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Sample records for gas utilizando programacao

  1. A proposal for location and optimization of gas detectors using mathematic programming and computational fluid dynamics; Uma proposta para otimizacao e localizacao de detectores de gas utilizando programacao matematica e fluidodinamica computacional

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    Vianna, Savio S.V. [Det Norske Veritas PRINCIPIA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, worry about produce under safe conditions increased. This compromising with environment and safety systems is somehow careless regarding mathematics models in order to foreseen day by day production scenarios. The present paper suggests a methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and mathematics programming using graph theory to optimize gas detectors location on offshore facility plant. (author)

  2. Gas management of measurement system; Sistema informatizado de programacao e controle integrado de gas natural

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    Niedersberg, Luis Carlos [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programacao e Controle Integrado; Gomes, Lea Visali [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia Executiva de Logistica de Operacoes

    2008-07-01

    This paper has for objective to present the software developed for control of measurement of natural gas in the Gas Company of the Rio Grande do Sul State - Sulgas. This paper will be presented the previous control system, developed as Microsoft Excel and the new system developed in Company's ERP. This software automated great part of the process, reducing possible mistakes, reducing the reverse-work index and improving the quality of the measurements considerably and of the revenue of the Company. (author)

  3. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

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    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  4. Optimization of the integrated gas balance planning with PLANGAS; Planejamento integrado e otimizado da movimentacao do gas utilizando o PLANGAS

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    Iamashita, Edson K.; Iachan, Roberto; Justiniano, Luiz R.S.; Silva, Nelson de M. da; Chaves, Jose R. da C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we propose to explain PLANGAS system, developed by PETROBRAS in order to subsidize the natural gas balance integrated planning of Campos Basin. This system performs the natural gas balance forecasting of a complex pipeline network, with a great deal of platforms, and wide operation possibilities correlated to the large number of variables. The production increasing, equipment process, compressors and pipeline capacity, and even gas price variation are examples considered in gas balance planning. The PLANGAS uses an optimizing mathematical model with linear programming and a database that optimizes the integrated gas balance forecasting, maximizing earnings, considering all the network restrictions. PLANGAS has been in use since 1999, and in 2003, was improved with new advances. This improvement reduced the simulation time providing opportunity to a better result analysis, as well as, higher quality plans. (author)

  5. Thermoelectric power plant selection using natural gas and sugar cane bagasse; Selecao de centrais termoeletricas utilizando gas natural e bagaco de cana

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    Leite, Caio de Paula [UNIFei - Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: cleite@edu.fei.br; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: atribess@usp.br

    2003-07-01

    The electric power consumption in Brazil is growing about 4.2% a year, according to ELETROBRAS Decenal Plan in 1999. The capacity of installed electrical power is approximately 50000 MW, of the which 75% are in the Southern, South eastern and Middle western regions of the country. The growth rate indicates the need of an increase of the installed capacity of 2100 MW a year to avoid the risk of the lack of energy. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential sources of the region are practically exhausted and the government budget is low for this kind of investment. Therefore the solution would be the construction of new thermoelectric plants, with the possibility using natural gas and cane bagasse. The present work consists of the evaluation of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced for the thermo electrical plants selection. Thermo economic analysis was made evaluating the production costs of steam and electricity in exergetic basis. The results show that the power cycles and cogeneration plants that use natural gas and cane bagasse are much more economical than the ones that just use natural gas, with 48% reduction of steam cost, 40% reduction of electricity cost generated b the steam turbine in the power cycle and 37% reduction of electricity cost generated by the steam turbine in the cogeneration plant, for cane bagasse price at 4 US$ /t and natural gas price at 140 US$/t. (author)

  6. Transference and natural gas distribution system analysis utilizing hybrid modelling; Analise de sistemas de transferencia e distribuicao de gas natural utilizando modelagem hibrida

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    Calvo, Robson A.; Martinkoski, Ricardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Neves Junior, Flavio [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this article is to apply techniques of formal specification in modelling of natural gas transmission and distribution systems. In this case the formal models are characterized by using hybrid automata. Initially the existent components in the net are modeled and represented by independent hybrid automata. The global dynamics is obtained through the product hybrid automata. Languages representing the desirable states of the system are obtained from the hybrid automata, allowing a hybrid control procedure. An automatic tool as SHIFT must be used to modelling and simulation. (author)

  7. Flow prediction and heat transfer in a cooling square duch of a gas turbine blade using CFD; Predicciones de flujo y transferencia de calor en un conductor de alabe enfriado de turbina de gas utilizando CFD

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    Urquiza B, Gustavo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra E, Fernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Kubiak S, Janusz; Campos A, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    A numerical investigation has been conducted to study the turbulent flow and the heat transfer in a blade turbine coolant passage involving a 180 degrees turn. The study provides a comparison test for two turbulence models. The numerical solution was conducted employing two models for turbulence, the renormalization Group Theory (RNG) and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM), using a refined grid to model with detail the recirculating flow. Computations are performed with a commercial finite volume code which solves three dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes and Energy equations. At the passage turn, significant secondary flows are present, formed by a pair of symmetrical vortices. Results have been compared against published experimental data for Re = 53 000. Very good agreement is achieved for the prediction of the local static pressure distribution along the passage. A strong effect of rotation has been observed mainly in the flow field as described in detail in the paper. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta una investigacion numerica para estudiar el flujo turbulento y la transferencia de calor en un conducto de enfriamiento de un alabes de turbina de gas con giro de 180 grados. El estudio proporciona una comparacion de resultados para dos modelos de turbulencia. La solucion numerica emplea dos modelos de turbulencia: el modelo de esfuerzos de Reynolds (RSM) y el modelo de la teoria del grupo de renormalizacion (RNG), utilizando una malla refinada para modelar con detalle el flujo de recirculacion. Los calculos fueron realizados con un codigo comercial de volumenes finitos el cual resuelve las ecuaciones tridimensionales de Navier-Stoke y de energia para flujo incompresible. En la seccion de giro del conductor, aparecen flujos secundarios significativos, formados por un par de celulas simetricas. Los resultados han sido comparados contra datos experimentales de la literatura para Re = 53 000. se obtuvo un buen acuerdo para la prediccion de la distribucion de

  8. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo city (Brazil); Ampliacao de mercado para o gas natural utilizando informacoes urbanas: estudo de caso dos distritos paulistanos

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    Massara, Vanessa M.; Faga, Murilo T.W.; Santos, Edmilson M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    Considering the importance of the city of Sao Paulo for the Brazilian natural gas market, the aim of this paper is to propose an analytical methodology that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, characterizing the gas consumption possibilities and attractiveness for each of the 96 districts composing the city. The methodology is developed through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. On this paper, examples of essential information that compose the methodology are presented for three districts: Itaquera, Moema and Tatuape, which have different socio-economic and geographical profiles. (author)

  9. Technical and economic analysis of a gas turbine/absorption cycle cogeneration system in the Brazilian Amazon; Analise tecnico-economica da cogeracao utilizando turbina a gas e ciclo de refrigeracao por absorcao na Amazonia

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    Sales, Leandro da Silva; Carvalho, Ricardo Dias Martins de; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: leandro8746@hotmail.com, e-mail: martins@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The generation and distribution of electricity in the Brazilian Amazon are faced with a number of difficulties, spanning from management aspects to technical issues. These are thermal power plants and the high costs of fuel (including distribution) and maintenance make them unprofitable, often requiring government subsidies. On the other hand, there is a shortage of ice for food preservation in the Amazonian market. In this context, cogeneration could help improve the plants overall efficiency and reduce costs. The proposed paper carries out a technical and economic analysis of a gas turbine and absorption refrigeration cycle cogeneration system supposed located along the Coari-Manaus natural gas pipeline. Actual electricity demand, ice consumption, and weather data for one of the cities to be served by the pipeline are used in the analysis. The gas turbine operation was simulated using Gate Cycle software; the exhaust gases temperature and flow rate output were in turn used for the simulation of a single stage aqua-ammonia refrigeration (AAR) cycle employing Cycle Tempo software. The thermodynamic simulation of the AAR cycle made it possible to determine the optimal temperature at the generator outlet in order to maximize the refrigeration capacity. For the economic analysis, the electricity and ice production costs were carefully determined and local market sales values for both were used. Then, assuming electrical parity and an electricity demand profile typical of the region the annual plant profit was determined. On the assumption that the cogeneration plant could be exempted from the ICMS tax throughout the investment recovery time, the payback period was 7.8 and 6.9 years for capacity factors of 0.572 and 0.614, respectively. In case there is no ICMS tax exemption, the payback period is 13.0 years, making the cogeneration investment not viable economically. (author)

  10. Numerical simulation of a cogeneration plant with micro gas turbine using computational tool EES; Simulacao numerica de uma planta de cogeracao com microturbina a gas natural utilizando ferramenta computacional EES

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    Oliveira, Guilherme L.B. de; Oliveira, Andrezza C.C.T.; Dutra, Jose C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Today, the cogeneration of energy has been widely disseminated and presents itself as a very viable alternative for energy savings, reducing CO2 emissions by conducting reuse energy. This study aims to develop a software for simulation, analysis and optimization of a cogeneration system that uses a natural gas turbine as a primary source. The data contained in the software were similar to existing data in a micro-cogeneration plant installed at UFPE and the results showed up in the standard presented by actual plant. We conclude that the software serves as a tool to pre-analysis of the plant of choice for cogeneration equipment to be installed as: pumps, heat exchangers, chillers, cooling towers. (author)

  11. Cogeneration in breweries analysis and simulation of systems for simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration using natural gas; Sistemas de refrigeracao a partir da cogeracao: analise e simulacao de propostas para o caso de cervejarias utilizando gas natural

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    Gallego, Antonio Garrido

    1998-07-01

    The present work analyses some proposals of cogeneration systems for the simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration in a brewery. The requirements of steam, refrigeration and electricity, as well as the production of beer in a plant of the Antarctica Company, located in Jaguariuna - SP were collected monthly for the year of 1997. Three conceptions of systems using two gas turbines with heat recovery steam generator were then proposed to meet the surveyed demand. The proposals differ in the refrigeration system: the first one uses a traditional ammonia compression system while the second uses an ammonia absorption system, the third proposal is a combination of the compression and absorption systems. These proposals are compared to the present configuration which purchases electricity from the Public Utility for power and refrigeration (using an ammonia compression)system, and fuel oil to generate steam for process heat. The technical, economical and environmental feasibility of the proposals, as well as of the present configuration are discussed on the basis of mass balances, energy balances (first law of Thermodynamics), exergy fluxes (second law analysis), operational and capital cost, based on simulation of the performance of each configuration proposed to meet the monthly electricity, steam and refrigeration requirements for the referred plant. The turbines were chosen so as to meet the peek energy demand of the plant and two cases were simulated for each proposal: turbine operational meets only the demand of the plant and turbine operates at full load, selling electricity for the Public utility. Results obtained show that the current operational costs are higher than any of the proposals presented. The high capital costs of the proposals, though,make them less interesting financially. The simulation of the case of excess electricity to the Public Utility is very attractive, considering the cost of natural gas 3,38 U$/M btu and the fare of 40 U

  12. Determination of volume fraction in biphasic flows oil-gas and water-gas using artificial neural network and gamma densitometry; Determinacao de fracoes de volume em fluxos bifasicos oleo-gas e agua-gas utilizando redes neurais artificiais e densitometria gama

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    Peixoto, Philippe Netto Belache

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a methodology based on the principles of gamma ray attenuation to identify volume fractions in biphasic systems composed of oil-gas-water and gas which are found in the offshore oil industry. This methodology is based on the acknowledgment counts per second on the photopeak energy using a detection system composed of a NaI (Tl) detector, a source of {sup 137}Cs without collimation positioned at 180 ° relative to the detector on a smooth stratified flow regime. The mathematical modeling for computational simulation using the code MCNP-X was performed using the experimental measurements of the detector characteristics (energy resolution and efficiency), characteristics of the material water and oil (density and coefficient attenuation) and measurement of the volume fractions. To predict these fractions were used artificial neural networks (ANNs), and to obtain an adequate training the ANNs for the prediction of volume fractions were simulated a larger number of volume fractions in MCNP-X. The experimental data were used in the set data necessary for validation of ANNs and the data generated using the computer code MCNP-X were used in training and test sets of the ANNs. Were used ANNs of type feed-forward Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and analyzed two functions of training, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and gradient descent with momentum (GDM), both using the Backpropagation training algorithm. The ANNs identified correctly the volume fractions of the multiphase system with mean relative errors lower than 1.21 %, enabling the application of this methodology for this purpose. (author)

  13. Remote monitoring of cathodic protection rectifiers of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline using low orbit satellite telephone; Monitoracao remota de retificadores de protecao catodica do Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil utilizando telefone via satelite de baixa orbita

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    Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present paper has for objective to present the information collected during definitions, development, implementation, testing and operation phases of the Pilot System for monitoring of the Cathodic Protection Rectifiers MS-10 and SP-09, installed on the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. The adopted solution for the Pilot System includes, basically, communication through low-earth satellite telephone, inter linked to the public telephone net, acquisition and data transmission system (Remote Terminal Unit) and data reception in the Supervision and Control Room. (author)

  14. Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors

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    Izabela Miranda de Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD and flame photometric detector (FPD. The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.29 µg/mL for FPD. The recovery of the method for BITC was 90,64%. An average value of BITC concentration in all the analyzed samples was 16,23 µg BITC/g.

  15. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  16. Identificação de compostos orgânicos e farmacêuticos em esgoto hospitalar utilizando cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa Identification of organic and pharmaceutical compositions in hospital wastewater using a gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry

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    Francisco Vieira Paiva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos líquidos provenientes dos estabelecimentos assistenciais de saúde são mais complexos do que os esgotos domésticos. Sua composição contém inúmeros compostos farmacêuticos, saneantes, elementos radiativos e de laboratórios. O conhecimento desses compostos pode auxiliar na escolha do tratamento adequado para esses esgotos e diminuir os impactos ambientais nos corpos receptores. A pesquisa foi realizada utilizando um sistema combinado (UASB e lodos ativados para tratar a água residuária de um hospital. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas análises físico-químicas para caracterização do esgoto e cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa para identificação de compostos químicos farmacêuticos, podendo-se constatar a presença de inúmeros elementos residuais dos fármacos usados no hospital.Liquid waste residues from health care establishments are more complex than those from residential sewage. Their composition contains several pharmaceutical chemical composites, sanitizers, radioactive, and laboratorial elements. Knowing about these composites may aid in choosing the proper treatment for these sewages, and diminish the environmental impact in receptors. The study was carried out in a combined system (UASB and activated sludge to treat a hospital wastewater. In this experiment, material and chemical analyses were employed to trace sewage characteristics and gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry to identify pharmacologic chemical composites, where innumerous residual elements were found in chromatographs.

  17. Ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje utilizando realidad aumentada

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    Diana Nancy Martínez García

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Realidad aumentada o Augmented reality es una nueva tecnología que al combinarla con espacios físicos permite ampliar el espectro de la información relacionada con dichos espacios; esto se hace a través de la superposición de imágenes, información o material audiovisual específico aplicado a cualquier área de conocimiento. Los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje basados en realidad aumentada prometen innovación debido a que transforman los escenarios de aprendizaje real mediante el uso de nuevas tecnologías aplicadas al ámbito educativo, complementando de esta manera la percepción e interacción con el mundo real; logrando el acceso a nuevos contenidos prescindiendo de recursos físicos. En cuanto al uso de la realidad aumentada aplicada al área de enfermería, existe un sinnúmero de herramientas para complementar una clase magistral y enriquecer el proceso de aprendizaje. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los desarrollos realizados utilizando realidad aumentada proviene de contextos diferentes al nuestro, por lo que resulta importante fomentar el uso de este tipo de herramientas para que suscite el interés de los desarrolladores locales de tecnologías aplicadas al ámbito educativo y más específicamente el de salud. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue fundamentar teóricamente acerca de los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje utilizando aplicaciones basadas en realidad aumentada.

  18. Predição da degradação da matéria seca pelo volume de gases utilizando a técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases Prediction of dry matter degradation from volume of gas production using the in vitro semi-automatic gas production technique

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    Ú.T. Nogueira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se a degradação da matéria seca (DMS via produção de gases (PG por meio de equações. Foram agrupados dados de volume de gases e DMS de oito forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, feno de Cynodon spp, silagem de milho, silagem de milheto, sorgo de corte, capim-elefante e cana-de-açúcar e de milho em grão. Os dados de DMS obtidos em laboratório foram comparados à DMS obtida pelas equações de regressão. Apesar dos altos coeficientes de determinação, os resultados demonstraram a impossibilidade de estimar a DMS via PG pelas equações geral, de dois e de três pontos.The dry matter degration (DMD was estimated through volume of gas produced (GP during the in vitro fermentation. The DMD from eight forages (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, cynodon hay, maize silage, Pennisetum glaucon, sorghum, elephant grass and sugarcane and corn grain were obtained and were compared with the DMD estimated using regression equations. The results showed the GP can not predict the DMD due to inocula effects, chemical composition of substrate or losses of particles of soluble material during filtration process.

  19. Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions listed in the Kyoto Protocol by the utilization of landfill gas using solid oxide fuel cells; Reducao das emissoes de gases de efeito estufa listados no protocolo de Quioto pelo aproveitamento do gas gerado em aterros sanitarios utilizando celulas a combustivel de oxido solido. Estudo de caso do aterro municipal de Santo Andre, SP, Brazil

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    Paris, Alexandre Gellert

    2007-07-01

    In the last few years, the Kyoto Protocol had been a subject very debated, at first, in a restricted niche, manly academics and professionals related to the area of climate changes. On 16th February 2005 the Kyoto Protocol entered into force and with this a lot of publicity all over the world, so today is common to hear about it at the mass communications media. The extension of the subject is broad, this work discuss the utilization of one the Kyoto's flexibility mechanisms, to contribute to financing the use of the landfill gas in the solid oxide fuel cells. Among the three mechanisms presented in the Kyoto Protocol, the clean development mechanism (CDM) in article 12, is the only one that can be implemented by non-Annex I countries, the case of Brazil. In other hand, the issue of solid waste in Brazil is critical. Even being illegal, most of the solid waste goes to uncontrolled areas in open air places 'lixoes', causing degradation of the environment and the communities around this areas, and also emission of green house gases (GHG), deregulating the global climate system. Decontaminate this areas and the construction of landfills to replace than, considering the landfill as a bioreactor, and the utilization of the biogas to generate power can improve nowadays picture that we are facing. The utilization of an innovative alternative technology as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) instead the conventional technologies will be more efficient and environmentally better. Among other barriers the cost is pointed as the biggest. In this context, the SOFC is the most expensive fuel cell, so the utilization of CDM can contribute to finance the application of this technology. Scenarios were made of 250 kW, 500 kW, 1,000 kW, 5,000 kW and 10,000 kW of installed power using biogas from the Municipal Landfill of Santo Andre. The calculations of the emission factor were done ex ante and ex post according to ACM0002. Comparing the costs of the installed power

  20. A pre-analysis for the optimal operational scheduling of a pipeline network; Uma pre-analise do problema de otimizacao da programacao das operacoes de uma malha dutoviaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Daniel I.; Brondani, William M.; Arantes, Lucas G.; Boschetto, Suelen N.; Lueders, Ricardo; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work suggests a Pre-analysis in the input parameters of an optimization system (Bonacin et al., 2007; Boschetto et al., 2008). The proposed method is based on programming techniques that use lists of objects threaded, where objects are elements belonging to the same class, according to the concept of the object-oriented programming. The Preanalysis makes a previous evaluation of a batch sequencing, getting information to be entered into an optimization block. The continuous time Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model gets such information and determines the scheduling. The models are applied on a pipeline network that connects different areas including refineries, terminals, and final clients. Many oil derivatives (e.g. gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha) can be sent or received in this network. The Pre-analysis objective is to reduce the computational time of an MILP model, and the proposed approach can aid the decision-making process to obtain a more detailed scheduling. (author)

  1. Avaliação da Composição de Vários Alimentos e Determinação da Cinética Ruminal da Proteína, Utilizando o Método de Produção de Gás e Amônia in Vitro Chemical Composition Evaluation and Ruminal Protein Kinetics of Some Feedstuffs Using a Gas and Ammonia Production in vitro Method

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    Fernando Iván Londoño Hernández

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se determinações químicas e estudos sobre a cinética ruminal dos compostos nitrogenados de 24 alimentos concentrados e 10 volumosos, utilizando as medições das concentrações de nitrogênio solúvel em ácido tricloroacético e a produção de gás. Foram utilizados 200 mL de líquido ruminal e 800 mL do meio fermentador para a incubação de 100 tubos. Para 400 mL do meio fermentador foi pesado 1,0 g de trypticase e adicionado 0,1 mL de uma solução de microminerais. Para 200 mL da solução tampão pesaram-se 0,8 g de bicarbonato de amônia e 7 g de bicarbonato de sódio e, para preparar 200 mL da solução de macrominerais, foram pesados 1,15 g de fosfato de sódio dibásico, 1,25 g de fosfato de potássio dibásico e 0,1 g de sulfato de magnésio. Foram preparados 100 mL de solução redutora, pesando 0,64 g de cisteína-HCL, 0,64 g de sulfeto de sódio, adicionando-se 4 mL de hidróxido de sódio 1N e água destilada. A degradação dos compostos nitrogenados dos alimentos foi determinada nos tempos 6 e 12 horas, incubando-se 1,875 mg de N com 0, 33, 67 e 100 mg de amido, 6 mL do meio fermentador, 4 mL da mistura líquido ruminal-meio fermentador e 0,1 mL da solução redutora utilizando-se CO2. As estimativas das taxas de degradação, nos tempos 6 e 12 horas, mostraram que farelo de glúten de milho, caseína, grão moído de amendoim, raspa de mandioca, silagem de sorgo com e sem inóculo, silagem de milho e capim-gordura apresentaram proteínas de rápida degradação. A mais lenta degradação foi observada para os alimentos: levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farinha de penas, farinha de peixe, cama de frango de cepilha de madeira e capim-braquiária. As estimativas foram maiores que as observadas previamente com o método de inibidores, para os alimentos volumosos. Recomenda-se utilizar o tempo de 12 horas para a avaliação dos concentrados e 6 horas para os volumosos.Chemical determinations and kinetics studies of

  2. The repair of ground cover of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline near Paraguay River crossing, in a swamp soft soil region, using geo synthetics reinforced backfilling; Reparo da cobertura do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil junto ao Rio Paraguai, em trecho com solo mole, utilizando aterro reforcado com geosinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cesar Augusto; Jorge, Kemal Vieira; Bechuate Filho, Pedro [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Gerencia Regional Centro Oeste (CRGO); Teixeira, Sidnei H.C. [Geohydrotech Engenharia S.C. Ltda., Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    TBG - Transportadora Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A, executes routine maintenance works at the Gas Pipeline Right of Way, seeking its integrity. In the wetlands of Pantanal, near the Paraguay river crossing, the organic-alluvial soil was submitted to the process of subsidence. This process, associated with the river water flow erosion, shrank the soil volume and diminished or extinguished the pipeline land cover. The pipeline was exposed to the environment, and submitted to tension stresses and the risk of low cycle fatigue during the floods. The cathodic protection system also had to be evaluated, specially in the drought. To mitigate the problem, the embankment technique was adopted using sandy soil, reinforced with polyester geo-webs and with woven polipropene geo-textiles. The solution also used geo-webs with soil-cement as protection elements against the degradation of the geo-textiles blankets. Some monitoring works are associated with those interventions: monitoring of cathodic protection; topographical verification of horizontal and vertical displacements of the pipeline; levels of land covering, and rainfalls and flood measurement. The base of the embankment was built with hydraulic transported soil, and at the end consistently supported the gas pipeline. (author)

  3. Estimativa da degradabilidade ruminal de alimentos utilizando a técnica de produção de gás em bovinos, ovinos e caprinos Estimate of the ruminal degradability of some feeds using gas production technique in cattle, sheep, and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Aparecida dos Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de validar a técnica de produção de gás na avaliação de alimentos concentrados e volumosos e as possíveis diferenças entre bovinos, ovinos e caprinos quanto à degradação desses alimentos. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Pesquisa Animal do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFLA. O líquido ruminal (inóculo foi originado de três vacas Holandesas, três ovelhas e três cabras sem raça definida, fistuladas no rúmen. Foram avaliadas as frações solúvel em detergente neutro (SDN e fibra em detergente neutro(FDN de fubá de milho, farelo de soja, farelo de algodão, caroço de algodão, farelo de trigo, polpa cítrica, feno de alfafa, feno de coast cross, silagem de milho e silagem de capim. As leituras do volume cumulativo de gás foram feitas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60 e 72 horas após a incubação. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre as espécies, para nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. A fração SDN apresentou maior produção de gás e taxa de degradação em relação a FDN. A técnica de produção de gás permitiu estimar as taxas de digestão das frações insolúveis e, principalmente, das frações solúveis dos carboidratos totais.The objective of this work was to validate the technique of gas production in the evaluation of concentrated feeds and roughages, and the possible differences between cattle, sheep, and goats, regarding the degradation of these feeds. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Animal Research at the Animal Science Department - Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. The ruminal liquor came from three Holstein cows, three sheep, and three goats, without defined race. All were fistulated in the rumen. The neutral detergent soluble fraction (NDS and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, of ground corn, soybean meal, cotton meal, cotton seed, wheat meal, citrus pulp, alfalfa hay, coast cross hay, corn silage and grass silage were

  4. Portal WEB 2.0. utilizando Framework Struts

    OpenAIRE

    Palacín Mateo, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    El propósito de este proyecto es la implementación de un portal interactivo de contactos utilizando las tecnologías J2EE mediante Struts y siguiendo la tendencia Web 2.0. Previo a esta implementación se ha hecho una valoración del mercado actual de los portales de contactos y se han evaluado los servicios que ofrecen para posteriormente añadirlos a la demostración tecnológica. Tras esto se ha explicado lo que es la tendencia Web 2.0. Finalmente se han evaluado las diferentes opciones o tec...

  5. PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOFERTILIZANTES UTILIZANDO Pseudomonas sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Santillana-Villanueva, Nery; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2006-01-01

    Con el objetivo de producir biofertilizantes utilizando 3 cepas de Pseudomonas sp., se realizaron tres experimentos: el primero, para encontrar un medio de cultivo apropiado para la multiplicación de las bacterias; el segundo, para determinar la sobrevivencia de las cepas de Pseudomonas sp en los biofertilizantes y el tercero para determinar la dosis eficiente de aplicación del biofertilizante en frijol, maíz, papa y tomate, en condiciones de invernadero. Al evaluar los resultados, se determi...

  6. Planeamento de uma estrada utilizando CCS Candy - Caso de estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Sara Maria de

    2013-01-01

    O tema desta dissertação foi escolhido tendo em consideração a crescente necessidade de planeamento de empreitadas de construção de estradas, sendo um dos objetivos desta dissertação o de oferecer uma visão global do processo de planeamento da construção de uma estrada, focado apenas no fator tempo, recorrendo a ferramentas informáticas e utilizando um caso de estudo de uma estrada real e já construída. Inicialmente, faz-se uma breve descrição dos métodos de planeamento mais aplicados em p...

  7. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  8. PUBLICIDADE EM CELULARES UTILIZANDO O SISTEMA DE BUSCA DE PERFIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gomes de Araújo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A publicidade vem causando um impacto cada vez mais perceptível na sociedade moderna, o qual se percebe nas mudanças de hábitos e costumes das pessoas. Entretanto, os atuais métodos de transmissões publicitárias estão se tornando problemáticos, devido à incorreta utilização e também devido à grande preocupação com o meio ambiente e com a qualidade de vida. Neste contexto, esse trabalho propõe a criação de um sistema para envio de mensagens publicitárias via celulares. Para tanto, utilizando um mecanismo de busca de perfil. A busca é responsável por localizar os celulares ativos, baseando-se no padrão Bluetooth. Um perfil consiste em todas as informações referentes a um usuário, as quais caracterizam os seus interesses. Após a localização e identificação do perfil o usuário receberá em seu celular mensagens de seu interesse. O processo de localização e sincronização de perfil é realizado de forma totalmente automática, aumentando assim a usabilidade do sistema.

  9. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and gas pains Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  12. MODELAGEM DE PROCESSOS UTILIZANDO O BPMN NA FACULDADE CATÓLICA RAINHA DO SERTÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Neuton da Silva Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta o gerenciamento de negócios por processos, suas perspectivas atuais, suas vantagens, o desenvolvimento do projeto Modelagem de Processos utilizando BPMN implementado na Faculdade Católica Rainha do Sertão, as ferramentas utilizadas no projeto, a metodologia e os resultados obtidos a partir do mesmo. Ainda foi descrito os setores utilizados, a modelagem resultante das pesquisas e entrevistas e as sugestões para as melhorias dos processos modelados.

  13. Degradação de poliolefinas utilizando catalisadores zeolíticos Degradation of polyolefins using zeolitic catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia M. Valle

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a degradação de alguns dos principais constituintes dos rejeitos plásticos (polietileno de alta densidade (HDPE, polietileno de baixa densidade (LDPE e polipropileno (PP, empregando-se um catalisador exausto de unidades de craqueamento de fluidos (FCC e um catalisador zeolítico (ADZ3 sintetizado em laboratório. Utilizando técnicas de termogravimetria (TG-DTG e cromatografia gasosa (CG, foi possível avaliar os produtos gerados no craqueamento destas poliolefinas. Na degradação catalítica de poliolefinas com catalisadores zeolíticos, verificou-se a obtenção preferencial de gasolina, GLP e diesel, produtos importantes na matriz energética brasileira. O catalisador de FCC exausto foi mais seletivo para a produção de gasolina e GLP, enquanto que a produção de diesel foi mais favorecida com o catalisador ADZ3.In this work the degradation of some of the main plastics responsible for waste, viz. high density polyethylene (HDPE, low density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP, was studied using a spent FCC catalyst (fluid cracking catalyst and a zeolitic catalyst (ADZ3 synthesized in laboratory. Using thermogravimetry (TG-DTG and gas chromatography (GC techniques, it was possible to evaluate the products from these polyolefins cracking. The catalytic degradation of polyolefins led to a preferential production of LPG, diesel and gasoline, which are important products of the Brazilian energetic matrix. The spent FCC catalyst was more selective for production of LPG and gasoline, whereas the diesel production was more favored with the ADZ3 catalyst.

  14. Gas gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue infection - Clostridial; Gangrene - gas; Myonecrosis; Clostridial infection of tissues; Necrotizing soft tissue infection ... Gas gangrene is most often caused by bacteria called Clostridium perfringens. It also can be caused by ...

  15. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  16. Ruslands Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to obtain some political power. Russia owns 32,1 % of the world gas reserves, and The European Union is getting 50 % of its gas import from Russia. I will use John Mearsheimer’s theory ”The Tragedy of Great Power Politics” to explain how Russia can use its big reserves of gas on The European Union to get political influence. This paper is about Ru...

  17. Ruslands Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to obtain some political power. Russia owns 32,1 % of the world gas reserves, and The European Union is getting 50 % of its gas import from Russia. I will use John Mearsheimer’s theory ”The Tragedy of Great Power Politics” to explain how Russia can use its big reserves of gas on The European Union to get political influence.

  18. Harnessing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Nigeria produces almost two million barrels of oil a day from its oil fields in the Niger Delta area. Most of the oil comes from reservoirs containing gas, which is produced with the oil. This associated gas is separated from the oil at flow stations and more than 95 per cent of it is flared-currently a total of some two billion standard cubic feet per day (scf/d), which is estimated to be about a quarter of the gas the world flares and vents. The energy available from Nigeria's flared gas is prodigious, equivalent to one quarter of France's gas requirements. The company recognises that flaring wastes a valuable resource and is environmentally damaging. It aims to stop necessary flaring as soon as possible through a series of projects to harness or conserve this gas. Several gas gathering and conservation projects are already underway in response to emerging markets while other plans await new markets. The company is committed to reduce gas flaring as soon as is feasible to the minimum needed to maintain safe operations. But why are solutions being found only now? why has Nigeria been flaring gas for so long? These question lie at the crux of the debate about Nigeria and gas flaring and the answers, which continue to have a major impact on associated gas development today, are rooted in history, economics and geography

  19. Mecánica orbital para un viaje interestelar utilizando velas solares

    OpenAIRE

    Rocas Alonso, Marc; Mendez Heredero, Adrià

    2016-01-01

    Es sabido que el espacio es y será objeto de estudios e investigaciones para responder algunas de las preguntas más antiguas de la humanidad. El propósito inicial del trabajo surgió del planteamiento sobre la viabilidad de realizar una misión espacial cuya meta fuese llegar a las inmediaciones de una estrella diferente al Sol utilizando un método de propulsión viable. El trabajo consiste en dos partes considerablemente diferenciadas. En primer lugar se presenta un estudio del estado del...

  20. Obtención de fases del cemento utilizando desechos agrícolas e industriales

    OpenAIRE

    Treviño Cardona, Brenda; Gómez de la Fuente, Idalia

    2002-01-01

    El presente artículo muestra los resultados en la obtenci ón de fases mineralógicas cementicias, utilizando como materia prima cenizas de cascarilla de arroz y ceniza volante mezclados con tres tipos de materiales dolomíticos que contienen carbonatos de calcio en proporciones de 66 y 52%, denotados éstos como cal1 y cal2, respectivamente. Las muestras se prepararon en diferentes proporciones mediante el mezclado de SiO2:CaO, la sílice proviene de ceniza volante y de...

  1. Degradação de poliolefinas utilizando catalisadores zeolíticos

    OpenAIRE

    Valle,Maria Letícia M.; Guimarães,Maria José O. C.; Sampaio,Cristiane M. S.

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi estudada a degradação de alguns dos principais constituintes dos rejeitos plásticos (polietileno de alta densidade (HDPE), polietileno de baixa densidade (LDPE) e polipropileno (PP)), empregando-se um catalisador exausto de unidades de craqueamento de fluidos (FCC) e um catalisador zeolítico (ADZ3) sintetizado em laboratório. Utilizando técnicas de termogravimetria (TG-DTG) e cromatografia gasosa (CG), foi possível avaliar os produtos gerados no craqueamento destas poliolef...

