WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas treatment technologies

  1. Development of exhaust gas treatment technologies for environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Stefanescu, I.; Stanciu, V.; Niculescu, V.; Sandru, C.; Armeanu, A.; Bucura, F.; Sisu, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the immediate term over the next 10 - 20 years at least, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO 2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO 2 and remove other pollutants such as SO x and NO x which are released in the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this types of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies will need to be developed in order to allow their large-scale use. (authors)

  2. New progress in wastewater treatment technology for standard-reaching discharge in sour gas fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas field water is generally characterized by complex contaminant components and high salinity. Its proper treatment has always been the great concern in the field of environmental protection of oil & gas fields. In this paper, the wastewater from a gas field in the Sichuan Basin with high salinity and more contaminants (e.g. sulfides was treated as a case study for the standard-reaching discharge. Lab experiments were carried out to analyze the adaptability and effectiveness of coagulation–desulfurization composite treatment technology, chemical oxidation based ammonia nitrogen removal technology and cryogenic multi-efficacy distillation technology in the treatment of wastewater in this field. The results show that the removal rate of sulfides and oils is over 90% if polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS is taken as the coagulant combined with TS-1 desulfurization agent. Besides, the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen is over 96% if CA-1 is taken as the oxidant. Finally, after the gas field water is treated by means of cryogenic three-efficacy distillation technology, chloride concentration of distilled water is below 150 mg/L and CODcr concentration is less than 60 mg/L. It is concluded that after the whole process treatment, the main contaminant indicators of wastewater in this case study can satisfy the grade one standard specified in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978–1996 and the chloride concentration can meet the requirement of the Standards for Irrigation Water Quality (GB 5084–2005. To sum up, the above mentioned composite technologies are efficient to the wastewater treatment in sour gas fields. Keywords: Sulfide-bearing gas field water, Coagulation, Desulfurization, Chemical oxidation, Standard discharge, Ammonia nitrogen, Chloride, Cryogenic multi-efficacy distillation, Sichuan Basin

  3. Thermal treatment and non-thermal technologies for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A.; Lawless, M.

    1996-01-01

    More than 1,500 manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced town gas from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund clean-ups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by regulatory pressure, property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via groundwater migration. Due to utility de-regulation, site clean-ups may also be triggered by sale of a utility or of a specific utility site to other utilities. Utilities have used two approaches in dealing with their MGP sites. The first is do nothing and hope for the best. History suggests that, sooner or later, these sites become a bigger problem via a release, citizen lawsuit or regulatory/public service commission intervention. The second, far better approach is to define the problem now and make plans /for waste treatment or immobilization. This paper describes recent experience with a high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste and reviews non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  4. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Minh Giang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and composting from various management scenarios. In oder to use Tier 2 model of IPCC 2006 for GHG estimation from landfills, an analysis on current household solid waste management system of the city was obtained by using material flow analysis approach. A case study in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam was carried out in this research. As a result, there was a reduced of over 70% of the amount of CH4 emissions and  up to 53% of total GHG saving (CO2-eq from avoiding organic waste to landfill. In addition, applying an energy recovery from LFG system to available landfills would lead to aproximately 75% of GHG saved compare to current emission of waste sector.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16Citation: Giang, H.M.,Luong, N.D., and Huong, L.T.M.2013. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies. . Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16

  5. Test results from the GA Technologies engineering-scale off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.D.; Olguin, L.J.; Wilbourn, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Test results are available from the GA Technologies (GA) off-gas treatment facilities using gas streams from both the graphite fuel element burner system and from the spent fuel dissolver. The off-gas system is part of a pilot plant for development of processes for treating spent fuel from high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). One method for reducing the volume of HTGR fuel prior to reprocessing or spent fuel storage is to crush and burn the graphite fuel elements. The burner off-gas (BOG) contains radioactive components, principally H-3, C-14, Kr-85, I-129, and Rn-220, as well as chemical forms such as CO 2 , CO, O 2 , and SO 2 . The BOG system employs components designed to remove these constituents. Test results are reported for the iodine and SO 2 adsorbers and the CO/HT oxidizer. Integrated testing of major BOG system components confirmed the performance of units evaluated in individual tests. Design decontamination and conversion factors were maintained for up to 72 h. In a reprocessing flowsheet, the solid product from the burners is dissolved in nitric or Thorex acid. The dissolver off-gas (DOG) contains radioactive components H-3, Kr-85, I-129, Rn-220 plus chemical forms such as nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/). In the pilot-scale system iodine is removed from the DOG by adsorption. Tests of iodine removal have been conducted using either silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) or AgNO 3 -impregnated silica gel (AC-6120). Although each sorbent performed well in the presence of NO/sub x/, the silica gel adsorbent proved more efficient in silver utilization and, thus, more cost effective

  6. Electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas for preventing acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the damage due to acid rain such as withering of trees and extinction of fishes and shells has occurred worldwide, and it has become a serious problem. The sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas are oxidized by the action of sunbeam to become sulfuric acid and nitric acid mists, which fall in the form of rain. Acid rain is closely related to the use of the coal containing high sulfur, and it hinders the use of coal which is rich energy source. In order to simplify the processing system for boiler exhaust gas and to reduce waste water and wastes, Ebara Corp. developed the dry simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating technology utilizing electron beam in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The flow chart of the system applied to the exhaust gas treatment in a coal-fired thermal power station is shown. The mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, and the features of this system are described. The demonstration plant was constructed in a coal-fired thermal power station in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was completed in July, 1987. The test results are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. An assessment of off-gas treatment technologies for application to thermal treatment of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Gillins, R.L.; Harris, T.L.; Wollerman, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe available air pollution control technologies for pollutants generated by thermal treatment of DOE wastes. A basic process for selecting air pollution control devices is summarized. Types of air pollutants generated by thermal treatment units are described, as well as the factors that influence the types and quantities of pollutants generated. This report also reviews applicable regulatory emission requirements. A listing of available and emerging air pollution control technologies and a brief introduction to the basic engineering principles involved in collecting each of the pollutants are presented. Section 7 of this report contains two types of evaluations for air pollution control devices. First, comparative evaluations of individual technologies are presented, based upon criteria generally relevant to DOE facilities. Using this evaluation system, the spray dryer absorber received the highest rating for acid-gas removal; high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters received the highest rating for particulate removal; activated carbon adsorption received the highest rating for the removal of both toxic metals and residual hydrocarbons; and selective catalytic reduction received the highest rating for nitrogen oxide abatement. Also evaluated in Sect. 7 is the expected performance of different types of pollution control systems on two hypothetical waste streams. The waste streams were defined based upon typical DOE wastes and thermal treatment technologies. Section 8 presents conclusions for this report. Two appendixes are included with this report. The first appendix contains a brief description of all the technologies evaluated and the second lists of some of the vendors for each of the technologies that was evaluated

  9. A review on electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) as a multicomponent air pollution control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Fageeha, O.I.; Kunnummal, N.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Pawelec, A.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Warych, J.

    2010-01-01

    Implemented on an industrial scale in two thermal power plants in China and at the Electropower Station (EPS) Pomorzany in Poland. The plants in China have been designed mainly for desulfurization while the plant in Poland for a simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x from flue gases. The successful operation of these plants has demonstrated the advantages of using this technology for removing SO 2 and NO x from flue gas under varying conditions. At present, the plant in Poland is the only operational installation at an international level. Recent tests performed at an EBFGT industrial pilot plant in Bulgaria have demonstrated feasibility of application of this technology for treatment of high sulfur and high humidity lignite fired boilers. Further laboratory tests have been performed for model flue gases similar to those emitted from a copper smelter and flue gases originated from different types of high sulfur heavy fuel oils. In all cases, dry-scrubbing process with ammonia addition has been tested. The removal efficiency of pollutants is as high as 95% for SO 2 and 70-80% for NO x . The by-product of this process is a high quality fertilizer component. Additional laboratory studies have shown that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during combustion of fossil fuels, can be degraded as well. Therefore, EBFGT can be considered as a multicomponent air pollution control technology which can be applied to flue gases treatment from coal, lignite and heavy fuel oil-fired boilers. Other thermal processes like metallurgy and municipal waste incinerators are potential candidates for EBFGT technology application. (authors)

  10. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  11. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  12. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  13. Study on fracturing flowback fluid treatment technology for shale gas in Yangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengwei; Du, Jiajia; Kang, Dingyu; Chen, Xinjian; Qu, Chengtun; Yu, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Shale gas fracturing flowback fluid has the characteristics of high viscosity, large displacement, complex components and difficult to deal with. Therefore, it is of great significance for environmental protection to treat and reuse it. In this paper, Yangzhou shale gas is taken as an object to study the treatment of shale gas fracturing flowback fluid. The results shown that the viscosity of the fracturing flowback fluid before treatment was 16.75mPa·s, and when the pH was adjusted to 3.5, with Cerium(III) sulfate and ferrous sulfate as catalyst and the dosage were 60mg/L and 120 mg/L respectively, and hydrogen peroxide dosage was 0.5%, the viscosity of fracturing folwback fluid was reduced from 16.75mPa·s to 1.97mPa·s After the oxidation treatment, adjusting pH to 7.5, and treating it with inorganic flocculant and organic flocculant, the water quality met the reinjection requirement of the average air permeability of less than or equal to 0.01 μm2.

  14. Greenhouse gas production : a comparison between aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, F.Y.; Stenstrom, M.K. [Univ. of California at Los Angeles, Los Angles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Human activities in the last 200 years have increased the atmospheric content of greenhouse gases. Wastewater treatment contributes carbon dioxide and methane. Sewage treatment contributes approximately 5 per cent of global methane emissions. In this paper, the authors attempt to estimate greenhouse gas production from domestic wastewater treatment, both aerobic and anaerobic. In anaerobic processes, complex wastes are stabilized in three basic steps: hydrolysis, acid fermentation, and methanogenesis. Anaerobic processes studied include the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. For low strength wastewater anaerobic processes will produce more greenhouse gases, mainly methane. At higher strengths the aerobic method is more polluting, with the crossover point depending on the relative efficiency of the aerobic system. If the evolved methane can be recovered, the anaerobic system would have less emissions for all strengths. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  16. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  17. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  18. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  19. Development of a 'wet' variant of electron beam gas treatment technology adapted to economic and technological conditions of developing countries to remove NOx, SO2 and particulates from flue gas and produce fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainchtein, O.L.; Piotrovskiy, V.V.; Savenkov, A.S.; Smirnov, I.K.; Salimov, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Institute Energostal with its co-authors has carried out real gas tests of the EB flue gas treatment technology at a 1000 m 3 /h experimental installation at Lipetsk Metallurgical Plant (Lipetsk, Russia), including agricultural tests to utilize the by-product. On the basis of the results obtained, a ''wet'' variant of the EB technology has been developed. A conceptual, basic and working design was engineered for a 100,000 m 3 /h EB demonstration unit at Slavyanskaya Power Plant (Donbass, Ukraine). In a ''wet'' variant of the technology, the following problems are believed to be harmoniously solved: reduction of power consumption for irradiation due to heterogenous reactions based on the so-called droplet mechanism, efficiency and reliability of collecting ammonia salts by wet dust catchers, wet granulation of the by-product using traditional equipment. A ''wet'' variant of the EB technology has a low capital cost and requires less floor area. Therefore, despite all its disadvantages typical for any wet method of gas purification, the ''wet'' EB technology can find its application in developing countries with low levels of economy. In many countries of this type, in particular, in the countries of the former Soviet Union, wet methods of gas treatment and fertilizer granulation are still widely used. As a matter of fact, it is a conventionally ''wet'' method (hence the inverted commas), since no waste water is discharged into the environment

  20. Investigations on electron beam flue gas treatment held in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.

    1992-01-01

    Two different research installations have been built. The first one, laboratory unit has a flow capacity of approx. 400 Nm 3 /h of flue gas from two gas fired boilers. The composition of gas can be adjusted. An irradiator, accelerator ILU-6, is used with electron beam energy in the range 600-1000 keV. The unit is mostly used for aerosol formation and filtration research. This laboratory installation is being adapted for electron beam/microwave combined gas molecule excitation. The second unit, a pilot with a plant of flow rate up to 20 000 Nm 3 /h has been constructed in EPS Kaweczyn. Pit coal is used as a fuel in a boiler from which flue gas is purified. Two accelerators, ELW-3, of beam power 40-50 kW and electrons energy 700 keV are applied. The arrangement of accelerators in series allows cascade, step by step gas mixture irradiation. The installation is equipped in a spray cooler, ammonia dosage system and bag filter. The irradiation/reaction part of the plant was put in operation in April 1991. Separately, laboratory research on grain bed aerosol filtration is performed to study the possibility of such filtration unit as a prefilter application. Agriculture tests of the byproduct have been performed. Two types of the byproduct with and without additive were tested. Comparative vegetation tests have shown that application of the pure product gives similar results as application of market fertilizer - ammonia sulfate. The elemental analysis have shown that content of the heavy metals do not exceed acceptable value. For both systems dosimetric measurements were performed. The electron penetration depth and dose distribution profiles were established. The results of preliminary tests both laboratory and pilot plant units have proved high efficiency of SO 2 and NO X removal. (J.P.N.)

  1. Control and monitoring systems for electron beam flue gas treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Licki, J.; Mazurekc, J.; Nelskic, L.; Sobolewskic, L.

    2011-01-01

    The reliable and accurate measurements of gas parameters in essential points of industrial plant are necessary for its proper operation and control. Natural flue gases there are only at the inlet. At other points of plant gas parameters are strongly modified by process control system. The principal role of process monitoring system is to provide the Computer System for Monitoring and Control with continuous recording of process parameters. The main goal of control system is to obtain the optimal SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies by control of amount of spray water at the spray cooler, amount of NH 3 injection to flue gas and adjustment of electron beam current. The structure of the process control system is based on algorithms describing functional dependence of SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies. The best available techniques should be applied for measurements of flue gases parameters at essential points of installation and for digital control system to assist plant operators in the analysis and optimization of plant operation, including integrated emission control. (author)

  2. Study on the Control of Polluted Odour Gas by Biological Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Dong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of the environment as well as its purification capacity, to reduce environmental costs and achieve clean and efficient management of malodorous gas pollution, on the basis of fully understanding the theory of biotechnology, this paper presents the research of biotechnology to control the pollution of malodorous pollutants. In this research, the biofiltration method was used to control the odour gas ammonia produced in waste composting, which can effectively purify gases, with a high ammonia removal rate. One week after the ammonia removal experiment, the removal rate was detected to be around 79.3 %. Twenty-four days after the experiment, the removal rate stabilized at around 98 %. Through the test of pH value of nutrient solution, it was found that the change in pH value corresponded to the increase in removal rate. There are many advantages of applying biotechnology to filter malodorous polluted gases, such as low energy consumption, high degree of purification, good environmental compatibility, simple operation and maintenance, and no secondary pollution. Therefore, it has good application prospects.

  3. Flue gas treatment with membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Dutch researchers from the TN0 Institute have developed a technique to carry out gas-liquid contacting operations using hollow fibre membranes in combination with an absorption liquid. The method known as membrane gas absorption, aims to combine the advantages of membrane technology (compactness,

  4. Fission gas measuring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok.

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Fission gas measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Gas and energy technology 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    Norway has a long tradition as an energy producing nation. No other country administers equally large quantities of energy compared to the number of inhabitants. Norway faces great challenges concerning the ambitions of utilizing natural gas power and living up to its Kyoto protocol pledges. Tekna would like to contribute to increased knowledge about natural gas and energy, its possibilities and technical challenges. Topics treated include carrying and employing natural gas, aspects of technology, energy and environment, hydrogen as energy carrier, as well as other energy alternatives, CO{sub 2} capture and the value chain connected to it.

  7. A state-of-the-art report on the off-gas treatment technology generated from the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Hoo Geun; Park, Geun Il; Choi, Byung Seon; Lee, Kee Won; Cho, Il Hoon; Kim, Jung Kook; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-10-01

    This state-of-the-art report describes various technologies for offgas treatment. It provides comprehensive treatment technologies of the extensive subject such as particulates, radioactive iodine, carbon dioxide, Kr/Xe and Cs/Ru. This report also incorporates the wastes generation and its characteristics as well as the historical and current management practices. A number of review articles by experts in various area of concern and some of the removal systems that have been designed for power plants and, particularly, for spent fuel reusing plants are also involved. As a result, it can be drawn that the drying processes for offgas treatment have much benefits in standpoints of simplicity, economy, disposal safety and resource reuse rather than the wet processes. (author). 226 refs., 38 tabs., 44 figs

  8. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of air swallowed. Diet Changes That May Help Gas Avoiding fermentable vegetables/carbohydrates like beans, broccoli, cabbage, ... offending foods one can handle. Medications to Help Gas Many nonprescription, over-the-counter medicines are available ...

  9. Technology characterization: liquified natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    A technology characterization for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was made. The scope of work was confined to a literature review of LNG processes including natural gas production, liquefaction, and revaporization. The work was divided into five major categories as follows: (1) status of LNG projects, (2) general process description, (3) environmental aspects, (4) safety, and (5) economics. Each of these categories forms a major heading for this report. In addition, an LNG reference system of 250 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD) is included in the report at Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne) request. Information concerning this system was derived from other LNG systems in the literature. The report does not include an assessment of the market potential for the product gas or its end use. Published cost estimates in the literature have been identified but the original cost estimates have not been provided. Plant layouts, conceptual designs, and socioeconomic analysis are not provided.

  10. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO 2 capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. 14 CO 2 , specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO 2 capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO 2 and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered

  11. Optical technologies applied alongside on-site and remote approaches for climate gas emission quantification at a wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsson, Jerker; Delre, Antonio; Tumlin, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Plant-integrated and on-site gas emissions were quantified from a Swedish wastewater treatment plant by applying several optical analytical techniques and measurement methods. Plant-integrated CH4 emission rates, measured using mobile ground-based remote sensing methods, varied between 28.5 and 33......, corresponding to an average emission factor of 0.11% as kg NH3-N (kg TN removed) −1. On-site emission measurements showed that the largest proportions of CH4 (70%) and NH3 (66%) were emitted from the sludge treatment line (mainly biosolid stockpiles and the thickening and dewatering units), while most of the N2...... in the digesters. Lower CH4 emissions and generally higher N2O and NH3 emissions were observed when the digesters were operated in series. Loading biosolids onto trucks for off-site treatment generally resulted in higher CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions from the biosolid stockpiles. On-site CH4 and N2O emission...

  12. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Poulsen, Tjalfe

    2009-01-01

    Historical data on organic waste and wastewater treatment during the period of 1970ĝ€"2020 were used to assess the impact of treatment on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. The assessment included the waste fractions: Sewage sludge, food waste, yard waste and other organic waste (paper......, plastic, etc.). Data were collected from Aalborg, a municipality located in Northern Denmark. During the period from 1970ĝ€"2005, Aalborg Municipality has changed its waste treatment strategy from landfilling of all wastes toward composting of yard waste and incineration with combined heat and power...

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF GAS-UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCED FROM TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZZATI NADIA MOHAMAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, a high energy demand has led to massive research efforts towards improved gas-separation techniques for more energy-efficient and environmenttally friendly methods. One of the potential alternative energies is biogas produced from the fermentation of liquid waste generated from the oil-extraction process, which is known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. Basically, the gas produced from the POME fermentation process consists mainly of a CO2 and H2 gas mixture. CO2 is known as an anthropogenic greenhouse gas, which contributes towards the climate change phenomenon. Hence, it is crucial to determine a suitable technique for H2 separation and purification with good capability for CO2 capture, as this will reduce CO2 emission to the environment as well. This paper reviewed the current gas-separation techniques that consist of absorption, adsorption and a membrane in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques towards the efficiency of the separation system. Crucial aspects for gas-separation techniques such as energy, economic, and environmental considerations are discussed, and a potential biohydrogen and biogas-upgrading technique for industrial POME application is presented and concluded in this paper. Based on the comparison on these aspects, water scrubbing is found to be the best technique to be used in the biogas-upgrading industry, followed by membrane and chemical scrubbing as well as PSA. Hence, these guidelines are justified for selecting the best gas-upgrading technique to be used in palm oil mill industry applications.

  14. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamura, Yokichi; Suda, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    1991-01-01

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  15. International Center for Gas Technology Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    Based on an acknowledgement of the growing importance of natural gas, a number of European countries, USA, Japan and the Russian Federation have worked together in order to establish a common center of information on natural gas technology under the auspices of the International Energy Agency. Centers were to be established in Washington and in Denmark. The centers will concern themselves with establishing an international information center for gas technology, effecting natural gas technology transfer between global regions, carrying out analytical studies on the energy market and the development of technology within the field of natural gas. The structure of the decision-making processes that will be employed is explained in addition to the organization and economy. The centers should build up a global information network between the relevant countries, their gas companies, institutions etc. (AB)

  16. A Survey on Gas Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huansheng Ning

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensing technology has been widely investigated and utilized for gas detection. Due to the different applicability and inherent limitations of different gas sensing technologies, researchers have been working on different scenarios with enhanced gas sensor calibration. This paper reviews the descriptions, evaluation, comparison and recent developments in existing gas sensing technologies. A classification of sensing technologies is given, based on the variation of electrical and other properties. Detailed introduction to sensing methods based on electrical variation is discussed through further classification according to sensing materials, including metal oxide semiconductors, polymers, carbon nanotubes, and moisture absorbing materials. Methods based on other kinds of variations such as optical, calorimetric, acoustic and gas-chromatographic, are presented in a general way. Several suggestions related to future development are also discussed. Furthermore, this paper focuses on sensitivity and selectivity for performance indicators to compare different sensing technologies, analyzes the factors that influence these two indicators, and lists several corresponding improved approaches.

  17. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  19. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  1. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  5. Development of the ReuseTechnology for Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Development of the off-gas treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, H. K.; Park, G. I.; Cho, I. H.; Choi, B. S.; Lee, K. W.; Jeong, M. S.

    1998-09-01

    Treatment technologies for noble gases and semi-volatile gases generated from nuclear fuel cycle process were evaluated, and the optimal process was selected based on process simplicity and safety of disposal. Evaluation of the adsorption capacity of methyl iodine on AgX(silver-impregnated zeolite) and AgS(silver-impregnated silica gel) at the temperature of 80-300 deg C was carried out, and adsorption performances of AgX and AgS were compared with that of activated carbon. CO 2 removal capacity using soda lime, activated carbon and 13X was investigated, and effect of relative humidity was identified. A preparation method of granular calcium hydroxide as a CO-2 removal sorbent using oyster-shells was characterized. This study involves the comparison of the adsorption capacities of Kr on natural or synthetic zeolites and activated carbon at high concentration and an analysis of humidity effect on water adsorption of natural-zeolite. It also was carried out that performance tests for reuse of activated carbon through desorption and re-impregnation process of TEDA/KI impregnated carbon as a removal sorbent for organic radio iodines. (author). 132 refs., 17 tabs., 29 figs

  6. Gas technology, environment and added value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report is an official evaluation of the various aspects of new, environmentally friendly ways of using gas in Norway, including hydrogen and gas power with carbon dioxide deposition. The objective of the evaluation is to prepare for increased engagement by Norwegian technological and research institutions in the development of environmentally friendly gas technology, in cooperation with other countries, and to give Norway a strong international position in this field. This objective is based on the political goal that a greater part of Norway's natural gas resources should be used at home (rather than being exported), and in agreement with Norway's international environmental commitments

  7. Overview of flue gas treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.A.P.; Duarte, C.L.; Omi, N.M.; Poli, D.C.R.; Lima, W.

    2011-01-01

    The coal mines in Brazil are primarily located in southern part areas. The total coal reserves are approximately 32.8 billions tons, 89% of which are located in Rio Grande do Sul state. The Brazilian agriculture potentiality is very high, mainly due to the availability of flat land and the existence of industrial capacity to supply the main fertilizers needs. Electron beam flue gas treatment process ensures simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO X from flue gases by single process, requiring no additional wastewater treatment system and can produce useful nitrogen fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and ammonium nitrate NH 4 NO 3 as by-products. During the TC Project BRA/8/021 - Pilot Plant for Electron Beam Purification of Flue Gas supported by IAEA (1995-1996), a laboratory facility for electron beam flue gas treatment was set at IPEN. In 1997, an official request from Brazilian Government, Ministry of Science & Technology (MCT) and IPEN was made for the Japan Consulting Institute (JCI) to prepare feasibility studies of air pollution control by electron beam flue gas treatment in three power generation companies. These companies are responsible for the power generation, the transmission and the supply of electricity to Brazil: Jorge Lacerda – Eletrosul Centrais Eletricas do Sul do Brasil S.A., Presidente Medici – Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica (CEEE) and Piratininga – AES Eletropaulo Thermal Power Plants. (author)

  8. Electron beam application in gas waste treatment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifeng

    2003-01-01

    In the most recent decade, electron beam waste treatment technology attracted serious attention from environment policymaker and industrial leaders in power industry in China. Starting in middle of 1980's, Chinese research institute began experiment of electron beam treatment on flue gas. By the end of 2000, two 10,000 cubic meters per hour small scale electron beam gas purifying station were established in Sichuang province and Beijing. Several electron beam gas purifying demonstration projects are under construction. With robust economy and strong energy demand, needless to say, in near future, electron beam gas purifying technology will have a bright prospect in China. (author)

  9. Selected technology for the gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A number of papers were presented at a conference concerned with the application of technical topics from aerospace activities for the gas industry. The following subjects were covered: general future of fossil fuels in America, exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes, technology for liquefied gas, safety considerations relative to fires, explosions, and detonations, gas turbomachinery technology, fluid properties, fluid flow, and heat transfer, NASA information and documentation systems, instrumentation and measurement, materials and life prediction, reliability and quality assurance, and advanced energy systems (including synthetic fuels, energy storage, solar energy, and wind energy).

  10. Gas-to-liquid technologies: India's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Keshav, Tirupati; Basu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) technologies are capable of converting gas to clean, useful liquid hydrocarbons and thus suitable for addressing problems of remote gas utilization, increase in crude oil price, depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution. The Indian state of Tripura is considered to be the richest province with 26 billion cubic meters of gas reserves. Neighboring country Myanmar has huge gas reserves but these reserves remain unutilized mainly because of land-locked situation. GTL is a well developed and proven technology and it is an important option for moving natural gas to the market place. GTL options include not only the well-known production of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis liquids but also the production of oxygen containing fuels, fuel additives and chemicals, such as methanol and DME. An alternative, promising option to convert surplus gas is the direct route of methane conversion, which is more energy efficient than the indirect route since it bypasses the energy intensive endothermic steam reforming step of syngas formation. On-site conversion to liquid products of commercial importance using direct route would make transportation of these natural deposits much more economical and practical. In this paper an attempt has been made to review recent developments in syngas technologies, direct routes of methane conversion into useful liquids, and status of both existing and future developments in GTL industry around the world. Finally challenges in GTL technology are discussed. (author)

  11. Gas-fired electric power generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The workshop that was held in Madrid 25-27 May 1994 included participation by experts from 16 countries. They represented such diverse fields and disciplines as technology, governmental regulation, economics, and environment. Thus, the participants provided an excellent cross section of key areas and a diversity of viewpoints. At the workshop, a broad range of topics regarding gas-fired electric power generation was discussed. These included political, regulatory and financial issues as well as more specific technical questions regarding the environment, energy efficiency, advanced generation technologies and the status of competitive developments. Important technological advances in gas-based power and CHP technologies have already been achieved including higher energy efficiency and lower emissions, with further improvements expected in the near future. Advanced technology trends include: (a) The use of gas technology to reduce emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. (b) The wide-spread application of combined-cycle gas turbines in new power plants and the growing use of aero-derivative gas turbines in CHP applications. (c) Phosphoric acid fuel cells that are being introduced commercially. Their market penetration will grow over the next 10 years. The next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide and molten carbonate) is expected to enter the market around the year 2000. (EG)

  12. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  13. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  14. Advanced technology for aero gas turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    The Symposium is aimed at highlighting the development of advanced components for new aero gas turbine propulsion systems in order to provide engineers and scientists with a forum to discuss recent progress in these technologies and to identify requirements for future research. Axial flow compressors, the operation of gas turbine engines in dust laden atmospheres, turbine engine design, blade cooling, unsteady gas flow through the stator and rotor of a turbomachine, gear systems for advanced turboprops, transonic blade design and the development of a plenum chamber burner system for an advanced VTOL engine are among the topics discussed.

  15. Gas-cooled reactor technology: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raleigh, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    Included are 3358 citations on gas-cooled reactor technology contained in the DOE Energy Data Base for the period January 1978 through June 1981. The citations include reports, journal articles, books, conference papers, patents, and monographs. Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number Indexes are provided

  16. Introducing new technology in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilard, S.; Powrie, D.

    1995-01-01

    The approach taken by Consumer's Gas in the introduction of new products was described. The company's role in technology development in the last decade was summarized in the context of other industries' practices. New product experiences and the key factors for success were also revealed. A professionally managed New Product Introduction (NPI) process launched by Consumer Gas in 1994 was outlined. Its objectives were stated as (1) providing strong leadership; (2) a widely held sense of urgency; (3) customer orientation; (4) doing the 'up front homework'; (5) the importance of teamwork; (6) a formal new product process; and (7) a simple management structure. The need for keeping up with technological changes and customer trends, while inspiring others in the gas distribution business to act similarly, was emphasized

  17. Arsenic Treatment Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s research for the new Arsenic Rule focused on the development and evaluation of innovative methods and cost-effective technologies for improving the assessment and control of arsenic contamination.

  18. Gas Sensors Based on Molecular Imprinting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-07-04

    Molecular imprinting technology (MIT); often described as a method of designing a material to remember a target molecular structure (template); is a technique for the creation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with custom-made binding sites complementary to the target molecules in shape; size and functional groups. MIT has been successfully applied to analyze; separate and detect macromolecular organic compounds. Furthermore; it has been increasingly applied in assays of biological macromolecules. Owing to its unique features of structure specificity; predictability; recognition and universal application; there has been exploration of the possible application of MIPs in the field of highly selective gas sensors. In this present study; we outline the recent advances in gas sensors based on MIT; classify and introduce the existing molecularly imprinted gas sensors; summarize their advantages and disadvantages; and analyze further research directions.

  19. Gas To Liquids Technology: A Futuristic View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shamy, A.A; Zayed, A.M

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide efforts aimed to the formulation of environment friendly diesel fuels able to meet the advanced fuel specifications of the 21 st century and able to meet the global demand on diesel fuels. Synthetically derived gas to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel promises to meet these challenges and spearhead the way to the future. This technology will produce almost zero sulfur, high cetane, low aromatic diesel and naphtha which will be sold regionally and internationally. GTL fuel is cleaner than any conventional fuel which will help the environment. It can be used in conventional diesel engines to give reductions in emission levels. Construction of such technology will reduce the gap between production and consumption by maximizing the gross profitability of natural gas

  20. AGT (Advanced Gas Turbine) technology project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    An overall summary documentation is provided for the Advanced Gas Turbine Technology Project conducted by the Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors. This advanced, high risk work was initiated in October 1979 under charter from the U.S. Congress to promote an engine for transportation that would provide an alternate to reciprocating spark ignition (SI) engines for the U.S. automotive industry and simultaneously establish the feasibility of advanced ceramic materials for hot section components to be used in an automotive gas turbine. As this program evolved, dictates of available funding, Government charter, and technical developments caused program emphases to focus on the development and demonstration of the ceramic turbine hot section and away from the development of engine and powertrain technologies and subsequent vehicular demonstrations. Program technical performance concluded in June 1987. The AGT 100 program successfully achieved project objectives with significant technology advances. Specific AGT 100 program achievements are: (1) Ceramic component feasibility for use in gas turbine engines has been demonstrated; (2) A new, 100 hp engine was designed, fabricated, and tested for 572 hour at operating temperatures to 2200 F, uncooled; (3) Statistical design methodology has been applied and correlated to experimental data acquired from over 5500 hour of rig and engine testing; (4) Ceramic component processing capability has progressed from a rudimentary level able to fabricate simple parts to a sophisticated level able to provide complex geometries such as rotors and scrolls; (5) Required improvements for monolithic and composite ceramic gas turbine components to meet automotive reliability, performance, and cost goals have been identified; (6) The combustor design demonstrated lower emissions than 1986 Federal Standards on methanol, JP-5, and diesel fuel. Thus, the potential for meeting emission standards and multifuel capability has been initiated

  1. A review of treatment technologies for MTBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.

    1995-01-01

    Available treatment technologies for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contamination in soil, groundwater, and recovered groundwater are reviewed and assessed. MTBE contamination is becoming an important issue due to the increasing prevalence and regulation of this gasoline additive. In addition, MTBE is more soluble and more mobile in groundwater than most hydrocarbons, so it is usually the first gasoline constituent to reach sensitive receptors. Treatment of MTBE is complicated by its Henry's constant, which is lower than most other gasoline constituents. Furthermore, evidence of biodegradability of MTBE is mixed, and MTBE does not degrade rapidly abiotically. Groundwater pumping is usually employed to contain and collect MTBE-contaminated groundwater, often successfully because of its high aqueous solubility. Air sparging/soil vapor extraction is also successfully employed to treat MTBE, but its effectiveness is reduced by the low Henry's constant of MTBE. Sparging and other aerobic bioremediation approaches are hampered by the poor biodegradability of MTBE. Oxidation technologies, such as ozone injection, hold promise for rapid in situ remediation of MTBE. Treatment of recovered groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also problematic. MTBE adsorbs poorly to granular activated carbon; advanced oxidation processes are effective on MTBE, but entail high capital and operating costs; bioreactors are of questionable effectiveness on MTBE. Air stripping is usually the most cost-effective treatment technology for MTBE so long as the off gas from the air stripper can be discharged without treatment. However, off gas treatment is expensive, so groundwater is sometimes heated to reduce the requirement for stripping air

  2. Advances in hot gas filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.

    The past decade has seen the introduction of new filter media specifically designed for 'hot-gas' filtration. These media are available as woven or knitted fabrics and as non-wovens, i.e. needled felts. Needlefelted fabrics have proven so highly successful in the dedusting of hot gases that they are widely used nowadays in this new and necessary technology. Hot-gas filtration offers advantages in, for example, the saving or recycling of energy, the elimination of the cooling process, and the short-circuiting of process steps. This paper gives a survey of the types of textile fibres available for hot-gas filtration from the more recently developed organic fibres to refractory fibres. It describes, compares and contrasts their salient properties and lists the uses to which they may be put. It concentrates on such fibres which are generally referred to as 'high performance materials', since they are expected to provide satisfactory performance under extreme conditions of temperature, chemical environment and mechanical stress. It touches on filtration theory governing the collection mechanism. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Aeroderivative technology: A more efficient use of gas turbine technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacek, Edward; Moreau, Robert

    2010-09-15

    Today's power industry has had many recent challenges that have changed the way a 'business is done'. Examples of such challenges include grid systems that are looking to retire older less efficient generation, as well as the addition of renewables that further challenge the characteristics of the grid. These changes are impacting the thermal generation in terms of what is needed to support the grid. Technology innovation is a key driver to meeting these key industry issues. Aeroderivative gas turbines currently play a key role in providing necessary flexible generation and are a major component to many operators' power generating portfolios.

