ontario, the report is relevant to the rest of Canada and much of North America. Water conservation strategies included water efficiency measures such as high efficiency toilets and washing machines, as well as water saving measures such as xeriscaping and rainwater harvesting. The objectives of the study were to quantify the energy use associated with each component of the urban water use cycle and to determine the potential for energy and GHG emissions reductions associated with water conservation strategies. This report provided an overview of energy inputs needed for water provision. It outlined the methodology used to achieve the project objectives and

  20. Gas chromatographic measurement in water-steam circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschetke, J.; Nieder, R.

    1984-01-01

    A gas chromatographic technique for measurements in water-steam circuits, which has been well known for many years, has been improved by design modifications. A new type of equipment developed for special measuring tasks on nuclear engineering plant also has a general application. To date measurements have been carried out on the ''Otto Hahn'' nuclear powered ship, on the KNK and AVR experimental nuclear power plants at Karlsruhe and Juelich respectively and on experimental boiler circuits. The measurements at the power plants were carried out under different operating conditions. In addition measurements during the alkali operating mode and during combined cycle operation were carried out on the AVR reactor. It has been possible to draw new conclusion from the many measurements undertaken. (orig.) [de

  1. Entropy Generation Minimization for Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal design and optimization for reverse water gas shift (RWGS reactors is particularly important to fuel synthesis in naval or commercial scenarios. The RWGS reactor with irreversibilities of heat transfer, chemical reaction and viscous flow is studied based on finite time thermodynamics or entropy generation minimization theory in this paper. The total entropy generation rate (EGR in the RWGS reactor with different boundary conditions is minimized subject to specific feed compositions and chemical conversion using optimal control theory, and the optimal configurations obtained are compared with three reference reactors with linear, constant reservoir temperature and constant heat flux operations, which are commonly used in engineering. The results show that a drastic EGR reduction of up to 23% can be achieved by optimizing the reservoir temperature profile, the inlet temperature of feed gas and the reactor length simultaneously, compared to that of the reference reactor with the linear reservoir temperature. These optimization efforts are mainly achieved by reducing the irreversibility of heat transfer. Optimal paths have subsections of relatively constant thermal force, chemical force and local EGR. A conceptual optimal design of sandwich structure for the compact modular reactor is proposed, without elaborate control tools or excessive interstage equipment. The results can provide guidelines for designing industrial RWGS reactors in naval or commercial scenarios.

  2. Pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Sophia

    A phenomenological picture of pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water is produced by combining electrical, spectroscopic, and imaging methods. The discharge is generated by applying one microsecond long 5 to 20 kilovolt pulses between the needle and disk electrodes submerged in water. A gas bubble is generated at the tip of the needle electrode. The study includes detailed experimental investigation of the discharge in argon bubbles and a brief look at the discharge in oxygen bubbles. Imaging, electrical characteristics, and time-resolved optical emission data point to a fast streamer propagation mechanism and formation of a plasma channel in the bubble. Spectroscopic methods based on line intensity ratios and Boltzmann plots of line intensities of argon, atomic hydrogen, and argon ions and the examination of molecular emission bands from molecular nitrogen and hydroxyl radicals provide evidence of both fast beam-like electrons and slow thermalized ones with temperatures of 0.6 -- 0.8 electron-volts. The collisional nature of plasma at atmospheric pressure affects the decay rates of optical emission. Spectroscopic study of rotational-vibrational bands of hydroxyl radical and molecular nitrogen gives vibrational and rotational excitation temperatures of the discharge of about 0.9 and 0.1 electron-volt, respectively. Imaging and electrical evidence show that discharge charge is deposited on the bubble wall and water serves as a dielectric barrier for the field strength and time scales of this experiment. Comparing the electrical and imaging information for consecutive pulses applied at a frequency of 1 Hz indicates that each discharge proceeds as an entirely new process with no memory of the previous discharge aside from long-lived chemical species, such as ozone and oxygen. Intermediate values for the discharge gap and pulse duration, low repetition rate, and unidirectional character of the applied voltage pulses make the discharge process here unique