  2. Obturación de conductos curvos utilizando técnicas termoplásticas

    OpenAIRE

    López, M.; Tissone, S.; Jara Ortiz, M.; Zaracho, O. H.; Bustos, M. J.; Sapienza, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Conocer las técnicas termoplásticas de obturación de conductos. Los conductos radiculares son sistemas complejos por su anatomía tan particular y por medio de la endodoncia tratamos parte de ese problema. Las técnicas de obturación convencionales, utilizando conos de gutapercha y cemento se podían utilizar en conductos curvos o con ciertas curvaturas: No así en conductos muy curvos por la dificultad de la correcta utilización del instrumental y material. Por todo esto surgen nuevas técnicas d...

  3. Uma proposta de aprendizado da lógica utilizando um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem colaborativa

    OpenAIRE

    Malange, Fernando Cezar Vieira

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Computação. Este trabalho realiza o desenvolvimento de um curso básico de Lógica, utilizando tecnologias desenvolvidas para a Internet em atividades educacionais a distância. Oportunizando na abordagem sócio-cultural, a produção do conhecimento básico de lógica, com a utilização de um sistema computacional através de um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem cooperativa. ...

  4. Sistema de evaluación de competencias en Educación Superior utilizando Moodle

    OpenAIRE

    María José BEZANILLA; Sonia ARRANZ

    2016-01-01

    El artículo presenta el diseño de un sistema original de evaluación de competencias utilizando el libro de calificaciones de Moodle. La implantación del modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Competencias en Educación Superior exige nuevos sistemas de evaluación que sean coherentes con este enfoque. Aunque existen diversos desarrollos tecnológicos para la evaluación de competencias, algunos de los cuales se analizan en este artículo, ninguno responde en su totalidad a modelos com...

  5. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE VINHAS RIESLING ITÁLICO NACIONAIS UTILIZANDO PERFIL LIVRE

    OpenAIRE

    BENASSI,Marta de Toledo; DAMÁSIO,Maria Helena; CECCHI,Heloísa Máscia

    1998-01-01

    A literatura cita um grande número de trabalhos envolvendo análise sensorial descritiva para vinhos. Perfil Livre, uma nova técnica descritiva, foi utilizado na caracterização em termos de aparência, sabor e aroma para sete amostras de vinhos brancos Riesling Itálico nacionais. Doze provadores, sem experiência anterior com a técnica, foram selecionados utilizando-se teste triangular. Para o levantamento de atributos foi empregado o método rede. O número de atributos levantados por provador va...

  6. Diseño de redes de cámaras inteligentes utilizando smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoz Seguido, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Este Trabajo Fin de Grado (TFG) presenta una herramienta software para controlar de forma remota una red de cámaras inteligentes utilizando smartphones Android. Dicha red compone un sistema de videovigilancia casero que consta de tres partes diferenciadas: teléfonos móviles (cámaras) y aplicaciones cliente y servidor. Este sistema será implementado aprovechando las posibilidades que nos ofrece Android a la hora de controlar las diferentes configuraciones de captura y envío d...

  7. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  8. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  9. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  10. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  11. Detección de fraude bancario en tiempo real utilizando tecnologías de procesamiento distribuido

    OpenAIRE

    Mansilla Montero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    En este Trabajo de Fin de Máster se desarrollará un sistema de detección de fraude en pagos con tarjeta de crédito en tiempo real utilizando tecnologías de procesamiento distribuido. Concretamente se considerarán dos tecnologías: TIBCO, un conjunto de herramientas comerciales diseñadas para el procesamiento de eventos complejos, y Apache Spark, un sistema abierto para el procesamiento de datos en tiempo real. Además de implementar el sistema utilizando las dos tecnologías propuestas, un objet...

  12. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  13. Modelo matricial para la asignación del costo utilizando activity basing cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Millán-Solarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación presenta la propuesta para asignación de los costos, utilizando la metodología ABC, bajo el modelo matricial. Esto implica la construcción de matrices, entendidas estas como un arreglo ordenado de m filas por n columnas. El costo total para la realización de una actividad se basará en el número de veces que dicha actividad se realice durante un período específico. A partir de lo anterior, se puede obtener el costo total de la fabricación del producto (o la prestación de un servicio si se suman las actividades necesarias para su elaboración.

  14. Reconhecimento de padrões de falhas em motores trifásicos utilizando redes neurais

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Aderson Jamier Santos

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta um sistema de diagnóstico de falhas (rotor, estator e contaminação) do motor de indução trifásico através dos parâmetros do circuito equivalente e utilizando técnicas de reconhecimento de padrões. A tecnologia de detecção de falhas em motores está evoluindo e tornando cada vez mais importante na área de máquinas elétricas. As redes neurais possuem a habilidade de classificar relações não lineares entre sinais através da identificação de padrões dos sinai...

  15. Projeto de acopladores ópticos utilizando algoritmo genético

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Oliveira Zampronio

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: Este projeto é uma proposta de um novo acoplador óptico para a aplicação em circuitos ópticos integrados. O dispositivo foi desenvolvido utilizando o método dos elementos finitos vetorial 3D associado com o algoritmo genético e leva em consideração guias de onda com diferentes altura, largura e índices de refração. O comprimento total do acoplador óptico é de apenas 4,22 µm e o seu funcionamento é baseado em pequenos segmentos cilíndricos que interferem na propagação da onda eletromag...

  16. GLUE: um modelo de Clusterização utilizando mobilidade.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernando Augusto Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Computação. Departamento de Ciência da Computação, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. O uso de clusters em MANETs é comum em situações de roteamento e entrega de conteúdo. O aumento do uso de smartphones com suporte a comunicação ponto a ponto, em especial o WiFi Direct, justifica o uso de algoritmos de clusterização adaptados a esses dispositivos e seus casos de uso. Em um cenário de turistas utilizando sm...

  17. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  18. Projeto e desenvolvimento de um carro robô controlado por smartphone, utilizando a plataforma Amarino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Souza Martins Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a construção de um carro robô controlado por dispositivos móveis utilizando o sistema operacional Android e uma placa de prototipagem open source (Arduino. Utilizou-se de motores para sua movimentação e sensores para interação com o ambiente. O envio de comandos foi realizado utilizando a tecnologia Bluetooth e é capaz de movimentar o carro robô em todas as direções de acordo com os comandos do usuário. Sensores instalados no carro coletam informações do ambiente que são enviadas ao dispositivo Android. A construção bem sucedida deste carro robô mostra que é possível implementar novas funcionalidades para esse produto, bem como apoiar outros projetos relacionados a esse tema.Palavras-chave: Arduino. Android. Bluetooth. Carro robô. Robótica. Project and development of a robot car controlled by smartphone, using the platform amarinoABSTRACTThis work shows the build of a robot car controlled by mobile devices employing Android operating system and an open source prototyping board (Arduino. Motors for its movements and sensors for its environment interaction were employed. The commands are transmitted using Bluetooth technology which can move the robot car in all directions according to the user commands. Sensors installed in the car collect the environment information which is sent to the Android device. The success build of this robot car shows that new features can be possible implemented as well as to support other projects related to this research area.Keywords: Arduino. Android. Bluetooth. Robot car. Robotic.

  19. Stochastic programming of drilling rigs supplies; Programacao estocastica de suprimentos de sondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Bruno Ferreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this work is to use techniques of stochastic programming to reduce logistic costs regarding offshore drilling rigs. This theme is of great interest to Brazilian oil industry since there is an increasing number of wells that need to be perforated so that Brazilian oil production can reach its expected growth over the next ten years (PETROBRAS in particular has an ambitious strategy in this respect). Proper treatment of the uncertainties involved in the deliveries of supplies to offshore drilling rigs is essential, namely, these uncertainties need to be included in the models used in logistic models. Delays in the deliveries of products such as chemicals, perforation fluids and tubes may force drilling rigs to stop their operations what highly increases costs. The daily hiring rates of drilling rigs represent the highest cost in the perforation and completion of a well. (author)

  20. Aprendendo Programacao Orientada a Objetos com uma Abordagem Ludica Baseada em Greenfoot e Robocode

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Cleison Simoes; Santos, Allen Hichard Marques; Souza, Suenny Mascarenhas; Bittencourt, Roberto Almeida

    2017-01-01

    One the major challenges in undergraduate computing programs is the learning of object-oriented programming (OOP). This paradigm has a variety of concepts with an abstraction level usually high for most beginners, even the ones who already code in an imperative language. Furthermore, transitioning from imperative programming to OOP is a complex issue, with various inappropriate side effects. A significant effort has been pursued in the search of motivating and attractive solutions for such is...

  1. Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Stuart P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Selects fundamental developments in theory, methodology, and instrumentation in gas chromatography (GC). A special section reviews GC in the People's Republic of China. Over 1,000 references are cited. (CS)

  2. Diseño de multiplicador de 64 bits utilizando la técnica de barrido superpuesto

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo Ramírez, Luis

    1987-01-01

    Se presenta el desarrollo del novel algoritmo de multiplicación por barrido superpuesto de 3-bits, así como también los aspectos importantes del diseño de la arquitectura, redes lógicas y layout de un multiplicador de 64-bits utilizando como caso de estudio.

  3. La resolución de problemas geométricos en Matemática utilizando la computadora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmany Guzmán-Simón

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis donde se plantean los fundamentos psicopedagógicos que sustentan el desarrollo de habilidades en la resolución de problemas geométricos en la asignatura Matemática, utilizando la computadora.

  4. Tomorrow, gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icart, Laura; Jean, Pascale; Georget, Cyrille; Schmill, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This document contains 12 articles notably addressing the importance of natural gas production and supplies in Europe. The themes of the articles are: the advantages of natural gas in the context of energy and environmental policies, energy diversification, energy supply in the local territories, etc.; the position of GrDF, one of the main French natural gas supplier; LPG (butane, propane), a solution which popularity grows in remote areas; the Gaya project (production of renewable gas from dry biomass); a panorama of gas supply routes in Europe; the situation of gas in Europe's energy supply and consumption; the promotion of LNG fuel for maritime and fluvial ships; why the small scale LNG could be the next revolution; presentation of the new 'Honfleur' ferry (using LNG fuel) that will cross the English Channel by 2019; carbon market and the role of ETS for the energy policy in Europe facing the climatic change challenge; presentation of the French 'Climate Plan' that aims to engage France into a carbon neutrality by 2050; presentation of the French policy against air pollution; economic growth, energy, climate: how to square this circle?

  5. Un sencillo experimento de laboratorio para determinar la masa molar e identificar el gas de relleno de un encendedor. Simulación interactiva.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    En este ejercicio se simula un sencillo experimento para determinar la masa molar del gas que rellena un encendedor y llevar a cabo la identificación química del mismo. Se comienza pesando el contenedor del gas antes de su vaciado parcial y se monta el dispositivo experimental utilizando una bureta para recoger el gas y un embudo de decantación para igualar la presión del gas a la presión atmosférica. El vaciado del gas hacia la bureta la controla el experimentador. Anotado el volumen recogid...

  6. Experimental numerical study utilizing CFD in a stratified gasifier operating with biomass; Estudio numerico experimental de un gasificador estratificado que opera con biomasa, utilizando CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel Ramirez, Alejandro

    2007-07-01

    The central idea behind this work is the developing of a numeric-experimental model, useful to optimize the biomass stratified gasifier design. Firstly, model validation will be carried up by comparison with reference experimental data available. This study describes a 1-D + 2-D numerical model used to simulate the gasification of pine wood pellets in a stratified downdraft gasifier whereby Eulerian conservation equations are solved for particle and gas phase components, velocities and specific enthalpies. The model takes into account the biomass particle process such as heating up, drying, primary pyrolysis of biomass, secondary pyrolysis of tar, homogeneous reactions and heterogeneous combustion/gasification reactions, and particle size change. This CFD model can be used to predict temperature profiles, gas composition, producer gas lower heating value, and carbon conversion efficiency, and the reactor performance when operating parameters and feed properties are changed. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} and RNG {kappa}-{epsilon} models were used to simulate the turbulent flow conditions. [Spanish] La idea central del presente trabajo es el desarrollo de un modelo numerico- experimental, para optimizar el diseno de gasificadores estratificados de biomasa. Primeramente, el modelo sera validado utilizando datos experimentales disponibles en la literatura. Este estudio describe un modelo numerico 1-D+2-D, utilizado para simular la gasificacion de 'pelets' de madera de pino en un gasificador estratificado de flujos paralelos, en el que se resuelven ecuaciones de conservacion Eulerianas para los componentes de la fase gaseosa, la fase solida, velocidades y entalpias especificas. El modelo considera procesos como: calentamiento, secado de la biomasa, pirolisis primaria de la madera, pirolisis secundaria de los alquitranes, reacciones homogeneas, reacciones heterogeneas de combustion/gasificacion y cambio en el tamano de la particula. Este modelo CFD puede ser

  7. Cowdung gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A basic guide for the design and construction of a small biogas plant is presented. The gas holder consists of a battery of seven used oil drums bound together with interconnected via plastic piping. Most other components, with the exception of metal valves and joints, are made of wood, stone or cement.

  8. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  9. Modelaje geológico y de recursos del yacimiento Pastelillo utilizando el krigeaje de indicadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Q. Cuador-Gil

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones la complejidad y variabilidad de un yacimiento mineral hace dificil establecer dominios geológicos homogéneos que puedan ser utilizados para aplicar control geológico a la estimación de los parámetros más relevantes. La imposibilidad de crear un modelo geológico con unidades bien definidas conduce a trabajar con poblaciones heterogéneas, lo cual degrada considerablemente la calidad de las estimaciones. Tal es el caso de Pastelillo, yacimiento de materia prima para cemento, en el que es difícil reproducir la geometría de los distintos tipos tecnológicos utilizando el método tradicional de correlación geológica. Las distintas litologías que conforman el yacimientos están completamente mezcladas tanto en el plano como en la vertical y estos frecuentes cambios faciales provocan una gran variabilidad litológica y tecnológica en el yacimiento. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior se propone emplear un método de interpolación espacial que permita hacer estimaciones en presencia de poblaciones complejas. En el artículo se establece un modelo tecnológico y de recursos para el yacimiento Pastelillo a partir del empleo de una técnica de estimación de la geoestadística no lineal: el krigeaje de indicadores.

  10. Biossorção de azul de metileno utilizando resíduos agroindustriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa C. Honorato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a capacidade de adsorção do corante azul de metileno nos resíduos da palha de milho e da bainha do palmito pupunha in natura. A caracterização dos resíduos foi determinada utilizando-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho a qual indicou a presença de grupos carboxílicos, hidroxila e carbonila. O tempo necessário para que o sistema atingisse o equilíbrio para ambos os resíduos foi de 240 min, seguindo uma cinética descrita pelo modelo de pseudo-segunda ordem. A capacidade máxima de adsorção foi de 102,8 mg g-1 para o resíduo da palha de milho, seguindo o modelo de isoterma de Langmuir e 50,9 mg g-1 para o resíduo de palmito pupunha, sendo que o modelo que melhor se ajusta foi Freundlich. Desta forma, esses resíduos são promissores para a adsorção do corante azul de metileno em efluentes.

  11. Comparativo das propriedades do concreto autoadensável (CAA utilizando areia fina e cinza volante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Tutikian

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é contribuir para a tomada de decisão sobre a definição do uso de materiais finos responsáveis pela resistência à segregação do concreto auto-adensável (CAA. Neste estudo, amostras de CAA foram dosadas com cinza volante, um material pozolânico, e areia fina, que é um material não pozolânico, utilizando o método de dosagem proposto por Tutikian & Dal Molin (2007 [1]. Foi observado que a utilização de cinza volante aumentou a resistência à compressão, principalmente nas idades mais avançadas, assim como os valores de módulo de deformação e velocidade das ondas de ultrasom. Também diminuiu a penetração de íons cloretos, para os mesmos valores de resistência em comparação com os CAA com areia fina e o custo final dos CAA com cinza volante foi inferior. Foram apresentados tanto os diagramas de dosagem como os de desempenho.

  12. UTILIZANDO O MÉTODO TODIM PARA AVALIAR AS MELHORES EMPRESAS PARA TRABALHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Teixeira da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo expõe uma nova proposta de ordenação das 5 melhores empresas para trabalhar em termos de qualidade do ambiente de trabalho e qualidade na gestão de pessoas utilizando-se do método TODIM como suporte científico para tal. A ordenação inicial, proposta pela revista Você/SA Exame, utiliza como método classificador o índice de felicidade no trabalho, uma soma ponderada de índices resultantes da percepção dos funcionários, das práticas da empresa e da constatação feita por jornalistas em visitas às empresas. Este trabalho, que utiliza o método TODIM, considera esses itens como critérios de avaliação e realiza uma análise comparativa das alternativas. Ao final, é executada uma comparação entre as ordenações e uma análise de sensibilidade, analisando as especificidades de cada método de ordenação e a consistência de seus resultados.

  13. DESARROLLO DE APIO MINIMAMENTE PROCESADO FORTIFICADO CON VITAMINA E, UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERIA DE MATRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YISELL JOHAN MARTELO CASTAÑO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio, en terminos de la cuantificacion de sus propiedades fisicoquimicas, color, textura, estabilidad de la vitamina E y caracteristicas sensoriales. Se formulo la emulsion con el objetivo de adicionar teoricamente un 73% del Valor Diario Recomendado (VDR vitamina E/100 g de apio fresco y su cuantificacion se realizo por HPLC. La respuesta a la impregnacion en la matriz fue de 12,10+-1,15%, lo cual permitio alcanzar un 112% VDR vitamina E/100g apio fresco, manteniendose este contenido durante el almacenamiento de 9 dias en ambos tipos de envasado. Los parametros fisicoquimicos del producto fueron afectados por la IV, el tiempo y el envasado, manteniendo su coloracion verdosa y presentando disminucion en la firmeza. La ingenieria de matrices constituye una metodologia efectiva para el desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado adicionado con vitamina E.

  14. Resección quirúrgica de mucocele utilizando relleno siliconado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El mucocele es una lesión que afecta especialmente las glándulas salivales menores; se forma debido a la extravasación de saliva mucosa producto de un trauma por mordedura. Teniendo en cuenta el factor causal, el mucocele se puede clasificar como quiste de extravasación mucosa o quiste de retención mucosa. Afecta primordialmente el labio inferior y se manifiesta como un nódulo, translúcido y circunscrito con un contenido mucoso o muestra una elevación del color de la mucosa que la cubre. El tratamiento consiste en la resección quirúrgica de la lesión, que incluya las glándulas salivales menores afectadas. Se realizó la revisión de una caso clínico de paciente de 18 años de edad, que presenta mucocele profundo, el cual fue tratado con resección quirúrgica utilizando como relleno de la cavidad quística una silicona fluida, que permite mantener los reparos anatómicos y así poder realizar la remoción completa de la lesión y las glándulas afectadas.

  15. PROPUESTA INFORMÁTICA PARA SELECCIONAR PERSONAL POR COMPETENCIAS UTILIZANDO TÉCNICAS DE INTELIGENCIA ARTIFICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La selección de personal por competencias es un tema muy reciente que esta cautivando a las empresas que quieren asegurarse de contar con el personal calificado y competente. Su objetivo es seleccionar al candidato más idóneo para desempeñar un cargo ocupacional específico, teniendo en cuenta su potencial y capacidad de adaptación; lo que precisa ser más coherentes y no simplistas en el tratamiento de la información que se posee. En el presente trabajo se presenta una propuesta informática para realizar esta selección utilizando técnicas de inteligencia artificial (IA, que pueden proporcionar una solución satisfactoria a un problema real de gestión de personal.

  16. Cálculo del factor de efectividad utilizando colocación ortogonal sobre elementos finitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente documento se resuelve el problema del cálculo del factor de efectividad para la transferencia de masa y calor con reacción química en un pellet catalítico utilizando una técnica adecuada especialmente para números de Thiele elevados en donde la solución se restringe a una pequeña zona muy cercana a la superficie. La técnica aprovecha la rapidez de convergencia de la colocación ortogonal y la facilidad de ubicación de elementos en zonas en donde se presentan grandes gradientes del método para las diferencias finitas. La eficiencia del método está basada en la utilización del método LV para la descomposición de matrices. Se muestran comparaciones con otros métodos numéricos de solución del problema.

  17. Monitoramento do processo de compressão de ibuprofeno utilizando controle estatístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Elis Bianchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Controle Estatístico de Processo (CEP é uma ferramenta bastante utilizada para auxiliar no controle da qualidade de parâmetros físicos como peso médio, dureza e friabilidade. Através das cartas de controle é possível detectar desvios dos parâmetros do processo, reduzindo a quantidade de produtos fora da especificação e, consequentemente, os custos da produção. A avaliação de trinta lotes de ibuprofeno em uma indústria farmacêutica, utilizando controle estatístico de processo, permitiu o fornecimento de informações imprescindíveis para a investigação detalhada dos pontos críticos do processo, diagnosticando as possíveis não conformidades na etapa de compressão deste fármaco. Desta maneira, podem-se propor atividades de melhoria, através da identificação e eliminação das causas especiais de variação no processo, com a finalidade de produzir comprimidos com qualidade.

  18. Uma Abordagem de Monitoração de Tráfego de Rede utilizando Lógica Difusa

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Enio Rovere; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Dantas, M. A.R.; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

    2005-01-01

    Neste artigo, apresentamos um trabalho de pesquisa de monitoração de tráfego de rede utilizando uma abordagem de lógica difusa. Nossa contribuição está focada na criação de um protótipo que pudesse ser avaliado em uma configuração real de produção de uma grande organização, utilizando-se de hardware e software existentes na empresa. Resultados experimentais obtidos através de estudos de casos reais no ambiente, indicam o sucesso da abordagem na melhoria da monitoração de tráfego da rede....

  19. Análise de sinais monocromáticos utilizando dados do detector de ondas gravitacionais ALLEGRO.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Gomes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na busca pela detecção de sinais de ondas gravitacionais monocromáticos utilizando dados do detector ALLEGRO. Fizemos dois procedimentos para análise de dados baseados no método do periodograma de Welch, o qual é um método para detecção de sinais monocromáticos imersos em ruídos. Este método basicamente faz estimativas do espectro de potências utilizando médias dos periodogramas. Dessa forma é possível obter um espectro de potências o qual reforça a presen...

  20. TRATAMENTO CONTRA O ADENOCARCINOMA MAMÁRIO HUMANO POR MEIO DA TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA UTILIZANDO O AZUL DE METILENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Silva Prado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A terapia fotodinâmica (TFD é um método alternativo para o tratamento contra o câncer, possui baixa toxicidade sistêmica podendo ter ação localizada. O seu mecanismo de ação é baseado na combinação de um fotossensibilizador, luz e o oxigênio presente nos tecidos. Com o trabalho avaliou-se a ação do fotossensibilizador azul de metileno (AM no tratamento contra o adenocarciona mamário humano por meio da TFD. As células foram cultivadas utilizando o meio de cultura Leibovitz’s complementado com 10% de soro fetal bovino e mantidas em estufa para crescimento. O tratamento via TFD foi realizado utilizando o fotossensibilizador AM em três diferentes concentrações sendo irradiadas com LEDs 660 nm. A viabilidade celular foi realizada utilizando o método de exclusão Azul de Tripan. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o azul de metileno apresenta grande potencial, pois possibilitou uma redução da taxa de viabilidade celular sob irradiação e baixa citotoxicidade quando não irradiando.

  1. Volcanic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.

    1995-01-01

    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

  2. Clasificador neuronal de fallos en rodamientos utilizando entradas basadas en transformadas wavelet packet y de Fourier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone y se evalúa experimentalmente un método de diagnóstico de fallas en rodamientos utilizando la clasificación de patrones provenientes de las señales de las vibraciones mecánicas. El método utiliza pre-procesamientos con las transformadas de Fourier y wavelet packet para luego alimentar una red neuronal clasificadora que determina el tipo de fallo. Para evaluar las variables de entrada se realiza un análisis de varianza ANOVA comparando el efecto que tienen los factores: velocidad, carga, falla en pista externa y falla en elemento rodante sobre cada uno de los parámetros propuestos como entradas para las redes neuronales artificiales (RNA. Una vez seleccionadas las variables de entrada más adecuadas, se realiza la búsqueda del clasificador más apropiado explorando diversas configuraciones de red neuronal. Se han entrenado alrededor de 2000 RNA con el propósito de encontrar el clasificador más adecuado. Los resultados de validación muestran que para el algoritmo de entrenamiento tipo gradiente conjugado escalado (trainscg se alcanza un porcentaje de éxito en la clasificación del 88,5 %, mientras que para el algoritmo de entrenamiento de Levenberg-Marquardt (trainlm se logra un 91,8 %. Adicionalmente, se resalta que en 7 ocasiones se logró el 100 % de aciertos en la clasificación.

  3. Evaluación de ataques UDP Flood utilizando escenarios virtuales como plataforma experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fuertes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Los ataques por denegación de servicio (DoS tienen como propósito imposibilitar el acceso a los servicios de una organización durante un periodo indefinido; por lo general, están dirigidos a los servidores de una empresa, para que no puedan ser accedidos por usuarios autorizados. El presente trabajo se enfoca en la evaluación de ataques DoS tipo UDP Flood, utilizando como plataforma de experimentación un entorno virtual de red que permite identificar cómo actúan dichos ataques en la saturación del ancho de banda; para llevarlo a cabo se diseñó e implementó una red híbrida con segmentación WAN, LAN y DMZ que inhabilita el acceso interno y externo a un servicio Web expuesto. Las herramientas evaluadas fueron UPD Unicorn, Longcat Flooder y UDPl.pl Script de Perl; las dos primeras instaladas sobre Windows, y la última, sobre Linux. Para validar está investigación se desarrolló un mecanismo de detección y mitigación de los ataques a nivel del firewall e IDS/IPS, evitando de este modo la saturación de la red. Finalmente, se evaluó el consumo dememoria, CPUy ancho de banda durante el ataque, la detección y la evasión, con el fin de determinar cuál genera mayor impacto. Los resultados demuestran que el mecanismo detecta, controla y mitiga los ataques. 

  4. Evaluación de ataques UDP Flood utilizando escenarios virtuales como plataforma experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyci Toscano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los ataques por denegación de servicio (DoS tienen como propósito imposibilitar el acceso a los servicios de una organización durante un periodo indefinido; por lo general, están dirigidos a los servidores de una empresa, para que no puedan ser accedidos por usuarios autorizados. El presente trabajo se enfoca en la evaluación de ataques DoS tipo UDP Flood, utilizando como plataforma de experimentación un entorno virtual de red que permite identificar cómo actúan dichos ataques en la saturación del ancho de banda; para llevarlo a cabo se diseñó e implementó una red híbrida con segmentación WAN, LAN y DMZ que inhabilita el acceso interno y externo a un servicio Web expuesto. Las herramientas evaluadas fueron UPD Unicorn, Longcat Flooder y UDPl.pl Script de Perl; las dos primeras instaladas sobre Windows, y la última, sobre Linux. Para validar está investigación se desarrolló un mecanismo de detección y mitigación de los ataques a nivel del firewall e IDS/IPS, evitando de este modo la saturación de la red. Finalmente, se evaluó el consumo dememoria, CPUy ancho de banda durante el ataque, la detección y la evasión, con el fin de determinar cuál genera mayor impacto. Los resultados demuestran que el mecanismo detecta, controla y mitiga los ataques.

  5. CÓMO MEJORAR LA EFICIENCIA OPERATIVA UTILIZANDO EL TRABAJO EN EQUIPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Franco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un modelo para aumentar la eficiencia operativa de diversas organizaciones de la economía con el fin de mejorar sus resultados financieros y por consiguiente su competitividad. Este modelo permite aprovechar los talentos de las personas que laboran en la empresa, organizándolos en equipos o grupos para que puedan identificar y aprovechar oportunidades de mejoramiento que conduzcan a un aumento significativo de la eficiencia productiva. La metodología que aquí se expone es particularmente útil para las empresas medianas y pequeñas que regularmente no cuentan con recursos ni infraestructura suficiente para introducir los cambios que CÓMO MEJORAR LA EFICIENCIA OPERATIVA UTILIZANDO EL TRABAJO EN EQUIPO CARLOS ALBERTO FRANCO Director MBA de la Universidad Icesi en convenio con la Universidad de Tulane. Ingeniero Eléctrico de la Universidad del Valle. Máster en Ingeniería de Carnegie Mellon University, Pisttsburg. Ph.D. en Ingeniería Eléctrica de USC (U.S.A. FRANCISCO VELÁSQUEZ V. Director del Programa de Administración de Empresas Plan Diurno. Ingeniero Electricista de la Universidad del Valle. Magister en Administración del Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus ciudad de México. mejoren su productividad. El modelo se puede aplicar directamente por los jefes o supervisores de cada una de las áreas de la empresa, sin necesidad de recurrir a asesorías costosas.

  6. Acceso remoto seguro a cuentas de usuario utilizando plataformas de virtualización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fuertes, Maritza Enríquez y Diego Veloz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En  las  universidades  persiste  el  problema  de  la subutilización de recursos tecnológicos; sin embargo, sesigue  incurriendo en gastos por adquisición de servidores,hardware  y  software. Frente  a  este  escenario,  en  laindustria se han venido desarrollando las tecnologías devirtualización, que ahorran energía y costos de inversiónde hardware. En  consecuencia,  el  artículo propone  elacceso remoto seguro a cuentas de usuario en un servidoruniversitario  virtualizado;  para  llevarlo  a  cabo  sediseñaron  e  implementaron  varias  topologías  deexperimentación, utilizando Virtual Box 3.1.3 y VMwareServer 2.0.2,  y  se  evaluaron diversas  tecnologías  deconexiones remotas seguras, bajo  idénticas condicionesy parámetros de  comprobación. En  cada  topología  seevaluó el rendimiento del servidor, el performance y  laseguridad  de  la  red  en  producción. Los  resultadosmuestran  la  funcionalidad  de  este  proyecto  deinvestigación  que  facilita  el  acceso  remoto  seguro deusuarios a los recursos informáticos universitarios.

  7. Productividad en una celda de manufactura flexible simulada en promodel utilizando path networks type crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Bernal Loaiza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se centra en el diseño de una simulación del proceso de una celda de manufactura flexible (FMC de la Facultad de Ingeniería Industrial de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, con el propósito de medir y elegir aquella alternativa de solución que mejore en mayor grado la productividad del sistema actual utilizando los resultados que proporciona el software Promodel. Para realizar lo anterior se utilizaron etapas de la simulación como definición del sistema, formulación del modelo, identificación de variables, recolección de datos, implementación e interpretación.Como resultado, se calculó la productividad teniendo en cuenta las variables del modelo y tiempo de la simulación, al mismo tiempo se interpretó la información de cada una de las locaciones, hallando el porcentaje de utilización y total de entidades para las locaciones con capacidad unitaria; para las locaciones con mayor capacidad se encuentra información referente al porcentaje de tiempo vacío, parcialmente ocupado, lleno y no disponible respecto del tiempo disponible. A diferencia de otras simulaciones, en este diseño en la parte de redes se utilizó el tipo de red Crane, asociado a los recursos del modelo. El cual facilita el desplazamiento de los brazos robots con las piezas que circulan a través del sistema.

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE LA BIOESTIMULACION (NUTRIENTES EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON HIDROCARBUROS UTILIZANDO RESPIROMETRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el proceso de bioestimulación por nutrientes: fertilizantes inorgánicos compuestos (FIC N:P:K 28:12:7 y sales inorgánicas simples (SIS NH4NO3 y K2HPO4 en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos utilizando respirometría. El suelo fue contaminado con lodos aceitosos a una concentración ~40,000 mgTPH/kgps. Para cuantificar el consumo de oxigeno se utilizaron dos respirómetros de medición manométrica HACH® 2173b y OXITOP® PF600 durante ensayos de trece días. Se evaluaron dos tratamientos (FIC y SIS y tres controles (abiótico, sustrato de referencia y sin nutrientes. Se analizaron parámetros físico-químicos (pH, nutrientes y TPH y microbiológicos (heterótrofos y degradadores al inicio y al final de cada ensayo. SIS y el control sin nutrientes presentaron las mayores tasas de respiración, en el equipo HACH se obtuvieron valores de: 802.28 y 850.72 mgO2kgps-1d-1 respectivamente mientras que en el OXITOP fueron de 936.65 y 502.05 mgO2kgps-1d-1, respectivamente. En ninguno de los equipos se observo un aumento significativo de los degradadores, indicando que la bioestimulación no tuvo un efecto sobre la densidad microbiana. Por otro lado FIC, presentó los recuentos y tasas de respiración más bajas (188.18 y 139.87 mgO2kgps-1d-1 en HACH y OXITOP, respectivamente, esto pudo estar correlacionado a un efecto toxico generado por la acumulación de amoniaco.

  9. Cardiomioplastia celular utilizando el factor estimulante del crecimiento de colonias de granulocitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Alberto Jaimes Barragán

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de la cardiomioplastia celular utilizando el factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio de “antes y despúes” para datos longitudinales comparando variables ecocardiográficas, número de Mets alcanzados en la prueba de esfuerzo antes, 2, 6 y 12 meses después del procedimiento, también se evaluaron la mortalidad y los efectos adversos de la terapia. RESULTADOS: la mediana de la fracción de eyección antes de implantar las células fue de 30% con un rango intercuartil de 28-35%; la media de los Mets fue de 6 con un rango intercuartil de 5-7; ambas variables, al igual que los volúmenes ventriculares en fin de diástole y sístole se incrementaron de forma significativa después del procedimiento. Un paciente presentó infección de la herida quirúrgica y tres murieron dos meses después de la implantación (uno por choque séptico y dos por choque cardiogénico. CONCLUSIÓN: en Medellín, Colombia, es factible hacer la cardiomioplastia celular; se trata de un procedimiento seguro que logra una mejoría sostenida de la fracción de eyección y los Mets más allá de los beneficios obtenidos con la revascularización y la terapia farmacológica óptima.