  4. Treatment of off-gas from radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    An effective process reducing volume of radioactive wastes is incineration of combustible wastes. Appropriate design of the off-gas treatment system is necessary to ensure that any releases of airborne radionuclides into the environment are kept below acceptable limits. In many cases, the off-gas system must be designed to accommodate chemical constituents in the gas stream. The purpose of this publication is to provide the most up-to-date information regarding off-gas treatment as well as an account of some of the developments so as to aid users in the selection of an integrated system for a particular application. The choice of incinerator/off-gas system combination depends on the wastes to be treated, as well as other factors, such as regulatory requirements. Current problems and development needs are discussed. Following comprehensive discussions of the various factors affecting a choice, various incinerator and off-gas treatment systems are recommended for the various types of wastes that may be treated: low PVC content solid, high PVC content solid, organic liquid and resins. The economics or costs of the off-gas system and an evaluation of the overall cost effectiveness of incineration or direct burial is not discussed in detail. This publication is specifically directed toward technical aspects and addresses: incineration types and origin, sources and characteristics of off-gas streams; descriptions of available technologies for off-gas treatment; basic component design requirements and component description; operational experience of plants in active operation and their current practices; legal aspects and safety requirements; remaining problems to be solved and development trends in plant design and component structure. This report seeks to broaden and enhance the understanding of the developed technology and to indicate areas where improvements can be made by further research and development. 110 refs

  5. Japan’s experience of flue gas treatment by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The electron beam flue gas treatment technology was invented in Japan in 1970's. The paper presents the outlook of the Japanese activities on the development and present state of EBFGT technology. (author)

  6. Technological substitution options for controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.B.; Burgess, J.C.; Pearce, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with technological options for greenhouse gas substitution. The authors interpret the term substitution to exclude energy conservation/efficiency measures, investments in afforestation (sinks), and greenhouse gas removal or abatement technologies. Their working definition of greenhouse gas substitution includes (1) replacement technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with a nongreenhouse gas technology; and (2) reduction technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with an alternative technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Essentially, replacement technologies involve 100 percent reduction in CO 2 ; reduction technologies involve a partial reduction in CO 2 . Of the man-made sources of greenhouse gases, energy is the most important and is expected to contribute to at least half of the global warming effect in the near future. The majority of this impact is from fossil fuel combustion as a source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), although fossil fuels also contribute significantly to methane (CH 4 ), to nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and to low-level ozone (O 3 ) through production of various nitrogen gases (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study analyzes the available greenhouse gas substitutions and their costs. The authors concentrate particularly on substitutions for fossil-fuel combustion and CFC production and consumption. They conclude by summarizing the potential for greenhouse gas substitution, the cost-effectiveness of the various options and the design of incentives for substitution

  7. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  9. Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

  10. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  11. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujotomo Isworo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%, and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant has a high electrical efficiency (45%. Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  12. Membrane bioreactor for waste gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Summary

    This thesis describes the design and testing of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for removal of organic pollutants from air. In such a bioreactor for biological gas treatment pollutants are degraded by micro-organisms. The membrane bioreactor is an alternative to other types of

  13. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkonen, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  14. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  15. Screw pyrolysis technology for sewage sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi Morgano, Marco; Leibold, Hans; Richter, Frank; Stapf, Dieter; Seifert, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones. Moreover, alternative technologies are arising with the main target of nutrients recovery, with a special focus on phosphorus. The aforementioned issues, i.e. the small scale (below 1MW) and the nutrients recovery, suggest that pyrolysis in screw reactors may become an attractive alternative technology for sewage sludge conversion, recovery and recycling. In this work, about 100kg of dried sewage sludge from a plant in Germany were processed at the newly developed STYX Reactor, at KIT. The reactor combines the advantages of screw reactors with the high temperature filtration, in order to produce particle and ash free vapors and condensates, respectively. Experiments were carried out at temperatures between 350°C and 500°C. The yield of the char decreased from 66.7wt.% to 53.0wt.%. The same trend was obtained for the energy yield, while the maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 13.4wt.% was obtained at 500°C. Besides mercury, the metals and the other minerals were completely retained in the char. Nitrogen and sulfur migrated from the solid to the condensate and to the gas, respectively. Based on the energy balance, a new concept for the decentral production of char as well as heat and power in an externally fired micro gas turbine showed a cogeneration efficiency up to about 40%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrate Technology For Transporting Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is a viable alternative to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) or pipelines for the transportation of natural gas from source to demand. It involves three stages: production, transportation and re-gasification. The production of the hydrate occurs at pressures >50 bar at temperatures ~10oC in the presence of water and natural gas (particularly methane, ethane, propane). Transportation is by insulated bulk carrier at around –5 oC and atmospheric pressure or 0 oC at 10 bar, an...

  17. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  18. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeway, Katy (PB-KBB Inc.); Rogers, R.E. (Mississippi State University); DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D. (RESPEC)

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  19. Oxidation technologies for groundwater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeks, R.E.; Smith, L.P.; Perry, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Xerox Corporation has pilot tested three UV/Oxidation processes for the treatment of contaminated groundwater containing chlorinated and non-chlorinated organic solvents. The technologies pilot tested included the ULTROX system developed by ULTROX International, the perox-pure process of Peroxidation Systems, Inc. and the Rayox process by Solarchem Environmental Systems. The three processes use a combination of ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize organic solvents in water. The ULTROX system includes ozone as part of the treatment. Data gathered during pilot testing demonstrated that these processes are effective in the destruction of organic contaminants in groundwater. These results are discussed in regard to applicability to the groundwater remediation at the Xerox Facilities in Webster and Blauvelt, New York

  20. Evolving markets and new end use gas technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall, J.

    1995-01-01

    End use gas technologies, and products for residential, commercial, and industrial uses were reviewed, and markets and market drivers needed for end use technologies in the different types of markets were summarized. The range of end use technologies included: gas fireplaces, combination heating/water heating systems, integrated appliance such as heating/ventilation units, gas cooling, and space cooling for commercial markets. The present and future status of each product market was discussed. Growing markets such as cogeneration, and gas turbine technology also received attention, along with regulatory and environmental concerns. The need to be knowledgeable about current market drivers and to introduce new ones, and the evolution of technology were emphasized as means by which the industry will continue to be able to exert a decisive influence on the direction of these markets

  1. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  2. Non-mine technology of hydrocarbon resources production at complex development of gas and coal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saginov, A.S.; Adilov, K.N.; Akhmetbekov, Sh.U.

    1997-01-01

    Non-mine technology of coal gas seams exploitation is new geological technological method of complex exploitation of coal gas deposits. The method allows sequentially to extract hydrocarbon resources in technological aggregative-mobile condensed states. According to natural methane content in seams the technology includes: methane extraction from sorption volume where it is bounded up with coal; gas output intensification of coal is due to structural changes of substance at the cost of physico-chemical treatment of seam; increase of seam permeability by the methods of active physical and physico-chemical actions on coal seam (hydro-uncovering, pneumatic hydro action etc.). Pilot testing shows efficiency of well mastering with help of depth pumps. In this case works of action of pumping out of operating liquid and gas extraction from coal seam are integrated

  3. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the research will be focused on the preliminary analyses of hydrogen fuel based power production technologies utilizing hydrogen fuel in a large size, heavy-duty gas turbines in integrated reformer combined cycle (IRCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electric power generation. The research will be expanded step-by-step to include other advanced (e.g., Net Power, a potentially transformative technology utilizing a high efficiency CO2 conversion cycle (Allam cycle), and chemical looping etc.) pre-combustion and post-combustion technologies applied to natural gas, other fossil fuels (coal and heavy oil) and biomass/biofuel based on findings. Screening analysis is already under development and data for the analysis is being processed. The immediate action on this task include preliminary economic and environmental analysis of power production technologies applied to natural gas. Data for catalytic reforming technology to produce hydrogen from natural gas is being collected and compiled on Microsoft Excel. The model will be expanded for exploring and comparing various technologies scenarios to meet our goal. The primary focus of this study is to: 1) understand the chemic

  4. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage

  5. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  6. Gas Shielding Technology for Welding and Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur J.; Gradl, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Welding is a common method that allows two metallic materials to be joined together with high structural integrity. When joints need to be leak-tight, light-weight, or free of contaminant-trapping seams or surface asperities, welding tends to be specified. There are many welding techniques, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of these techniques include Forge Welding, Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, Friction Stir Welding, and Laser Beam Welding to name a few. Whichever technique is used, the objective is a structural joint that meets the requirements of a particular component or assembly. A key practice in producing quality welds is the use of shielding gas. This article discusses various weld techniques, quality of the welds, and importance of shielding gas in each of those techniques. Metallic bonds, or joints, are produced when metals are put into intimate contact. In the solid-state "blacksmith welding" process, now called Forge Welding (FOW), the site to be joined is pounded into intimate contact. The surfaces to be joined usually need to be heated to make it easier to deform the metal. The surfaces are sprinkled with a flux to melt surface oxides and given a concave shape so that surface contamination can be squeezed out of the joint as the surfaces are pounded together; otherwise the surface contamination would be trapped in the joint and would weaken the weld. In solid-state welding processes surface oxides or other contamination are typically squeezed out of the joint in "flash."

  7. The gas turbine: Present technology and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minghetti, E.

    1997-03-01

    The gas turbine is the most widely used prime mover all over the world for either power generation or mechanical drive applications. The above fact is due to the recent great improvements that have been done especially in terms of efficiency, availability and reliability. The future for gas turbine technological development looks very promising. In fact, although tremendous growth has already taken place, there is still the potential for dramatic improvements in performance. Compared with the competitive prime movers (conventional steam power plants and reciprocating piston engines) the gas turbine technology is younger and still following a strong growth curve. The coming decades will witness the continued increasing in turbine inlet temperature, the development of new materials and refrigeration systems and the commercialization of inter cooled system and steam cooled turbines. With the very soon introduction of the G and H technology, expected single and combined cycle efficiencies for heavy duty machines are respectively 40% and 60%, while maintaining 'single digit' levels in pollutant emissions. In this report are given wide information on gas turbine present technology (Thermodynamics, features, design, performances, emission control, applications) and are discussed the main lines for the future developments. Finally are presented the research and technological development activities on gas turbine of Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department

  8. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  9. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  10. Gas Permeability Evolution Mechanism and Comprehensive Gas Drainage Technology for Thin Coal Seam Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangtian Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A thin coal seam mined as a protective coal seam above a gas outburst coal seam plays a central role in decreasing the degree of stress placed on a protected seam, thus increasing gas permeability levels and desorption capacities to dramatically eliminate gas outburst risk for the protected seam. However, when multiple layers of coal seams are present, stress-relieved gas from adjacent coal seams can cause a gas explosion. Thus, the post-drainage of gas from fractured and de-stressed strata should be applied. Comprehensive studies of gas permeability evolution mechanisms and gas seepage rules of protected seams close to protective seams that occur during protective seam mining must be carried out. Based on the case of the LongWall (LW 23209 working face in the Hancheng coal mine, Shaanxi Province, this paper presents a seepage model developed through the FLAC3D software program (version 5.0, Itasca Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MI, USA from which gas flow characteristics can be reflected by changes in rock mass permeability. A method involving theoretical analysis and numerical simulation was used to analyze stress relief and gas permeability evolution mechanisms present during broken rock mass compaction in a goaf. This process occurs over a reasonable amount of extraction time and in appropriate locations for comprehensive gas extraction technologies. In using this comprehensive gas drainage technological tool, the safe and efficient co-extraction of thin coal seams and gas resources can be realized, thus creating a favorable environment for the safe mining of coal and gas outburst seams.

  11. Separation technology for radioactive iodine from off-gas streams of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Kondo, Yoshikazu.

    1994-01-01

    Iodine separation technology using an inorganic adsorption material has been investigated in order to apply the technology to the off-gas treatment systems of nuclear facilities. Iodine removal efficiencies were checked by laboratory experiments using simulated off-gas streams of various conditions and the developed adsorbent, silver impregnated alumina (AgA). Laboratory test results demonstrated effective iodine removal with high decontamination factors (DF's) at relatively high temperatures (≥100degC). Then the removal efficiency were confirmed using actual off-gas streams sampled from the dissolver off-gas treatment system of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. The DF's were over 10 3 with the AgA bed depth of 10 cm and showed little change during the adsorption period, which indicated applicability of the iodine removal technology with AgA to nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Iodine absorption capacity and its release property were also investigated using simulated off-gas streams. The former had a value of ∼0.22 g/g-AgA and this value could well predict the breakthrough property. The adsorbed iodine was judged stable during the storage of AgA saturated with iodine in air at temperatures below 500degC and in water at ∼20degC after changing the adsorbed iodine form from AgIO 3 to AgI. Thus, the separation technology provided effective and stable iodine separation from the off-gas of nuclear facilities. (author)

  12. Technologies 1995: environment and wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-03-01

    From new technical or scientific developments, new products launching, and markets evolutions, this catalog gives informations selection on research and development projects, new fabrication processes, activities and plants strategies, licences or technology transfers opportunities. The covered fields are: atmospheric pollution controls, water and liquid wastes treatment, polluted soils treatments, noise and odors treatments, municipal and industrial wastes treatments (metal, plastic, paper, glass), clean materials and technologies, radioactive wastes, and european cooperation programs. (A.B.)

  13. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  14. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Iller, E.; Tyminnski, B.; Zimek, Z; Ostapczuk, A.; Licki, J.

    2001-01-01

    The electron beam flue gas treatment technology was invented many years ago. Research on the process has been carried out in Japan, USA, Germany and Poland. However, the recent fidings, based on the experiments performed at pilot plant at Electric Power Station Kaweczyn, led to developments which made process mature just at the dawn of the XXI century. The process is being implemented in the full industrial scale at Electric Power Station Pomorzany (Dolna Odra EPS Group). Other developments are reported in Japan and after Nagoya's pilot plant experiments, an industrial plant has been built in China and another one is constructed in Japan. There are remarkable differences in technological and design solutions applied in all these installations. Developments achieved at EPS Kaweczyn pilot plant and INCT laboratory unit were the basis for the project realized at EPS Pomorzan

  16. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Federico [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  17. Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Laitner, S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

  18. Gas core reactor concepts and technology - Issues and baseline strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Kahook, Samer; Maya, Isaac

    1991-01-01

    Results of a research program including phenomenological studies, conceptual design, and systems analysis of a series of gaseous/vapor fissile fuel driven engines for space power platforms and for thermal and electric propulsion are reviewed. It is noted that gas and vapor phase reactors provide the path for minimum mass in orbit and trip times, with a specific impulse from 1020 sec at the lowest technololgical risk to 5200 sec at the highest technological risk. The discussion covers various configurations of gas core reactors and critical technologies and the nuclear vapor thermal rocket engine.

  19. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  20. Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coppola, Edward

    2002-01-01

    .... The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aqueous waste. The US Army (TARDEC) and the Air Force (AAC/WMO...

  1. Laser technologies of ceramics treatment (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, E.M.; Voronezhtsev, Yu.I.; Gol'dade, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Publications on the laser technologies of ceramic coating production, ceramics treatment and ceramics manufacture are analyzed for the past 5 years. Features of production processes utilizing the interaction of laser radiation with ceramics and other substances which form the ceramics as a result of such interaction are considered. Possible ways of improving laser technologies of ceramics treatment are outlined

  2. Commercial sector gas cooling technology frontier and market share analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.D.; Mac Donald, J.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method, developed for the Gas Research Institute of the United States, that can assist planning for commercial sector natural gas cooling systems R and D. These systems are higher in first cost than conventional electric chillers. Yet, engine-driven chiller designs exist which are currently competitive in U.S. markets typified by high electricity or demand charges. Section II describes a scenario analysis approach used to develop and test the method. Section III defines the technology frontier, a conceptual tool for identifying new designs with sales potential. Section IV describes a discrete choice method for predicting market shares of technologies with sales potential. Section V shows how the method predicts operating parameter, cost, and/or performance goals for technologies without current sales potential (or for enhancing a frontier technology's sales potential). Section VI concludes with an illustrative example for the Chicago office building retrofit market

  3. The Gas turbine Engine-based Power Technology Plant Using Wood Waste Gasification Products

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Danilova; R. Z. Tumashev

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlines the problems of energy supply and waste utilization of the forest industries. As a solution, it proposes to use gasification to utilize wood leftovers, which is followed by electric power generation from combustion of producer gas. The plant was expected to have a power of 150 kW. The proposed power technology plant comprises a line for pre-treatment of wood chips, a gas generator (gasifier) and a gas turbine unit.The paper justifies a need for preliminary preparation of wo...

  4. Gas to fuel and chemicals: from technology to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercialization of natural gas reserves via synthesis to liquid products is a particularly active area of research which could permit this energy carrier to penetrate new markets. This study provides a global perspective of developments in this area, the technology and its economic and environmental implications, completed by a full review of current projects. A number of research centres as well as engineering companies and oil and gas companies are engaged in significant research programmes to improve the processes employed in the gas to liquids chain. This section provides a complete picture of the recent technology developments and the areas for potential future improvement.The research activities of each organisation and the process scheme employed are described.The implications of the major differences in the technologies are reviewed. Each step in the GTL chain-feed preparation, syngas production, the Fischer-Tropsch process and product work up is covered. The relationship between the products from the process and the technology employed is discussed. Aside from the technological aspects, the economics of the GTL process remains the major hurdle to be overcome if this technology is to be more widely utilized.The key parameters affecting the economics of GTL developments are the cost of natural gas, capital investments and the impact of economies of scale.The key driver for the oil and gas companies is to provide a way of commercializing natural gas reserves when other means, such as pipeline transportation or LNG, are not viable. This section provides a review of the costs and economics of the GTL chain taking into account the process configuration and resulting capital costs, the products produced, the effect of scale and other relevant factors.The aim is to provide an understanding of the economic factors affecting the GTL chain. Middle distillate fuels produced from the GTL process are sulphur and aromatics free and will be attractive for use in the

  5. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered during the 'Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment' were as follows: Selection of constructions and materials, fuel element development concepts; Fabrication of spherical coated fuel particles and fuel element on their base; investigation of fuel properties; Spent fuel treatment and storage; Head-end processing of HTGR fuel elements; investigation of HTGR fuel regeneration process; applicability of gas-fluorine technology of regeneration of spent HTGR fuel elements

  6. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  7. Evaluation of Mars CO2 Capture and Gas Separation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    Recent national policy statements have established that the ultimate destination of NASA's human exploration program is Mars. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key technology required to ,enable such missions and it is appropriate to review progress in this area and continue to advance the systems required to produce rocket propellant, oxygen, and other consumables on Mars using the carbon dioxide atmosphere and other potential resources. The Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure CO2 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as well. To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from unreacted carbon oxides (C02-CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3)/carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include' freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents

  8. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  9. Elusive prize: enormous coal gas potential awaits production technology breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2002-01-07

    The expanded gas pipeline grid has excess capacity, and gas resources are declining. There is increasing interest in development of Canada's resources of coalbed methane (CBM). The chairman of the Canadian Coalbed Methane Forum estimates that Canada has more than 3,000 trillion ft{sup 3} of gas awaiting suitable technology. PanCanadian and MGV Energy conducted a CBM exploration and pilot study on the Palliser spread in southern Alberta. Results from 23 of 75 wells are encouraging. The study is being accelerated and expanded to include an additional 50 wells elsewhere in Alberta. Some scientists anticipate commercial CBM production within two years. Problems facing developers include the large land holdings necessary for economic CBM production and the disposal of coal formation water. It is anticipated that U.S. technology will be modified and used. The potential for CBM development at Pictou in Nova Scotia and in British Columbia in the foothills is considered. 3 figs.

  10. Strategic implications of gas to liquids technology for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A new and economical gas to liquids (GTL) technology is described that promises to substantially increase industry's ability to exploit many trillions of cubic feet of largely unmarketable reserves of natural gas. The technology turns the gas into a form that overcomes prohibitive transportation costs, avoids long-term, high-risk, take-or-pay contracts, and helps satisfy the demand for cleaner liquid products. Widespread application of GTL technology is credited with having the power to ease the burden on every segment of the petroleum industry, from exploration through petrochemicals, and into allied industries such as electric power generation. It is claimed that in situations where GTL is the only economic option, it will create an entirely new set of opportunities. Among these are the monetization of known stranded gas and the early development of remote gas discoveries or of oil discoveries associated with gas. It will cause a re-evaluation of exploration strategies by upgrading gas prospects in remote locations and new investment options to countries with shut-in gas or heavy oil or tar sand reserves. The monetization of associated gas when reinjection is no longer needed or desired could occur. Extensive applications offshore and adjacent to coastal reserves and multiple options for refiners facing heavier, higher-sulfur crude slates are possible. The outlook for Syntroleum's version of the GTL process, and the 'grant-back' provisions of Syntroleum's license agreements with companies such as Texaco, ARCO, Marathon, Criterion Catalyst, Catalytica, and ABB, giving each licensee access to the improvements of the other licencees, and the joint development agreements with these companies, were also discussed. 6 refs

  11. Toluene removal in a biofilm reactor for waste gas treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.R.; Arvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    A lab-scale trickling filter for treatment of toluene-containing waste gas was investigated. The filter performance was investigated for various loads of toluene. Two levels of the gas flow were examined, 322 m d(-1) and 707 m d(-1). The gas inlet concentrations were varied in the range from 0...

  12. Treatment technology for organic radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Shon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In this report, various alternative technologies to the incineration for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes were described and reviewed, fallen into two groups of low temperature technologies and high temperature technologies. These technologies have the advantages of low volume gaseous emission, few or no dioxin generation, and operation at low enough temperature that radionuclides are not volatilized. Delphi chemical oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation, and photolytic ultraviolet oxidation appear to be the most promising low temperature oxidation process and steam reforming and supercritical water oxidation in the high temperature technologies. 52 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  13. Coal conversion wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fedorak, P.M. (University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1988-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the major components of coal conversion wastewaters, and their deleterious impact on the environment, particularly in natural water systems, is well documented. Phenols, at higher concentrations, have been shown to inhibit the activity of anaerobic bacteria used to degrade organic compounds. This study examines combined treatment requirements for an authentic, high strength phenolic coal conversion wastewater using both batch and semi- continuous anaerobic methanogenic bioassays. Solvent extraction pretreatment and in situ addition of activated carbon during anaerobic treatment were also examined, and proved effective in removing phenol. 61 refs., 34 tabs., 30 figs., 7 append.

  14. Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.M. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.

  15. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment......, which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination...... and three advanced treatment methods; sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment is the most advantageous advanced treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms...

  16. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment......, which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination...... and three advanced treatment methods: sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment are the most advantageous advanved treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms...

  17. Technological innovations to development remote gas reserves: gas-to-liquids; Inovacoes tecnologicas no desenvolvimento de reservas remotas de gas natural: gas-to-liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Berenice D. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Falabella, Eduardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The GTL - gas to liquids technology was born in Germany, after the 20's with the goal to product liquid fuel from coal to supply the bellicose and domestic demand. The grow of the petroleum industry lead the world to the forgiveness of the GTL technology, except in South Africa. In the last two decades the number of news natural gas reserves and the perspectives of the increase demand from natural gas for the next 20 years change this scenario. Nearly 60% of this reserves are calling stranded or remote, meaning reserves which can't produce with conventional technologies (logistics and economics barriers). So, the oil and gas industry restart to analyze the economics and applicability of the GTL technology. The competitively and applicability of this technology were evaluated and compared to the traditional way of natural gas transport, as well as the solidification of the new environmental rules and the creation of niche to this kind of fuel - the cleans ones - seams the cause of this changes in the oil and gas industries. Which began to adjust to all this news rules and conditions, as show in the sum of investments in R and D area. So, is in this new scenario that the reappear of GTL technology is consider has a technological innovation. (author)

  18. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  19. [Evaluation of treatment technology of odor pollution source in petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Gui-Qin; Sui, Li-Hua; Guo, Ya-Feng; Ma, Chuan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Using an environmental technology assessment system, we put forward the evaluation index system for treatment technology of the typical odor pollution sources in the petroleum refining process, which has been applied in the assessment of the industrial technology. And then the best available techniques are selected for emissions of gas refinery sewage treatment plant, headspace gas of acidic water jars, headspace gas of cold coke jugs/intermediate oil tank/dirty oil tank, exhaust of oxidative sweetening, and vapors of loading and unloading oil.

  20. Shale gas boom in the US. Technology - economy - environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Renschhausen, Martin; Klippel, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    There is hardly any other issue that polarizes the energy policy discussion so far as the production of shale gas and shale oil by means of fracking processes. For the advocates, the expansion of unconventional gas and oil production offers the opportunity to intensify competition in the oil and gas markets, to lower prices and to reduce the dependence on uncertain deliveries of OPEC and Russia by increased domestic production. The critics, on the other hand, emphasize the environmental risks associated with fracking and see the extension of the fossil energy base as an obstacle to the climatically required transition to renewable energies. The German legislature emphasizes the environmental risks associated with fracking and has de facto forbidden fracking with the fracking law package of 24 June 2016. Internationally, the advantages and disadvantages of fracking are, however, assessed very differently, so that a further expansion of unconventional oil and gas production is to be expected. Fracking currently focuses almost entirely on the USA. Numerous studies investigate the potentials, the profitability of the different methods of production as well as the environmental effects. Therefore, American shale gas production offers an excellent viewpoint in order to estimate the technology, its economic efficiency and its consequences. This book evaluates the current studies and data and contributes to the assessment of the long-term energy-economic and climatological significance of shale gas production in the international context. [de

  1. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  2. Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, G.; Eriksson, O.; Frostell, B.

    2005-01-01

    A technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies for wastes was performed in the form of scenarios of chains of technologies. The Swedish assessment tool, ORWARE, was used for the assessment. The scenarios of chains of thermal technologies assessed were gasification with catalytic combustion, gasification with flame combustion, incineration and landfilling. The landfilling scenario was used as a reference for comparison. The technologies were assessed from ecological and economic points of view. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, consumption of primary energy carriers and welfare costs. From the simulations, gasification followed by catalytic combustion with energy recovery in a combined cycle appeared to be the most competitive technology from an ecological point of view. On the other hand, this alternative was more expensive than incineration. A sensitivity analysis was done regarding electricity prices to show which technology wins at what value of the unit price of electricity (SEK/kW h). Within this study, it was possible to make a comparison both between a combined cycle and a Rankine cycle (a system pair) and at the same time between flame combustion and catalytic combustion (a technology pair). To use gasification just as a treatment technology is not more appealing than incineration, but the possibility of combining gasification with a combined cycle is attractive in terms of electricity production. This research was done in connection with an empirical R and D work on both gasification of waste and catalytic combustion of the gasified waste at the Division of Chemical Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden

  3. ECOLOGY SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL OIL RESERVES RECOVERY FOR SUSTAINABLE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Zyrin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effective technology for heavy oil recovery nowadays has a great importance, because of worsening geological conditions of the developed deposits, decreasing recovery factor, increasing the part of heavy oil. For the future sustainable development of oil producing industry the involved technologies must require energy effectiveness and ecological safety. The paper proves the enhanced oil recovery methods necessity for heavy oil deposits, highlighted thermal technologies as the most effective. But traditional thermal treatment technologies is a source of air pollutant emission, such as CO, NO etc. The calculation of emissions for traditional steam generator is provided. Besides, the paper shows the effectiveness of electrical enhanced oil recovery methods. The advantages of associated gas as a fuel for cogeneration plants is shown. The main approaches to implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry of Russia are defined. Conceptual view of СО2-EOR technologies potential within the context of sustainable development of oil and gas industry are presented. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are revealed.

  4. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 3. Gas and drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 3 contains papers from the sessions on natural gas supporting research, western gas sands project, drilling technology, and environmental effects. Individuals were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Assisted reproductive technology treatment outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naasan, M

    2012-05-01

    Information on the outcomes of ART treatments in Ireland is not readily available to Irish practitioners. The data for hospital affiliated clinics has been made available for many years and is included in the hospital reports. We present a 10-year analysis of the Irish ART results voluntarily reported by six out of seven IVF clinics. The data was collected from published ESHRE reports and from results (2007-8) not yet published. Data collected included: number of clinics and ART cycles, female age, clinical and multiple pregnancy rates and treatment complications. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 31.7% for IVF and 29.8% for ICSI. The proportion of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries for IVF and ICSI combined was 75%, 23.35% and 1.64%. The rate of ovarian hyperstimulation was 0.8%. ART practice in Ireland is safe, effective and responsible. Financial and societal savings could result from the introduction of state funded IVF with compulsory eSET where recommended.

  6. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  7. Gas Foil Bearing Technology Advancements for Closed Brayton Cycle Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbine systems are under consideration for future space electric power generation. CBC turbines convert thermal energy from a nuclear reactor, or other heat source, to electrical power using a closed-loop cycle. The operating fluid in the closed-loop is commonly a high pressure inert gas mixture that cannot tolerate contamination. One source of potential contamination in a system such as this is the lubricant used in the turbomachine bearings. Gas Foil Bearings (GFB) represent a bearing technology that eliminates the possibility of contamination by using the working fluid as the lubricant. Thus, foil bearings are well suited to application in space power CBC turbine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center is actively researching GFB technology for use in these CBC power turbines. A power loss model has been developed, and the effects of a very high ambient pressure, start-up torque, and misalignment, have been observed and are reported here.

  8. Development of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors Technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    Richer, J; Santos, D; Barsuk, S; Hamar, G; Shah, M K; Catanesi, M G; Colaleo, A; Maggi, M; Loddo, F; Berardi, V; Bagliesi, M; Menon, G; Richter, R; Lahonde-hamdoun, C; Dris, M; Chechik, R; Ochi, A; Hartjes, F; Lopes, I M; Deshpande, A; Franz, A; Dabrowski, W; Fiutowski, T A; Ferreira, A; Bastos de oliveira, C A; Miller, B W; Monrabal-capilla, F; Liubarsky, I; Plazas de pinzon, M C; Tsarfati, T; Voss, B J R; Carmona martinez, J M; Stocchi, A; Dinu, N; Semeniouk, I; Giebels, B; Marton, K; De leo, R; De lucia, E; Alviggi, M; Bellerive, A; Herten, L G; Zimmermann, S U; Giomataris, I; Peyaud, A; Schune, P; Delagnes, E; Delbart, A; Charles, G; Wang, W; Markou, A; Arazi, L; Cibinetto, G; Edo, Y; Neves, F F; Solovov, V; Stoll, S; Sampsonidis, D; Mindur, B; Sauli, F; Calapez de albuquerque veloso, J F; Kahlaoui, N; Sharma, A; Zenker, K; Cebrian guajardo, S V; Luzon marco, G M; Guillaudin, O J H; Cornebise, P; Lounis, A; Bruel, P J; Laszlo, A; Mukerjee, K; Nappi, E; Nuzzo, S V; Bencivenni, G; Tessarotto, F; Levorato, S; Dixit, M S; Riallot, M; Jeanneau, F; Nizery, F G; Maltezos, S; Kyriakis, A; Lyashenko, A; Van der graaf, H; Ferreira marques, R; Alexa, C; Liyanage, N; Dehmelt, K; Hemmick, T K; Polychronakos, V; Cisbani, E; Garibaldi, F; Koperny, S Z; Das neves dias carramate, L F; Munoz-vidal, J; Gutierrez, R; Van stenis, M; Resnati, F; Lupberger, M; Desch, K K; Adloff, C J; Chefdeville, M; Vouters, G; Ranieri, A; Lami, S; Shekhtman, L; Dolgov, A; Bamberger, A; Landgraf, U; Kortner, O; Ferrero, A; Aune, S; Attie, D M; Bakas, G; Balossino, I; Tsigaridas, S; Surrow, B; Gnanvo, K A K; Feege, N M; Woody, C L; Bhattacharya, S; Capogni, M; Zielinska, A Z; Veenhof, R J; Tapan, I; Dangendorf, V; Monteiro bernades, C M; Castro serrato, H F; De oliveira, R; Ropelewski, L; Behnke, T; Boudry, V; Radicioni, E; Lai, A; Shemyakina, E; Giganon, A E; Titov, M; Papakrivopoulos, I; Komai, H; Van bakel, N A; Tchepel, V; Repond, J O; Li, Y; Kourkoumelis, C; Tzamarias, S; Majumdar, N; Kowalski, T; Da rocha azevedo, C D; Serra diaz cano, L; Alvarez puerta, V; Trabelsi, A; Riegler, W; Ketzer, B F; Rosemann, C G; Herrera munoz, D C; Drancourt, C; Mayet, F; Geerebaert, Y; De robertis, G; Felici, G; Scribano memoria, A; Cecchi, R; Dalla torre, S; Gregori, M; Buzulutskov, A; Schwegler, P; Sanchez nieto, F J; Colas, P M A; Gros, M; Neyret, D; Zito, M; Ferrer ribas, E; Breskin, A; Martoiu, V S; Purschke, M L; Loomba, D; Gasik, P J; Petridou, C; Kordas, K; Mukhopadhyay, S; Bucciantonio, M; Biagi, S F; Ji, X; Kanaki, K; Zavazieva, D; Capeans garrido, M D M; Schindler, H; Kaminski, J; Krautscheid, T; Lippmann, C; Arora, R; Dafni, T; Garcia irastorza, I; Puill, V; Wicek, F B; Burmistrov, L; Singh, K P; Pugliese, G; Kroha, H; Kunne, F; Alexopoulos, T; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Bettoni, D; Heijhoff, K; Xiao, Z; Tzanakos, G; Leisos, A; Frullani, S; Sahin, O; Kalkan, Y; Giboni, K; Krieger, C; Breton, D R; Bhattacharyya, S; Abbrescia, M; Erriquez, O; Paticchio, V; Cardini, A; Aloisio, A; Turini, N; Bressan, A; Tikhonov, Y; Schumacher, M; Simon, F R; Nowak, S; Herlant, S; Chaus, A; Fanourakis, G; Bressler, S; Homma, Y; Timmermans, J; Fonte, P; Underwood, D G; Azmoun, B; Fassouliotis, D; Wiacek, P; Dos santos covita, D; Monteiro da silva, A L; Yahlali haddou, N; Marques ferreira dos santos, J; Domingues amaro, F

    The proposed R&D collaboration, RD51, aims at facilitating the development of advanced gas-avalanche detector technologies and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. Advances in particle physics have always been enabled by parallel advances in radiation-detector technology. Radiation detection and imaging with gas-avalanche detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with a low material budget, have been playing an important role in many fields. Besides their widespread use in particle-physics and nuclear-physics experiments, gaseous detectors are employed in many other fields: astro-particle research and applications such as medical imaging, material science, and security inspection. While extensively employed at the LHC, RHIC, and other advanced HEP experiments, present gaseous detectors (wire-chambers, drift-tubes, resistive-plate chambers and others) have limitations which may prevent their use in future experiments. Present tec...

  9. Gas-discharge plasma sources for nonlocal plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, V. I.; DeJoseph, C. A. Jr.; Simonov, V. Ya.

    2007-01-01

    Nonlocal plasma technology is based on the effect of self-trapping of fast electrons in the plasma volume [V. I. Demidov, C. A. DeJoseph, Jr., and A. A. Kudryavtsev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 215002 (2006)]. This effect can be achieved by changing the ratio of fast electron flux to ion flux incident on the plasma boundaries. This in turn leads to a significant change in plasma properties and therefore can be useful for technological applications. A gas-discharge device which demonstrates control of the plasma properties by this method is described

  10. Gas-cooled reactor coolant circulator and blower technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    In the previous 17 meetings held within the framework of the International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors, a wide variety of topics and components have been addressed, but the San Diego meeting represented the first time that a group of specialists had been convened to discuss circulator and blower related technology. A total of 20 specialists from 6 countries attended the meeting in which 15 technical papers were presented in 5 sessions: circulator operating experience I and II (6 papers); circulator design considerations I and II (6 papers); bearing technology (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. International workshop on greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and measures: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the global climate system. Climate change country studies are a significant step for developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet their national reporting commitments to the FCCC. These studies also provide the basis for preparation of National Climate Change Action Plans and implementation of technologies and practices which reduce greenhouse gas emissions or enhance carbon sinks. The broad goals of the workshop were to: (1) present results of country study mitigation assessments, (2) identify promising no-regrets greenhouse gas mitigation options in land-use and energy sectors, (3) share information on development of mitigation technologies and measures which contribute to improved National Climate Change Actions Plans, and (4) begin the process of synthesizing mitigation assessments for use by FCCC subsidiary bodies. The 59 papers are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) national mitigation assessments, technology priorities, and measures; (2) sector-specific mitigation assessment results, subdivided further into: energy sector; non-energy sector; renewable energy; energy efficiency in industry and buildings; transportation; electricity supply; forestry; and methane mitigation; (3) support for mitigation technologies and measures; and (4) activities implemented jointly. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  13. Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge

    1999-10-01

    The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  14. Indicative energy technology assessment of UK shale gas extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; O’Grady, Áine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • UK shale gas ‘fracking’ is at a very early stage with an uncertain size of resource. • Shale gas extraction might benefit UK fuel security, as well as jobs and growth. • Potentially harmful environmental ‘side-effects’ must be monitored and regulated. • Gas bills for UK household and industrial consumers are unlikely to fall sharply. • Costs & benefits of shale gas fracking are unevenly distributed between communities. - Abstract: There is at present much interest in unconventional sources of natural gas, especially in shale gas which is obtained by hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’. Boreholes are drilled and then lined with steel tubes so that a mixture of water and sand with small quantities of chemicals – the fracking fluid – can be pumped into them at very high pressure. The sand grains that wedge into the cracks induced in the shale rock by a ‘perforating gun’ then releases gas which returns up the tubes. In the United Kingdom (UK) exploratory drilling is at an early stage, with licences being issued to drill a limited number of test boreholes around the country. However, such activities are already meeting community resistance and controversy. Like all energy technologies it exhibits unwanted ‘side-effects’; these simply differ in their level of severity between the various options. Shale gas may make, for example, a contribution to attaining the UK’s statutory ‘greenhouse gas’ emissions targets, but only if appropriate and robust regulations are enforced. The benefits and disadvantages of shale gas fracking are therefore discussed in order to illustrate a ‘balance sheet’ approach. It is also argued that it is desirable to bring together experts from a range of disciplines in order to carry out energy technology assessments. That should draw on and interact with national and local stakeholders: ‘actors’ both large and small. Community engagement in a genuinely participative process – where the

  15. Are Optical Gas Imaging Technologies Effective For Methane Leak Detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P; Wang, Jingfan; Brandt, Adam R

    2017-01-03

    Concerns over mitigating methane leakage from the natural gas system have become ever more prominent in recent years. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed regulations requiring use of optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies to identify and repair leaks. In this work, we develop an open-source predictive model to accurately simulate the most common OGI technology, passive infrared (IR) imaging. The model accurately reproduces IR images of controlled methane release field experiments as well as reported minimum detection limits. We show that imaging distance is the most important parameter affecting IR detection effectiveness. In a simulated well-site, over 80% of emissions can be detected from an imaging distance of 10 m. Also, the presence of "superemitters" greatly enhance the effectiveness of IR leak detection. The minimum detectable limits of this technology can be used to selectively target "superemitters", thereby providing a method for approximate leak-rate quantification. In addition, model results show that imaging backdrop controls IR imaging effectiveness: land-based detection against sky or low-emissivity backgrounds have higher detection efficiency compared to aerial measurements. Finally, we show that minimum IR detection thresholds can be significantly lower for gas compositions that include a significant fraction nonmethane hydrocarbons.