  3. Combustion-Driven Oscillation in Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Corporation (Retired), 198 James Avenue, Atherton, CA 94027 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    At this moment in thousands of process heaters all over the world there are, to borrow a phrase from the late Carl Sagan, 'billions and billions' of Btu/hr beneficially being released entirely free of pulsation. On those few occasions, perhaps a dozen and a half in my career, when I would get the inevitable 'Why me?' call, I have generally responsed with something like, 'Consider yourself lucky, you have a rare scientific curiosity on your hands'. Reflecting on the solutions ultimately found, I'm reminded that many years ago my friend Abbott Putnam shared with me an early AGA (American Gas Association) field-service bulletin that included a prescription for eliminating combustion-driven oscillations in home heating units; viz., 'Drill a hole; if that doesn't work, drill another hole' or words to that effect. Many times have I wished that I still had a copy of that bulletin and in this paper we will have occasion, once again, to reflect upon the value of that advice. In this paper we will discuss an instance that arose in a pioneering installation of a breakthrough development of 'extremely', to distinguish it from 'ultra', low-NOx lean premix burner technology. We will illustrate how, when and under what circumstances combustion-driven oscillation can arise; we will touch on the many alternatives for its elimination that were considered and investigated; and we will discuss three practical alternatives for eliminating combustion-driven oscillations.

  4. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use for concentrated solar power plants with different energy backup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Sharon J.W.; Rubin, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) is unique among intermittent renewable energy options because for the past four years, utility-scale plants have been using an energy storage technology that could allow a CSP plant to operate as a baseload renewable energy generator in the future. No study to-date has directly compared the environmental implications of this technology with more conventional CSP backup energy options. This study compares the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and direct, onsite land use associated with one MW h of electricity production from CSP plants with wet and dry cooling and with three energy backup systems: (1) minimal backup (MB), (2) molten salt thermal energy storage (TES), and (3) a natural gas-fired heat transfer fluid heater (NG). Plants with NG had 4–9 times more life cycle GHG emissions than plants with TES. Plants with TES generally had twice as many life cycle GHG emissions as the MB plants. Dry cooling reduced life cycle water consumption by 71–78% compared to wet cooling. Plants with larger backup capacities had greater life cycle water consumption than plants with smaller backup capacities, and plants with NG had lower direct, onsite life cycle land use than plants with MB or TES. - highlights: • We assess life cycle environmental effects of concentrated solar power (CSP). • We compare CSP with three energy backup technologies and two cooling technologies. • We selected solar field area to minimize energy cost for plants with minimal backup and salt storage. • Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions were 4–9 times lower with thermal energy storage than with fossil fuel backup. • Dry cooling reduced life cycle water use by 71–78% compared to wet cooling

  5. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  6. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  7. Water Saturation Relations and Their Diffusion-Limited Equilibration in Gas Shale: Implications for Gas Flow in Unconventional Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Shen, Weijun; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Cihan, Abdullah; Zhang, Yingqi; Finsterle, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of water are used for hydraulic fracturing of low permeability shale reservoirs to stimulate gas production, with most of the water remaining unrecovered and distributed in a poorly understood manner within stimulated regions. Because water partitioning into shale pores controls gas release, we measured the water saturation dependence on relative humidity (rh) and capillary pressure (Pc) for imbibition (adsorption) as well as drainage (desorption) on samples of Woodford Shale. Experiments and modeling of water vapor adsorption into shale laminae at rh = 0.31 demonstrated that long times are needed to characterize equilibrium in larger (5 mm thick) pieces of shales, and yielded effective diffusion coefficients from 9 × 10-9 to 3 × 10-8 m2 s-1, similar in magnitude to the literature values for typical low porosity and low permeability rocks. Most of the experiments, conducted at 50°C on crushed shale grains in order to facilitate rapid equilibration, showed significant saturation hysteresis, and that very large Pc (˜1 MPa) are required to drain the shales. These results quantify the severity of the water blocking problem, and suggest that gas production from unconventional reservoirs is largely associated with stimulated regions that have had little or no exposure to injected water. Gravity drainage of water from fractures residing above horizontal wells reconciles gas production in the presence of largely unrecovered injected water, and is discussed in the broader context of unsaturated flow in fractures.