  10. Anaesthesia Gas Supply: Gas Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Invention of oxygen cylinder was one of the most important developments in the field of medical practice. Oxygen and other gases were compressed and stored at high pressure in seamless containers constructed from hand-forged steel in1880. Materials technology has continued to evolve and now medical gas cylinders are generally made of steel alloys or aluminum. The filling pressure as well as capacity has increased considerably while at the same time the weight of cylinders has reduced. Today o...

  11. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  12. Gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, J.N.; Atwood, E.S.

    1987-04-21

    A method is described for detecting SO/sub 2/ gas in a gaseous or liquid sample, the method comprising testing the sample in an electrochemical cell comprising a body and within the body a detection electrode, a reference electrode, a liquid electrolyte connecting the electrodes. And a membrane permeable to the gas is in close proximity to the detection electrode and arranged to separate the electrodes and the electrolyte from the sample, the liquid electrolyte being an aqueous buffer solution buffered to a pH value of between 6.0 and 7.2 and being initially essentially free of any salt capable of dissociating to form in the electrolyte HSO/sub 3/ or SO/sub 3/. The electrolyte contains at least 25% v/v of a water miscible solvent having a dielectric constant of at least 10 and being non-interfering with the detection and reference electrodes. The testing comprises measuring a change in potential between the reference electrode and the detection electrode.

  13. Propagación y crecimiento inicial del abarco (Cariniana pyriformis Miers, utilizando semillas silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlenson Pinilla Cespedes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la propagación de la especie forestal Abarco Cariniana Pyriformis Miers, con el objetivo de analizar su comportamiento en vivero utilizando semillas botánicas no mejoradas. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorio con arreglo factorial compuesto por 10 factores por condición lumínica -luz y sombra- y 45 unidades experimentales. Se utilizaron diferentes combinaciones de sustratos orgánicos. Las semillas fueron sometidas a un tratamiento pre-germinativo en presencia de un testigo. Las variables evaluadas fueron porcentaje de germinación, crecimiento en altura y diámetro y porcentaje de supervivencia. La especie comenzó la germinación 13 días después de la siembra y se extendió hasta el día 27. Los resultados del proceso de germinación fueron de 60 % y 40% a plena exposición solar y bajo malla poli-sombra, respectivamente. El crecimiento en altura de las plántulas muestra al factor CF con el mejor valor 28,94 cm, bajo condiciones de luz y el factor EF, con 25,56 cm a plena exposición de sombra. Mientras el incremento en diámetro los factores DF y EF registraron valores de 1,04 cm y 0,84 cm, bajo las condiciones sol y sombra respetivamente. Las semillas de esta especie son no-fotoblásticas, es decir que para su germinación es indiferente la presencia o ausencia de luz. Las plántulas ubicadas en la condición ambiental sol registraron mejores valores promedios en las variables diámetro y altura. Por tanto, esta condición ejerce efecto positivo para el crecimiento inicial de las plántulas de Abarco C. pyriformis. 

  14. Seguimiento de la reactogenicidad de la vacuna DTP cubana, utilizando dos métodos paralelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Peña Machado

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la reactogenicidad de la vacuna Antidiftérica-Antitetánica- Antipertusis (DTP cubana, desarrollada por el Instituto Finlay, se realizó un estudio utilizando dos métodos o fuentes de información diferentes y paralelos. La primera se obtuvo de un ensayo clínico (EC Fase IV, abierto, no controlado, en el que se incluyeron 57 lactantes. La segunda fuente de información se obtuvo de los reportes de los eventos temporalmente asociados a la vacunación (ETAV, recepcionados por la Unidad Coordinadora Nacional de Farmacovigilancia (UCNFv que incluyen a 86 lactantes que fueron atendidos por sospechas de ETAV. En el EC se aplicaron 167 dosis, los eventos adversos esperados e inesperados se observaron en un escaso número de lactantes, fueron mayoritariamente ligeros y autolimitados en el tiempo y su frecuencia de aparición se redujo en la 2da y 3ra dosis. El dolor fue el evento local más frecuente y la fiebre fue el evento general que más se presentó. No se reportaron vómitos y la anorexia, la somnolencia, y el llanto persistente aparecieron en un número limitado de sujetos vacunados.Se presentaron 12 eventos no esperados, solo en 2 de ellos se consideró que existía relación causal con la vacunación. Se reportó un evento adverso grave (niña hospitalizada por síndrome febril prolongado postvacunación, que se estudió y demostró que fue causado por una sepsis urinaria persistente provocada por una malformación vesico-ureteral. Los 86 reportes recepcionados por la UCNFv incluían un total de 141 ETAV, dentro de los síntomas locales, el eritema alcanzó un 9,30% y la induración un 5,81%, la fiebre fue un síntoma frecuente aunque no se especifica la temperatura corporal alcanzada. Aunque existen varias diferencias con relación a las condiciones en que se realiza la vigilancia de eventos adversos en un EC o en la práctica clínica habitual, los resultados aquí analizados nos confirman que la

  15. Cosecha de café con aire utilizando aspiración.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campillo O. Pablo Ignacio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ventosas son utilizadas para sujetar y para transportar productos industriales, avícolas y agrícolas. Por su diseño, por los materiales utilizados en su fabricación y por la amplia gama de tamaños, las ventosas se adaptan a diferentes formas y rugosidades superficiales. Estos dispositivos pueden ser empleados para desprender frutos maduros en cosechadores operados por el hombre o en equipos robotizados. En este estudio se evaluaron cuatro tipos de ventosas en la sujeción y el desprendimiento de frutos maduros de café (Coffea arabica var. Colombia: de Fuelle 1, Fuelle 2, Multifuelle y Profunda. Se midieron las siguientes variables: área de contacto de la ventosa, proporción de agarre (proporción de frutos agarrados en una rama, proporción de desprendimiento (proporción de frutos maduros desprendidos en una rama, fuerza media de desprendimiento (N y presión media de vacío (kPa. Los resultados obtenidos, indicaron que la proporción de agarre fue del 100 % y la proporción de desprendimiento fue superior al 86 % para todas las ventosas estudiadas. La presión media de vacío varió entre valores de –57 kPa y –45 kPa para todas las ventosas. La fuerza media de desprendimiento varió para cada ángulo y cada ventosa, encontrándose valores entre 3,0 y 10 N. El desprendimiento del fruto de café, utilizando un sistema neumático de vacío con ventosas, depende del tipo de ventosa utilizada, siendo independiente del ángulo en el que actúa. La ventosa más adecuada, según los resultados obtenidos, para agarrar y desprender frutos maduros de café, fue la de tipo Multifuelle.

  16. Estudo do manto superior sob o Brasil Central utilizando tomografia sísmica de tempo de percurso

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Paulo Araújo de

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho, apresentamos os resultados de tomografia sísmica de tempo de percurso utilizando ondas P no Brasil Central. Foram realizadas inversões para dados registrados durante os anos de 2008-2012 por 15 estações distribuídas na área de estudo. Além disso, esses dados foram incluídos no banco de dados utilizado por Rocha et al. (2011), a fim de melhorar a resolução das anomalias em algumas regiões dentro da área de estudo. O objetivo foi estudar o manto superior sob o Brasil Central, pr...

  17. Especificação do micronúcleo FreeRTOS utilizando o método B

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Stephenson de Sousa Lima

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta uma contribuição para o esforço internacional do Verified Software Repository através da especificação formal da biblioteca de sistema de tempo real FreeRTOS. Tal especificação foi realizada de forma abstrata utilizando o método B. Para isso, propriedades disponibilizadas por essa biblioteca foram elencadas e selecionadas como requisitos da especificação, a qual foi construída centrada nas funcionalidades responsáveis pela utilização dessas propriedades....

  18. Sorologia da hanseníase utilizando PGL-I: revisão sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Moura,Rodrigo Scaliante de; Calado,Karla Lucena; Oliveira,Maria Leide W.; Bührer-Sékula,Samira

    2008-01-01

    A sorologia utilizando o antígeno espécie-específico do Mycobacterium leprae, PGL-I, pode ser um marcador de carga bacteriana em pacientes com hanseníase. Estudos identificaram potencial de uso da sorologia na classificação de pacientes para fins de tratamento, monitoramento de terapia, risco de recidiva e na seleção dos contatos com maior risco de adoecer. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática e 26 artigos foram incluídos na análise comparativa. Avaliamos os resultados do uso da sorologia PG...

  19. Estudo da degradação do metil parabeno utilizando processos Fenton, foto-Fenton e eletro-Fenton

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Dante Gamarra Güere

    2014-01-01

    Os disruptores endócrinos são frequentemente relatados na literatura como contaminantes de ambientes aquáticos. Por isso, os processos oxidativos avançados (POAs) têm sido estudados como alternativa para o tratamento em meio aquoso. Os POAs consistem na oxidação de compostos orgânicos por radicais hidroxilas com alto poder oxidante. Diante desses aspectos, o presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo o estudo da degradação do metil parabeno (MeP) por processos Fenton, utilizando planejame...

  20. Generando entornos de investigación y desarrollo utilizando redes inalámbricas de sensores (WSN)

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa, Eduardo Omar; Godoy, Diego Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Las Redes Inalámbricas de Sensores (WSN) jugarán un papel preponderante tanto en las actividades académicas y como en el desarrollo en nuestro país. En este artículo se reportan actividades desarrolladas en dos universidades argentinas, utilizando a la tecnología WSN como disparador de actividades de investigación, desarrollo. La aplicación de ésta tecnología de última generación se enmarcan en el dominio de “Internet de las Cosas” y “Ciudades Inteligentes”. Las actividades teórico-práctic...

  1. Procedimiento para la gestión de mantenimiento utilizando herramientas de la cuarta generación

    OpenAIRE

    Aracelis Barrios; Maritza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo presenta el diseño de un procedimiento para una gestión de mantenimiento sistémico, utilizando un conjunto de herramientas, que enfocan el uso de los recursos de la empresa asociados con las Personas, los Procesos y la Tecnología, orientados a mejorar la productividad, la toma de decisiones acertadas y a maximizar el rendimiento de los equipos, considerando entre otros, los factores de Confiabilidad, Mantenibilidad, Seguridad, Calidad y Medio Ambiente. El desarrollo del p...

  2. Desenvolvimento de recobrimento retardante de chama em tecido de algodão utilizando bentonita sódica

    OpenAIRE

    Zottis, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química Os acabamentos retardantes de chama são substâncias aplicadas nos substratos têxteis com intuito de dificultar a ignição e tornar demorada a propagação da chama, reduzindo os riscos de incêndios. Neste trabalho foi investigada a incorporação de argila no tratamento retardante de chama em tecido de algodão utilizando bentonita sódica juntamente com aditivos fo...

  3. Gas, gas, gas... discoveries and developments booming worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.

    2000-01-01

    Deep water exploration is yielding more than billion barrel oil fields. Unocal's 3 May discovery of 2-3 Tcf of gas in its Kutei block of Indonesia marks the first major discovery of natural gas in the deep water frontier: Wildcats Gula and Gada were drilled in over 1800 m of water as part of an aggressive search for gas instigated by Unocal last year. The author makes a survey of gas exploration and development throughout the world. (author)

  4. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  5. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Medial meniscus transplantation using cyanoacrylate in rabbits Transplante de menisco medial utilizando cianoacrilato em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Reckers

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate meniscal transplantation using as fixation method a synthetic glue derived from cyanoacrylate acid. METHODS: Twenty rabbits were used, of which 10 for autologous transplantation and 10 for homologous transplantation. For the autologous transplantation the meniscus was removed, and then transplanted in the same animal, using the synthetic glue. For the homologous transplantation, the study was divided into two stages: 1- Removal of the meniscus which was maintained at a temperature of 73ºC. 2- Use of cyanoacrylate acid-derived surgical adhesive for meniscal retransplantation in a different rabbit 30 days after the transplant. RESULTS: Due to complications, euthanasia had to be anticipated to the 15th day in the homologous group and to the 18th day in the autologous group. Macroscopically, knees submitted to transplantation presented whitish secretions from the surgical incision up to deep planes. Necrosis was observed in both groups. Statistical analysis has shown that mild (p=0.043 and moderate (p=0.001 complications emerged in a significantly earlier way in the homologous group, where euthanasia was also performed earlier (p=0,005. CONCLUSION: Synthetic surgical adhesives derived from cyanoacrylate acid promoted cortical to medullary bone necrosis bone in both groups.OBJETIVO: Avaliar macroscópica e histologicamente o transplante meniscal, utilizando-se a cola sintética derivada do ácido cianoacrilato como método de fixação. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 coelhos, tendo 10 realizado transplante autólogo e 10, homólogo. Para o transplante autólogo, o menisco foi retirado e em seguida transplantado no mesmo animal, sendo fixado com a cola sintética. Para o transplante homólogo o estudo foi dividido em duas etapas: 1- retirada do menisco e manutenção a uma temperatura de 73°C negativos. 2- Utilização do adesivo cirúrgico derivado do ácido cianoacrilato para reimplantar num coelho diferente 30 dias após o

  7. Radiopacity of restorative materials using digital images Radiopacidade de materiais restauradores utilizando imagens digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Pescinini Salzedas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiopacity of esthetic restorative materials has been established as an important requirement, improving the radiographic diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of six restorative materials using a direct digital image system, comparing them to the dental tissues (enamel-dentin, expressed as equivalent thickness of aluminum (millimeters of aluminum. Five specimens of each material were made. Three 2-mm thick longitudinal sections were cut from an intact extracted permanent molar tooth (including enamel and dentin. An aluminum step wedge with 9 steps was used. The samples of different materials were placed on a phosphor plate together with a tooth section, aluminum step wedge and metal code letter, and were exposed using a dental x-ray unit. Five measurements of radiographic density were obtained from each image of each item assessed (restorative material, enamel, dentin, each step of the aluminum step wedge and the mean of these values was calculated. Radiopacity values were subsequently calculated as equivalents of aluminum thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated significant differences in radiopacity values among the materials (PA radiopacidade dos materiais tem sido valorizada como importante requisito, incrementando o diagnóstico radiográfico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, no sistema digital Digora, as densidades radiográficas de 06 materiais restauradores comparando-os aos tecidos dentais (esmalte e dentina, expressos em milímetros de alumínio (mm Al. Foram confeccionadas 05 amostras de cada material e três cortes de um molar extraído hígido (incluindo esmalte e dentina, com 2 mm de espessura, e um penetrômetro de alumínio com 09 degraus. Sobre cada placa óptica foram colocados amostras dos diferentes materiais, um corte do dente humano, o penetrômetro e a identificação, e feita a exposição utilizando um aparelho de raios X. Foram obtidas 05 medidas de densidade radiográfica de

  8. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  9. UTILIZANDO NANOTUBOS DE TiO2 COMO FOTOCATALISADOR NA DEGRADAÇÃO DO CORANTE VERMELHO CONGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmalice Coelho Rocha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotubos de TiO2 foram sintetizados em um sistema hidrotérmico. Os nanomateriais foram caracterizados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e área superficial. O TiO2 anatase e os nanotubos de TiO2 foram utilizados no processo de fotodegradação do corante vermelho congo. A capacidade de fotodegradação de ambos catalisadores foram comparadas. O corante foi degradado por 90 minutos, utilizando ambos catalisadores, estes apresentaram alta atividade catalítica próximo ao pH 2. A capacidade de fotodegradação do corante utilizando TiO2 anatase e nanotubos de TiO2 em meio iônico mostrou-se favorável com a adição de NaCl na concentração de 0,03 mol/L.

  10. Gas in Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinzon, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of gas integration among Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. A comparison of the GDP is made, gas reserves are provided and the existent nets of gas-pipe are included in Colombia and Venezuela

  11. Anaesthesia gas supply: gas cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Uma

    2013-09-01

    Invention of oxygen cylinder was one of the most important developments in the field of medical practice. Oxygen and other gases were compressed and stored at high pressure in seamless containers constructed from hand-forged steel in1880. Materials technology has continued to evolve and now medical gas cylinders are generally made of steel alloys or aluminum. The filling pressure as well as capacity has increased considerably while at the same time the weight of cylinders has reduced. Today oxygen cylinder of equivalent size holds a third more oxygen but weighs about 20 kg less. The cylinders are of varying sizes and are color coded. They are tested at regular intervals by the manufacturer using hydraulic, impact, and tensile tests. The top end of the cylinder is fitted with a valve with a variety of number and markings stamped on it. Common valve types include: Pin index valve, bull nose, hand wheel and integral valve. The type of valve varies with cylinder size. Small cylinders have a pin index valve while large have a bull nose type. Safety features in the cylinder are: Color coding, pin index, pressure relief device, Bodok seal, and label attached etc., Safety rules and guidelines must be followed during storage, installation and use of cylinders to ensure safety of patients, hospital personnel and the environment.

  12. Anaesthesia gas supply: Gas cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invention of oxygen cylinder was one of the most important developments in the field of medical practice. Oxygen and other gases were compressed and stored at high pressure in seamless containers constructed from hand-forged steel in1880. Materials technology has continued to evolve and now medical gas cylinders are generally made of steel alloys or aluminum. The filling pressure as well as capacity has increased considerably while at the same time the weight of cylinders has reduced. Today oxygen cylinder of equivalent size holds a third more oxygen but weighs about 20 kg less. The cylinders are of varying sizes and are color coded. They are tested at regular intervals by the manufacturer using hydraulic, impact, and tensile tests. The top end of the cylinder is fitted with a valve with a variety of number and markings stamped on it. Common valve types include: Pin index valve, bull nose, hand wheel and integral valve. The type of valve varies with cylinder size. Small cylinders have a pin index valve while large have a bull nose type. Safety features in the cylinder are: Color coding, pin index, pressure relief device, Bodok seal, and label attached etc., Safety rules and guidelines must be followed during storage, installation and use of cylinders to ensure safety of patients, hospital personnel and the environment.

  13. Coalbed gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties

  14. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  15. Intolerância glicêmica e o prognóstico perinatal em gestantes utilizando anti-retrovirais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Beitune Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar o efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre o metabolismo glicêmico em gestantes portadoras do HIV-1 e a ação dessas medicações sobre o prognóstico perinatal. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo realizado em 57 gestantes divididas em três grupos: grupo AZT, utilizando zidovudina (n=20; grupo TT, utilizando zidovudina+lamivudina+nelfinavir (n=25, e grupo controle, gestantes normais (n=12. Obteve-se a área sob a curva (ASC das glicemias após teste oral de tolerância à glicose com 75 g de glicose em quatro oportunidades durante a gravidez (1º=14-20 semanas, 2º=21-26 semanas, 3º=27-32 semanas e 4º=33-38 semanas. O prognóstico perinatal levou em consideração as taxas de prematuridade, restrição de crescimento intra-útero (RCIU, baixo peso ao nascer, mortalidade perinatal e transmissão vertical do HIV-1. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se os testes não paramétricos do c², de Friedman e de Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: os valores da mediana da ASC foi de 11.685 mg/dL-2h para o grupo controle, 13.477 mg/dL-2h para o grupo AZT e 13.650 mg/dL-2h para o grupo TT (p=0,049. Não se observou efeito deletério dos anti-retrovirais sobre as taxas de prematuridade, baixo peso ao nascer, RCIU e índices de Apgar. Não houve nenhum caso de transmissão vertical do HIV-1. CONCLUSÕES: verificou-se o desenvolvimento de intolerância glicêmica em gestantes que utilizaram tratamento tríplice, não sendo observado naquelas que utilizaram apenas AZT. Não houve efeitos deletérios dos anti-retrovirais sobre o prognóstico perinatal.

  16. Análise diferencial do proteoma da polpa do mamão durante o amadurecimento utilizando eletroforese bidimensional

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Beserra Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    O mamão papaia (Carica papaya L.) é uma fruta tropical de grande relevância comercial uma vez que o Brasil é o maior produtor mundial e terceiro maior exportador da fruta. Contudo, por ser uma fruta climatérica, tem uma vida pós-colheita limitada, devido ao rápido Amaciamento da polpa. Neste trabalho foi realizada uma investigação proteômica comparativa de polpa do mamão verde e maduro. Várias centenas de componentes protéicos (spots) foram resolvidos em géis 2-DE (faixa de pH 4-7) utilizando...

  17. Procedimiento para la gestión de mantenimiento utilizando herramientas de la cuarta generación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracelis Barrios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta el diseño de un procedimiento para una gestión de mantenimiento sistémico, utilizando un conjunto de herramientas, que enfocan el uso de los recursos de la empresa asociados con las Personas, los Procesos y la Tecnología, orientados a mejorar la productividad, la toma de decisiones acertadas y a maximizar el rendimiento de los equipos, considerando entre otros, los factores de Confiabilidad, Mantenibilidad, Seguridad, Calidad y Medio Ambiente. El desarrollo del procedimiento permite utilizar de manera sistémica, la información obtenida al aplicar el mantenimiento productivo total (TPM, el análisis de modo y efectos de las fallas del mantenimiento centrado en confiabilidad (RCM, para evaluar los riesgos causados por las fallas en los equipos mediante la aplicación de la Lógica Difusa.

  18. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  19. Future of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.; Widdershoven, C.; Nicola, S.; Cragg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles and two columns in this section on the future of natural gas. In the first article attention is paid to the possibility that large natural gas producers are setting up a cartel a la OPEC. Most experts argue that the structure of gas markets makes the gas business much less amenable to cartelisation than the oil business. If that is true, why are so many people in the gas industry afraid of a gas cartel? The second article focuses on the future role of North Africa in the supply of natural gas

  20. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This article comments data about the share of natural gas in the energy demand in Europe, about the uses of natural gas by different sectors (housing and office buildings, electricity production, and industry) in Europe, and about gas European imports and about gas supply origins. Graphs are displaying the evolution of energy demand in some European countries between 1990 and 2006 and for different energy sources (natural gas, coal, oil, primary energy, and renewable energies), the evolution of gas production and consumption in different countries of the European Union between 1990 and 2006, and gas import origins in the European Union in 2006. Gas pipeline projects between gas producing countries and Europe are briefly presented, and the development of liquefied natural gas is briefly commented and outlined as a contribution to supply diversification

  1. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having briefly commented the share of natural gas in the primary consumed energy in Europe and in France, and the reasons for its evolution, this document highlights that gas is mainly used for heating, electricity production and industrial purposes, that Europe possesses limited gas resources and must therefore rely on importations. It comments the diversification of supply sources, evokes new gas-pipeline projects between Europe and producer countries (mainly Russia), and briefly comments the development of liquefied natural gas

  2. Pitting growth modelling in buried oil and gas pipelines using statistical techniques; Modelado del crecimiento de picaduras en tuberias enterradas que transportan hidrocarburos utilizando tecnicas estadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, J. C.; Caleyo, F.; Valorm, A.; Hallen, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    New deterministic and stochastic predictive models are proposed for external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The deterministic model takes into consideration the local chemical and physical properties of the soil as well as the pipeline coating to predict the time dependence of pitting depth and rate in a range of soils. This model, based on results from a field study, was used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations that established the probability distribution of pitting depth and growth rate in the studied soils and their evolution over the life of the pipeline. In the last stage of the study, an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model was developed for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. HISTERECTOMÍA TOTAL LAPAROSCÓPICA: RESULTADOS EN 3 AÑOS DE DESARROLLO DE LA TÉCNICA UTILIZANDO EL MANIPULADOR UTERINO DE CLERMONT FERRAND

    OpenAIRE

    Corvalán A.,Jaime; Roos T.,Andrés; Lattus O.,José; Barrera C.,Verónica; Gallardo E.,Ángela; Flores M.,José; Flores O.,Rodrigo; Fuentes A.,Verónica

    2004-01-01

    Damos a conocer una casuística de histerectomía total laparoscópica en un período de 3 años utilizando el manipulador uterino de Clermont Ferrand; se analizan los resultados, seguimiento y complicaciones

  4. Shale gas. Shale gas formation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Francois; Artru, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    A first article recalls the origin of shale gases and technological breakthroughs which allowed their exploitation, describes the development of shale gas exploitation in the USA during the 2000's and the consequences for the gas and electricity markets, and discusses the various environmental impacts (risks of pollution of aquifers, risks of induced seismicity, use and processing of drilling and production waters). The second article describes the formation of shale gas: presence of organic matter in sediments, early evolution with the biogenic gas, burrowing, diagenesis and oil formation, thermal generation of gas (condensates and methane). The author indicates the location of gas within the rock, and the main sites of shale oils and shale gases in the World. In the next part, the author describes the various phases of shale gas extraction: exploration, oriented drillings, well preparation for hydraulic fracturing, fracturing, processing of fracturing fluids, flow-back, gas production and transport, aquifer protection. He finally gives a brief overview of technical evolution and of shale gas economy

  5. Gas-on-gas competition in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuhutu, Chassty; Owen, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    In common with other major economic centres in China, Shanghai's energy consumption has been increasing rapidly to support the high growth rate of its economy. To achieve rational, efficient and clean use of energy, together with improved environmental quality within the city, the Shanghai municipal government has decided to expand the supply and utilization of natural gas. Shanghai plans to increase the share of natural gas in its primary energy mix to 7 per cent by 2010, up from 3 per cent in 2005. This increase in natural gas demand has to be matched with a corresponding increase in supply. To date, the Shanghai region has relied on offshore extracted natural gas but this supply is limited due to the size of the reserves. Since 2005, the West-East pipeline has provided an alternative for Shanghai but demands from other regions could reduce the potential for expanding supplies from that source. Since domestic production will not be sufficient to meet demand in the near future, Shanghai is building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal at the Yangshan deep-water port that would allow an additional supply of more than 3 billion cubic meters per year of natural gas. Malaysia has already committed to supply LNG to the Shanghai terminal at a price that is significantly higher than the wholesale 'city-gate' price for natural gas transported via pipeline, but still lower than the gas price to end-use consumers. The presence of both an LNG terminal and a transmission pipeline that connects Shanghai to domestic gas-producing regions will create gas-on-gas competition. This study assesses the benefits of introducing such competition to one of China's most advanced cities under various scenarios for demand growth. In this paper, the impact of imported LNG on market concentration in Shanghai's gas market will be analysed using the Herfindahl-Hirschmann index (HHI) and the residual supply index (RSI). Our results show that Shanghai remains a supply

  6. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  7. Selling gas, selling services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, the commercial activities of gas companies have been limited almost exclusively to the sale of gas. However, several socioeconomic factors specific to the gas industry, such as increasing customer expectations, competition between gas operators, a growing emphasis on services in many companies and the opening of public monopolies to competition, will bring inevitable change. Moreover, these developments coincide with imminent gas market opening. In response to the changing situation, the gas industry will seek to develop a range of multi-service offers, probably through external partnerships. (authors)

  8. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  9. Gas purification using membrane gas absorption processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the increasing energy demand and the abundance of low quality natural gas reservoirs containing high percentages of CO2, considerable attention is given to the bulk removal of CO2 and upgrading of low quality natural gas. The main goal in doing so is to increase the heating value of natural

  10. Flue gas treatment with membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Dutch researchers from the TN0 Institute have developed a technique to carry out gas-liquid contacting operations using hollow fibre membranes in combination with an absorption liquid. The method known as membrane gas absorption, aims to combine the advantages of membrane technology (compactness,

  11. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  12. A Hyperspectral Gas Analysis System (HyGAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owensby, Pam

    1997-01-01

    A prototype software hyperspectral gas analysis system (HyGAS) for standoff (remote) gas detection, identification, and analysis was designed for use with developing hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems...

  13. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  14. Natural gas annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  15. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  16. Gas gangrene (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Patients ... vascular diseases are more prone to spontaneously develop gas gangrene, which is rapidly progressive and often fatal.

  17. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of air swallowed. Diet Changes That May Help Gas Avoiding fermentable vegetables/carbohydrates like beans, broccoli, cabbage, ... offending foods one can handle. Medications to Help Gas Many nonprescription, over-the-counter medicines are available ...

  18. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  19. Paralelización del Algoritmo Expectación–Maximización Utilizando OpenCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Insua-Suárez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, las organizaciones y empresas almacenan grandes volúmenes de datos para lograr sus propósitos. Una de las variantes para obtener información valiosa consiste en el empleo de la Minería de datos. Dentro de esta, existen diferentes tareas, una de ellas es el agrupamiento. En esta tarea los datos se agrupan según sus semejanzas entre si y diferencias con elementos de otros grupos. Dentro de los algoritmos que realizan estos agrupamientos se encuentra Expectación-Maximización, el cual presenta elevados tiempos de ejecución en la medida que aumenta el tamaño de los datos. En el presente artículo se discute acerca de la paralelización del algoritmo, utilizando técnicas de programación paralela. El diseño del algoritmo propuesto se basa en el uso de las tarjetas de procesamiento gráfico, GPU. OpenCL, lenguaje empleado para la programación en arquitecturas híbridas, permite aprovechar las arquitecturas de hardware disponibles, con lo que se logra disminuir el tiempo de ejecución de la implementación realizada. La razón principal por lo cual es posible mejorar este tiempo se debe a la cantidad de procesos paralelos que se pueden lanzar en hilos de procesamientos independientes. Para el logro de los resultados descritos se integran conocimientos del campo de la Minería de datos y la Computación Paralela y Distribuida. Como parte de esta investigación, se realizó una implementación del algoritmo utilizando las bibliotecas de OpenCL, para disminuir su tiempo de ejecución. La implementación logra disminuir en un 82% la implementación secuencial. Esto significa que el algoritmo paralelo se ejecuta 5,5 veces más rápido que su correspondiente implementación secuencial.

  20. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  1. The gas menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Richard.

    1994-01-01

    The NSW Southern Coalfield at Bulli is Australia's most gas plagued producing region. Whilst gas drainage using long boreholes has been successfully adapted in high methane areas, these techniques are not efficient when high levels of carbon dioxide are present, as is the case at Bulli NSW. This article discusses the limitations of the current gas drainage technologies and the improvements needed in underground drilling technologies and hydrofacing for efficient gas drainage. 1 table, 1 photo

  2. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  3. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  4. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  5. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  6. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  7. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  8. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  9. Gas development plan - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A detailed description of the plan for the development of gas utilization in Lithuania is presented. The plan is subdivided under the headings of gas supply, gas demand, gas transmission and distribution, economy and the organization of the gas sector in the country. The first phase of the project has been undertaken by a Danish firm in cooperation with the Lithuanian firm Lietuvos Dujos. The first aim was to clarify the problems that will arise in connection with this joint venture on developing the use of gas in Lithuania, focusing on existing gas supply and market conditions, the current flow control and metering and economic constraints. The organization of the gas sector in the country as it stands today is described and possible models for its future organization are discussed in addition to a strategy of implementation. Possible development trends are outlined and maximum/minimum demand scenarios are suggested. Subjects and areas related to the gas sector in Lithuania are identified for further investigation in the next phase. It is stated that Lithuania is at present undergoing a fast transformation towards a market economy and that the transfer of foreign currency has been liberalized. Only the pipeline from Minsk to Vilnius is open at present and provides the total supply of natural gas to Lithuania and Kalingrad, controlled by the Russian gas company, Lentransgas, on the basis of a gas purchase agreement regulated on a yearly basis. Other possible supply sources are the Danish part of the North Sea and the Norwegian offshore fields. (AB)

  10. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  11. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  12. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by first selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 6 claims, 8 drawing figures

  13. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  14. Gas conference Paris 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui journal contains the proceedings of the 2013 edition of the annual French gas conference. These proceedings comprise 7 talks, 5 round-tables and 9 workshops: 1 - Opening talk (H. Malherbe); 2 - Defending the natural gas position in the energy mix (G. Mestralet); 3 - The new youth of natural gas (P. Sauquet); 4 - Round-table No.1: the natural gas market perspectives; 5 - Round-table No.2: natural gas in France's energy transition; 6 - Answering the energy transition challenges (B. Lescoeur); 7 - Round-table No.3: towards an integrated European market in 2014?; 8 - Building up the European gas market (P. de Ladoucette); 9 - Workshop No.1: the big client's strategies in the gas market; 10 - Workshop No.2: the fuel gas perspectives in terrestrial mobility; 11 - Workshop No.3: gas innovations; 12 - The 2030 and 2050 strategy of the European Union policy (B. Devlin); 13 - Round-table No.4: Decentralized production and local development; 14 - Workshop No.4: Gas and maritime transport; 15 - Workshop No.5: bio-methane, vector of the energy transition; 16 - Workshop No.6: Evolution of the storage activity; 17 - Workshop No.7: Dwellings renovation and natural gas development; 18 - Workshop No.8: Is the target model of gas a reality?; 19 - Workshop No.9: Non-conventional gases in the world; 20 - Round-table No.5: Actors' strategy; 21 - Closing talk (J. Ferrier)

  15. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  16. Gas Between the Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interstellar gas in galaxies is heated by stellar radiation and cosmic rays and it also cools through radiation. We take a detailed look at these processes in order to understand the thermal state of equilibrium of the interstellar gas. This gas also manifests itself in different 'phases'– molecular, neutral atomic and ionized ...

  17. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  18. Manometer Measures Gas Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Simple apparatus measures time required for gas to displace known volume of water. Apparatus determines amount of gas generated in lead/acid cell during charging by measuring time required for gas to displace measured volume of water between markes in slanted manometer.

  19. Static gas expansion cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  20. Gas assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Bouchard, Georges; Al-Saffar, Ali; ); Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Remont, Sophie; Delamare, Monique; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice; Lafon, Madeleine; Lagumina, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  1. Preditores de prováveis transtornos mentais comuns (TMC em prostitutas utilizando o Self-Reporting Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Leal Vidal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Avaliar a prevalência de prováveis transtornos mentais comuns (TMC e os fatores associados em um grupo de prostitutas de Minas Gerais. Métodos Estudo transversal utilizando o Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 em mulheres cadastradas na Associação de Prostitutas de Minas Gerais (Aprosmig. Avaliaram-se características sociodemográficas e aspectos do trabalho na prostituição. Teste do qui-quadrado foi empregado na análise de associação entre variáveis categóricas sociodemográficas e a presença de prováveis TMC. A análise dos fatores associados à presença de prováveis TMC foi realizada por meio de modelo de regressão logística. Resultados Foram entrevistadas 216 prostitutas. A prevalência global de prováveis TMC foi de 57,9%, mais observada em mulheres com baixa escolaridade, história de violência física e ingresso precoce na prostituição. Conclusão Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que a prevalência de prováveis TMC entre prostitutas foi superior à observada na população geral, indicando a necessidade de melhorar os cuidados com a saúde dessas mulheres.