  16. System and method for treatment of a flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Perry, Robert James; McDermott, John Brian

    2017-09-19

    A method for treatment of a flue gas involves feeding the flue gas and a lean solvent to an absorber. The method further involves reacting the flue gas with the lean solvent within the absorber to generate a clean flue gas and a rich solvent. The method also involves feeding the clean flue gas from the absorber and water from a source, to a wash tower to separate a stripped portion of the lean solvent from the clean flue gas to generate a washed clean flue gas and a mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent. The method further involves treating at least a portion of the mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent via a separation system to separate the water from the stripped portion of the lean solvent.

  17. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  18. Non-Intrusive, Distributed Gas Sensing Technology for Advanced Spacesuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jesus; Phillips, Straun; Rubtsov, Vladimir; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Chemical sensors for monitoring gas composition, including oxygen, humidity, carbon dioxide, and trace contaminants, are needed to characterize and validate spacesuit design and operating parameters. This paper reports on the first prototypes of a non-intrusive gas sensing technology based on flexible sensitive patches positioned inside spacesuit prototypes and interrogated via optical fibers routed outside the suit, taking advantage of the transparent materials of the suit prototypes. The sensitive patches are based on luminescent materials whose emission parameters vary with the partial pressure of a specific gas. Patches sensitive to carbon dioxide, humidity, and temperature have been developed, and their preliminary laboratory characterization in Mark III-like helmet parts is described. The first prototype system consists of a four-channel fiber optic luminescent detector that can be used to monitor any of the selected target gases at four locations. To switch from one gas to another we replace the (disposable) sensor patches and adjust the system settings. Repeatability among sensitive patches and of sensor performance from location to location has been confirmed, assuring that suit engineers will have flexibility in selecting multiple sensing points, fitting the sensor elements into the spacesuit, and easily repositioning the sensor elements as desired. The evaluation of the first prototype for monitoring carbon dioxide during washout studies in a spacesuit prototype is presented.

  19. Development of a hydrogen gas sensor using microfabrication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Qinghai; Stuczynski, Matthew; Madzsar, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Microfabrication and micromachining technologies are used to produce a hydrogen gas sensor based on a palladium-silver film. The sensor uses a heater that is fabricated by diffusing p-type borones into the substrate, forming a resistance heater. A diode for temperature measurement is produced using p-type boron and n-type phosphor diffused into the substrate. A thickness of the palladium-silver film is approximately 300 arcsec. The hydrogen gas sensor employs the proven palladium-silver diode structure and is surrounded by a phosphor doped resistance heater which can be heated up to a temperature of 250 C. Experimental results show that the sensor is capable of operating over a wide range of hydrogen concentration levels between 0-95 percent without any hysteresis effects.

  20. An investigation of gas separation membranes for reduction of thermal treatment emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, D.M.; Logsdon, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    Gas permeable membranes were evaluated for possible use as air pollution control devices on a fluidized bed catalytic incineration unit. The unit is a candidate technology for treatment of certain mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cellulose acetate and polyimide membranes were tested to determine the permeance of typical off-gas components such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. Multi-component permeation studies included gas mixtures containing light hydrocarbons. Experiments were also conducted to discover information about potential membrane degradation in the presence of organic compounds

  1. Water Treatment Technology - Cross-Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on cross connections provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on cross connections terminology and control devices. For each…

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Chemistry/Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chemistry/bacteriology provides instructional materials for twelve competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: waterborne diseases, water sampling…

  3. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  5. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    Manure is a valuable fertiliser since it contains nutrients that are crucial for crop growth. Furthermore soil quality might be maintained or improved by the use of manure instead of mineral fertiliser, due to the presence of organic matter in manure. On the other hand, emissions to the environment...... occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...

  6. The Gas turbine Engine-based Power Technology Plant Using Wood Waste Gasification Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Danilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the problems of energy supply and waste utilization of the forest industries. As a solution, it proposes to use gasification to utilize wood leftovers, which is followed by electric power generation from combustion of producer gas. The plant was expected to have a power of 150 kW. The proposed power technology plant comprises a line for pre-treatment of wood chips, a gas generator (gasifier and a gas turbine unit.The paper justifies a need for preliminary preparation of wood waste, particularly chipping and drying. Various drying schemes have been analyzed. A line for pre-treatment of wood chips comprises a drum chipper, a receiving raw material wood container and a drum dryer using fume gases.A co-current gasifier is chosen because of the high content of tar in the original fuel. In the co-current gasifier, most of the tar, passing through the high temperature area, is burned. The paper offers high temperature dry cleaning of producer gas in the cyclone separator. Such a scheme of cleaning provides high efficiency of the plant and simplifies its design, but suspended particles still remain in the producer gas. When analyzing the schemes of power converters this is taken into account.A choice of the gas turbine as a power converter is justified. To reduce the erosion damage of the turbine blades there is a proposal to use an unconventional gas turbine scheme with air turbine and a combustion chamber located downstream of the turbine. In this plant the air rather than the combustion gas passes through the turbine. The air from turbine goes into the combustion chamber, the combustion gas passes through the air heater, where it transfers heat to the air. Such scheme allows reducing power costs for the fuel gas compression before the combustion chamber.Optimization of the gas turbine cycle is performed. The optimum compressor pressure ratio is 3,7. The plant efficiency for this pressure ratio is 25,7%. Calculation results of the

  7. Cervical Precancer Treatment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Technology Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Maza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide, with 90% of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There has been a global effort to increase access to affordable screening in these settings; however, a corresponding increase in availability of effective and inexpensive treatment modalities for ablating or excising precancerous lesions is also needed to decrease mortality. This article reviews the current landscape of available and developing technologies for treatment of cervical precancer in LMICs. At present, the standard treatment of most precancerous lesions in LMICs is gas-based cryotherapy. This low-cost, effective technology is an expedient treatment in many areas; however, obtaining and transporting gas is often difficult, and unwieldy gas tanks are not conducive to mobile health campaigns. There are several promising ablative technologies in development that are gasless or require less gas than conventional cryotherapy. Although further evaluation of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness is needed, several of these technologies are safe and can now be implemented in LMICs. Nonsurgical therapies, such as therapeutic vaccines, antivirals, and topical applications, are also promising, but most remain in early-stage trials. The establishment of evidence-based standardized protocols for available treatments and the development and introduction of novel technologies are necessary steps in overcoming barriers to treatment in LMICs and decreasing the global burden of cervical cancer. Guidance from WHO on emerging treatment technologies is also needed.

  8. Installation of laboratory scale flue gas treatment system at ALURTRON, MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti A'iasah Hashim; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khomsaton Abu Bakar, Ayub Muhamad

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory scale test rig to treat simulated flue gas using electron beam technology was installed at the Alurtron EB-irradiation center, MINT. The experiment test rig was proposed as a result of a feasibility studies conducted jointly by IAEA, MINT and TNB Research in 1997. The test rig system consisted of several components, among other, diesel generator, gas analyzers and spray cooler. The installation was completed and commissioned in October 2001. Results from the commissioning test runs and subsequent experimental work showed that the efficiency of the gas treatment is high. It was proven that electron beam technology might be applied in the treatment of air pollutants. This paper describes the design and work function of the individual major components as well as the full system function. Results from the initial experimental works are also presented. (Author)

  9. Comparing Natural Gas Leakage Detection Technologies Using an Open-Source "Virtual Gas Field" Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Chandler E; Ravikumar, Arvind P; Brandt, Adam R

    2016-04-19

    We present a tool for modeling the performance of methane leak detection and repair programs that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of detection technologies and proposed mitigation policies. The tool uses a two-state Markov model to simulate the evolution of methane leakage from an artificial natural gas field. Leaks are created stochastically, drawing from the current understanding of the frequency and size distributions at production facilities. Various leak detection and repair programs can be simulated to determine the rate at which each would identify and repair leaks. Integrating the methane leakage over time enables a meaningful comparison between technologies, using both economic and environmental metrics. We simulate four existing or proposed detection technologies: flame ionization detection, manual infrared camera, automated infrared drone, and distributed detectors. Comparing these four technologies, we found that over 80% of simulated leakage could be mitigated with a positive net present value, although the maximum benefit is realized by selectively targeting larger leaks. Our results show that low-cost leak detection programs can rely on high-cost technology, as long as it is applied in a way that allows for rapid detection of large leaks. Any strategy to reduce leakage should require a careful consideration of the differences between low-cost technologies and low-cost programs.

  10. Flue gas cleaning by electron beam technology in 21st

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guang; Luo Jingyu; Zhang Ming

    2005-01-01

    China is paying great attention to the pollution caused by flue gases including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, fine particles, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the environmental protection and sustainable development of China economy for 21st century. Among several promising processes, applicable to industrial scale, the electron beam (EB) scrubbing process can simultaneously remove SO 2 , NOx, PM-10 (particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter), VOC and CO 2 from the flue gas is a new high technology combined with radiation chemistry and electron accelerator technique. The EB flue gas purification process consists of the producing ionization in the EB irradiated gases followed by the formation of free radicals and active species which ultimately forming foggy sulfur acid and nitrate acid. These acids react further with added ammonia to form ammonium sulfate and nitrates as by-products, which can be fertilizer usable in agriculture. The next stage for this technology is its optimization for the reduction of electricity energy consumption and an effective collection of by-products. Lastly the investment cost for EB method is shown to be the most economic compared with other competing methods. (S. Ohno)

  11. Shale gas technology innovation rate impact on economic Base Case – Scenario model benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cash flow models control which technology is affordable in emerging shale gas plays. • Impact of technology innovation on IRR can be as important as wellhead price hikes. • Cash flow models are useful for technology decisions that make shale gas plays economic. • The economic gap can be closed by appropriate technology innovation. - Abstract: Low gas wellhead prices in North America have put its shale gas industry under high competitive pressure. Rapid technology innovation can help companies to improve the economic performance of shale gas fields. Cash flow models are paramount for setting effective production and technology innovation targets to achieve positive returns on investment in all global shale gas plays. Future cash flow of a well (or cluster of wells) may either improve further or deteriorate, depending on: (1) the regional volatility in gas prices at the wellhead – which must pay for the gas resource extraction, and (2) the cost and effectiveness of the well technology used. Gas price is an externality and cannot be controlled by individual companies, but well technology cost can be reduced while improving production output. We assume two plausible scenarios for well technology innovation and model the return on investment while checking against sensitivity to gas price volatility. It appears well technology innovation – if paced fast enough – can fully redeem the negative impact of gas price decline on shale well profits, and the required rates are quantified in our sensitivity analysis

  12. Flue gas condensation cleaning technology; Reningsteknik vid roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermark, M. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    Flue gas condensation has become established as an economical and environmentally attractive method for heat recovery and flue gas cleaning. Effective capture is wanted for dust and flue gas components. This also leads to more advanced treatment of the condensate. Important aspects for present plants are removal of heavy metals, sulfur oxides and ammonia. Future areas are condensation in biofuel driers, small-scale oil- and natural gas boilers and boilers using Salix. High concentrations of heavy metals are reported in refuse boilers, where sulphide precipitation and filtration are used to minimize outlet concentrations in the condensate. For simple dust cleaning (multicyclones) filtration of condensate is normally demanded. The pH value should be increased (to {approx} 7,5-9) for precipitation of heavy metals; zinc and cadmium being the most relevant from environmental point of view. Salix contains considerably higher amounts of cadmium, and may need sulphide precipitation. Addition of sodium hydroxide to the condensate film gives 90-95% absorption of sulfur dioxide. The pH value 6-6,5 is optimal for good removal of sulfur compounds and ammonias, and minimizes carbon dioxide absorption. For avoiding corrosion on concrete pipes the outlet condensate has to be neutralized. Ammonia is formed during combustion of fuels containing nitrogen and can be found in flue gases from e.g. biofuels. For SNCR extra ammonia is added. The main part ({approx} 60-95%) of the ammonia in flue gas is absorbed as ammonia ions in the condensate. Normal ammonium concentration in condensate is about 30-50 g/m{sup 3} without SNCR and 50-150 g/m{sup 3} with SNCR. Removal of ammonia from condensates can become necessary and methods are under development for stripping of ammonia with air or steam. 27 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs, 14 appendices

  13. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  14. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  15. Membrane bioreactors for waste gas treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Hartmans, S.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the recent development of membrane reactors for biological treatment of waste gases. In this type of bioreactor gaseous pollutants are transferred through a membrane to the liquid phase, where micro-organisms degrade the pollutants. The membrane bioreactor combines the

  16. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedient, P.B.

    1995-01-16

    This study examines wastes associated with the onshore exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in the US. The objective of this study was to update and enhance the current state of knowledge with regard to oil and gas waste quantities, the potential environmental impact of these wastes, potential methods of treatment, and the costs associated with meeting various degrees of treatment. To meet this objective, the study consisted of three tasks: (1) the development of a production Environmental Database (PED) for the purpose of assessing current oil and gas waste volumes by state and for investigating the potential environmental impacts associated with current waste disposal practices on a local scale; (2) the evaluation of available and developing technologies for treating produced water waste streams and the identification of unit process configurations; and (3) the evaluation of the costs associated with various degrees of treatment achievable by different treatment configurations. The evaluation of feasible technologies for the treatment of produced water waste streams was handled in the context of comparing the level of treatment achievable with the associated cost of treatment. Treatment processes were evaluated for the removal of four categories of produced water contaminants: particulate material, volatile organic compounds, adsorbable organic compounds, and dissolved inorganic species. Results showed dissolved inorganic species to be the most costly to remove. The potential cost of treating all 18.3 billion barrels of produced water generated in a year amounts to some 15 billion dollars annually.

  17. Partitioning Gas Tracer Technology for Measuring Water in Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briening, M. L.; Jakubowitch, A.; Imhoff, P. T.; Chiu, P. C.; Tittlebaum, M. E.

    2002-12-01

    Unstable landfills can result in significant environmental contamination and can become a risk to public health. To reduce this risk, water may be added to landfills to ensure that enough moisture exists for biodegradation of organic wastes. In this case risks associated with future breaks in the landfill cap are significantly reduced because organic material is degraded more rapidly. To modify moisture conditions and enhance biodegradation, leachate is typically collected from the bottom of the landfill and then recirculated near the top. It is difficult, though, to know how much leachate to add and where to add it to achieve uniform moisture conditions. This situation is exacerbated by the heterogeneous nature of landfill materials, which is known to cause short circuiting of infiltrating water, a process that has been virtually impossible to measure or model. Accurate methods for measuring the amount of water in landfills would be valuable aids for implementing leachate recirculation systems. Current methods for measuring water are inadequate, though, since they provide point measurements and are frequently affected by heterogeneity of the solid waste composition and solid waste compaction. The value of point measurements is significantly reduced in systems where water flows preferentially, such as in landfills. Here, spatially integrated measurements might be of greater value. In this research we are evaluating a promising technology, the partitioning gas tracer test, to measure the water saturation within landfills, the amount of free water in solid waste divided by the volume of the voids. The partitioning gas tracer test was recently developed by researchers working in the vadose zone. In this methodology two gas tracers are injected into a landfill. One tracer is non-reactive with landfill materials, while the second partitions into and out of free water trapped within the pore space of the solid waste. Chromatographic separation of the tracers occurs

  18. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  19. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  20. ENDOSCOPIC TECHNOLOGIES IN EARLY RECTAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Samsonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.

  1. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  2. Advances in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    This publication reports on the results of a coordinated research project on advances in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel technology and describes the findings of research activities on coated particle developments. These comprise two specific benchmark exercises with the application of HTGR fuel performance and fission product release codes, which helped compare the quality and validity of the computer models against experimental data. The project participants also examined techniques for fuel characterization and advanced quality assessment/quality control. The key exercise included a round-robin experimental study on the measurements of fuel kernel and particle coating properties of recent Korean, South African and US coated particle productions applying the respective qualification measures of each participating Member State. The summary report documents the results and conclusions achieved by the project and underlines the added value to contemporary knowledge on HTGR fuel.

  3. Advances in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This publication reports on the results of a coordinated research project on advances in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel technology and describes the findings of research activities on coated particle developments. These comprise two specific benchmark exercises with the application of HTGR fuel performance and fission product release codes, which helped compare the quality and validity of the computer models against experimental data. The project participants also examined techniques for fuel characterization and advanced quality assessment/quality control. The key exercise included a round-robin experimental study on the measurements of fuel kernel and particle coating properties of recent Korean, South African and US coated particle productions applying the respective qualification measures of each participating Member State. The summary report documents the results and conclusions achieved by the project and underlines the added value to contemporary knowledge on HTGR fuel.

  4. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  5. Air and gas cleaning technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    All large-scale uses of radioactive materials require rigid control of off-gases and generated aerosols. Nuclear air and gas cleaning technology has answered the need from the days of the Manhattan Project to the present with a variety of devices. The one with the longest and most noteworthy service is the HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter that originally was referred to as an absolute filter in recognition of its extraordinary particle retention characteristics. Activated-charcoal adsorbers have been employed worldwide for retention of volatile radioiodine in molecular and combined forms and, less frequently, for retention of radioactive noble gases. HEPA filters and activated -charcoal adsorbers are often used with auxiliary devices that serve to extend their effective service life or significantly improve collection efficiency under unfavorable operating conditions. Use of both air cleaning devices and their auxiliaries figure prominently in atomic energy, disposal of high- and low-level nuclear wastes, and in the production of fissile materials. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy would be impossible without these, or equivalent, air- and gas-cleaning devices

  6. Stimulation technologies for Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and their application results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yongqiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Longwangmiao Fm group gas reservoirs in the Moxi structure in central Sichuan Basin feature high temperature, high pressure and high H2S content. The thickness of such high permeable reservoirs with great homogeneity is a geologic basis for a high-productivity gas well, and good match of natural fractures and vugs is the key factor to high well productivity. Overbalance drilling is likely to cause the opening-up of natural fractures, which will lead to the leakage of drilling fluid and severe damage to the reservoir. Experimental evaluation results show that the damage rate of the drilling fluid to the rock sample is between 82.2% and 89.2%, which severely restricts the productivity of gas wells. Therefore, it is necessary to deepen the experimental evaluation technologies and methods to promote the design pertinence of technical parameters. The study shows: first, the optimized gelling acid and steering acid are effective in slowing down speed and removing blockage, forming acidizing wormholes and effectively eliminating the blockage effect caused by drilling liquid pollution; second, the self-developed fiber steering agent and soluble temporary blocking ball can divert the acid, increasing the processing pressure at the well bottom by 5–15 MPa, realizing the even stimulation of heterogeneous reservoirs; third, based on experimental evaluation such as the acid penetration and acid rock reaction, it is recommended that the pumping rate be 3.0–3.5 m3/min in acidizing treatment and the acid intensity for blockage removal be 3.0–5.0 m3/m; fourth, the established blockage removal and steering acidizing technology have been applied in more than 20 wells with a remarkable productivity-increase effect, which gives full play to the natural productivity of gas wells and decreases the acid application scale. All these technologies and measures effectively enhance the development quality and profit of the gas reservoir.

  7. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  8. Comprehensive treatment for gas gangrene of the limbs in earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Lu, Bo; Hao, Peng; Yan, Meng-ning; Dai, Ke-rong

    2013-10-01

    Mortality rates for patients with gas gangrene from trauma or surgery are as high as 25%, but they increase to 50%-80% for patients injured in natural hazards. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for these patients. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and therapeutic results of 19 patients with gas gangrene of the limbs, who were injured in the May 2008 earthquake in the Wenchuan district of China's Sichuan province and treated in our hospital, to seek how to best diagnose and treat earthquake-induced gas gangrene. Of 226 patients with limbs open injuries sustained during the earthquake, 53 patients underwent smear analysis of wound exudates and gas gangrene was diagnosed in 19 patients. The average elapsed time from injury to arrival at the hospital was 72 hours, from injury to definitive diagnosis was 4.3 days, and from diagnosis to conversion of negative findings on wound smear analysis to positive findings was 12.7 days. Anaerobic cultures were also obtained before wound closure. The average elapsed time from completion of surgery to recovery of normal vital signs was 6.3 days. Of the 19 patients, 16 were treated with open amputation, two with closed amputation, and 1 with successful limb salvage; 18 patients were successfully treated and one died. In earthquakes, rapid, accurate screening and isolation are essential to successful treatment of gas gangrene and helpful in preventing nosocomial diffusion. Early and thorough debridement, open amputation, and active supportive treatment can produce satisfactory therapeutic results.

  9. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  10. Membranes for Flue Gas Treatment - Transport behavior of water and gas in hydrophilic polymer membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Potreck, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Fossil fuel fired power plants produce electricity and in addition to that large volume flows of flue gas, which mainly contain N2, O2, and CO2, but also large quantities of water vapor. To prevent condensation of the water vapor present in this flue gas stream, water needs to be removed before emission to the atmosphere. Commercial dehydration processes such as the use of a condenser or a desiccant system have several disadvantages and membrane technology is an attractive, energy efficient a...

  11. Water treatment technology for produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szép, Angéla; Kohlheb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of produced water are generated during oil and gas production. Produced water, as it is known in the oil industry, is briny fluid trapped in the rock of oil reservoirs. The objective of this study was to test produced waters from a Montana USA oilfield using a mobile station to design a plant to cost efficiently treat the produced water for agricultural irrigation. We used combined physical and chemical treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. This mobile station consists of three stages: pretreatments, membrane filtration and post treatment. Two spiral-wound membrane units were employed and the rejections of various constituents were examined. The performance of two membranes, 20 kDa weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafiltration and a polyamide-composite reverse osmosis membrane was investigated. The mobile station effectively decreased conductivity by 98%, COD by 100% and the SAR by 2.15 mgeqv(0.5) in the produced water tested in this study. Cost analysis showed that the treatment cost of produced water is less expensive than to dispose of it by injection and this treated water may be of great value in water-poor regions. We can conclude that the mobile station provided a viable and cost-effective result to beneficial use of produced water.

  12. An overview on exploration and environmental impact of unconventional gas sources and treatment options for produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia L S; Morales-Torres, Sergio; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Figueiredo, José L; Silva, Adrián M T

    2017-09-15

    Rising global energy demands associated to unbalanced allocation of water resources highlight the importance of water management solutions for the gas industry. Advanced drilling, completion and stimulation techniques for gas extraction, allow more economical access to unconventional gas reserves. This stimulated a shale gas revolution, besides tight gas and coalbed methane, also causing escalating water handling challenges in order to avoid a major impact on the environment. Hydraulic fracturing allied to horizontal drilling is gaining higher relevance in the exploration of unconventional gas reserves, but a large amount of wastewater (known as "produced water") is generated. Its variable chemical composition and flow rates, together with more severe regulations and public concern, have promoted the development of solutions for the treatment and reuse of such produced water. This work intends to provide an overview on the exploration and subsequent environmental implications of unconventional gas sources, as well as the technologies for treatment of produced water, describing the main results and drawbacks, together with some cost estimates. In particular, the growing volumes of produced water from shale gas plays are creating an interesting market opportunity for water technology and service providers. Membrane-based technologies (membrane distillation, forward osmosis, membrane bioreactors and pervaporation) and advanced oxidation processes (ozonation, Fenton, photocatalysis) are claimed to be adequate treatment solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. FMECA about pre-treatment system for purge gas of test blanket module in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The pre-treatment system for purge gas of TBM will be installed in Port Cell for installing TBM in ITER, the function of which includes filtering purge gas, removing HTO, cooling, and adjusting flow rate, etc. The purge gas treated will be conveyed into TES (Tritium Extraction System). The technological process and system components in pre-treatment system were introduced. Tritium releasing risk was regarded as failure criterion; failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) were carried out and several weaknesses or failure mode in the system were found. Besides, risk priority number (RPN) and failure mode criticality were calculated. Finally, some design improvement measures and usage compensation measures were given. At last, four important potential failure modes were found out. The analysis will provide the design basis for reducing risk of excessive tritium releasing, which is also a useful assist for safety analysis about other tritium system. (authors)

  14. Toluene : biological waste-gas treatment, toxicity and microbial adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the increasing stringent legislation concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds, there is nowadays a growing interest to apply biological waste-gas treatment techniques for the removal of higher concentrations of specific contaminants from waste gases. Fluctuations in the

  15. Treatment of waste using a hybrid gas- water stabilized torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van Oost, G.; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš; Hlína, Michal; Kavka, Tetyana; Beeckman, E.; Verstraeten, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 7-12. ISBN 4-9900642-4-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * pyrolysis * waste treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  16. Environmental impacts of energy facilities: fuel cell technology compared with coal and conventional gas technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut L.; Thorstensen, Bernt; Wang, Hagbarth

    We compare the environmental side effects of power plants based on fuel cell technology with the side effects of conventional electric power plants based on coal and natural gas. The environmental impact of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant is very much less than that of a coal-fired plant (a factor of {1}/{300} for air pollution and a factor of {1}/{5} for water pollution). Compared with a conventional gas plant, impact is reduced by between 50 and 98%. Damage to cultural monuments and buildings is negligible from a fuel cell plant. Socioeconomic negative impacts are reduced by about 30% relative to conventional gas plants (aesthetics and noise) whereas employment is unaltered. Impact on health and safety is greatly reduced compared with that from coal-fired plants and is about 70% of that from conventional gas plants. Preliminary results suggest that society's willingness to pay (WTP) for clean air, and thereby better health, matches the cost of installing emission-reducing equipment on conventional power plants. There is probably an additional WTP for other benefits (e.g., decreased risk of global warming). Thus, the utility of very small emissions, lower CO 2 discharges, and other benefits from SOFC generators may compensate for the increased cost incurred in producing electricity by SOFC generators.

  17. WATER MICROPOLLUTANTS: CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the different kinds of emerging contaminants, their origin and use, and their presence in the Spanish waters, both in surface and groundwater. Micropollutants are compounds of different origin and chemical nature which had been unnoticed (due to their low concentration and don’t have specific regulation. They are divided into six major groups, and many of them behave as endocrine disruptors causing large negative effects on human health and environment. They are in waters because the waste water treatment plants are not designed for their removal, so they are being discharged. Different alternatives for their removal are discussed - physico- chemical, biological and hybrid treatment technologies -. Among the physicochemical process, the advance oxidation processes (AOPs are very promising.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: BIOQUELL, INC. CLARIS C HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Clarus C Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Generator, a biological decontamination device manufactured by BIOQUELL, Inc. The unit was tested by evaluating its ability to decontaminate seven types...

  19. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  20. Improved of Natural Gas Storage with Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) Technology Using Activated Carbon from Plastic Waste Polyethylene Terepthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Hardhi, M.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia imports high amount of Fuel Oil. Although Indonesia has abundant amount of natural gas reserve, the obstacle lies within the process of natural gas storage itself. In order to create a safe repository, the ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) technology is planned. ANG technology in itself has been researched much to manufacture PET-based activated carbon for natural gas storage, but ANG still has several drawbacks. This study begins with making preparations for the equipment and materials that will be used, by characterizing the natural gas, measuring the empty volume, and degassing. The next step will be to examine the adsorption process. The maximum storage capacity obtained in this study for a temperature of 27°C and pressure of 35 bar is 0.0586 kg/kg, while for the desorption process, a maximum value for desorption efficiency was obtained on 35°C temperature with a value of 73.39%.

  1. The gas turbine: Present technology and future developments; La turbina a gas: Tecnologie attuali e gli sviluppi futuri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minghetti, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    The gas turbine is the most widely used prime mover all over the world for either power generation or mechanical drive applications. The above fact is due to the recent great improvements that have been done especially in terms of efficiency, availability and reliability. The future for gas turbine technological development looks very promising. In fact, although tremendous growth has already taken place, there is still the potential for dramatic improvements in performance. Compared with the competitive prime movers (conventional steam power plants and reciprocating piston engines) the gas turbine technology is younger and still following a strong growth curve. The coming decades will witness the continued increasing in turbine inlet temperature, the development of new materials and refrigeration systems and the commercialization of inter cooled system and steam cooled turbines. With the very soon introduction of the {sup G }and {sup H }technology, expected single and combined cycle efficiencies for heavy duty machines are respectively 40% and 60%, while maintaining single digit levels in pollutant emissions. In this report are given wide information on gas turbine present technology (Thermodynamics, features, design, performances, emission control, applications) and are discussed the main lines for the future developments. Finally are presented the research and technological development activities on gas turbine of Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department.

  2. Technologies applied to wells producing gas in Bolivia; Tecnologias aplicadas aos pocos produtores de gas em Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Fernando R.B. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carrillo, Marco A.; Barrerro, Dennys A. [PETROBRAS Bolivia S.A., La Paz (Bolivia)

    2012-07-01

    The This paper seeks to highlight the engineering, lessons learned and topics for improvement of the technologies used in gas wells drilled between November 2008 and October 2011 in an environment of Bolivian' subandino. Among technologies employed and commented hereunder has the drilling gas reservoirs in near balance using a dual phase fluid, with nitrogen; carrying out multilateral wells equipped with intelligent completion in such environment; as well as other technologies presented herein. This document was prepared on drilling operations performed in SAL-15, SAL-17, SBLSBL- 7 and SBL-8, comprising the period from November 2008 to October 2011. (author)

  3. Dynamic prediction technology for gas based on data fusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Liang-shan; Fu, Gui-xiang [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). Institute of System Engineering

    2008-05-15

    A new method was presented based on the fusion method, using Bayesian analysis and self-adapting weighted data to process information and fuse data. It used the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory to deal with the uncertainty produced in gas prediction. It comprehensively considered the gas concentration and other related parameters and realized the optimization and integration of gas measurement and predicted parameters. This method improves the accuracy of gas detection systems for coal mines. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Treatment of organic waste using thermal plasma pyrolysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tang, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the principles of thermal plasma pyrolysis processes and discusses recent research activities about organic waste treatment using thermal plasma pyrolysis technology. Different kinds of organic wastes, varying from plastic and used tires to agricultural residue and medical waste, have been subjected to thermal plasma pyrolysis tests in laboratory and pilot scale projects. Plasma pyrolysis of organic waste usually gives two product streams: a combustible gas having a calorific value in the range of 4-9 MJ/Nm 3 and a carbonaceous residue. Pyrolysis conditions as well as some technical measures such as the quenching process and steam reforming have significant influences on the properties of these pyrolysis products. Research results indicated that thermal plasma pyrolysis may be a useful way of waste management for energy and material recovery

  5. AN OVERVIEW OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Ramona SURDU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water-resource management key issues include the re-use of wastewater for drinkingwater supply or for industrial or agriculture purposes. In this context, the organic contaminants effects in sewage water entering theenvironment have gained more attention. The studies carried out for these contaminants varied widely, as a function of the substances: pesticides, pharmaceuticalsand diagnostic contrast products, personal care products,antibiotics and so on. Most of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are not really designed totreat these type of compounds and an important part of emerging compounds may enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents.This study gives an overview of the research concerning the technological steps that must be achieved in WWTP’s, in order to reduce at maximum theoccurrence oforganic substances in effluents.

  6. Polarized 3He gas circulating technologies for neutron analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, David W. [Xemed, LLC, Durham, NH (United States)

    2017-10-02

    We outline our project to develop a circulating polarized helium-3 system for developing of large, quasi-continuously operating neutron analyzers. The project consisted of four areas: 1) Development of robust external cavity narrowed diode laser output with spectral line width < 0.17 nm and power of 2000 W. 2) Development of large glass polarizing cells using cell surface treatments to obtain long relaxation lifetimes. 3) Refinements of the circulation system with an emphasis on gas purification and materials testing. 4) Design/fabrication of a new polarizer system. 5) Preliminary testing of the new polarizer. 1. Developed Robust High-Power Narrowed Laser The optical configuration of the laser was discussed in the proposal and will be reviewed in the body of this report. The external cavity is configured to mutually lock the wavelength of five 10-bar laser stacks. All the logistical milestones were been met and critical subsystems- laser stack manifold and power divider, external laser cavity, and output telescope- were assembled and tested at low power. Each individual bar is narrowed to ~0.05 nm; when combined the laser has a cumulative spectral width of 0.17 nm across the entire beam due to variations of the bars central wavelength by +/- 0.1 nm, which is similar to that of Volume Bragg Grating narrowed laser bars. This configuration eliminates the free-running “pedestal” that occurs in other external cavity diode lasers. The full-scale laser was completed in 2016 and was used in both the older and newer helium polarizers. This laser was operated at 75% power for periods of up to 8 hours. Once installed, the spectrum became slightly broader (~.25 nm) at full power; this is likely due to very slight misalignments that occurred during handling. 2. Developed the processes to create uniform sintered sol-gel coatings. Our work on cell development comprised: 1) Production of large GE180 cells and explore different means of cell preparation, and 2) Development of

  7. The Application of Electron Beam Machine for Flue Gas Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko

    2006-01-01

    The emission of environmental pollutant such as SO 2 and NO x into atmosphere from heavy industrial activities in particular from fossil fuel burning in electricity production has been recognized one of main source of environmental pollution. These environmental pollutants sometimes travel more than thousand kilometers and make a trouble in other places, even in other countries, therefore the problem of the air pollution became world-wide problem. Now many countries are introducing more strict emission control regulations to solve the problem. Electron beam treatment of flue gas is now regarded as a promising pollution control method with some advantages; simultaneous reduction of SO 2 and NO x with high removal efficiency, being a dry process, yields a by-product with can be used as agriculture fertilizer, and so on. In this paper will be discussed concerning electron beam machine and its application for flue gas treatment produced from coal burning in the electric power station. (author)

  8. Stream conversion technology and gas condensate field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntadi, Arif

    2012-07-01

    In the last few years, integrated modeling has become a preferred tool in the petroleum industry to manage the value chain of different assets. It is slowly replacing the traditional modeling approach that treats each petroleum asset model separately. Having different discipline models and applications in a single platform will ensure more consistency of the value chain from one asset to another. Integrated modeling also enables engineers to optimize assets, both locally and globally, using an automatic approach. Coupling of different petroleum assets entails transferring and combining petroleum streams from one asset to the others. Stream conversion is a key requirement in integrated modeling because petroleum assets usually have their own fluid model, and it is rare to have a single common fluid model in both the subsurface and surface simulation models. This thesis investigates different stream conversion methods and provides important technologies for integrating different petroleum assets into an integrated asset model. These stream conversions are expected to have highly accurate results and reduce the computational time. Reservoir engineers have utilized both compositional and black-oil reservoir simulations for many years. Due to the CPU-time consideration, the EOS model used in a compositional simulation is normally limited to 6-10 components, a so-called lumped EOS model. We propose a delumping method to generate detailed compositional streams from either black-oil or compositional (lumped-EOS) reservoir simulations, performed as a simple post-processing step. These methods are based on a set of phase-specific and pressure-dependent split factors. The reservoir simulation phase behavior can be approximated by a PVT depletion experiment, such as the CCE depletion experiment. We have used this approach to develop the blackoil and compositional delumping method applied to the reservoir simulation output. The split factors are generated from simulated

  9. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Timothy V [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon

  10. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to the current project, development of the DSRP was done in a laboratory setting, using synthetic gas mixtures to simulate the regeneration off-gas and coal gas feeds. The objective of the current work is to further the development of zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the DSRP for hot-gas cleanup by testing with actual coal gas. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Develop and test an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system with a slipstream of actual coal gas; (2) Test the bench-scale DSRP over an extended period with a slipstream of actual coal gas to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); (3) Expose the DSRP catalyst to actual coal gas for extended periods and then test its activity in a laboratory reactor to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by static exposure to the trace contaminants in coal gas; (4) Design and fabricate a six-fold larger-scale DSRP reactor system for future slipstream testing; (5) Further develop the fluidized-bed DSRP to handle high concentrations (up to 14 percent) of SO 2 that are likely to be encountered when pure air is used for regeneration of desulfurization sorbents; and (6) Conduct extended field testing of the 6X DSRP reactor with actual coal gas and high concentrations of SO 2 . The accomplishment of the first three objectives--testing the DSRP with actual coal gas, integration with hot-gas desulfurization, and catalyst exposure testing--was described previously (Portzer and Gangwal, 1994, 1995; Portzer et al., 1996). This paper summarizes the results of previous work and describes the current activities and plans to accomplish the remaining objectives

  11. Challenges of Membrane Filtration for Produced Water Treatment in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2016-01-01

    the Water Flooding Technology (WFT) is employed. The quality requirements for WFT and the increasing environmental concerns for produced water discharge lead to increased interest in zero-pollutant discharge. Traditional Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technologies(such as hydrocyclones) are already......Tremendous amount of produced water are discharged into the sea from offshore oil & gas installations. Along with every barrel of oil three barrels of water are produced and this is only worsen as the fields mature. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is employed to increase production, as a part of EOR...... struggling to their fundamental limit, therefore the membrane filtration technology turns to be a potential candidate for zero pollutant discharge. Membrane filtration technology suffers from the notorious fouling problem, where many methods for fouling prevention and removal are explored, the general idea...