  8. Risks to Water Resources from Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H.; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded oil and gas exploration in the USA. The rapid rate of shale gas exploration has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects. A review of the updated literature has identified four potential risks for impacts on water resources: (1) stray gas contamination of shallow aquifers near shale gas sites; (2) contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and disposal of inadequately treated wastewater or hydraulic fracturing fluids; (3) accumulation of toxic and radioactive residues in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) over-extraction of water resources for drilling and hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages and conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. As part of a long-term research on the potential water contamination associated with shale gas development, new geochemical and isotopic techniques have been developed for delineating the origin of gases and contaminants in water resource. In particular, multiple geochemical and isotopic (carbon isotopes in hydrocarbons, noble gas, strontium, boron, radium isotopes) tracers have been utilized to distinguish between naturally occurring dissolved gas and salts in water and contamination directly induced from shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations.

  9. A comparative economic assessment of hydrogen production from coke oven gas, water electrolysis and steam reforming of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Y.V.; Ngo, Y.A.; Tinkler, M.J.; Cowan, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the comparative economics of producing hydrogen for the hydrogen economy by recovering it from waste gases from the steel industry, by water electrolysis and by conventional steam reforming of natural gas. Steel makers produce coke for their blast furnace operation by baking coal at high temperature in a reduced environment in their coke ovens. These ovens produce a coke oven gas from the volatiles in the coal. The gas, containing up to 60% hydrogen, is commonly used for its heating value with some of it being flared. The feasibility of recovering this hydrogen from the gas will be presented. A comparison of this opportunity with that of hydrogen from water electrolysis using low cost off-peak electricity from nuclear energy will be made. The impact of higher daily average electricity rate in Ontario will be discussed. The benefits of these opportunities compared with those from conventional steam reforming of natural gas will be highlighted. (author)

  10. Study of new structures adapted to gas-graphite and gas-heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Roche, R.

    1964-01-01

    The experience acquired as a result of the operation of the Marcoule reactors and of the construction and start-up of the E.D.F. reactors on the one hand, and the conclusions of research and tests carried out out-of-pile on the other hand, lead to a considerable change in the general design of reactors of the gas-graphite type. The main modifications envisaged are analysed in the paper. The adoption of an annular fuel element and of a down-current cooling will make it possible to increase considerably the specific power and the power output of each channel; as a result there will be a considerable reduction in the number of the channels and a corresponding increase in the size of the unit cell. The graphite stack will have to be adapted to there new conditions. For security reasons, the use of prestressed concrete for the construction of the reactor vessel is becoming more widespread; they could lead to the exchangers and the fuel-handling apparatus becoming integrated inside the vessel (the so-called 'attic' device). A full-size mode) of this attic has been built at Saclay with the participation of EURATOM; the operational results obtained are presented as well as a new original design for the control rods. As for as the gas-heavy-water system is concerned, the research is carried out on two points of design; the first, which retains the use of horizontal pressure tubes, takes into account the experience acquired during the construction of the EL 4 reactor of which it will constitute an extrapolation; the second, arising from the research carried out on the gas-graphite system, will use a pre-stressed concrete vessel for holding the pressure, the moderator being almost at the same pressure as the cooling fluid and the fuel being placed in vertical channels. The relative merits of these two variants are analysed in the present paper. (authors) [fr

  11. Thermocouple psychrometer measurements of in situ water potential changes in heated welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Nai-hsien; Wang, H.F.

    1991-05-01

    Ten thermocouple psychrometers (TCPs) to measure water potential (WP) were installed in three holes in G-Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site as part of the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests. These integrated tests measured several parameters as a function of location and time within a few meters of a heater emplaced in welded tuff. The primary goal of the TCP experiment was to find out whether the combination of laboratory calibration and field use of the TCP can provide useful data for determining the change of moisture condition in the field. We calibrated the TCPs in NaCl solutions up to 80 degree C(176 degree F) in the laboratory. In two holes, we used rubber sleeves and packers to house TCPs, and in the third hole, we used foam. All three holes were grouted behind the TCP assemblages. Field results of the heater test showed that small temperature gradients were present for all measurements. Nevertheless, the WP calibration made the necessary correction for the nonisothermal condition. A drying and re-wetting cycle peaked at about day 140 with a WP of -65 bar in borehole P3, located below the heater. A similar cycle but reduced in scale was found at about day 175 with a WP of -45 bar in borehole P2, above the heater. This difference in drying behavior above and below the heater was also observed from neutron data and was explained as a gravity effect. As temperatures increased, the evaporation rate of pore water increased, In unfractured rock, the gas-phase flow was primarily outward. Water condensed above the heater would drain back to keep the boiling region wet, but water condensed below the heater would drain away from the boiling region. This conceptual model explained both the time and magnitude differences for data from holes above and below the heater. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Fracture lines: will Canada's water be protected in the rush to develop shale gas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfitt, Ben [Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    By combining hydraulic fracking with horizontal drilling, the gas industry has been able to unlock significant amounts of natural gas trapped inside deep and densely packed shale rock. The exploitation of shale gas has been a remarkable revolution in the last decade, going from hardly any production in 2000 to 20% of the United States' gas production in 2010. This cheap and abundant resource has been referred to as a game changer by North American industries and governments. However concerns about water usage and groundwater contamination have been raised. Indeed, the shale gas industry is responsible for the contamination of about 1,000 water wells and has been criticized for its important water withdrawals. This report intends to present the effects of shale gas production on the water supplies in Canada. It reviews the state of groundwater mapping in shale rich regions and reviews regulatory frameworks to determine if they are sufficient to protect water resources.