  2. Análise Regional para Implantação de Aterro Sanitário Utilizando Software Livre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Barbosa Colman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Áreas com aptidão para implantação de aterro sanitário na região Sul do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram identificadas por meio de Sistemas de Informações Geográficas (SIG utilizando análise multicritério. Atribuíram-se pesos diferenciados para a determinação de áreas consideradas com ou sem restrição para instalação do referido aterro. As classes mais propícias para a instalação do aterro apresentam as maiores áreas (220.800 hectares, representando 78% da área de estudo, nos municípios de Tacuru e Iguatemi. As classes com maior restrição apresentaram-se pouco representativas na área estudada, cabendo ao município de Coronel Sapucaia, o maior quantitativo com cerca de 47 hectares. Fez-se aqui uma primeira aproximação desse tipo de estudo, pois a inclusão de outras variáveis de ordem socioambiental (opinião dos moradores locais,e normas como o Código Florestal e Zoneamento Ecológico Econômico, pode implicar em mais restrições e potencialidades para a localização desse tipo de empreendimento.

  3. HACIA EL AGARRE DE OBJETOS UTILIZANDO APRENDIZAJE ROBÓTICO POR IMITACIÓN Y DATOS DE FUERZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Peña Solórzano

    Full Text Available En este artículo se trata el agarre de objetos en robótica. Específicamente, agarres de precisión y la fuerza requerida en los puntos de contacto entre la mano y el objeto para realizar una buena sujeción. Se propone adquirir los datos de sensores de fuerza utilizando un guante de datos y codificándolos mediante aprendizaje por imitación. Se utilizan imágenes RGB y de profundidad para determinar la ubicación y orientación de los objetos. Se prueban varias configuraciones mano-objeto en simulación, comparando la calidad del agarre al utilizar las fuerzas máximas, mínimas y promedio truncado. La variación de la calidad obtenida es pequeña y en algunos casos despreciable, permitiendo concluir que al seleccionar siempre las fuerzas máximas, se obtiene un agarre que se ajusta bien a múltiples configuraciones. Además, se presenta un sistema de adquisición de datos de fuerza de bajo costo y una etapa de procesamiento de imágenes que permite determinar la ubicación y orientación de los objetos.

  4. Aspectos ambientais e genéticos da prolificidade em caprinos utilizando modelos bayesianos de limiar e linear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P.S. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados os componentes de variância e os parâmetros genéticos da característica prolificidade, utilizando-se inferência bayesiana sob modelo animal linear e de limiar. A prolificidade de cabras mestiças foi estudada com informações referentes ao período de oito anos consecutivos. As análises foram realizadas com cadeias de 500.000 ciclos. Considerou-se burn-in dos 15.000 valores iniciais, sendo tomados valores a cada 250 ciclos, para se obter a distribuição a posteriori com 1.940 amostras. Os efeitos do mês de cobrição e da ordem de parto e o efeito linear do peso à cobrição foram significativos. As herdabilidades foram de 0,03 e 0,18 para o modelo linear e o modelo de limiar, respectivamente. O uso do modelo de limiar mostrou-se adequado, produzindo estimativas superiores acerca dos parâmetros estimados.

  5. Validação Interna de Base de Conhecimentos utilizando Modelagem Matemática Bayesiana x Conexionista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Fossatti de Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, investigamos o aprendizado de máquina baseado na modelagem matemática envolvendo modelos bayesianos x conexionistas, aplicado no auxílio ao diagnóstico de eventos epilépticos (EEs e eventos não epilépticos (ENEs. Para esta finalidade alguns algoritmos de aprendizado de máquina foram comparados incluindo o aprendizado conexionista através das regras Delta Generalizada, Hebb, Oja, juntamente com o aprendizado em redes bayesianas. Foram considerados para este estudo 122 pacientes os quais apresentavam sintomas relacionados com EEs e ENEs. Os resultados empíricos desta pesquisa indicam que: (1 ambas as abordagens bayesianas e conexionistas são bastante similares, mostrando que os resultados são coerentes, mesmo utilizando heurísticas distintas; (2 o índice de acertos de casos positivos (EEs, por meio da modelagem bayesiana pode estar relacionado com a facilidade de implementação das probabilidades condicionais. Concluiu-se, portanto, que os modelos investigados fornecem informações importantes para o desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas tanto na área bayesiana como na área conexionista.

  6. Práticas experimentais no ensino de física nuclear utilizando material de baixo custo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Adelar Boff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Uma das dificuldades para o Ensino de Física Moderna é a pouca difusão da experimentação, principalmente para o ensino de Física Nuclear, seja no Ensino Médio ou no Superior.  As atividades sugeridas na literatura geralmente simbolizam o fenômeno real através de simulações. Isso acontece, pois as práticas experimentais, geralmente, envolvem algum tipo de detector de radiação de custo elevado e uma fonte de radiação ionizante que requer cuidados especiais de manuseio e armazenagem, sendo sujeita a regulamentação altamente burocrática no Brasil. O presente trabalho supera estas dificuldades e propõe duas práticas de Física Nuclear experimental utilizando uma câmara de ionização de baixo custo: a medida de filhos do Radônio-222 coletados do ar de ambientes fechados, e a medida do alcance de partículas alfa emitidas pelos filhos do Tório-232 presentes em camisinhas de lampião. O artigo mostra os procedimentos experimentais e os resultados esperados, indicando que as práticas podem servir de suporte para aulas de Física Nuclear.

  7. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS E VARIABILIDADE GENÉTICA DE ARATICUM UTILIZANDO MARCADORES RAPD E MICROSSATÉLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA VERSIANI VENÂNCIO PIRES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a variabilidade genética da coleção de trabalho de acessos de araticum da Embrapa Cerrados e outros materiais próximos ao Distrito Federal, utilizando marcadores moleculares RAPD, microssatélites e análise de características morfológicas. Folhas de 18 acessos de araticum foram coletadas e utilizadas para a extração das amostras de DNA genômico, as quais foram amplificadas para obtenção de marcadores moleculares RAPD e microssatélites. Na análise morfológica, foram avaliadas 23 características dos acessos de araticum. As dissimilaridades genéticas entre os 18 genótipos de araticum evidenciaram a variabilidade genética dos acessos e as análises de agrupamento levaram à formação de três grupos de similaridade. Verificaram-se coeficientes de dissimilaridades genéticas baixos entre os materiais oriundos da Embrapa Cerrados e altos entre os outros materiais. Esses acessos são importantes fontes de variabilidade para o enriquecimento da atual coleção de trabalho da Embrapa Cerrados e para futuros estudos de caracterização morfológica e agronômica.

  8. Degradación de toxafeno en medio líquido por Bjerkandera sp BOL13 utilizando diferentes sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lacayo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ESTE TRABAJO INVESTIGA LA DEGRADACIÓN DEL PLAGUICIDA toxafeno utilizando hongos producidos por la descomposición de la madera (white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp BOL13. La especie Bjerkandera sp BOL13 degradó el toxafeno al utilizar tres diferentes sustratos (virutas de madera, cáscara de trigo y melaza de caña en medio líquido por un período de 38 días. Aproximadamente el 85% del toxafeno fue degradado cuando se utilizó la cáscara de trigo como sustrato principal. La producción de lignina peroxidasa (LiP fue solamente estimulada cuando la cáscara de trigo estuvo presente en el medio líquido. Aunque la enzima xilanasa se encontró en todos los sustratos, la cáscara de trigo soportó la más alta producción de xilanasa. Una cantidad insignificante de ß-glucosidasa y celulasa fueron encontradas en las muestras del medio líquido. Según la literatura, éste es el primer trabajo de investigación referente a la degradación de toxafeno con hongos Bjerkandera sp producidos por la descomposición de la madera

  9. Estudo de falhas em rolamentos provenientes de tensões e correntes parasitas utilizando o sensor Shaft Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nei Brito

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo de falhas em rolamentos provenientes de tensões e correntes parasitas que circulam no eixo do motor utilizando o sensor shaft probe. A análise de tensão e corrente parasita é uma técnica preditiva, recentemente lançada no mercado. O sensor é apoiado no eixo do motor e os sinais são coletados através do coletor/analisador de dados UltraSpec 8000. Os testes foram realizados em uma bancada onde os diferentes níveis de tensões e correntes foram introduzidos no rolamento dianteiro de um motor elétrico. Um gerador de corrente contínua acoplado ao motor, através de um acoplamento flexível, foi usado como sistema de carga. O objetivo é conhecer os níveis das amplitudes de tensão e corrente nos rolamentos, permitindo uma vida útil maior. A análise de vibração, por ser uma técnica preditiva tradicional, também foi utilizada para validação dos testes experimentais.

  10. The Gas Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document is published before a congress which will address the struggle against climate change, the security of the gas supply chain, the responses of energy groups to environmental and economic challenges, the opening of the gas market, the European energy policy, the future role of gas in the third industrial revolution, and the security of gas supplies. After an introduction briefly discussing these issues and the impacts of the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' and the struggle against climate change for gas production and consumption, several interviews are proposed with actors belonging to the AFG (Association Francaise du Gaz), ADEME, European Commission, Total, GDF Suez, other professional bodies, or local communities

  11. Gas in Attack and Gas in Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fries, Amos A

    1919-01-01

    Carrying out a gas attack is the most technical and dangerous of war's attacks, not only to those on board the airplane that is initiating the attack, but also to those friendly troops on the ground for miles around...

  12. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  13. Venezuelan gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Venezuelan natural gas industry. The structure of PDVSA, the Petroleos de Venezuela Organization, its foreign and domestic affiliates, and its subsidiaries are discussed. Natural gas resources in Venezuela total 290 trillion cubic feet, and Venezuela's share of world, OPEC and latin American production and reserves are 1%, 11% and 26%, respectively for production and 3%, 6% and 49% for reserves. Venezuela's gas pipeline network, plants, production, and marketing are described. Natural gas production and demand forecasts to 2002 are presented. Gas resources are largely located in eastern Venezuela, and large volumes of natural gas non-associated with crude oil will start to become important in the Venezuelan natural gas industry. 19 figs

  14. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  15. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  16. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  17. Diseño y Análisis de desempeño de un inversor de voltaje utilizando controladores inteligentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan jose Salazar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento describe el desarrollo de controladores inteligentes, para la supresión de armónicos en inversores monofásicos con modulación senoidal por ancho de pulso (SPWM. En la primera fase se diseño un controlador PI que sirve como modelo de referencia para la obtención de los patrones de entrenamiento de la red neuronal. Posteriormente se diseño un controlador PD lógico difuso utilizando una base de 25 reglas. Las simulaciones realizadas con el mkodelo matemático del inversor y utilizando "SimPowerSystems" de MATLAB indican que es posible obtener una onda senoidal pura con un mínimo de distorsión armónica total (THD mediante el uso de los controladores inteligentes propuestos.

  18. UTILIZAÇÃO DE UM SISTEMA PARA A REDUÇÃO DO ÁCIDO CIANÍDRICO PRESENTE NA MANIPUEIRA UTILIZANDO ENERGIA SOLAR

    OpenAIRE

    Rebouças, Cyrus Santos; de Freitas, Andrea Gonçalves Bueno; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Bery, Carla Crislan de Souza; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; da Silva, Isabelly Pereira; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Oliveira Júnior, Antônio Martins de; Universidade Federal de Sergipe- UFS; da Silva, Gabriel Francisco; Universidade Federal de Sergipe-UFS

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a cinética de remoção do ácido cianídrico (HCN) presente na manipueira, coletada de casas de farinhas do estado de Sergipe, utilizando como meio de remoção do mesmo um sistema solar, conhecido como concentrador solar do tipo linear, de seção parabólica, cilíndrico e articulado em apenas um eixo.

  19. Prevalencia del síndrome de Down en México utilizando los certificados de nacimiento vivo y de muerte fetal durante el periodo 2008-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Sierra Romero

    2014-09-01

    Conclusiones: La importancia de este trabajo radica en iniciar una vigilancia epidemiológica del recién nacido con SD a nivel nacional y por entidad federativa, utilizando sistemas de información censales disponibles en el país a partir del 2008. Se observó un aumento en el riesgo de tener un hijo con SD a partir de los 35 años de edad materna, como ha sido reportado en otros estudios.

  20. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  1. EFECTO DEL CONTENIDO DE SODIO EN LA OBTENCIÓN DE Na+ -B-ALÚMINA UTILIZANDO EL MÉTODO DE PRECURSOR POLIMÉRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESSA RUIZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al emplear el metodo de precursor polimerico (Pechini para sintetizar polvos ceramicos de Na + B Àalumina, utilizando sales inorganicas, tomando como parametro de estudio la cantidad inicial del precursor de sodio y su efecto sobre la fase cristalina obtenida al final del proceso. Los polvos fueron caracterizados utilizando espectroscopia Infrarroja (FTIR, Difraccion de Rayos X (DRX y Microscopia Electronica de Barrido (MEB. Se encontro que el efecto de la cantidad de sodio inicial en la muestra es determinante en la naturaleza del producto final obtenido. Utilizando la cantidad estequiometrica de NaOH requerida, para la obtencion del compuesto NaAl11O17, se obtuvo al final del proceso (1450oC a-alumina y B-alumina y/o Na2Al2xO3x1 en muestras tratadas termicamente entre 1000oC y 1350oC. Cuando se uso una mayor cantidad de NaOH, muestra no estequiometrica, se obtuvo un solido con el compuesto NaAl11O17 como fase mayoritaria.

  2. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  3. The gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part proposes an overview of the current situation of the gas market and predictions regarding gas consumption and turnovers of gas producers and dealers, indication of important recent events, and a dashboard of the sector activity. A second part proposes an annual report on trends and on the competition context. It describes the activity structure (sector organisations, gas types, main customers, heating modes in French housing, tariff offers), indicates the main determining factors for the sector activity, describes the context (temperature evolution, thermal electricity production, production of the chemical industry, housing stock, natural gas consumption), analyses the evolution of the sector activity (trends, indicators), describes the sector economic structure (upstream sector, gas supply), and gives an overview of actors: historical suppliers, alternate suppliers, highlights of the sector, company rankings, and financial performance

  4. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  5. OBTENCIÓN DE DEXTRANO Y FRUCTOSA, UTILIZANDO RESIDUOS AGROINDUSTRIALES CON LA CEPA Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512-F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Viviana Rodríguez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido al gran potencial biotecnológico que presentan los residuos agroindustriales, se desarrolló el presente trabajo para la obtención de oligosacáridos, utilizando como materia prima residuos de cascaras de naranja, piña y cachaza de caña panelera, a escala de laboratorio. Por medio de un diseño experimental se evaluó la concentración y tipo de sustrato y la temperatura del proceso con tres niveles, para lograr la mayor producción. El desarrollo experimental se llevó a cabo con un volumen de 100 mL y 250 mL. En la etapa final se obtuvo como resultado una producción de 3,4 g/L de dextrano y 5,04 g/L de fructosa, utilizando como sustrato cascaras de naranja con estas condiciones: temperatura de 30 °C y concentración de sustrato de 20 g/L; durante el proceso se midieron el consumo de sustrato y la concentración de biomasa y productos. Se observó el desarrollo del microorganismo con los sustratos empleados en la experimentación, sin adición de nutrientes, con una adaptación favorable a éstos. Finalmente, se realizó una caracterización preliminar del polímero obtenido, con lo que se concluyó que puede obtenerse dextrano de grado técnico para su uso como espesante en la industria de alimentos y en el área de tratamiento de aguas residuales como floculante.Due to biotechnological potential that presents the agro-industrial remainders, the present work was developed about obtaining oligosaccharides using like raw material remainders of orange peels, pineapple peels, and panelera cane slowness, at level laboratory. An experimental design was used to evaluate type and concentration of substrate and process temperature at three levels, accordingly the greatest amount of dextran and fructose produced. All volumes worked were 100 mL and 250 mL. In the final phase, the result was a production of dextran 3.4 g/L and fructose 5.04 g/L, using orange peels as substrate, temperature at 30 °C and concentration of substrate of 20 g

  6. PROTOCOLO PARA A AVALIAÇÃO E TRATAMENTO EM FERIDAS UTILIZANDO O LASER DE BAIXA INTENSIDADE: UMA PROPOSTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Gargione Galvão de Sant’Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se a elaboração de um protocolo de intervenção de enfermagem em feridas, utilizando-se Laser de Baixa Intensidade (LBI, para subsidiar profissionais de saúde no cuidado delas. Os LBI utilizados como coadjuvantes no tratamento de feridas auxiliam a restauração tecidual, melhoram a regeneração e a cicatrização dos tecidos, atuam na inflamação e no edema, aliviando a dor. Utilizou-se metodologia descritivo-exploratória com abordagem quantitativa, cuja proposta foi submetida à apreciação de 18 juízes: 06 enfermeiros, 06 físicos, 06 médicos, todos especializados no assunto, que responderam voluntariamente, observadas todas as normas éticas, questões abertas e fechadas, sobre cada item do protocolo. Os resultados da análise pelos 18 juízes evidenciaram a necessidade, a abrangência, a sistematização da avaliação e aplicação efetiva da ferida e do registro dos dados. Dois juízes sugeriram alterar somente a sequência de algumas questões e dois opinaram adicionar a relação existente entre a energia total ministrada pelo laser e as áreas totais de tratamento e a distância entre os pontos de aplicação. Os resultados obtidos permitem inferir que a proposta é importante e necessária para a terapêutica com LBI em feridas e subsidiar a sistematização dessa terapêutica pelos enfermeiros e demais profissionais de saúde capacitados para esse fim.

  7. Cinemática inversa de robot serial utilizando algoritmo genético basado en MCDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jairo Vaca González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los robots manipuladores seriales son herramientas eficaces para realizar tareas repetitivas y de precisión en la industria, siempre que se comprenda la cinemática involucrada en el posicionamiento y orientación del efector final. Este artículo presenta una metodología para resolver el problema cinemático inverso de un robot serial (Melfa RV-2A utilizando un algoritmo genético (AG a partir del modelo cinemático directo Screws (MCDS. Para esto, se obtienen los parámetros Screw que modelan el robot, se calcula el espacio de trabajo asociado y se diseña el AG contemplando una función multi-objetivo de alcance de posición y orientación en que se sitúa el efector final, con respecto a una coordenada y orientación de un punto objetivo establecido. La validación del AG se realiza según la aptitud, el tiempo de convergencia y la cantidad de generaciones usadas por la función para alcanzar el objetivo. Por tanto, la implementación de un AG basado en un MCDS es una herramienta prometedora que podría utilizarse para calcular la cinemática inversa de robots seriales. Esta novedosa implementación permite establecer por primera vez la exposición matricial de un sistema cinemático directo para obtener la solución cinemática inversa de un robot serial. En consecuencia, se demuestra que esta es una metodología factible y eficiente para solucionar la cinemática inversa de cualquier tipo de robot manipulador.

  8. Remoção de nitrato da água utilizando bagaço de caju quimicamente modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Renato Melo Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O ânion nitrato (NO-3, devido sua alta solubilidade em água, é um contaminante de difícil remoção. Os métodos atualmente empregados para tratamento de água contaminada por nitrato possuem um elevado custo e não são muito eficientes, já que em alguns casos são gerados resíduos mais tóxicos que o próprio nitrato. Tecnologias contemporâneas empregadas para tratamento de efluentes aquosos têm seus mecanismos baseados no fenômeno de adsorção, em que um sólido poroso é capaz de adsorver determinadas substâncias, quando estas estão em contato. Estas tecnologias são economicamente rentáveis quando são empregados rejeitos agrícolas como adsorventes. Baseado no exposto este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de remoção de nitrato de água, utilizando bagaço de caju quimicamente modificado. Os estudos foram realizados em batelada. Os ensaios de adsorção evidenciaram que o tratamento do bagaço de caju com NaOH 0,1 mol.L-1  alcançou uma eficiência de remoção de 96%, enquanto que o bagaço sem tratamento obteve remoção de 22%. O mecanismo de adsorção modelou-se a uma cinética de pseudo-segunda ordem e foi mais bem correlacionado com a isoterma de Freundlich.  

  9. Estimativa do teor de água no solo utilizando dados de radar de abertura sintética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Máximo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da crescente demanda mundial por alimentos, um monitoramento eficaz e em larga escala da umidade do solo constitui fator de grande importância para a previsão de safras. Este trabalho teve por objetivo apresentar uma técnica para o cálculo do teor de água no solo, utilizando modelos preditivos de umidade do solo, baseados em dados de radar de abertura sintética (SAR. Foram utilizados dados do SAR a bordo do JERS-1 ("Japanese Earth Resources Satellite" e dois modelos empíricos. O primeiro relaciona o coeficiente de retroespalhamento com a permissividade complexa (modelo de Dubois, e o segundo relaciona a permissividade complexa com o teor de água do solo e algumas de suas características físico-hídricas, tais como percentagem de areia e argila (modelo de Hallikainen. Inicialmente, os dados do SAR/JERS-1 foram calibrados e, por meio do modelo de Dubois, foram calculados os valores de permissividade complexa. Para tanto, foi necessário inserir níveis estimados de rugosidade do solo. A partir destes resultados, utilizou-se o modelo de Hallikainen para calcular a umidade volumétrica. A análise geral dos resultados indica que a técnica de estimação de umidade do solo a partir de imagens de radar de abertura sintética, utilizada neste estudo, mostrou-se física e matematicamente exeqüível. No entanto, apresentou uma precisão moderada, não sendo ainda recomendada para o uso operacional no mapeamento de umidade do solo. A análise dos resultados revelou também que a precisão dos dados é bastante influenciada pela precisão dos valores de rugosidade introduzidos.

  10. ESTUDO SENSORIAL DE QUEIJO SIMILAR AO MINAS PADRÃO COM LEITE DE OVELHA UTILIZANDO AGENTE COAGULANTE E COALHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gajo, L. R. Abreu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o leite de ovelhas vem proporcionando certo interesse pelos institutos de pesquisa, devido a sua particular característica de rendimentos elevados na produção de queijos, além de conferir sabor e aroma peculiar aos produtos lácteos. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se averiguar a influência da utilização de três diferentes enzimas coagulantes na fabricação de queijos similar ao Minas Padrão utilizando leite de ovelhas. Foi utilizado coalho bovino (coalhopar®, composto aproximadamente de 80-85% de pepsina e 15-20% de quimosina (renina. Os agentes coagulantes empregados foram microbianos, sendo eles: genético (Chr-Hansen® e fúngico. A elaboração, análises químicas e teste sensorial dos queijos foram realizados no Departamento de Ciência dos Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Lavras. No teor de composição química dos queijos não apresentaram diferença significativa (P < 0,05 em todos os parâmetros analisados mediante aos tratamentos citados. As notas médias das amostras situaram-se na escala hedônica entre 5 e 7 (região da categoria indiferente e gostei moderadamente, respectivamente, apresentando médio índice de aceitabilidade dos queijos. O uso de agente coagulante microbiano (genético foi atribuído a melhor aceitação quanto ao parâmetro de textura. A utilização de agentes coagulantes microbianos fúngico e genético e coalho bovino não apresentaram diferenças sensoriais nos atributos de aparência, sabor e aspecto global nos queijos.

  11. Correção de dados agrometeorológicos utilizando métodos estatísticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kazuo Baba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise de dados climáticos fornece suporte para a previsão de fenômenos, para a avaliação de dados históricos e para a tomada de decisões, em especial na área agrícola. Garantir a sua qualidade é fundamental. O processo de coleta dos dados, através das estações meteorológicas, pode apresentar problemas, onde inconsistências podem ocorrer. Este artigo apresenta uma abordagem para solução do problema, utilizando técnicas estatísticas e geoestatísticas, na identificação de dados inconsistentes e na estimativa de dados a serem corrigidos ou preenchidos. A implementação destas técnicas, em um banco de dados espacial, apresentou-se como um facilitador na identificação e no preenchimento de dados. Para avaliação destas técnicas foram utilizados dados de temperatura coletadas por estações meteorológicas localizadas no Estado do Paraná. Como resultado, as técnicas de identificação de erros mostraram-se adequadas na consistência de erros básicos e históricos. A validação espacial apresentou baixo desempenho por superestimar a quantidade de dados incorretos. As técnicas utilizadas na estimativa dos dados, Krigagem, Inverso da Distância e Regressão Linear, apresentaram desempenho semelhantes com relação à análise dos erros.

  12. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  13. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  14. R gas under diaphragm

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachar Sreevathsa, Maddibande; Melanta, Khyati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most common cause of gas under diaphragm is hollow viscous perforation. In 10% of cases it can be due to rare causes, both abdominal and extra-abdominal, one of them being intra abdominal infection by gas forming organisms. Presentation of the case: A 51 year old male patient, a poorly controlled diabetic, presented with a second episode of severe pain abdomen and abdominal distention, with lower abdominal tenderness. Plain Xray of the abdomen in erect posture showed gas ...

  15. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  16. Improved gas thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. J.; Etsion, I.

    1979-01-01

    Two variations of gas-lubricated thrust bearings extend substantially load-carrying range over existing gas bearings. Dual-Action Gas Thrust Bearing's load-carrying capacity is more than ninety percent greater than that of single-action bearing over range of compressibility numbers. Advantages of Cantilever-mounted Thrust Bearing are greater tolerance to dirt ingestion, good initial lift-off characteristics, and operational capability over wide temperature range.

  17. Means for producing gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhelm, G.L.

    1929-01-22

    This patent describes a gas-generating apparatus which works in combination with a gas-generating receptacle. The process requires a means for supplying finely divided carbon to said receptable, means for supplying a flame under pressure to hold said carbon in suspension, a conduit for conducting the combustible gas produced from said receptacle, and synchronously operating mechanical means for controlling said carbon-supplying means and said flame-supplying means.

  18. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  19. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  20. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  1. Gas venting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  2. Latin American gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the economic recovery that is underway in Latin America which remains one of the world's most important markets for natural gas which will need investment over the coming years. Forecasts of rising gas demand, the restructuring of the gas industry, estimates of the investments needed, Latin America's heavy use of hydroelectric power, market patterns for international gas trade in South America, and the construction of a Bolivia to Brazil pipeline are discussed. Overviews of the situations in Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia are presented

  3. Gas hydrate and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The potential effects of naturally occurring gas hydrate on humans are not understood with certainty, but enough information has been acquired over the past 30 years to make preliminary assessments possible. Three major issues are gas hydrate as (1) a potential energy resource, (2) a factor in global climate change, and (3) a submarine geohazard. The methane content is estimated to be between 1015 to 1017 m3 at STP and the worldwide distribution in outer continental margins of oceans and in polar regions are significant features of gas hydrate. However, its immediate development as an energy resource is not likely because there are various geological constraints and difficult technological problems that must be solved before economic recovery of methane from hydrate can be achieved. The role of gas hydrate in global climate change is uncertain. For hydrate methane to be an effective greenhouse gas, it must reach the atmosphere. Yet there are many obstacles to the transfer of methane from hydrate to the atmosphere. Rates of gas hydrate dissociation and the integrated rates of release and destruction of the methane in the geo/hydro/atmosphere are not adequately understood. Gas hydrate as a submarine geohazard, however, is of immediate and increasing importance to humans as our industrial society moves to exploit seabed resources at ever-greater depths in the waters of our coastal oceans. Human activities and installations in regions of gas-hydrate occurrence must take into account the presence of gas hydrate and deal with the consequences of its presence.

  4. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  5. Shake gas. Basic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  6. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  7. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  9. Simulation of gas explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn H. Hjertager

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas explosion hazard assessments in flammable gas handling operations both offshore and onshore are crucial in order to obtain an acceptable level of safety. In order to perform such assessments good predictive tools are needed, which take account of the relevant parameters, such as geometrical design variables and gas cloud type and distribution. A theoretical simulation model must therefore be tested against sufficient experimental evidence prior to becoming a useful tool. The experimental data should include both variations in geometry and gas cloud composition and the model should give reasonable predictions without use of geometry or case dependent constants.

  10. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  11. Performance of a cycle Otto engine using biogas; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto utilizando biogas como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Juliano de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jsouza@unioeste.br; Souza, Samuel N. Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: ssouza@unioeste.br; Machado, Paulo Romeu M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    The rising of the oil prices is increasing the search for alternative fuels. Brazil has a great availability of biogas from anaerobic digestion in the rural area, urban waste in the landfills and treatment of the municipal sewer. In this work were evaluated in dynamometer a cycle Otto engine using biogas, and were obtained the characteristics curves of torque and power. First was done the evidence test with gasoline, biogas and natural gas, using commercial systems for this fuels, using as comparison for other tests. After has been done tests for some combinations of ignition point, mixer of gas and compression tax. By the analysis of the results has been concluded that the better results for power and torque using biogas as fuel were with a tax compression of 12,5:1, gas mixer long and ignition point advanced in 45 deg. (author)

  12. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviewed natural gas supply and demand issues facing Ontario and outlined TransCanada's role as a key player in Ontario's energy industry. TransCanada's gas transmission assets include 39,000 km of wholly owned pipelines from British Columbia to Atlantic Canada that carry 11 Bcf of gas per day. In addition, TransCanada operates 29 power generating plants, of which 6 are in Ontario. The company is also involved the proposed Mackenzie Valley and Alaska pipeline. A map illustrating Ontario and Quebec operations was included along with graphs depicting the 2004 base case for North American gas demand by region. Historical and forecasted gas demand by end use sector in Ontario and Quebec was also illustrated. A chart of North American gas supply indicates that new supply is needed to meet energy demands. Production forecasts for Western Canada for conventional and unconventional reserves indicates that by 2015, unconventional reserves such as coalbed methane (CBM) will make up a larger portion of the production mix. A map indicating existing and proposed import terminals along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was included. The challenges facing the North American gas market include price volatility, the need to update energy policies, the need to improve regulatory efficiency, and aligning the interests of market participants. It was concluded that although natural gas from Western Canada will continue to be a stable supply source for many years, the natural gas market in North America is seeking new supply in frontier gas, LNG and CBM to meeting growing demand. 1 tab., 11 figs

  13. Transformador utilizando metal amorfo

    OpenAIRE

    Aly Ferreira Flores Filho

    1989-01-01

    Apresenta-se, neste trabalho, um estudo de utiliznçno de metais amorfos, ou também chamados vidros metálicos, na construçio do circuito magnético de um pequeno transformador. As características mais importantes dos metais amorfos e relevantes para este tipo de aplicação são apresentadas, bem como as do material cristalino de ferro-silÍcio com grão orientado. Isto de. maneira a compará-los entre si. O projeto teÓrico deste transformador também é feito para que se possa estimar as vantagens e d...

  14. Producción de Biogás a Nivel Laboratorio Utilizando Estiércol de Cabras Producción de Biogás a Nivel Laboratorio Utilizando Estiércol de Cabras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández Cantero

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicó el proceso de digestión anaerobia para la obtención de biogás a partir de estiércol de cabras. Para ello se implementaron dos tipos de experimentos: El primero se efectuó mediante dos lotes utilizando matraces kitazato de cristal con una capacidad de 1 litro como depósito de la mezcla agua-excremento. Los matraces kitazato se introdujeron dentro de una tina con agua calentada por una resistencia eléctrica para mantener la temperatura adecuada para el crecimiento de las bacterias metanogénicas. El objetivo de esta experimentación fue determinar la producción diaria de biogás al utilizar estiércol de cabras. El segundo se efectuó mediante un biodigestor a escala de laboratorio. Para ello se procedió primero a pesar las bolitas de estiércol de cabras. En seguida se pasaron a un recipiente en donde se les agregó agua. Luego se procedió a deshacer las bolitas hasta alcanzar una mezcla homogénea y en estas condiciones cargar el biodigestor. Elobjetivo de esta experimentación fue determinar la cantidad de metano del biogás mediante análisis cromatográfico.The anaerobic digestion process was applied in order to get biogas from goat’s manure. Two experiments were implemented. The first one was carried out by means of two lots, using matraces kitazatos of crystal with a capacity of 1 liter, as deposit of the mixture water - excrement. The kitazatos were put inside a tub with water warmed by an electrical resistance in order to supply the adapted temperature for the growth of the methanogenic bacteriums. The aim of this experimentation was to determine the daily production of biogas when goats’ manure is used. The second one was carried out by means of a biodigestor at laboratory scale. The small balls of goats’ manure were weighted and immediately were passed to a container where water was added. Then, these were dissolved in order to obtain a homogeneous mixture that could be loaded into the biodigestor. The aim of

  15. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  16. Gas contracts in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.J. [Delhi Gas Pipeline Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The transition of gas marketing by producers from a regulated and structured market to an open competitive and commodity market has created new challenges for attorneys drafting gas sales contracts. This article examines the following related topics: Interruptible contracts; pricing provisions; transport imbalances.

  17. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  18. Shale Gas - its challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courme, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although still only produced in North America, shale gas has had a strong influence on the world energy scene over the last five years. Its present and future impact on the gas market cannot be ignored, in a context where all observers are forecasting significant demand growth for gas over the coming decades. Although classified as unconventional gas, the origin and nature of shale gas are the same as for natural gas. It is the consequence of the characteristics of the rock that contains it and its production resorts to the systematic use of techniques that have long been known and developed by the gas industry in other applications. Exploration aimed at evaluating its potential outside the USA and Canada is ongoing notably in South America, Europe and Asia. This will serve first to reduce uncertainty linked to the very existence of shale gas as a resource and to the characteristics of the geological formations containing it. The potential plays must then integrate the constraints relating to water management, the protection of the water table and management of surface operations, taking account of their interaction with other assorted stakeholders. (author)

  19. Innovative gas offers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, O.; Mela, P.; Chatelain, F.

    2007-01-01

    New energy offers are progressively made available as the opening of gas market to competition becomes broader. How are organized the combined offers: gas, electricity, renewable energies and energy services? What are the marketing strategies implemented? Three participants at this round table present their offer and answer these questions. (J.S.)