  12. Numerical simulation and field test study of desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment through flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jia-Jia; Pan, Liang-Ming; Chen, De-Qi; Dong, Yu-Quan; Wang, Cheng-Mu; Liu, Hang; Kang, Mei-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at cost saving and pollution reduction, a novel desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment system (DWETS) for handling wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastewater of a coal-fired power plant was studied. The system's advantages include simple process, and less investment and space. The feasibility of this system has been proven and the appropriate position and number of nozzles, the spray droplet size and flue gas temperature limitation have been obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulation results show that a longer duct, smaller diameter and higher flue gas temperature could help to increase the evaporation rate. The optimal DWETS design of Shangdu plant is 100 μm droplet sprayed by two nozzles located at the long duct when the flue gas temperature is 130 °C. Field tests were carried out based on the simulation results. The effects of running DWETS on the downstream devices have been studied. The results show that DWETS has a positive impact on ash removal efficiency and does not have any negative impact on the electrostatic precipitator (ESP), flue gas heat exchanger and WFGD. The pH values of the slurry of WFGD slightly increase when the DWETS is running. The simulation and field test of the DWETS show that it is a feasible future technology for desulfurization wastewater treatment.

  13. Treatment technology of laundry liquid waste in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijima, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    The current status of laundry facilities, generation amount and characteristics of laundry drain, and treatment technologies, have been discussed in this paper. Though a number of technologies have been and applied for laundry treatment, the search for more economical and reliable technologies continues in Japan. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Solid waste treatment by microwave irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid Nasir Ani; Arshad Adam Salema

    2010-01-01

    Strict legislative laws both nationally and internationally have enforced the waste management expertise to develop new technologies with regard to waste treatment facilities. This is because the waste is directly linked to human development, technologically, socially and environmentally. In present research work, solid (oil palm biomass and scrap tire) wastes were subjected to microwave irradiation system. Since these wastes are found abundantly locally as well as in surrounding areas of Malaysia. The aim of the present work was to investigate the pyrolysis behavior of oil palm biomass and scrap tires under microwave radiation. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis process was used to produce pyrolysis-oil by mixing waste materials with suitable microwave absorber at different ratio. A modified domestic microwave system with maximum power of 1000 W and 2450 MHz frequency was used. The results showed that the ratio of biomass to microwave absorber plays a significant role on the yield of bio-oil. Temperature profiles revealed the heating characteristics of the waste materials. Generation of heat within the material under microwave is so instantaneous that it takes few seconds to reach high temperature which otherwise is difficult to achieve in conventional systems. Hence, the time and energy consumption of process is significantly reduced by using microwaves irradiation technique. This leads to a lower process cost. Pyrolysis oil from scrap tires showed high heating values. Bio-oil from oil palm biomass showed lower viscosity due to presence of water content and compounds such as phenol, aldehyde and others were detected through FT-IR analysis. Biomass char image analysis showed porous nature when treated with microwave technique however it showed large cracks when treated with conventional electrical furnace. Overall, the results revealed that the waste can be treated efficiently, effectively and environmentally by using new microwave irradiation technique. (author)

  15. Production of "Green Natural Gas" Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC): Status of Technology and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives arguments in favour of using green natural gas (GNG) as storage media for the intermittent renewable energy sources. GNG is here defined as being CH4, i.e. methane, often called synthetic natural gas or substitute natural gas (SNG), produced using renewable or at least CO2 neutral...... energy sources only. Also dimethyl ether (DME = (CH3)2O), which might be called Liquefied Green Gas, LGG, in analogy to Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LPG, because DME has properties similar to LPG. It further gives a short review of the state of the art of electrolysis in general and SOEC in particular....... Production of synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from CO2 and H2O using SOEC technology is evaluated. GNG and LGG can be produced from synthesis gas (or short: syngas) by means of well established commercially available catalysis technology. Finally, estimations of costs and efficiencies are presented and the relative...

  16. The gas heterogeneous flows cleaning technology from corona discharge field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A.; Tokarev, A.; Judanov, V.; Vinogradov, V.

    2017-11-01

    A nanogold capture and extraction from combustion products of Kara-Keche coal, description the process: a coal preparation to experiments, nanogold introducing in its composition, temperature and time performance of combustion, device and function of experimental apparatus, gas-purification of the gas flow process and receiving combustion products (condensate, coke, ash, rags) is offerred.

  17. Electron beam flue gas treatment. Research cooperation among JAERI, IAEA and INCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The research co-operation is conducted among Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Poland (INCT) on Electron Beam Flue Gas Treatment from January 1993 to March 1997. The first phase of the cooperation was carried out for 3 years from January 1993 to March 1995. This cooperation was performed through information exchange meetings (Coordination Meetings), held in Takasaki and Warsaw, and experiments and discussions by exchange scientists. Many useful results were obtained on electron beam treatment of flue gas from coal-combustion heat generation plant in Kaweczyn within the frame work of the research co-operation. This report includes the main results of the tripartite research cooperation. (author)

  18. Membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1998-01-01

    At Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) the membrane method for purification of radioactive wastes applied such processes as ultrafiltration (UF), 'seeded' ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO) was developed. On the basis of the results obtained in laboratory experiments the pilot plant for radioactive effluents treatment was built. The plant was composed of UF unit (AMICON H 26P30 capillary module) and two RO units (NITTO NTR 739 HF S-4 spiral wound LPRO modules). The capacity of the pilot plant was up to 200 L/h and the specific activity of wastes purified in the system - below 10 4 Bq/L. Decontamination factor for entire system is higher than 5 x10 3 . Another possibility for radioactive wastes treatment is membrane distillation (MD), non-isothermal process employing hydrophobic polymer membrane, which is developed at INCT now. Preliminary tests with liquid radwaste were carried out on laboratory unit with permeation test-cell holding flat sheet membrane. As a hydrophobic barrier membranes made of two polymers were used: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP). The process was arranged in direct contact membrane distillation configuration. The permeate condensed directly in the cold stream (distilled water) and retentate was enriched in radionuclides. The further experiments carried out with capillary module BFMF 06-30-33 (Euro-Sep Ltd.) with polypropylene capillaries, diameter 0.33 mm and cut off 0.6 μm proved previous results. A pilot plant employing GORE-TEX membrane distillation was constructed. The plant can clean the low-level radioactive wastes from nuclear centre, at a throughput about 0.05 m 3 /h

  19. The comparison of greenhouse gas emissions in sewage treatment plants with different treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shuhei; Sano, Itsumi; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You; Nishimura, Osamu

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from different sewage treatment plants: oxidation ditch process, double-circulated anoxic-oxic process and anoxic-oxic process were evaluated based on the survey. The methane and nitrous oxide characteristics were discussed based on the gaseous and dissolved gas profiles. As a result, it was found that methane was produced in the sewer pipes and the primary sedimentation tank. Additionally, a ventilation system would promote the gasification of dissolved methane in the first treatment units. Nitrous oxide was produced and emitted in oxic tanks with nitrite accumulation inside the sewage treatment plant. A certain amount of nitrous oxide was also discharged as dissolved gas through the effluent water. If the amount of dissolved nitrous oxide discharge is not included, 7-14% of total nitrous oxide emission would be overlooked. Based on the greenhouse gas calculation, electrical consumption and the N 2 O emission from incineration process were major sources in all the plants. For greenhouse gas reduction, oxidation ditch process has an advantage over the other advanced systems due to lower energy consumption, sludge production, and nitrogen removal without gas stripping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aerospace Oil and Gas: Technologies for New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Innovative partnerships will enable NASA to achieve more of its technological goals with less resources Cooperative development with other industries will expand the scope of advanced technologies that will be available to future missions.

  1. Off-gas treatment system Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) k-t evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; Cargo, C.H.; Ayers, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    The scope of work for this task involves a systems' evaluation, using the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) decision analysis methodology, of off-gas treatment alternatives for a Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP). Two basic systems were evaluated: (1) a wet treatment system using a quencher and scrubber system; and (2) a dry treatment system using a spray dryer and baghouse arrangement. Both systems would neutralize acidic off-gases (HCL and SO 2 ) and remove radioactive particulates prior to release to the environment. The K-T analysis results provided a numerical comparison of the two basic off-gas treatments systems for PREPP. The overall ratings for the two systems differ by only 7%. The closeness of the evaluation indicates that either system is capable of treating the off-gases from PREPP. Based on the analysis, the wet treatment system design is slightly more favorable for PREPP. Technology development, expected operability, total costs, and safety aspects were determined to be more advantageous for the wet system design. Support technology was the only major category that appears less favorable for using the wet off-gas system for PREPP. When considering the two criteria considered most important for PREPP (capital cost and major accident prevention - both rated 10), the wet treatment system received maximum ratings. Space constraints placed on the design by the existing TAN-607 building configuration also are more easily met by the wet system design. Lastly, the level of development for the wet system indicates more applicable experience for nuclear waste processing

  2. Technology of steam generators for gas-cooled reactors. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The activity of the IAEA in the field of the technology of gas-cooled reactors was formalized by formation of an International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGCR). The gas cooled reactor program considered by the IWGCR includes carbon-dioxide-cooled thermal reactors, helium cooled thermal high temperature reactors for power generation and for process heat applications and gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. This report covers the papers dealing with operating experience, steam generators for next generation of gas-cooled reactors, material development and corrosion problems, and thermohydraulics

  3. Gas power plant with CO2 handling. A study of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolland, Olav; Hagen, Roger I.; Maurstad, Ola; Tangen, Grethe; Juliussen, Olav; Svendsen, Hallvard

    2002-01-01

    The report documents a study which compares 12 different technologies for gas power plants with CO 2 handling. The additional costs in removing the CO 2 in connection with electricity production is calculated to at least 18-19 oere /kWh compared to conventional gas power production without CO 2 capture. The calculated extra costs are somewhat higher than previously published figures. The difference is mainly due to that the estimated costs for pipelines and injection system for CO 2 are higher than in other studies. The removal of CO 2 in connection with gas power production implies increased use of natural gas. The most developed technologies would lead to a procentual increase in the gas consumption per kWh electricity of 18-25%. Gas power plants based on the present technologies would have efficiencies in the size of 46-49%. The efficiency of power plants without CO 2 handling is supposed to be 58%. There is no foundation for pointing out a ''winner's' among the compared technologies in the study. The present available technologies excepted, there are no technology which stands out as better than the others from an economic viewpoint. Gas turbine with membrane based separation of oxygen from air (AZEP) has a potential for lower costs but implies challenging technological development and thence considerable technological risks. Two technologies, capture of carbon from natural gas previous to combustion and exhaust gas purification based on absorption, may be employed in 3 - 4 years. The other technologies require more development and maturing. Three of the technologies may be particularly interesting because hydrogen may be produced as a byproduct. Demonstration plant and choice of technology: 1) There is a limited need for demonstration plants with respect to technology development. 2) It is important for the technology development to be able to test various technologies in a laboratory or in a flexible pilot plant. 3) Many technologies and components may be

  4. Advanced Gas Sensing Technology for Space Suits, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The gas sensor in the PLSS of the ISS EMU will meet its projected life in 2020, and NASA is planning to replace it. At present, only high TRL devices based on...

  5. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.A.; Berry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Mixed waste is defined as ''waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species.'' The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was established in response to the need for a unified, DOE complexwide solution to issues of mixed waste treatment that meets regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing treatment technologies that reduce risk, minimize life-cycle cost, and improve process performance as compared to existing technologies. Treatment for waste streams for which no current technology exists, and suitable waste forms for disposal, will be provided to improve operations of the DOE Office of Waste Management. MWIP is composed of six technical areas within a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas are described in this paper

  6. Greenhouse gas emission quantification from wastewater treatment plants, using a tracer gas dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Plant-integrated methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission quantifications were performed at five Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants, using a ground-based remote sensing approach that combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the plant with downwind concentration measurements. CH4...... emission factors were between 1 and 21% of CH4 production, and between 0.2 and 3.2% of COD influent. The main CH4 emitting sources at the five plants were sludge treatment and energy production units. The lowest CH4 emission factors were obtained at plants with enclosed sludge treatment and storage units....... N2O emission factors ranged from general, measurement-based, site-specific CH4 and N2O emission factors for the five studied plants were in the upper range of the literature values and default emission factors applied...

  7. Impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, E.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply. Specifically, it discussed projections of natural gas supply and demand; the potential impact of imports on United States natural gas supply; the potential impacts of government policy on natural gas supply and demand; and the impact of technological innovations on natural gas supply such as coalbed methane and methane hydrate. Specific government policies that were examined included the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009; and the Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act of 2009. It was concluded that the United States demand for natural gas will expand and that the impact of pending clean energy legislation is unclear. In addition, each potential future resource will face constraints and new resources may come on line in the next 20 years. figs.

  8. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  9. SRD Exhibits ONR Funded Chemical Detector Technology & Supporting Gas Delivery Systems (GDS) AT PITTCON 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    SRD attended PITTCON 2005 in Orlando, Florida with an exhibitor booth to showcase their chemical detector technology being developed for The Office of Naval Research as well as gas delivery systems (GDS...

  10. Safety evaluation of BWR off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.J.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the results of a safety evaluation performed on current generic types of BWR off-gas treatment systems including cooled and ambient temperature adsorber beds and cryogenics are presented. The evaluation covered the four generic types of off-gas systems and the systems of five major vendors. This study was part of original work performed under AEC contract for the Directorate of Regulatory Standards. The analysis techniques employed for the safety evaluation of these systems include: Fault Tree Analysis; FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis); general system comparisons, contaminant, system control, and design adequacy evaluations; and resultant Off-Site Dose Calculations. The salient areas presented are some of the potential problem areas, the approach that industry has taken to mitigate or design against potential upset conditions, and areas where possible deficiencies still exist. Potential problem areas discussed include hydrogen detonation, hydrogen release to equipment areas, operator/automatic control interface, and needed engineering evaluation to insure safe system operation. Of the systems reviewed, most were in the category of advanced or improved over that commonly in use today, and a conclusion from the study was that these systems offer excellent potential for noble gas control for BWR power plants where more stringent controls may be specified -- now or in the future. (U.S.)

  11. Removal of CO2 in closed loop off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, M.K.; Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    A closed loop test system has been installed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to demonstrate off-gas treatment, absorption, and purification systems to be used for incineration and vitrification of hazardous and mixed waste. Closed loop systems can virtually eliminate the potential for release of hazardous or toxic materials to the atmosphere during both normal and upset conditions. In initial tests, a 250,000 Btu/h (75 kW thermal) combustor was operated in an open loop to produce a combustion product gas. The CO 2 in these tests was removed by reaction with a fluidized bed of time to produce CaCO 3 . Subsequently, recirculation system was installed to allow closed loop operation with the addition of oxygen to the recycle stream to support combustion. Commercially marketed technologies for removal of CO 2 can be adapted for use on closed loop incineration systems. The paper also describes the Absorbent Solution Treatment (AST) process, based on modifications to commercially demonstrated gas purification technologies. In this process, a side loop system is added to the main loop for removing CO 2 in scrubbing towers using aqueous-based CO 2 absorbents. The remaining gas is returned to the incinerator with oxygen addition. The absorbent is regenerated by driving off the CO 2 and water vapor, which are released to the atmosphere. Contaminants are either recycled for further treatment or form precipitates which are removed during the purification and regeneration process. There are no direct releases of gases or particulates to the environment. The CO 2 and water vapor go through two changes of state before release, effectively separating these combustion products from contaminants released during incineration. The AST process can accept a wide range of waste streams. The system may be retrofitted to existing Facilities or included in the designs for new installations

  12. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  13. Pharmaceutical production of nano particles using supercritical or dense gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regtop, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The primary aim of our proposed research is to develop pharmaceutical formulations with enhanced pharmacokinetics and increased bioavailability. The particular drug delivery systems of interest are, oral, aerosols, injectable and topical with well-recognised and distinct problems of bioavailability. More than 40% of all drugs in the USP or BP are insoluble or have some problem with solubility. It is estimated in 2000, the total combined sales of drugs that are insoluble or poorly soluble was US$37 billion. Precise and predictable drug delivery is made more possible by producing uniform micron size particles or powders, which can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of therapeutical formulations. Hence the purpose of micronisation is to increase bioavailability and also to allow other modes of administration, eg insulin is a protein, which is an injectable for the treatment of diabetes, but recently particles of 1-4 microns of insulin are in phase 3 clinical trials to deliver the drug to diabetics as an inhalant. In addition aerosolised drugs such as mucolytics, antibiotics, antiinflammatory drugs and hormones have recently been trailed. Finely powdered pharmaceuticals are however difficult to process by current techniques. In spray drying the operating temperatures are often too high for heat sensitive drugs. Thermal degradation of compounds can also be experienced in milling due to high rates of shear and requires high energy inputs and do not produce particles within a narrow range distribution. A relatively new technique which has been used and developed by Eiffel Technologies to produce uniform micron and sub micron size particles is a dense gas process in which the gas is used as an antisolvent to precipitate compounds from solution. Pharmaceutical processing with dense gas is relatively new and is an efficient process for producing high purity micronised particles with defined morphological structures and with a narrow size distribution rate

  14. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed....

  15. Program and abstracts of the offshore oil and gas environmental effects monitoring workshop : approaches and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The offshore petroleum industry in eastern Canada has expanded rapidly, with exploration and production activities taking place over a wide range of oceanographic conditions. This workshop, hosted by Canada's largest marine research institute, was held to advance the understanding of environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activity. In particular, it examined how information derived from environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs contribute to improved drilling and production operations, mitigation measures, and the revision of regulations for waste treatment. The workshop examined if EEM programs are providing valuable information, and how they can be improved. The themes of the 3 sessions which focused on ways to carry out EEM were: (1) EEM and environmental management, (2) EEM methodologies and lessons learned, and (3) EEM methodologies and technologies. Participants form around the world identified priority research needs and coordinated collaborative research efforts. Approximately 70 papers and posters were presented at the workshop, of which 19 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database (Author)

  16. The analysis of technical and economical aspects of electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko

    2008-01-01

    Environmental problems caused by the increased world energy demands have become a serious problem in many countries. The emission of SO 2 and NO x from fossil fuel burning for electricity generation and industrial plants is one of the major sources of environmental pollution. These pollutants are named as acid gases causing acid rain and also indirect greenhouse gases contributing greenhouse effect. These toxic components sometimes travel more than thousand kilometers and make a trouble in other places, in some cases, even in other countries. Therefore, the problem of the air pollution became world-wide problem. Today many countries are introducing more strict emission control regulations to solve environmental problem. Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation processes for air pollution control. This electron beam process is dry scrubbing process and simultaneously removes SO 2 and NO x and useful by-product for agriculture fertilizer. In this study, the technical and economical aspects of electron beam flue gas treatment process are discussed. Economically, the technology is competitive with the conventional ones. (author)

  17. Polarized 3He Gas Circulating Technologies for Neutron Analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, David [Xemed LLC, Durham, NH (United States); Hersman, Bill [Xemed LLC, Durham, NH (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We describe the development of an integrated system for quasi-continuous operation of a large volume neutron analyzer. The system consists of a non-magnetic diaphragm compressor, a prototype large volume helium polarizer, a surrogate neutron analyzer, a non-depolarizing gas storage reservoir, a non-ferrous valve manifold for handling gas distribution, a custom rubidium-vapor gas return purifier, and wire-wound transfer lines, all of which are immersed in a two-meter external magnetic field. Over the Phase II period we focused on three major tasks required for the successful deployment of these types of systems: 1) design and implementation of gas handling hardware, 2) automation for long-term operation, and 3) improvements in polarizer performance, specifically fabrication of aluminosilicate optical pumping cells. In this report we describe the design, implementation, and testing of the gas handling hardware. We describe improved polarizer performance resulting from improved cell materials and fabrication methods. These improvements yielded valved 8.5 liter cells with relaxation times greater than 12 hours. Pumping this cell with 1500W laser power with 1.25nm linewidth yielded peak polarizations of 60%, measured both inside and outside the polarizer. Fully narrowing this laser to 0.25nm, demonstrated separately on one stack of the four, would have allowed 70% polarization with this cell. We demonstrated the removal of 5 liters of polarized helium from the polarizer with no measured loss of polarization. We circulated the gas through a titanium-clad compressor with polarization loss below 3% per pass. We also prepared for the next phase of development by refining the design of the polarizer so that it can be engineer-certified for pressurized operation. The performance of our system far exceeds comparable efforts elsewhere.

  18. State of technology on hydrogen fueled gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esgar, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    A series of investigations was conducted episodically from the 1950's to the early 1970's to investigate the feasibility and potential problem areas in the use of hydrogen fuel for gas turbine engines. A brief summary and bibliography are presented of the research that has been conducted by NASA, its predecessor NACA, and by industry under U. S. Air Force sponsorship. Although development efforts would be required to provide hydrogen fueled gas turbine engines for aircraft, past research has shown that hydrogen fueled engines are feasible, and except for flight weight liquid hydrogen pumps, there are no problem areas relating to engines requiring significant research.

  19. Importance of real gas effects in entry technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiwert, George S.

    1995-01-01

    Critical issues concerning real gas effects in hypervelocity flows where the thermochemical nonequilibrium effects are pronounced, are described. Emphasis is on the development and validation of benchmark analysis tools. Approaches to develop and/or enhance phenomenological models, including test techniques to acquire databases, and incorporate them into computational flow field simulation codes are described. The performance characteristics of shock tubes, ballistic ranges and arc heated wind tunnels, state of the art diagnostics are included. The following aerothermodynamic phenomena are discussed: aerodynamic parameters, viscous interactions, turbulent transition, forebody heating/heat transfer, radiative heating, Lee-Base flows and low density real gas.

  20. Development of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, P.M.; Berry, J.B.; Coyle, G.J.; Lurk, P.W.; Wolf, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. Management of mixed waste requires treatment which must meet the standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous constituents while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. Technology has not been developed, demonstrated, or tested to produce a low-risk final waste form specifically for mixed waste. Throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex, mixed waste is a problem because definitive treatment standards have not been established and few disposal facilities are available. Treatment capability and capacity are also limited. Site-specific solutions to the management of mixed waste have been initiated; however, site-specific programs result in duplication of technology development between various sites. Significant progress is being made in developing technology for mixed waste under the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  1. Intravitreal gas injection for the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McHugh D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dominic McHugh, Bhaskar Gupta, Manzar Saeed King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, England, UK Purpose: This study investigates the efficacy of an intravitreal gas injection in inducing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD in patients with clinically significant diabetic macular edema refractory to laser therapy. Methods: A local ethics committee-approved technique of an intravitreal injection of pure perfluoropropane gas (C3F8 was performed for all participants. After a period of prone positioning, the patients underwent regular and detailed clinical review. Main outcome measures: The induction of a PVD, change in macular thickness, change in visual acuity. Results: A PVD was induced in all five eyes with subsequent signs of reduction in macular thickness and resolution of exudates. Mean visual improvement was 11 ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters (range 4–21. Apart from a transient vitreous hemorrhage in one eye, there were no significant treatment-related complications. Conclusion: The induction of a PVD by pneumatic retinopexy appears to have a significant influence on diabetic macular edema in eyes which have not successfully responded to macular laser therapy. A randomized clinical trial is justified on the basis of the initial promising data. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, OCT, posterior vitreous detachment, perfluoropropane

  2. Introduction to the Gas Hydrate Master Project of Energy National Science and Technology Program of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. F.; Research Team of Gas Hydrate Project of CGS of Taiwan

    2011-12-01

    Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs), which have been considered as one of major indicators of the gas hydrate in sub-seafloor, have been detected and widely distributed in offshore SW Taiwan. The Central Geological Survey of Taiwan launched a 4-year multidisciplinary gas hydrate investigation program in 2004 to explore the potential of gas hydrate resources in the area. The results indicate that enormous amounts of gas hydrate should occur beneath the seafloor, although none of solid gas hydrate samples have been found. Therefore, a second stage of another 4-year program started in 2008 to extend the studies/investigation. In the ongoing projects, some specific areas will be studied in detail to assess the components of gas hydrate petroleum system and provide a better assessment of the energy resource potential of gas hydrate in the target area. In addition to the field investigations, phase equilibrium of gas hydrate via experiment, theoretical modeling, and molecular simulations has also been studied. The results can provide insights into gas hydrate production technology. Considering the high potential energy resources, the committee of the energy national science and technology program suggests initiating a master project to plan the strategy and timeline for the gas hydrate exploration, exploitation and production in Taiwan. The plan will be introduced in this presentation.

  3. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  4. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry : key technology in metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, Maud Marijtje

    2009-01-01

    Metabolomics involves the unbiased quantitative and qualitative analysis of the complete set of metabolites present in cells, body fluids and tissues. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is very suitable for metabolomics analysis, as it combines high separation power with

  5. Forecast of ecological influence from shale gas mining technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксенія Юріївна Терентьєва

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risks and the reasons a for their formation are examined on example of Olesk shale area. The harmonization of the approaches that already exist in practice is attempted, to assess the impact of shale gas on the environment. Methodological aspects of impact assessment are presented based on the determination of three parameters: spatial, temporal and intensity of exposure

  6. Electricity to natural gas competition under customer-side technological change: a marginal cost pricing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulli', Francesco

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the impact of technological change (on the customer side of the meter) on the network energy industry (electricity and natural gas). The performances of the small gas fired power technologies and the electrical reversible heat pumps have improved remarkably over the last ten years, making possible (or more viable) two opposite technological trajectories: the fully gas-based system, based on the use of small CHP (combined heat and power generation) plants, which would involve a wide decentralisation of energy supply; the fully electric-based system, based on the use of reversible electric heat pumps, which would imply increasing centralisation of energy supply. The analysis described in this paper attempts to evaluate how these two kinds of technological solutions can impact on inter-service competition when input prices are ste equals to marginal costs of supply in each stage of the electricity and natural gas industries. For this purpose, unbundled prices over time and over space are simulated. In particular the paper shows that unbundling prices over space in not very important in affecting electricity to natural gas competition and that, when prices are set equal to long-run marginal costs, the fully electric-based solution (the reversible heat pump) is by far preferable to the fully gas-based solution (the CHP gas fired small power plant). In consequence, the first best outcome of the technological change would involve increasing large power generation and imported (from the utility grid) electricity consumption. Given this framework, we have to ask ourselves why operators, regulators and legislators are so optimistic about the development of the fully gas-based solutions. In this respect, the paper suggests that market distortions (such as market power, energy taxation and inefficient pricing regulation) might have give an ambiguous representation of the optimal technological trajectory, inducing to overestimate the social value

  7. Research advances in treatment technology of radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Zhang Ye

    2010-01-01

    Traditional treatment technologies on radioactive wastewater such as flocculating sedimentation, ion exchange, evaporation concentration and adsorption method at home and abroad are reviewed, and the latest research progress such as membrane method, biological treatment, magnetic-molecules method, inert curing method and permeable reactive (zero-valent iron) barriers technology are introduced. (authors)

  8. The evolution of gasification processes and reactors and the utilization of the coal gas. A proposition for the implementation of the gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasculete, E.; Iorgulescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical treatment of coal by gasification, considered as a non-polluting technology to turn the coal highly-profitably is one of the alternative ways to produce gas with a high effective caloric capacity. Due to its advantages, the gasification has made through the last few decades significant advances from the point of view of the process efficiency (chemical, thermal), of motor outputs (in m 3 producer gas / m 2 reactor cross section x hour), of the solutions of supplying energy to support the endothermic reactions implied by the process, and especially of the reactors. Reactors have been developed from gas generators. Starting from gas generators various advanced reactors (of 1 st to 3 rd generation) have been developed to produce air gas, water gas or mixed gas. Applications of the producer gas were developed using it either as fuel or as synthesis gas in chemical industry or else as a substitute to the natural gas in combined cycle gas turbines where the gasification plant was integrated. In Romania there are projects in the field of coal gasification, namely at ICPET-RESEARCH, that can offer advanced technologies. One of these projects deals with the construction of the first demonstrative gasification plant based on a highly efficient process and equipped with a 10 G cal/h reactor. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  9. The impact of technology on gas reserves, worldwide and in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, N.; Speers, G.R.; BP Exploration, UK)

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the distribution of gas reserves both worldwide and the Middle East. As more gas is produced in d ifficult e nvironments, either at long distances from markets or from more complex reservoirs there is a need to curtail costs by improving exploration success, reducing well costs and by increasing the reserves produced per well. Continuing advances in technology can make a major impact in achieving these goals. Historically, the innovative use of technology has resulted in significant increases in the value of oil and gas developments. (Author). 5 fig

  10. Applications of the gas chromatography in the nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1972-01-01

    This paper is a review on the applications of the gas chromatography in the nuclear science and technology published up to December 1971. Its contents has been classified under the following heads; I) Radiogaschromatography, II) Isotope separation, III) Preparation of labelled molecules, IV) Nuclear fuel cycle, V) Nuclear reactor technology, VI) Irradiation chemistry, VIl) Separation of me tal compounds in gas phase, VIII) Applications of the gas chromatography carried out at the Junta de Energia Nuclear, Spain. Arapter VIII only includes the investigations carried out from January 1969 to December 1971. Previous investigations in this field has been published elsewhere. (Author)

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  12. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  13. Onboard Inert Gas Generation System/Onboard Oxygen Gas Generation System (OBIGGS/OBOGS) Study. Part 2; Gas Separation Technology--State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Thomas L.; Eklund, Thor I.; Haack, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    This purpose of this contract study task was to investigate the State of the Art in Gas Separation Technologies utilized for separating air into both nitrogen and oxygen gases for potential applications on commercial aircraft. The intended applications included: nitrogen gas for fuel tank inerting, cargo compartment fire protection, and emergency oxygen for passenger and crew use in the event of loss of cabin pressure. The approach was to investigate three principle methods of gas separation: Hollow Fiber Membrane (HFM), Ceramic Membrane (CM), and liquefaction: Total Atmospheric Liquefaction of Oxygen and Nitrogen (TALON). Additional data on the performance of molecular sieve pressure swing adsorption (PSA) systems was also collected and discussed. Performance comparisons of these technologies are contained in the body of the report.

  14. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge. PMID:27699202

  15. BIG hydrogen: hydrogen technology in the oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The BIG Hydrogen workshop was held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on February 13, 2006. About 60 representatives of industry, academia and government attended this one-day technical meeting on hydrogen production for the oil and gas industry. The following themes were identified from the presentations and discussion: the need to find a BIG hydrogen replacement for Steam Methane Reformer (SMR) because of uncertainty regarding cost and availability of natural gas, although given the maturity of SMR process (reliability, known capital cost) how high will H2 prices have to rise?; need for a national strategy to link the near-term and the longer-term hydrogen production requirements, which can take hydrogen from chemical feedstock to energy carrier; and in the near-term Canada should get involved in demonstrations and build expertise in large hydrogen systems including production and carbon capture and sequestration

  16. Market diffusion, technological learning, and cost-benefit dynamics of condensing gas boilers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Dittmar, L.; Junginger, H.M.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2009-01-01

    High costs often prevent the market diffusion of novel and efficient energy technologies. Monitoring cost and price decline for these technologies is thus important in order to establish effective energy policy. Here, we present experience curves and cost-benefit analyses for condensing gas boilers

  17. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  18. Some methods of upgrading of technologies of construction of wells for shale gas

    OpenAIRE

    Mysluk, М. А.; Homynets, Z. D.; Salyzhyn, Yu. M.; Bogoslavets, V. V.; Voloshyn, Yu. D.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of international practices the directions for improvement of the construction technologies for shale gas wells are worded. Particular attention is paid to the quality of the well construction, technologies of drilling-in and development of a payout beds.

  19. New progresses in safe, clean and efficient development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In China, there are a lot of high-sulfur gas reservoirs with total proved reserves of over 1 trillion m3, most of which were discovered in the Sichuan Basin. Most high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, distributed in marine carbonate zones, are characterized by great buried depths, complex geologic conditions, high temperatures, high pressures, high H2S and CO2 content, presenting various challenges in gas field development engineering and production safety. Since the development of Sinian high-sulfur gas reservoirs in the Weiyuan area of the Sichuan Basin started in the 1960s, Wolonghe, Zhongba and other medium to small-scale gas reservoirs with medium to low sulfur content have been developed. Ever since 2009, successful production of Longgang and Puguang in the Sichuan Basin, together with some other high-sulfur gas reservoirs highlighted the breakthroughs in development technologies for high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China. This paper reviews the progress made in gas reservoir engineering, drilling and completion engineering, gas production, pipeline transportation, corrosion control, natural gas purification, HSE and other aspects with consideration of specific requirements related to safe, clean and high-efficient development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs since the “12th Five-Year Plan” period. Finally, considering the challenges in the development of high-sulfur gas reservoirs in China, we summarized the trend in future technological development with the following goals of reducing risks, minimizing environmental damages, and enhancing the efficiency of high-sulfur gas reservoir development.