  13. First phase of small diameter heater experiments in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, we have undertaken small diameter heater experiments in the G-Tunnel Underground Facility on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These experiments are to evaluate the thermal and hydrothermal behavior which might be encountered if heat producing nuclear waste were disposed of in welded and nonwelded tuffs. The two Phase I experiments discussed have focused on vertical borehole emplacements. In each experiment, temperatures were measured along the surface of the 10.2-cm-dia heater and the 12.7-cm-dia boreholes. For each experiment, measurements were compared with computer model representations. Maximum temperatures reached were: 196 0 C for the welded tuff after 21 days of operations at 800W and 173 0 C for the nonwelded tuff after 35 days of operations at 500W. Computed results indicate that the same heat transfer model (includes conduction and radiation only) can describe the behavior of both tuffs using empirical techniques to describe pore water vaporization. Hydrothermal measurements revealed heat-indiced water migration. Results indicated that small amounts of liquid water migrated into the welded tuff borehole early in the heating period. Once the rock-wall temperatures exceeded 94 0 C, in both tuffs, there was mass transport of water vapor as evidence indicated condensation cooler regions. Borehole pressures remained essentially ambient during the thermal periods

  14. Impact of Shale Gas Development on Water Resource in Fuling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Huang, Xianjin; Yang, Qinyuan; Tu, Jianjun

    2015-04-01

    As a low-carbon energy, shale gas rapidly developed in U.S. in last years due to the innovation of the technique of hydraulic fracture, or fracking. Shale gas boom produces more gas with low price and reduced the reliance on fuel import. To follow the American shale gas success, China made an ambitious plan of shale gas extraction, 6.5 billion m3 by 2015. To extract shale gas, huge amount water is needed to inject into each gas well. This will intensify the competition of water use between industry, agricultural and domestic sectors. It may finally exacerbate the water scarcity in China. After the extraction, some water was returned to the ground. Without adequate treatment, the flowback water can introduce heavy metal, acids, pesticides, and other toxic material into water and land. This may inevitably worsen the water and land contamination. This study analysed the potential water consumption and wastewater generation in shale gas development in Fuling, Southwest China. The survey found the average water consumption is 30,000 cubic meter for one well, higher than shale well in U.S. Some 2%-20% water flowed back to the ground. The water quality monitoring showed the Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were the main factors above those specified by China's water regulation. Shale gas is a lower-carbon energy, but it is important to recognize the water consuming and environmental pollution during the fracking. Strict monitoring and good coordination during the shale gas exploitation is urgently needed for the balance of economic development, energy demand and environmental protection.

  15. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  16. Connecting ring and process to fix heaters in a pressure vessel by means of these rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailleul, G.; Caloine, P.; Coville, P.