  20. 1962 : Bay City gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1962, a major natural gas export system from Alberta to San Francisco was brought online. The $300 million, 2,200 km Alberta and Southern system was expected to transport 584 million cubic feet daily in its first year of operation, more than one-third the total volume of gas sold by Canadian producers the previous year. The new gas export market also served to create more gas for the Canadian market because the incentive to serve a large export market also encouraged producers to explore for and develop more gas. The pipeline system started in the foothills belt 200 km northwest of Edmonton, and spanned through Idaho, Washington, Oregon and California. One month before its official opening, a gas line explosion occurred during pressure testing of a lateral line. The Alberta portion of the Alberta and Southern system was also used 2 decades later as a tie-in to the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline project. Other key events in 1962 included approval of the Great Canadian Oil Sands Limited; the manufacture of the first rock drill bits in western Canada; production of 90 million cubic feet of natural gas from 12 wells in Quebec; and, an increase in oil production from the Soviet Union. 1 tab., 1 fig

  1. Beyond the gas bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The deliverability issue currently being discussed within the natural gas industry involves both near-term and long-term questions. In the near-term, over the next two or three years, it is probable that the natural gas industry will need to mobilize for much greater levels of investment than have been the experience over the past few years. In the longer-term, it is expected that new opportunities for gas will arise as the nation seeks to meet increasing energy requirements within new environmental constraints. Methane for emissions control, CNG vehicles, expanded gas-fired electricity generation, and increased efficiency of traditional energy services are just a few examples. The issues in the longer-term center on the ability of the gas industry to meet increasing supply requirements reliably and at cost-competitive prices for these markets. This paper begins by reviewing the historical situation of gas deliverability that is the capability of the gas producing and transportation portions of the industry. The delivery system's ability to handle shifts in the centers of consumption and production is discussed, with an emphasis on regional problems of gas deliverability and potential bottlenecks. On the production side, the paper reviews the capability and the required investment necessary to handle an orderly transition to a stable supply and demand balance once the elusive bubble had finally disappeared

  2. Gas Between the Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    backstage. Keywords. Thermal equilibrium, interstellar gas, galaxies. The discovery of the interstellar gas itself was serendipitous. In. RESONANCE | November 2016. 985 ... ment, the electron is usually knocked down from the aligned case ..... it was asserted that explosions that some stars end their nuclear burning phase ...

  3. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  4. Gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji.

    1991-01-01

    State of electric discharge is detected based on a gas pressure in a sealed container and a discharging current flowing between both of electrodes. When electric arc discharges occur, introduction of gases to be processed is stopped and a voltage applied to both of the electrodes is interrupted. Then, when the gas pressure in the sealed container is lowered to a predetermined value, a power source voltage is applied again to both of the electrodes to recover glow discharges, and the introduction of the gas to be processed is started. With such steps, even if electric arc discharges occur, they are eliminated automatically and, accordingly, normal glow discharges can be recovered, to prevent failures of the device due to electric arc discharges. The glow discharges are recovered automatically without stopping the operation of the gas processing device, and gas injection and solidification processing can be conducted continuously and stably. (T.M.)

  5. Electric Engines to Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental pollution and specially air pollution, it is produced in a wide range by exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, those which are used to generate energy. Direct use of fossil combustibles as petroleum derivatives and coal produces large quantities of harmful elements to ecology equilibrium. Whit the objective of reducing this pollutant load has been development thermoelectric plants whit turbine to gas or to steam, those which are moved by internal combustion engines. Gas engines can burn most of available gases, as both solid waste and wastewater treatment plants biogas, propane gas, oil-liquefied gas or natural gas. These gases are an alternative and clean energy source, and its efficiency in internal combustion engines is highest compared whit other combustibles as gasoline-motor or diesel

  6. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  7. New challenges in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Streicher, C. [Prosernat, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    New developments in the area of gas treatment will be to a large extent driven by the need to find appropriate solutions to the fundamental need of sustainable development. New gas treatment processes are developed with the aim to minimise contaminant emissions and meet most stringent environmental specifications. A new major challenge for the industry will be to implement new cost effective technologies for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Industry has also to minimise its costs, and therefore, in order to ensure at the same time a better protection of the environment and a better safety, it is necessary to innovate. The purpose of this seminar is precisely to identify better the innovations which are required in the area of gas treatment. These proceedings comprise 8 papers and a summary of the contributions to a round-table discussion dealing with the options for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The presentations treat of: the future prospects for the gas industry (M.F. Chabrelie, Cedigaz); the solutions for offshore gas treatment (C. Streicher, Prosernat); gas treatment with membranes (H. Meyer, GTI); the Axens Multibed{sub TM} technology for natural gas treatment (G. Jochem, Axens); the potentials and applications for the Propure co-current contactors (F.P. Nilsen, ProPure); the production of very-sour and super-sour large gas reserves: the new challenges (F. Lallemand, TotalFinaElf); Hybrisol, a new gas treatment process for sour natural gases (F. Lecomte, IFP); and the conception and building of large acid-gas removal units (J. Castel, Technip-Coflexip). (J.S.)

  8. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities – such as gas

  9. Fault detection using artificial neural networks in pipelines for transport of oil and gas; Deteccao de falhas utilizando redes neurais artificiais em dutos para transporte de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guia, Jose G.C. da; Araujo, Adevid L. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Irmao, Marcos A. da Silva [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Processos; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2003-07-01

    The condition monitoring and diagnostic of structural faults in pipelines are an important problem for the petroleum's industry, being necessary to develop supervisory systems for detection, prediction and evaluation of a fault in the pipelines to avoid environmental and financial damages. In this work, three types of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are reviewed and used to detect and locate a fault in a simulated pipe. The simulated pipe was modeled through the Finite Elements Method. In Neural Networks' analysis, the first six natural frequencies of the pipe are used as networks' inputs. The used ANNs were the Multi-Layer Perceptron Network with backpropagation, the Probabilistic Neural Network and the Generalized Regression Neural Network. After the analysis, it was concluded that the ANN are a good computational tool in problems of faults detection on pipelines with a great precision. In the localization of the faults were obtained errors smaller than 5%. (author)

  10. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  11. Obtención de silicatos de calcio utilizando el método de precipitación controlada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Páez, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    obtenido, al ser sometido a tratamientos térmicos, utilizando para ello Difracción de Rayos X (DRX y espectroscopía infrarroja (FTIR.

  12. Evaluación del cultivo de la dorada ( Brycon moorei sinuensis en jaulas flotantes utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinsón Rosado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se inició el 30 de septiembre del2000 con el cultivo de Dorada (Brycon mooreisinuensis en jaulas flotantes en el reservorio de laGranja Piscícola Tamarindo (El Espinal, Colombia,utilizando cuatro alimentos concentrados durante 180días. Se determinó el crecimiento mediante laganancia en longitud, ganancia en peso, tasa decrecimiento específico, sobre-vivencia final, biomasatotal, factor de condición, factor de conversiónalimenticia. Se sembraron 816 juveniles con longitudpromedio de 17.8 cm y peso promedio de 78.9 g,divididos en cuatro tratamientos con densidad desiembra de 25 peces/cm3 y tres réplicas cada uno.Las dietas balanceadas (proteína bruta y la cantidadde energía (Kcal/Kg suministrada fueron: Tratamiento1: 20% y 2637; tratamiento 2: 32% y 3127;tratamiento 3: 28% y 2852; y tratamiento 4: 24% y2751, respectivamente. El diseño experimental fuecompletamente aleatorio y se aplicó la técnica deanálisis de varianza a los datos biométricos yparámetros físico-químicos. Como prueba designificancia se usó la prueba de Tukey-Kramer con95% de confiabilidad. El modelo matemático de VIONBERTALANFY y la transformación de FOR-WALFORDfueron válidos para el ajuste de las curvas decrecimiento en longitud, peso y la relación longitud– peso. Se puede afirmar que la Dorada consumiólas dietas de origen vegetal de igual manera que lasde origen animal, sin embargo la dieta del 28% deproteína bruta (tratamiento 3 muestra los mejoresresultados, sin diferencias significativas entretratamientos (p > 0.05. De acuerdo con la literaturacitada no hay investigaciones que muestren losrequerimientos nutricionales óptimos para laalimentación de esta especie. En todos los trabajosanteriores, la ganancia de peso diaria fue baja, peromejores que las obtenidas en esta investigación.Mientras que el rendimiento en biomasa fue mayorque los reportados para cultivo en tierra, para todoslos tratamientos en este estudio fue muy bajo.

  13. Interfaz Gráfica Computacional para Destilación Multicomponente utilizando Métodos Cortos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Osorio Mirón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se elaboró una interfaz gráfica que determina por medio de simulación en estado estacionario el número de platos necesarios en el proceso de destilación multicomponente, así como la composición en el flujo de destilado y fondos de una torre de destilación utilizando métodos cortos. La interfaz gráfica de usuario, se construyó en el lenguaje de programación Python 2.5, permite presentar los datos de entrada y salida para el caso de columnas de destilación operando en régimen permanente. Los resultados del uso de la interfaz gráfica muestran una forma simple de realizar diseños preliminares de torres de destilación y su potencialidad como material de apoyo para el estudio y comprensión de conceptos básicos en destilación multicomponente. En un trabajo posterior se podrá visualizar el desempeño del modelo dinámico a través de perturbaciones programadas en las condiciones de operación.   Palabras claves: destilación multicomponente; métodos cortos; interfaz gráfica de usuario; Phyton 2.5.In this work, we developed a graphical interface that determines by steady-state simulation the number of plates required for multicomponent distillation process and the composition of distillate and bottoms flow of a distillation tower using short-cut methods. The graphical user interface was built in the programming language Python 2.5, allows to present the input and output data for the case of distillation columns operating in steady state. The results of using the graphical interface shows a simple way to make preliminary designs of distillation towers and its potential as support material for the study and understanding of basic concepts in multicomponent distillation. In a later work it will can display the dynamic model performance through scheduled disturbances in operating conditions.   Keywords: multicomponent distillation; shorcut methods;graphical user interface; Phyton 2.5.

  14. PROPAGACIÓN DE Tabebuia Donnell-Smithii Rose (GUAYACÁN BLANCO UTILIZANDO HORMONAS DE ENRAIZAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Susana Carranza Patiño

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La amplia distribución y abundancia natural de Tabebuia donnell-smithii (guayacán blanco se ha visto reducida por la tala excesiva de los árboles, lo que ha ocasionado la desaparición de genotipos valiosos así como disminución de las poblaciones naturales, existiendo además carencia de alternativas de producción de plantas a gran escala. Se hace por tanto necesario orientar la investigación a establecer una técnica para la propagación vegetativa de guayacán blanco utilizando fitorreguladores. La metodología se basó en el uso de las hormonas de enraizamiento ácido naftalenacético (ANA y ácido indolbutírico (AIB, en concentraciones de 0, 1,500 y 2,000 mg kg-1 en sustratos turba y arena. Las yemas apicales fueron colocadas en una cámara húmeda en condiciones de invernadero. Se aplicó un Diseño Completamente al Azar (DCA en un arreglo factorial 2 sustratos x 3 dosis de hormona ANA x 3 dosis de hormona AIB, con cuatro repeticiones y cuatro unidades de observación. A los 45 días se evaluó el porcentaje de sobrevivencia y el enraizamiento, el número de raíces, la longitud de la raíz mayor, el número de brotes, la longitud de brotes, y el vigor. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los distintos tratamientos para todas las variables, sin embargo para el efecto simple e interacciones se observó diferencias para las variables evaluadas, siendo el mejor sustrato turba y las concentraciones óptimas de auxinas de 0 a 1,500 mg Kg-1. Se concluye que el guayacán blanco es una especie de fácil enraizamiento, ya que con y sin la aplicación de hormonas enraizadoras en el sustrato turba y arena se logró la obtención de clones, disminuyendo el tiempo de obtención de nuevas plantas.

  15. Evaluación de Aprendizajes Mediante Rúbricas Utilizando Rubricarte / Evaluation of Learning by Rubrics Using Rubricarte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los diseños curriculares por competencias buscan promover el desarrollo de capacidades amplias e integrales que le permitan a las personas un desempeño adecuado en situaciones cambiantes, lo cual requiere de nuevas estrategias en la docencia universitaria donde se aprovechen las potencialidades de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC. En este contexto, las matrices de valoración o rúbricas han surgido como un instrumento útil para la evaluación de competencias, ya que a través de un conjunto de criterios permiten valorar el aprendizaje enfocándose en el desempeño del alumno en un contexto determinado. En este trabajo se analiza una experiencia educativa del uso para la evaluación de aprendizajes de RubricArte, una herramienta de software colaborativa desarrollada en la UCV que facilita el desarrollo, uso y divulgación de rúbricas en línea. La experiencia se desarrolló durante el período académico 2015-I (marzo –julio 2015 en la asignatura Modalidades Educativas y Tecnología de la Maestría en Educación, mención TIC de la Facultad de Humanidades y Educación (FHE de la UCV. El curso se dictó bajo la modalidad mixta con actividades presenciales y actividades en un entorno virtual de aprendizaje a través del Campus Virtual de la UCV. RubricArte permitió tanto la evaluación colaborativa como la autoevaluación y la heteroevaluación utilizando rúbricas en línea de una manera sencilla donde se compartieron los criterios de evaluación y donde esta actividad se convirtió en parte del proceso de aprendizaje promoviendo la reflexión acerca del mismo.

  16. CALIDAD EDUCATIVA EN UN CENTRO DE EDUCACIÓN PARVULARIA UTILIZANDO EL CATÁLOGO DE CRITERIOS DE CALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Soto Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad de la educación que se imparte en Chile y en otros países de América Latina representa una situación preocupante, ya que se ha demostrado que los procesos educativos de calidad, sobre todo en la primera infancia, impactan positivamente en el futuro desarrollo escolar de la niñez, relevando la importancia del nivel pre-escolar para superar las desventajas iniciales de los niños provenientes de sectores vulnerables. El artículo reporta un estudio no experimental de tipo mixto, basado en la Investigación Acción Colaborativa en un Jardín Infantil específico de la provincia de Concepción, Chile. La intervención se llevó cabo siguiendo los pasos propuestos por el Catálogo de Criterios de Calidad. Además, para constatar incremento de la calidad, se realizó una evaluación inicial y otra posterior a la intervención utilizando los instrumentos internacionales estandarizados ITERS-R y ECERS-R; también, se utiliza el test chileno TEVI-R para medir el vocabulario pasivo de los niños. A su vez, se utilizó Focus Group para recoger la opinión y percepciones del equipo técnico pedagógico del Jardín, respecto a la intervención realizada. En coherencia con el propósito del estudio, se pudo establecer que hubo avances en el desarrollo de la calidad educativa del jardín, pero no es posible asegurar que ella se mantenga a largo plazo, pues ello implica una internalización de procesos de reflexión y autocrítica en el equipo técnico pedagógico, lo que requiere mayor tiempo. Con esta experiencia se espera aportar evidencia para mejorar procesos educativos en Educación Parvularia.

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE TRES METODOLOGÍAS DE RECUPERACIÓN DE EMBRIONES EN CANINOS UTILIZANDO UN MODELO POSTMORTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Jiménez E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar tres técnicas de recuperación de embriones, utilizando como modelos de simulación oocitos desnudos introducidos en úteros recuperados post–mortem. Materiales y métodos. Se introdujeron 10 oocitos en el extremo ovárico de cada cuerno. El tratamiento 1 (T1 consistió en realizar una punción a nivel del extremo ovárico de cada cuerno para introducir el medio de lavado. Se incidió la base de cada cuerno para ubicar un catéter TOMCAT 8-Fr, recuperando el medio en una caja de petri. En el tratamiento 2 (T2 se realizó una punción en el extremo ovárico de cada cuerno pero la recuperación de los oocitos se realizó con un catéter de 56 cm de longitud que se pasó transcervicalmente hasta la base de cada cuerno. En el tratamiento 3 (T3 se utilizó el mismo tipo de catéter por vía transcervical y el lavado y la recuperación se realizó a través del mismo catéter. Resultados. El número de estructuras recuperadas fue de 7.3 ± 2.4 (73% para el T1; 8.5 ± 1.9 (85% para el T2 y de 5.8±2.2 (58% para el T3. La tasa de recuperación fue similar para T1 y T2, pero significativamente mayores que para el T3 (p>0.01. Conclusiones. Las técnicas que se proponen son menos invasivas y tienen resultados comparables a otros estudios donde realizan histerectomía y laparotomía. Con este tipo de técnicas, se disminuye el trauma generado por incisiones quirúrgicas y la posible generación de adherencias. Adicionalmente permitirían realizar recuperaciones de embriones no quirúrgicas en caninos.

  18. Recuperación de oro a partir de disoluciones de amoniaco y tiosulfato utilizando carbón activado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of gold from solutions containing thiosulfate and ammonia using granular activated carbon was studied, evaluating the adsorption and elution stages. The influence of ammonia and thiosulfate concentration and the presence of impurities such as copper and zinc were also evaluated. In the presence of ammonia there was a concentration which maximized the adsorption of gold, while thiosulfate and impurities presence was harmful for the adsorption of gold. During elution, ammonia and thiosulfate concentration, pH regulator and temperature were evaluated. Ammonia favored the process as long as thiosulfate showed a maximum starting from which the elution diminishes. The effect of the pH regulator was very important; If was revealed that when the pH was regulated with caustic ammonia, a synergic effect appeared which favored the elution. Temperature favored the elution process, with activation energy of 9.13 kJ/mol.

    Se estudió la recuperación de oro de disoluciones de tiosulfato y amoniaco, utilizando carbón activado en gránulos, evaluando las etapas de adsorción y desorción. En la etapa de adsorción se evaluaron la concentración de amoniaco, de tiosulfato y de impurezas como cobre y cinc. En las condiciones experimentales ensayadas se encontró que, en presencia de amoniaco, existe una concentración óptima que maximiza la adsorción de oro, mientras que la presencia de tiosulfato e impurezas, tales como cobre y cinc, es perjudicial para la adsorción de oro. Para la desorción se evaluó la concentración de amoniaco, de tiosulfato, el regulador de pH y la temperatura. El amoniaco favoreció el proceso, en tanto que el tiosulfato presentó un máximo a partir del cual la desorción disminuyó. El efecto del regulador de pH fue muy importante, determinándose que cuando el pH era controlado con hidróxido de amonio, se presentaba un efecto sinérgico que favorecía la desorción. La temperatura favoreció el proceso de

  19. Classificação de estratos florestais utilizando redes neurais artificiais e dados de sensoriamento remoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Gonçalves e Gonçalves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou a classificação de tipologias florestais por meio de redes neurais artificiais utilizando dados provenientes de um inventário florestal, fornecido pelo Instituto de Desenvolvimento Florestal e da Biodiversidade do Estado do Pará (IDEFLOR-BIO, e das bandas 3, 4 e 5 do TM do satélite Landsat 5. As informações provenientes das imagens de satélite foram extraídas por meio do aplicativo QGIS 2.8.1 Wien e utilizadas no banco de dados para o treinamento das redes neurais pertencentes às ferramentas do software MATLAB(r R2011b. Foram treinadas redes neurais como classificadores de dois tipos florestais: Floresta Ombrófila Densa de Terras baixas Dossel emergente (Dbe e Floresta Ombrófila Densa Terras baixas Dossel emergente mais Aberta com palmeiras (Dbe + Abp no conjunto de glebas estaduais Mamuru-Arapiuns, Pará, e avaliadas usando os indicadores matriz de confusão, cálculo de acurácia global, coeficiente Kappa e o gráfico de características do receptor operacional (ROC. O melhor resultado de classificação foi obtido por meio da rede neural probabilística de função de base radial (RBF "newpnn", com uma acurácia global de 88%, e coeficiente Kappa de 76%, sendo avaliado como um classificador muito bom, evidenciando a aplicação dessa metodologia na análise de áreas com potencial para prestar serviços ecossistêmicos e, principalmente, na prestação de serviços ambientais em áreas antrópicas que adotam sistema de produção agropecuária com baixa emissão de carbono na Amazônia.

  20. Detecção de Brucella abortus em tecidos bovinos utilizando ensaios de PCR e qPCR¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrielen A.B. Caitano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar as técnicas reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e PCR em Tempo Real (qPCR para detectar Brucella abortus, a partir de tecidos bovinos com lesões sugestivas de brucelose. Para isto, 21 fragmentos de tecidos bovinos coletados em abatedouros de Mato Grosso do Sul foram processados e submetidos ao cultivo microbiológico e extração do DNA genômico para realização das reações de PCR e qPCR. No cultivo microbiológico, oito amostras apresentaram crescimento bacteriano e cinco foram confirmadas como B. abortus por PCR. Diretamente das amostras de tecido, DNA do gênero Brucella (oligonucleotídeos IS711 foi detectado em 13 (61,9% amostras de tecido e 17 (81% amostras de homogeneizado. Já com os oligonucleotídeos espécie-específicos BruAb2_0168F e BruAb2_0168R, 14 (66% amostras de tecido e 18 (85,7% amostras de homogeneizado foram amplificadas. Seis amostras positivas na PCR espécie-específica foram sequenciadas e o best hit na análise BLASTn foi B. abortus. Na qPCR, 21 (100% amostras de tecidos e 19 (90,5% amostras de homogeneizado foram positivas para B. abortus. Dez amostras de DNA de sangue bovino de rebanho certificado livre foram utilizadas como controle negativo nas análises de PCR e qPCR utilizando-se os oligonucleotídeos BruAb2_0168F e BruAb2_0168R. Na PCR nenhuma amostra amplificou, enquanto que na qPCR 2 (20% amplificaram. Conclui-se que as duas técnicas detectam a presença de B. abortus diretamente de tecidos e homogeneizados, porém a qPCR apresentou maior sensibilidade. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a qPCR pode representar uma alternativa rápida e precisa para a detecção de B. abortus diretamente de tecidos, e ser utilizada em programas de vigilância sanitária, por apresentar sensibilidade e especificidade satisfatórias.

  1. Using Computer Resources (Spreadsheet to Comprehend Rational Numbers Utilizando recursos computacionais (planilha na compreensão dos Números Racionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Ratzlaff da Rosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an investigation which sought to determine if the use of spreadsheets in the teaching of rational numbers in elementary education contributes to learning and improved learning retention. The study was carried out with a sample of students from two sixth-grade classes in a public school in Porto Alegre. Results indicated that the use of spreadsheets favored learning and made the classes more participatory for the students, who were able to visualize the processes they were working with. A second test applied five months after the first test showed that students who used the spreadsheets had greater learning retention of the contents. The results also show that the students felt comfortable with the technology, and almost all reported that they were more motivated by the use of computers in the classroom, despite less-than-ideal laboratory conditions. Key-words: Rational Numbers. Teaching with Spreadsheet. Teaching Rational Numbers using Spreadsheet.Este artigo relata uma investigação que procurou determinar se o uso de planilha como recurso no ensino dos números racionais na Educação Básica contribui para a aprendizagem e uma maior retenção dessa aprendizagem a médio prazo. A investigação foi realizada com uma amostra de alunos de duas turmas da sexta série de uma escola pública de Porto Alegre. Os resultados indicaram que o uso da planilha favorece a aprendizagem e torna as aulas mais participativas para os alunos, que conseguiram visualizar os processos com os quais trabalharam. Um segundo teste aplicado cinco meses após o primeiro mostrou que os alunos que utilizaram a planilha apresentaram uma maior retenção do conteúdo. Os resultados apontam ainda que os alunos se sentem à vontade com a tecnologia e quase todos disseram ficarem mais motivados com as aulas utilizando o computador apesar das condições do laboratório utilizado não ser a ideal. Palavras-chave: Números Racionais. Ensino com a

  2. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  3. Gas supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: When injecting gas during plasma discharge, to prevent erronous operation of the piezoelectric valves due to vibrations and to inject gas into the vacuum vessel by accurately controlling gas flow. Constitution: The piezoelectric valve designed to control the flow of gas when charging vacuum vessels is installed between the vacuum vessel and the gas cylinder and a pulse voltage generator to control the valve (open/close) and the reverse voltage generator to apply a reverse current to the valve element are also provided. When a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric element, the piezoelectric element bends. However, when the polarity is changed, the direction of the bend is also reversed. The seat portion is pressed in proportion to the degree of bending. When gas is injected while plasma is being discharged, the gap created, due to vibrations, between the piezoelectric element and the sealing material is prevented by the application of a reverse current. This allows precise control of the gas injection volume as well as the injection interval. This assures maintenance of precise test conditions when testing thermonuclear devices. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  5. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  6. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2014-01-01

    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  7. Gas transportation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document presents a number of important issues relating to the development of gas transportation and storage in Great Britain. Many of the issues are complex and there are no ideal solutions. British Gas and OFGAS both recognise the crucial value of proper consultation on these issues. The chapters on 'The Core/Non-Core Concept', 'Network Operations and Balancing' and 'The Network Code' have been drafted by British Gas and commented on by OFGAS, who wish to reserve their position on these proposals pending comments from interested parties. (Author)

  8. European Gas Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Iben; Bieber, Martin; Gandrup, Tobias; Lehmann, Tina; Weinberger, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The focal point of the project is, as it is implied in the title, European gas dependency, to be more specific; the dependency of Russian gas. We chose Russia, because the EU's import of gas is mainly supplied by Russia. We present background information and knowledge to describe why the case is of relevance and that a situation of dependency exists. We solely look at the dependency from the European Union's point of view, taking point of departure in the Green Paper. The Green Paper is a pap...

  9. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  10. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  11. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  12. Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2007-01-01

    .... As such, Russia has some ability to dictate natural gas prices. Russia cut off the gas supply to Ukraine and Moldova in January 2006 and threatened to cut off gas supplies to Belarus and Georgia during late 2006 price negotiations...

  13. Gas in Attack and Gas in Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1919-07-01

    to get a much larger number of projectors to this point than a French Gas Company in that vicinity, the American8 were given the job of making the...portiondtely grezAtar tAm6. Ir, is also effactive but withi a rapid- ly decressing rnt’io down to Q~Q part in 2Q0,ciOO after which it may be breathed

  14. Optimización de la succión de sólidos sumergidos utilizando bombas centrífugas con velocidad variable

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ávalos, Víctor Manuel

    2012-01-01

    La acumulación de material sólido en embalses, cauces fluviales y en zonas marítimas hace que la extracción mecánica de estos materiales por medio de succión sea cada vez mas frecuente, por ello resulta importante estudiar el rendimiento de la succión de estos materiales analizando la forma de las boquillas y los parámetros del flujo incluyendo la bomba. Esta tesis estudia, mediante equipos experimentales, la eficacia de distintos dispositivos de extracción de sólidos (utilizando boquillas...

  15. Análise de bordas de reservatório utilizando múltiplos sensores: estudo de caso: reservatório de Itaparica-PE

    OpenAIRE

    GUILLOU, Alexandre Normande

    2016-01-01

    A análise da detecção de bordas das margens de grandes reservatórios de água utilizando imagens de diferentes resoluções espaciais, espectrais, radiométricas e temporais, constitui um problema complexo que requer o uso adequado de técnicas de processamento de imagens, a exemplo dos filtros de bordas e fusão de imagens. O desenvolvimento de novas técnicas de análise integrada de imagens orbitais do OLI LANDSAT-8 (Operational Land Imager- Land Remote Sensing Satellite-8), representa uma demanda...

  16. Estudio cinético de una fermentación alcohólica utilizando miel de abejas como sustrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Gómez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe un estudio cinético de una fermentación alcohólica utilizando miel de abejas como sustrato; para este efecto se realizaron nueve fermentaciones en proceso discontinuo con un volumen, de 10 L, siguiendo el comportamiento de las concentraciones de sustrato, biomasa y producto en el tiempo. Se evaluó la conveniencia de factores como la agitación y la adición de nutrientes, además, se observa el efecto de las concentraciones iniciales de sustrato e inocula y el tipo de miel.

  17. Sorologia da hanseníase utilizando PGL-I: revisão sistemática Leprosy serology using PGL-I: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Scaliante de Moura; Karla Lucena Calado; Maria Leide W. Oliveira; Samira Bührer-Sékula

    2008-01-01

    A sorologia utilizando o antígeno espécie-específico do Mycobacterium leprae, PGL-I, pode ser um marcador de carga bacteriana em pacientes com hanseníase. Estudos identificaram potencial de uso da sorologia na classificação de pacientes para fins de tratamento, monitoramento de terapia, risco de recidiva e na seleção dos contatos com maior risco de adoecer. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática e 26 artigos foram incluídos na análise comparativa. Avaliamos os resultados do uso da sorologia PG...

  18. Implementación de un prototipo de taxímetro digital con impresora facturadora utilizando tecnología GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Cuasapaz Chamorro, Miguel Antonio

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se construye un prototipo de taxímetro digital en base al microcontrolador atmega324P, utilizando tecnología GPS. El prototipo cuenta con un puerto de comunicación serial para la reprogramación de la tarifa vigente tomando en cuenta mecanismos contra la adulteración fraudulenta de las mismas. Por último se presentan pruebas de funcionamiento en un vehículo para comparación de datos con un taxímetro homologado y calibración. Jiménez Jiménez, María Soledad, director

  19. ESTRUCTURA TRIDIMENSIONAL DEL a-CICLOPROPIL- (p-METOXIFENIL)-5-PIRIMIDINMETANOL (ANCIMIDOL) UTILIZANDO EL MÉTODO DE RESONANCIA MAGNÉTICA NUCLEAR

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina, O.; Grupo de Biofísica Molecular, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Espejo, F.; Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia - FIDIC; Rojas, C.; Grupo de Biofísica Molecular, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá

    2005-01-01

    El Ancimidol, α-ciclopropil-(p-metoxifenil)-5-pirimidinmetanol, (C15H16N2O2) es un regulador de crecimiento vegetal sintético, que hace parte del grupo de compuestos heterocíclicos que contienen nitrógeno que inhiben la síntesis de las giberelinas. La estructura de esta molécula se determinó por resonancia magnética nuclear, partiendo de una solución en cloroformo deuterado (CDCl3), utilizando un espectrómetro de 500MHz (campo de 11.7Teslas). Se tomaron espectros unidimensionales RMN 1H, RMN ...

  20. Mejoramiento del proceso de granallado para resortes de ballesta utilizando medición de esfuerzos residuales por difracción de rayos x

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Héctor; Viloria, Alexander; Arango, Yulieth; Jiménez, Augusto; Mendoza, Henry; Cadena, Jhon

    2010-01-01

    Se midieron diferentes perfiles de esfuerzos residuales por difracción de rayos X en las zonas cercanas a la superficie de un acero AISI-SAE 5160H empleado en la fabricación de resortes de ballesta, utilizando diferentes condiciones de granallado y desarrollando un diseño de experimentos para encontrar condiciones de proceso que ofrezcan intensidades Almen y perfiles de esfuerzos residuales en compresión adecuados. Por último se escogieron las combinaciones de variables que tienden a presenta...

  1. Estratégias de microfabricação utilizando toner para produção de dispositivos microfluídicos

    OpenAIRE

    Heron Dominguez Torres da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados processos de microfabricação de estruturas contendo microcanais e sistemas de manipulação hidrodinâmica e eletroosmótica de fluídos. Foram desenvolvidos processos de microfabricação utilizando toner sobre poliéster, toner sobre vidro, toner como resiste, além de métodos alternativos de perfuração de lâminas e selagem de microestruturas em vidro, desenvolvimento de microestruturas para eletroforese capilar e espectrometria de massas com ionização por eletronebul...

  2. Evaluación de la producción de pintura a partir de los residuos de Poliestireno expandido utilizando un solvente amigable con el ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Arcila Arcila, Isabel Cristina; Miranda Giraldo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Con la evaluación de la producción de pintura a partir de los residuos de poliestireno expandido (EPS) utilizando un solvente amigable con el ambiente, se pretende dar uso post industrial a los desechos de poliestireno expandido que cada vez se acumulan más en los rellenos sanitarios, lo que genera un descontento debido a su volumen -- Además de darle un trato más amigable a la fabricación de pintura buscando un solvente que no resulte tan tóxico para el trato humano y para el ambiente -- El ...

  3. Estudio, simulación e implementación de estándares de cifrado simétrico, utilizando Matlab, VHDL, y FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Granda Galarza, María Fernanda; Reina Pérez, Verlaine Leandro

    2014-01-01

    El presente documento tiene como finalidad estudiar, simular e implementar los estándares de cifrado simétrico mediante la utilización de Matlab VHDL y FPGA. El estudio inicia con una descripción de los primeros procedimientos que se utilizaron para cifrar la información, luego se revisa en forma detallada los estándares de cifrado S-DES y AES para desarrollarlos en Matlab. Finalmente se realiza la descripción del estándar AES utilizando VHDL para implementarlo en un FPGA XC5VLX110T Virtex 5 ...

  4. Desarrollo de un controlador de velocidad de un motor de imanes permanentes utilizando técnicas de realización rápida de prototipos

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyos Velasco, Fredy Edimer; Younes Velosa, Camilo; Cano Plata, Eduardo Antonio; Sánchez Aristizábal, Sebastián

    2010-01-01

    Prácticamente todo desarrollo de ingeniería sobre sistemas de control suele ser analizado mediante simulación para prever su desempeño. Sin embargo, no se debe dejar de tener en cuenta que el destino final del algoritmo será su aplicación en un sistema de tiempo real. Utilizando como herramientas de desarrollo una placa con tecnología DSP y el Simulink con RTW, se pueden realizar simulaciones en tiempo real (es decir, la simulación interactúa con la planta física). Para poder apreciar las con...