  20. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  1. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Chai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR and Oxygen Ditch, considering four different sludge treatment alternatives for small-to-medium-sized WWTPs. Following the life cycle approach, process design data and emission factors were used by the model to calculate the carbon footprint. Results found that direct emissions of CO2 and N2O, and indirect emissions of electricity use, are significant contributors to the carbon footprint. Although sludge anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery could significantly contribute to emission reduction, it was less beneficial for Oxygen Ditch than the other two treatment technologies due to its low sludge production. The influence of choosing “high risk” or “low risk” N2O emission factors on the carbon footprint was also investigated in this study. Oxygen Ditch was assessed as “low risk” of N2O emissions while SBR was “high risk”. The carbon footprint of A–A–O with sludge anaerobic digestion and energy recovery was more resilient to changes of N2O emission factors and control of N2O emissions, though process design parameters (i.e., effluent total nitrogen (TN concentration, mixed-liquor recycle (MLR rates and solids retention time (SRT and operation conditions (i.e., nitrite concentration are critical for reducing carbon footprint of SBR. Analyses of carbon footprints suggested that aerobic treatment of sludge not only favors the generation of large amounts of CO2, but also the emissions of N2O, so the rationale of reducing aerobic treatment and

  2. The impact of advanced wastewater treatment technologies and wastewater strength on the energy consumption of large wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Timothy

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process often requiring the use of advanced treatment technologies. Stricter effluent standards have resulted in an increase in the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with advanced treatment over time. Accordingly, associated energy consumption has also increased. Concerns about lowering operating costs for WWTPs and reducing associated greenhouse gas generation present an incentive to investigate energy use in WWTPs. This research investigated the impact of wastewater strength and the introduction of advanced treatment technologies, to replace traditional technologies on energy use to treat wastewater in WWTPs. Major unit processes were designed for a 100 MGD plant and variables controlling energy were identified and used to compute energy consumption. Except for primary clarification and plate and frame press dewatering, energy consumption computed using fundamental equations are within values in the literature. Results show that energy consumption for dissolved air flotation thickeners, centrifuges, gravity thickeners, and aeration basins are heavily influence by wastewater strength. Secondary treatment and tertiary treatment require a significant amount of energy. Secondary treatment requires 104 times the energy of preliminary treatment, 17 times the energy of solids processing, and 2.5 times the energy of tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment requires 41 times the energy of preliminary treatment, and 7 times the energy of solids processing. The results of this research provide a means of estimating energy consumption in the design and operation phase of a WWTP. By using the fundamental equations and methodology presented, alternative technologies can be compared or targeted for future energy savings implementation. Limitations of the methodology include design assumptions having to be made carefully, as well as assumptions of motor and equipment efficiencies.

  3. GAS FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM IN REACTIVE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Klimovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  It is known that the discharge parameters and the chemical composition of the particles flux impinging onto the substrate during a reactive magnetron sputtering are unstable. As a result spontaneous transitions between the «metal» mode of the target surface and the «poisoned» mode of the target surface have been observed. This leads to nonrepeatability of the coating compositions from process to process. The aim of this work is to design a gas flow control system for reactive sputtering processes. The control system allows to maintain a steady nonequilibrium state of the magnetron discharge in transition mode where the chemical state of the target surface is unstable. The intensities of spectral lines of the discharge spectrum are proposed as control parameters. Photodiode detectors were used for registration of intensities of spectral lines. A gas flow control system regulates argon and reactive gas flow automatically, using feedback signals from photodiode detectors on the intensities of the spectral lines, vacuum gauge, ion current sensor, sensors of discharge current and voltage. As an example, the process of reactive magnetron Ti-Al-N deposition is considered. The following discharge parameters are controlled during sputtering a composite target based on Ti with Al cylindrical inserts: current, voltage, total pressure of a gas mixture, substrate temperature, bias voltage and current of the substrate. Nitrogen flow was controlled by the spectral line intensity of titanium TiI 506,5 nm. The value of the line intensity is connected with the value of reactivity. Elemental composition and structure of the Ti-Al-N coatings were studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was found, that stoichiometric Ti-Al-N coatings have a globular structure, enhanced hardness and low friction coefficient in contrast to Ti-Al-N coatings with nonstoichiometric composition, which have a

  4. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  5. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning

  6. TO APPLICATION OF BIO-GAS UNITS: ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Nga Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the published papers written by national and foreign researchers reveals that an increasing global energy deficit, exhaustion of  fossil organic and nuclear fuels, chemical and radio-active contamination of the environment are main reasons in favour of  thorough investigation  and wide introduction of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Nowadays Vietnamese Institute of Energy Science has been developing the state-of-the-art bio-gas technologies on the  basis of application and modernization of Chinese and Dutch family-style technologies. The most rational technologies are combined ones which operate using various types of energy raw materials, for example, solar and bio-gas energy because usage of solar energy expands operational possibilities of the bio-gas system, ensures its operation within wide temperature range creating necessary parameters for the required technological task.

  7. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  8. Establishment and Application of Coalmine Gas Prediction Model Based on Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Lv

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly an accident involving gas is one of the greater disasters that can occur in a coalmine, thus being able to predict when an accident involving gas might occur is an essential aspect in loss prevention and the reduction of safety hazards. However, the traditional methods concerning gas safety prediction is hindered by multi-objective and non-continuous problem. The coalmine gas prediction model based on multi-sensor data fusion technology (CGPM-MSDFT was established through analysis of accidents involving gas using artificial neural network to fuse multi- sensor data, using an improved algorithm designed to train the network and using an early stop method to resolve the over-fitting problem, the network test and field application results show that this model can provide a new direction for research into predicting the likelihood of a gas related incident within a coalmine. It will have a broad application prospect in coal mining.

  9. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Ortiz, A.; Harrison, D.P.; Groves, F.R.; White, J.D.; Zhang, S.; Huang, W.N.; Zeng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a

  10. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  11. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  12. Northern gas fields and NGH technology. A feasibility study to develop natural gas hydrate technology for the international gas markets; Nordlige gassfelt and NGH-teknologi. En studie av muligheter for utvikling av naturgasshydratteknologi for det internasjonale gassmarked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsland, Trond Ragnvald; Loy, Erik F.; Doesen, Sturle

    1997-12-31

    Two natural gas fields have been studied for three different technological solutions using two different economic theories. The aim was to examine whether a new technology for transporting natural gas, Natural Gas Hydrates (NGH), can compete with the existing technologies pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Natural gas can rarely be used immediately after production and the supply systems can be divided into four interrelated parts: 1) Exploration. 2) Development and production. 3) Transportation. 4) Distribution. The emphasis in the study is on production costs and transportation. Exploration is assumed carried out and thus viewed sunk cost. Distribution from landing point to consumers is not part of the study. Production can take place either onshore or offshore, the natural gas can be transported to the market either by pipeline or ship and the costs are becoming more important as the distance from the fields to the markets increase. Natural gas projects have long lead times and large capital requirements. New supplies will materialise then if there is confidence that demand for the gas exists at a profitable price. Therefore natural gas is generally sold on long term contracts. The conclusions are that economies of scale exist and that pipeline is the superior technology for high volumes but cannot compete for smaller volumes where the LNG technology has been the best alternative. However, the report concludes that the NGH can compete fully. The distance to the market where the natural gas is to be transported is crucial for choice of transportation mode. The shipping modes are superior for long transportation distances. NGH is superior to LNG also with regards to distance. Despite that the two economic models used for the evaluation have provided very different absolute project values, they have provided the same conclusions about the ranking of the different technologies. It is clear then that if NGH technology is developed further into a reliable and

  13. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  14. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Hydrogen technology in the oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, E.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes the structure and functions of the Energy Innovation Network, which is a new Canadian Federal not-for-profit Corporation owned jointly by multiple governments, energy companies and utilities. It's mandate is to promote all energy resources and technologies. It's strategic goals are to maintain Canada's economic advantage while ensuring environmental protection, take advantage of the shift in energy systems and to put Canada at the forefront of integration between energy systems

  16. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  17. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Shoener, B. D.

    2014-01-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m-3 of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m-3 of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13000 kJ m-3 (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and phototrophic

  18. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3–4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate......-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic...... leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007E to 0.013PE and 0.002 to 0.003 PE respectively). The reason for this is that even if the leachate is treated, slight amounts of contaminants are released...

  19. Development of coal gas production technology acceptable for fuel cells; Nenryo denchiyo sekitan gas seizo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, N.; Omata, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    In utilizing coal for high-efficiency direct power generation using fuel cells, it is necessary that coal be fed into the fuel cells after having been made into ash-free gaseous fuel. Research and development works are being carried out with an objective to develop a coal gasification furnace most suitable for fuel cells and establish a system to refine coal up to the one that can be fed into fuel cells. Fiscal 1995 has conducted investigations on coal gasification technologies, air separation technologies, and gas refining technologies as the important element technologies, and a trial design on integrated coal gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems. This paper reports from among the above items the result of the trial design on an IGFC system using molten carbonate fuel cells. The paper describes system comparison on paths of produced gases and anode waste gas, comparison on refining processes using a wet system and a dry system, and parameter studies on oxygen concentration in gasifying agents. It was made clear that the suitable furnace is an oxygen blown coal gasification furnace, and the power generation efficiency at the system terminal can be higher than 53%. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Hádková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas. Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adjustment of natural gas to get LNG, a reduction of CO2 is needed. There is a danger of the carbon dioxide freezing during the gas cooling. This work deals with the testing of adsorption removal of CO2 from natural gas. The aim of these measurements was to find a suitable adsorbent for CO2 removal from natural gas. Two different types of adsorbents were tested: activated carbon and molecular sieve. The adsorption properties of the selected adsorbents were tested and compared. The breakthrough curves for CO2 for both adsorbents were measured. The conditions of the testing were estimated according to conditions at a gas regulation station — 4.0MPa pressure and 8 °C temperature. Natural gas was simulated by model gas mixture during the tests. The breakthrough volume was set as the gas volume passing through the adsorber up to the CO2 concentration of 300 ml/m3 in the exhaust gas. The thermal and pressure desorption of CO2 from saturated adsorbents were also tested after the adsorption.

  1. The potential of gas-to-liquid technology in the energy market: The case of Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.; Kobrosly, M.; Ghajar, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for evaluating the economic attractiveness of gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology in a gas rich country like Qatar. The Qatari gas volume needed to fully satisfy the projected long-term market demand of GTL products (mainly diesel oil) in the Asia-Pacific region is evaluated. Based on the state-of-the-art GTL technology, the number, size and the commissioning dates of GTL plants required for that purpose are determined along with the associated investment and running costs. The economic attractiveness of GTL investment is evaluated based on the internal rate of return, and the impact of adopting large-scale GTL projects on Qatar oil refining industry is assessed. Sensitivity analyses are conducted using several scenarios to account for variations in GTL premium, capital cost, operation and maintenance cost and cost of gas feedstock. (author)

  2. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  3. CURRENT LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL OIL AND GAS COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Lomakina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of modern situation of the development of oil and gas branch of Russian economy are arisen with the accent to the problems, difficulties and role of high technologies in their overcoming. The comparative analysis of investment volumes and their efficiency in oil and gas branch of different countries is made. There is an attempt to investigate the reasons of the modern situation of this branch of economy and to give some recommendations.

  4. REPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR GAS TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION'S 2002 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Lang

    2003-03-01

    This is the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG26-02NT41445 for Membership in the International Centre for Gas Technology Information. The grant period began January 1, 2002 and ended December 31, 2002. The primary purpose of this grant was to continue U.S. country membership in the International Energy Agency's International Centre for Gas Technology Information (ICGTI) for calendar year 2002. The mission of ICGTI is to promote international cooperation and collaboration on natural gas technology development and commercialization. This final technical report describes ICGTI's 2002 activities, in which U.S. country membership in ICGTI was sustained and supported, but ICGTI's activities were curtailed by loss of funding.

  5. Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) as determined by 16S rDNA fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)

  6. Technology and the Future of Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research via smartphone app is already a reality. The BRIGHTEN study was remarkable because it used technology to both deliver treatment ... and Human Services) Mobile Medical Applications : Information from the ... its role in mobile medical applications Research and Clinical Trials ...

  7. Making medical treatments resilient to technological disruptions in telemedicine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Telemedicine depends on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support remote treatment of patients. This dependency requires the telemedicine system design to be resilient for ICT performance degradation or subsystem failures. Nevertheless, using telemedicine systems create a dependency

  8. Development of Insulation Technology in Compact SF6 Gas-filled Bushings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokunohe, Toshiaki; Kato, Tatsuro; Hirose, Makoto; Ishiguro, Tetsu

    As for gas insulated switchgear (GIS), small space requirement and economical efficiency have been demanded. Circuit breakers (CB), disconnecting switches (DS) and earthing switches (ES) have been designed toward compactness. Compact & light bushings have been also required. As for bushings of GIS, there are roughly three types; capacitor, gas-filled and molding bushings. Since gas-filled bushings have the feature which is both of the lightness and the economical efficiency, it is important to develop compact and light gas-filled bushings by improvement of insulation technology. The main subject for compact design is reduction of electric field strength on the outside hollow insulator around the inside grounded electrode tip. We devised a new inner grounded electrode structure which consists of some column electrodes. This paper describes the effect of reduction of maximum value of electric field strength on the outside hollow insulator by a new inner grounded electrode. Then, improvement of insulation performance for electrodes with insulation coating in SF6 gas is described as composite insulation technology. Finally, the efficacy of these insulation technologies is described by fundamental insulation test results of prototype compact 800kV SF6 gas-filled bushing.

  9. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  10. RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF LARGE-SIZE DIE THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Glazkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper presents a development of a technological process pertaining to hardening large-size parts made of die steel. The proposed process applies a water-air mixture instead of a conventional hardening medium that is industrial oil.While developing this new technological process it has been necessary to solve the following problems: reduction of thermal treatment duration, reduction of power resource expense (natural gas and mineral oil, elimination of fire danger and increase of process ecological efficiency. 

  11. Extraterrestrial seismic... Oil and gas technology adapted from Mars exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2004-03-01

    Experiments to acquire seismic data on Mars using technology that ranges in size from a 40,000-pound vibroseismic truck, designed to shake the ground with massive force, to a cellular phone-size vibrator that is capable of generating sufficient force to send sound waves into the Martian subsurface, are discussed. These space-bound technologies have been tested on Devon Island, high in the Canadian Arctic, where they acquired 2-D and 3-D surveys, using ground penetrating radar and high-resolution multi-component seismic methods. Devon Island is the home to a unique geological structure, called the Haughton Crater, the second most northerly meteorite impact feature upon the surface of the Earth, which in the view of some explorers, represents a terrestrial analog to the Martian landscape. Studies to understand the evolution of the crater, its geology, biology and similarity to the extraterrestrial landscape of Mars have been proceeding since 1997 by a group of interdisciplinary scientists led by NASA Ames Research Center and the Mars Institute. This article provides details of terrestrial simulation experiments done to date, the processing of the data, and the implications of the findings for eventual applications on Mars. The expectation is that the knowledge gained from these experiments may enable the next generation of Mars exploration rovers to conduct geophysical imaging of the Martian subsurface. 5 figs.

  12. Assessing consumer benefits of selected gas appliance technology center tasks. Topical report, April-December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.R.; Bournakis, A.D.; Worek, W.M.; Kalensky, D.C.; Dombrowski, L.P.

    1992-12-01

    The Gas Appliance Technology Center (GATC) was created in 1983 to assist the gas industry in bringing about a new generation of reasonably priced, advanced gas appliances. The objective of the report is to evaluate consumer benefits of sixteen selected GATC tasks for the time period between 1983 and 1990. Tasks were selected for review based upon their degree of industry impact and how well they represented activities in the four targeted research areas of Space Conditioning, Commercial Appliances, Residential Appliances, and Codes and Standards

  13. MHTGR [Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] technology development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Neylan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the approach used to define the technology program needed to support design and licensing of a Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The MHTGR design depends heavily on data and information developed during the past 25 years to support large HTGR (LHTGR) designs. The technology program focuses on MHTGR-specific operating and accident conditions, and on validation of models and assumptions developed using LHTGR data. The technology program is briefly outlined, and a schedule is presented for completion of technology work which is consistent with completion of a Final Safety Summary Analysis Report (FSSAR) by 1992

  14. Most effective combustion technologies for reducing Nox emissions in aero gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ommi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth in air transportation volume has important global environmental impacts associated with the potential for climate change. Jet aircraft emissions are deposited directly into the upper atmosphere and some of them have a greater warming effect than gases emitted closer to the surface. One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every aero gas turbine application is emissions, particularly Nox emissions. There are different technologies for nitrogen oxide emission control in aircraft gas turbines. In this paper, we have briefly reviewed the technologies with the greatest potential to reduce Nox emissions in aero engines.

  15. Cogeneration applications of biomass gasifier/gas turbine technologies in the cane sugar and alcohol industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.M.; Williams, R.H.; Fulmer, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) technologies for cogeneration or stand-alone power applications hold forth the promise of being able to produce electricity at lower cost in many instances than most alternatives, including large central-station, coal-fired, steam-electric power plants with fuel gas desulphurization, nuclear power plants, and hydroelectricity power plants. BIG/GT technologies offer environmental benefits as well, including the potential for zero net carbon dioxide emissions, if the biomass feedstock is grown renewably. (author). 77 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  16. Evaluation of Technological Content of Wastewater Treatment of Palm Oil Mill in Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry is the most important economic sector in Lampung Province, Indonesia. There are 13 units of palm oil mills (POMs operating in Lampung, producing about 1,094,586 tons of palm oil mill effluent (POME a year. So far, the POME has been treated by the ponding system. However, the system has still caused environmental problems due to greenhouse gas emissions. Methane capture technology of which methane is converted to electrical energy is thus proposed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions of POME treatment technology of POMs in Lampung. Technological content analysis was performed to identify the conditions of technoware, humanware, infoware and orgaware (THIO being applied at POMs. The results showed that: (1 technological condition of POME treatment at 13 POM's in Lampung was almost equal among state-owned enterprises (SOE' s, non-public companies, and public companies, (2 the value of technology contribution coefficient of PTPN V Tandun, as a reference POM unit,was higher than that of the technology contribution coefficient of the POMs in Lampung, and (3 enhancing performance technology elements of technoware, humanware, infoware, and orgaware to apply methane capture technology are absolutely needed by all the POMs in Lampung.

  17. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L.; Lin, Ronghong; Nan, Yue; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; Ladshaw, Austin; Sharma, Ketki; Gabitto, Jorge; DePaoli, David

    2015-01-01

    The project has made progress toward developing a comprehensive modeling capability for the capture of target species in off gas evolved during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The effort has integrated experimentation, model development, and computer code development for adsorption and absorption processes. For adsorption, a modeling library has been initiated to include (a) equilibrium models for uptake of off-gas components by adsorbents, (b) mass transfer models to describe mass transfer to a particle, diffusion through the pores of the particle and adsorption on the active sites of the particle, and (c) interconnection of these models to fixed bed adsorption modeling which includes advection through the bed. For single-component equilibria, a Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) code was developed to represent experimental data from a broad range of isotherm types; this is equivalent to a Langmuir isotherm in the two-parameter case, and was demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. The GSTA isotherm was extended to multicomponent systems through application of a modified spreading pressure surface activity model and generalized predictive adsorbed solution theory; the result is the capability to estimate multicomponent adsorption equilibria from single-component isotherms. This advance, which enhances the capability to simulate systems related to off-gas treatment, has been demonstrated for a range of real-gas systems in the literature and is ready for testing with data currently being collected for multicomponent systems of interest, including iodine and water on MS3A. A diffusion kinetic model for sorbent pellets involving pore and surface diffusion as well as external mass transfer has been established, and a methodology was developed for determining unknown diffusivity parameters from transient

  18. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Lin, Ronghong [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Nan, Yue [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ladshaw, Austin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sharma, Ketki [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A & M Univ., Prairie View, TX (United States); DePaoli, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-29

    The project has made progress toward developing a comprehensive modeling capability for the capture of target species in off gas evolved during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The effort has integrated experimentation, model development, and computer code development for adsorption and absorption processes. For adsorption, a modeling library has been initiated to include (a) equilibrium models for uptake of off-gas components by adsorbents, (b) mass transfer models to describe mass transfer to a particle, diffusion through the pores of the particle and adsorption on the active sites of the particle, and (c) interconnection of these models to fixed bed adsorption modeling which includes advection through the bed. For single-component equilibria, a Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) code was developed to represent experimental data from a broad range of isotherm types; this is equivalent to a Langmuir isotherm in the two-parameter case, and was demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. The GSTA isotherm was extended to multicomponent systems through application of a modified spreading pressure surface activity model and generalized predictive adsorbed solution theory; the result is the capability to estimate multicomponent adsorption equilibria from single-component isotherms. This advance, which enhances the capability to simulate systems related to off-gas treatment, has been demonstrated for a range of real-gas systems in the literature and is ready for testing with data currently being collected for multicomponent systems of interest, including iodine and water on MS3A. A diffusion kinetic model for sorbent pellets involving pore and surface diffusion as well as external mass transfer has been established, and a methodology was developed for determining unknown diffusivity parameters from transient

  19. Delivery Reliability for Natural Gas--Inspection Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Teitsma; Julie Maupin

    2005-10-01

    The Remote Field Eddy Current (RFEC) technique is ideal for inspecting unpiggable pipelines because all of its components can be made smaller than the diameter of the pipe to be inspected. For these reasons, RFEC was selected as a technology to be integrated with the Explorer II robotic platform for unpiggable pipeline inspections. The research work is a continuation of a prior DOE-NETL project but is now directed towards a seamless integration with the robot. The laboratory set-up has been improved and data collection is nearly autonomous. With the improved collections speeds, GTI has been able to test more variables. Tests have been run on 6-inch and 12-inch seamless and seam-welded pipes. Testing on the 6-inch pipes have included using five exciter coils, each of a different geometry. Two types of sensor coils have been tested. With a focus on preparing the technology for use on the Explorer II, improvements in power consumption have proved successful. Tests with metal components have been performed to check for interference with the electromagnetic field. The results of these tests indicate RFEC will produce quality inspections while on the robot. GTI has also been testing manufactured detection boards currently used for boiler tube inspections. These boards are appropriately compact for use on the Explorer II robot and are able to detect defects at the speed of robot travel. In addition to advanced sensor development, GTI has participated in sensor/platform definition and module design activities. Mechanical constraints, power requirements, limited control and communication protocols, and potential busses and connectors have been addressed. GTI has conducted a proper design process to produce a sound design for the RFEC components to fit into two modules. The remaining work to be performed in the design of the sensor module is packaging and strengthening.

  20. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  1. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jianzhong; Cheng, Jinhua; Shen, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, co...

  2. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-04-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

  3. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in COAL IGCC Powerplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2004-09-30

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, has been re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for Coal IGCC powerplants. The new program has been re-titled as ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants'' to better match the new scope. This technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished in the reporting period April 1, 2004 to August 31, 2004 on the revised Re-Directed and De-Scoped program activity. The program Tasks are: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: This first materials task has been refocused to address Coal IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials use in gas turbines and remains in the program. This task will screen material performance and quantify the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in Coal IGCC applications. The materials of interest will include those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: This second task develops and demonstrates new sensor technologies to determine the in-service health of advanced technology Coal IGCC powerplants, and remains in the program with a reduced scope. Its focus is now on only two critical sensor need areas for advanced Coal IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor for detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation, and a Fuel Heating Value Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware.

  4. Leveraging technology to enhance addiction treatment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date for this approach. Potential models for implementing technology-based interventions targeting substance use disorders are described. Opportunities to optimize the effectiveness and impact of technology-based interventions targeting addiction and recovery, along with outstanding research needs, are discussed.

  5. Comparative analysis of monetizing technologies for the use of offshore natural gas; Analise comparativa das tecnologias embarcadas de aproveitamento de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biruel Junior, Jose

    2008-09-15

    The growing world need for natural gas, the issue of offshore oil and associated gas exploration in regions constantly farther from the consumer market, and the law restrictions due to greenhouses gases emissions have stimulated the development of technologies intended to monetizing stranded gas reserves. In order to compare these technologies, a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis Methodology, based on fuzzy parameters, has been developed. The Methodology enables specialists to define analysis dimensions and criteria as well as to assign weight and ratings by means of linguistic variables, resulting in a general performance index for each technology. The Methodology has been applied in a case study to compare the floating technologies FCNG (Floating Compressed Natural Gas), FLNG (Floating Liquefied Natural Gas), FGTL (Floating Gas-to-Liquid) and FGTW (Floating Gas-to- Wire). The efficacy of the Methodology depends on the comprehensiveness and quality of the information provided. Therefore, this dissertation presents a study of these technologies, placing strong emphasis on the Technological Dimension. The Methodology allows for the identification of the drawbacks of each technology so as to especially conduct R and D efforts to improve their competitiveness. (author)

  6. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  7. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2005-12-01

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, was re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for coal/IGCC powerplants. The new program was re-titled ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants''. This final report summarizes the work accomplished from March 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004 on the four original tasks, and the work accomplished from April 1, 2004 to July 30, 2005 on the two re-directed tasks. The program Tasks are summarized below: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: The first task was refocused to address IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials used in gas turbines. This task screened material performance and quantified the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in coal/IGCC applications. The materials of interest included those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: The second task was reduced in scope to demonstrate new technologies to determine the inservice health of advanced technology coal/IGCC powerplants. The task focused on two critical sensing needs for advanced coal/IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation. (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware. Task 3--Advanced Methods for Combustion Monitoring and Control: The third task was originally to develop and validate advanced monitoring and control methods for coal/IGCC gas

  8. Eco-technology service station: the future of gas station; Posto eco-tecnologico: o posto do futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Newton R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Daher, Humberto Antonio S. [PETROBRAS Distribuidora, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PETROBRAS Distribuidora and CENPES have a project to build an eco-technology service station at Ilha do Fundao, to know new technologies for vehicle fuelling, test of new vehicle natural gas compression system, and start projects with new fuels that are not available at Brazilian market. This service station concept shall be aligned with sustainability premise that are being established for both companies, that means, besides a technology focus, it shall have a social focus without any environment damage. PETROBRAS 'Board of Directors approved the expansion of PETROBRAS' Research and Development Center (CENPES) installations, including this service station construction. Some activities that will be developed at the service station are pointed out here: available of new natural gas compression system; micro-generation with micro turbine, fuel cell; and photo-voltaic cell technologies; hydrogen fuelling; oil-water system treatment; biodiesel fuelling. This station will have a show room opened to the public, with panels, videos and a CNG compressor in cut. (author)

  9. Novel treatment technologies for PFAS compounds: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Darlington, Ramona; Benotti, Mark; Deeb, Rula; Hawley, Elisabeth

    2017-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently drawn great attention due to their wide distribution in aquatic environments. The understanding of the physicochemical properties and fate and transport of PFAs in groundwater is still limited. Preliminary studies indicate that these compounds can readily bioaccumulate and pose human and animal health concerns. Due to their physicochemical properties, PFOS and PFOA are water soluble, nonvolatile and persistent in the environment, which is a cause of concern related to their treatment with conventional remediation technologies. Extraction with inefficient carbon adsorption is one of the most common treatment technologies for remediation of PFOS- or PFOA-impacted groundwater. Several other innovative and promising technologies, including sonochemistry, bioremediation and photolysis, have been tested for their effectiveness in removal of perfluorinated compounds. This paper provides a baseline for understanding research needs to better develop treatment technologies for PFOA and PFOS in groundwater. Frontiers for improving the state of practice for PFOA and PFOS treatment include the development of more cost-effective ex situ treatment methods and the development and demonstration of promising in situ treatment technologies at the pilot and full scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Explaining experience curves for new energy technologies. A case study of liquefied natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaker, Mads; Lund Sagen, Eirik

    2008-01-01

    Many new energy technologies seem to experience a fall in unit price as they mature. In this paper we study the unit price of liquefying natural gas in order to make it transportable by ship to gas power installations all over the world. Our point of departure is the experience curve approach, however unlike many other studies of new energy technologies, we also seek to account for autonomous technological change, scale effects and the effects of upstream competition among technology suppliers. To our surprise we find that upstream competition is by far the most important factor contributing to the fall in unit price. With respect to the natural gas business, this may have implications for the future development in prices as the effect of increased upstream competition is temporary and likely to weaken a lot sooner than effects from learning and technological change. Another more general policy implication, is that while promoting new energy technologies, governments must not forget to pay attention to competition policy. (author)

  11. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  12. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  13. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of

  14. Study on removal technology for thorium in the waste gas-lamp mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yucheng; Wang Chengbao; Zhang Ping; Xu Lingqi; Jiang Shangen

    1999-01-01

    The author describes thorium removal technology and its application in the handling of the waste gas-lamp mantle that produced during the production of gas-lamp process. After laboratory test, pilot test, trial run and engineering scale use, the thorium removal technology is mainly as follows: soak the waste gas-lamp mantle into the ceramic vat with the nitric acid solution twice and wash it with the tap water twice. The volume of the ceramic vat is 500 L and the concentration of the nitric acid solution is 2 mol/L. After handling, the thorium removal rate can reach 99.97% and the residual thorium will be less than 160 Bq/kg. The waste gas-lamp mantle can be buried under the ground or be handled in the other ways just as the harmless waste. The nitric acid solution, in which gas-lamp mantle has been soaked, should be extracted with TBP, then back extracted with diluted hydrochloric acid. After supplementing the thorium nitrate into the back extracted liquid, the liquid can be reused in the gas-lamp mantle production. The waste water from the handling process can be handled together with waste water from production process

  15. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy, Fabrice [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Hufton, Jeffrey [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Bhadra, Shubhra [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Weist, Edward [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Lau, Garret [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Jonas, Gordon [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Air Products has developed an acid gas removal technology based on adsorption (Sour PSA) that favorably compares with incumbent AGR technologies. During this DOE-sponsored study, Air Products has been able to increase the Sour PSA technology readiness level by successfully operating a two-bed test system on coal-derived sour syngas at the NCCC, validating the lifetime and performance of the adsorbent material. Both proprietary simulation and data obtained during the testing at NCCC were used to further refine the estimate of the performance of the Sour PSA technology when expanded to a commercial scale. In-house experiments on sweet syngas combined with simulation work allowed Air Products to develop new PSA cycles that allowed for further reduction in capital expenditure. Finally our techno economic analysis of the use the Sour PSA technology for both IGCC and coal-to-methanol applications suggests significant improvement of the unit cost of electricity and methanol compared to incumbent AGR technologies.

  16. Adoption of Technology-Enhanced Treatments: Conceptual and Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T; Jones, Deborah J

    2017-09-01

    As the efficacy of technology-enhanced mental health service delivery models (i.e., supportive or adjunctive technological tools) are examined, we must inform and guide clinician decision-making regarding acceptance and, in turn, uptake. Accordingly, this review aims to move beyond traditional discussions of geographic barriers by integrating, reconciling, and extending literatures on dissemination and implementation, as well as technology uptake, in order to anticipate and address organizational and clinician barriers to adoption of technology-enhancements. Specifically, a five-stage model is proposed to address organizational readiness for and clinician acceptance of technology-enhancements to evidence-based treatments, as well as the relevance of current adoption strategies for technology-enhanced services. Our aim is to provide a guiding framework for future research and practice.

  17. Perfluorocarbon emulsions as a promising technology: a review of tissue and vascular gas dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Bruce D

    2009-04-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions are halogen-substituted carbon nonpolar oils with resultant enhanced dissolved respiratory gas (O(2), N(2), CO(2), nitric oxide) capabilities. In the first demonstration of enhanced O(2) solubility, inhaled PFC could sustain rat metabolism. Intravenous emulsions were then trialed as "blood substitutes." In the last 10 yr, biocomputational modeling has enhanced our mechanistic understanding of PFCs. Contemporary research is now taking advantage of these physiological discoveries and applying PFCs as "oxygen therapeutics," as well as ways to enhance other gas movements. One particularly promising area of research is the treatment of gas embolism (arterial and venous emboli/decompression sickness). An expansive understanding of PFC-enhanced diffusive gas movements through tissue and vasculature may have analogous applications for O(2) or other respiratory gases and should provide a revolution in medicine. This review will stress the fundamental knowledge we now have regarding how respiratory gas movements are changed when intravenous PFC is present.

  18. Current status of electron beam treatment of flue gas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiguang

    2006-01-01

    Fossil resource especially coal will remain the main energy resource in China over the next 3 ∼4 decades. Pollution of flue gas from fossil power station is one problem being desiderated to solve since 1990's. Electron beam treatment of flue gas as an advanced technique has been developed and used by some institutes and industries in China. The current status of flue gas treatment using electron beam and the development of electron accelerator in China are reviewed. (author)

  19. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define

  20. Exploring the Gas Chemistry of Old Submarine Technologies Using Plastic Bottles as Reaction Vessels and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Ryo; Takeiri, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We describe an activity that is suitable for high school students and makes use of plastic bottles. This activity allows students to familiarize themselves with gas chemistry by introducing technologies that were applied in old submarine systems. Plastic bottles, which are representative of submarines, are used as reaction vessels. Three simple…

  1. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  2. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  3. Innovative waste treatment and conditioning technologies at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a

  4. Electrical markets, energy security and technology diversification: nuclear as cover against gas and carbon price risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, F.A.; Newbery, D.M.; Nuttall, W.J.; Neufville, R. de

    2005-01-01

    Recent tension in the oil and gas markets has brought back the concept of energy offer diversification. Electrical production technology diversification in a country helps improve the security of supply and make up for the negative effects of hydrocarbons price variations. The portfolio and real options theories help to quantify the optimum diversification level for a country or a power company. The cover value of a nuclear investment for a power company facing cost uncertainties (price of gas and of carbon dioxide emission permit) and proceeds (price of electricity) is assessed. A strong link between the prices of gas and electricity reduces incentives to private producers to diversify, disputing the capacity of a liberalized electrical market to achieve optimum technology diversity from a domestic point of view. (authors)

  5. Review of modern low emissions combustion technologies for aero gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yize; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Sethi, Vishal; Nalianda, Devaiah; Li, Yi-Guang; Wang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Pollutant emissions from aircraft in the vicinity of airports and at altitude are of great public concern due to their impact on environment and human health. The legislations aimed at limiting aircraft emissions have become more stringent over the past few decades. This has resulted in an urgent need to develop low emissions combustors in order to meet legislative requirements and reduce the impact of civil aviation on the environment. This article provides a comprehensive review of low emissions combustion technologies for modern aero gas turbines. The review considers current high Technologies Readiness Level (TRL) technologies including Rich-Burn Quick-quench Lean-burn (RQL), Double Annular Combustor (DAC), Twin Annular Premixing Swirler combustors (TAPS), Lean Direct Injection (LDI). It further reviews some of the advanced technologies at lower TRL. These include NASA multi-point LDI, Lean Premixed Prevaporised (LPP), Axially Staged Combustors (ASC) and Variable Geometry Combustors (VGC). The focus of the review is placed on working principles, a review of the key technologies (includes the key technology features, methods of realising the technology, associated technology advantages and design challenges, progress in development), technology application and emissions mitigation potential. The article concludes the technology review by providing a technology evaluation matrix based on a number of combustion performance criteria including altitude relight auto-ignition flashback, combustion stability, combustion efficiency, pressure loss, size and weight, liner life and exit temperature distribution.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  7. Adequate Measuring Technology and System of Fission Gas release Behavior from Voloxidation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Park, J. J.; Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C.