    1984-01-01

    The invention can applies to the installation of heaters for nuclear reactor pressurizer or to the installation of any kind of reheaters by means of electric resistances when these reheaters have to work under important pressures. The connecting ring is made of a single metallic piece, two coaxial tubes joined each other by a skirt nearly radial; the skirt joins an end of the outer cylindrical tube and an intermediate zone of the inner cylindrical tube. The invention concerns also a heater provided with such a connecting ring, substituted for a part of its metallic envelope, and a process of fastening of these heaters on a pressure vessel. The description given in the frame of a pressurizer applies to the case of a gas reheater or to a reheater for liquid under pressure such as liquid sodium in a tank [fr

  17. Gas exchanges and water use efficiency in the selection of tomato genotypes tolerant to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, M E A; Maciel, G M; Fraga Júnior, E F; Machado Júnior, C S; Marquez, G R; Silva, I G; Almeida, R S

    2017-06-20

    Water stress can affect the yield in tomato crops and, despite this, there are few types of research aiming to select tomato genotypes resistant to the water stress using physiological parameters. This experiment aimed to study the variables that are related to the gas exchanges and the efficiency in water use, in the selection of tomato genotypes tolerant to water stress. It was done in a greenhouse, measuring 7 x 21 m, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications (blocks), being five genotypes in the F 2 BC 1 generation, which were previously obtained from an interspecific cross between Solanum pennellii versus S. lycopersicum and three check treatments, two susceptible [UFU-22 (pre-commercial line) and cultivar Santa Clara] and one resistant (S. pennellii). At the beginning of flowering, the plants were submitted to a water stress condition, through irrigation suspension. After that CO 2 assimilation, internal CO 2 , stomatal conductance, transpiration, leaf temperature, instantaneous water use efficiency, intrinsic efficiency of water use, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll a and b, and the potential leaf water (Ψf) were observed. Almost all variables that were analyzed, except CO 2 assimilation and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, demonstrated the superiority of the wild accession, S. pennellii, concerning the susceptible check treatments. The high photosynthetic rate and the low stomatal conductance and transpiration, presented by the UFU22/F 2 BC 1 #2 population, allowed a better water use efficiency. Because of that, these physiological characteristics are promising in the selection of tomato genotypes tolerant to water stress.

  18. Measure Guideline: Combined Space and Water Heating Installation and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Bohac, D. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Huelman, P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2017-03-03

    Combined space and water heater (combi or combo) systems are defined by their dual functionality. Combi systems provide both space heating and water heating capabilities with a single heat source. This guideline will focus on the installation and operation of residential systems with forced air heating and domestic hot water (DHW) functionality. Past NorthernSTAR research has used a combi system to replace a natural gas forced air distribution system furnace and tank type water heater (Schoenbauer et al. 2012; Schoenbauer, Bohac, and McAlpine 2014). The combi systems consisted of a water heater or boiler heating plant teamed with a hydronic air handler that included an air handler, water coil, and water pump to circulate water between the heating plant and coil. The combi water heater or boiler had a separate circuit for DHW. Past projects focused on laboratory testing, field characterization, and control optimization of combi systems. Laboratory testing was done to fully characterize and test combi system components; field testing was completed to characterize the installed performance of combi systems; and control methodologies were analyzed to understand the potential of controls to simplify installation and design and to improve system efficiency and occupant comfort. This past work was relied upon on to create this measure guideline.

  19. Measure Guideline: Combined Space and Water Heating Installation and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Combined space and water heater (combi or combo) systems are defined by their dual functionality. Combi systems provide both space heating and water heating capabilities with a single heat source. This guideline will focus on the installation and operation of residential systems with forced air heating and domestic hot water (DHW) functionality. Past NorthernSTAR research has used a combi system to replace a natural gas forced air distribution system furnace and tank type water heater (Schoenbauer et al. 2012; Schoenbauer, Bohac, and McAlpine 2014). The combi systems consisted of a water heater or boiler heating plant teamed with a hydronic air handler that included an air handler, water coil, and water pump to circulate water between the heating plant and coil. The combi water heater or boiler had a separate circuit for DHW. Past projects focused on laboratory testing, field characterization, and control optimization of combi systems. Laboratory testing was done to fully characterize and test combi system components; field testing was completed to characterize the installed performance of combi systems; and control methodologies were analyzed to understand the potential of controls to simplify installation and design and to improve system efficiency and occupant comfort. This past work was relied upon on to create this measure guideline.

  20. Surprisingly low natural gas consumption for hot water in the Netherlands in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerse, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch use hot water more efficient than previously expected. This conclusion is drawn from a recent study of hot water consumption in Dutch households and the corresponding natural gas consumption. Based on that (once-only) hot water use survey the hot water use models, as applied in the annual Basic Survey of Natural Gas Consumption of Small-scale Consumers in the Netherlands (BAK), will be modified. 6 tabs