  5. Indução de múltiplas ovulações utilizando baixa dose de GnRH (deslorelina) em éguas.

    OpenAIRE

    Márlon de Vasconcelos Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho induzir ovulações múltiplas em éguas utilizando baixas doses de GnRH (deslorelina) em tempo fixo e determinar seu impacto sobre a eficiência reprodutiva e resultados econômicos em um programa comercial de transferência de embriões, no agreste pernambucano. No experimento 01 foram utilizadas quinze éguas doadoras de embrião sendo dez da Raça Quarto de Milha e cinco da raça Mangalarga Machador, com idade entre oito e vinte anos. O grupo 1 (G1) iniciou-se com o mon...

  6. PROPOSTA DE MODELO PARA IMPLANTAÇÃO DE PROCESSO DE PROJETO UTILIZANDO O CONCEITO BIM EM ESCRITÓRIOS DE ARQUITETURA

    OpenAIRE

    Marcele Ariane Lopes Garbini; Douglas Queiroz Brandão

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho trata do modelo de processo de projeto utilizando BIM (Building Information Modeling) em escritórios de arquitetura. O conceito de BIM surgiu há mais de trinta anos, no entanto vem sendo divulgado com maior abrangência no mercado da construção civil apenas nos últimos dez anos. As vantagens de sua adoção são visíveis nos projetos, considerando o aumento na rapidez do desenvolvimento e na qualidade, dentre outros benefícios. O objetivo desta pesquisa está em propor um modelo de p...

  7. Obtención de plásticos biodegradables por microorganismos acumuladores de polihidroxialcanoatos en cultivos mixtos (lodos activados) utilizando efluentes de la industria

    OpenAIRE

    Alzate Marían, Juan Carlos; Caravelli, Alejandro Horacio; Zaritzky, Noemí E.

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la factibilidad de producción de PHA, a escala laboratorio, utilizando cultivos de lodos activados bajo condiciones aeróbicas y diferentes fuentes de carbono: acetato, suero de queso con alto contenido de lactosa hidrolizada (efluente de la industria láctea) y glicerol puro (subproducto de la planta de biodiesel). Se propone un proceso de producción de PHA basado únicamente en 2 etapas: selección de microorganismos (SBR) y producción (Batch). C...

  8. Predicción de la epidemia del virus sincitial respiratorio en Bogotá, D.C., utilizando variables climatológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto González-Parra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El virus sincitial respiratorio es uno de los principales causantes de mortalidad de niños y adultos mayores en el mundo. Objetivo. Predecir las semanas de inicio de los brotes de infección por el virus sincitial respiratorio en Bogotá entre 2005 y 2010, utilizando variables climatológicas como variables de predicción. Materiales y métodos. Se establecieron las fechas de inicio de los brotes en niños menores de cinco años ocurridas entre 2005 y 2010, en Bogotá D.C., Colombia. Se seleccionaron las variables climatológicas utilizando una matriz de correlación y, posteriormente, se construyeron 1.020 modelos resultado de la combinación de las distintas variables climatológicas y las semanas de antelación al inicio del brote. Se seleccionaron los modelos utilizando los datos correspondientes a periodos de seis (2005-2010, cuatro (2005-2008 y dos años (2009-2010. Se determinaron los mejores modelos y las variables climatológicas más relevantes, utilizando clasificadores bayesanos ingenuos y curvas características de operación del receptor (Receiver Operating Characteristic, ROC. Resultados. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con los modelos que utilizaron el periodo de dos años (2009-2010 y la semana 0, con 52 y 60 % de aciertos, respectivamente. La humedad mínima fue la variable que más apareció en los mejores modelos (62 %. Los clasificadores bayesanos ingenuos permitieron establecer cuáles eran los mejores modelos para predecir la semana de inicio del brote. Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren que los modelos en que se utilizaron la humedad mínima, la velocidad del viento y la temperatura mínima serían los modelos de predicción más eficaces.

  9. MAPEAMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO DA VEGETAÇÃO URBANA DA CIDADE DE VITÓRIA, ES, UTILIZANDO GEOTECNOLOGIAS

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    SOUZA, Samira Murelli. Mapeamento e avaliação da vegetação urbana da cidade de Vitória-ES, utilizando geotecnologias. 2011. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Florestais) - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Alegre-ES. Orientador: Prof. Dr. Aderbal Gomes da Silva. Coorientador: Prof. Dr. Alexandre Rosa dos Santos. Tomando-se o conjunto da vegetação intraurbana como um dos fatores a ser considerado na qualidade ambiental de uma cidade, este trabalho tem por finalidade, analisar qualita...

  10. Simulação estocástica de atributos do clima e da produtividade potencial de milho utilizando-se distribuição triangular

    OpenAIRE

    Assis,Janilson Pinheiro de; Dourado Neto,Durval; Nass,Luciano Lourenço; Manfron,Paulo Augusto; Bonnecarrère,Reinaldo Antonio Garcia; Martin,Thomas Newton

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi simular a produtividade potencial da cultura de milho, pelo método de Monte Carlo, utilizando um modelo agrometeorológico estocástico. O experimento foi conduzido em Piracicaba, SP, a 22º42'30''S, 47º38'30''W, e altitude de 546 m, o clima da região é do tipo Cwa (tropical úmido). Foram utilizados os valores médios diários de temperatura (de 1917 a 2002) e radiação solar global (de 1978 a 2002). Para comparar os dados reais com os simulados, foram utilizados índic...

  11. Burnable gas concentration control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuboniwa, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide connecting ports by doubling nitrogen gas injection pipes thereby to secure lengthiness of the device only by providing one nitrogen gas generator. Constitution: Nitrogen gas injection pipes are provided in two lines separately, and attachable and detachable connecting ports for feeding nitrogen gas connectable to a movable type nitrogen gas supply installation for the purpose of backing up the nitrogen gas generator. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Gas migration from oil and gas fields and associated hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.E.; Endres, B.L.; Robertson Jr, J.O.; Chilingar, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The migration of gas from oil and gas formations to the surface is a problem that greatly affects those surface areas where human activity exists. Underground gas storage facilities and oil fields have demonstrated a long history of gas migration problems. Experience has shown that the migration of gas to the surface creates a serious potential risk of explosion, fires, noxious odors and potential emissions of carcinogenic chemicals. These risks must be seriously examined for all oil and gas operations located in urban areas. This paper presents the mechanics of gas migration, paths of migration and a review of a few of the risks that should be considered when operating a gas facility in an urban area. The gas can migrate in a continuous or discontinuous stream through porous, water-filled media to the surface. The primary force in this migration of gas is the difference between specific weights of gas and water

  13. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  14. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  15. Invasion of Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslani, J.; Slovak, K.

    2006-01-01

    Washington has opened a Baltic front. That was one of the headlines in the Russian papers in October 2006. This imaginary front in the Baltic Sea was opened, according to the newspaper, by the deputy assistant of the State Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Mathew Bryza, in an interview with the German paper, Financial Times Deutschland. The US official said in this interview that the planned 1 200 km northern European gas pipeline recently named Nord Stream would increase Europe's energy dependency on Russia. 'If you live in Germany you do not want to go through what happened last winter in Ukraine when Russia shut off the supply of gas,' said M. Bryza. He also wondered to what degree diversification of gas supplies to Europe can be developed by having more pipelines to the same supplier. Dependence of the Europe on Russian gas is reviewed. (authors)

  16. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  17. Gas breakdown in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.A.; Pogutse, O.P.; Yurchenko, Eh.I.

    1975-01-01

    The initial stage of the charge development in a tokomak is considered theoretically. It is supposed that all electrons produced in neutral gas ionisation process are in the regime of an almost continuous acceleration. The production time of a given electron density is calculated as a function of the neutral gas density and of parameters of the vortex electric field. The mechanism of plasma escape on walls is considered. It is shown that the escaping time is defined by a specific inertial flow of plasma and depends on whether chamber walls are metal or dielectric. The criterion of the gas breakdown in a toroidal system is formulated. The developed theory is shown to explain a strong dependence of the breakdown on the gas initial density [ru

  18. BOREAS Calibration Gas Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to improve the comparability of trace gas measurements made by various science teams, the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) obtained several...

  19. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  20. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  1. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  2. Sour gas, bitter relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G. [Rutgers Univ., NJ (United States); Higgs, E.; Hrudey, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1998-06-01

    The dispute between the Lubicon Cree and Unocal Canada regarding a sour gas processing plant in northern Alberta was discussed. At the centre of the dispute is Unocal Canada`s view that the sour gas plant is just another routine development to complement existing infrastructure in a region of rapidly developing oil and gas extraction. The Lubicon Cree have disagreed and raised serious reservations about the level of risk associated with the sour gas plant. This report examines the risk communication techniques used by both sides to the dispute, and the mismatch between intention and reality that so far has stood in the way of an agreement.Some alternative approaches that promise more effective cross-cultural risk communication are also described.

  3. Natural gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  4. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  5. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  6. Gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter deals with the nature of the interaction of radiation with gas-filled radiation detectors. A description of the theory of operation of the ionization chamber and Geiger-Mueller counter is included

  7. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  8. Exhaust gas circulation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibano, K.

    1975-01-10

    An exhaust gas recirculation apparatus is described. An exhaust gas recirculation tube is connected between the exhaust pipe and the intake tube and the opening of the tube; the amount of recirculated gas is regulated by a piston-type cycle control valve which is connected to the throttle valve of the carburetor through an arm. The arm is designed in a two-step linkage so that the cycle valve closes the recirculation tube when the throttle valve is at a fully opened angle and a small angle. Therefore, no exhaust gas recirculation occurs when the automobile is in full power, idling, or low running conditions. This prevents lowered engine power at these conditions.

  9. Gas-correlation lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Edner, H; Svanberg, Sune; Uneus, L; Wendt, W

    1984-01-01

    Basic principles for the extension of gas-correlation techniques to the lidar situation are discussed. Favorable signal-to-noise ratios and relaxed laser requirements characterize the technique. Preliminary experiments on atomic mercury are reported.

  10. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  11. Waveguide gas laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedong, C.

    1982-05-01

    Waveguide gas lasers are described. Transmission loss of hollow tube light waveguides, coupling loss, the calculation of output power, and the width of the oscillation belt are discussed. The structure of a waveguide CO2 laser is described.

  12. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  13. Gas insulated substations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...

  14. Sulphur hexafluoride gas detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available .kashangroup.com ] Sulphur Hexafl uoride Gas Detection R Stolper CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 rstolper@csir.co.za Imaging Michelson Interferometer Fabrey-Perot Etalon imaging solution Prism Spectrometer Grating...

  15. Information for gas users

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested: - to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible - to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact "Gas store" by e-mail. Thank you for your co-operation. Logistics Group SPL Division

  16. INFORMATION FOR GAS USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested : to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible, to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact Gas.Store@cern.ch by e-mail or call 72265. Thank you for your co-operation.

  17. Gas processing handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

  18. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierre-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. I.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others

  19. Controlled humidity gas circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable circulator capable of regulating the humidity of a gas stream over a wide range of humidity is described. An optical dew-point hygrometer is used as a feedback element to control the addition or removal of water vapor. Typical regulation of the gas is to a dew-point temperature of +- 0.2 0 C and to an accuracy limited by the dew-point hygrometer

  20. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  1. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  2. Gas dynamic laser device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas dynamic laser device is provided with an expansion chamber arranged between a heating chamber for the CO-gas and the resonance chamber. The expansion chamber is initially evacuated for producing a rarefaction wave. Between the heating chamber and the expansion chamber there are arranged rapid release means such as a valve or a diaphragm. Pressure recovering means are connected to the other side of the resonance chamber

  3. Gas chromatography in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, S. O.; Dimandja, J. M.; Kojiro, D. R.; Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    Gas chromatography has proven to be a very useful analytical technique for in situ analysis of extraterrestrial environments as demonstrated by its successful operation on spacecraft missions to Mars and Venus. The technique is also one of the six scientific instruments aboard the Huygens probe to explore Titan's atmosphere and surface. A review of gas chromatography in previous space missions and some recent developments in the current environment of fiscal constraints and payload size limitations are presented.

  4. Global gas company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a detailed assessment of 60 of the top gas companies form around the world, analysing them according to their internal dynamics and in relation to their competitors. It devotes each chapter to an individual company, providing invaluable insight into the organisation's operational background, financial performance and strategic goals. Using the most up-to-date information available, Global Gas Company Profiles allows you to make detailed analysis of each company's performance and future direction. (author)

  5. Infrared Gas Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid development of monitoring and detecting technology of indoor air quality have been observed. We have seen the two major streams of detection technology introduced so far: Acoustic wave sensor and Infrared gas sensor. The use of a gas monitoring system in the case of that dangerous levels of gases are detected, can help to prevent an explosion or can help to prevent worker injury or exposure to toxic gases.

  6. Gas strategies in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch-Prigent, L. (Elf Aquitaine (France))

    1992-12-01

    The different factors affecting gas supply and demand in Europe are examined and the strategies considered necessary to ensure a successful European gas market in the 21st century are outlined. A number of conclusions are drawn. Even though a significant rise in the total demand for gas in Europe is forecast, there are enough sources to cover this demand. However, to think that this gas will be available at cheap conditions is an illusion. These sources are located further and further away which means that their costs will increase. Given the risks inherent in exploring, producing, transporting and marketing these reserves, all the concerned parties must be allowed an acceptable rate of return on their investment. The environmental positive assets inherent in natural gas will guarantee the industry a bright future if they can be fully exploited. New regulations must not hinder the development of new markets or the construction of new infrastructures. The transit directive already permits the softening of the rules regarding transportation; but in order for it to come into real effect there must be gas available on the market. (author)

  7. Gas marketers and producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, K. [ProGas Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A gas marketer`s perspective on the market drivers in the energy industry was presented. A popular assumption amongst gas marketers is that competition will result in a more efficient marketplace with lower prices for consumers. This author contends that it is unclear whether the changes that are occurring in the natural gas industry will, in fact, lead to a truly competitive market. In the twenty years that ProGas has been marketing gas, it has seen many changes in the way in which natural gas is marketed in North America. Some of these changes and the potential for a scenario in which the effect of deregulation would lead consumers from a regulated monopoly to an unregulated one, with no significant savings, were described. The primary beneficiaries and market drivers for deregulation are large industrial customers. Regulators hold the view that small residential consumers would receive the same benefits. Some of the reasons why this may not be the case, at least in the early years where stranded cost recovery would offset many of the benefits of deregulation, were outlined.

  8. Retained gas inventory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Gas volume data derived from four different analytical methods were collected and analyzed for comparison to volumes originally used in the technical basis for the Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). The original volumes came from Hodgson (1996) listed in the reference section of this document. Hodgson (1996) screened all 177 single and double-shell tanks for the presence of trapped gas in waste via two analytical methods: Surface Level Rise (SLR), and Barometric Pressure Effect (BPE). More recent gas volume projections have been calculated using different analytical techniques along with updates to the parameters used as input to the SLR and BPE models. Gas volumes derived from new analytical instruments include those as measured by the Void Fraction Instrument (VFI) and Retained Gas Sampler (RGS). The results of this comparison demonstrate that the original retained gas volumes of Hodgson (1996) used as a technical basis in developing the BIO were conservative, and were conservative from a safety analysis standpoint. These results represent only comparisons to the original reported volumes using the limited set of newly acquired data that is available

  9. Composición de sedimentos en las zonas costeras de Costa Rica utilizando Fluorescencia de Rayos-X (FRX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Salazar M

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando Fluorescencia de Rayos-X dispersiva en energía, que permite la evaluación simultánea de los isótopos estables de trece elementos, se analizaron setenta y cuatro muestras de sedimentos marinos de las regiones intermareales para las costas del Caribe y del Pacífico Norte, Central y Sur de Costa Rica. Los elementos calcio y hierro fueron los más abundantes y son representativos del origen de la formación natural del sedimento, estando el primero asociado a procesos biogénicos, tales como sistemas arrecifales coralinos cercanos al sitio de muestreo y el segundo esta asociado mas bien a sedimentos de carácter litogénico. En general, las playas del Pacífico Norte mostraron la mayor concentración de calcio lo que es indicativo de mayor existencia de estructuras arrecifales en sus alrededores. El análisis de los elementos traza, ligados a un origen terrígeno, muestras un patrón similar al hierro en la mayoría de las regiones. Las playas del Pacífico Central y Sur muestran las mayores concentraciones de estos elementos traza, indicando una mayor contribución terrígena y/o poco contribución de carbonato de calcio debido al escaso desarrollo de estructuras coralinas en estas regiones. Por último, el análisis no mostró evidencia de contaminación antropogénica y solo una sección al norte de la Playa Puerto Viejo presentaron concentraciones altas de plomo zinc y titanio, lo cual podría estar ligado a fuentes hidrotermales en esta regiónUsing an energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence analysis, simultaneous evaluation of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ge, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in 74 marine sediment samples from the Costa Rica intertidal zones was conducted. Samples were collected between June 1999 and December 2001, from Caribbean and Pacific beaches of Costa Rica. Calcium and iron showed the highest abundances and are indicators of the natural origin of the sediments. Calcium is associated with biogenic processes such as coral

  10. Detección en línea de onda-P en sismogramas 3-D utilizando redes neuronales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzate Carlos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available

    We have developed a P-wave arrival time detector of tectonic events over digital three-component records online. This process uses two different methods: the first one works with a LVR detector, and the second one uses a statistical classifier of classes (signal with P-wave and signal with seismic noise. Detection uses multi-layer perceptron neural network where is taken advantage of non-lineal input-output, relation, well-generalization, low computational demands, etc. These appropriate qualities for real time signal processing. The input data for the system becomes a normalized vector of seismic signal and its polarization arguments. Testes were done with data from IRIS and INGEOMINAS database. Although the system has a good perforance, its accuracy is not acceptable.

    Se desarrolla un detector en línea del tiempo de arribo de ondas P sobre registros electrónicos de tres componentes de eventos tectónicos. Se lleva a cabo la detección en línea de la onda-p empleando redes neuronales (RN, utilizando dos diferentes formas: en la primera se sintetiza el detector de LRV, mientras en la segunda se desarrolla un clasificador estadístico con las respectivas clases (señal con onda-p presente y señal con solo ruido presente. La detección se realiza empleando redes neuronales de tipo perceptrón multi-capa, en las cuales se aprovechan las siguientes cualidades: su capacidad de mapeo no lineal de entrada-salida, buena generalización, bajo costo computacional, entre otras. Las anteriores cualidades hacen que las RN sean apropiadas para el proceso de señales en tiempo real. Las entradas a la RN corresponden a

  11. Estaquia de Ginkgo biloba L. utilizando três substratos Ginkgo biloba L. cutting using three substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Bitencourt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba é arbórea, decídua, cuja folhagem se torna amarelada no outono antes da queda das folhas, o que a torna valorizada em jardinagem. A estaquia é um método de propagação vegetativa baseado na capacidade das células em retomarem o processo de divisão celular, formando raízes em estacas destacadas de ramos provenientes de plantas matrizes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência de diferentes substratos, assim como, a aplicação da auxina sintética o ácido indol butírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas de Ginkgo biloba. No inverno de 2005, ramos foram coletados e transportados até o Laboratório de Macropropagação, onde foram confeccionadas estacas sem folhas, com 10-12 cm de comprimento. Os tratamentos com regulador vegetal (T foram T1- 0 mg L-1 AIB em solução; T2- 4000 mg L-1 AIB em solução; T3- 8000 mg L-1 AIB em solução; T4- 0 mg kg-1 AIB em talco; T5- 4000 mg kg-1 AIB em talco e T6- 8000 mg kg-1 AIB em talco. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados três diferentes substratos (S, S1- areia, S2- fibra de casca de coco (coxim e S3- casca de arroz carbonizada. Após 120 dias da instalação, foram avaliadas as porcentagens de estacas enraizadas, vivas, com calos e mortas; o número de raízes por estaca e o comprimento das três maiores raízes por estaca. Os melhores resultados no enraizamento foram obtidos com estacas tratadas com 4000 e 8000 mg kg-1 AIB em talco, utilizando o coxim como substrato (45,00 e 46,25% de enraizamento, respectivamente.Ginkgo biloba is an arboreal and deciduous species, the foliage of which becomes yellowish in the autumn, before leaf drop, increasing its value for gardening. Cutting is a method of vegetative propagation based on the capacity of cells to recover the cell division process, originating roots in cuttings detached from branches of stock plants. This study aimed to verify the influence of different substrates, as well as the application of the

  12. Estudio de las características fisicoquímicas de los carbones mesoporosos obtenidos utilizando sílica mesoporosa tipo SBA-16 como molde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Hoyos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinan las características porosas y químicas de carbones mesoporosos sintetizados utilizando sílica mesoporosa tipo SBA- 16 como molde y se correlacionan estas características con la capacidad de adsorció de colorantes, lo cual a su vez se constituye en una técnica mas de caracterización fisicoquímica de estos materiales. Se utilizan dos moldes silíceos tipo SBA-16 con diferencias en su porosidad y sacarosa y etileno como fuente de carbón. Se encuentra que el tamaño, volumen de poro y área superficial de estos materiales se pueden modular mediante la selección del molde pero no sus características químicas. Los carbones mesoporosos se sintetizan por el método húmedo, en el cual se utiliza sacarosa como fuente de carbono o por deposición de vapores de etileno utilizando dos sílicas mesporosas con diferentes características de porosidad.

  13. Drill string gas data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, E.R.

    1998-05-12

    Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.

  14. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  15. Gas Cylinder Safety, Course 9518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-27

    This course, Gas Cylinder Safety (#9518), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with handling, storing, using, and transporting gas cylinders. Standard components and markings of gas cylinders are also presented, as well as the process for the procurement, delivery, and return of gas cylinders at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  16. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  17. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Canadian gas resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Canadian exports of gas to the United States are a critical component of EMF-9 (North American Gas Supplies). However, it has been noted that there are differences between US expectations for imports and Canadian forecasts of export supply capacity. Recent studies by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) indicate that 1.8 to 2.4 Tcf of imports may be required in the mid to late 1990's; A recent study by Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) indicates that the conventional resource base may not be able to provide continued gas exports to the US after the mid 1990's and that frontier sources would need to be developed to meet US expectations. The discrepancies between US expectations and Canadian estimates of capacity are of great concern to US policymakers because they call into question the availability of secure supplies of natural gas and suggest that the cost of imports (if available) will be high. By implication, if shortages are to be averted, massive investment may be required to bring these higher cost sources to market. Since the long-term supply picture will be determined by the underlying resource base, EMF-9 participants have been asked to provide estimates of critical components of the Canadian resource base. This paper provides a summary of ICF-Lewin's recent investigation of both the Conventional and Tight Gas resource in Canada's Western Sedimentary Basin, which includes both quantitative estimates and a brief sketch of the analysis methodology

  19. Growth through gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, G.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on the strategies used by Texaco Global Gas and Power in their international marketing and business development. The company is a fully integrated mid-stream company with natural gas sales of 3.6 billion cubic feet per day and operating revenues of $3.6 billion. The company operates 1,116 miles of interstate gas pipelines and owns a dominant NGL export facility in Washington. They also generate 2223 MW of electric power. An additional 2428 MW are currently under development. In Colombia, Texaco supplies 90 per cent of the marketed gas. In Trinidad and Tobago, Texaco is in a 50/50 joint venture in the Dolphin field. Texaco also has a significant downstream presence in Brazil and is pursuing opportunities of the Gas Apertura in Venezuela. Key to the company's success are a defined strategy, dedication to the market place, alliances based on common interests and complimentary strengths, acceptance of greater risk and regionally based solutions. The bulk of the paper is devoted to describing the company's priorities and strategies in each of the Latin American countries. 5 figs

  20. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanczki, Luca Zs.

    2011-01-01

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  1. Diseño de la ampliación de la red de comunicación de EMELNORTE utilizando fibra óptica y tecnología inalámbrica

    OpenAIRE

    Román Vásquez, Roberto Xavier; Hidalgo Lascano, Pablo William

    2010-01-01

    El presente proyecto de titulación aborda la descripción de las técnicas de transmisión de datos utilizando fibra óptica y tecnología inalámbrica. Presenta además, el diseño detallado de la ampliación de la red utilizando enlaces de comunicación requeridos por EMELNORTE para la integración de sus estaciones operativas que se encuentran distribuidas en toda su área de concesión utilizando los medios de transmisión citados. Los enlaces se dimensionan de manera que soporten la transmisión de da...

  2. Gas, the energy for transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigenet, Yaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The author describes gas as the less polluting fossil energy. He outlines that new gas fields have been discovered, notably non conventional gas fields. He notices that whatever conventional or not conventional, a gas field produces methane, and that there is therefore no difference for the end user. However, he notices that reserve assessments by the IAE are a matter of discussion, and that hydraulic fracturing has resulted in important environmental and human damages. Anyway, gas will be needed to face energy demand

  3. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P [Palo Alto, CA; Fulton, Donald A [Fairfield, CA

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  4. Gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Bayly, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas detection system provides for the effective detection of gas leaks over a large area. It includes a laser which has a laser line corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. A He-Xe laser scans a number of retroreflectors which are strategically located around a D 2 O plant to detect H 2 S leaks. The reflected beam is focused by a telescope, filtered, and passed into an infrared detector. The laser may be made to emit two frequencies, one of which corresponds with an H 2 S absorption line; or it may be modulated on and off the H 2 S absorption line. The relative amplitude of the absorbed light will be a measure of the H 2 S present

  5. Radioactive gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki; Okazaki, Akira; Kumagaya, Koji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of a gas processing system which has hitherto been much complicated by the recyclic use of molecular sieve regeneration gas, by enabling to release the regeneration gas to outside in a once-through manner. Constitution: The system comprises a cooler for receiving and cooling gases to be processed containing radioactive rare gases, moisture-removing pipelines each connected in parallel to the exit of the cooler and having switching valves and a moisture removing column disposed between the valves and a charcoal absorber in communication with the moisture removing pipelines. Pipelines for flowing regeneration heating gases are separately connected to the moisture removing columns, and molecular sieve is charged in the moisture removing column by the amount depending on the types of the radioactive rare gases. (Aizawa, K.)

  6. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandrish, G.

    1979-10-01

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  7. Town gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastos, G.J.; Johnson, G.M.; Schapot, R.M.; Velez, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Town gas plant sites are receiving increasing attention from the utility industry and regulatory communities. This attention has been prompted by greater environmental awareness of impacts due to past disposal practices and the understanding that gas plant wastes contain a wide range of chemical constituents that have persisted in the environment. This paper discusses the history of the town gas plant industry, the various processes utilized and the resultant by-products and wastes. Potential problem areas relating to these sites as well as potential approaches to site characterization are addressed. Included are recommendations for the phasing of site investigations and the use of relatively inexpensive and rapid field screening techniques to identify contamination

  8. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  9. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  10. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  11. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  12. Gas cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakerley, M.W.; Asquith, R.W.; Kearney, A.S.; Pratt, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for removing radioactive constituents from a gas flow comprises a cartridge containing iodine absorber and movable from the left-hand position into which it is inserted past a door to the right-hand position where a jacking mechanism lifts it into flow communication with gas inlet and outlet ducts. Double lid systems each comprise one lid closing the cartridge port and another closing the corresponding port leading to the duct. The lids are engaged and lifted when the cartridge is in place, to open the flow paths, and subsequently lowered and disengaged when the cartridge is to be replaced. (author)

  13. Elements of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Liepmann, H W

    2001-01-01

    The increasing importance of concepts from compressible fluid flow theory for aeronautical applications makes the republication of this first-rate text particularly timely. Intended mainly for aeronautics students, the text will also be helpful to practicing engineers and scientists who work on problems involving the aerodynamics of compressible fluids. Covering the general principles of gas dynamics to provide a working understanding of the essentials of gas flow, the contents of this book form the foundation for a study of the specialized literature and should give the necessary background

  14. Underwater gas tornado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byalko, Alexey V.

    2013-07-01

    We present the first experimental observation of a new hydrodynamic phenomenon, the underwater tornado. Simple measurements show that the tornado forms a vortex of the Rankine type, i.e. the rising gas rotates as a solid body and the liquid rotates with a velocity decreasing hyperbolically with the radius. We obtain the dependence of the tornado radius a on the gas stream value j theoretically: a ∼ j2/5. Processing of a set of experiments yielded the value 0.36 for the exponent in this expression. We also report the initial stages of the theoretical study of this phenomenon.

  15. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono–thiolo rea......The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono...

  16. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  17. Gas tungsten arc welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable grinder, co-axial with the electrode, is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds. The specification also discloses means for loading of the cladding with fuel pellets and for placement of reflectors, gas capsules and end caps. Gravity feed conveyor and inerting means are also described. (author)

  18. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  19. Alimentação da criança em pós-operatório imediato de palatoplastia: comparação entre as técnicas utilizando copo e colher

    OpenAIRE

    Armando dos Santos Trettene

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos: Analisar comparativamente a melhor técnica para alimentar a criança em pós-operatório imediato (POI) de palatoplastia: utilizando copo ou colher; associar a aceitação da alimentação utilizando copo e colher às variáveis relacionadas ao procedimento cirúrgico (localização anatômica, micro-cirurgia otológica concomitante, presença de incisão liberadora e tampão); associar a capacidade geral do autocuidado aos fatores condicionantes do agente de autocuidado (AAC): idade, escolaridade,...

  20. Construção de uma sonda remota para um espectrômetro utilizando detector de NaI(TI) e a fluorescência de raios X por dispersão em energia

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Antonio Brandao Junior

    2014-01-01

    Este projeto de pesquisa visa a utilização de detectores cilíndricos de NaI(Tl) com variados volumes sensíveis existentes no Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear (LIN) do Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear da UFMG (DEN-UFMG) para a montagem de espectrômetros utilizando a técnica de fluorescência de raios por dispersão em energia (EDXRF). Dispositivos de acoplamento em formatos cônicos entre os cristais detectores e a válvula fotomultiplicadora (VFM) foram projetados e construídos utilizando ...

  1. Artrodese na coluna cervical utilizando SICAP como substituto de enxerto ósseo Artrodesis en la columna cervical utilizando SICAP como sustituto de injerto óseo Cervical spine fusion utilizing silicated calcium phosphate bone graft substitute (SICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fratezi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Substitutos de enxerto ósseo autólogo foram desenvolvidos para evitar as complicações da retirada de enxerto ósseo autólogo. SiCaP (Actifuse, ApaTech EUA, Reino Unido é um enxerto ósseo composto de cálcio-fosfato com um substituição de silicato na estrutura química, com uma estrutura tridimensional que parece osso natural. MÉTODOS: 19 pacientes foram submetidos à fusão óssea cervical e analisados retrospectivamente. A avaliação radiográfica e avaliação clínica foram realizadas utilizando o questionário Neck Disability Index e a escala análoga da dor (VAS pré- e pós-operação. RESULTADOS: O período médio de acompanhamento pós-operatório foi de 14 meses ± 5 meses (7-30 meses. 11 pacientes foram submetidos à fusão via anterior; 5 pacientes via posterior e 3 pacientes via anterior e posterior. A revisão radiográfica mostrou 19/19 (100% de fusão óssea, nenhum caso apresentou subsidência, quebra ou soltura de material de implante ou movimento nos níveis fusionados. Nenhum exemplo de ossificação heterotópica ou de crescimento ósseo intracanal foi observado. Clinicamente, os escores médios do Neck Disability decresceram 13,3 pontos (media pré-op. de 34,5, pós-op. de 21,2, melhora de 39%, a média da VAS para dor cervical decresceu 2 pontos (2,7 pré-op para 0,7 pós-op.; melhora de 74,1%. Não foram observadas complicações como infecção, osteólise ou edema excessivo das partes moles. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados preliminares obtidos nesta série foram encorajadores com o uso do SICaP como enxerto ósseo, com sólida fusão óssea obtida em todos os casos e sem formação de ossificação heterotópica ou crescimento de osso intracanal. SIcaP demonstra ser um substituto confiável para o enxerto ósseo autólogo na coluna cervical.OBJETIVO: Sustitutos de injerto óseo autólogo fueron desarrollados para evitar las complicaciones de la recogida de injerto óseo autólogo. SiCaP (Actifuse, Apa

  2. Carga de enfermedad en la comunidad autónoma de Cataluña utilizando años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cuadras Andreu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La carga de enfermedad permite medir la salud de la población incluyendo mortalidad y morbididad. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar la carga de enfermedad en Cataluña, comparar los resultados con España y con la comarca del Tarragonés, y evaluar la aportación de los registros locales en la estimación de la discapacidad. Métodos: Se calcularon los años de vida perdidos ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD para 123 causas utilizando la metodología descrita por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Las tasas estandarizadas se compararon con las españolas. En la comarca del Tarragonés, se calcularon losAVAD, se compararon con Cataluña, y para los tumores malignos se calcularon los AVAD utilizando el registro local de incidencia de cáncer. Resultados: Los AVAD en Cataluña fueron 801.140 de media anual. El 60,3% se atribuyó a discapacidad y el 39,7% a mortalidad prematura. Neuropsiquiátricas (30,9%, tumores malignos (15,8% y cardiovasculares (11,3% fueron las principales causas en AVAD. La tasa estandarizada de las enfermedades respiratorias (7,5 por 1.000 fue significativamente superior a la española. Causas perinatales (3,1 por 1.000, lesiones intencionadas (2,2 por 1.000 y enfermedades del aparato digestivo (4,9 por 1.000 fueron significativamente superiores en el Tarragonés. Los AVAD para los tumores malignos se incrementaron un 13,4% utilizando la incidencia de casos para su cálculo. Conclusiones: Las enfermedades no transmisibles aportan la mayor parte de AVAD en Cataluña. Existen diferencias entre territorios en enfermedades respiratorias, perinatales, digestivas y lesiones intencionadas. Los registros locales pueden ser muy útiles en el cálculo de los AVAD.