    2006-09-01

    Based on the published literature and an understanding of available hot cell technologies, more accurate measuring methods for each volatile fission product released from voloxidation process were reviewed and selected. The conceptual design of an apparatus for measuring volatile and/or semi-volatile fission products released from spent fuel was prepared. It was identified that on-line measurement techniques can be applied for gamma-emitting fission products, and off-line measurement such as chemical/or neutron activation analysis can applied for analyzing beta-emitting fission gases. Collection methods using appropriate material or solutions were selected to measure the release fraction of beta-emitting gaseous fission products at IMEF M6 hot cell. Especially, the on-line gamma-ray counting system for monitoring of 85Kr and the off-line measuring system of 14C was established. On-line measuring system for obtaining removal ratios of the semi-volatile fission products, mainly gamma-emitting fission products such as Cs, Ru etc., was also developed at IMEF M6 hot cell which was based on by measuring fuel inventory before and after the voloxidation test through gamma measuring technique. The development of this measurement system may enable basic information to be obtained to support design of the off-gas treatment system for the voloxidation process at INL, USA

  8. The Preliminary Study of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib

    2015-01-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) have attracted worldwide interest because of their high outlet temperatures, which allow them to be used for applications beyond electricity generation. HTGRs have been built and operated since as far back as the 1970s. Experimental and demonstration reactors of this type have operated in China, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, and the United States of America. This paper is written to share the valuable knowledge and information of HTGRs technology as a mean to enrich peoples understanding of the technology. This paper will present the technological features of HTGRs that allow for a modular design with inherently safe characteristics. (author)

  9. Membranes for Flue Gas Treatment - Transport behavior of water and gas in hydrophilic polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potreck, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Fossil fuel fired power plants produce electricity and in addition to that large volume flows of flue gas, which mainly contain N2, O2, and CO2, but also large quantities of water vapor. To prevent condensation of the water vapor present in this flue gas stream, water needs to be removed before

  10. Study of plasma off-gas treatment from spent ion exchange resin pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hernán Ariel; Luca, Vittorio; Bianchi, Hugo Luis

    2017-03-23

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene-based ion exchange resins are employed extensively within nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors for purification and chemical control of the cooling water system. To maintain the highest possible water quality, the resins are regularly replaced as they become contaminated with a range of isotopes derived from compromised fuel elements as well as corrosion and activation products including 14 C, 60 Co, 90 Sr, 129 I, and 137 Cs. Such spent resins constitute a major proportion (in volume terms) of the solid radioactive waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several treatment and conditioning techniques have been developed with a view toward reducing the spent resin volume and generating a stable waste product suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Between them, pyrolysis emerges as an attractive option. Previous work of our group suggests that the pyrolysis treatment of the resins at low temperatures between 300 and 350 °C resulted in a stable waste product with a significant volume reduction (>50%) and characteristics suitable for long-term storage and/or disposal. However, another important issue to take into account is the complexity of the off-gas generated during the process and the different technical alternatives for its conditioning. Ongoing work addresses the characterization of the ion exchange resin treatment's off-gas. Additionally, the application of plasma technology for the treatment of the off-gas current was studied as an alternative to more conventional processes utilizing oil- or gas-fired post-combustion chambers operating at temperatures in excess of 1000 °C. A laboratory-scale flow reactor, using inductively coupled plasma, operating under sub-atmospheric conditions was developed. Fundamental experiments using model compounds have been performed, demonstrating a high destruction and removal ratio (>99.99%) for different reaction media, at low reactor temperatures and moderate power consumption

  11. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  12. Technological development for increasing the natural gas market; Desenvolvimento tecnologico para o incremento do mercado do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmann, Arno; Romanos, Rafael Reami; Konishi, Ricardo; Lehmkuhl, Willian Anderson [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results achieved in technological development projects for the use of natural gas in furnaces for producing ceramic frits, in plastic film thermoforming and in hardwoods drying. In the case of the production of frits, the analysis of a typical furnace showed that its productivity is better, compared with the use of conventional fuel oil and around 60% of losses of energy were detected, resulting in a proposal of a new model to increase its efficiency, recovering the energy of exhaust gases from the chimney. For the thermoforming, it was shown that the isolation of its sides enable improvements in the order of 7% in its efficiency. Comparing the operating costs, the replacement of electric radiators by porous radiating burners generates savings of around 30% to 45%, with an expected return on investment in about 2.5 years. The drying of hardwoods with natural gas can be carried out in only 26 days, kept all the required technical characteristics, thanks to the good controllability of the conditions of the drying heater, providing a technologically feasible opportunity to reduce the drying time, which in conventional methods is in the order of 90 to 120 days. (author)

  13. Application of spent fuel treatment technology to plutonium immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Ackerman, J.P.; Gay, E.C., Johnson, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the electrometallurgical treatment technology being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to convert certain spent nuclear fuels into waste forms that are suitable for disposal in a geological repository for nuclear waste. The spent fuels of interest are those that cannot be safely stored for a long time in their current condition, and those that cannot be qualified for repository disposal. This paper explores the possibility of applying this electrometallurgical treatment technology to immobilization of surplus fissile materials, primarily plutonium. Immobilization of surplus fissile materials by electrometallurgical treatment could be done in the same facilities, at the same time. and in the same equipment as the proposed treatment of the present inventory of spent nuclear fuel. The cost and schedule savings of this simultaneous treatment scheme would be significant

  14. Industrial applications of electron beam flue gas treatment - From laboratory to the practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-01-01

    The electron beam technology for flue gas treatment (EBFGT) has been developed in Japan in the early 1980s. Later on, this process was investigated in pilot scale in the USA, Germany, Japan, Poland, Bulgaria and China. The new engineering and process solutions have been developed during the past two decades. Finally industrial plants have been constructed in Poland and China. The high efficiency of SO x and NO x removal was achieved (up to 95% for SO x and up to 70% for NO x ) and by-product is a high quality fertilizer. Since the power of accelerators applied in industrial installation is over 1 MW and requested operational availability of the plant is equal to 8500 h in year, it is a new challenge for radiation processing applications

  15. The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L.; Wright, Melanie C.; Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches

  16. The development of radioactive waste treatment technology(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Ahan, Byung Gil; Kim, Jeong Guk; Yim, Sung Paal

    1992-03-01

    A full-scale silicon carbide filter (flanged candle type) was made by using an oxide ceramic binder. From the results of filtration test, the manufactured SiC filter was comparable to foreign commercial filters. But the composite type filter with a thin fiber layer on its surface showed more excellent filtration performance than granular bed filter. It is expected that large hysterisis of sintering binder on heating and cooling process would cause a problem in high temperature application. From the results, the development of composite type filter and a study on sintering binder must be continued. Such study results could be utilized for the off-gas treatment of radioactive waste treatment process and general industry. And it will be used as a basic data for solid/gas separation process. (Author)

  17. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  18. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  19. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  20. Novel Technology for Phenol Wastewater Treatment Using Electrochemical Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncheng Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various electrochemical approaches to save energy, mostly by means of equipment improvement coupled with other water treatment technologies. Replacement of DC power with pulse power, modified reactor coupled with photocatalysis can decrease cost. But more or less additional input is developed, or infrastructure has to be replaced. In this paper, an N-Step electrochemical reactor, based on stage reaction modeling, is put forward. On the basis of not changing equipment investment and by adjustment of the operating current density at different levels, power consumption decreases. This model develops a foundation of electrochemical water treatment technology for the engineering application.

  1. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  2. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  3. Role of mini-scleral gas-permeable lenses in the treatment of corneal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ping; Sun, Amy; Weissman, Barry A

    2007-03-01

    Case report on the clinical implications of mini-scleral gas-permeable contact lenses in the treatment of corneal disorders. Three patients with different corneal disorders were fitted with Jupiter design mini-scleral gas-permeable contact lenses. All three patients achieved excellent vision and comfort. The contact lenses were tolerated well, and no complications were observed. Mini-scleral gas-permeable contact lenses provide a good option for patients who require gas-permeable contact lenses for optimal visual function but do not tolerate corneal contact lenses. Mini-scleral lenses are also an excellent therapeutic tool in the treatment of at least some forms of severe dry eyes.

  4. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  5. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  6. The role of technology in unlocking the possibilities of shale gas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heydenrich, PR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoo shale gas for electricity generation 20 Existing technology Karoo shale gas to a new syngas platform M et ha ne c on ve rte d to sy ng as (C O +H 2) Co-FT Mix of Diesel; Naphtha; Base Oils; Waxes Fe-FT Mix of Fuels; Olefins; Oxygenates... oxidation Produces MeOH, which can be converted to olefins Oxidative coupling Ethylene Pyrolysis / Plasma Ethylene; Benzene; Hydrogen Methanotrophic Bacteria Potentially broad range of chemicals Syngas Fermentation Potentially broad range of chemicals...

  7. Novel technology for hydrothermal treatment of NPP evaporator concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, Valentin; Dobrzhansky, Vitaly; Marinin, Dmitry; Sergienko, Valentin; Shmatko, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    A novel technology was developed for treatment of evaporator concentrates produced as a result of operation of evaporation devices comprising the main component of special water purification systems of nuclear power plants (NPP). The developed technology includes a hydrothermal (T=250-300 deg. C and P=80-120 bar) processing of evaporator concentrates in oxidation medium in order to destruct stable organic complexes of cobalt radionuclides and remove these radionuclides by oxide materials formed during such a processing. The cesium radionuclides contained in evaporator concentrates are removed by a conventional method-through application of one of the developed composite sorbents with ferrocyanides of transition metals used as active agents. Extensive laboratory studies of the processes occurring in evaporator concentrates under hydrothermal conditions were performed. It was shown that hydrothermal oxidation of evaporator concentrates has a number of advantages as compared to traditional oxidation methods (ozonization, photo-catalytic, electrochemical and plasma oxidation). A laboratory installation was built for the flow-type hydrothermal oxidation of NPP evaporator concentrates. The obtained experimental results showed good prospects for the developed method application. On the basis of the results obtained, a pilot installation of productivity up to 15 l/hour was developed and built in order to work out the technology of evaporator concentrates hydrothermal treatment. The pilot tests of the hydrothermal technology for evaporator concentrates hydrothermal treatment were performed for 6 months in 2006 at the 1. reactor unit of the Novovoronezhskaya NPP (Voronezh Region, Russia). Optimal technological regimes were determined, and estimations of the economic soundness of the technology were made. The advantages of the presented technology in terms of management of concentrated liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at nuclear cycle facilities, as compared to other methods

  8. Using phytoremediation technologies to upgrade waste water treatment in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Peter; Navarro-Aviñó, Juan; Azaizeh, Hassan; Goldhirsh, Avi Golan; DiGregorio, Simona; Komives, Tamas; Langergraber, Günter; Lenz, Anton; Maestri, Elena; Memon, Abdul R; Ranalli, Alfonso; Sebastiani, Luca; Smrcek, Stanislav; Vanek, Tomas; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Wissing, Frieder

    2007-11-01

    One of the burning problems of our industrial society is the high consumption of water and the high demand for clean drinking water. Numerous approaches have been taken to reduce water consumption, but in the long run it seems only possible to recycle waste water into high quality water. It seems timely to discuss alternative water remediation technologies that are fit for industrial as well as less developed countries to ensure a high quality of drinking water throughout Europe. The present paper discusses a range of phytoremediation technologies to be applied in a modular approach to integrate and improve the performance of existing wastewater treatment, especially towards the emerging micro pollutants, i.e. organic chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This topic is of global relevance for the EU. Existing technologies for waste water treatment do not sufficiently address increasing pollution situation, especially with the growing use of organic pollutants in the private household and health sector. Although some crude chemical approaches exist, such as advanced oxidation steps, most waste water treatment plants will not be able to adopt them. The same is true for membrane technologies. Incredible progress has been made during recent years, thus providing us with membranes of longevity and stability and, at the same time, high filtration capacity. However, these systems are expensive and delicate in operation, so that the majority of communities will not be able to afford them. Combinations of different phytoremediation technologies seem to be most promising to solve this burning problem. To quantify the occurrence and the distribution of micropollutants, to evaluate their effects, and to prevent them from passing through wastewater collection and treatment systems into rivers, lakes and ground water bodies represents an urgent task for applied environmental sciences in the coming years. Public acceptance of green technologies is generally higher than that of

  9. Riverbank filtration: an efficient and economical water treatment technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo uribe, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Riverbank Filtration (RBF) is a water treatment technology that consists of extracting water from rivers by pumping wells located in the adjacent alluvial aquifer. During the underground passage, a series of physical, chemical, and biological processes take place, improving the quality of the surface water, substituting or reducing conventional drinking water treatment. Despite its extensive use in Europe and its emerging use in the United States, there are no scientific publications related ...

  10. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Alshabab Mary Shick; Andrianova Maria; Alsalloum Dergham

    2016-01-01

    Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times) dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant) in several actual stages of treatment (acidificatio...

  11. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knodle, M.S.; Novaresi, M.A. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Titan Gas Turbine Systems Division

    2009-07-01

    Development of the Titan 250 industrial gas turbine system began in 2005 in response to demands from the petroleum industry and electricity producers for higher performance industrial gas turbine products in the 15-30 MW (25,000-45,000 hp) power range. The Titan 250 is Solar Turbine's most powerful package and its evolutionary hybrid-type design approach was based on shared aerodynamic, thermal, mechanical, and combustion technologies borrowed from the Taurus 65TM, Titan 130TM, and Mercury 50TM gas turbine systems. It produces 50 per cent more power than the Titan 130, while providing 40 per cent shaft efficiency with significantly fewer emissions. Thorough combustion system testing, use of proven materials, and hot section cooling provided a solid design basis. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial-flow compressor, a dry low emissions combustor for low NOx and CO output, a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 1204 degrees C, and a three-stage, all-shrouded blade power turbine for maximum efficiency. The design also minimizes maintenance intervals to increase equipment availability. The gas turbine and gas compressor have been tested in component, subsystem, and full-scale development, and will be starting field operation in late 2009 to verify performance and mechanical integrity under all operating conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 26 figs.

  12. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry and Shale Gas - What Is Possible with Current Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, C. D.; Kasson, A.

    2014-12-01

    With ever increasing exploration and exploitation of 'unconventional' hydrocarbon resources, the drive to understand the origins, history and importance of these resources and their effects on the surrounding environment (i.e. ground waters) has never been more important. High-throughput, high-precision isotopic measurements are therefore a key tool in this industry to both understand the gas generated and monitor the development and stability of wells through time. With the advent of cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) instrumentation, there has been a push in some applications - environmental & atmospheric - to gather more and more data directly at the location of collection or at dedicated field stations. Furthermore, CRDS has resulted in users seeking greater autonomy of instrumentation and so-called black box technology. Traditionally IRMS technology has not met any of these demands, requiring very specific and extensive footprint, power and environmental requirements. This has meant that the 'Oil & Gas' sector, which for natural gases measurements requires GC-IRMS technology - not possible via CRDS - loses time, money and manpower as samples get sent to central facility or contract labs with potentially long lee times. However, recent developments in technology mean that IRMS systems exist which are benchtop, have much lower power requirements, standard power connections and as long as housed in a temperature controlled field stations can be deployed anywhere. Furthermore, with advances in electronics and software IRMS systems are approaching the black box level of newer instrumentation while maintaining the flexibility and abilities of isotope ratio mass spectrometry. This presentation will outline changes in IRMS technology applicable to the Oil & Gas industry, discuss the feasibility of true 'field' deployability and present results from a range of Oil & Gas samples.

  13. Quantifying nitrous oxide production pathways in wastewater treatment systems using isotope technology - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran; Ye, Liu; Erler, Dirk; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2017-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is an important greenhouse gas and an ozone-depleting substance which can be emitted from wastewater treatment systems (WWTS) causing significant environmental impacts. Understanding the N 2 O production pathways and their contribution to total emissions is the key to effective mitigation. Isotope technology is a promising method that has been applied to WWTS for quantifying the N 2 O production pathways. Within the scope of WWTS, this article reviews the current status of different isotope approaches, including both natural abundance and labelled isotope approaches, to N 2 O production pathways quantification. It identifies the limitations and potential problems with these approaches, as well as improvement opportunities. We conclude that, while the capabilities of isotope technology have been largely recognized, the quantification of N 2 O production pathways with isotope technology in WWTS require further improvement, particularly in relation to its accuracy and reliability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview of established and emerging treatment technologies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at wood preserving facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearon, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The contamination of soil and groundwater by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is common to wood preserving facilities and manufactured gas plants. Since the inception of RCRA and CERCLA, much attention has been focused upon the remediation of both active and defunct wood preserving facilities. The experiences gleaned from the use of proven technologies, and more importantly, the lessons being learned in the trials of emerging technologies on creosote-derived PAH clean-ups at wood preserving sites, should have direct bearing on the clean-up of similar contaminants at MGP sites. In this paper, a review of several remedial actions using waste removal/disposal, on-site incineration, and bioremediation will be presented. Additionally, emerging technologies for the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil and water will be reviewed. Lastly, recent information on risk assessment results for creosote sites and treated PAH waste will be discussed

  15. Evaluating the technical aspects of mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses treatment of mixed wastes which is thought to be more complicated than treatment of either hazardous or radioactive wastes. In fact, the treatment itself is no more complicated: however, the regulations that define acceptability of the final waste disposal system are significantly more entangled, and sometimes in apparent conflict. This session explores the factors that influence the choice of waste treatment technologies, and expands on some of the limitations to their application. The objective of the presentation is to describe the technical factors that influence potential treatment processes and the ramifications associated with particular selections (for example, the generation of secondary waste streams). These collectively provide a framework for making informed treatment process selections

  16. Treatment of back flow fluids from shale gas exploration with recovery of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajda, D.; Zakrzewska-Koltuniewicz, G.; Abramowska, A.; Kiegiel, K.; Niescior-Borowinska, P.; Miskiewicz, A.; Olszewska, W.; Kulisa, K.; Samszynski, Z.; Drzewicz, P.; Konieczynska, M.

    2015-01-01

    Shale gas exploitation is the cause of many social protests. According to the protesters gas extraction technology threatens the environment: it consumes huge amounts of water, creates danger of poisoning drinking water, the formation of toxic wastewater, air contamination, noise, etc. Hydro-fracturing fluids could also leach radioactive isotopes e.g. uranium from the rock. The upper content of the main elements found in examined back flow fluids in Poland are the following: chlorine: 100.00 Kg/m 3 , sodium: 40.00 kg/m 3 , potassium: 0.90 kg/m 3 , lithium: 0.15 kg/m 3 , magnesium: 2.00 kg/m 3 , calcium: 20.00 kg/m 3 , strontium: 0.80 kg/m 3 and cesium: 0.06 kg/m 3 while the upper content of trace elements are the following: uranium: 3.5 g/m 3 , lanthanum: 12.4 g/m 3 , vanadium: 1.3 g/m 3 , yttrium: 1.3 g/m 3 , molybdenum: 2.0 g/m 3 and manganese: 9.7 g/m 3 . The recovery of uranium, and other valuable metals, from back flow fluids will reduce an environmental impact of hydro-fracturing process. This poster details the treatment of back flow fluids in Poland allowing rare earth elements and uranium recovery

  17. A hybrid plasma-chemical system for high-NOx flue gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Zwolińska, Ewa; Licki, Janusz; Sun, Yongxia; Zimek, Zbigniew; Bułka, Sylwester

    2018-03-01

    The reduction of high concentrations of NOx and SO2 from simulated flue gas has been studied. Our aim was to optimise energy consumption for NOx and SO2 removal from off-gases from a diesel generator using heavy fuel oil. A hybrid process: electron beam (EB) plasma and wet scrubber has been applied. A much higher efficiency of NOx and SO2 removal was achieved in comparison to dry, ammonia free, electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT). A recorded removal from a concentration of 1500 ppm NOx reached 49% at a low dose of 6.5 kGy, while only 2% NOx was removed at the same dose if EB only was applied. For SO2, removal efficiency at a dose of 6.5 kGy increased from 15% (EB only) to 84% when sea water was used as a wet scrubber agent for 700 ppm SO2. The results of this study indicate that EB combined with wet scrubber is a very promising technology to be applied for removal of high concentrations of NOx and SO2 emitted from diesel engines operated e.g. on cargo ships, which are the main sources of SO2 and NOx pollution along their navigation routes.

  18. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that

  19. Application of phycoremediation technology in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phycoremediation is the use of algae for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants from wastewater. Employing this technology in the treatment of industrial effluents presents an alternative to the current practice of using conventional methods, including physical and chemical methods. In the present study, the effluent ...

  20. Hadron-therapy: applications of accelerator technologies to tumour treatments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    In the second part the technologies of dose delivery are described emphasising the main challenges of modern radiotherapy, in particular the treatment of moving organs. In this framework the properties of the beams produced by conventional accelerators (cyclotrons and synchrotrons) are compared with the ones due to two novel approaches based on fast cycling machines, as FFAGs and cyclinacs.

  1. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration......This study aims at developing a sustainability assessment framework for assessing the technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge based on the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (LFPPFAHP) and extension theory. LFPPFAHP was employed......, and resource utilization) was studied by the proposed method, and compositing, incineration, and resource utilization are recognized as "Moderately Sustainable", "Not Sustainable", and "Highly Sustainable", respectively. The sustainability sequence in the descending order is resource utilization, compositing...

  2. Review of technologies for mercury removal from flue gas from cement production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a pollutant of concern and mercury emissions from cement plants are under environmental regulation. After coal-fired power plants, mercury emissions from cement and mineral production are the second largest anthropogenic sources. Compared to fuels, cement raw materials are the major...... sources of mercury in the cement kiln flue gas. Cement plants are quite different from power plants and waste incinerators regarding the flue gas composition, temperature, residence time, and material circulation. Cement kiln systems have some inherent ability to retain mercury in the solid materials due...... kilns.Among the mercury control technologies, sorbent injection upstream of a particulate control device has shown the most promise. Due to material recirculation, and high moisture level in the cement kiln flue gas the application of sorbent injection to cement plants will be more challenging...

  3. World exclusive . . Snoehvit plays it cool[Liquefied natural gas technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, T.

    2002-04-01

    This article reports on the planned recovery of the natural gas reserves from three large offshore gas fields - known collectively as Snoehvit - in the Barents Sea. Details are given of the location of the fields, the aim of operator Statoil and its co-venturers to transport the natural gas through a multiphase pipeline to a LNG plant on an island near Hammerfest, and the strong support of the Norwegian government. Statoil's strategy of phased development of the Askeladd, Albatross and Snoehvit fields starting with the Snoehvit field is discussed along with pipelines, the LNG plant, the drilling of the production wells, and pipeline design. The carbon dioxide injection pipeline, control systems, onshore technology, and environmental and economic issues are considered.

  4. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    1999-12-01

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  5. The technology level of modular devices in outfitting an oil and gas complex in Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.L.; Permikin, Yu.N.; Sannikov, Yu.V.; Telegin, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the problem of ensuring the technology level of modular devices (BKU) is analyzed. It is shown that insufficient consideration in design of the specific production, transport and assembly and operational specifications on the technology level is the cause for creation of irrational designs for modular devices and additional expenditures on their realization. A methodology for controlling the technology level of modular devices being designed is described, which increases the effectiveness of their use (in outfitting petroleum pumping stations (NPS), one of the most important elements of the oil and gas complex). A numerical method for designing the technological structures of the modular devices and an algorithm which ensures practical realization of the method on a computer (EVM) are examined.

  6. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-05-01

    During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  7. Calculation and Designing of Up-to-Date Gas-Flame Plants for Metal Heating and Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Тimoshpolsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of development trends in the CIS machine-building industry and current status of the heating and heat treatment furnaces of main machine-building enterprises of the Republic of Belarus as of the 1st quarter of 2008 is given in the paper.The paper presents the most efficient engineering solutions from technological and economic point of view that concern calculation and designing of up-to-date gas-flame plants which are to be applied for modernization of the current heating and heat treatment furnaces of the machine-building enterprises in the Republic of Belarus.A thermo-technical calculation of main indices of the up-to-date gas-flame plant has been carried out in the paper.

  8. Biological control and management of the detoxication wastewater treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalova Yana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Detoxication technologies require the combination of theoretical and practical knowledge of xenobiotic biodegradation, wastewater treatment technologies, and management rules. The purpose of this complicated combination is to propose specialized strategies for detoxication, based on lab- and pilot-scale modeling. These strategies include preliminary created algorithms for preventing the risk of water pollution and sediments. The technologies and algorithms are essentially important outcome, applied in the textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, woodtreating, and oiltreating industries. In this paper four rehabilitation technologies for pretreatment of water contaminated by pentachlorophenol (PCP have been developed in the frame of the European and Bulgarian National projects. Emphasize is put on the biological systems and their potential of detoxication management. The light and transmission electron microscopy of the reconstructed activated sludges the microbial, kinetic and enzymological indicators are presented and approved as critical points in the biocontrol.

  9. Technological acceleration and organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabelle, M.

    2000-12-01

    The upstream oil and gas industry experienced a dramatic technological acceleration in the early 1970's. The relationships between the agents in this industry have themselves undergone deep changes since that date. This thesis shows that a tight link exists between the technological acceleration and the organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry. In a first part, it focuses on the economic theory's developments concerning industrial organization. In a second part, it applies these developments to three types of relations: those between the owner-states of hydrocarbon resources and the international petroleum companies; those between the international petroleum companies and their subcontractors; and finally those between the international petroleum companies themselves. (author)

  10. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC

  11. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-05-31

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

  12. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  13. Demonstration of Enabling Spar-Shell Cooling Technology in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, James [Florida Turbine Technologies Inc., Jupiter, FL (United States)

    2014-12-29

    In this Advanced Turbine Program-funded Phase III project, Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) has developed and tested, at a pre-commercial prototypescale, spar-shell turbine airfoils in a commercial gas turbine. The airfoil development is based upon FTT’s research and development to date in Phases I and II of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants. During this program, FTT has partnered with an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Siemens Energy, to produce sparshell turbine components for the first pre-commercial prototype test in an F-Class industrial gas turbine engine and has successfully completed validation testing. This project will further the commercialization of this new technology in F-frame and other highly cooled turbine airfoil applications. FTT, in cooperation with Siemens, intends to offer the spar-shell vane as a first-tier supplier for retrofit applications and new large frame industrial gas turbines. The market for the spar-shell vane for these machines is huge. According to Forecast International, 3,211 new gas turbines units (in the >50MW capacity size range) will be ordered in ten years from 2007 to 2016. FTT intends to enter the market in a low rate initial production. After one year of successful extended use, FTT will quickly ramp up production and sales, with a target to capture 1% of the market within the first year and 10% within 5 years (2020).

  14. Passive treatment technology cleans up colorado mining waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, S.; Olsen, R. (Camp Dresser and McKee Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Wildeman, T. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States))

    1990-12-01

    This article describes the performance of a module designed to treat acid mine drainage from an mining tunnel. The site is one of the many abandoned mineral mines in Colorado. At optimum conditions passive treatment removed up to 98% of the zinc, 99% of the copper, 94% of the lead, and 86% of the iron in the mine drainage. It also increased pH from 3.0 to a value greater than 6.5. This treatment meets the need for a low cost operating and maintenance system. Because of the success of the pilot plant, the project team has obtained a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program grant from the EPA to continue operating the pilot plant for two additional years and to prepare the first design manual on passive treatment technology.

  15. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM MODULE FOR CALCULATING SPEED OF TITANIC PLASMA SEDIMENTATION IN ENVIRONMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ivaschenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The program module has been developed on the basis of package of applied MATLAB programs which allows to calculate speed of coating sedimentation over the section of plasma stream taking into account magnetic field influence of a stabilizing coil, and also to correct the obtained value of sedimentation speed depending on the value of negative accelerating potential, arch current, technological gas pressure. The program resolves visualization of calculation results.

  17. Improving Childhood Obesity Treatment Using New Technologies: The ETIOBE System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2011-03-04

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an "obesogenic environment" are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals.

  18. Impact of improved technology on industrial greenhouse-gas emissions in developing countries. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    In response to a formal request by the Group of 77 and China, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) initiated a study to identify opportunities to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from energy-intensive industries in developing countries. These sectors currently include iron and steel, petroleum refining, cement, paper and pulp and nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this first phase was to describe: how energy is used in the energy-intensive industries in developing countries today; what current trends indicate for the future; the potential contribution of improved technologies and practices to moving toward more sustainable industrial production in developing countries, and to provide developing countries with an analytical tool for evaluating opportunities to limit industrial greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in their industrial sectors through the transfer of improved technologies and processes. The immediate objectives of Phase 1 were twofold: to provide information to developing countries in the form of an inventory of energy-efficient, best-available technologies and processes that can be used to abate greenhouse-gas emissions in the most energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors as well as cross-cutting measures applicable in a range of sub-sectors, and; to provide an analytical methodology in the form of a software tool that enables the user to evaluate and compare the costs, energy requirements, and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with scenarios of specific technology and process options. To meet these objectives, the first phase of the study comprised: a Report entitled Industrial Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Developing Countries; a Software Package containing, an Industrial Technology Inventory, and an Analysis Tool, and; Industry/country-specific Case Studies. The Report describes current energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions in energy-intensive industries in developing countries, and similar industries exemplifying good

  19. RedeGasEnergia and associated technologies with industrial market; A RedeGasEnergia e as tecnologias associadas a aplicacoes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Luiz F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gas Natural; Lodi, Cristiane [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Rede Gas Energia

    2004-07-01

    The industrial segment shows a potential of consumption of about 40 millions m{sup 3}/d. This represent a great opportunity for RedeGasEnergia, a net of excellent with realize a cooperative and segmented work with Technology for development of natural gas once that at this moment this segment consume almost 20 millions m{sup 3}/d. The search for solutions economically and sustainable for replacing others energetics sources that are currently being used, placing emphasis on the quality of product, a concern with the environment, the need for technological development, the ease handling of equipment, safety regulations, those are the aims of the Industrial Applications of Technology. The development of projects in the technology field associate to combustion/conversion of industrial installations, acclimatization/refrigeration, industrial equipment, and new products and processes, which will make use of the natural gas has being our main goal nowadays. (author)

  20. The wet compression technology for gas turbine power plants: Thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Stefano; Pierfederici, Alessandro; Trucco, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines from a thermodynamic point of view the effects of wet compression on gas turbine power plants, particularly analysing the influence of ambient conditions on the plant performance. The results of the mathematical model, implemented in 'Matlab' software, have been compared with the simulation results presented in literature and in particular the values of the 'evaporative rate', proposed in Araimo et al. [L. Araimo, A. Torelli, Thermodynamic analysis of the wet compression process in heavy duty gas turbine compressors, in: Proceedings of the 59th ATI Annual Congress, Genova, 2004, pp. 1249-1263; L. Araimo, A. Torelli, Wet compression technology applied to heavy duty gas turbines - GT power augmentation and efficiency upgrade, in: Proceedings of the 59th ATI Annual Congress, Genova, 2004, pp. 1265-1277] by 'Gas Turbines Department' of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., have been taken into account to validate the model. The simulator permits to investigate the effects of the fogging and wet compression techniques and estimate the power and efficiency gain of heavy duty gas turbines operating in hot and arid conditions

  1. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  2. New energy efficiency technologies associated with increased natural gas demand in delivery and consumption sectors of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghalandis, Saeid Mansouri

    2010-09-15

    Increasing population and economic growth in developing countries has changed their energy consumption patterns. So, the conventional systems of energy supply have become inadequate to deal with rising energy demand. Iran has great reservoirs of natural gas and its natural gas usage is far more than average international standard. Dominance of natural gas share in energy basket in Iran, make it necessary to consider energy efficient technologies and solutions for this domain. In this study new technologies for increasing energy efficiency (EE) in natural gas delivery and consumption sub sectors are discussed and evaluated according to available infrastructures in Iran.

  3. Influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behaviour of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of noncrosslinked, glutaraldehyde crosslinked or hexamethylene diisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using bacterial collagenase is described. The results obtained were compared with the degradation

  4. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  5. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  6. Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn (Comforce Technical Services, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at http://www.sandia.gov/water/arsenic.htm. This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

  7. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  9. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste

  10. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Kan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste.

  11. A pilot study for the extraction and treatment of groundwater from a manufactured gas plant site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report describes a pilot study involving treatment of contaminated groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site on the eastern seaboard of the US. The work was performed in order to provide the design basis for a full-scale groundwater extraction and treatment system at the site, as well as to develop a generic approach to selection of groundwater treatment sequences at other MGP sites. It included three main components: hydrogeologic investigations, bench-scale treatability studies, and pilot-scale treatability studies. Technologies evaluated in bench-scale work included gravity settling, filtration, and dissolved air flotation (DAF) for primary treatment of nonaqueous phase materials; biological degradation, air stripping, and carbon adsorption for secondary treatment of dissolved organics; and carbon adsorption as tertiary treatment of remaining dissolved contaminants. Pilot-scale studies focused on collecting system performance data fore three distinct levels of contamination. Two treatment trains were evaluated. One consisted of DAF, fluidized-bed biotreatment, and filtration plus carbon adsorption; the other used the same steps except to substitute air stripping for fluidized bed treatment. The final effluents produced by both treatment sequences were similar and demonstrated complete treatment of the groundwater. Besides detailing system design and performance for the treatability studies, the report includes an analysis of groundwater treatment applications to MGP sites in general, including a discussion of capital and operating costs

  12. Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps. Test and technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2008-12-15

    Heat pumps may be the next step in gas-fired residential space heating. Together with solar energy it is an option to combine natural gas and renewable energy. Heat pumps for residential space heating are likely to be based on the absorption or adsorption process, i.e. sorption heat pumps. Manufacturers claim that the efficiency could reach 140-160%. The annual efficiency will be lower but it is clear that gas-fired heat pumps can involve an efficiency and technology step equal to the transition from non-condensing gas boilers with atmospheric burners to condensing boilers. This report contains a review of the current sorption gas-fired heat pumps for residential space heating and also the visible development trends. A prototype heat pump has been laboratory tested. Field test results from Germany and the Netherlands are also used for a technology evaluation. The tested heat pump unit combines a small heat pump and a supplementary condensing gas boiler. Field tests show an average annual efficiency of 120% for this prototype design. The manufacturer abandoned the tested design during the project period and the current development concentrates on a heat pump design only comprising the heat pump, although larger. The heat pump development at three manufacturers in Germany indicates a commercial stage around 2010-2011. A fairly high electricity consumption compared to traditional condensing boilers was observed in the tested heat pump. Based on current prices for natural gas and electricity the cost savings were estimated to 12% and 27% for heat pumps with 120% and 150% annual efficiency respectively. There is currently no widespread performance testing procedure useful for annual efficiency calculations of gas-fired heat pumps. The situation seems to be clearer for electric compression heat pumps regarding proposed testing and calculation procedures. A German environmental label exists and gasfired sorption heat pumps are also slightly treated in the Eco-design work

  13. How to increase and renew the oil and gas reserves? Technology advances and research strategy of IFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Technology progresses made to reach new oil and gas resources (heavy crudes, buried deposits, ultra-deep offshore), to better exploit the available reserves (increase of the recovery ratio) and to reduce the costs will allow to enhance the hydrocarbon reserves and to durably extend the limits of the world energy supply. In a context where geopolitical uncertainties, high price rates and pessimistic declarations increase once again the public fear about petroleum reserves, the French institute of petroleum (IFP) wanted to make a status about the essential role that technology can play in this challenge. This document gathers the transparencies and articles presented at this press conference: how to increase and renew oil and gas reserves, technology advances and research strategy of IFP (O. Appert, J. Lecourtier, G. Fries); how to enhance oil recovery from deposits (primary, secondary and tertiary recovery: polymers injection, CO 2 injection, steam injection, in-situ oxidation and combustion, reservoir modeling, monitoring of uncertainties); the heavy crudes (the Orenoque extra-heavy oil, the tar sands of Alberta, the heavy and extra-heavy crudes of Canada, IFP's research); ultra-deep offshore (the weight challenge: mooring lines and risers, the temperature challenge: paraffins and hydrates deposition, immersion of the treatment unit: economical profitability of satellite fields); fields buried beyond 5000 m (technological challenges: seismic surveys, drilling equipment, well logging, drilling mud; prospects of these fields); oil reserves: data that change with technique and economy (proven, probable and possible reserves, proven and declared reserves, three converging evaluations about the world proven reserves, reserves to be discovered, non-conventional petroleum resources, technical progress and oil prices, production depletion at the end of the century). (J.S.)

  14. A review of accelerated carbonation technology in the treatment of cement-based materials and sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Bertos, M.; Simons, S.J.R.; Hills, C.D.; Carey, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Moist calcium silicate minerals are known to readily react with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The reaction products can cause rapid hardening and result in the production of monolithic materials. Today, accelerated carbonation is a developing technology, which may have potential for the treatment of wastes and contaminated soils and for the sequestration of CO 2 , an important greenhouse gas. This paper reviews recent developments in this emerging technology and provides information on the parameters that control the process. The effects of the accelerated carbonation reaction on the solid phase are discussed and future potential applications of this technology are also considered

  15. UK-China review of opportunities for landfill gas (LFG) technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to identify opportunities to transfer UK skills with regard to landfill gas (LFG) technologies to China and other countries looking to develop LFG as a commercially viable clean energy source. The aim of the project was to develop all aspects of LFG extraction and utilisation techniques. The project involved: examining current Chinese waste disposal practices; identifying key technologies and methods for maximising LFG recovery; considering end use options and methods to optimise gas use; assessing the environmental benefits; and identifying potential opportunities for UK industry. The report consider: barriers to the development of LFG; waste disposal and landfill design in China; China's experience of LFG use; UN Development Programme (UNDP) and Global Environmental Forum (GEF) LFG demonstration projects in China; environmental regulation and controls in China; LFG technology in the UK; support for renewable energy in China and the UK; design and operational needs in China from a UK perspective; technology needs, barriers and opportunities; and recommendations for action and future work.

  16. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bansal, Narendra Kumar; Wagner, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates

  17. Laser Spectroscopy Multi-Gas Monitor: Results of Technology Demonstration on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is an up and coming trace and major gas monitoring technology with unmatched selectivity, range and stability. The technology demonstration of the 4 gas Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM), reported at the 2014 ICES conference, operated continuously on the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly a year. The MGM is designed to measure oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor in ambient cabin air in a low power, relatively compact device. While on board, the MGM experienced a number of challenges, unplanned and planned, including a test of the ammonia channel using a commercial medical ammonia inhalant. Data from the unit was downlinked once per week and compared with other analytical resources on board, notably the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA), a magnetic sector mass spectrometer. MGM spent the majority of the time installed in the Nanoracks Frame 2 payload facility in front breathing mode (sampling the ambient environment of the Japanese Experiment Module), but was also used to analyze recirculated rack air. The capability of the MGM to be operated in portable mode (via internal rechargeable lithium ion polymer batteries or by plugging into any Express Rack 28VDC connector) was a part of the usability demonstration. Results to date show unprecedented stability and accuracy of the MGM vs. the MCA for oxygen and carbon dioxide. The ammonia challenge (approx. 75 ppm) was successful as well, showing very rapid response time in both directions. Work on an expansion of capability in a next generation MGM has just begun. Combustion products and hydrazine are being added to the measurable target analytes. An 8 to 10 gas monitor (aka Gas Tricorder 1.0) is envisioned for use on ISS, Orion and Exploration missions.

  18. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass ∼ 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project

  19. Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most recent work in the United States has addressed the use of silver-exchanged faujasites and mordenites. The chemical reactions of iodine with silver on the sorbent are not well defined, but it is generally believed that chemisorbed iodides and iodates are formed. The process for iodine recovery generally involves passage of the iodine-laden gas stream through a packed bed of the adsorbent material preheated to a temperature of about 150/degree/C. Most iodine removal system designs utilizing silver-containing solid sorbents assume only a 30 to 50% silver utilization. Based on laboratory tests, potentially 60 to 70% of the silver contained in the sorbents can be reacted with iodine. To overcome the high cost of silver associated with these materials, various approaches have been explored. Among these are the regeneration of the silver-containing sorbent by stripping the iodine and trapping the iodine on a sorbent that has undergone only partial silver exchange and is capable of attaining a much higher silver utilization. This summary report describes the US work in regeneration of iodine-loaded solid sorbent material. In addition, the report discusses the broader subject of plant off-gas treatment including system design. The off-gas technologies to recovery No/sub x/ and to recover and dispose of Kr, 14 C, and I are described as to their impacts on the design of an integrated off-gas system. The effect of ventilation philosophy for the reprocessing plant is discussed as an integral part of the overall treatment philosophy of the plant off-gas. 103 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Selection of the surface water treatment technology - a full-scale technological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruss, Alina

    2015-01-01

    A technological investigation was carried out over a period of 2 years to evaluate surface water treatment technology. The study was performed in Poland, in three stages. From November 2011 to July 2012, for the first stage, flow tests with a capacity of 0.1-1.5 m³/h were performed simultaneously in three types of technical installations differing by coagulation modules. The outcome of the first stage was the choice of the technology for further investigation. The second stage was performed between September 2012 and March 2013 on a full-scale water treatment plant. Three large technical installations, operated in parallel, were analysed: coagulation with sludge flotation, micro-sand ballasted coagulation with sedimentation, coagulation with sedimentation and sludge recirculation. The capacity of the installations ranged from 10 to 40 m³/h. The third stage was also performed in a full-scale water treatment plant and was aimed at optimising the selected technology. This article presents the results of the second stage of the full-scale investigation. The critical treatment process, for the analysed water, was the coagulation in an acidic environment (6.5 < pH < 7.0) carried out in a system with rapid mixing, a flocculation chamber, preliminary separation of coagulation products, and removal of residual suspended solids through filtration.

  1. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the first...... and last eating disorder diagnosis before, during, and after ART treatment, and evaluates differences in obstetric outcomes between women with and without a severe eating disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital-diagnosed eating disorders among 42 915 women in the Danish National ART cohort (DANAC......), registered during 1994-2009 in the mandatory Psychiatric Central Research Register, were compared with a non-eating disorder ART cohort of 42 644 women and an age-matched background population of 215 290 women without a history of ART treatment for the main outcome measures prevalence of eating disorders...

  2. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-01-01

    This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends

  3. New technologies in the treatment of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by insufficient production of insulin, a hormone needed for proper control of blood glucose levels. People with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose throughout the day using a glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor, calculate...... how much insulin is needed to maintain normal blood glucose levels, and administer the insulin dose by pen injection or insulin pump infusion into the subcutaneous tissue. In recent years, several new technologies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes have been developed. This PhD thesis covers two...... studies of the effects of commercially available technologies--sensor-augmented pump therapy and automated insulin bolus calculators--when used in clinical practice. Both studies demonstrated that these technologies have the potential to improve diabetes care. In addition, two in-clinic studies related...

  4. Application of electron beam technology for treatment of gases in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd Dahlan; Siti A'iasah Hashim; Mohd Nahar Othman

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory scale test rig to treat simulated flue gas using electron beam technology was installed at the Alurtron EB-Irradiation Center, MINT. The test rig system consisted of several components, among other, diesel generator sets, gas analyzers and spray cooler. The flue gas generated from the diesel generator is mainly NO x . SO 2 is added into the system. Results from the commissioning test runs and subsequent experimental work showed that the efficiency of flue gas removal is as high as 65% for NO x and 81% for SO 2 at 8.0 mA current and 1.0 MeV. MINT has also conducted study on electron beam treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by using benzene gases. Benzene is one of the most stable compounds and it is very difficult to degrade. In this experiment, benzene is kept in a Tedlar bag or glass jar whereby it is irradiated in a static and control conditions. The concentrations of benzene gases used are 100 ppm and 1 ppmv. The results indicated that the irradiation dose needed for 85-95% degradation of benzene molecules was between 8-12 kGy and several new compounds were produced. (author)

  5. Psychodynamic treatment, training, and supervision using internet-based technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, Ralph; Fishkin, Lana; Leli, Ubaldo; Katz, Barbara; Snyder, Elise

    2011-01-01

    For several years, the China American Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA) has provided treatment, training, and supervision to Chinese mental health professionals over the Internet. The lack of Chinese analysts and mentors has created an intense demand for psychodynamic psychotherapy training and treatment that CAPA is addressing using Skype™ and other distance communication technologies. This article describes the project, its history, scope, and activities, and the experiences of CAPA teachers and clinicians in exploring and developing the usefulness and power of this very new teaching method. Some particular characteristics of Chinese culture have become apparent as a result of the teaching experience. Aspects of the transference and countertransference that are shaped by the virtual nature of the technology are discussed, using case material. Our hope is that, in helping to train our Chinese students in psychodynamic psychotherapy, they will go on to train future generations of clinicians. This model of teaching and training could also be applied in other underserved areas.

  6. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    2001-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization

  7. A catalogue of treatment and technologies for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunselaar, Laurel M; Quispel-Janssen, Josine M M F; Neefjes, Jacques J C; Baas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive fatal malignancy with a prognosis that has not significantly improved in the last decades. This review summarizes the current state of treatment and the various attempts that are made to improve overall survival for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. It also discusses technologies and protocols to test new and hopefully more effective compounds in a more individualized manner. These developments are expected to improve the prognosis for this group of patients.

  8. Is Optical Gas Imaging Effective for Detecting Fugitive Methane Emissions? - A Technological and Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A. P.; Wang, J.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mitigating fugitive methane emissions from the oil and gas industry has become an important concern for both businesses and regulators. While recent studies have improved our understanding of emissions from all sectors of the natural gas supply chain, cost-effectively identifying leaks over expansive natural gas infrastructure remains a significant challenge. Recently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended the use of optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies to be used in industry-wide leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. However, there has been little to no systematic study of the effectiveness of infrared-camera-based OGI technology for leak detection applications. Here, we develop a physics-based model that simulates a passive infrared camera imaging a methane leak against varying background and ambient conditions. We verify the simulation tool through a series of large-volume controlled release field experiments wherein known quantities of methane were released and imaged from a range of distances. After simulator verification, we analyze the effects of environmental conditions like temperature, wind, and imaging background on the amount of methane detected from a statistically representative survey program. We also examine the effects of LDAR design parameters like imaging distance, leak size distribution, and gas composition. We show that imaging distance strongly affects leak detection - EPA's expectation of a 60% reduction in fugitive emissions based on a semi-annual LDAR survey will be realized only if leaks are imaged at a distance less than 10 m from the source under ideal environmental conditions. Local wind speed is also shown to be important. We show that minimum detection limits are 3 to 4 times higher for wet-gas compositions that contain a significant fraction of ethane and propane, resulting a significantly large leakage rate. We also explore the importance of `super-emitters' on the performance of an OGI-based leak

  9. Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Current trends in endodontic practice: emergency treatments and technological armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Winkler, Johnathon; Hartwell, Gary; Stewart, Jeffrey; Caine, Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.

  11. Innovative technologies for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Anderson, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes incur significant costs for Department of Energy (DOE) installations. These wastes must be managed under strict environmental controls and regulations to prevent the possibility of migration of hazardous materials to the biosphere. Through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, the DOE is seeking to develop innovative ways of improving current treatment technologies to eliminate the hazardous components of wastes, reduce waste management costs, and minimize the volume requiring disposal as hazardous or mixed waste. Sponsored projects progress from research and development to field demonstration. Among the innovative technologies under development are supercritical water oxidation of hazardous chemicals, microwave-assisted destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, paramagnetic separation of metals from waste, detoxification and reclamation of waste acid, nitrate destruction through calcination, treatment/disposal of reactive metals, and methodologies for encapsulation. Technologies at a demonstration phase include detoxification of mixed waste sludge, microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil, and the remediation process for a hydrocarbon spill. 14 refs

  12. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavlarides, Lawrence [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View Texas A& M; DePaoli, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This project was successfully executed to provide valuable adsorption data and improve a comprehensive model developed in previous work by the authors. Data obtained were used in an integrated computer program to predict the behavior of adsorption columns. The model is supported by experimental data and has been shown to predict capture of off gas similar to that evolving during the reprocessing of nuclear waste. The computer program structure contains (a) equilibrium models of off-gases with the adsorbate; (b) mass-transfer models to describe off-gas mass transfer to a particle, diffusion through the pores of the particle, and adsorption on the active sites of the particle; and (c) incorporation of these models into fixed bed adsorption modeling, which includes advection through the bed. These models are being connected with the MOOSE (Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment) software developed at the Idaho National Laboratory through DGOSPREY (Discontinuous Galerkin Off-gas SeParation and REcoverY) computer codes developed in this project. Experiments for iodine and water adsorption have been conducted on reduced silver mordenite (Ag0Z) for single layered particles. Adsorption apparatuses have been constructed to execute these experiments over a useful range of conditions for temperatures ranging from ambient to 250°C and water dew points ranging from -69 to 19°C. Experimental results were analyzed to determine mass transfer and diffusion of these gases into the particles and to determine which models best describe the single and binary component mass transfer and diffusion processes. The experimental results were also used to demonstrate the capabilities of the comprehensive models developed to predict single-particle adsorption and transients of the adsorption-desorption processes in fixed beds. Models for adsorption and mass transfer have been developed to mathematically describe adsorption kinetics and transport via diffusion and advection

  13. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  14. Greenhouse-gas emissions from biomass energy use: Comparison with other energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.; Norman, N.A.; Gleick, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recently a major new concern has arisen: the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is now generally believed that continued emissions of these gases are current or increasing levels will lead to significant climatic changes with the potential for dramatic, adverse impacts. Since the major anthropogenic source of greenhouse gas emissions is energy production and use, it is essential to future energy policy to understand how energy sources differ with respect to greenhouse gas emissions. Characterizing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with biomass energy use is extremely complicated. It is necessary to consider both the source and alternative use of the biomass material and its alternative disposal (if any), as well as the biomass energy application itself. It is desirable also to consider not just CO 2 emissions, but also CH 4 and N 2 O, both potent greenhouse gases. The authors' analysis shows that in many cases biomass energy use can actually help to ameliorate the greenhouse effect by converting emissions that would have been CH 4 into the less potent greenhouse gas CO 2 . In many cases the beneficial effect is very dramatic. This major new research result should help increase public support for biomass research and development, and for further development of waste conversion technology and installations

  15. Sustainable Solution for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Separation using Concentrated Solar Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Piyush; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Nath Mahendra, Som; Motahhir, Saad

    2017-08-01

    In today’s scenario to combat with climate change effects, there are a lot of reasons why we all should use renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels. Solar energy is one of the best options based on features like good for the environment, independent of electricity prices, underutilized land, grid security, sustainable growth, etc. This concept paper is oriented primarily focused on the use of Solar Energy for the crude oil heating purpose besides other many prospective industrial applications to reduce cost, carbon footprint and moving towards a sustainable and ecologically friendly Oil & Gas Industry. Concentrated Solar Power technology based prototype system is proposed to substitute the presently used system based on natural gas burning method. The hybrid system which utilizes the solar energy in the oil and gas industry would strengthen the overall field working conditions, safety measures and environmental ecology. 40% reduction on natural gas with this hybrid system is estimated. A positive implication for an environment, working conditions and safety precautions is the additive advantage. There could also decrease air venting of CO2, CH4 and N2O by an average of 30-35%.

  16. Fuel cells: new technology of natural gas for energetical building; Pilas de combustible: nueva tecnologia de gas natural para edificios energeticamente autoabastecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2000-07-01

    Fuel Cells have emerged in the last decade as one of the most promising new and sustainable natural gas technologies for meeting the energy needs of all the economy sectors into the 21st century. Fuel Cells are an environmentally clean, quiet, and highly efficient method for generating electricity and heat from natural gas. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly to usable energy (electricity and heat) without combustion. For this reason, the application and use of the fuel cell technology may be the most important technological advancement of the next century. At the beginning of the 2000 year Sociedad de Gas de Euskadi, s. a. started a demonstration project in favour of the high-temperature planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for domestic micro-CHP utilization. This type is certainly most exacting from the materials standpoint, and it offers the advantage of uncomplicated fuel pretreatment. (Author)

  17. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

    2009-01-01

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program

  18. Dynamic self-organization phenomena in complex ionized gas systems: new paradigms and technological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, S. V.; Ostrikov, K.

    2004-04-01

    An overview of dynamic self-organization phenomena in complex ionized gas systems, associated physical phenomena, and industrial applications is presented. The most recent experimental, theoretical, and modeling efforts to understand the growth mechanisms and dynamics of nano- and micron-sized particles, as well as the unique properties of the plasma-particle systems (colloidal, or complex plasmas) and the associated physical phenomena are reviewed and the major technological applications of micro- and nanoparticles are discussed. Until recently, such particles were considered mostly as a potential hazard for the microelectronic manufacturing and significant efforts were applied to remove them from the processing volume or suppress the gas-phase coagulation. Nowadays, fine clusters and particulates find numerous challenging applications in fundamental science as well as in nanotechnology and other leading high-tech industries.

  19. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-07-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey site test performed on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. This test completes planned screening efforts designed to guide selection of one or more units for design analysis and testing with emphasis on identification and reduction of compressor losses. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  20. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-01-24

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report presents results of design analysis performed on the TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  1. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-10-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first summarizes key results from survey site tests performed on an HBA-6 installed at Duke Energy's Bedford compressor station, and on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. The report then presents results of design analysis performed on the Bedford HBA-6 to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  2. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: German Pebble Bed Reactor design and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This report describes and evaluates several gas-cooled reactor plant concepts under development within the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The concepts, based upon the use of a proven Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element design, include nuclear heat generation for chemical processes and electrical power generation. Processes under consideration for the nuclear process heat plant (PNP) include hydrogasification of coal, steam gasification of coal, combined process, and long-distance chemical heat transportation. The electric plant emphasized in the report is the steam turbine cycle (HTR-K), although the gas turbine cycle (HHT) is also discussed. The study is a detailed description and evaluation of the nuclear portion of the various plants. The general conclusions are that the PBR technology is sound and that the HTR-K and PNP plant concepts appear to be achievable through appropriate continuing development programs, most of which are either under way or planned

  3. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: German Pebble Bed Reactor design and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    This report describes and evaluates several gas-cooled reactor plant concepts under development within the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The concepts, based upon the use of a proven Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element design, include nuclear heat generation for chemical processes and electrical power generation. Processes under consideration for the nuclear process heat plant (PNP) include hydrogasification of coal, steam gasification of coal, combined process, and long-distance chemical heat transportation. The electric plant emphasized in the report is the steam turbine cycle (HTR-K), although the gas turbine cycle (HHT) is also discussed. The study is a detailed description and evaluation of the nuclear portion of the various plants. The general conclusions are that the PBR technology is sound and that the HTR-K and PNP plant concepts appear to be achievable through appropriate continuing development programs, most of which are either under way or planned.

  4. Effect of technological treatments on bovine lactoferrin: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Indira; Pérez, María Dolores; Conesa, Celia; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein that exerts important activities in the neonate through its presence in milk, and also in other external mucosas, acting as a defense protein of innate immunity. The addition of bovine LF to infant formula and also to other functional products and cosmetics has increased during the last decades. Consequently, it is essential to know the effect that the technological processes, necessary to elaborate those products, have on LF activity. In this study, we have revised the effect of classical treatments on lactoferrin structure and activity, such as heat treatment or drying, and also of emerging technologies, like high pressure or pulsed electric field. The results of the studies included in this review indicate that LF stability is dependent on its level of iron-saturation and on the characteristics of the treatment media. Furthermore, the studies revised here reveal that the non-thermal treatments are interesting alternatives to the traditional ones, as they protect better the structure and activity of lactoferrin. It is also clear the need for research on LF encapsulation by different ways, to protect its properties before it reaches the intestine. All this knowledge would allow designing processes less harmful for LF, thus maintaining all its functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  6. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 to decarbonize the "power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Streibel, Martin; Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Massive roll-out of renewable energy production units (wind turbines and solar panels) leads to date to excess energy which cannot be consumed at the time of production. So far, long-term storage is proposed via the so called 'power-to-gas' technology. Energy is transferred to methane gas and subsequently combusted for power production - 'power-to-gas-to-power' (PGP) - when needed. PGP profits from the existing infrastructure of the gas market and could be deployed immediately. However, major shortcoming is the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) from renewables and its emission into the atmosphere. We present an innovative idea which is a decarbonised extension of the PGP technology. The concept is based on a closed carbon cycle: (1) Hydrogen (H2) is generated from renewable energy by electrolysis and (2) transformed into methane (CH4) with CO2 taken from an underground geological storage. (3) CH4 produced is stored in a second storage underground until needed and (4) combusted in a combined-cycled power plant on site. (5) CO2 is separated during energy production and re-injected into the storage formation. We studied a show case for the cities Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel in the Federal State of Brandenburg in Germany to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain and the costs of electricity (COE) using an integrated techno-economic modelling approach (Nakaten et al. 2014). Taking all of the individual process steps into account, the calculation shows an overall efficiency of 27.7 % (Streibel et al. 2013) with total COE of 20.43 euro-cents/kWh (Kühn et al. 2013). Although the level of efficiency is lower than for pump and compressed air storage, the resulting costs are similar in magnitude, and thus competitive on the energy storage market. The great advantage of the concept proposed here is that, in contrast to previous PGP approaches, this process is climate-neutral due to CO2 utilisation. For that purpose, process CO2 is temporally stored in an

  7. Electron beams for power plant flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Among the processes in which fuel is used for energy generation coal burning plays leading role. On the other hand combustion of fossil fuels is the biggest source of air pollution. When burning fossil fuel pollutants such as particulate, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and others are emitted. Air pollution caused by these pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. The advanced technology for simultaneous SO 2 , NO x and VOC removal is discussed in the paper. The technology is based on electron accelerators applications. Many new solutions have been introduced in the new pilot plants which have been operated at coal fired power stations. 98% SO 2 and up to 90% NO x removals were obtained at very moderate energy consumption (for de SO x ). Additional agricultural tests have proven full applicability of byproduct in pure form or as a blending stock for NPK fertilizers. Two full scale industrial plants are being built in China (640 kW accelerators) and Poland (1.2 MW accelerators). These will be the biggest radiation processing units using accelerator technology all over the world

  8. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  9. Evaluation of the performance of different anaerobic digestion technologies for solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Vazquez, M.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is now a widely-used technology in Europe with more than 50 full-scale plants operating. However, anaerobic solid waste digestion is still used to only a limited extent in North America with only three facilities in Canada. Because of the expected importance of anaerobic digestion in the future for energy recovery, reliable tools are required to evaluate the different available technologies, as well as the feed stocks that are suitable for treatment. Therefore, this paper presents a framework that has been developed for evaluating anaerobic solid waste digestion. To develop the framework, a review of the performance of digestion processes was first conducted. Because the data presented were for very different operational parameters (retention time, temperature, configuration set up, mixing, etc.) as well as substrates used for digestion, a standard method of comparison was developed. Gas production per Mg input, organic loading rate and percent volatile solids removal were identified as useful standard parameters for evaluating the performance of different technologies. This framework was constructed as a spread sheet and can be used for different set ups (configuration, organic loading rate, etc.) and with different substrates. It can predict, based on the input and using mass balances, the mass of products of the digester including biogas, treated solids and water. This framework provides a useful tool for evaluating the technical capabilities of different technologies, predicting the quantity of the products, and ultimately, making decisions as to which technologies best meet local needs. (author)

  10. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

  11. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  12. The effects of cleaning and other treatments on the vacuum properties of technological materials used in ultra high vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathewson, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of producing atomically clean surfaces applicable to technological materials and large vacuum vassels where the surface area may attain tens or hundreds of square metres are described. As well as chemical cleaning methods, the efficency of treatments such as in situ glow discharge cleaning or heating to high temperature in vacuo are investigated. The techniques used to evaluate and compare the various treatments included thermal outgassing, Auger electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis of surface and near surface, ion, electron and X-ray induced neutral gas desorption, measurement of the quantity of desorbable surface gas by argon glow discharge and scanning electron microscope examination of the surface. In addition, by flash desorption, the binding energies of CO on some stainless steels were measured along with the roughness factor of the surface which gives a measure of the real surface area on which gas may be adsorbed

  13. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingbo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); South China Univ. of Technology (SCUT), Guangzhou (China); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry’s processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry’s energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

  14. Technical and economic analysis of implementation of small scale GTL (Gas-to-Liquids) technology to monetize associated stranded natural gas offshore in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo Branco, David; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The volume of global stranded natural gas reserves is impressive totalling more than a third of the world's proven natural gas reserves. In Brazil, recent discoveries operated by PETROBRAS with the share of other companies indicate the tendency of incorporating stranded gas reserves (associated or not) to the country's total reserves. The objective of this study is to perform a technical and economic analysis of the implementation of small-scale GTL technology for the exploitation of stranded associated natural gas offshore in Brazil. Thus, the study initially held a survey of the processes of gasification and the manufacturers of technologies and projects based on these processes, specifically for offshore applications. Then, the offshore environment conditions were examined. After the confrontation of the available technologies and the operational conditions, one technology was chosen to be assessed by the economic analysis. The results show that GTL offshore option becomes feasible for the minimum oil price of approximately $50.00 per barrel. This price is greater than the value of robustness adopted by PETROBRAS, however there is still the possibility of cost reductions for the feasibility of new technologies. (author)

  15. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  16. Conditions and technologies of biological wastewater treatment in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, G M; Bakos, V; Jobbágy, A

    2012-01-01

    A survey has been carried out involving 55 Hungarian wastewater treatment plants in order to evaluate the wastewater quality, the applied technologies and the resultant problems. Characteristically the treatment temperature is very wide-ranging from less than 10 °C to higher than 26 °C. Influent quality proved to be very variable regarding both the organic matter (typical COD concentration range 600-1,200 mg l(-1)) and the nitrogen content (typical NH(4)-N concentration range 40-80 mg l(-1)). As a consequence, significant differences have been found in the carbon availability for denitrification from site to site. Forty two percent of the influents proved to lack an appropriate carbon source. As a consequence of carbon deficiency as well as technologies designed and/or operated with non-efficient denitrification, rising sludge in the secondary clarifiers typically occurs especially in summer. In case studies, application of intermittent aeration, low DO reactors, biofilters and anammox processes have been evaluated, as different biological nitrogen removal technologies. With low carbon source availability, favoring denitrification over enhanced biological phosphorus removal has led to an improved nitrogen removal.

  17. Effect of technological heredity on the fatigue strength in the manufacture of gas turbine engine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, G. V.; Pronichev, N. D.; Nekhoroshev, M. V.

    2017-02-01

    In the study, the task of researching of the finishing-strengthening machining stage of gas turbine engine compressor blades manufactured of titanium and nickel-chromium alloys in order to extend their service life was solved. The application of electrochemical pulse machining as a technological heredity barrier was substantiated since this method allows a considerable decrease of the residual stress and surface layer work hardening. To ensure the extended service life of blades, the conditions for the subsequent finishing-strengthening machining were identified.

  18. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  19. Quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants using a ground-based remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    The direct release of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is important because it contributes to the global greenhouse gases (GHGs) release and strongly effects the WWTP carbon footprint. Biological nitrogen removal technologies could increase the direct emission of N2O (IPCC, 2006), while CH4 losses are of environmental, economic and safety concern. Currently, reporting of N2O and CH4 emissions from WWTPs are performed mainly using methods suggested by IPCC which are not site specific (IPCC, 2006). The dynamic tracer dispersion method (TDM), a ground based remote sensing approach implemented at DTU Environment, was demonstrated to be a novel and successful tool for full-scale CH4 and N2O quantification from WWTPs. The method combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the facility with concentration measurements downwind of the plant (Mønster et al., 2014; Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM in general is based on the assumption that a tracer gas released at an emission source, in this case a WWTP, disperses into the atmosphere in the same way as the GHG emitted from process units. Since the ratio of their concentrations remains constant along their atmospheric dispersion, the GHG emission rate can be calculated using the following expression when the tracer gas release rate is known: EGHG=Qtr*(CGHG/Ctr)*(MWGHG/MWtr) EGHG is the GHG emission in mass per time, Qtr is the tracer release in mass per time, CGHG and Ctr are the concentrations measured downwind in parts per billion subtracted of their background values and integrated over the whole plume, and MWGHG and MWtr are the molar weights of GHG and tracer gas respectively (Mønster et al. 2014). In this study, acetylene (C2H2) was used as tracer. Downwind plume concentrations were measured driving along transects with two cavity ring down spectrometers (Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM was successfully applied in different seasons at several Scandinavian WWTPs characterized by

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural gas use in treatment of steel surfaces; Utilizacao de gas natural em tratamento de superficies de aco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Andre Dias; Machado, Antonio Rogerio; Rocha, Ivan; Azevedo, Jorge; Oshiro, Hugo K.; Konishi, Ricardo; Lehmkuhl, Willian [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Piazza, Walter [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The surface treatments of metals, such as carburizing, rely on processing under high temperature in carbon rich atmospheres. The atmosphere is industrially generated using the partial oxidation of a carbon rich fuel, such as propane, butane or methanol. This article reports a study of the production of a carburizing atmosphere for surface treatment of steel from the partial oxidation of natural gas in a catalytic reactor. The reactor studied was a production size reactor with 300 mm of diameter and 1500 mm of length, packed with alumina supported nickel catalyst. The quality of the carburizing gas was evaluated from its carbon potential of the carburizing gas that was calculated from the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) measured at the reactor's exit. The results indicate that CO concentration is very close to equilibrium, while CO{sub 2} is higher and CH{sub 4} is lower. Examining the reactor, the conclusion was that there was an axial temperature gradient, resulting in lower residence time under the required processing temperature. This resulted in smaller decomposition of CH{sub 4} and smaller production of CO{sub 2}. An equilibrium calculation of carbon potential, expressed as weight percent of carbon in iron, was developed to predict the possible optimizations of mixture composition and reactor temperature for a given required carbon potential. Conclusion: it is possible to generate a carburizing atmosphere under well controlled and repeatable conditions for the carbon potentials required for surface carburizing of steels in industrial processing using natural gas and air mixtures. (author)

  2. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological...... processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during...... the resting period. As the resting period proceeded, atmospheric air re-entered the pore space at all depth levels. The methane (CH4) concentration was at its highest during the first part of the resting period, and then declined as the sludge residue became more dewatered and thereby aerated. In the pore...

  3. Chemical treatment of wastewater from flue gas desulphurisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiecznik, Iwona; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz

    2017-11-01

    The article presents results of laboratory tests of removing boron and arsenium from non-ideal solutions using double-layered magnesium/aluminium hydroxides (Mg/Al Double-Layered Hydroxide - DLH) produced with nitrate-chloride method. In research, wastewater from an installation for flue gas desulfurization was examined. Double-layered hydroxides are perfect absorbents for anionic compounds. The research proved high effectiveness of preparation with reference to arsenium, as well as confirmed the effect of presence of sulfatic and arsenate ions on the effectiveness of boron removal. On the basis of research on absorption kinetics a theoretical dose of DLH/NO3-Cl/M preparation was calculated and compared with a dose that ensures emimination of boron below the limit standarized by the national regulations. Application of double-layered magnesium/aluminium hydroxides for boron elimination from industrial wastewater requires significantly higher doses of preparation than those calculated in model investigations. It is due to the priority of removal of multivalent ions, such as sulfatic, arsenate or phosphate ions, by DLH/NO3-Cl/M.

  4. Preparation of alveolate hydrophobic catalyst for tritium waste gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Peng, Shuming; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang; Li, Jiamao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The catalyst is hydrophobic, it will not be poisoned by steam in room air at room temperature which is better than Pt-Al 2 O 3 . • At room temperature, the conversion of low concentration of H2 and tritium gas in room air over the catalyst is high. • The air resistance of catalyst is much lower than graininess Pt-Al 2 O 3 . • It is inorganic and will not burn. - Abstract: To prepare a catalyst for the detritiation of waste gases at high flow rates, a heat-resistant hydrophobic zeolitic molecular sieve coating was synthesized on the surface of alveolate cordierite by hydrothermal processing. The alveolate hydrophobic catalyst prepared from the support was essentially waterproof and not easily poisoned by moisture. At room temperature, the conversion of low concentrations of H 2 in humid air over the catalyst was higher than 95% at different space velocities (0–16,000 h −1 ) and different relative humidities. The reaction rate constant of the oxidation of tritium over alveolate hydrophobic catalyst is 0.182 s −1 at 293.3 K–293.7 K and 59%–60% RH, it is much higher than the catalyst of reference honeycomb catalyst.

  5. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Molnar, D.L.

    1994-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate existing proven technologies for the monitoring of hazardous waste sites during remediation activities and to protect the health and safety of all related entities while complying with government regulations. The study began with a literature search to determine manufacturers and related instrumentation which would be applicable to the most complex (in terms of toxicity and mediums affected) sites. Criteria for monitoring and analyses were established and a functional analysis was performed to select the most appropriate instrumentation available. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry is the most widely accepted method for generating quantitative data given the characterization of the Winfield site. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, while not a new technology, has the distinct advantage of measuring simultaneously hundreds of gaseous pollutants which can also be sparged from water and this technology received the highest score as per the functional analysis. To protect workers and the public surrounding remediation sites which are known to contain VOCs, on site monitoring prior to, and during the excavation operations, is recommended until enough data are obtained to assess the health risks to workers. The conclusion of this study is to recommend evaluation of both the mobile GC/MS and FTIR systems simultaneously in identical operating conditions

  6. ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul M. Sharma

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those

  7. Review of gas gun technology with emphasis on fusion fueling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagg, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of current light gas gun and related hyper-velocity launcher technology with emphasis on physical and technological limits, advantages, and disadvantages as they apply to injection requirements for refueling Tokamak type nuclear fusion reactors. It is shown that the mass and velocity requirements for refueling are well within the capabilities of the state of the art and can be produced by several of the different types of gun/launching devices. The practical problems of adapting this performance capability to the refueling task are addressed and some possible configurations are given including both single pellet and multiple pellet injection. A short bibliography is given for those who wish additional detailed information

  8. Applying object technology principles to business reengineering in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The oil, gas, and petrochemical industries face a dilemma, to be financially competitive while complying with strict and expanding environmental, safety, and health regulation. Companies need new tools and techniques, indeed a completely new paradigm for organizing and performing work. They must build efficient and flexible business processes, ones that rely on advanced information systems for improved decision making and productivity. And they must adopt a culture of change and improvement to permit the business to change as the business climate changes. Fortunately, two industry developments are changing the traditional business paradigm in a dramatic way; business reengineering and object technology. Applying principles of object technology in the performance of business reengineering makes available a new form of business modeling that transforms the technique of modeling a business while directly supported the development of its enabling information systems. This modeling technique is called Object Modeling and is becoming an important force in improving business competitiveness

  9. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-05-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.

  10. New semiconductor laser technology for gas sensing applications in the 1650nm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gordon B.; Sherman, Jes; Estrella, Steven; Moreira, Renan L.; Leisher, Paul O.; Mashanovitch, Milan L.; Stephen, Mark; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Riris, Haris

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. CH4 also contributes to pollution in the lower atmosphere through chemical reactions leading to ozone production. Recent developments of LIDAR measurement technology for CH4 have been previously reported by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In this paper, we report on a novel, high-performance tunable semiconductor laser technology developed by Freedom Photonics for the 1650nm wavelength range operation, and for LIDAR detection of CH4. Devices described are monolithic, with simple control, and compatible with low-cost fabrication techniques. We present 3 different types of tunable lasers implemented for this application.

  11. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  12. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  13. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  14. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2017-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  15. Onsite greywater treatment using pilot scale grow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed), Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids), pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8. (author)

  16. Radiation-beam technologies of structural materials treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Considered in the paper are the most advanced and prospective radiation-beam technologies (RBT) for treatment of structural materials, as applied to modifying the structural-phase state in the surface layers of half-finished products and articles with the purpose to improve their service properties. Ion-beam, plasma, and ion-plasma, as well as the technologies based on the use of concentrated fluxes of energy, generated by laser radiation, high-power pulsed electron and ion beams, and high-temperature pulsed plasma fluxes are analysed. As applied to improvement of the corrosion and erosion resistance, breaking strength, friction and wear resistance, and crack resistance, the directions of the choice and the use of RBT have been considered for changes of the surface layer state by applying covers and films, and by a change of the surface topography (relief), surface structure and defects, and the element composition and phase state of materials [ru

  17. Developing strategies for thermal treatment technology R and D in MIREC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2004-01-01

    The degree of the solid waste management problem in Malaysia is very crucial, needing immediate solutions. The estimated amount of MSW generated is 16,000 ton/day with the initial cost of the entire activity is estimated to worth RM35 billions. However, Malaysia is still negotiating for the best strategies to manage her MSW in the best manner - politically, economically and environmentally. A National Solid Waste Strategic Plan has been established, advocating and adopting the Integrated Solid Waste Management System (IWMS). However, choosing the right mix of the waste management hierarchy is not simple. The 3-R concept with an effective and consistent role by the society at large is still not well taken up despite of various efforts taken by the government. The role of biological treatment such as composting and bio-gasification (AD), is slowly gaining momentum, however, needed much more effort and understanding when applied to local waste and market conditions. The vigor to introduce the-state-of-the-art thermal treatment process has been done as early as in 2000, but the project has faced a severe set back with regard to public acceptance, lingering around the dioxin issues, and the resulting political consequences caused delays in implementation. Finally, there seems to be a more practical and sensible solution nationally to build more Sanitary Landfills (SLF) in various states and municipalities due to economic reasons as well as for final disposal of waste. It is therefore seen that the Mechanical / 3 -R and Biological Treatment (MBT) methods play a better role as a pretreatment process prior to landfills, environmentally speaking. In case the economics does not permit the above practice, direct land filling of the MSW should entails with the Land Fill Gas (LFG) extraction and utilization. Despite of the general trends to import foreign technologies to circumvent the unavailability of local solutions, the needs for local input cannot be denied. Hence, the R

  18. Social Media and Mobile Technology for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Lyons, Elizabeth J.

    2018-01-01

    OVERVIEW Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:28561647

  19. Social Media and Mobile Technology for Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Coughlin, Steven S; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment.