  3. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  4. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  5. Gas calorimeter workshop: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Gas calorimeters combining functions of energy measurement and fine tracking have become more and more popular in the past few years. They help identify muons, gammas, electrons, and hadrons within dense tracks from transverse and longitudinal shower development. Fine segmentation capability using pads and strips on the cathodes have made gas-sampling calorimeters very attractive for colliding-beam detectors where a large multiplicity of particles are detected in a projected geometry. Linearity, energy resolution, shower position resolution, multishower resolution, and calibration questions were discussed in detail at the workshop. Ease of energy calibration by monitoring radioactive sources, good gain uniformity, and gain stability obtained were among the topics of the speakers. There was a discussion session on the operation mode of wire chambers. Gas calorimeters have been used successfully at CERN, Cornell, Fermilab, and SLAC for experiments. Some of the results from those large-scale devices were reported. Future usage of gas-sampling calorimeters for colliding-beam experiments at Fermilab and CERN were discussed. Wire chambers using extruded conductive plastic tubes have made construction easy of pads and strips which can conveniently read out induced signals from the cathode. The results of extensive studies on such devices were discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 17 papers presented

  6. Financing landfill gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, R.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of financing landfill gas projects in the UK in the last few years are discussed. The approach of the author in setting up a company to finance such projects in the power generation field and a separate company to design and supply turnkey packages is reported. (UK)

  7. Gas tungsten arc welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  8. Clean exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, K.A.; Schulz, V.

    1994-01-01

    Brown-coal coke has properties that make it a suitable base material for adsorbents and catalysts of the types used for the purification of flue gas from waste incineration plants. It is less expensive than activated carbon. Brown-coal coke makes it possible to keep pollutant concentrations well within the limit values laid down in the relevant regulations. (orig.) [de

  9. Gas compression infrared generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular gas is compressed in a quasi-adiabatic manner to produce pulsed radiation during each compressor cycle when the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, and part of the energy is recovered during the expansion phase, as defined in U.S. Pat. No. 3,751,666; characterized by use of a cylinder with a reciprocating piston as a compressor

  10. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  11. Venezuelan gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) is an international energy corporation wholly owned by the Republic of Venezuela. The steady expansion of PDVSA's natural gas infrastructure in Venezuela and the strong performance of its subsidiaries, has contributed to its operational and marketing flexibility, thus allowing it to evolve froma simple exporter of crude oil and refined products to an important supplier of Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) to the world's major energy markets. Corpoven one of PDVSA's affiliated Companies will in 1994 produce an incremental volume of 45 thousand barrels per day of natural gas liquids from the northern Monagas region. NGL exports are expected to increase from 175 thousand barrels day in 1994 to 232 thousand barrels day in 1988. At the end of 1992, another PDVSA subsidiary reached an agreement which calls for the exploitation of vast reserves of natural gas located in the Gulf of Paria, in northeastern Venezuela. The projected LNG production is in the order of 6 million tons per year. (author)

  12. IXM gas sampling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingel, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ion Exchange Modules (IXMs) are used at the 105-KE and -KW Fuel Storage Basins to control radionuclide concentrations in the water. A potential safety concern relates to production of hydrogen gas by radiolysis of the water trapped in the ion exchange media of spent IXMs. This document provides a procedure for sampling the gases in the head space of the IXM

  13. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  14. Gas proportional scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Sekiguchi, Akira

    1980-01-01

    As the trial in the first stage of utilizing recoil helium for the measurement of 2 - 14 MeV neutron spectra in the simulated blanket for a nuclear fusion reactor, the He-Xe system gas proportional scintillation counter (GPSC) has been manufactured for trial, giving consideration to the advantages of gas scintillators and further to improve the energy resolution. In GPSC, delayed secondary scintillation pulses are produced, and its amplitude gives the energy resolution the adverse effect. Thus, in order to improve the energy resolution, it is desirable to realize such geometry of proportional counters that the electric field in the vicinity of center wire is sufficiently intense to induce the secondary excitation or ionization. The counters of such construction are called GPSC, in which the actual energy resolution can be improved according to the secondary scintillation pulses without losing the fast primary scintillation pulses useful for fast coincidence technique. The experimental results and the consideration on them are described. As compared with proportional counters, GPSC can give large output pulses even at low voltage, improve the energy resolution greatly as compared with ordinary gas scintillators, and measure the time data by the primary scintillation and the energy data based on the secondary scintillation simultaneously. However, it is likely to be affected by gas impurities more than proportional counters, and inferior in the reproducibility and stability of measurement. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Gas phase pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Andong Liu; Mulac, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Gas phase pulse radiolysis, a technique which can be used to study many different phenomena in chemistry and physics, is discussed. As a source of small radicals, pulse radiolysis is important to the field of chemistry, particularly to combustion and atmospheric kinetics. The reactions of 1,3-butadiene, allene, ethylene and acetylene with OH are presented. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Nonconventional natural gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    It is concluded that it is impossible at this time to forecast the volume of natural gas dissolved in water that can be economically recovered. The investigation to southern Louisiana, both onshore and offshore was confined. Estimates of the dissolved methane content are based upon information on temperatures, pressures, sandstone thicknesses, sandstone porosities, salinity, and the solubility of methane. The salinity of waters encountered in wells was estimated from wireline logs, and in turn used to reduce the estimated content of dissolved gas. The reductions range from 51 to 61 percent of the solubility of methane in fresh water. The assessment does not include gas dissolved in water contained in shale beds. A series of maps display the information used in the computation. Methane solubility values were multiplied by porosity--feet values for each 1000-foot interval. The total dissolved methane in the resource base is estimated to be 6,143 trillion cubic feet (Tcf); assumptions on the effect of salinity reduce this to 3,264 Tcf. This figure does not include methane beneath the Texas coast. Very preliminary estimates of the recoverable proportion of dissolved gas in the highly ''geopressured'' zones range from 1 to over 20 percent. Not all of the resource base estimates of 3,264 Tcf occurs in the highly geopressured zone, and the proportions individually allocatable within the resource base to the highly ''geopressured'' zone, to the intermediate-pressure zone, and to the normal or ''hydropressure'' zone cannotbe estimated readily. The environmental aspects of recovery of dissolved gas are also presented. The review is necessarily generalized, since it could not be based on actual experience. The problems include subsidence of land surface and possibly increased seismic activity. Fluid withdrawal might result in subsidence of the land surface, as well as activation of growth faults, with adjustments

  17. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  20. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines......Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  1. METODOLOGIA PARA DESPACHO DE FONTES DE GD A BIOGÁS EM REDES DE DISTRIBUIÇÃO UTILIZANDO LÓGICA FUZZY

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Fernando Guarenti Martins

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho tem a finalidade de definir o período do dia para o despacho de uma fonte alternativa de geração distribuída de energia elétrica (GD), utilizando como combustível o biogás proveniente de reações anaeróbias que ocorrem em resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU) depositados em células do Aterro Sanitário de Recreio no município de Minas do Leão à rede da Companhia Estadual de Distribuição de Energia Elétrica (CEEE-D). Inicialmente foi utilizado o software Biogás para estimar...

  2. Estimación de la salinidad de los suelos utilizando una imagen espectrozonal y el sistema de información geográfica Telemap

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Lau Quan; Eduardo Garea Llano; María Elena Ruiz

    2005-01-01

    A partir de una foto espectrozonal de alta resolución espacial y una base de datos de conductividad eléctrica de más de 800 puntos, se desarrolló una Metodología para la estimación de la salinidad de los suelos utilizando la teledetección, un Sistema de información geográfica, la Geoestadística y Sensores eléctricos. Este resultado constituye uno de los primeros en el ámbito internacional en esta temática que utiliza imagen espectrozonal y el primero en Cuba. El área, sembrada de cañ...

  3. Avaliação da degradação ambiental na região do Araripe pernambucano utilizando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto

    OpenAIRE

    Ighour Silva Sá, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    O presente estudo se desenvolveu nos municípios de Araripina, Bodocó, Ipubi, Ouricuri e Trindade, que formam o pólo gesseiro do Araripe e estão localizados no extremo oeste do Estado de Pernambuco. A hipótese que orientou este trabalho foi a de que a degradação da vegetação nessa região está desencadeando processos de desertificação. O objetivo geral deste trabalho, foi então, analisar a degradação ambiental na região do Araripe pernambucano utilizando técnicas de sensoriamento...

  4. Modelo de auxílio à identificação de trabalho escravo ou degradante utilizando lógica fuzzy

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, Benedito de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção Esta dissertação apresenta um modelo de auxílio de decisão na identificação de trabalho escravo ou degradante utilizando lógica fuzzy. O mesmo aumenta a transparência nas identificações das condições de trabalho escravo ou degradante, capacitando os agentes do Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego e os profissionais que atuam na área para uma melhor compreensã...

  5. Planteamiento de una ruta de impacto reducido de la carretera Pucallpa – Abujao utilizando datos topográficos SRTM y ARCGIS 10.1

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez de la Cruz, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es evidenciar de una ruta de impacto reducido de la carretera Pucallpa - Abujao utilizando datos topográficos del proyecto Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) y ArcGIS 10.1. El punto de inicio de la carretera se encuentra en la ciudad de Pucallpa (553 207 mE y 9 073 955 mN) y el término en el hito 67 en la frontera con Brasil (642 800 m N y 9 119 582 mN). El área de estudio de 10,740 Km2 abarca las cuencas de los ríos Mazaray, Shesha y Abujao. El trabajo ...

  6. Máxima fase estável de lactato é ergômetro-dependente em modelo experimental utilizando ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Manchado,Fúlvia de Barros; Gobatto,Claudio Alexandre; Contarteze,Ricardo Vinícius Ledesma; Papoti,Marcelo; Mello,Maria Alice Rostom de

    2006-01-01

    A máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL) é considerada padrão-ouro para a determinação da intensidade de transição metabólica aeróbia-anaeróbia em exercício contínuo, porém a resposta lactacidêmica nessa intensidade é, em humanos, dependente do ergômetro utilizado na avaliação. Uma ferramenta importante para estudos em fisiologia e áreas correlatas é a aplicação de modelos experimentais utilizando animais. Entretanto, ainda são restritas as pesquisas destinadas a investigar protocolos de avali...

  7. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES FÍSICO MECÁNICAS DE ESPECIES, PINO (Pinus patula) Y TORNILLO (Cedrelinga cateniformis) PROVENIENTES DEL PERÚ UTILIZANDO TECNICAS NO DESTRUCTIVAS

    OpenAIRE

    Yoza, L.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Baradit, E.; Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bío Bío, Concepción (Chile).; Acevedo, M.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo, fue la determinación de las propiedades físico mecánicas de 2 especies de maderas de bosques peruanos el pino patula y el tornillo, utilizando métodos no destructivos de ultrasonido, especies maderables usadas en estructuras de madera. En el cálculo de estructuras a nivel de ingeniería, comúnmente se usa la información de las propiedades básicas como el módulo de elasticidad de flexión, módulo de compresión paralela y módulo de cizallamiento longitudinal. En ...

  8. Desenvolvimento de uma aplicação para reconhecer significado de palavras homônimas utilizando redes neurais artificiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gabriel Côrtes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe desenvolver uma aplicação para auxiliar no entendimento do significado de palavras ambíguas da língua portuguesa, que dependem necessariamente do contexto para serem identificadas. A aplicação foi implementada na linguagem de programação JAVA, utilizando a IDE NetBeans, juntamente com a ferramenta ADReNA, que permitiu modelar e treinar a rede neural artificial backpropagation. Foram desenvolvidas duas versões da aplicação, que se diferenciam pela forma que representam a camada de entrada da rede neural artificial. Testes realizados mostraram que a forma que a rede neural é representada gera influência em seus resultados. Após a realização dos testes, a aplicação se mostrou promissora no reconhecimento de significados de palavras homônimas.

  9. Evaluación de la degradación del plaguicida clorpirifos en muestras de suelo utilizando el hongo Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita María Lopera Mesa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la degradación del insecticida clorpirifos en muestras de suelo durante 21 días, utilizando el hongo Phanerochaete chrysosporium. En los ensayos se obtuvieron porcentajes de degradación, en promedio, para las muestras con hongo, de 96,3, 82,4 y 62,2% cuando se trabajaron, respectivamente, con concentraciones iniciales de clorpirifos de 0,95, 5,3 y 9,4 µg/g. Igualmente, los porcentajes de degradación estuvieron acompañados del aumento en la velocidad de degradación, cuando se partió de la concentración inicial de 0,95 µg/g.

  10. A method to account small areas (soil profiles using GIS/ Método para quantificar pequenas áreas (perfil do solo utilizando SIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Guimarães

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information System – GIS is a technology developed to generate and to analyze spatial information on several thematic areas. This work provides a method to generate and to quantify small extension areas, like morphological homogeneous units (MHU of a soil cultural profile, using the software Arcview8. The MHU were easily identified and their areas quantified by depth level.O Sistema de Informação Geográfica - SIG é uma tecnologia que muito auxilia a confecção e análise de mapas do espaço físico-territorial e ambiental. Este trabalho visa propor um método para quantificar áreas de tamanho pequeno, como as unidades morfologicamente homogêneas (UMH de um perfil cultural do solo, utilizando o programa computacional Arcview8. As UMH´s foram facilmente identificadas e suas áreas quantificadas por profundidade.

  11. Auditoría informática para entrega, servicio y soporte de TI en el MREMH utilizando COBIT 5

    OpenAIRE

    Arcos Candelejo, Franklin Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo realizado contiene la Auditoría Informática para Entrega, Servicios y Soporte de TI en el MREMH utilizando COBIT 5”, durante el período septiembre 29 de 2014 a febrero 02 de 2015. El trabajo de investigación, tubo como base la recolección de información a través de los métodos de: observación, entrevistas, encuestas y lectura crítica, realizada al personal técnico de la Coordinación General de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones de la Cancillería, permitiendo realizar u...

  12. Modelos de distribuição de diâmetros utilizando a função log gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a eficiência da função log gama para a descrição da estrutura diamétrica de povoamentos equiâneos, bem como propor um modelo de distribuição diamétrica utilizando esta função. A função foi ajustada a dados de parcelas permanentes de inventário, mensuradas em seis idades. A aderência da função aos dados foi comprovada pelo teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov. A análise gráfica de resíduos não apresentou tendenciosidade para os modelos construídos. A função log gama pode ser utilizada para a construção de modelos de distribuição diamétrica de eucalipto.

  13. Desarrollo de un controlador de velocidad de un motor de imanes permanentes utilizando técnicas de realización rápida de prototipos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Edimer Hoyos Velasco

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prácticamente todo desarrollo de ingeniería sobre sistemas de control suele ser analizado mediante simulación para prever su desempeño. Sin embargo, no se debe dejar de tener en cuenta que el destino final del algoritmo será su aplicación en un sistema de tiempo real. Utilizando como herramientas de desarrollo una placa con tecnología DSP y el Simulink con RTW, se pueden realizar simulaciones en tiempo real (es decir, la simulación interactúa con la planta física. Para poder apreciar las considerables ventajas que brindan estas herramientas se ha planteado ensayar un lazo de control de velocidad a un motor de corriente continua de imanes permanentes.

  14. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE TRÊS BIOPROCESSOS PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE ENZIMAS PROTEOLÍTICAS UTILIZANDO RESÍDUOS AGROINDUSTRIAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Anne Caroline Defrancesci; Watanabe, Felipe Miguel Farion; Vargas, José Viriato Coelho; Mariano, André Bellin; Rodrigues, Maria Luiza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    As proteases são enzimas capazes de clivar as ligações peptídicas de proteínas e dentro das enzimas são as que mais possuem emprego industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar três diferentes bioprocessos para a produção de proteases. Foram testados uma fermentação submersa (FSm) e dois tipos de fermentação no estado sólido, uma com suporte natural (FES) e outra com suporte sintético (PUF). A FES utilizando o suporte natural bagaço de cana de açúcar apresentou maior produtividade da en...

  15. Elaboração de sorvete sabor chocolate com teor de gordura reduzido utilizando soro de leite em pó

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Andréia Pacheco; Fontana, Carolina Vieira; Padilha, Elaine; Silvestrin, Mariana; Augusto, Marta Maria Marquezan

    2006-01-01

    Visando ao aproveitamento do soro de leite e à redução de calorias, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo a elaboração de sorvete sabor chocolate utilizando formulações em que foi avaliado o efeito da substituição, em diferentes proporções, do leite em pó e do creme de leite por soro de leite em pó e substituto de gordura (Dairy Proâ), respectivamente, na composição físico-química, no rendimento, na taxa de derretimento e na aceitação sensorial. O soro e o substituto de gordura influenciaram ...

  16. Situaciones a-didácticas para la enseñanza de la simetría axial utilizando Cabri como medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín E. Acosta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos la primera actividad de una ingeniería didáctica que utilizó la Teoría de las Situaciones Didácticas para la creación y experimentación de situaciones a-didácticas utilizando Cabri como medio. El análisis a priori y a posteriori de la actividad presentada permite concluir que la interacción con el medio condujo a que los alumnos construyeran conocimientos intuitivos relativos a la simetría axial. Abstract. We present the first activity of a didactic engineering using the Theory of Didactic Situations for the design and experimentation of a-didactic situations with Cabri as ‘milieu’. The activity’s a priori and a posteriori analyses show that the interaction with the ‘milieu’ led students to the construction of intuitive knowledge about reflection.

  17. Contribuição ao desenvolvimento de tecnologia de fabricação de celulas solares utilizando "dopant papers"

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Guass Junior

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de um conjunto de processos de baixo custo para fabricação de células solares. As células solares foram fabricadas utilizando lâminas de silício monocristalino, com orientação cristalografica e resistividade típica de 4.1 à 9.0 ohm.cm, tipo p dopadas com boro. Ajunção n-p foi obtida por difusão usando papéis dopantes. Estes papéis são de dois tipos, os que possuem boro e os com fósforo.A montagem de um conjunto de lâminas de s...

  18. Eletrocatálise utilizando líquidos iônicos e consumo químico de óxidos

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Carreira Batista

    2009-01-01

    A dissertação está dividida em duas partes. A primeira trata da eletroquímica fundamental utilizando líquidos iônicos como eletrólito suporte e molécula de estudo. São abordados os fenômenos de estabilidade anódica e catódica, com ênfase no mecanismo de degradação do líquido. Além disso, é apresentado um estudo sobre a oxidação eletrocatalítica de hidrogênio nesse ambiente. Quanto a esse aspecto são abordados aspectos mecanísticos e físico-químicos da reação. Técnicas eletroquímicas, modelage...

  19. Mapeamento e avaliação da vegetação urbana da cidade de Vitória-ES, utilizando geotecnologias

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Samira Murelli de

    2011-01-01

    Tomando-se o conjunto da vegetação intraurbana como um dos fatores a ser considerado na qualidade ambiental de uma cidade, este trabalho tem por finalidade, analisar qualitativa e quantitativamente a vegetação da cidade de Vitória-ES. Inicialmente foi obtido o mapeamento de 17 classes de vegetação, a partir de técnicas de fotointerpretação e digitalização, na escala de 1:1.500, utilizando o aplicativo computacional ArcGIS 10, o que possibilitou a análise da distribuição das classes pela malha...

  20. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  1. Gas as a growth factor for the emerging economies: Natural gas resources Worldwide. Gas: alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2015-01-01

    All the qualities of gas - available, affordable, efficient, acceptable and reliable - make this energy a cornerstone both for the development of emerging countries and for new economic activities. Another advantage is that gas is available everywhere in a gaseous and/or liquid form, according to the particular infrastructure (gas pipeline, gas tankers). Moreover, gas can be consumed in different sectors - residential, commercial or industrial - and for different uses - electricity generation or clean fuel for transportation. A first part of this paper presents the natural gas resources Worldwide (Cedigaz data) while a second part reviews the development around the world of the use of gas - liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas - as alternative fuels

  2. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  3. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Dahl, M.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1999-01-01

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DA DIVERSIDADE GENÉTICA EM UMA POPULAÇÃO DE Eucalyptus spp. UTILIZANDO MARCADOR MICROSSATÉLITE (SSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Martins Aparecido

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento genético de espécies florestais a variabilidade genética constitui a matéria-prima do programa sobre a qual são realizados os processos de seleção. Esse método visa selecionar os indivíduos de melhores procedências garantindo a obtenção de ganhos genéticos de forma continua. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética existente em uma população de eucalipto da Fibria Celulose S.A utilizando marcadores microssatélites (SSR que sejam informativos para esse tipo de estudo. Foram avaliados 75 indivíduos através de reações de PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction, utilizando-se 9 primers seguidas de eletroforese em gel de agarose. O número de alelos encontrado para cada primer variou de 4 a 7 alelos. A heterozigosidade esperada teve uma média de 0,7 para a população avaliada. A análise de discriminação realizada por este tipo de marcador possibilitou o agrupamento dos indivíduos em quatro grupos distintos. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o uso de marcadores microssatélites (SSR permitiu verificar a existência e quantificar a diversidade genética da população selecionada para este estudo.

  5. Diseño de Herramientas Didácticas Enfocadas al Aprendizaje de Sistemas de Control Utilizando Instrumentación Virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se describe el diseño de tres herramientas didácticas enfocadas al aprendizaje de sistemas de control implementadas en el software de instrumentación virtual LabVIEW. Estas herramientas están dirigidas al análisis de estabilidad en sistemas de control, el diseño de compensadores utilizando la técnica del lugar geométrico de las raíces y el diseño de compensadores utilizando la técnica de respuesta en frecuencia con trazas de Bode. Cada una de estas herramientas didácticas cuenta con una interfaz gráfica amigable con el usuario. La ventaja de estas herramientas didácticas es que incluyen opciones para realizar simulación en las áreas de control que software especializado no tiene. Abstract: This paper describes the design of three didactic tools focused on learning of control systems implemented in LabVIEW virtual instruments software. These tools are dedicated to stability analysis in control systems, compensator design using root locus approach and Bode diagrams in the frequency domain. Each of them has a friendly interface with the user. The advantage of these didactic tools is the several options to simulate some characteristics referent to control in contrast with others teaching tools. Palabras clave: Estabilidad, Simulación de Sistemas, Educación en Control, Laboratorio Virtual, Keywords: Stability, simulation systems, control education, virtual laboratory

  6. Modelo experimental estável de aneurisma sacular em artéria carótida de suínos utilizando veia jugular interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Lourenço da Silva Júnior

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental estável de aneurisma sacular em carótida de suínos utilizando veia jugular interna. MÉTODOS: Em 12 suínos sadios, com peso variando entre 25 e 50kg, cinco machos e sete fêmeas, foi confeccionado aneurisma na artéria carótida comum direita. Após arteriotomia elíptica, foi realizada anastomose terminolateral com coto distal de veia jugular interna. O volume do aneurisma era calculado de maneira que o valor não excedesse em 27 vezes o valor da área da arteriotomia. Após seis dias, era realizada angiografia e análise microscópica do aneurisma para avaliar perviedade e trombose parcial ou total. RESULTADOS: Houve ganho de peso significante dos suínos no intervalo de tempo entre a confecção do aneurisma e a angiografia (p = 0,04. Foi observada perviedade aneurismática em dez suínos (83%. Ocorreram infecções de feridas operatórias em dois animais (16,6%, ambas com início de aparecimento em três dias após a confecção do aneurisma. Análise histológica dos aneurismas mostrou trombos ocluindo parcialmente a luz em nove suínos (75%. Nesses animais, observou-se que, em média, 9% da luz aneurismática estava preenchida por trombos. CONCLUSÃO: Pôde ser desenvolvido um modelo experimental estável de aneurisma sacular em carótida de suínos utilizando veia jugular interna.

  7. Gas-particle interactions in dense gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of heterogeneous flow structures in gas-particle flows seriously affects gas¿solid contacting and transport processes in dense gas-fluidized beds. A computational study, using a discrete particle method based on Molecular Dynamics techniques, has been carried out to explore the

  8. The challenge of implementing green gas into the gas supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain a more mature share in the future energy supply, green gas supply chains face some interesting challenges. The thesis addresses the question how future green gas systems may look like. Green gas supply chains, based on co-digestion of cow manure and maize, have been studied. The

  9. Gas-ion laser with gas pressure maintenance means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    A gas-ion laser is described including means to maintain the ionizable gas in the laser cavity at a rather constant pressure over an extended period of time to significantly increase the useful life of the gas-ion laser. The gas laser includes a gas makeup system having a high pressure source or storage container and a regulating valve. The valve has a permeable solid state orifice member through which the gas flows from the high pressure source to the laser cavity to replenish the gas in the laser cavity and maintain the gas pressure in the cavity rather constant. The permeable orifice member is selected from a solid state material having a permeability that is variable in relation to the magnitude of the energy applied to the orifice member. The gas-ion laser has a valve operating means such as a heater for varying the applied energy such as thermal energy to the member to regulate the gas flow. Additionally, the gas-ion laser has a valve control means that is responsive to the gas pressure in the laser cavity for controlling the valve control means to maintain the pressure at a desired level. (U.S.)

  10. Gas Composition Sensor for Natural Gas and Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Sweelsen, J.; Blokland, H.

    2016-01-01

    The calorific value of energetic gasses is an important parameter in the quality assessment of gas steams, and can be calculated from the chemical composition of the gas. An array of capacitive sensor electrodes was developed, each functionalized with a gas responsive coating to measure the

  11. A miniaturized optical gas sensor for natural gas analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of domestic reserves and the growing use of sustainable resources forces a transition from the locally produced natural gas with a well-known composition toward the ‘new’ gas with a more flexible composition in the Netherlands. For safe combustion and proper billing, the natural gas

  12. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  13. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  14. Detector module for gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radioactive source detector module for use in a gas monitor. It is adapted to contain the source and other detector components to allow sealed coupling of those components with other portions of the gas monitor. It is particularly concerned with the use of radioactive materials used as electron sources in gas monitors. The module is used to detect changes in electron flow caused by partial absorption of the electron capture gas flowing between two electrodes. The assembly includes a gas flow source, a gas receiver and an electronic assembly for receiving a signal from the detector. The radioactive source and electrodes are housed so that they are connected to the gas flow source so as to prevent accidental or undesired disconnection. It is designed so that the detector module may be removed or replaced into the gas monitor assemblies by untrained personnel so as to prevent exposure to the radioactive material. Full details are given. (U.K.)

  15. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  16. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  17. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  18. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  19. The Jarvis gas release incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manocha, J.

    1992-01-01

    On 26 September, 1991, large volumes of natural gas were observed to be leaking from two water wells in the Town of Jarvis. Gas and water were being ejected from a drilled water well, at which a subsequent gas explosion occurred. Measurements of gas concentrations indicated levels far in excess of the lower flammability limit at several locations. Electrical power and natural gas services were cut off, and residents were evacuated. A state of emergency was declared, and gas was found to be flowing from water wells, around building foundations, and through other fractures in the ground. By 27 September the volumes of gas had reduced substantially, and by 30 September all residents had returned to their homes and the state of emergency was cancelled. The emergency response, possible pathways of natural gas into the aquifer, and public relations are discussed. It is felt that the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future is high. 11 figs

  20. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  1. Heavy metal removal from produced water using retorted shale; Remocao de metais pesados em aguas produzidas utilizando xisto retortado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Patricia M.; Melo, Marcos A.F.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Silva Junior, Carlos N.; Assuncao, Ary L.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Anjos, Marcelino J. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2004-07-01

    The Production of oil and gas is usually accompanied by the production of large volume of water that can have significant environmental effects if not properly treated. In this work, the use of retort shale was investigated as adsorbent agent to remove heavy metals in produced water. Batch adsorption studies in synthetic solution were performed for several metal ions. The efficiency removal was controlled by solution pH, adsorbent dosage, and initial ion concentration and agitation times. Two simple kinetic models were used, pseudo-first- and second-order, were tested to investigate the adsorption mechanisms. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The produced water samples were treated by retorted shale under optimum adsorption conditions. Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to analyze the elements present in produced water samples from oil field in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The removal was found to be approximately 20-50% for Co, Ni, Sr and above 80% for Cr, Ba, Hg and Pb. (author)

  2. Subaquatic, pressure vessels and LPG storage spheres internal inspection; Inspecao interna de esfera utilizando mergulho como acesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueira Filho, Rafael; Monteiro, Ayres [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Minimizing shut-down costs is a widespread target in the oil and gas industry. The use of new inspection techniques is one of the ways for that. This work presents a new procedure for internal inspections in pressure vessels by the non destructive testing - NDT, ACFM, using industrial diving techniques. As a pioneer experience, this method was applied in the inspection of the internal parts of the LPG sphere tank 5101 at PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO, in Jequie's Terminal, in the state of Bahia, in december, 2003. This new method allows the reduction of indirect costs related to operational unavailability of the equipment, by the reduction of the shut-down time in approximately 50%, when compared to the demanded shut down time, when using scaffolds for accessing the internal parts. Despite of direct costs are still higher with the new methodology, this paper demonstrates the economical feasibility of this new method, based on the savings obtained with the fastest return of the equipment to operation. (author)

  3. Gas Dispatching and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoettker, R.; Spiecker, U.

    1995-01-01

    Activities in large dispatch centres are usually divided into volume planning and contract management as well as grid control. Volume planning and contract management require high-performance computers for contractual and technical optimisation models, for contract handling models and communication with partner companies. For grid control, the use of computers for SCADA systems and for grid simulation and optimisation has become a fundamental requirement. In 1992, Ruhrgas replaced the hardware by a modern hardware concept featuring a fault-tolerant process computer for SCADA system interface processing. The work-place computers were substituted by sophisticated workstations integrated into a computer network and an X-Windows user interface based on the MOTIF standard was introduced. Effective cooperation between the dispatch centres of European gas companies is of paramount importance. One example of good cooperation is the contractual and physical handling of North Sea gas supplies at Emden. 4 figs

  4. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  5. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Business co-operation with various foreign partners has begun to develop intensively as a result of the restructuring that is now progressing in the Soviet Union. This is particularly the case with the enterprises and organisations dealing with oil and gas production, all of them component parts of the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the USSR. Owing to the enormous territorial expanse of this country, and also to the rather considerable volume of oil produced, the scheme of organisation of this Ministry is complicated and versatile. This Directory lists all the enterprises and organisations that are component parts of the Ministry, their postal addresses, their telephone numbers and the names of their departmental heads. (author)

  6. Multiplex gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Jose R.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the multiplex gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is a possible candidate for chemical analysis of planetary atmospheres, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the chemical modulators developed by present investigators for multiplex GC, namely, the thermal-desorption, thermal-decomposition, and catalytic modulators, as well as to mechanical modulators. The basic technique of multiplex GC using chemical modulators and a mechanical modulator is demonstrated. It is shown that, with the chemical modulators, only one gas stream consisting of the carrier in combination with the components is being analyzed, resulting in a simplified instrument that requires relatively few consumables. The mechanical modulator demonstrated a direct application of multiplex GC for the analysis of gases in atmosphere of Titan at very low pressures.

  7. Micro turbines on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Microturbines are small gas turbine engines that drive a generator with sizes ranging from 30-350 kW. Although similar in function to bigger gas turbines, their simple radial flow turbine and high-speed generator offer better performance, greater reliability, longer service intervals, reduced maintenance lower emission and lower noise. Microturbines can generate power continuously and very economically to reduce electricity costs or they can be operated selectively for peak shaving. These benefits are further enhanced by the economics of using the microturbine's waste heat for hot water needs or other heating applications. That is why on-site microturbine power is widely used for independent production of electricity and heat in industrial and commercial facilities, hotels, hospitals, office buildings, residential buildings etc. (Original)

  8. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Oil and gas in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, C.M.

    1993-12-31

    The oil and gas industry in Bolivia is discussed. Typically, the hydrocarbon production of the Bolivian fields is made up of very light oil and natural gas, both of very good quality with no deleterious contaminants. About 80% of the production comes from gas condensate fields. At present, the proven gas reserves are more than 6 trillion cubic feet that have been available for the last 10 years, notwithstanding the fact that 200 million cubic feet per day are exported.

  10. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  11. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Natural gas vs. heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrips, A.M.; Canney, W.A.

    Spokesmen for gas and electric utilities describe the relative merits of using natural gas and electric heat pumps. Both argue that their product is more economical and operates more efficiently than its competitor. Rising natural gas prices are responsible for making costs more competitive, although rates for both gas and electricity vary by region. The utilities also describe heat pump advantages in terms of installation ease and cost, reliability, maintenance, and thermal comfort. Both provide documentation to support their claims. 2 tables.

  13. Gas suppliers meeting market opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verberg, G.H.B.; Jaidah, N.K.; Eriksen, R.; Alvarez Pelegry, E.

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas, with its environmental advantages, will increase its development in the residential, professional and transportation markets. It will ensure the transition during the progressive implementation of more sustainable energy sources. This paper discusses some possible impacts of the deregulation on the future gas market (investments, risk management, competition, contracts). It is followed by a round table about the expectations of some gas producers (Qatar, Sweden) in front of the development of the European gas market (LNG projects, financing, contracts). (J.S.)

  14. Modelo predictivo de la variación de los niveles de contaminación en función del tráfico urbano utilizando herramientas de Inteligencia Artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Calvo, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Elaboración de un modelo predictivo de los niveles de contaminación, con el fin de identificar aquellas situaciones en las que el tráfico va a provocar que se superen determinados límites de contaminantes. El modelo se creará utilizando herramientas de Inteligencia Artificial.

  15. uv preilluminated gas switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

    1980-06-03

    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

  16. Gas-driven microturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.; McWhorter, P.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Miller, W.M.

    1996-06-27

    This paper describes an invention which relates to microtechnology and the fabrication process for developing microelectrical systems. It describes a means for fabricating a gas-driven microturbine capable of providing autonomous propulsion in which the rapidly moving gases are directed through a micromachined turbine to power devices by direct linkage or turbo-electric generators components in a domain ranging from tenths of micrometers to thousands of micrometers.

  17. Radioactive gas inhalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMon, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    An ''inhalator'', or more particularly an apparatus for permitting a patient to inhale a radioactive gas in order to provide a diagnostic test of the patient's lung area, is described. The disclosed apparatus provides a simple, trouble-free mechanism for achieving this result; and, furthermore, provides an improved testing method. Moreover, the disclosed apparatus has the capability of gradually introducing the test condition in a manner that makes it easy for the patient to become acclimated to it. (U.S.)