  20. Technology needs for tomorrow's treatment and diagnosis of macular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubrane, Gisèle

    2008-02-01

    Retinal imaging is the basis of macular disease's diagnosis. Currently available technologies in clinical practice are fluorescein and indocyanin green (ICG) angiographies, in addition to optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is an in vivo "histology-like" cross-sectional images of the retina. Recent developments in the field of OCT imaging include Spectral-Domain OCT. However OCT remains a static view of the macula with no direct link with dynamic observation obtained by angiographies. Adaptative optics is an encouraging perspective for fundus analysis in the future, and could be linked to OCT or angiographies. Treatments of macular disease have exploded these past few years. Pharmacologic inhibition of angiogenesis represents a novel approach in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in eyes with age-related macular degeneration. The major action explored is the direct inhibition of the protein VEGF with antibody-like products. New anti-VEGF drugs are in development aiming at the VEGF receptors or synthesis of VEGF. But various components of the neovascular cascade, including growth factor expression, extracellular matrix modulation, integrin inhibition represent potential targets for modulation with drugs. Intra-vitreal injections are nowadays the main route of administration for these new treatments but they are potentially responsible of side effects such as endophtalmitis. Development of other routes of treatment would require new formulation of used drugs. The improvement of retinal imaging leads to a better understanding of macular disease mechanisms and will help to develop new routes and targets of treatment.

  1. Gas seal for installations for high-temperature treatment of carbon fibre materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherednichenko, P.I.; Kosenok, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A gas seal was developed in which the inlet and outlet openings of furnaces for high-temperature treatment of carbon fibre materials are hermetically sealed not only due to the energy of the jet but also due to directed eddy gas flows. A blocking effect is obtained in the seal with excess pressure of the gases in the working chamber of 100-200 Pa and a gas flow rate no greater than 1 m{sup 3}/h. The seal is distinguished by simplicity of construction, is compact, reliable, and easy to service.

  2. Experiences of membrane technique in flue gas condensate treatment applications; Utvaerdering av erfarenheter av membranteknik foer rening av roekgaskondensat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Ekdahl, Emma; Hellman, Mats

    2009-07-01

    Investing in a flue gas condensate treatment plant often turns out to be very profitable. The profitability comes from savings in energy and water consumption when treated waste water is recirculated, and also from savings in the NO{sub x} fee as condensate treatment allows for higher ammonia injection rates in the SNCR (NO{sub x} reduction) system. The membrane based technologies for flue gas treatment, which were investigated in this report, have proven to be successful and are operating well. However, they require that the project management is committed and acquaint themselves with the technology to avoid problems during commissioning and operation. In this project, experience with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment at ten different plants was investigated and evaluated. The ten plants are either biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. Membrane based flue gas condensate treatment is used by circa ten Swedish plants (Ultra Filtration membranes and/or Reverse Osmosis membranes, and at some plants also membranes for ammonia and carbon dioxide removal). All plants are biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. In Sweden, no plant firing municipal waste has yet been equipped with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment. These plants usually use precipitation and filtration technologies instead. Also the purpose of the condensation step is primarily to operate as a wet flue gas cleaning step. The heat recovery is of subordinate importance. Typical for these plants is also that they use condensation in several steps. The condensates from the different steps are often treated separately, as they may be of very different qualities. The RO unit is the main equipment in a membrane based water treatment plant. Pre-treatment and post-treatment of the RO water is adjusted to the incoming condensate quality, and to the requirements on the effluent. The

  3. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  4. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established by Public Law 96-368, the {open_quotes}West Valley Demonstration Project Act, {close_quotes} on October 1, l980. Under this act, Congress directed the Department of Energy to carry out a high level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high level radioactive waste for disposal. In addition to developing this technology, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act directs the Department of Energy to: (1) develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the high level waste; (2) transport the solidified high level waste to a Federal repository; (3) dispose of low level and transuranic waste produced under the project; and (4) decontaminate and decommission the facilities and materials associated with project activities and the storage tanks originally used to store the liquid high level radioactive waste. The process of vitrification will be used to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems which are used in the vitrification process.

  5. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, cost of investment, accounting depreciation and exploitation technology, are sensitive to the sustainable development of resources. The simulations and results presented here will be helpful for government to reform policies, and for upstream companies to make decisions.

  6. New technologies in the treatment of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by insufficient production of insulin, a hormone needed for proper control of blood glucose levels. People with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose throughout the day using a glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor, calculate...... how much insulin is needed to maintain normal blood glucose levels, and administer the insulin dose by pen injection or insulin pump infusion into the subcutaneous tissue. In recent years, several new technologies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes have been developed. This PhD thesis covers two...

  7. Life-cycle-assessment of fuel-cells-based landfill-gas energy conversion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, P.; Bove, R.; Desideri, U.

    Landfill-gas (LFG) is produced as result of the biological reaction of municipal solid waste (MSW). This gas contains about 50% of methane, therefore it cannot be released into the atmosphere as it is because of its greenhouse effect consequences. The high percentage of methane encouraged researchers to find solutions to recover the related energy content for electric energy production. The most common technologies used at the present time are internal combustion reciprocating engines and gas turbines. High conversion efficiency guaranteed by fuel cells (FCs) enable to enhance the energy recovery process and to reduce emissions to air, such as NO x and CO. In any case, in order to investigate the environmental advantages associated with the electric energy generation using fuel cells, it is imperative to consider the whole "life cycle" of the system, "from cradle-to-grave". In fact, fuel cells are considered to be zero-emission devices, but, for example, emissions associated with their manufacture or for hydrogen production must be considered in order to evaluate all impacts on the environment. In the present work a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system for LFG recovery is considered and a life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for an evaluation of environmental consequences and to provide a guide for further environmental impact reduction.

  8. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  9. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO 2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO 2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO 2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO 2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO 2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  10. The role of new technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the use of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldthorpe, S.; Buwalda, H. [Woodward-Clyde (New Zealand) Ltd. (New Zealand)

    1995-12-31

    Concern over the possibility of climate change associated with the emission of greenhouse gases (principally CO{sub 2}) has become an issue for all coal using businesses to address. Government obligations under the Framework Convention on Climate Change are feeding through to companies as a need to review their activities, to determine emissions and to examine how the application of efficiency measures and new technologies can contribute to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper describes strategies that can be implemented in the short term as least regrets measures which have low cost and other economic or environmental benefits in addition to emissions reduction. Protection of the long term market for coal in a world where CO{sub 2} emissions may have to be more tightly controlled may require the application of new technologies of CO{sub 2} abatement. Some options are described. Procedures to assist with the implementation of new technologies for the control of greenhouse gas emissions are required. At a national level a system for voluntary agreements on CO{sub 2} emissions is in place. At an international level, protocols for the facilitation of technology transfer are in the process of being developed. These mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Institute of Gas Technology. Annual report for the fiscal year ended August 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This annual report included: messages from the chairman and from the president of the IGT; updates on natural gas and the environment, technology transfer, energy, the sustaining member ship program (SMP), and education and information; a list of the board of trustees, executive committee and officers, members and contributers; and a brief of financial highlights if the IGT. The Institute's research and development programs included projects in environmental protection, site remediation, and clean power generation. Energy-related projects fell into three broad categories: gas distribution and operations, energy supply, and energy utilization. IGT is working toward bringing innovative processes and technologies developed in the laboratory into the marketplace. In the seven years since the SMP funds project began, more than sixty IGT Member Companies and International Associates have supported its efforts with their dues. For more than fifty years, IGT has fulfilled its charter missions of providing energy and environment related educational programs and services and disseminating technical and scientific information. These projects and the sources of their funding are described in detail in this report

  12. Natural gas usage as a heat source for integrated SMR and thermochemical hydrogen production technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, O.; Naterer, G.F.; Dincer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates various usages of natural gas (NG) as an energy source for different hydrogen production technologies. A comparison is made between the different methods of hydrogen production, based on the total amount of natural gas needed to produce a specific quantity of hydrogen, carbon dioxide emissions per mole of hydrogen produced, water requirements per mole of hydrogen produced, and a cost sensitivity analysis that takes into account the fuel cost, carbon dioxide capture cost and a carbon tax. The methods examined are the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycle, steam methane reforming (SMR) and a modified sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle. Also, an integrated Cu-Cl/SMR plant is examined to show the unique advantages of modifying existing SMR plants with new hydrogen production technology. The analysis shows that the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle out-performs the other conventional methods with respect to fuel requirements, carbon dioxide emissions and total cost of production. (author)

  13. Application of additive laser technologies in the gas turbine blades design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, I. V.; Rogalev, A. N.; Osipov, S. K.; Bychkov, N. M.; Komarov, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    An emergence of modern innovative technologies requires delivering new and modernization existing design and production processes. It is especially relevant for designing the high-temperature turbines of gas turbine engines, development of which is characterized by a transition to higher parameters of working medium in order to improve their efficient performance. A design technique for gas turbine blades based on predictive verification of thermal and hydraulic models of their cooling systems by testing of a blade prototype fabricated using the selective laser melting technology was presented in this article. Technique was proven at the time of development of the first stage blade cooling system for the high-pressure turbine. An experimental procedure for verification of a thermal model of the blades with convective cooling systems based on the comparison of heat-flux density obtained from the numerical simulation data and results of tests in a liquid-metal thermostat was developed. The techniques makes it possible to obtain an experimentally tested blade version and to exclude its experimental adjustment after the start of mass production.

  14. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and......The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... cycle impact assessment methods on pathogens, whole effluent toxicity and micropollutants will be developed within the project. As part of this work a review of more than 20 previous LCA studies on WWTTs has been done and the findings are summarised on this poster. The review is focused on the relative...

  15. Collaborative Technology Assessments Of Transient Field Processing And Additive Manufacturing Technologies As Applied To Gas Turbine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Szabo, Attila [General Electric (GE) Power and Water; Ucok, Ibrahim [General Electric (GE) Power and Water

    2016-01-01

    ORNL partnered with GE Power & Water to investigate the effect of thermomagnetic processing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of GE Power & Water newly developed wrought Ni-Fe-Cr alloys. Exploration of the effects of high magnetic field process during heat treatment of the alloys indicated conditions where applications of magnetic fields yields significant property improvements. The alloy aged using high magnetic field processing exhibited 3 HRC higher hardness compared to the conventionally-aged alloy. The alloy annealed at 1785 F using high magnetic field processing demonstrated an average creep life 2.5 times longer than that of the conventionally heat-treated alloy. Preliminary results show that high magnetic field processing can improve the mechanical properties of Ni-Fe-Cr alloys and potentially extend the life cycle of the gas turbine components such as nozzles leading to significant energy savings.

  16. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  17. Adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment: a meta-analysis, interviews, and focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.; Lancee, J.; Beun, R.J.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective: Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated

  18. Computation and Database Development for Flue Gas Treatment on Electron Beam Machine (EBM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tono Wibowo; Slamet Santosa

    2007-01-01

    A computation and database development for parameter calculations of SO 2 and NO x flue-gas treatment have been done. This computation and database development will make easier for researchers in calculations of flue gas parameters for various specifications and recur in such a way that saves time and apparatus. Analysis and calculation design of flue gas treatment using EBM right now is performing in Microsoft Excel program and calculator, therefore with a computation and database it is expected that can be developed for further parameter calculations of flue gas treatment and having user friendly characteristic. Computation for parameter calculations of flue gas treatment is developed on Borland Delphi version 7.0 with arithmetic and graphic components are in active and for database function is used dBase and Paradox through Borland Database Engine (BDE). Developed calculations include removal efficiency, dose and time of irradiation and the power of MBE. For the purpose of further calculations and bigger application, database functions have been prepared for SQL-Links. From the operation test, program can be run as expected. (author)

  19. Membrane bioreactor with a porous hydrophobic membrane as a gas-liquid contactor for waste gas treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reij, M W; de Bont, J A; Hartmans, S; de Gooijer, K D

    1995-01-20

    A novel type of bioreactor for waste gas treatment has been designed. The reactor contains a microporous hydrophobic membrane to create a large interface between the waste gas and the aqueous phase. To test the new reactor, propene was chosen because of its high air/water partition coefficient, which causes a low water concentration and hampers its removal from air. Propene transfer from air to a suspension of propene-utilizing Xanthobacter Py2 cells in the membrane bioreactor proved to be controlled by mass transfer in the liquid phase. The resistance of the membrane was negligible. Simulated propene transfer rates agreed well with the experimental data. A stable biofilm of Xanthobacter Py2 developed on the membrane during prolonged operation. The propene flux into the biofilm was 1 x 10(-6) mol m(-2) s(-1) at a propene concentration of 9.3 x 10(-2) mol m(-3) in the gas phase. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J.P.

    1998-02-09

    From October 1994 to June 1997, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were funded through LDRD to develop and integrate technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke. The project was summarized in a Science and Technology Review article `Brain Attack` that appeared in June 1997 and again in the Center for Healthcare Technologies Report (UCRL-LR-124761). This article is the best overview of the project, epidemiology of stroke and technical progress. Most of the technical progress has been documented in conference papers and presentations and refereed journal articles. Additional technical publication can be expected as our remaining patent applications progress through the US Patent and Trademark Office. The purpose of this report is to provide an appropriate introduction and organization to the numerous publications so that interested readers can quickly find information. Because there is no documentation for the history of this project, this report provides a summary. It also provides the final status report for the LDRD funding.

  1. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2003-12-15

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback

  2. EVALUATION OF VADOSE ZONE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO IMMOBILIZE TECHNETIUM-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-03-15

    The Hanford Site End State Vision document (DOE/RL-2003-59) states: ''There should be an aggressive plan to develop technology for remediation of the contamination that could get to the groundwater (particularly the technetium [{sup 99}Tc])''. In addition, there is strong support from the public and regulatory agencies for the above statement, with emphasis on investigation of treatment alternatives. In July 2004, PNNL completed a preliminary evaluation of remediation technologies with respect to their effectiveness and implementability for immobilization of {sup 99}Tc beneath the BC Cribs in the 200 West Area (Truex, 2004). As a result of this evaluation, PNNL recommended treatability testing of in situ soil desiccation, because it has the least uncertainty of those technologies evaluated in July 2004 (Treatability Test Outline, September 30, 2004). In 2005, DOE-RL and Fluor Hanford convened an independent technical panel to review alternative remediation technologies, including desiccation, at a three-day workshop in Richland, Washington. The panel was composed of experts in vadose-zone transport, infiltration control, hydrology, geochemistry, environmental engineering, and geology. Their backgrounds include employment in academia, government laboratories, industry, and consulting. Their review, presented in this document, is based upon written reports from Hanford, oral presentations from Hanford staff, and each panel members' years of experience in their particular field of expertise. The purpose of this report is to document the panel's evaluation of various treatment alternatives with potential for minimizing contaminant migration in the deep vadose zone at the Department of Energy Hanford Site. The panel was tasked with assessing the most viable and practical approach and making recommendations for testing. The evaluation of vadose-zone treatment alternatives was conducted to be broadly applicable at a variety of locations at

  3. In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Webb, O.F.; Ally, M.R.; Sanford, W.E.; Kearl, P.M.; Zutman, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided

  4. Membrane bioreactor technology: A novel approach to the treatment of compost leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kayleigh; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J.; Hanmore, Jillian [Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R6 (Canada); Frazee, James [E and Q Consulting and Associates Limited, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R1 (Canada); Tong, Anthony Z., E-mail: anthony.tong@acadiau.ca [Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • First membrane bioreactor treatment method for compost leachate. • No chemical additive or UV radiation source in this new biological method. • Removal rates of more than 99% for organics and ammonium were achieved. • Heavy metals were reduced by at least 82.7% except copper. - Abstract: Compost leachate forms during the composting process of organic material. It is rich in oxidizable organics, ammonia and metals, which pose a risk to the environment if released without proper treatment. An innovative method based on the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology was developed to treat compost leachate over 39 days. Water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured daily. Concentrations of caffeine and metals were measured over the course of the experiment using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) respectively. A decrease of more than 99% was achieved for a COD of 116 g/L in the initial leachate. Ammonia was decreased from 2720 mg/L to 0.046 mg/L, while the nitrate concentration in the effluent rose to 710 mg/L. The bacteria in the MBR system adjusted to the presence of the leachate, and increased 4 orders of magnitude. Heavy metals were removed by at least 82.7% except copper. These successful results demonstrated the membrane bioreactor technology is feasible, efficient method for the treatment of compost leachate.

  5. Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf

    2009-12-31

    Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown pressures are smaller than the capillary forces in the formation. For this field

  6. Seizure reporting technologies for epilepsy treatment: A review of clinical information needs and supporting technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Jonathan; Khuwatsamrit, Thanin; Askew, Brittain; Ehrenberg, Joshua Andrew; Helmers, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    This review surveys current seizure detection and classification technologies as they relate to aiding clinical decision-making during epilepsy treatment. Interviews and data collected from neurologists and a literature review highlighted a strong need for better distinguishing between patients exhibiting generalized and partial seizure types as well as achieving more accurate seizure counts. This information is critical for enabling neurologists to select the correct class of antiepileptic drugs (AED) for their patients and evaluating AED efficiency during long-term treatment. In our questionnaire, 100% of neurologists reported they would like to have video from patients prior to selecting an AED during an initial consultation. Presently, only 30% have access to video. In our technology review we identified that only a subset of available technologies surpassed patient self-reporting performance due to high false positive rates. Inertial seizure detection devices coupled with video capture for recording seizures at night could stand to address collecting seizure counts that are more accurate than current patient self-reporting during day and night time use. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The impact of technology diffusion on treatment for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Florian R; Kaufman, Samuel R; Jacobs, Bruce L; Zhang, Yun; Weizer, Alon Z; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Scott M; Strope, Seth A; Hollenbeck, Brent K

    2013-12-01

    The use of local therapy for prostate cancer may increase because of the perceived advantages of new technologies such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and robotic prostatectomy. To examine the association of market-level technological capacity with receipt of local therapy. Retrospective cohort. Patients with localized prostate cancer who were diagnosed between 2003 and 2007 (n=59,043) from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We measured the capacity for delivering treatment with new technology as the number of providers offering robotic prostatectomy or IMRT per population in a market (hospital referral region). The association of this measure with receipt of prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or observation was examined with multinomial logistic regression. For each 1000 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 174 underwent prostatectomy, 490 radiotherapy, and 336 were observed. Markets with high robotic prostatectomy capacity had higher use of prostatectomy (146 vs. 118 per 1000 men, P=0.008) but a trend toward decreased use of radiotherapy (574 vs. 601 per 1000 men, P=0.068), resulting in a stable rate of local therapy. High versus low IMRT capacity did not significantly impact the use of prostatectomy (129 vs. 129 per 1000 men, P=0.947) and radiotherapy (594 vs. 585 per 1000 men, P=0.579). Although there was a small shift from radiotherapy to prostatectomy in markets with high robotic prostatectomy capacity, increased capacity for both robotic prostatectomy and IMRT did not change the overall rate of local therapy. Our findings temper concerns that the new technology spurs additional therapy of prostate cancer.

  8. [Application of three-dimensional digital technology in the diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y X

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional(3D)digital technology has been widely used in the field of orthodontics in clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment and curative effect evaluation. 3D digital technology greatly improves the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment, and provides effective means for personalized orthodontic treatment. This review focuses on the application of 3D digital technology in the field of orthodontics.

  9. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An Integrated Scenario Analysis using the LBNL-NEMS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible ''technology paths'' to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of ''alternative'' electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic

  10. ECOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES OF IMPLEMENTING CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Cherepovitsyn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define the main approaches to the implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry in Russia, and also to identify ecological, economic and social issues of their usage. Promotion of the technology of carbon dioxide (CO2 sequestration by means of capturing and injecting it into underground reservoirs is a promising mechanism of reducing carbon dioxide concentration. Carbon capture and storage (CCS technologies might be used to enhance oil recovery (EOR-CO2 and production by means of oil extraction and decreasing oil viscosity. Conceptual view of the potential of EOR-СО2 technologies within the context of oil and gas industry sustainable development are presented. Incentives of the CCS projects implementation are identified. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are presented.

  11. Intradiscal injection of oxygen-ozone gas mixture for the treatment of cervical disc herniations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A; Corò, L; Azuelos, A; Buric, J; Salgado, H; Murga, M; Marin, F; Giocoli, H

    2005-01-01

    For disc herniations the use of open surgical approaches is reduced since new percutaneous methods allowing shrinkage of the disc and improvement of the radicular function are gaining interest. Studies on the spontaneous disappearance of disc fragments have demonstrated autoimmune responses with a chronic inflammatory reaction. Also radicular pain has been shown to be mostly due to biochemical mechanisms. Researchers in different fields surprisingly noticed that a brief, calculated, oxidative stress by ozone administration may correct a persistent imbalance due to excessive, chronic oxidative injury. Oxygen-ozone gas injection in painful patients has a dramatic effect on clinical symptoms. On these bases the intradiscal injection of oxygen-ozone gas has been conceived. We report the treatment on a series of patients affected by cervical disc pathology, treated by intradiscal injection of oxygen-ozone gas mixture. The effects both on pain and on radicular dysfunction are impressive. The morphological effect of the treatment was also evaluated by pathological examination.

  12. Enhancement of methane gas sensing characteristics of graphene oxide sensor by heat treatment and laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Mohammadreza; Karimzadeh, Rouhollah

    2016-12-01

    The present study uses a rapid, easy and practical method for cost-effective fabrication of a methane gas sensor. The sensor was made by drop-casting a graphene oxide suspension onto an interdigital circuit surface. The electrical conductivity and gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor were determined and then heat treatment and in situ laser irradiation were applied to improve the device conductivity and gas sensitivity. Real-time monitoring of the evolution of the device current as a function of heat treatment time revealed significant changes in the conductance of the graphene oxide sensor. The use of low power laser irradiation enhanced both the electrical conductivity and sensing response of the graphene oxide sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF GAS TREATMENT PLANT BASED ON AN EJECTOR SCRUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iu. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article executed the feasibility study of various options for gas treatment. Rapid development of industry and transport worldwide in recent times raises the problem in the protection of habitat environment from harmful waste. In solving problems of flue gas treatment great attention is given to the economic characteristics and recycling techniques for capturing emissions and disposal must also meet the sanitary health requirements: flue gas treatment plants should not cause air or water pollution. The set objective is solved by developing a two-stage wet treatment system for pyrolysis gas based on ejector scrubbers. Their advantage - a central nozzle supply that allows the scrubber to operate on the principle of an ejector pump. Projected plant can be used in enterprises for processing of solid domestic and industrial waste, where there are steam and hot water boilers, whose operations result in contaminated gases emissions obtained with high temperatures. In particular, this installation can be applied at a cement plant in which a large amount of waste gases containing sulfur oxides is emitted. Assessment of market potential for the plant designed to treat waste gases in the cement factory is performed through a SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis results indicate the possibility of the treatment of exhaust gases without a high cost and with high gas treatment efficiency. Plant competitive analysis was done using an expert method in comparison with market competitors. Technical and economic indicators of the plant are presented. Return on investments is 46% and payback period of capital investments - 2.7 years.

  14. Novel technology in the treatment of acne scars: The matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Despite the many advances, scarring, particularly acne or pimple scarring, does not have a satisfactory treatment. A new armamentarium in this field is this recently devised matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology, which utilizes radiofrequency emission in the treatment of acne scars. Aims : To evaluate the efficiency of the new matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology in patients with acne scars of varying sizes. Settings and Design : A prospective study of 30 randomly selected patients with acne scars was carried out. Materials and Methods : Thirty healthy patients with different types of acne scars - ice pick, box and rolling type - were randomly selected. The scars were either shallow or deep, varied in size from 2 to 20 mm and ranged in number from 10 to 50. These patients were first treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and local exfoliating agents (topical tretinoin 0.025% and then subjected to matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology. Each scar was treated at intervals of 1 month. A maximum of four such sittings were carried out. Patients were followed-up every 15 days. Results were noted at the end of 2 months and 6 months. Improvement was assessed by using the visual analog scale (VAS at 2 months and 6 months, and results were noted in terms of percentage improvement of the whole face by calculating an average of percentage improvement on the basis of interviews of the patient and his/her accompanying relatives. The visual analog scaling was performed by means of high-resolution digital photographs taken at the baseline and at each subsequent visit. Results : The VAS improvement in scars ranged from 10 to 50% at the end of 2 months to 20 to 70% at the end of 6 months. Of the 30 patients of acne scars, the cosmetic result was excellent (>60% improvement in four, good (35-60% improvement in 18 and moderate to poor (<35% improvement in eight. A few patients reported burning sensation and a mild sunburn-like sensation for

  15. Literature Review: Theory and Application of In-Line Inspection Technologies for Oil and Gas Pipeline Girth Weld Defection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan Feng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Girth weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas pipelines; girth weld cracking inspection has great economic and social significance for the intrinsic safety of pipelines. This paper introduces the typical girth weld defects of oil and gas pipelines and the common nondestructive testing methods, and systematically generalizes the progress in the studies on technical principles, signal analysis, defect sizing method and inspection reliability, etc., of magnetic flux leakage (MFL inspection, liquid ultrasonic inspection, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT inspection and remote field eddy current (RFDC inspection for oil and gas pipeline girth weld defects. Additionally, it introduces the new technologies for composite ultrasonic, laser ultrasonic, and magnetostriction inspection, and provides reference for development and application of oil and gas pipeline girth weld defect in-line inspection technology.

  16. Report on ANSI/ASME nuclear air and gas treatment standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Original N Committee, N45-8, has completed and published through the approved American National Standards Institute process two Standards, N-509 and N-510. This committee has been dissolved and replaced by ASME Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment with expanded scope to cover not only air cleaning, but thermal treatment equipment. Current efforts are directed to produce Code documents rather than Standards type publications. This report summarizes changed scope, current organization and sub-committee coverage areas

  17. Validity of using backward Lagrangian Stochastic technique in measuring trace gas emission from treatment lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates the accuracy of measuring trace gas emission from treatment lagoons using backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) technique. The bLs technique was originally developed for relatively homogeneous terrains without any obstacles causing significant windflow disturbance. The errors ass...

  18. Selective etching of semicrystalline polymers CF4 gas plasma treatment of poly(ethylene)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde riekerink, M.B.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A series of poly(ethylene) (PE) films with different degrees of crystallinity was treated with a radio-frequency tetrafluoromethane (CF4) gas plasma (48-49 W, 0.06-0.07 mbar, and continuous vs pulsed treatment). The etching behavior and surface chemical and structural changes of the PE films were

  19. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  20. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Wei

    2003-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  1. Drug delivery systems: Advanced technologies potentially applicable in personalized treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jorge F; Ferreira, Paula C; Alves, Patricia; Cordeiro, Rosemeyre; Fonseca, Ana C; Góis, Joana R; Gil, Maria H

    2010-03-01

    Advanced drug delivery systems (DDS) present indubitable benefits for drug administration. Over the past three decades, new approaches have been suggested for the development of novel carriers for drug delivery. In this review, we describe general concepts and emerging research in this field based on multidisciplinary approaches aimed at creating personalized treatment for a broad range of highly prevalent diseases (e.g., cancer and diabetes). This review is composed of two parts. The first part provides an overview on currently available drug delivery technologies including a brief history on the development of these systems and some of the research strategies applied. The second part provides information about the most advanced drug delivery devices using stimuli-responsive polymers. Their synthesis using controlled-living radical polymerization strategy is described. In a near future it is predictable the appearance of new effective tailor-made DDS, resulting from knowledge of different interdisciplinary sciences, in a perspective of creating personalized medical solutions.

  2. High temperature gas cooled reactor technology development. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The successful introduction of an advanced nuclear power plant programme depends on many key elements. It must be economically competitive with alternative sources of energy, its technical development must assure operational dependability, the support of society requires that it be safe and environmentally acceptable, and it must meet the regulatory standards developed for its use and application. These factors interrelate with each other, and the ability to satisfy the established goals and criteria of all of these requirements is mandatory if a country or a specific industry is to proceed with a new, advanced nuclear power system. It was with the focus on commercializing the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) that the IAEA's International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors recommended this Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on HTGR Technology Development. Over the past few years, many Member States have instituted a re-examination of their nuclear power policies and programmes. It has become evident that the only realistic way to introduce an advanced nuclear power programme in today's world is through international co-operation between countries. The sharing of expertise and technical facilities for the common development of the HTGR is the goal of the Member States comprising the IAEA's International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This meeting brought together key representatives and experts on the HTGR from the national organizations and industries of ten countries and the European Commission. The state electric utility of South Africa, Eskom, hosted this TCM in Johannesburg, from 13 to 15 November 1996. This TCM provided the opportunity to review the status of HTGR design and development activities, and especially to identify international co-operation which could be utilized to bring about the commercialization of the HTGR

  3. Key Technologies and Applications of Gas Drainage in Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Xue, Sheng; Cheng, Jiansheng; Li, Wenquan; Xiao, Jiaping

    2018-02-01

    It is the basis for the long-drilling directional drilling, precise control of the drilling trajectory and ensuring the effective extension of the drilling trajectory in the target layer. The technology can be used to complete the multi-branch hole construction and increase the effective extraction distance of the coal seam. The gas drainage and the bottom grouting reinforcement in the advanced area are realized, and the geological structure of the coal seam can be proved accurately. It is the main technical scheme for the efficient drainage of gas at home and abroad, and it is applied to the field of geological structure exploration and water exploration and other areas. At present, the data transmission method is relatively mature in the technology and application, including the mud pulse and the electromagnetic wave. Compared with the mud pulse transmission mode, the electromagnetic wave transmission mode has obvious potential in the data transmission rate and drilling fluid, and it is suitable for the coal mine. In this paper, the key technologies of the electromagnetic wave transmission mode are analyzed, including the attenuation characteristics of the electromagnetic transmission channel, the digital modulation scheme, the channel coding method and the weak signal processing technology. A coal mine under the electromagnetic wave drilling prototype is developed, and the ground transmission experiments and down hole transmission test are carried out. The main work includes the following aspects. First, the equivalent transmission line method is used to establish the electromagnetic transmission channel model of coal mine drilling while drilling, and the attenuation of the electromagnetic signal is measured when the electromagnetic channel measured. Second, the coal mine EM-MWD digital modulation method is developed. Third, the optimal linear block code which suitable for EM-MWD communication channel in coal mine is proposed. Fourth, the noise characteristics

  4. Economic assessment of combined cycle gas turbines in Australia Some effects of microeconomic reform and technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Australian electricity markets and natural gas markets are undergoing rapid reform. Choosing among electricity generation modes is a key issue. Such choices are affected by expectations about the future structure of these markets and future technologies, and how they affect costs and emissions. In the research reported in this paper, the MARKAL model of the Australian energy system is used to evaluate the competitive position of natural gas fired combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) in the energy sector as a whole. Competing in the sector are large-scale electricity generation technologies such as refurbished existing coal fired stations and advanced forms of coal fired generation. The modelling incorporates new data on electricity supply technologies and options

  5. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  6. Strategies 2015: rational use of energy, electro-technologies, gas, oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchais, Jean-Jacques; Cailleton, Romain; Crozet, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bernard, Patrick; Goblot, Jean-Yves; Laine, Thierry; Kaczmarek, Dominique; D'Auriac, Francis

    2015-01-01

    After having outlined the context of emergence and the importance of the concept of energy efficiency, and its presence within international statements and protocols and within European and French legislations, a first article presents and comments the different associated strategic guidelines: priority to a quantitative approach to energy efficiency, contribution to the development of global energetic performance by taking sector normative works into account (energetic performance of buildings, of industrial systems, of transports, of industrial processes, and so on), promotion of the recourse to normalisation as a support to regulation, communication based on the terminology associated with transverse issues regarding energy saving, strengthening of the French influence in European and international bodies, bringing together a European expertise for a common and consistent message within international bodies. Main and important standards are indicated. Next articles discuss the context, general guidelines, challenges and issues for the development and promotion of standardisation in different specific sectors related to energy: electro-technologies (development of smart grids, of smart buildings, and of smart cities and communities, of an infrastructure as a support to digitalisation, of the use of direct current, and of electric mobility, issues of sustainable development in industry with energy efficiency, low carbon energies, and resource efficiency, safety issues regarding citizens, workers and installations), gas (development of biogas, power to gas, and retailed LNG), and oil. For each of these sectors, the concerned standards are indicated and an interview with an expert is proposed

  7. Shale Gas Implications for C2-C3Olefin Production: Incumbent and Future Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangland, Eric E

    2018-03-29

    Substantial natural gas liquids recovery from tight shale formations has produced a significant boon for the US chemical industry. As fracking technology improves, shale liquids may represent the same for other geographies. As with any major industry disruption, the advent of shale resources permits both the chemical industry and the community an excellent opportunity to have open, foundational discussions on how both public and private institutions should research, develop, and utilize these resources most sustainably. This review summarizes current chemical industry processes that use ethane and propane from shale gas liquids to produce the two primary chemical olefins of the industry: ethylene and propylene. It also discusses simplified techno-economics related to olefins production from an industry perspective, attempting to provide a mutually beneficial context in which to discuss the next generation of sustainable olefin process development. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 9 is June 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  8. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Final report, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Tagg, T.; Riggs, T.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this work by SRI International was to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency, hollow fiber contactors (HFCs) were proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system would be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process would generate only marketable by-products, if any (no waste streams are anticipated). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, the approach was to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency, hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The authors also introduced new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The process and progress in its development are described.

  9. Survey of available technology for the improvement of gas-fired residential heating equipment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, A.A.; Talbert, S.G.; Vergara, R.D.; Levy, A.; DeWerth, D.W.; Norris, T.R.

    1979-08-01

    Available technology was surveyed as to possible application to more efficient gas-fired comfort heating and water heating in residences. Objectives were (1) to evaluate energy saving modifications and design approaches, including both retrofit and new systems, and (2) to identify RD and D required to bring to the marketplace those concepts that have a reasonable payback period. Over 60 concepts, including both retrofit devices and new designs, were identified on the basis of the study of the technical literature and discussions with various segments of industry. After evaluating each concept on the basis of expected initial cost, energy consumption, and operating cost, those concepts with a reasonably short payback period were considered from the point of view of RD and D needs. A principal recommendation covering several specific concepts was the study of condensing heat-exchanger systems. RD and D was recommended on both mechanical and aerodynamically valved pulse combustors, radiant burners, catalytic systems, heat pipe systems, self-powered heating units, and gas-fired heat pumps. Relative to retrofit concepts, recommendations covered the effects of derating on furnace corrosion and the methodology for predicting savings in individual homes. Need was also indicated for a methodology to optimize sizing of heating units and for data on energy demand requirements for integrated appliances. General recommendations related to systems control analysis, minimum venting requirements, and combustion air requirements in tight homes.

  10. Hot Gas Particulate Cleaning Technology Applied for PFBC/IGFC -The Ceramic Tube Filter (CTF) and Metal Filter-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatsu, H; Misawa, N; Kobori, K; Iritani, J

    2002-09-18

    Coal is a fossil fuel abundant and widespread all over world. It is a vital resource for energy security, because the supply is stable. However, its CO2 emission per unit calorific value is greater than that of other fossil fuels. It is necessary to develop more efficient coal utilization technologies to expand the coal utilization that meets the social demand for better environment. The Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) combined cycle has become a subject of world attention in terms of better plant operation, improved plant efficiency, lower flue gas emission and fuel flexibility. The gas turbine, one of the most important components in the PFBC, is eager for a hot gas (approximately 650-850C) cleaning system in order to eliminate the severe erosion problem with the less thermal loss. The cyclone is most popular system for a hot gas cleaning, however, the severe damage for gas turbine blades by highly concentrated fine fly ash from PFBC boiler is reported.

  11. Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Hughes, Robert Clark; Wang, Yifeng; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Gao, Huizhen

    2004-01-01

    Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Appl