  18. Natural gas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  19. uv preilluminated gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10 12 amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters

  20. Integrated Electric Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Millsaps, Knox T.

    2010-01-01

    Patent An integrated electric gas turbine comprises a compressor that includes a plurality of airfoils. An electric motor is arranged to drive the compressor, and a combustor is arranged to receive compressed air from the compressor and further arranged to receive a fuel input. A turbine is arranged to receive the combustion gases from the combustor. A generator is integrated with the turbine and arranged to provide a power output. A controller is connected between the...

  1. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  2. Process gas solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process for withdrawing gaseous UF 6 from a first system and directing same into a second system for converting the gas to liquid UF 6 at an elevated temperature, additionally including the step of withdrawing the resulting liquid UF 6 from the second system, subjecting it to a specified sequence of flash-evaporation, cooling and solidification operations, and storing it as a solid in a plurality of storage vessels. (author)

  3. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas transport in tight porous media Gas kinetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Wesselingh, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    We describe the flow of gas in a porous medium in the kinetic regime, where the viscous flow structure is not formed in separate pores. Special attention is paid to the dense kinetic regime, where the interactions within the gas are as important as the interaction with the porous medium....... The transport law for this regime is derived by means of the gas kinetic theory, in the framework of the model of "heavy gas in light one". The computations of the gas kinetic theory are confirmed by the dimension analysis and a simplified derivation revealing the considerations behind the kinetic derivation...

  5. Super gas saver secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, G.

    2001-02-01

    This book demonstrates how to save money by getting better fuel economy and increase automobile performance through hundreds of fuel saving tips and projects. The book gives practical advise to car drivers on how to reduce travel costs by more than 50 per cent. Conventional ways to save gas include adopting fuel saving habits such as shifting properly, accelerating smoothly, and going easy on the brakes. Some performance booster tips were also presented. These included tips such as turning off the alternator, using moth balls to boost the fuel octane rating, turning the air conditioner off and power boosting the power circuits. A total of 25 tips were provided. An entire section of the book was devoted to tips on making the carburetor more fuel efficient with air bleeds, gasoline preheaters, and fuel pressure regulators. Eagle Research's newly developed electrostatic gas saver was also presented. The final section of the book referred to the potential viability of using homemade fuels such as hydrogen, methane, alcohol and wood gas. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Of vacuum and gas

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A new LHCb programme is delving into uncharted waters for the LHC: exploring how protons interact with noble gases inside the machine pipe. While, at first glance, it may sound risky for the overall quality of the vacuum in the machine, the procedure is safe and potentially very rich in rewards. The results could uncover the high-energy helium-proton cross-section (with all the implications thereof), explore new boundaries of the quark-gluon plasma and much more.   As the beam passes through LHCb, interactions with neon gas allow the experiment to measure the full beam profile. In this diagram, beam 1 (blue) and beam 2 (red) are measured by the surrounding VELO detector. It all begins with luminosity. In 2011, LHCb set out to further improve its notoriously precise measurements of the beam profile, using the so-called Beam-Gas Imaging (BGI) method. BGI does exactly what it says on the tin: a small amount of gas is inserted into the vacuum, increasing the rate of collisions around the interaction ...

  7. Gas centrifuge purge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theurich, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge is presented. A vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of the rotor bowl. The molecular pump is attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to the evacuated chamber. End cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of the rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters the bowl through the end cap closure means. The evacuated chamber, molecular pump, and end cap define an upper zone at the discharge end of the molecular pump, and the evacuated chamber, molecular pump, and rotor bowl define a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump. The method for removing gases from the upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from the rotor bowl is described

  8. The European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagland, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An increasing amount of natural gas is flowing into continental Europe, one of the largest gas markets in the world. There are three main sources of gas: Africa, Russia and Norway. Norway is an important supplier of gas, but may be vulnerable to competition. The demand for gas is increasing on a global basis and the largest increase is expected in Asia, followed by America and Europe. It is expected that Norwegian gas deliveries will be a principle source of natural gas for North Europe in the next years and that they will take an increasing part of the British market as the gas deliveries from the British shelf is going down. The European gas market is likely to become liberalized according to the EU's competition- and gas directives. This will not necessarily be a problem, and Norway may be able to increase the export of gas to Great Britain considerably from the year 2010, perhaps up to 40 billion standard m3 per year. Russia is expected to take an increased share of the European gas market, especially in East- and Central Europe, Germany and North Italy. But large investments in existing fields, new developments and new strategic pipelines are necessary

  9. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  10. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, A

    2006-07-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  11. Gas separation membranes current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Membrane-based gas separation systems are now widely accepted and employed as unit operation in industrial gas, chemical and allied industries. Following their successful commercialization in the late Seventies to recover hydrogen from ammonia purge gas streams, membrane-based systems have gained acceptance in a wide variety of applications

  12. Gas Diffusion in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Grande, Beatriz; Konsman, Jan-Pieter

    2018-02-01

    Gases have been long known to have essential physiological functions in the CNS such as respiration or regulation of vascular tone. Since gases have been classically considered to freely diffuse, research in gas biology has so far focused on mechanisms of gas synthesis and gas reactivity, rather than gas diffusion and transport. However, the discovery of gas pores during the last two decades and the characterization of diverse diffusion patterns through different membranes has raised the possibility that modulation of gas diffusion is also a physiologically relevant parameter. Here we review the means of gas movement into and within the brain through "free" diffusion and gas pores, notably aquaporins, discussing the role that gas diffusion may play in the modulation of gas function. We highlight how diffusion is relevant to neuronal signaling, volume transmission, and cerebrovascular control in the case of NO, one of the most extensively studied gases. We point out how facilitated transport can be especially relevant for gases with low permeability in lipid membranes like NH 3 and discuss the possible implications of NH 3 -permeable channels in physiology and hyperammonemic encephalopathy. We identify novel research questions about how modulation of gas diffusion could intervene in CNS pathologies. This emerging area of research can provide novel and interesting insights in the field of gas biology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Natural gas is more than gas power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Through the Statpipe gas line at Karmoey, Norway supplies 20% of the natural gas on the European market. The pipeline is 'leaking' a little bit of gas to the local communities at Karmoey and Haugesund. These communities have replaced 65% of their oil consumption with natural gas, which is a fine contribution to a better environment. The supplier of the natural gas, Gasnor ASA in this case, claims an energy efficiency of 90% at the end user because the gas burns directly and the loss in the pipeline is minimal. The efficiency of natural gas utilisation is twice that of the planned gas power stations in West-Norway, subtracting the losses in the electrical network. Gasnor ASA competes with oil suppliers and, if necessary, with electric utilities. The county hospital at Haugesund is quoted as an example. The hospital has two large boilers with dual fuel burners. They have been using natural gas since 1998 because it was worth while both economically and environmentally. The use of natural gas in the transport sector would be very important, but the necessary infrastructure is very little developed. For instance, five diesel-powered ferries on the Boknafjord emit as much NOx as the planned gas power plant at Kaarstoe

  14. Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Eric P.

    2006-08-01

    A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.

  15. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. What drives natural gas prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephen P. A.; Yücel, Mine K.

    2007-01-01

    For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past five years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with crude oil prices but with considerable independent movement. Natural gas market analysts generally emphasize weather and inventories as drivers o...

  17. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  18. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  20. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  2. Canadian gas - where's it headed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominy, D.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of gas transportation in Canada was described. The issue of what is needed and what can change in the current North American market for gas transportation was also discussed. The transportation values of natural gas from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) to New York, Chicago and California for 1993 to 1997 were reviewed. Export and domestic capacity additions and WCSB gas completions were also outlined. The question of how much new capacity is needed, where the gas will come from, and where will it go, was also discussed

  3. Low-temperature gas from marine shales: wet gas to dry gas over experimental time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvie Daniel M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine shales exhibit unusual behavior at low temperatures under anoxic gas flow. They generate catalytic gas 300° below thermal cracking temperatures, discontinuously in aperiodic episodes, and lose these properties on exposure to trace amounts of oxygen. Here we report a surprising reversal in hydrocarbon generation. Heavy hydrocarbons are formed before light hydrocarbons resulting in wet gas at the onset of generation grading to dryer gas over time. The effect is moderate under gas flow and substantial in closed reactions. In sequential closed reactions at 100°C, gas from a Cretaceous Mowry shale progresses from predominately heavy hydrocarbons (66% C5, 2% C1 to predominantly light hydrocarbons (56% C1, 8% C5, the opposite of that expected from desorption of preexisting hydrocarbons. Differences in catalyst substrate composition explain these dynamics. Gas flow should carry heavier hydrocarbons to catalytic sites, in contrast to static conditions where catalytic sites are limited to in-place hydrocarbons. In-place hydrocarbons and their products should become lighter with conversion thus generating lighter hydrocarbon over time, consistent with our experimental results. We recognize the similarities between low-temperature gas generation reported here and the natural progression of wet gas to dry gas over geologic time. There is now substantial evidence for natural catalytic activity in source rocks. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium and the results reported here add to that evidence. Natural catalysis provides a plausible and unique explanation for the origin and evolution of gas in sedimentary basins.

  4. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  5. Gas prices and price process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewegen, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  6. Natural gas, the new deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encel, Frederic; Boroumand, Raphael H.; Charlez, Philippe; Goutte, Stephane; Lafargue, Francois; Lombardi, Roland; Porcher, Thomas; Rebiere, Noemie; Schalck, Christophe; Sebban, Anne-Sophie; Sylvestre, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    As natural gas is about to become the first energy source in the world, is abundant and easy to transport, this collective publication addresses issues related to shale gas and to natural gas. The first part addresses shale gas. Four articles propose a global overview, comment the situation in the USA which, in eight years of time, reduced their oil dependency by half and became almost self-sufficient as far as gas is concerned, discuss technical and legal issues related to shale gas exploitation, discuss the perspective of evolution of the world gas markets, and notice that shale gas will not be a game changer in Europe. The second part addresses the natural gas. The articles discuss the possible influence of natural gas exploitation by Israel on the Middle-East geopolitical situation, the influence of the emergence of new producers in Africa (Tanzania and Mozambique), the contribution of gas-fuelled power station to the coverage of market risks, and the issue of European energy safety with a focus on the role of Turkey

  7. Gas market prospects in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, E.

    1992-01-01

    Gas demand in Europe may rise 50 to 70% during the next 20 years. The most weighty reasons for the increase would be a robust increase of gas-fuelled power generation, the gas use for abating environmental pollution and a remarkable replacement of coal and oil by gas. A dilemma will be whether a sufficient volume of gas is available particularly for Eastern Europe. The total indigenous production and the imports from existing sources cannot increase sufficiently. Other reasons for new imports are diversification and security of supplies and a short lifetime of domestic reserves. Potential sources to import incremental gas and their shares could be as follows: Algeria and Libya 15 - 20%, Russia 20 - 35%, overseas imports as LNG (liquefied natural gas) 20 - 35% and Iran by pipeline 20 - 25%. 1 tab

  8. Gas fuels in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Gas fuels are the petroleum substitution fuels that have received the best agreement in most parts of the world. This success is due to the existence of natural gas fields or LPG reserves in several countries and to the possibility of fast development of these resources. Countries with various size and economic policy such as New Zealand, USA, Argentina, Japan or Italy have developed a very significant fleet of gas fuel vehicles. This paper summarizes the consumption of gas fuels, the number of gas fuel equipped vehicles and of gas fuel stations in the principal consuming countries. The size and composition of vehicle fleets varies from one country to the other and depends on the economical and environmental incitements and constraints from the governments. Details are given separately for LPG and natural gas vehicle fuels. (J.S.)

  9. Biodesulphurization Within Natural Gas in Oil and Gas Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur compounds in natural gas can interfere to the quality of natural gas. The decline of combustion gas capacity, metal instrument corrosion in gas piping, and the environmental pollution from gas emission can affect by their presence. Bio-filter is one of the methods  that selected to reduce sulphur content in natural gas. A lab scale study of hydrogen sulphide reduction in natural gas had conducted in oil and gas field using bio-filter method. The bio-filter system (±1 L volume contains an active carbon and thiosulphide medium as a substrate, Thiobacillus thioparus as a single culture of sulphur bacteria, and Thiobacillus thioparus with sludge as a mixed culture of sulphur bacteria. The study of hydrogen sulphide reduction was conducted with continuous flow line process. The gas flow rate approximately 1.5 L/min with a fluctuate presence of Hydrogen sulphide (approximately 40 - 70 mg/L. The bio-filter system contains active carbon, thiosulphide medium, and single culture of T. thioparus appear as a good filter for hydrogen sulphide reduction. During 24 hours, the hydrogen sulphide reduction obtains 93% to 16%. When  culture media added, the hydrogen sulphide reduction will increase almost 60% and then the reduction decrease to 4% after 20 hours. It is concluded that the bio-filter have potential to develop for sulphur reduction in natural gas.

  10. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market

  11. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market.

  12. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  13. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  14. Fission gas measuring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok.

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Fission gas measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Catalytic hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas that contains particulates can be purified from tars and ammonia by using nickel monolith catalysts. Temperatures over 900 deg C are required at 20 bar pressure to avoid deactivation by H{sub 2}S and carbon. Dolomites and limestones are effective tar decomposing catalysts only when calcined. Tar decomposition in gasification conditions can take place by steam or dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming reactions. These reactions follow apparent first order kinetics with respect to hydrocarbons in gasification conditions. (author) (16 refs.)

  17. Gas generation in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.; McGahan, D.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1987-09-01

    The nature and quantities of gases likely to be produced by various processes in repositories for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes are examined in this preliminary study. Many simplifying assumptions are made where published or experimental data is unavailable. The corrosion of the canisters and metallic components in wastes is likely to be the major gas production process in both types of repository. A significant contribution from microbiological activity is expected to occur in low level repositories, predominantly where no cement grouting of the cans has been carried out. A number of areas for further research, required before a more comprehensive study could be carried out, have been identified. (author)

  18. Gas purification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broothaerts, J.; Claes, J.; Collard, G.; Goossens, W.; Harnie, R.; Heylen, P.; Vaesen, J.; Beukelaer, R. de; Dubois, G.; Glibert, R.; Mestrez, J.; Zahlen, A.

    1975-06-01

    Conceptual and experimental studies on LMFBR reprocessing and reactor off-gas purification systems are summarized. Iodine sorption on zeolites, low-temperature adsorption of noble gases on charcoal and catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, simulating tritium, are being studied in laboratory set-ups. A pilot loop with 25 m 3 h -1 throughput has been constructed. Results are quoted from the first phase of the iodine removal programme by scrubbing systems. Further extension of the test loop, comprising off-gases conditioning to removal of krypton in a cryodistillation unit, has been prepared. Delay-bed studies on 133 Xe extraction from LWR off-gases are reported. (author)

  19. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. Cheung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation.

  20. Estimativa da área da folha da batateira utilizando medidas lineares Evaluation of the potato plant leaf area using linear measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CC Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi determinar o modelo mais apropriado para estimar a área da folha da batateira, utilizando-se medidas de comprimento e largura da folha. Foram coletadas 300 folhas de 300 plantas de batata, cultivar Monalisa, de forma aleatória, aos 21 e 56 dias após a emergência (DAE. Em laboratório, foram medidos o comprimento (C, a largura (L e a área de cada folha (AF. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão com o valor da AF sendo considerado a variável dependente e os valores de comprimento e largura de folha as variáveis independentes. Foram testados três modelos estatísticos: linear, exponencial e logarítmico. A AF da batateira foi mais precisamente estimada (R² = 0,88, usando as medidas, L e C (AF = 0,2798**LC + 71,267. Para maior rapidez e praticidade, a AF da batateira, foi também apropriadamente estimada medindo-se apenas L ou C da folha e utilizando-se as equações AF = 0,0479**L + 10,777 (R² = 0,83 ou AF = 0,0659**C + 12,979 (R² = 0,82. A área foliar estimada 21 DAE, utilizando o modelo linear foi de 234,41 cm², sendo que o valor real medido, foi de 185,52 cm². Aos 56 DAE, a área foliar estimada pelo mesmo modelo foi de 175,60 cm², o valor real medido, foi de 176,01 cm². Com um dos modelos propostos, a área da folha pode ser estimada em tempo real, de forma rápida e sem a necessidade de coletar a folha.The objective of this experiment was to determine the most appropriate model to estimate potato leaf area through the leaf length and width. 300 leaves of 300 potato plants, cv. Monalisa were collected in an aleatory way, 21 and 56 days after the plant emergence (DAE. In laboratory, the length (C, width (L and area of each leaf (AF were measured. The data were submitted to the regression analysis with the AF value as a dependent variable and the leaf length and width values as the independent variables. Three statistical models were tested (linear, exponential and logarithmic. Potato

  1. CO Emissions from Gas Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, T. K.; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2004-01-01

    the emissions exceed the regulated limit significantly. The high CO emissions are mainly due to the high content of CO in the fuel and can ¿ in origin ¿ be compared with the emission of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) from natural gas engines, thus CO emissions from producer gas engines are a measure of fuel......High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. CO emissions from engines operating on biomass producer gases are high, especially at very lean conditions where...... passing unburned through the combustion. Measurements of the slip of the producer gas fuel components CO and CH4 showed that these are of similar order. When the environmental effect of the emissions is discussed, unburned hydrocarbons in the form of methane is a strong greenhouse gas (21 times higher...

  2. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  3. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkin, L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m 3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m 3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  5. Gas target neutron generator studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoorgoon, V.

    1978-01-01

    The need for an intense neutron source for the study of radiation damage on materials has resulted in the proposal of various solid, liquid, and gas targets. Among the gas targets proposed have been the transonic gas target, two types of hypersonic gas target, and the subsonic gas target (SGT). It has been suggested that heat deposition in a subsonic channel might create a gas density step which would constitute an attractive gas target type. The first part of the present study examines this aspect of the SGT and shows that gas density gradients are indeed formed by heat deposition in subsonic flow. The variation of beam voltage, gas density, gas pressure, and gas temperature within the channel have been calculated as functions of the system parameters: beam voltage, beam current, channel diameter, stagnation tank temperature and pressure. The analysis is applicable to any beam particle and target gas. For the case of T + on D 2 , which is relevant to the fusion application, the 14 MeV neutron profiles are presented as a function of system parameters. It is found that the SGT is compatible with concentrated intense source operation. The possibility of instability was investigated in detail using a non-linear analysis which made it possible to follow the complete time development of the SGT. It was found that the SGT is stable against all small perturbations and certain types of large perturbations. It appears that the SGT is the most advantageous type of gas target, operating at a lower mass flow and less severe stagnation tank conditions than the other types. The second part of the thesis examines a problem associated with the straight hypersonic target, the deuterium spill into the tritium port. The regime of practical operation for this target is established. (auth)

  6. The Pricing of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2004-11-01

    The report focuses on the pricing of natural gas. The motivation has been the wish of the Norwegian authorities to increase the use of natural gas and that this should follow market conditions. The pricing of gas occurs at present in various ways in the different markets. The report identifies to main factors behind the pricing. 1) The type of market i.e. how far the liberalization of the gas markets has gone in the various countries. 2) The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies. The gas markets are undergoing as the energy markets in general, a liberalization process where the traditional monopoly based market structures are replaced by markets based on competition. There are great differences in the liberalization development of the various countries, which is reflected in the various pricing principles applied for the trade of gas in the countries. The analysis shows that the net-back-pricing is predominant in some countries i.e. that the price is in various ways indexed towards and follow the development of the price of alternative energy carriers so that the gas may be able to compete. The development towards trade places for gas where the pricing is based on offer and demand is already underway. As the liberalization of the European gas markets progresses it is expected that the gas price will be determined increasingly at spot markets instead of through bilateral agreements between monopolistic corporations. The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies and to what extent this may influence the gas prices in the future, are also studied. There seem to be effects that may pull in both directions but it is evident that these political variables will influence the gas pricing in the international market to a large extent and thereby also the future internal natural gas market

  7. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years

  8. Screening de variáveis para a produção de biomassa e ácido lático utilizando planejamento Plackett-Burman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandriane Pizato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de ácido lático por fermentação tem aumentado nos últimos anos. As bactérias láticas são micro-organismos que requerem nutrientes complexos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um screening para avaliar as variáveis mais significativas no meio de cultivo para produção de biomassa e ácido lático utilizando planejamento Plackett-Burman. Dez (10 bactérias ácido láticas foram utilizadas. Primeiramente foi avaliada a produção de biomassa em caldo MRS (Mann, Rogosa e Sharpe. Para verificar a produção de biomassa, fator de conversão e μmax, alíquotas foram retiradas de 4 em 4 h. Um planejamento Plackett-Burman com doze (12 ensaios e com três (3 repetições no ponto central foi avaliado para verificar a influência ou a não influência de sete (7 variáveis estudadas. Os micro-organismos Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Weissella viridescens, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum e Bifidobacterium longum produziram maior biomassa em relação aos outros micro-organismos estudados. Então esses micro-organismos foram utilizados para fazer o planejamento Plackett-Burman. Ao serem avaliados os efeitos os únicos micro-organismos que obtiveram efeitos significativos, foram os Lactobacillus rhamnosus e os Lactobacillus acidophilus. As variáveis significativas neste estudo foram somente temperatura e concentração de nitrogênio. Com isso, pode-se concluir que o screening das variáveis utilizando planejamento Plackett-Burman provou ser útil na seleção de variáveis e que as variáveis temperatura e concentração de nitrogênio mostraram-se mais significativas quando se deseja estudar produção de biomassa e ácido lático em bactérias ácido láticas.

  9. PROPOSTA DE MODELO PARA IMPLANTAÇÃO DE PROCESSO DE PROJETO UTILIZANDO O CONCEITO BIM EM ESCRITÓRIOS DE ARQUITETURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Ariane Lopes Garbini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do modelo de processo de projeto utilizando BIM (Building Information Modeling em escritórios de arquitetura. O conceito de BIM surgiu há mais de trinta anos, no entanto vem sendo divulgado com maior abrangência no mercado da construção civil apenas nos últimos dez anos. As vantagens de sua adoção são visíveis nos projetos, considerando o aumento na rapidez do desenvolvimento e na qualidade, dentre outros benefícios. O objetivo desta pesquisa está em propor um modelo de processo de projeto, utilizando o conceito BIM voltado para escritórios de arquitetura, de tal forma que estes possam obter um grau maior de eficiência na sua utilização. Fundamenta-se metodologicamente em estudos de casos múltiplos, interpretados qualitativamente e realizados em escritórios nas cidades de Cuiabá, São Paulo e Goiânia, perfazendo quatro empresas. Na fase de preparação foi elaborado um protocolo de pesquisa com questões para a coleta de dados nos escritórios. A condução dos estudos foi de ordem exploratória, por meio de documentos, entrevistas e observação direta. Nas entrevistas foram obtidos dados de caracterização da empresa e dados sobre o desenvolvimento dos projetos: planejamento para implantação da BIM; tecnologia da informação; processo de projeto e procedimentos de trabalho. Após a validação, foi realizada uma análise comparativa destas informações, onde ficaram claras as mudanças ocorridas nos processos de projeto, nos procedimentos de trabalho e na capacitação da equipe técnica dos escritórios. Dentre os produtos desta pesquisa, destaca-se a proposta de um modelo de processo de projeto que é o objeto do presente artigo. Este modelo se compõe de diretrizes de trabalho e de instrumentos para o desenvolvimento dos projetos nos escritórios de arquitetura que vem, paulatinamente, realizando a migração para os sistemas BIM.

  10. Flammable gas safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic constituents in Hanford waste tanks, with particular emphasis on those tanks that have been assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY, obtained during the window E core sampling, have been analyzed for organic constituents. Four of the samples were from the upper region, or convective layer, of the tank and two were from the lower, nonconvective layer. The samples were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitroso-iminodiacetic acid (NIDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), citric acid (CA), succinic acid (SA), and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A). The chelator of highest concentration was EDTA in all six samples analyzed. Liquid chromatography (LC) was used to quantitate low molecular weight acids (LMWA) including oxalic, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids, which are present in the waste as acid salts. From 23 to 61% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the samples analyzed was accounted for by these acids. Oxalate constituted approximately 40% of the TOC in the nonconvective layer samples. Oxalate was found to be approximately 3 to 4 times higher in concentration in the nonconvective layer than in the convective layer. During FY 1993, LC methods for analyzing LWMA, and two chelators N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid and EDTA, were transferred to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and the 222-S laboratory

  11. Ukrainian gas transit game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegorov, Yuri; Wirl, Franz [Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the origins and reasons for the termination of the Russian natural gas flow from Russia to Europe through Ukraine in January 2009. It discusses the strategic interaction of the three players (Russia, Ukraine and the European Union) based on the dynamics of losses from confrontation. The objective is to interpret the situation in a stylized way and to derive outcomes using calibrated parameters for costs and benefits of the players. We show that the stakes are high for both Russia and Ukraine in choosing to follow their preferred strategies, as both countries would sustain moderate losses during the initial period of conflict. Meanwhile, Europe's lack of reserves makes it less prepared for the energy deficit than Ukraine and Russia, causing wider and earlier suffering for European countries dependent on Russian gas. Therefore, the European Union has a strong incentive to intervene in the conflict. Its actions during the January confrontation between Ukraine and Russia included extortion and bribery, all of which affected the outcome of the conflict. (orig.)

  12. [Van Helmont and gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Johan Baptista van Helmont (1579-1644) was born in Brussels, around the time the Southern Netherlands ceased their resistance against the Spanish rule. He studied a variety of disciplines in Louvain and made a 'grand tour' in Europe, but remained dissatisfied with traditional knowledge, which he regarded as empty phrases and sophistry. His spouse being wealthy, he devoted himself to studying nature anew, unencumbered by prejudice, as Paracelsus (1493-1541) had done before him. Yet in his attempts to explain living and inanimate matter he could not avoid making basic assumptions. Among these was his view that there were only two elements: water and air. Water might carry elementary seeds from which a variety of substances could develop. When a substance was consumed by fire, an ethereal essence would remain, which he called 'Gas' (a term perhaps derived from Paracelsian 'chaos', perhaps from 'Geist'). Today 'gas' is defined as the volatile state of a given substance, but in Van Helmont's view it was mainly a metaphysical characteristic. Most of Van Helmont's work was published only after his death, through a verdict of the Spanish Inquisition.

  13. Perturbative anyon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasnieres de Veigy, A.; Ouvry, S.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1992-06-01

    The problem of the statistical mechanics of an anyon gas is addressed. A perturbative analysis in the anyonic coupling constant α is reviewed, and the thermodynamical potential is computed at first and second order. An adequate second quantized formalism (field theory at finite temperature) is proposed. At first order in perturbation theory, the results are strikingly simple: only the second virial coefficient close to bosonic statistics is corrected. At second order, however, the complexity of the anyon model appears. One can compute exactly the perturbative correction to each cluster coefficient. However, and contrary to first order, a closed expression for the equation of state seems out of reach. As an illustration, the perturbative expressions of a 3 , a 4 , a 5 and a 6 are given at second order. Finally, using the same formalism, the equation of state of an anyon gas in a constant magnetic field is analyzed at first order in perturbation theory. (K.A.) 16 refs.; 3 figs.; 7 tabs

  14. Inefficient charging for delivered gas by local gas distributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Bikić

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this region, especially in Serbia, common belief is that local distributors of gas used by households don’t charge for gas properly. It is suspected that there are two sources for improper ways of gas charging. Local distributors charge for delivered gas only, according to flow rat but not according to gas quality. It is usual that local distributors deliver gas of different quality than one signed in contract. In this work will be considered only one of aspects inefficient charging for delivered gas by local gas distributors, which is connected to variable atmospheric pressure. There is doubt, that local distributors make mistakes during accounting for delivered gas to costumers in regard atmospheric pressure. At the beginning of every investigation, problem has to be located and recognized. Authors are going to collect as much as possible available data, to elaborate and analyze data by scientific methods and to represent conclusions. So, the aim of this work is to diagnose current state and to approve or disapprove above mentioned suspicions. In our region this theme is very interesting, both because of energy efficiency and air pollution control. In this way both consumer and distributor will know, how mush energy they have really spent.

  15. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  16. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiaguo [Champaign, IL; Lu, Yonggi [Urbana, IL; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  17. Multi-channel gas-delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T.; Beese, Steven C.

    2016-09-13

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a gas-delivery system for delivering reaction gas to a reactor chamber. The gas-delivery system includes a main gas-inlet port for receiving reaction gases and a gas-delivery plate that includes a plurality of gas channels. A gas channel includes a plurality of gas holes for allowing the reaction gases to enter the reactor chamber from the gas channel. The gas-delivery system further includes a plurality of sub-gas lines coupling together the main gas-inlet port and the gas-delivery plate, and a respective sub-gas line is configured to deliver a portion of the received reaction gases to a corresponding gas channel.

  18. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  19. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  20. Europe's future is natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Western Europe, with its substantial intraregional gas exports and imports, and its imports from outside the region, is a hub of international gas trading. Steel pipelines with diameters to 56 in. have proven to be a technically appropriate, cost-efficient system for the large-scale transportation of natural gas. In 1990, 74% of the trade in international markets was moved through pipelines. Worldwide, more than 800,000 miles of high-pressure gas pipelines are in operation. Laid end to end, these lines would stretch 30 times around the equator. The future progress for pipeline construction in Europe depends on the development of gas demand and the avenues open to the European gas industry to meet this demand

  1. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  2. Chlorine Gas Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carl W.; Martin, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled β-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas

  3. Essentials of natural gas microturbines

    CERN Document Server

    Boicea, Valentin A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor

  4. Growth in European gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.

    1993-01-01

    The last three decades witnessed mainly the development of gas pipeline systems as a result of major onshore and offshore gas strikes in the fifties and sixties as well as the increase in gas sales on market segments which has been previously cornered by oil and coal products. Power generation currently is an additional potential market for which the availability of adequate resources plays a major role

  5. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  6. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  8. British gas barrow onshore terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, G.W.; Woodward, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Morecambe Bay Gas Field that was discovered in 1974 by Gas Council Exploration, a wholly owned subsidiary of British Gas plc. The Project to develop the Field commenced in January, 1980 against the background of escalating world oil prices. Production began on January 8, 1985, in time to help meet the peak winter demands. A maximum daily production rate of 1,587 million scfd was achieved on February 7, 1991. The PURASPEC H 2 S removal process was commissioned in May of 1989 to control export gas quality

  9. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  10. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudinger, G

    1980-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  11. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels

  12. Improved Trace Gas Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes development of gas filter correlation (GFC) spectroscopy using non-periodic gratings for spaceborne and airborne deployment. Our proposed...

  13. Flammable gas project topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  14. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  15. Ternary gas plasma welding torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor); Mcgee, William F. (Inventor); Waldron, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A plasma arc welding torch is discussed. A first plasma gas is directed through the body of the welding torch and out of the body across the tip of a welding electrode disposed at the forward end of the body. A second plasma gas is disposed for flow through a longitudinal bore in the electrode. The second plasma gas enters one end of the electrode and exits the electrode at the tip thereof for co-acting with the electric welding arc to produce the desired weld. A shield gas is directed through the torch body and circulates around the head of the torch adjacent to the electrode tip.

  16. Central European gas market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanous, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP

  17. Working paper Green Gas. Overview of policy issues on Green Gas; Werkdocument Groen Gas. Overzicht Beleidsvraagstukken Groen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, M.

    2012-07-15

    Early 2010, the interdepartmental Accelerator Team Green Gas was established which deals with policy issues in the field of Green Gas. This working document reflects the current state of affairs. Via the website www.groengas.nl new versions will be made available on a regular basis [Dutch] Begin 2010 is het interdepartementale Versnellerteam Groen Gas opgericht dat zich bezighoudt met vraagstukken op het gebied van Groen Gas die op het terrein van de rijksoverheid liggen. Dit werkdocument geeft de huidige stand van zaken weer. Via www.groengas.nl komen geregeld nieuwe versies beschikbaar.

  18. The economics of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, D.; Mashayekhi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Natural gas resembles oil in fulfilling a wide variety of uses as both a source of energy and a feedstock, but the proportion of world production that is traded internationally is very much lower, and insufficient for a world price of gas to be established. Written specifically for economists interested in energy, development and industrial economics; oil and gas industry personnel; officials of developing countries; and intergovernmental organizations concerned with development. This book addresses the issues of how the economic price of gas is determined within individual countries with different characteristics and which factors should be taken into account by governments in the formulation of pricing policies that are appropriate for gas. These are illustrated with estimates of the costs of exploration and production of gas, and of the benefits to be derived from its use in various economic sectors for a number of Third World countries. The book also presents a detailed case study of the development of gas pricing in Bangladesh, and an analytical framework for the development of a formal gas planning model that could be applied to the cases of actual countries contemplating the development of gas use in the future

  19. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  20. AÇÃO DA TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA EM Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 4352 UTILIZANDO MODELO DE INFECÇÃO Galleria mellonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Teles de Menezes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae é um dos patógenos que possui grande resistência a vários antimicrobianos. A Terapia Fotodinâmica Antimicrobiana (PDT vem sendo estudada como novo recurso no combate à resistência bacteriana. Objetivo: Avaliar a ação antimicrobiana da PDT em K. pneumoniae utilizando como modelo de infecção in vivo Galleria mellonella. Métodos: Foram inoculados 10µL da suspensão padronizada de K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352 na última proleg esquerda de cada larva selecionada de G. mellonella. Decorridos 30 minutos, as larvas foram submetidas a PDT, com o uso do fotossensibilizador Azul de metileno e Laser de Arseneto de Gálio Alumínio. Passadas 24h, por sete dias o número de lagartas mortas foi anotado para a realização da curva de sobrevivência. Resultados: A PDT contribuiu para melhora da sobrevida das larvas, porém sem apresentar diferença estatística significante. Conclusão: A PDT apresentou atividade antimicrobiana contra a cepa de K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352.